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Sample records for 254-nm uv radiation

  1. Cycloheximide-sensitive recovery from 254 nm UV light damage in cultured marsupial cells.

    PubMed

    Hoy, C A; Rupert, C S

    1984-08-01

    Colony-forming ability of Potorous tridactylus-kidney (PtK-2) cells was measured after exposure to 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) light and cycloheximide. Addition of 5 microM cycloheximide after exposure of the cells to UV light greatly decreased cell survival. Maximum effect of the drug was obtained by 24-h exposure after irradiation. The cycloheximide sensitivity of irradiated cells was eliminated if addition of the drug was delayed for 8-10 h after irradiation, or if the cells received photoreactivating light treatment prior to cycloheximide exposure. Thus, a major component of pyrimidine dimer removal may involve a cycloheximide-sensitive mechanism.

  2. Kinetics and mechanism investigation on the destruction of oxytetracycline by UV-254nm activation of persulfate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Fu, Yongsheng; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-03-15

    Oxytetracycline (OTC), an important broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been detected extensively in various environmental systems, which may have a detrimental impact on ecosystem and human health through the development of drug resistant bacteria and pathogens. In this study, the degradation of OTC was evaluated by UV-254nm activated persulfate (PS). The observed UV fluence based pseudo first-order rate constant (kobs) was found to be the highest at near neutral pH conditions (pH 5.5-8.5). Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on OTC degradation, with a significant enhancement in the presence of bicarbonate or Cu(2+). Limited elimination of total organic carbon (TOC) and PS was observed during the mineralization of OTC. Transformation byproducts in the presence and absence of hydroxyl radical scavenging agent tert-butanol (t-BuOH) were identified using ultra-high definition accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF/MS). Potential OTC degradation mechanism was subsequently proposed revealing four different reaction pathways by SO4(-) reaction including hydroxylation (+16Da), demethylation (-14Da), decarbonylation (-28Da) and dehydration (-18Da). This study suggests that UV-254nm/PS is a promising treatment technology for the control of water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OTC.

  3. Study on the mechanism of photo-degradation of p-nitrophenol exposed to 254 nm UV light.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sufang; Ma, Hongjuan; Wang, Min; Cao, Changqing; Xiong, Jie; Xu, Yunshu; Yao, Side

    2010-08-15

    The degradation mechanism of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) exposed to 254 nm UV light was studied in the presence and the absence of oxygen respectively via both steady-state photolysis and time-resolved laser flash photolysis (LFP) experiments. It has been confirmed that p-NP can be photo-ionized to produce its radical cation (p-NP(+)) and hydrated electron (e(aq)(-)) with a quantum yield of 0.52. In neutral solution p-NP(+) will be quickly deprotonated to form its phenoxyl radical (p-NP) which will react with oxygen to promote the breakage of benzene ring of p-NP. The degradation efficiency of p-NP exposed to 254 nm UV is as low as commonly reported. However, oxygen could improve the photo-degradation efficiency, which is due to the reaction of oxygen with p-NP. The reaction between oxygen and p-NP has been experimentally confirmed both in LFP and in pulse radiolysis.

  4. Method 415.3, Rev. 1.2: Determination of Total Organic Carbon and Specific UV Absorbance at 254 nm in Source Water and Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides procedures for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorption at 254 nm (UVA) in source waters and drinking waters. The DOC and UVA determinations are used in the calculation of the Specific UV Absorbance (S...

  5. Surface modification of Sylgard 184 polydimethylsiloxane by 254 nm excimer radiation and characterization by contact angle goniometry, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Emanuel A.; Shreeves, Stephen; Carrell, Holly; Perry, Christopher; Reid, Branden A.; McKee, James

    2008-06-01

    The modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by narrow band 254 nm excimer radiation under a nitrogen atmosphere was characterized by contact angle goniometry, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. UV irradiation results in the formation of the carboxylic acids that influences the wettability of the surface. Continued exposure results in the formation of an inorganic surface (SiO x (1 < x < 2)) which hinders the ability to continually increase the wettability. The continuity of this inorganic layer is disrupted by the formation of surface cracks. These results have implications in the fabrication and chemical modification of microfluidic or micro-electro-mechanical systems.

  6. Destruction of cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin by hydroxyl radicals and sulfate radicals using UV-254 nm activation of hydrogen peroxide, persulfate and peroxymonosulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: With increasing worldwide incidence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in bodies of water, cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has become a significant concern to public health and water management officials. In this study, the removal of CYN by UV-254 nm-mediated advanced oxidation ...

  7. Analysis of a photosensitive lesion induced by sunlamp UV greater than 315 nm exposure of 254-nm-irradiated human cells.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, B S

    1988-11-01

    Normal human skin fibroblasts were exposed to 0-10 J m-2 of 254 nm UV, incubated 0-16 h and then treated with 0-150 kJ m-2 of sunlamp UV greater than 315 nm. For each treatment, the cells were subjected to alkaline elution in order to measure the yield of single strand breaks (ssb) produced. It was found that treatment of 254-nm-irradiated cells with sunlamp UV greater than 315 nm resulted in the production of a higher level of ssb than that produced by separate exposures. Hence, lesions are produced by the 254 nm irradiation that are photolyzed through exposure to sunlamp UV greater than 315 nm. Approximately 50% of these lesions are removed following a 2-4 h incubation of the 254-nm-irradiated cells and nearly complete removal is achieved by 16 h. In addition, the profiles for elutions performed at pH 12.8 with cells exposed to the combined treatment were indicative of the presence of alkali labile sites. The repair kinetics of this lesion and alkaline lability of the photolysis product suggest that this photosensitive lesion may represent pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts. Hence, this approach may represent a relatively simple and sensitive assay for the measurement of this DNA damage.

  8. Photochemical Degradation of the Anticancer Drug Bortezomib by V-UV/UV (185/254 nm) Investigated by (1)H NMR Fingerprinting: A Way to Follow Aromaticity Evolution.

    PubMed

    Martignac, Marion; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Benoit-Marquié, Florence

    2015-06-18

    We have investigated the removal of bortezomib, an anticancer drug prescribed in multiple myeloma, using the photochemical advanced oxidation process of V-UV/UV (185/254 nm). We used two complementary analytical techniques to follow the removal rate of bortezomib. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a nonselective method requiring no prior knowledge of the structures of the byproducts and permits us to provide a spectral signature (fingerprinting approach). This untargeted method provides clues to the molecular structure changes and information on the degradation of the parent drug during the irradiation process. This holistic NMR approach could provide information for monitoring aromaticity evolution. We use liquid chromatography, coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS), to correlate results obtained by (1)H NMR and for accurate identification of the byproducts, in order to understand the mechanistic degradation pathways of bortezomib. The results show that primary byproducts come from photoassisted deboronation of bortezomib at 254 nm. A secondary byproduct of pyrazinecarboxamide was also identified. We obtained a reliable correlation between these two analytical techniques.

  9. Degradation and mineralization of organic UV absorber compound 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA) using UV-254nm/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Abdelraheem, Wael H M; He, Xuexiang; Duan, Xiaodi; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-01-23

    Various studies have revealed the non-biodegradable and endocrine disrupting properties of sulfonated organic UV absorbers, directing people's attention toward their risks on ecological and human health and hence their removal from water. In this study, UV-254nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated for degrading a model UV absorber compound 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA) and a structurally similar compound 1H-benzimidazole-2-sulfonic acid (BSA), with a specific focus on their mineralization. At 4.0mM [H2O2]0, a complete removal of 40.0μM parent PBSA and 25% decrease in TOC were achieved with 190min of UV irradiation; SO4(2-) was formed and reached its maximum level while the release of nitrogen as NH4(+) was much lower (around 50%) at 190min. Sulfate removal was strongly enhanced by increasing [H2O2]0 in the range of 0-4.0mM, with slight inhibition in 4.0-12.0mM. Faster and earlier ammonia formation was observed at higher [H2O2]0. The presence of Br(-) slowed down the degradation and mineralization of both compounds while a negligible effect on the degradation was observed in the presence of Cl(-). Our study provides important technical and fundamental results on the HO based degradation and mineralization of SO3H and N-containing UV absorber compounds.

  10. Degradation of a model naphthenic acid, cyclohexanoic acid, by vacuum UV (172 nm) and UV (254 nm)/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Drzewicz, Przemysław; Afzal, Atefeh; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Martin, Jonathan W

    2010-11-18

    The mechanism of hydroxyl radical initiated degradation of a typical oil sands process water (OSPW) alicyclic carboxylic acid was studied using cyclohexanoic acid (CHA) as a model compound. By use of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation (VUV, 172 nm) and ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide UV(254 nm)/H(2)O(2), it was established that CHA undergoes degradation through a peroxyl radical. In both processes the decay of the peroxyl radical leads predominantly to the formation of 4-oxo-CHA, and minor amounts of hydroxy-CHA (detected only in UV/H(2)O(2)). In UV/H(2)O(2), additional 4-oxo-CHA may also have been formed by direct reaction of the oxyl radical with H(2)O(2). The oxyl radical can be formed during decay of the peroxyl-CHA radical or reaction of hydroxy-CHA with hydroxyl radical. Oxo- and hydroxy-CHA further degraded to various dihydroxy-CHAs. Scission of the cyclohexane ring was also observed, on the basis of the observation of acyclic byproducts including heptadioic acid and various short-chain carboxylic acids. Overall, the hydroxyl radical induced degradation of CHA proceeded through several steps, involving more than one hydroxyl radical reaction, thus efficiency of the UV/H(2)O(2) reaction will depend on the rate of generation of hydroxyl radical throughout the process. In real applications to OSPW, concentrations of H(2)O(2) will need to be carefully optimized and the environmental fate and effects of the various degradation products of naphthenic acids considered.

  11. Genotoxic response of Austrian groundwater samples treated under standardized UV (254 nm)--disinfection conditions in a combination of three different bioassays.

    PubMed

    Haider, Thomas; Sommer, Regina; Knasmüller, Siefried; Eckl, Peter; Pribil, Walter; Cabaj, Alexander; Kundi, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Ground water samples from different geographic areas in Austria, with different amounts of natural and anthropogenic organic compounds were treated with a standardized low pressure UV (254 nm)-irradiation laboratory flow-through system (UV fluence: 800 J/m2). The genotoxic activities of the water samples before and after the UV disinfection were investigated using a combination of three different bioassays which complement each other with regard to their sensitivity detecting different genotoxins. The test battery comprises the Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test with TA98. TA 100 and TA 102, with and without S9 mix) and two micronucleus tests with the plant Tradescantia (clone #4430) and with primary rat hepatocytes. Overall, the tested Austrian groundwater samples used for human consumption caused only weak genotoxic activities compared to drinking water samples reported from other countries under similar experimental conditions. With the exception of one weak positive result in the Ames test (only in strain TA98 without S9 mix) with an induction factor of 1.9) all samples after UV disinfection were devoid of additional mutagenic and clastogenic activities compared to the samples before UV disinfection.

  12. Induction of pyrimidine dimers and unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured mouse epithelial cells exposed to 254-nm- and u. v. -B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yotti, L.P.; Ley, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The induction and fate of pyrimidine dimers and unscheduled DNA synthesis were measured in u.v.-irradiated primary, newborn SENCAR mouse epithelial cells. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced in a dose responsive manner by two u.v. sources, a germicidal lamp (254 nm) and an FS40 sunlamp (280--400 nm). Using the endonuclease-sensitive site assay to detect pyrimidine dimer production and excision, we examined the response of the newborn mouse cells to both u.v. sources. We were unable to detect the removal of pyrimidine dimers with either of the two sources of u.v. The speculation is made that primary, newborn mouse epidermal cells excise u.v.-induced pyrimidine dimers to an extent below the level of detection of the endonuclease-sensitive site assay but to an extent sufficient to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis.

  13. Endogenous ergothioneine is required for wild type levels of conidiogenesis and conidial survival but does not protect against 254 nm UV-induced mutagenesis or kill.

    PubMed

    Bello, Marco H; Mogannam, John C; Morin, Dexter; Epstein, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    Ergothioneine, a histidine derivative, is concentrated in conidia of ascomycetous fungi. To investigate the function of ergothioneine, we crossed the wild type Neurospora crassa (Egt(+)) and an ergothioneine non-producer (Egt(-), Δegt-1, a knockout in NCU04343.5) and used the Egt(+) and Egt(-) progeny strains for phenotypic analyses. Compared to the Egt(+) strains, Egt(-) strains had a 59% reduction in the number of conidia produced on Vogel's agar. After storage of Egt(+) and Egt(-) conidia at 97% and 52% relative humidity (RH) for a time course to either 17 or 98 days, respectively, Egt(-) strains had a 23% and a 18% reduction in life expectancy at 97% and 52% RH, respectively, compared to the Egt(+) strains. Based on a Cu(II) reduction assay with the chelator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid disodium salt, ergothioneine accounts for 38% and 33% of water-soluble antioxidant capacity in N. crassa conidia from seven and 20 day-old cultures, respectively. In contrast, ergothioneine did not account for significant (α=0.05) anti-oxidant capacity in mycelia, which have lower concentrations of ergothioneine than conidia. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that ergothioneine has an antioxidant function in vivo. In contrast, experiments on the spontaneous mutation rate in Egt(+) and Egt(-) strains and on the effects of 254 nm UV light on mutation rate and conidial viability do not support the hypothesis that ergothioneine protects DNA in vivo.

  14. Inactivation of avirulent Yersinia pestis in Butterfield's phosphate buffer and frankfurters by UVC (254 nm) and gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Cooke, Peter H

    2009-04-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. Although rare, pharyngeal plague in humans has been associated with consumption or handling of meat prepared from infected animals. The risks of contracting plague from consumption of deliberately contaminated food are currently unknown. Gamma radiation is a penetrating form of electromagnetic radiation, and UVC radiation is used for decontamination of liquids or food surfaces. Gamma radiation D10-values (the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log unit pathogen) were 0.23 (+/-0.01) and 0.31 (+/-0.03) kGy for avirulent Y. pestis inoculated into Butterfield's phosphate buffer and onto frankfurter surfaces, respectively, at 0 degree C. A UVC radiation dose of 0.25 J/cm2 inactivated avirulent Y. pestis suspended in Butterfield's phosphate buffer. UVC radiation doses of 0.5 to 4.0 J/cm2 inactivated 0.97 to 1.20 log units of the Y. pestis surface inoculated onto frankfurters. A low gamma radiation dose of 1.6 kGy could provide a 5-log reduction and a UVC radiation dose of 1 to 4 J/cm2 would provide a 1-log reduction of Y. pestis surface inoculated onto frankfurters. Y. pestis was capable of growth on frankfurters during refrigerated storage (10 degrees C). Gamma radiation of frankfurters inhibited the growth of Y. pestis during refrigerated storage, and UVC radiation delayed the growth of Y. pestis.

  15. Degradation kinetics and mechanism of β-lactam antibiotics by the activation of H2O2 and Na2S2O8 under UV-254nm irradiation.

    PubMed

    He, Xuexiang; Mezyk, Stephen P; Michael, Irene; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-08-30

    The extensive production and usage of antibiotics have led to an increasing occurrence of antibiotic residuals in various aquatic compartments, presenting a significant threat to both ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the degradation of selected β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins: ampicillin, penicillin V, and piperacillin; cephalosporin: cephalothin) by UV-254nm activated H2O2 and S2O8(2-) photochemical processes. The UV irradiation alone resulted in various degrees of direct photolysis of the antibiotics; while the addition of the oxidants improved significantly the removal efficiency. The steady-state radical concentrations were estimated, revealing a non-negligible contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the UV/S2O8(2-) system. Mineralization of the β-lactams could be achieved at high UV fluence, with a slow formation of SO4(2-) and a much lower elimination of total organic carbon (TOC). The transformation mechanisms were also investigated showing the main reaction pathways of hydroxylation (+16Da) at the aromatic ring and/or the sulfur atom, hydrolysis (+18Da) at the β-lactam ring and decarboxylation (-44Da) for the three penicillins. Oxidation of amine group was also observed for ampicillin. This study suggests that UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are capable of degrading β-lactam antibiotics decreasing consequently the antibiotic activity of treated waters.

  16. Ultraviolet light (254 NM) inactivation of pathogens on foods and stainless steel surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultraviolet Light (254 nm) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved nonthermal intervention technology that can be used for decontamination of food surfaces. In this study the use of 254 nm. Ultraviolet Light (UV) at doses of 0.5 to 4.0 J/cm2 to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytoge...

  17. Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2011-10-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A/cm2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated.

  18. Destruction of microcystins (cyanotoxins) by UV-254 nm-based direct photolysis and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): influence of variable amino acids on the degradation kinetics and reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    He, Xuexiang; de la Cruz, Armah A; Hiskia, Anastasia; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; O'Shea, Kevin; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-05-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are the most frequently detected group of cyanobacterial toxins. This study investigated the degradation of common MC variants in water, MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR and MC-LA, by UV-254 nm-based processes, UV only, UV/H2O2, UV/S2O8(2-) and UV/HSO5(-). Limited direct photolysis of MCs was observed, while the addition of an oxidant significantly improved the degradation efficiency with an order of UV/S2O8(2-) > UV/HSO5(-) > UV/H2O2 at the same initial molar concentration of the oxidant. The removal of MC-LR by UV/H2O2 appeared to be faster than another cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin, at either the same initial molar concentration or the same initial organic carbon concentration of the toxin. It suggested a faster reaction of MC-LR with hydroxyl radical, which was further supported by the determined second-order rate constant of MCs with hydroxyl radical. Both isomerization and photohydration byproducts were observed in UV only process for all four MCs; while in UV/H2O2, hydroxylation and diene-Adda double bond cleavage byproducts were detected. The presence of a tyrosine in the structure of MC-YR significantly promoted the formation of monohydroxylation byproduct m/z 1061; while the presence of a second arginine in MC-RR led to the elimination of a guanidine group and the absence of double bond cleavage byproducts. It was therefore demonstrated in this study that the variable amino acids in the structure of MCs influenced not only the degradation kinetics but also the preferable reaction mechanisms.

  19. Destruction of microcystins (cyanotoxins) by UV-254 nm-based direct photolysis and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): influence of variable amino acids on the degradation kinetics and reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    He, Xuexiang; de la Cruz, Armah A; Hiskia, Anastasia; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; O'Shea, Kevin; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-05-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are the most frequently detected group of cyanobacterial toxins. This study investigated the degradation of common MC variants in water, MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR and MC-LA, by UV-254 nm-based processes, UV only, UV/H2O2, UV/S2O8(2-) and UV/HSO5(-). Limited direct photolysis of MCs was observed, while the addition of an oxidant significantly improved the degradation efficiency with an order of UV/S2O8(2-) > UV/HSO5(-) > UV/H2O2 at the same initial molar concentration of the oxidant. The removal of MC-LR by UV/H2O2 appeared to be faster than another cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin, at either the same initial molar concentration or the same initial organic carbon concentration of the toxin. It suggested a faster reaction of MC-LR with hydroxyl radical, which was further supported by the determined second-order rate constant of MCs with hydroxyl radical. Both isomerization and photohydration byproducts were observed in UV only process for all four MCs; while in UV/H2O2, hydroxylation and diene-Adda double bond cleavage byproducts were detected. The presence of a tyrosine in the structure of MC-YR significantly promoted the formation of monohydroxylation byproduct m/z 1061; while the presence of a second arginine in MC-RR led to the elimination of a guanidine group and the absence of double bond cleavage byproducts. It was therefore demonstrated in this study that the variable amino acids in the structure of MCs influenced not only the degradation kinetics but also the preferable reaction mechanisms. PMID:25744186

  20. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R.C.; Lund, V.; Carlson, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid.

  1. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, R C; Lund, V; Carlson, D A

    1987-01-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid. PMID:3551844

  2. Mechanism of cyanoacetylene photochemistry at 185 and 254 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, D. W.; Ferris, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The role of cyanoacetylene (HC3N) in the atmospheric photochemistry of Titan and its relevance to polymer formation are discussed. Investigation of the relative light absorption of HC3N, acetylene (C2H2), and diacetylene (C4H2) revealed that HC3N is an important absorber of UV light in the 205- to 225-nanometer wavelength region in Titan's polar regions. Laboratory studies established that photolysis of C2H2 initiates the polymerization of HC3N even though the HC3N is not absorbing the UV light. Quantum yield measurements establish that HC3N is 2-5 times as reactive as C2H2 for polymer formation. Photolysis of HC3N with 185-nanometer light in the presence of N2, H2, Ar, or CF4 results in a decrease in the yield of 1,3,5-tricyanobenzene (1,3,5-tcb), while photolysis in the presence of CH4, C2H6, or n-C4H10 results in an increase in 1,3,5-tcb. The rate of loss of HC3N is increased by all gases except H2, where it is unchanged. It was not possible to detect 1,3,5-tcb as a photoproduct when the partial pressure of HC3N was decreased to 1 torr. Photolysis of HC3N with 254-nanometer light in the presence of H2 or N2 results in the formation of 1,2,4-tcb, while photolysis in the presence of CH4, C2H6, or n-C4H10 results in the formation of increasing amounts of 1,3,5-tcb. Mechanisms for the formation of polymers are presented.

  3. Photodegradation of etridiazole by UV radiation during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Qiang, Zhimin; Tian, Fang; Zhang, Tao

    2009-07-01

    The photodegradation of etridiazole (ETZ) in water by UV radiation at 254 nm was investigated. Results indicate that the simulated first-order rate constants decreased with the increase of initial ETZ concentration (i.e., 5, 20 and 30 microM), and did not show any pH dependence within the range from 6.0 to 8.0. The quantum yield was 0.46+/-0.02 molE(-1) at pH 7.0. H(2)O(2) was generated at trace levels in the range from 0 to 1.0 microM during photodegradation of ETZ. Direct photodegradation was responsible for the decomposition of ETZ in distilled water by UV radiation. Three organic byproducts were identified: 5-ethoxy-3-dichloromethyl-1,2,4-thiadiazole, 5-ethoxy-1,2,4-thiadiazole-3-carboxylic acid and 5-ethoxy-3-hydroxyl-1,2,4-thiadiazole. About 90% of chloro mass in the initial ETZ was released as Cl(-) at the end of photodegradation. In contrast, the formation of sulfate and nitrate was insignificant. In general, ETZ decayed more quickly in groundwater than in sand-filtered or surface water. It is reasonably deduced that ETZ may not get removed effectively under a typical UV dose of 40 mJcm(-2) at most water treatment plants that employ UV radiation for disinfection.

  4. Ultraviolet light (254 NM) inactivation of pathogens on foods and stainless steel surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultraviolet Light (254 nm) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved nonthermal intervention technology that can be used for decontamination of food surfaces. In this study the use of Ultraviolet Light (UVC) at doses of 0.5 - 4.0 J/cm2 to inactivate a cocktail of Salmonella spp., Listeria mon...

  5. Effects of UVC254 nm on the photosynthetic activity of photobionts from the astrobiologically relevant lichens Buellia frigida and Circinaria gyrosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Backhaus, T.; Sadowsky, A.; Mrkalj, M.; Sánchez, F. J.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.

    2014-10-01

    In the past decade, various astrobiological studies on different lichen species investigated the impairment of viability and photosynthetic activity by exposure to simulated or real space parameters (as vacuum, polychromatic ultraviolet (UV)-radiation and monochromatic UVC) and consistently found high post-exposure viability as well as low rates of photosynthetic impairment (de Vera et al. 2003, 2004a; 2004b; de la Torre et al. 2010; Onofri et al. 2012; Sánchez et al. 2012, 2014; Brandt et al. 2014). To achieve a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of resistance, the present study subdued isolated and metabolically active photobionts of two astrobiologically relevant lichens to UVC254 nm, examined its effect on photosynthetic activity by chlorophyll a fluorescence and characterized the UVC-induced damages by quantum yield reduction and measurements of non-photochemical quenching. The results indicate a strong impairment of photosynthetic activity, photoprotective mechanisms and overall photobiont vitality when being irradiated in the isolated and metabolically active state. In conclusion, the present study stresses the higher susceptibility of photobionts towards extreme environmental conditions as UVC-exposure, a stressor that does not occur on the Earth. By comparison with previous studies, the present results highlight the importance of protective mechanisms in lichens, such as morphological-anatomical traits (Meeßen et al. 2013), secondary lichen compounds (Meeßen et al. 2014) and the symbiont's pivotal ability to pass into anhydrobiosis when desiccating.

  6. Diffuse UV Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, J.

    2012-01-01

    The diffuse UV sky is expected to glow with significant amounts of starlight that is scattered from the interstellar dust. The albedo and scattering pattern of the dust in the ultraviolet are both well established, and are both fairly independent of wavelength from 912 Å to 3000 Å. We present 1943 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic background radiation from 500 Å to 1200 Å, and we compare their brightnesses, and their distribution on the sky, to those observed (Murthy et al., ApJ 724, 1389, 2010) from the GALEX mission at longer wavelengths (1530 Å). Significant differences appear, suggesting that background radiation components in addition to dust-scattered starlight may be present in both spectral regions.

  7. Modeling the photodegradation of emerging contaminants in waters by UV radiation and UV/H2O2 system.

    PubMed

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Rodriguez, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Five emerging contaminants (1-H-Benzotriazole, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET, Chlorophene, 3-Methylindole, and Nortriptyline HCl), frequently found in surface waters and wastewaters, were selected to be photooxidized in several water matrices. Previous degradation experiments of these compounds individually dissolved in ultra pure water were performed by using UV radiation at 254 nm and the Fenton's reagent. These oxidation systems allowed the determination of the quantum yields and the rate constants for the radical reaction between each compound and hydroxyl radicals. Later, the simultaneous photodegradation of mixtures of the selected ECs in several types of water (ultrapure water, reservoir water, and two effluents from WWTPs) was carried out and a kinetic study was conducted. A model is proposed for the ECs elimination, and the theoretically calculated concentrations with this model agreed well with the experimental results obtained, which confirmed that it constitutes an excellent tool to predict the elimination of these compounds in waters.

  8. Sterilization effect of 254 nm UV-C irradiation against cynaobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmful algal bloom (HAB) produced by several cyanobacterial species is a significant threat to many aquatic ecosystems around the world. Recently frequent occurrence of serious algal bloom in Lake Taihu, Lake Dianchi, and Lake Chaohu has become a serious concern in China. Although various methods a...

  9. Roles of small, acid-soluble spore proteins and core water content in survival of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to environmental solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Ralf; Setlow, Peter; Reitz, Günther; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2009-08-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis contain a number of small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) which comprise up to 20% of total spore core protein. The multiple alpha/beta-type SASP have been shown to confer resistance to UV radiation, heat, peroxides, and other sporicidal treatments. In this study, SASP-defective mutants of B. subtilis and spores deficient in dacB, a mutation leading to an increased core water content, were used to study the relative contributions of SASP and increased core water content to spore resistance to germicidal 254-nm and simulated environmental UV exposure (280 to 400 nm, 290 to 400 nm, and 320 to 400 nm). Spores of strains carrying mutations in sspA, sspB, and both sspA and sspB (lacking the major SASP-alpha and/or SASP-beta) were significantly more sensitive to 254-nm and all polychromatic UV exposures, whereas the UV resistance of spores of the sspE strain (lacking SASP-gamma) was essentially identical to that of the wild type. Spores of the dacB-defective strain were as resistant to 254-nm UV-C radiation as wild-type spores. However, spores of the dacB strain were significantly more sensitive than wild-type spores to environmental UV treatments of >280 nm. Air-dried spores of the dacB mutant strain had a significantly higher water content than air-dried wild-type spores. Our results indicate that alpha/beta-type SASP and decreased spore core water content play an essential role in spore resistance to environmentally relevant UV wavelengths whereas SASP-gamma does not.

  10. Survival of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms after exposure to UV-C, ionizing radiation and desiccation.

    PubMed

    Beblo, Kristina; Douki, Thierry; Schmalz, Gottfried; Rachel, Reinhard; Wirth, Reinhard; Huber, Harald; Reitz, Günther; Rettberg, Petra

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the ability of several (hyper-) thermophilic Archaea and phylogenetically deep-branching thermophilic Bacteria to survive high fluences of monochromatic UV-C (254 nm) and high doses of ionizing radiation, respectively. Nine out of fourteen tested microorganisms showed a surprisingly high tolerance against ionizing radiation, and two species (Aquifex pyrophilus and Ignicoccus hospitalis) were even able to survive 20 kGy. Therefore, these species had a comparable survivability after exposure to ionizing radiation such as Deinococcus radiodurans. In contrast, there was nearly no difference in survival of the tested strains after exposure to UV-C under anoxic conditions. If the cells had been dried in advance of UV-C irradiation, they were more sensitive to UV-C radiation compared with cells irradiated in liquid suspension; this effect could be reversed by the addition of protective material like sulfidic ores before irradiation. By exposure to UV-C, photoproducts were formed in the DNA of irradiated Archaea and Bacteria. The distribution of the main photoproducts was species specific, but the amount of the photoproducts was only partly dependent on the applied fluence. Overall, our results show that tolerance to radiation seems to be a common phenomenon among thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms.

  11. UV radiation and the skin.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a "complete carcinogen" because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  12. Ultra-wide band electromagnetic radiation does not affect UV-induced recombination and mutagenesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pakhomova, O N; Belt, M L; Mathur, S P; Lee, J C; Akyel, Y

    1998-01-01

    Cell samples of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were exposed to 100 J/m2 of 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation followed by a 30 min treatment with ultra-wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses. The UWB pulses (101-104 kV/m, 1.0 ns width, 165 ps rise time) were applied at the repetition rates of 0 Hz (sham), 16 Hz, or 600 Hz. The effect of exposures was evaluated from the colony-forming ability of the cells on complete and selective media and the number of aberrant colonies. The experiments established no effect of UWB exposure on the UV-induced reciprocal and non-reciprocal recombination, mutagenesis, or cell survival.

  13. Examination of Peak Power Dependence in the UV Inactivation of Bacterial Spores

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Jane K.; Ewell, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We examine whether the rate of delivery of photons from a UV radiation source has an effect on the inactivation of spores. We directly compare the output of a high-peak-power UV laser source at 248 nm to a low-power continuous lamp source (254 nm) in the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores. The two UV sources differ by a factor of 108 in peak power. Contrary to previous reports, no clear differences in spore survival were observed. PMID:11722941

  14. AOPs with ozone and UV radiation in drinking water: contaminants removal and effects on disinfection byproducts formation.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, C; Sorlini, S

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the advanced oxidation with ozone and UV radiation (with two low pressure UV lamps, at 254 and 185 nm wavelength) were experimented on a surface water in order to study the removal of two odorous compounds (geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol) and a pesticide (metolachlor), the influence on organic compounds (UV absorbance and THM precursors) and bromate formation. Different batch tests were performed with ozone concentration up to 10 mg/L, UV dose up to 14,000 J/m2 and a maximum contact time of 10 minutes. The main results show that metolachlor can be efficiently removed with ozone alone while for geosmin and MIB a complete removal can be obtained with the advanced oxidation of ozone (with concentration of 1.5-3 mg/L and contact time of 2-3 minutes) with UV radiation (with doses of 5,000-6,000 J/m2). As concerns the influence on the organic precursors, all the experimented processes show a medium removal of about 20-40% for UV absorbance and 15-30% for THMFP (trihalomethanes formation potential). As concerns bromate formation, the advanced oxidation of ozone/UV 254 nm shows a bromate formation that is about 40% lower with respect to conventional oxidation with ozone.

  15. Application of XeCl308 nm excimer laser radiation to mutagenesis of industrial microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifano, P.; Lorusso, A.; Nassisi, V.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    (UV) lamps are widely used in mutagenesis-selection protocols. Nevertheless, since the eighties, due to the development of excimer lasers, new frontiers in the study of UV applications have been opened. It has been established that the presence of an intact SOS response system is required for the mutagenic effect of UV254 nm. The exposure to UV254 nm radiation is not mutagenic for Escherichia coli mutants lacking the RecA protein, the regulator of the SOS response. We have recently demonstrated that at variance with the UV254 nm mutagenesis, the UV308 nm mutagenesis by XeCl308 nm excimer laser is RecA-independent. This suggests that the UV308 nm might be mutagenic also in microorganisms naturally lacking the SOS response. In this study, we have developed an innovative mutagenesis protocol based on a homemade XeCl308 nm excimer laser and have demonstrated its efficiency on mutagenesis of Nonomuraea American type culture collection 39727, an industrial strain producing an antibiotic, which is relatively refractory to UV254 nm radiation-induced mutagenesis.

  16. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  17. Response of bacteriophage T7 biological dosimeter to dehydration and extraterrestrial solar UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedüs, M.; Fekete, A.; Módos, K.; Kovács, G.; Rontó, Gy.; Lammer, H.; Panitz, C.

    2007-02-01

    The experiment "Phage and uracil response" (PUR) will be accommodated in the EXPOSE facility of the ISS. Bacteriophage T7/isolated T7 DNA will be exposed to different subsets of extreme environmental parameters in space, in order to study the Responses of Organisms to the Space Environment (ROSE). Launch into orbit is preceded by EXPOSE Experiment Verification Tests (EVT) to optimize the methods and the evaluation. Bacteriophage T7/isolated T7 DNA thin layers were exposed to vacuum ( 10-6Pa), to monochromatic (254 nm) and polychromatic (200-400 nm) UV radiation in air as well as in simulated space vacuum. Using neutral density (ND) filters dose-effect curves were performed in order to define the maximum doses tolerated. The effect of temperature fluctuation in vacuum was also studied. The structural/chemical effects on bacteriophage T7/isolated T7 DNA were analyzed by spectroscopic and microscopical methods. Characteristic changes in the absorption spectrum and in the electrophoretic pattern of phage/DNA have been detected indicating the damage of isolated and intraphage DNA. DNA damage was also determined by quantitative PCR (QPCR) using 555 and 3826 bp fragments of T7 DNA. We obtained substantial evidence that DNA lesions (e.g. strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-links, cyclobutane pirimidine dimers (CPDs) etc.) accumulate throughout exposure. Preliminary results suggest a synergistic action of space vacuum and UV radiation with DNA being the critical target.

  18. Antimicrobial efficacy of UV radiation on Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EDL 933) in fruit juices of different absorptivities.

    PubMed

    Oteiza, Juan M; Peltzer, Mercedes; Gannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemi

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of UV light for inactivating E. coli (ATCC 25922) and E. coli O157:H7 (EDL 933) was examined in fruit juices (orange, apple, and multifruit) with different absorptivities under several operating conditions (liquid film thickness and agitation rate). The juices were inoculated with two bacterial concentrations (10(5) and 10(7) CFU/ml) and were treated using a UV desinfection unit at 254 nm; UV doses ranged from 0 to 6 J/cm2. The effect of the culture medium, tryptone soy agar (TSA) and sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC), on the recovery of E. coli strains exposed to UV radiation was also analyzed. The most suitable culture medium for recovery of E. coli strains in juices exposed to UV radiation was TSA. Values of D (radiation dose [joules per square centimeter] necessary to decrease the microbial population by 90%) obtained in all juices assessed were higher in TSA than in SMAC. In the juices analyzed, stirring of the medium exposed to UV radiation and reducing liquid film thickness (to 0.7 mm) produced the highest bactericidal effect. A linear relationship was found between the D-values obtained and the absorptivity coefficients for all the juices. The higher the absorbance of the medium, the greater the values of D required to inactivate E. coli strains by UV radiation. An equation was developed to describe the relationship of the fraction of energy absorbed by the system (absorbed energy factor [AEF]), the thickness of the film exposed to UV radiation, and the absorptivity coefficient of the juices. A linear relationship was found between D and AEF in the different juices tested.

  19. The suitability of diazochrome KBL film for UV dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Moseley, H; Robertson, J; O'Donoghue, J

    1984-06-01

    A promising material for use in a UV film badge dosemeter is diazo film. The optical density of this substance changes on exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The present paper reports some of the relevant factors in the processing of the film and also on its spectral sensitivity. It is evident from our results that development time and volume and concentration of ammonia solution should be standardised. However, after the film has been developed, it is not affected by subsequent UV exposure or by storage for up to one month. Although maximum sensitivity occurs at 405 nm, there is still an easily measurable response at 254 nm. It is concluded that provided procedures are standardised, Diazochrome KBL film is an inexpensive, convenient material for a UV film badge dosemeter with measurable sensitivity down to 254 nm. PMID:6463103

  20. Personal monitoring of UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Joachim; Knuschke, Peter

    1994-06-01

    Personal monitoring of till-radiation (UVR) is important fo find out both overexposure and underexposure to UVR. At present polysulfone films seem to be most suitable for these purposes. They allow a reliable measurement of till-exposure to wavelengths between 250 and 330 nm if a number of influencing factors is respected. These are described in detail in a technical report of the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE). Own investigations with polysulphone films have shown that these polymers can help as well to detect an overexposure to UVR at workplaces as an UVR-deficiency of people living in an old peoples home. It could be demonstrated that this till-deficiency well correlates to the deficiency of serum 25(OH)D3 levels of these people. Furthermore after optimization of a new phototherapeutic equipment in uniformity of UV-exposure round patients body by polysulphone film dosimeters it got useable in therapy.

  1. [UV radiation, tanning and DNA damage].

    PubMed

    Koulu, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Excessive exposure to UV radiation is the most significant known risk factor for skin cancer. Solarium devices produce UVA radiation that is 5 to 10 times stronger than that produced by the sun. All wavelengths of UV radiation cause DNA damage to skin cells and cause tanning. Tanning protects skin cells from further damage. The DNA damages caused by UVA and UVB radiation, however, differ from each other. The protective capacity of tanning caused by UVA radiation seems to be lower than that caused by UVB radiation.

  2. [Skin and occupational artificial UV-radiation].

    PubMed

    Fartasch, M; Wittlich, M; Broding, H C; Gellert, B; Blome, H; Brüning, T

    2012-10-01

    In various areas of professional activity, exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation coming from artificial sources may occur. These UV rays differ from the solar UV radiation due to their intensity and spectrum. We review current developments with the introduction of statutory exposure limit values for jobs with UV radiation from artificial sources, a selection of relevant activities with artificial UV exposure and an overview of the occurrence of skin disorders and dermatologically relevant skin diseases caused by these specific occupational exposures. The latter is relevant for medical advice in occupational dermatology and occupational medicine. On the basis of existing studies on welders and studies regarding occupations with "open flames" (using the example of the glassblower) it is evident that so far no reliable data exist regarding the chronic photodamage or the occurrence of UV-typical skin cancers, but instead clear evidence exists regarding the regular occurrence of acute light damage in these occupations.

  3. [UV-radiation--sources, wavelength, environment].

    PubMed

    Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert

    2005-09-01

    The UV-radiation in our environment is part of the electromagnetic radiation, which emanates from the sun. It is designated as optical radiation and reaches from 290-4,000 nm on the earth's surface. According to international definitions UV irradiation is divided into short-wave UVC (200-280 nm), medium-wave UVB (280-320 nm), and long-wave UVA (320-400 nm). Solar radiation which reaches the surface of the globe at a defined geographical site and a defined time point is called global radiation. It is modified quantitatively and qualitatively while penetrating the atmosphere. Besides atmospheric conditions, like ozone layer and air pollution, geographic latitude, elevation, time of the season, time of the day, cloudiness and the influence of indirect radiation resulting from stray effects in the atmosphere and reflection from the underground play a role in modifying global radiation, which finally represents the biologically effective radiation. The radiation's distribution on the body surface varies according to sun angle and body posture. The cumulative UV exposure is mainly influenced by outdoor profession and recreational activities. The use of sun beds and phototherapeutic measures additionally may contribute to the cumulative UV dose.

  4. Mutation induction in haploid yeast after split-dose radiation exposure. II. Combination of UV-irradiation and X-rays.

    PubMed

    Keller, B; Zölzer, F; Kiefer, J

    2004-01-01

    Split-dose protocols can be used to investigate the kinetics of recovery from radiation damage and to elucidate the mechanisms of cell inactivation and mutation induction. In this study, a haploid strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wild-type with regard to radiation sensitivity, was irradiated with 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) light and then exposed to X-rays after incubation for 0-6 hr. The cells were incubated either on nutrient medium or salt agar between the treatments. Loss of reproductive ability and mutation to canavanine resistance were measured. When the X-ray exposure immediately followed UV-irradiation, the X-ray survival curves had the same slope irrespective of the pretreatment, while the X-ray mutation induction curves were changed from linear to linear quadratic with increasing UV fluence. Incubations up to about 3 hr on nutrient medium between the treatments led to synergism with respect to cell inactivation and antagonism with respect to mutation, but after 4-6 hr the two treatments acted independently. Incubation on salt agar did not cause any change in the survival curves, but there was a strong suppression of X-ray-induced mutation with increasing UV fluence. On the basis of these results, we suggest that mutation after combined UV and X-ray exposure is affected not only by the induction and suppression of DNA repair processes, but also by radiation-induced modifications of cell-cycle progression and changes in the expression of the mutant phenotype.

  5. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the survival and metabolic end products of Bacteroides melaninogenicus

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Kappus, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    In experiments investigating DNA repair, it was shown that B. melaninogenicus does not repair UV light induced damage via photoreactivation. Survival curves constructed for the organism after exposure to UV light at 254 nm and 365 nm under aerobic and anaerobic conditions while the organisms were in exponential or stationary growth phase, revealed that the cells were most sensitive to UV induced damage when exposed to radiation while in the exponential growth phase under aerobic conditions at either wavelength. B. melaninogenicus exposed to UV light under anaerobic conditions while the cells were in stationary growth phase were much more sensitive to UV induced damage at 254 nm than cells irradiated under the same conditions at 365 nm UV. Survival studies of B. melaninogenicus after co-insult with UV light and subinhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol, metronidazole, caffeine, or fluoroacetate, at 254 nm UV or 365 nm UV, under aerobic and anaerobic atmospheric conditions illustrated a decreased shoulder region on the curves, particularly after 365 nm UV exposure, when compared to UV irradiation applied without subsequent chemical treatment.

  6. Modification of plasma membrane electron transport in cultured rose cells by UV-C radiation and fungal elicitor

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.M.; Auh, C.K.; Schorr, R.; Grobe, C. )

    1991-05-01

    Previous experiments have shown that treatments of suspension-cultured cells of Rosa damascena Mill. with UV radiation or with fungal elicitors stimulates the synthesis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by the cells. To test the hypothesis that this synthesis involves reduction of O{sub 2} at the plasma membrane and to identify the mechanism of the reduction, we have determined the effects of UV and elicitor on redox reactions associated with the plasma membrane. Elicitor prepared from cell walls of Phytophthora sp. (14 {mu}g solids/ml) inhibited the reduction of ferricyanide by intact cells by 98%; UV-C (primarily 254 nm, up to 19,500 J/m{sup 2}) inhibited this reduction by 40%. Neither treatment inhibited the reduction of Fe(III)-EDTA by intact cells. Intact cells oxidized NADH in the absence of external oxidizing agent, and the rate of oxidation was increased by UV and elicitor. Cells that were poisoned with arsenite and CCCP catalyzed the reduction of Fe(III)-EDTA in the presence of external NADH, and this ability was slightly stimulated by UV and elicitor. UV irradiation (6,480 J/m{sup 2}) of cells resulted in a 27% inhibition of the specific activity of NADH-ferricyanide oxidoreductase in plasma membrane isolated from those cells. Elicitor treatment of cells for at least 90 min resulted in a 50% inhibition of the enzyme's specific activity in isolated plasma membrane; this inhibition was reversed by addition of Triton-X100 in the assay mixture. The results suggest that UV and elicitor alter the flow of electrons in the plasma membrane, reversibly inhibiting NADH-cytochrome b reductase, the putative key enzyme in the pathway of ferricyanide reduction, and stimulating (or at least not inhibiting) the pathway of Fe(III)-EDTA reduction.

  7. Effects of UV radiation on phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Raymond C.; Cullen, John J.

    1995-07-01

    It is now widely documented that reduced ozone will result in increased levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, especially UV-B (280-320nm), incident at the surface of the earth [Watson, 1988; Anderson et al., 1991; Schoeberl and Hartmann, 1991; Frederick and Alberts, 1991; WMO, 1991; Madronich, 1993; Kerr and McElroy, 1993], and there is considerable and increasing evidence that these higher levels of UV-B radiation may be detrimental to various forms of marine life in the upper layers of the ocean. With respect to aquatic ecosystems, we also know that this biologically- damaging mid-ultraviolet radiation can penetrate to ecologically- significant depths in marine and freshwater systems [Jerlov, 1950; Lenoble, 1956; Smith and Baker, 1979; Smith and Baker, 1980; Smith and Baker, 1981; Kirk et al., 1994]. This knowledge, plus the dramatic decline in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic continent each spring, now known to be caused by anthropogenically released chemicals [Solomon, 1990; Booth et al., 1994], has resulted in increased UV-environmental research and a number of summary reports. The United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) has provided recent updates with respect to the effects of ozone depletion on aquatic ecosystems (Hader, Worrest, Kumar in UNEP 1989, 1991, Hader, Worrest, Kumar and Smith UNEP 1994) and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has provided [SCOPE, 1992] a summary of the effects of increased UV radiation on biological systems. SCOPE has also reported [SCOPE, 1993] on the effects of increased UV on the biosphere. In addition, several books have recently been published reviewing various aspects of environmental UV photobiology [Young et al., 1993], UV effects on humans, animals and plants [Tevini, 1993], the biological effects of UV radiation in Antarctica [Weiler and Penhale, 1994], and UV research in freshwater ecosystems [Williamson and Zagarese, 1994]. Several other reviews are relevant [NAS, 1984; Caldwell

  8. SOLAR UV RADIATION AND AQUATIC BIOGEOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade significant interest has developed in the influence of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in surface waters of lakes and the sea. A major portion of this research has focused on photoreactions of the colored component of dissolved organic matter, ...

  9. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1999-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin. The sun-seeking habits of white Caucasians in developed countries are likely to have contributed strongly to the increase in skin cancer observed over the last century. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer in the U.S.A. and Australia, which appears to be the result of an 'unnatural displacement' of people with sun-sensitive skin to sub-tropical regions. Although campaigns have been successful in informing people about the risks of sun exposure, general attitudes and behaviour do not yet appear to have changed to the extent that trends in skin cancer morbidity and the corresponding burden on public healthcare will be reversed. The relationship between skin cancer and regular sun exposure was suspected by physicians in the late 19th century, and subsequently substantiated in animal experiments in the early part of the 20th century. UV radiation was found to be highly genotoxic, and DNA repair proved to be crucial in fending off detrimental effects such as mutagenesis and cell death. In fact, around 1940 it was shown that the wavelength dependence of mutagenicity paralleled the UV absorption by DNA. In the 1970s research on UV carcinogenesis received a new impetus from the arising concern about a possible future depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer: the resulting increases in ambient UV loads were expected to raise skin cancer incidences. Epidemiological studies in the last decades of the 20th century have greatly refined our knowledge on the aetiology of skin cancers. Analyses of gene mutations in skin carcinomas have identified UV radiation as the cause

  10. UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sidjanin, D.; Grdina, D.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-11-01

    Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation induced by ultraviolet radiation. These experiments investigated the ability of 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression and gene expression in rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. No changes in expression of c-fos, c-jun, alpha- tubulin, or vimentin was observed following UV exposure. Using flow cytometry, an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 hr following exposure. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased histone transcripts reported here may play a role in UV induced inhibition of cell cycle progression.

  11. Transcriptional responses to biologically relevant doses of UV-B radiation in the model archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

    PubMed Central

    Boubriak, Ivan; Ng, Wooi Loon; DasSarma, Priya; DasSarma, Shiladitya; Crowley, David J; McCready, Shirley J

    2008-01-01

    Background Most studies of the transcriptional response to UV radiation in living cells have used UV doses that are much higher than those encountered in the natural environment, and most focus on short-wave UV (UV-C) at 254 nm, a wavelength that never reaches the Earth's surface. We have studied the transcriptional response of the sunlight-tolerant model archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, to low doses of mid-wave UV (UV-B) to assess its response to UV radiation that is likely to be more biologically relevant. Results Halobacterium NRC-1 cells were irradiated with UV-B at doses equivalent to 30 J/m2 and 5 J/m2 of UV-C. Transcriptional profiling showed that only 11 genes were up-regulated 1.5-fold or more by both UV-B doses. The most strongly up-regulated gene was radA1 (vng2473), the archaeal homologue of RAD51/recA recombinase. The others included arj1 (vng779) (recJ-like exonuclease), top6A (vng884) and top6B (vng885) (coding for Topoisomerase VI subunits), and nrdJ (vng1644) (which encodes a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase). We have found that four of the consistently UV-B up-regulated genes, radA1 (vng2473), vng17, top6B (vng885) and vng280, share a common 11-base pair motif in their promoter region, TTTCACTTTCA. Similar sequences were found in radA promoters in other halophilic archaea, as well as in the radA promoter of Methanospirillum hungatei. We analysed the transcriptional response of a repair-deficient ΔuvrA (vng2636) ΔuvrC (vng2381) double-deletion mutant and found common themes between it and the response in repair proficient cells. Conclusion Our results show a core set of genes is consistently up-regulated after exposure to UV-B light at low, biologically relevant doses. Eleven genes were up-regulated, in wild-type cells, after two UV-B doses (comparable to UV-C doses of 30 J/m2 and 5 J/m2), and only four genes were up-regulated by all doses of UV-B and UV-C that we have used in this work and previously. These results suggest that high doses

  12. MEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2001-07-26

    Organisms living on the earth are exposed to solar radiation, including its ultraviolet (UV) components (for general reviews, the reader is referred to Smith [1] and Young et al. [2]). UV wavelength regions present in sunlight are frequently designated as UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). In today's solar spectrum, UVA is the principal UV component, with UVB present at much lower levels. Ozone depletion will increase the levels of UVB reaching the biosphere, but the levels of UVA will not be changed significantly [3]. Because of the high efficiency of UVB in producing damage in biological organisms in the laboratory experiments, it has sometimes been assumed that UVA has little or no adverse biological effects. However, accumulating data [4, 5], including action spectra (efficiency of biological damage as a function of wavelength of radiation; see Section 5) for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings [6], in human skin [7], and for a variety of plant damages (Caldwell, this volume) indicate that UVA can induce damage in DNA in higher organisms. Thus, understanding the differential effects of UVA and UVB wavebands is essential for estimating the biological consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion.

  13. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  14. UV RADIATION EFFECTS ON MICROBES AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultraviolet (UV) region of solar radiation is defined as wavelengths in the range of 200 to 400 nm. In contrast to visible radiation (400 - 800 nm), which has a well-defined role as the energy source for most of the Earth's primary production, the effects of UV radiation on b...

  15. Inactivation of avirulent Yersinia pestis in butterfield's phosphate buffer and frankfurters by UVC (254 nm) and gamma irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. While rare, pharyngeal plague in humans has been associated with consumption or handling of meat prepared from infected animals. The risks of contracting plague from consumption of deliberately contaminated meat are currently unknown. Gamma radiat...

  16. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  17. [Relationship between surface UV radiation and air pollution in Beijing].

    PubMed

    An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si; Li, Xin; Sun, Yang; Shen, Shuang-he

    2008-04-01

    Based on the data of solar radiation and air pollutants collected in Beijing, the relationship between surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the content of air pollutants were analyzed, using the radiative transfer model TUV4.4 (Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible). The results show that average total ozone content is 329 DU and higher in winter and spring, lower in summer and autumn. The inverse relationship exists between ground level UV radiation and total ozone content. This study also shows that a substantial reduction (up to 50%) in the UV radiation on days with high levels of air pollution. Larger fluctuations are found in UV radiation in the summer. The effects of clouds and air pollution on UV are higher than on total solar radiation, and the reduction in UV is about twice as large as the total solar radiation values. Strong reduction in the UV radiation reaching the ground is associated with the increase of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen oxides in Beijing. The correlation coefficient between ozone concentration and decrease in UV radiation is 0.70 in the early afternoon.

  18. Recent studies on UV radiation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, M. P.; Ceballos, J. C.; Moregula, A.; Okuno, E.; Fausto, A.; Mol, A.; Santos, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation shows a summary of UV index measurements performed in the last years in Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) Brazilian regions. Brazil has an area of 8.5 million km2 distributed between latitudes 5˚ N and 35˚ S and longitudes 5˚ W and 75˚ W. SE is the most important economic pole of South America and the NE coast is an important tourist region. This large area has a great diversity of climatic, atmospheric and geographical conditions in addition to very diverse social and cultural habits. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an epidemiological health problem with more than 120,000 new cases each year. The most of these cases are found in the South and Southeast regions, with about 70 new NMSC per 100,000 inhabitants. Solar Light UV501 biometers are installed in the SE cities of São Paulo (23.6˚ S, 46.7˚ W, 865 m ASL), Itajubá/Minas Gerais (22.4˚ S; 45.5˚ W, 846 m ASL) and the NE city of Ilhéus/Bahia (14.8˚ S; 39.3˚ W; 54 m ASL). First measurements began in 2005 in São Paulo city, while Itajubá and Ilhéus have regular measurements from the beginning of 2008. Other studies related to the UV radiation modeling and interactions with atmosphere components, as ozone, aerosols and clouds, have also been performed. For example: a) UVI modelling calculations performed by a multiple-scattering spectral models; b) studies on the aerosol radiative properties based on satellite (MODIS/Terra-Aqua) and ground-based (Aeronet) observation; c) ozone content variability from satellite (OMI/Aura) and ground-based (Microtops ozonometer) measurements; d) behavioral profile of the population, as regarding habits of solar exposure and sun protection measures. Results show that more than 75% of the measurements conducted in the summer (outside noon) can be classified as upper than high UVI according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended categories: Low (UVI < 2), Medium (3 ? UVI < 6), High (6 ? UVI < 8), Very High (8 ? UVI

  19. Radiative flux calculations at UV and visible wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    A radiative transfer model to calculate the short wavelength fluxes at altitudes between 0 and 80 km has been developed at LLNL. The wavelength range extends from 175--735 nm. This spectral range covers the UV-B wavelength region, 250--350 nm, with sufficient resolution to allow comparison of UV-B measurements with theoretical predictions. Validation studies for the model have been made for both UV-B ground radiation calculations and tropospheric solar radiative forcing calculations for various ozone distributions. These studies indicate that the model produces results which agree well with respect to existing UV calculations from other published models.

  20. Signal transduction in responses to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gareth I

    2009-01-01

    UV-B radiation is a key environmental signal that initiates diverse responses in plants that affect metabolism, development, and viability. Many effects of UV-B involve the differential regulation of gene expression. The response to UV-B depends on the nature of the UV-B treatment, the extent of adaptation and acclimation to UV-B, and interaction with other environmental factors. Responses to UV-B are mediated by both nonspecific signaling pathways, involving DNA damage, reactive oxygen species, and wound/defense signaling molecules, and UV-B-specific pathways that mediate photomorphogenic responses to low levels of UV-B. Importantly, photomorphogenic signaling stimulates the expression of genes involved in UV-protection and hence promotes plant survival in UV-B. Photomorphogenic UV-B signaling is mediated by the UV-B-specific component UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Both UVR8 and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS1 (COP1) are required for UV-B-induced expression of the ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) transcription factor, which plays a central role in the regulation of genes involved in photomorphogenic UV-B responses.

  1. UV-B Radiation Contributes to Amphibian Population Declines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaustein, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation is the most significant biologically damaging radiation at the terrestrial surface. At the organismal level, UV-B radiation can slow growth rates, cause immune dysfunction and result in sublethal damage. UV-B radiation can lead to mutations and cell death. Over evolutionary time, UV radiation has been an important stressor on living organisms. Natural events, including impacts from comets and asteroids, volcanic activity, supernova explosions and solar flares, can cause large-scale ozone depletion with accompanying increases in UV radiation. However, these natural events are transient. Moreover, the amount of ozone damage due to natural events depends upon a number of variables, including the magnitude of the event. This is different from modern-day human-induced production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chemicals that deplete stratospheric ozone continuously, resulting in long-term increases in UV-B radiation at the surface of the earth. We will briefly review the effects of UV-B exposure in one group of aquatic organisms_amphibians. UV-B has been implicated as a possible factor contributing to global declines and range reductions in amphibian populations.

  2. The impact of solar UV radiation on the early biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    2007-08-01

    Stratospheric ozone, photochemically produced from atmospheric oxygen, is a protective filter of the Earth's atmosphere by absorbing most of the biologically harmful UV radiation of our sun in the UV-C (190-280 nm) and short wavelength-region of the UV-B (280-315 nm). Numerous lines of isotopic and geologic evidence suggest that the Archean atmosphere was essentially anoxic. As a result the column abundance of ozone would have been insufficient to affect the surface UV radiation environment. Thus, as well as UV-B radiation, UV-C radiation would have penetrated to the Earth's surface with its associated biological consequences. The history of this ultraviolet stress for the early Earth has been determined from theoretical data and data obtained in Earth orbit on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores under a simulated ozone layer of different thicknesses. Although the UV-C and UV-B regions contribute only 2 % of the entire solar extraterrestrial irradiance, photobiological experiments in space have demonstrated a high mutagenicity and lethality of this UV range to living organisms. The reason for these severe effects of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation - compared to conditions on present-day Earth - lies in the absorption characteristics of the DNA, which is the decisive target for inactivation and mutation induction at this UV range. Being a strong mutagen, UV-radiation is considered as a powerful promoter of biological evolution on the one hand, one the other hand, it may have deleterious consequences to individual cells and organisms, e.g. by causing inactivation, mutations or cancer induction. In response to potential harmful effects of environmental UV radiation, life on Earth has developed several strategies of survival, either avoiding exposure to UV radiation or restoring UV damage. Mechanisms of avoidance of exposure to UV radiation include (i) moving away from the UV radiation into shadowed areas, which requires the development of UV radiation

  3. METHOD 415.3 - MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON, DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND SPECIFIC UV ABSORBANCE AT 254 NM IN SOURCE WATER AND DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    2.0 SUMMARY OF METHOD

    2.1 In both TOC and DOC determinations, organic carbon in the water sample is oxidized to form carbon dioxide (CO2), which is then measured by a detection system. There are two different approaches for the oxidation of organic carbon in water sample...

  4. UV Radiation Damage and Bacterial DNA Repair Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Guy, Daniel; Yarom, Ruth; Slesak, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple hands-on laboratory procedure for high school students in studying both radiation damage and DNA repair systems in bacteria. The sensitivity to ultra-violet (UV) radiation of both "Escherichia coli" and "Serratia marcescens" is tested by radiating them for varying time periods. Two growth temperatures are used in…

  5. [Study on the IR and UV dual-spectrum radiation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Zhu, Q; Xu, S; Wan, S

    2000-06-01

    The article gives a method to produce dual spectrum radiation in IR and UV. Relying on theoretical analysis, the relative data are computed, some atomic materials are selected and added to a double-base propellants. When the UV pyrotechnics is ignited together with traditional IR pyrotechnics, the spectrum of IR and UV is emitted at the same time. The final measuring curves show that all results are satisfying.

  6. Photosynthesis via Mineral Fluorescence in Harsh UV Radiation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barge, L. M.; Nealson, K.

    2005-12-01

    Before the development of a protective ozone layer about two billion years ago, the surface ultraviolet flux on Earth would have restricted ancient life to environments that offered some protection from direct solar radiation, such as the deep ocean or under or within rocks. In environments where the visible solar radiation would have been reduced to levels too low for photosynthesis, visible fluorescence resulting from UV irradiation of minerals may have provided a useable energy source. We are investigating the possibility that photosynthesis can occur without direct sunlight, if certain minerals are present that can absorb UV radiation and fluoresce in the visible. There are several common minerals(e.g. fluorite, calcite) that emit strong visible radiation under both short- and long-wave UV light, as well as some that only emit visible radiation under specific UV wavelengths. We will test a variety of minerals that fluoresce at wavelengths utilized by microbial chlorophylls and accessory pigments, and by simulating endolithic communities living under a few centimeters or millimeters of rock, we will measure the intensity of fluorescence and UV radiation received at various depths. We plan to simulate a variety of environments where the surface UV radiation may have a significant impact on the survival of life. These include the early Earth and present-day Mars(where the atmosphere would offer little to no protection against biologically damaging UV radiation), as well as extrasolar planets(a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone around an M-type star, for example, would be subject to an intense UV flux due to high flare activity). If mineral fluorescence proves to be a viable survival mechanism for photosynthetic organisms in harsh radiation environments, there are many implications for the study of ancient life on Earth as well as the search for life elsewhere.

  7. Desiccation and low temperature attenuate the effect of UVC254 nm in the photobiont of the astrobiologically relevant lichens Circinaria gyrosa and Buellia frigida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, T.; de la Torre, R.; Lyhme, K.; de Vera, J.-P.; Meeßen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Several investigations on lichen photobionts (PBs) after exposure to simulated or real-space parameters consistently reported high viability and recovery of photosynthetic activity. These studies focused on PBs within lichen thalli, mostly exposed in a metabolically inactive state. In contrast, a recent study exposed isolated and metabolically active PBs to the non-terrestrial stressor UVC254 nm and found strong impairment of photosynthetic activity and photo-protective mechanisms (Meeßen et al. in 2014b). Under space and Mars conditions, UVC is accompanied by other stressors as extreme desiccation and low temperatures. The present study exposed the PBs of Buellia frigida and Circinaria gyrosa, to UVC in combination with desiccation and subzero temperatures to gain better insight into the combined stressors' effect and the PBs' inherent potential of resistance. These effects were examined by chlorophyll a fluorescence which is a good indicator of photosynthetic activity (Lüttge & Büdel in 2010) and widely used to test the viability of PBs after (simulated) space exposure. The present results reveal fast recovery of photosynthetic activity after desiccation and subzero temperatures. Moreover, they demonstrate that desiccation and cold confer an additional protective effect on the investigated PBs and attenuate the PBs' reaction to another stressor - even if it is a non-terrestrial one such as UVC. Besides other protective mechanisms (anhydrobiosis, morphological-anatomical traits and secondary lichen compounds), these findings may help to explain the high resistance of lichens observed in astrobiological studies.

  8. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to UV radiation from daily activities, including reflections off of snow, pavement, and other surfaces, can ... by a day at the beach without sunglasses; reflections off of snow, water, or concrete; or exposure ...

  9. Study of UV radiation dose received by the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Gurrea, Gonzalo; Cañada, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Excess exposure to UV radiation can affect our health by causing sunburn, skin cancer, etc. It is therefore useful to determine the UV dosage received by people as a way of protecting them from the possible negative effects that this kind of radiation can cause. In this work, the personal outdoor percentage, which shows the time spent in outdoor activities, as well as personal UV doses, has been calculated by means of global UV radiation on a horizontal plane. A database of average daily UVB radiation on the horizontal plane given by the National Institute of Meteorology has been used. In this work we evaluate the standard erythema dose of the Spanish population throughout the year. PMID:18028210

  10. Study of UV radiation dose received by the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Gurrea, Gonzalo; Cañada, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Excess exposure to UV radiation can affect our health by causing sunburn, skin cancer, etc. It is therefore useful to determine the UV dosage received by people as a way of protecting them from the possible negative effects that this kind of radiation can cause. In this work, the personal outdoor percentage, which shows the time spent in outdoor activities, as well as personal UV doses, has been calculated by means of global UV radiation on a horizontal plane. A database of average daily UVB radiation on the horizontal plane given by the National Institute of Meteorology has been used. In this work we evaluate the standard erythema dose of the Spanish population throughout the year.

  11. UV-radiation-induced degradation of fluorinated polyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li-Hsin; Saha, Naresh C.

    1994-12-01

    Fully cured fluorinated polyimide (FPI) films with low dielectric constants ( less than or equal to 3.0) have been found to be chemically altered when exposed to UV radiation during a process integration study. This chemical modification is manifested in the loss of film thickness after it is subjected to UV radiation followed by photoresist stripping. The UV-radiation-induced surface modifications of the FPI film have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS data show the presence of C=O and COO(-) sites in the FPI molecule following UV exposure. Under prolonged UV exposure in a stepper, the FPI film acts as a positive working photoresist. However, a 2 kA plasma enhanced chemically vapor-deposited oxide mask and/or a typical 12 kA photoresist mask effectively shields the FPI from UV-radiation-induced degradation. The effects of FPI on UV radiation present during other normal wafer processing steps such as plasma deposition and reactive ion-etching were also studied and found to be negligible.

  12. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect their eyes with hats and sunglasses. UV Light: Good in Moderation for a Good Night's Sleep ... accumulated during the day. Some research suggests that light-sensitive cells in the eye are important to ...

  13. UV-induced DNA damage promotes resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Bernard A; Dando, Paige K; Grice, Desma M; Mohr, Peter G; Schenk, Peer M; Cahill, David M

    2008-10-01

    Plant innate immunity to pathogenic microorganisms is activated in response to recognition of extracellular or intracellular pathogen molecules by transmembrane receptors or resistance proteins, respectively. The defense signaling pathways share components with those involved in plant responses to UV radiation, which can induce expression of plant genes important for pathogen resistance. Such intriguing links suggest that UV treatment might activate resistance to pathogens in normally susceptible host plants. Here, we demonstrate that pre-inoculative UV (254 nm) irradiation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) susceptible to infection by the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica, the causative agent of downy mildew, induces dose- and time-dependent resistance to the pathogen detectable up to 7 d after UV exposure. Limiting repair of UV photoproducts by postirradiation incubation in the dark, or mutational inactivation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase, (6-4) photoproduct photolyase, or nucleotide excision repair increased the magnitude of UV-induced pathogen resistance. In the absence of treatment with 254-nm UV, plant nucleotide excision repair mutants also defective for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer or (6-4) photoproduct photolyase displayed resistance to H. parasitica, partially attributable to short wavelength UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation emitted by incubator lights. These results indicate UV irradiation can initiate the development of resistance to H. parasitica in plants normally susceptible to the pathogen and point to a key role for UV-induced DNA damage. They also suggest UV treatment can circumvent the requirement for recognition of H. parasitica molecules by Arabidopsis proteins to activate an immune response.

  14. Sensing of UV-B radiation by plants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Wang, Yan; Olof Björn, Lars; He, Jun-Xian; Li, Shaoshan

    2012-08-01

    Daylight UV-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm) is, because of its photochemical effects and potential destructive impact, an important environmental factor for plants. After decades of fruitless attempts, a receptor molecule, UVR8, for sensing of ambient UV-B radiation by plants has been characterized, and the initial steps in signal transduction have been identified. There are, however, other signaling pathways, and there are apparent contradictions in the literature. There is still much to find out about the complex signaling network in plants for processing of information about the daylight surrounding them.

  15. Characterization of UV radiation sensitive frog cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Stein, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-one subclones of nine frog cell isolates were tested for sensitivity to a panel of DNA damaging agents. Two clones were identified which had a greater than wild type level of sensitivity to UV radiation but had a wild type level of sensitivity to the other agents. These clones were the haploid RRP602-7 and the diploid RRP802-1. RRP802-1 was found to be unstable with respect to UV sensitivity. The line was cloned in order to isolate stable sensitive and wild type derivatives. RRP802-1-16, a UV sensitive clone and RRP802-1-13, a clone with a wild type level of sensitivity to UV radiation, were isolated. The UV radiation sensitivity of RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16 did not correlate with cell size, cell shape, cell cycle distribution or ploidy. The cell cycle distribution after UV irradiation, the rate of DNA synthesis after UV-irradiation, the DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. activity and the sister chromatid exchange frequency were all measured in RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16 in order to examine the DNA repair capacity. The presence of DNA repair pathways was examined directly in RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16. All were found to be proficient in photo-reactivation repair and postreplication repair of UV elicited DNA damage.

  16. Ambient UV-B radiation causes deformities in amphibian embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blaustein, A.R.; Kiesecker, J.M.; Chivers, D.P.; Anthony, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    There has been a great deal of recent attention on the suspected increase in amphibian deformities. However, most reports of amphibian deformities have been anecdotal, and no experiments in the field under natural conditions have been performed to investigate this phenomenon. Under laboratory conditions, a variety of agents can induce deformities in amphibians. We investigated one of these agents, UV-B radiation, in field experiments, as a cause for amphibian deformities. We monitored hatching success and development in long-toed salamanders under UV-B shields and in regimes that allowed UV-B radiation. Embryos under UV-B shields had a significantly higher hatching rate and fewer deformities, and developed more quickly than those exposed to UV-B. Deformities may contribute directly to embryo mortality, and they may affect an individual's subsequent survival after hatching.

  17. Ambient UV-B radiation causes deformities in amphibian embryos.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, A R; Kiesecker, J M; Chivers, D P; Anthony, R G

    1997-12-01

    There has been a great deal of recent attention on the suspected increase in amphibian deformities. However, most reports of amphibian deformities have been anecdotal, and no experiments in the field under natural conditions have been performed to investigate this phenomenon. Under laboratory conditions, a variety of agents can induce deformities in amphibians. We investigated one of these agents, UV-B radiation, in field experiments, as a cause for amphibian deformities. We monitored hatching success and development in long-toed salamanders under UV-B shields and in regimes that allowed UV-B radiation. Embryos under UV-B shields had a significantly higher hatching rate and fewer deformities, and developed more quickly than those exposed to UV-B. Deformities may contribute directly to embryo mortality, and they may affect an individual's subsequent survival after hatching. PMID:9391095

  18. Response of biological uv dosimeters to the simulated extraterrestrial uv radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Rontó, G.; Kerékgyártó, T.; Kovács, G.; Lammer, H.

    In the Laboratory polycrystalline uracil thin layer and bacteriophage T7 detectors have been developed for UV dosimetry on the EarthSs surface. Exponential response of the uracil polycrystal has been detected both by absorption spectroscopy and measurements of the refractive index under the influence of terrestrial solar radiation or using UV-C sources. In UV biological dosimetry the UV dose scale is additive starting at a value of zero according to the definition of CIE (Technical Report TC-6-18). The biological dose can be defined by a measured end-effect. In our dosimeters (phage T7 and uracil dosimeter) exposed to natural (terrestrial) UV radiation the proportion of pyrimidin photoproducts among the total photoproducts is smaller than 0.1 and the linear correlation between the biological and physical dose is higher than 0.9. According to the experimental data this linear relationship is often not valid. We observed that UV radiation did not only induce dimerisation but shorter wavelengths caused monomerisation of pyrimidin dimers. Performing the irradiation in oxygen free environment and using a Deuterium lamp as UV source, we could increase monomerisation against dimerisation thus the DNA-based dosimetrySs additivity rule is not fulfilled in these conditions. In this study we will demonstrate those non-linear experiments which constitute the basis of our biological experiments on the International Space Station.

  19. Impact of UV-A radiation on erythemal UV and UV-index estimation over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Seo; Lee, Yun Gon; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Because total UV (TUV) in the UV-A region is 100 times higher than in the UV-B region, UV-A is a considerable component when calculating erythemal UV (EUV) and UV-index. The ratio of EUV to TUV in the UV-A value [EUV(A)/TUV(A)] is investigated to convert the EUV(A) from TUV(A) for broadband observation. The representative value of EUV(A)/TUV(A), from the simulation study, is 6.9×10-4, changing from 6.1×10-4 to 7.0×10-4 as aerosol optical depth, total ozone and solar zenith angle change. By adopting the observational data of EUV(B) and TUV(A) from UV-biometer measurements at Yonsei University [(37.57°N, 126.95°E), 84 m above sea level], the EUV irradiance increases to 15% of EUV(B) due to the consideration of EUV(A) from the data of TUV(A) observation. Compared to the total EUV observed from the Brewer spectrophotometer at the same site, the EUV(B) from the UV-biometer observes only 95% of total EUV, and its underestimation is caused by neglecting the effect of UV-A. However, the sum of EUV(B) and EUV(A) [EUV(A+B)] from two UV-biometers is 10% larger than the EUV from the Brewer spectrophotometer because of the spectral overlap effect in the range 320-340 nm. The correction factor for the overlap effect adjusts 8% of total EUV.

  20. Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function of human skin

    PubMed Central

    Biniek, Krysta; Levi, Kemal; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of solar UV radiation in human life is essential for vitamin D production but also leads to skin photoaging, damage, and malignancies. Photoaging and skin cancer have been extensively studied, but the effects of UV on the critical mechanical barrier function of the outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), are not understood. The SC is the first line of defense against environmental exposures like solar UV radiation, and its effects on UV targets within the SC and subsequent alterations in the mechanical properties and related barrier function are unclear. Alteration of the SC’s mechanical properties can lead to severe macroscopic skin damage such as chapping and cracking and associated inflammation, infection, scarring, and abnormal desquamation. Here, we show that UV exposure has dramatic effects on cell cohesion and mechanical integrity that are related to its effects on the SC’s intercellular components, including intercellular lipids and corneodesmosomes. We found that, although the keratin-controlled stiffness remained surprisingly constant with UV exposure, the intercellular strength, strain, and cohesion decreased markedly. We further show that solar UV radiation poses a double threat to skin by both increasing the biomechanical driving force for damage while simultaneously decreasing the skin’s natural ability to resist, compromising the critical barrier function of the skin. PMID:23027968

  1. Solar UV-A and UV-B radiation fluxes at two Alpine stations at different altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumthaler, M.; Ambach, W.; Rehwald, W.

    1992-03-01

    Daily totals of UV-A and UV-B radiation fluxes and global radiation were measured since 1981 at Jungfraujoch (3576 m) a.s.l.) and in Innsbruck (577 m a.s.l.) in their seasonal course. The altitude effect of annual totals yields 19%/1000 m (UV-B), 11%/1000 m (UV-A) and 9%/1000 m (global radiation) with reference to Innsbruck station. The ratio of the daily totals of UV-B/global radiation shows a significant seasonal course with the maximum in summer, whereas the ratio of the daily totals of UV-A/global radiation shows no significant seasonal variation. The biological effective doses of erythema reaction, delayed tanning and immediate tanning by UV-A and UV-B radiant exposure are reported in the seasonal course at Jungfraujoch and in Innsbruck.

  2. Radiative models for the evaluation of the UV radiation at the ground.

    PubMed

    Koepke, P

    2009-12-01

    The variety of radiative models for solar UV radiation is discussed. For the evaluation of measured UV radiation at the ground the basic problem is the availability of actual values of the atmospheric parameters that influence the UV radiation. The largest uncertainties are due to clouds and aerosol, which are highly variable. In the case of tilted receivers, like the human skin for most orientations, and for conditions like a street canyon or tree shadow, besides the classical radiative transfer in the atmosphere additional modelling is necessary.

  3. Resonance microwave discharge as a source of UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barkhudarov, E. M.; Denisova, N. V.; Kossyi, I. A.; Misakyan, M. A.

    2009-07-15

    Results are presented from theoretical and experimental studies of an optical radiation source based on a microwave discharge excited in an Ar + Hg mixture. The main attention is paid to the so-called 'resonance' discharge operating at low pressures of the working gas (argon). It is shown that a decrease in the Ar pressure leads to significant increase in the Hg radiation intensity (including biologically active UV radiation) and considerable decrease in the intensity of argon emission lines. The intensity of discharge radiation is calculated in the framework of the collisional-radiative model. The results of calculation agree qualitatively with experimental data.

  4. UV-Induced DNA Damage Promotes Resistance to the Biotrophic Pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica in Arabidopsis1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Bernard A.; Dando, Paige K.; Grice, Desma M.; Mohr, Peter G.; Schenk, Peer M.; Cahill, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Plant innate immunity to pathogenic microorganisms is activated in response to recognition of extracellular or intracellular pathogen molecules by transmembrane receptors or resistance proteins, respectively. The defense signaling pathways share components with those involved in plant responses to UV radiation, which can induce expression of plant genes important for pathogen resistance. Such intriguing links suggest that UV treatment might activate resistance to pathogens in normally susceptible host plants. Here, we demonstrate that pre-inoculative UV (254 nm) irradiation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) susceptible to infection by the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica, the causative agent of downy mildew, induces dose- and time-dependent resistance to the pathogen detectable up to 7 d after UV exposure. Limiting repair of UV photoproducts by postirradiation incubation in the dark, or mutational inactivation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase, (6-4) photoproduct photolyase, or nucleotide excision repair increased the magnitude of UV-induced pathogen resistance. In the absence of treatment with 254-nm UV, plant nucleotide excision repair mutants also defective for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer or (6-4) photoproduct photolyase displayed resistance to H. parasitica, partially attributable to short wavelength UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation emitted by incubator lights. These results indicate UV irradiation can initiate the development of resistance to H. parasitica in plants normally susceptible to the pathogen and point to a key role for UV-induced DNA damage. They also suggest UV treatment can circumvent the requirement for recognition of H. parasitica molecules by Arabidopsis proteins to activate an immune response. PMID:18667719

  5. Local defects in the nanostructure of the membrane of erythrocytes upon ionizing radiation of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, E. K.; Sergunova, V. A.; Krasavin, E. A.; Boreyko, A. V.; Zavialova, A. V.; Kozlov, A. P.; Chernysh, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate local topological defects in the erythrocyte membranes resulting from the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of blood in vitro. Biological effects in the erythrocytes after exposure to UV radiation at a wavelength of 254 nm are equivalent to those after γ radiation. It has been shown that oxidative processes developing in a suspension upon UV radiation result in the disruption of the nanostructure of the membranes of erythrocytes. In the experiments, typical topological defects in the membrane nanostructure were observed. The parameters of the defects differed from the characteristics of the nanostructure of the control cell membrane without irradiation. The characteristic dimensions of the topological defects are commensurate with the size of the spectrin matrix. As a result of the exposure to the UV radiation, polymorphism of the erythrocytes was observed.

  6. UV radiation induces CXCL5 expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Olga; Kolbe, Ludger; Terstegen, Lara; Staeb, Franz; Wenck, Horst; Schmelz, Martin; Genth, Harald; Kaever, Volkhard; Roggenkamp, Dennis; Neufang, Gitta

    2015-04-01

    CXCL5 has recently been identified as a mediator of UVB-induced pain in rodents. To compare and to extend previous knowledge of cutaneous CXCL5 regulation, we performed a comprehensive study on the effects of UV radiation on CXCL5 regulation in human skin. Our results show a dose-dependent increase in CXCL5 protein in human skin after UV radiation. CXCL5 can be released by different cell types in the skin. We presumed that, in addition to immune cells, non-immune skin cells also contribute to UV-induced increase in CXCL5 protein. Analysis of monocultured dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes revealed that only fibroblasts but not keratinocytes displayed up regulated CXCL5 levels after UV stimulation. Whereas UV treatment of human skin equivalents, induced epidermal CXCL5 mRNA and protein expression. Up regulation of epidermal CXCL5 was independent of keratinocyte differentiation and keratinocyte-keratinocyte interactions in epidermal layers. Our findings provide first evidence on the release of CXCL5 in UV-radiated human skin and the essential role of fibroblast-keratinocyte interaction in the regulation of epidermal CXCL5. PMID:25690483

  7. Effective UV radiation from model calculations and measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feister, Uwe; Grewe, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Model calculations have been made to simulate the effect of atmospheric ozone and geographical as well as meteorological parameters on solar UV radiation reaching the ground. Total ozone values as measured by Dobson spectrophotometer and Brewer spectrometer as well as turbidity were used as input to the model calculation. The performance of the model was tested by spectroradiometric measurements of solar global UV radiation at Potsdam. There are small differences that can be explained by the uncertainty of the measurements, by the uncertainty of input data to the model and by the uncertainty of the radiative transfer algorithms of the model itself. Some effects of solar radiation to the biosphere and to air chemistry are discussed. Model calculations and spectroradiometric measurements can be used to study variations of the effective radiation in space in space time. The comparability of action spectra and their uncertainties are also addressed.

  8. Silver-Teflon contamination UV radiation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Silver-Teflon (Ag/FEP) is planned to be used as the thermal control material covering the radiator surfaces on the shuttle orbiter payload bay doors. These radiators require the use of materials that have a very low solar absorptance and a high emittance for heat rejection. However, operationally, materials used on these critical radiator surfaces, such as silver-Teflon, will be exposed to a variety of conditions which include both the natural as well as the induced environments from the Shuttle Orbiter. A complete test facility was assembled, and detailed test procedures and a test matrix were developed. Measurements of low solar absorptance were taken before and after contamination, at intervals during irradiation, and after sample cleaning to fulfill all the requirements.

  9. Uranium plasma radiates in the UV spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Description of an experiment designed to produce and spectroscopically analyze a simulated gas core reactor plasma in the spectral range from 300 to 1300 A. The plasma was produced by focusing the radiation of a Q-spoiled ruby laser onto the flat surface of a pure U-238 specimen.

  10. Ozone depletion and climate change: impacts on UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Bais, A F; McKenzie, R L; Bernhard, G; Aucamp, P J; Ilyas, M; Madronich, S; Tourpali, K

    2015-01-01

    We assess the importance of factors that determine the intensity of UV radiation at the Earth's surface. Among these, atmospheric ozone, which absorbs UV radiation, is of considerable importance, but other constituents of the atmosphere, as well as certain consequences of climate change, can also be major influences. Further, we assess the variations of UV radiation observed in the past and present, and provide projections for the future. Of particular interest are methods to measure or estimate UV radiation at the Earth's surface. These are needed for scientific understanding and, when they are sufficiently sensitive, they can serve as monitors of the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Also assessed are several aspects of UV radiation related to biological effects and health. The implications for ozone and UV radiation from two types of geoengineering methods that have been proposed to combat climate change are also discussed. In addition to ozone effects, the UV changes in the last two decades, derived from measurements, have been influenced by changes in aerosols, clouds, surface reflectivity, and, possibly, by solar activity. The positive trends of UV radiation observed after the mid-1990s over northern mid-latitudes are mainly due to decreases in clouds and aerosols. Despite some indications from measurements at a few stations, no statistically significant decreases in UV-B radiation attributable to the beginning of the ozone recovery have yet been detected. Projections for erythemal irradiance (UVery) suggest the following changes by the end of the 21(st) century (2090-2100) relative to the present time (2010-2020): (1) Ozone recovery (due to decreasing ozone-depleting substances and increasing greenhouse gases) would cause decreases in UVery, which will be highest (up to 40%) over Antarctica. Decreases would be small (less than 10%) outside the southern Polar Regions. A possible decline of solar activity during the 21(st) century

  11. Ozone depletion and climate change: impacts on UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Bais, A F; McKenzie, R L; Bernhard, G; Aucamp, P J; Ilyas, M; Madronich, S; Tourpali, K

    2015-01-01

    We assess the importance of factors that determine the intensity of UV radiation at the Earth's surface. Among these, atmospheric ozone, which absorbs UV radiation, is of considerable importance, but other constituents of the atmosphere, as well as certain consequences of climate change, can also be major influences. Further, we assess the variations of UV radiation observed in the past and present, and provide projections for the future. Of particular interest are methods to measure or estimate UV radiation at the Earth's surface. These are needed for scientific understanding and, when they are sufficiently sensitive, they can serve as monitors of the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Also assessed are several aspects of UV radiation related to biological effects and health. The implications for ozone and UV radiation from two types of geoengineering methods that have been proposed to combat climate change are also discussed. In addition to ozone effects, the UV changes in the last two decades, derived from measurements, have been influenced by changes in aerosols, clouds, surface reflectivity, and, possibly, by solar activity. The positive trends of UV radiation observed after the mid-1990s over northern mid-latitudes are mainly due to decreases in clouds and aerosols. Despite some indications from measurements at a few stations, no statistically significant decreases in UV-B radiation attributable to the beginning of the ozone recovery have yet been detected. Projections for erythemal irradiance (UVery) suggest the following changes by the end of the 21(st) century (2090-2100) relative to the present time (2010-2020): (1) Ozone recovery (due to decreasing ozone-depleting substances and increasing greenhouse gases) would cause decreases in UVery, which will be highest (up to 40%) over Antarctica. Decreases would be small (less than 10%) outside the southern Polar Regions. A possible decline of solar activity during the 21(st) century

  12. Elevated UV-B radiation reduces genome stability in plants.

    PubMed

    Ries, G; Heller, W; Puchta, H; Sandermann, H; Seidlitz, H K; Hohn, B

    2000-07-01

    Long-term depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer contributes to an increase in terrestrial solar ultraviolet-B radiation. This has deleterious effects on living organisms, such as DNA damage. When exposed to elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-315 nm), plants display a wide variety of physiological and morphological responses characterized as acclimation and adaptation. Here we show, using special sun simulators, that elevated solar UV-B doses increase the frequency of somatic homologous DNA rearrangements in Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Increases in recombination are accompanied by a strong induction of photolyase and Rad51 gene expression. These genes are putatively involved in major DNA repair pathways, photoreactivation and recombination repair. In mutant Arabidopsis plants that are deficient in photoreactivating ultraviolet-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, recombination under elevated UV-B regimes greatly exceeds wild-type levels. Our results show that homologous recombination repair pathways might be involved in eliminating UV-B-induced DNA lesions in plants. Thus, increases in terrestrial solar UV-B radiation as forecasted for the early 21st century may affect genome stability in plants.

  13. Mutagenic effects of solar UV-radiation on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Horneck, G.

    2001-08-01

    A decrease of the stratospheric ozone layer will result in an increase of shorter wavelengths of the solar radiation reaching in earth. To investigate the biological efficiency, especially the mutagenic specificity, of ranges of polychromatic UVA and UBV irradiations with wavelengths between 280 nm and 400 nm, the plasmid DNA pUC19 and its E. coli host strain JM83 were used as a model system. Different ranges of solar UV radiation were simulated with the SOL 2 sun simulator (Dr. Hönle) and a variety of cut-off filters (Schott). Three wavelength bands were investigated: 280 - 400 nm (simulating UV-range under a stratospheric ozone layer depletion), 300-400 nm (simulating the UV-range today) and 315-400 nm to examine the effects induced by UVA alone.

  14. Distribution of UV radiation at the Earth's surface from TOMS-measured UV-backscattered radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Krotkov, N.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.; Labow, G.

    1999-05-01

    Daily global maps of monthly integrated UV-erythemal irradiance (290-400 nm) at the Earth's surface are estimated using the ozone amount, cloud transmittance, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity from the solar UV radiation backscattered from the Earth's atmosphere as measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and independently measured values of the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The daily irradiance values at a given location show that short-term variability (daily to annual) in the amount of UV radiation, 290-400 nm, reaching the Earth's surface is caused by (1) partially reflecting cloud cover, (2) haze and absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke), and (3) ozone. The reductions of UV irradiance estimated from TOMS data can exceed 50 ± 12% underneath the absorbing aerosol plumes in Africa and South America (desert dust and smoke from biomass burning) and exceeded 70 ± 12% during the Indonesian fires in September 1997 and again during March 1998. Recent biomass burning in Mexico and Guatemala have caused large smoke plumes extending into Canada with UV reductions of 50% in Mexico and 20% in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Where available, ground-based Sun photometer data show similar UV irradiance reductions caused by absorbing aerosol plumes of dust and smoke. Even though terrain height is a major factor in increasing the amount of UV exposure compared to sea level, the presence of prolonged clear-sky conditions can lead to UV exposures at sea level rivaling those at cloudier higher altitudes. In the equatorial regions, ±20°, the UV exposures during the March equinox are larger than during the September equinox because of increased cloudiness during September. Extended land areas with the largest erythemal exposure are in Australia and South Africa where there is a larger proportion of clear-sky days. The large short-term variations in ozone amount which occur at high latitudes in the range ±65° cause changes in UV irradiance comparable to

  15. UV index forecasts and measurements of health-effective radiation.

    PubMed

    Feister, Uwe; Laschewski, Gudrun; Grewe, Rolf-Dieter

    2011-01-10

    While erythemal irradiance as a potentially damaging effect to the skin has been extensively studied and short-term forecasts have been issued to the public to reduce detrimental immediate and long-term effects such as sunburn and skin cancer by overexposure, beneficial effects to human health such as vitamin D(3) production by UV radiation and melatonin suppression by blue visible light have attained more and more attention, though both of them have not become part of forecasting yet. Using 4years of solar radiation data measured at the mid-latitude site Lindenberg (52°N), and forecast daily maximum UV index values, an overall good correspondence has been found. The data base of solar UV radiation and illuminance has also been used to analyze effects of clouds and aerosols on the effective irradiance. Optically thick clouds can strongly modify the ratios between erythemal and vitamin D(3) effective irradiance such that direct radiative transfer modeling of the latter in future UV forecasts should be preferably used. If parameterizations of vitamin D(3) effective irradiance from erythemal irradiance are used instead, the optical cloud depth would have to be taken into account to avoid an overestimation of vitamin D(3) with parameterizations neglecting cloud optical depth. Particular emphasis for the beneficial effects has been laid in our study on low exposure. Daily doses of solar irradiation for both vitamin D(3) and melatonin suppression do not reach minimum threshold doses even with clear sky and unobstructed horizon during the winter months.

  16. ESTIMATION OF UV RADIATION DOSE IN NORTHERN MINNESOTA WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultraviolet (UV) B wavelength range (280 nm to 320 nm) of solar radiation can be a significant biological stressor, and has been hypothesized to be partially responsible for amphibian declines and malformation. This hypothesis has been difficult to evaluate, in part, because ...

  17. Ozone and UV254 radiation for municipal wastewater disinfection.

    PubMed

    Blatchley, Ernest R; Weng, Shihchi; Afifi, Mehrnaz Zare; Chiu, Hsiao-Han; Reichlin, Douglas B; Jousset, Stéphane; Erhardt, Richard S

    2012-11-01

    Bench-scale experiments were conducted with municipal wastewater effluent samples to examine the feasibility of combined application of ozone and ultraviolet (UV) radiation for disinfection. Effluent samples displayed rapid initial ozone demand, which promotes ozone transfer but diminishes disinfection efficacy. Ozone doses up to 10 mg/L yielded only trace quantities of residual ozone; despite the fact that initial ozone demand was never exceeded, quantifiable (though variable) inactivation of E. coli was observed, along with modest improvements of UV transmittance. Results from collimated beam experiments demonstrated that compliance with effluent discharge permit limitations could be achieved consistently with a UV254 dose of 12.4 mJ/cm2 at a pre-ozonation dose of 2 to 3 mg/L. In the absence of pre-ozonation, consistent compliance was observed at a UV dose of 16.5 mJ/cm2. No evidence of synergism between ozone and UV254 radiation was found in the measured inactivation responses of E. coli.

  18. Use of lymphoblastoid cell lines to evaluate the hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation in Cockayne syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, F.; Tarone, R.E.; Cayeux, S.; Robbins, J.H.

    1984-05-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by acute sun sensitivity, cachectic dwarfism, and neurologic and skeletal abnormalities. Cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with this disease are known to be hypersensitive to the lethal effects of 254-nm UV radiation. The authors have studied the sensitivity of 254-nm UV radiation of lymphoblastoid lines derived from 3 typical CS patients, 1 atypical CS patient who had a very late age of onset of clinical manifestations, 2 patients who had both xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and typical CS, and 3 heterozygous parents of these patients. Post-UV survival was determined by the trypan-blue dye-exclusion method. The lymphoblastoid lines from the 3 typical CS patients, the atypical CS patient, and the 2 patients with both CS and XP had decreased post-UV viability in comparison with lines from normal donors. Lines from the heterozygous parents had normal post-UV viability. The post-UV viability of the typical CS lines was similar to that of a XP complementation group C line. The relative post-UV viability of lymphoblastoid lines from the typical CS patients was similar to the relative post-UV survival of their fibroblast lines. The lymphoblastoid line from the atypical CS patient had a post-UV viability similar to that of the typical CS patients. Thus, the relative hypersensitivity of CS patients cells in vitro does not reflect the severity or age of onset of the patients clinical manifestations. The lymphoblastoid lines from the 2 patients who had both CS and XP were significantly more sensitive to the UV radiation than those from patients with only CS. Our studies demonstrate that lymphoblastoid lines from patients with CS are appropriate and useful cell lines for the study of the inherited hypersensitivity to UV radiation.

  19. Measurement of solar UV radiation in Antarctica with collagen sheets.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuya; Kondo, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Keisuke; Hattori, Shunji; Irie, Shinkichi; Kudoh, Sakae; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    Collagen sheets were used in a unique evaluation method to examine skin damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) light of short wavelength during a season of the Antarctic ozone hole. The collagen sheets were exposed outdoors for 25 and 50 d, in the spring when the ozone hole was formed and in the ozone-hole-free autumn. Extracts from the exposed collagen sheets were analyzed for total protein and terminal amino acid concentrations as an index of collagen fragmentation. The results show that the amount of extractable collagen and terminal amino acid concentration in the spring exposure were approximately double and five times higher, respectively, when compared with those in the autumn exposure. During the ozone hole occurrence, the terminal amino acid concentration of the extracted collagen was about five times higher when exposure lasted 50 d from mid-September to the end of October compared to when exposure lasted 25 d from mid-September to early October. This result could be attributed to a limited amount of short-wavelength UV radiation reaching the ground surface as a result of the low height of the sun in September, when the ozone hole occurred. In fact, UV radiation measurements taken at Syowa Station indicate that short-wavelength UV radiation in the range 290-295 nm was not detected until approximately 1-2 months after the beginning of the ozone hole occurrence. PMID:22419356

  20. Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Biochemical Traits in Postharvest Flowers of Medicinal Chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Si, Chao; Yao, Xiao-Qin; He, Xue-Li; Chu, Jian-Zhou; Ma, Chun-Hui; Shi, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    This article reported UV-B radiation effects on biochemical traits in postharvest flowers of chrysanthemum. The experiment included six levels of UV-B radiation (UV0, 0 μW cm(-2); UV50, 50 μW cm(-2); UV200, 200 μW cm(-2); UV400, 400 μW cm(-2); UV600, 600 μW cm(-2) and UV800, 800 μW cm(-2). Enhanced UV-B radiation significantly increased hydrogen peroxide content (except for UV50), but did not evidently affect malondialdehyde content in flowers. Chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content were significantly increased by UV600 and UV800. UV400 and UV600 significantly increased anthocyanins, carotenoids and UV-B absorbing compounds content, and the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and cinnamic acid-4-hydroxylase (C4H) over the control. 4-coumarate CoA ligase (4CL) activity was significantly decreased by enhanced UV-B radiation (except for UV50). The relationships between UV-B radiation intensities and the activities of secondary metabolism enzymes were best described by a second-order polynomial. The R(2) values for UV-B radiation intensities and the activities of PAL, C4H and 4CL were 0.8361, 0.5437 and 0.8025, respectively. The results indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation could promote secondary metabolism processes in postharvest flowers, which might be beneficial for the accumulation of medically active ingredients in medicinal plants. The optimal UV-B radiation intensities in the study were between UV400-UV600.

  1. Role of solar conditioning in DNA repair response and survival of human epidermal keratinocytes following UV irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Meagher, K.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1985-08-01

    The authors have investigated the cumulative effects of sunlight exposure upon the excision-repair of UV radiation damage to DNA in epidermal keratinocytes from human donors of different ages as well as the possible effect on DNA repair of periodic conditioning of the cultured keratinocytes with sublethal UV radiation exposures. The authors have also compared the growth properties of UV-irradiated keratinocytes derived from habitually sun-exposed and nonexposed areas from the bodies of young and aged donors. DNA repair replication in keratinocytes from habitually sun-exposed facial skin and the less sun-exposed abdominal skin of middle-aged adults was found to be similar, with respect to both the UV dose response and the time course of repair after 20 J/m2, 254 nm. Growth and survival (after exposure up to 50 J/m2, 254 nm) were greater for keratinocytes from protected areas of the upper arm of young donors (under 18 years) than for cells from their own sun-exposed areas. Growth and survival were markedly reduced for all keratinocyte cultures from aged donors, especially those cultures developed from sun-exposed areas. Nevertheless, the DNA repair response to UV radiation was similar in all cases. The evident uncoupling of UV sensitivity from DNA repair capacity remains to be understood. These studies confirm that the cumulative effect of sunlight exposure indeed contributes to some skin aging processes. However, the authors have found no indication that an overall reduction in capacity for excision-repair of UV photoproducts in keratinocyte DNA accompanies senescence in human skin.

  2. UV Radiation in an Urban Canyon in Southeast Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, A. R.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has the possibility to both harm and to benefit human beings when unprotected exposure occurs. After receiving small amounts of UV our bodies begin to synthesise vitamin D, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones, however excessive UV exposure can result in a variety of damaging outcomes ranging from sunburn to skin cancer and cataracts. For this reason it is very important to understand the different environments in which people encounter UV so as to better prepare the public to make smart and healthy sun exposure decisions. Each day more and more people are moving into large cities around the world and spending their time inside the urban canyon, however UV measurements are generally taken at scientific stations in open areas or on top of tall buildings, meaning that at times the environmental characteristics measured may not accurately represent those found at street-level in these highly urbanized areas. Urban canyons are home to both very tall buildings and tropospheric air pollution, each of which reduces the amount of UV reaching street-level. This study measured the varying difference between UV measurements taken at street-level and at a standard UV monitoring site on top of a building outside of the urban canyon. Investigation was conducted in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia, which models the CBDs of large cities around the world in that it boasts a great number of tall buildings, including many skyscrapers. Data was collected under clear sky conditions at five different street-level sites in the CBD (on either side of two streets running perpendicular to one another (four sites) and in a public square) and then compared to that obtained on the same day at the Queensland University of Technology's Australian Sun and Health Research Laboratory (ASHRL), which is located 2.5 kilometres outside Brisbane's CBD. Minimum erythemal dose (MED) data was collected at each location and it was found that

  3. Penetration of UV Radiation in the Earth's Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg; Lubin, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This project was a collaboration between SIO/UCSD and NASA/GSFC to develop a global estimation of the penetration of UV light into open ocean waters, and into coastal waters. We determined the ocean UV reflectance spectra seen by satellites above the atmosphere by combining existing sophisticated radiative transfer models with in situ UV Visible data sets to improve coupled radiance estimates both underwater and within the atmosphere. Results included improved estimates of surface spectral irradiance, 0.3-1.0 micron, and estimates of photosynthetic inhibition, DNA mutation, and CO production. Data sets developed under this proposal have been made publicly available via submission to the SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System. Numerous peer-reviewed publications and conference proceedings and abstracts resulted from the work supported by this research award.

  4. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häder, D.-P.

    Solar UV degrades dissolved organic carbon photolytically so that they can readily be taken up by bacterioplankton. On the other hand solar UV radiation inhibits bacterioplankton activity. Bacterioplankton productivity is far greater than previously thought and is comparable to phytoplankton primary productivity. According to the "microbial loop hypothesis," bacterioplankton is seen in the center of a food web, having a similar function to phytoplankton and protists. The penetration of UV and PAR into the water column can be measured. Marine waters show large temporal and regional differences in their concentrations of dissolved and particulate absorbing substances. A network of dosimeters (ELDONET) has been installed in Europe ranging from Abisko in Northern Sweden to Gran Canaria. Cyanobacteria are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen which is then made available to higher plants. The agricultural potential of cyanobacteria has been recognized as a biological fertilizer for wet soils such as in rice paddies. UV-B is known to impair processes such as growth, survival, pigmentation, motility, as well as the enzymes of nitrogen metabolism and CO 2 fixation. The marine phytoplankton represents the single most important ecosystem on our planet and produces about the same biomass as all terrestrial ecosystems taken together. It is the base of the aquatic food chain and any changes in the size and composition of phytoplankton communities will directly affect food production for humans from marine sources. Another important role of marine phytoplankton is to serve as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Recent investigations have shown a large sensitivity of most phytoplankton organisms toward solar short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UV-B); even at ambient levels of UV-B radiation many organisms seem to be under UV stress. Because of their requirement for solar energy, the phytoplankton dwell in the top layers of the water column. In this near-surface position

  5. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hader, D P

    2000-01-01

    Solar UV degrades dissolved organic carbon photolytically so that they can readily be taken up by bacterioplankton. On the other hand solar UV radiation inhibits bacterioplankton activity. Bacterioplankton productivity is far greater than previously thought and is comparable to phytoplankton primary productivity. According to the "microbial loop hypothesis," bacterioplankton is seen in the center of a food web, having a similar function to phytoplankton and protists. The penetration of UV and PAR into the water column can be measured. Marine waters show large temporal and regional differences in their concentrations of dissolved and particulate absorbing substances. A network of dosimeters (ELDONET) has been installed in Europe ranging from Abisko in Northern Sweden to Gran Canaria. Cyanobacteria are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen which is then made available to higher plants. The agricultural potential of cyanobacteria has been recognized as a biological fertilizer for wet soils such as in rice paddies. UV-B is known to impair processes such as growth, survival, pigmentation, motility, as well as the enzymes of nitrogen metabolism and CO2 fixation. The marine phytoplankton represents the single most important ecosystem on our planet and produces about the same biomass as all terrestrial ecosystems taken together. It is the base of the aquatic food chain and any changes in the size and composition of phytoplankton communities will directly affect food production for humans from marine sources. Another important role of marine phytoplankton is to serve as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Recent investigations have shown a large sensitivity of most phytoplankton organisms toward solar short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UV-B); even at ambient levels of UV-B radiation many organisms seem to be under UV stress. Because of their requirement for solar energy, the phytoplankton dwell in the top layers of the water column. In this near-surface position

  6. uv radiation curable paints. Topical report on material identification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-13

    The program for the development of ultraviolet radiation curing of paints for application on preformed structures is discussed. The starting point of this program was the matching of resins, photoinitiators, and pigments which will result in coatings that can be cured by ultraviolet radiation. The initial work was the identification of reactive diluents and base resins that are sensitive to the uv curing process. The reactive monomeric diluents tested included multifunctional acrylates, monofunctional acrylates, and non-acrylic unsaturated esters. The end point will be the application of these coatings to prefabricated metal structures to demonstrate the viability of this technique in producing commercially acceptable painted products. These uv curable paints should produce films that are hard, adherent, and opaque at a nominal thickness of one mil (0.001 inch).

  7. Multifaceted pathways protect human skin from UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Vivek T; Ganju, Parul; Ramkumar, Amrita; Grover, Ritika; Gokhale, Rajesh S

    2014-07-01

    The recurrent interaction of skin with sunlight is an intrinsic constituent of human life, and exhibits both beneficial and detrimental effects. The apparent robust architectural framework of skin conceals remarkable mechanisms that operate at the interface between the surface and environment. In this Review, we discuss three distinct protective mechanisms and response pathways that safeguard skin from deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The unique stratified epithelial architecture of human skin along with the antioxidant-response pathways constitutes the important defense mechanisms against UV radiation. The intricate pigmentary system and its intersection with the immune-system cytokine axis delicately balance tissue homeostasis. We discuss the relationship among these networks in the context of an unusual depigmenting disorder, vitiligo. The elaborate tunable mechanisms, elegant multilayered architecture and evolutionary selection pressures involved in skin and sunlight interaction makes this a compelling model to understand biological complexity.

  8. Ecological responses to UV radiation: interactions between the biological effects of UV on plants and on associated organisms.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nigel D; Moore, Jason P; McPherson, Martin; Lambourne, Cathryn; Croft, Patricia; Heaton, Joanna C; Wargent, Jason J

    2012-08-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation (280-315 nm) has a wide range of effects on terrestrial ecosystems, yet our understanding of how UV-B influences the complex interactions of plants with pest, pathogen and related microorganisms remains limited. Here, we report the results of a series of experiments in Lactuca sativa which aimed to characterize not only key plant responses to UV radiation in a field environment but also consequential effects for plant interactions with a sap-feeding insect, two model plant pathogens and phylloplane microorganism populations. Three spectrally modifying filters with contrasting UV transmissions were used to filter ambient sunlight, and when compared with our UV-inclusive filter, L. sativa plants grown in a zero UV-B environment showed significantly increased shoot fresh weight, reduced foliar pigment concentrations and suppressed population growth of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Plants grown under a filter which allowed partial transmission of UV-A radiation and negligible UV-B transmission showed increased density of leaf surface phylloplane microbes compared with the UV-inclusive treatment. Effects of UV treatment on the severity of two plant pathogens, Bremia lactucae and Botrytis cinerea, were complex as both the UV-inclusive and zero UV-B filters reduced the severity of pathogen persistence. These results are discussed with reference to known spectral responses of plants, insects and microorganisms, and contrasted with established fundamental responses of plants and other organisms to solar UV radiation, with particular emphasis on the need for future integration between different experimental approaches when investigating the effects of solar UV radiation. PMID:22150399

  9. UV radiation effects over microorganisms and study of protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Grau Carles, Agustín; Vazquez, Luis; Amils, Ricardo

    2004-03-01

    An important subject of astrobiological interest is the study of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on microorganisms and their protection mechanisms against this damaging agent. UV radiation is considered highly mutagenic and sterilizing, especially during the period of origin of life on Earth when the absence of the ozone layer meant there was no effective protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Ferric iron, the product of iron metabolism, as a consequence of its spectral properties, has been suggested to provide protection against radiation making the study of its protective effect on acidophilic microorganisms from the Tinto ecosystem of interest in order to gain information about its possible implications in the development of life during the Archaean as well on planets lacking a protective atmosphere such as Mars. The studies described in this paper constitute preliminary experiments.

  10. Monitoring of environmental UV radiation by biological dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Ronto, G; Berces, A; Grof, P; Fekete, A; Kerekgyarto, T; Gaspar, S; Stick, C

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion biological systems can be damaged due to increased UV-B radiation. The aim of biological dosimetry is to establish a quantitative basis for the risk assessment of the biosphere. DNA is the most important target molecule of biological systems having special sensitivity against short wavelength components of the environmental radiation. Biological dosimeters are usually simple organisms, or components of them, modeling the cellular DNA. Phage T7 and polycrystalline uracil biological dosimeters have been developed and used in our laboratory for monitoring the environmental radiation in different radiation conditions (from the polar to equatorial regions). Comparisons with Robertson-Berger (RB) meter data, as well as with model calculation data weighted by the corresponding spectral sensitivities of the dosimeters are presented. Suggestion is given how to determine the trend of the increase in the biological risk due to ozone depletion.

  11. Self-assembly of organics promoted by UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia-Barbero, Alejandro; Colin-Garcia, Maria; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio; Ortega-Gutierrez, Fernando

    Life on Earth originated prior to 3500 million years ago as an event that was preceded by ca. 1000 million years of chemical evolution. During this period, geochemical reactions probably took place between small organic molecules and solid surfaces in the presence of water. Chemical evolution involved the formation, but also the complexation of organic molecules in the prebiotic milieu. On primitive Earth, the physicochemical processes involving the participation of organic molecules and inorganic surfacesmight have been a factor to increase chemical complexity (Negrón et al. 2004, Hazen, 2006). Certain minerals, such as clays may have actively contributed to this phenomenon promoting the emergence of life. In this research, we investigated the assembly of organics anchored on different surfaces promoted by UV radiation. Our current studies deal with the crystal growth of urea, glycine and aspartic acid. The results point out that crystal formation is encouraged by the action of UV radiation. This result suggests that the strong UV radiation present on primitive Earth could have been a factor to promote the formation of more complex organic molecules and eventually life.

  12. Simulation of the UV-radiation at the Martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C.; Stimpfl, P.; Krenn, H.; Lammer, H.; Kargl, G.; Abart, R.; Patel, M. R.

    The UV-radiation at the Martian surface is for several reasons of importance. UV radiation can cause specific damages in the DNA-containing living systems and is involved in the formation of catalytically produced oxidants such as superoxide ions and peroxides. These are capable to oxidize and subsequently destroy organic matter. Lab simulations are necessary to investigate and understand the effects of organic matter removal at the Martian surface. We designed a radiation apparatus which simulates the solar spectrum at the Martian surface between 200 and 700 nm. The system consists of an UV-enhanced xenon arc lamp and special exchangeable filter-sets and mirrors for simulating the effects of the Martian atmospheric column and dust loading. A special collimating system bundles the final parallel beam so that the intensity at the target spot is independent from the distance between the ray source and the sample. The system was calibrated by means of an optical photo-spectrometer to align the ray output with the theoretical target spectrum and to ensure spectral homogeneity. We present preliminary data on calibration and performance of our system, which is integrated in the Austrian Mars simulation facility.

  13. Ozone depletion and climate change: impacts on UV radiation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R L; Aucamp, P J; Bais, A F; Björn, L O; Ilyas, M; Madronich, S

    2011-02-01

    The Montreal Protocol is working, but it will take several decades for ozone to return to 1980 levels. The atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are decreasing, and ozone column amounts are no longer decreasing. Mid-latitude ozone is expected to return to 1980 levels before mid-century, slightly earlier than predicted previously. However, the recovery rate will be slower at high latitudes. Springtime ozone depletion is expected to continue to occur at polar latitudes, especially in Antarctica, in the next few decades. Because of the success of the Protocol, increases in UV-B radiation have been small outside regions affected by the Antarctic ozone hole, and have been difficult to detect. There is a large variability in UV-B radiation due to factors other than ozone, such as clouds and aerosols. There are few long-term measurements available to confirm the increases that would have occurred as a result of ozone depletion. At mid-latitudes UV-B irradiances are currently only slightly greater than in 1980 (increases less than ~5%), but increases have been substantial at high and polar latitudes where ozone depletion has been larger. Without the Montreal Protocol, peak values of sunburning UV radiation could have been tripled by 2065 at mid-northern latitudes. This would have had serious consequences for the environment and for human health. There are strong interactions between ozone depletion and changes in climate induced by increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs). Ozone depletion affects climate, and climate change affects ozone. The successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol has had a marked effect on climate change. The calculated reduction in radiative forcing due to the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) far exceeds that from the measures taken under the Kyoto protocol for the reduction of GHGs. Thus the phase-out of CFCs is currently tending to counteract the increases in surface temperature due to increased GHGs. The amount of

  14. Ozone depletion and climate change: impacts on UV radiation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R L; Aucamp, P J; Bais, A F; Björn, L O; Ilyas, M; Madronich, S

    2011-02-01

    The Montreal Protocol is working, but it will take several decades for ozone to return to 1980 levels. The atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are decreasing, and ozone column amounts are no longer decreasing. Mid-latitude ozone is expected to return to 1980 levels before mid-century, slightly earlier than predicted previously. However, the recovery rate will be slower at high latitudes. Springtime ozone depletion is expected to continue to occur at polar latitudes, especially in Antarctica, in the next few decades. Because of the success of the Protocol, increases in UV-B radiation have been small outside regions affected by the Antarctic ozone hole, and have been difficult to detect. There is a large variability in UV-B radiation due to factors other than ozone, such as clouds and aerosols. There are few long-term measurements available to confirm the increases that would have occurred as a result of ozone depletion. At mid-latitudes UV-B irradiances are currently only slightly greater than in 1980 (increases less than ~5%), but increases have been substantial at high and polar latitudes where ozone depletion has been larger. Without the Montreal Protocol, peak values of sunburning UV radiation could have been tripled by 2065 at mid-northern latitudes. This would have had serious consequences for the environment and for human health. There are strong interactions between ozone depletion and changes in climate induced by increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs). Ozone depletion affects climate, and climate change affects ozone. The successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol has had a marked effect on climate change. The calculated reduction in radiative forcing due to the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) far exceeds that from the measures taken under the Kyoto protocol for the reduction of GHGs. Thus the phase-out of CFCs is currently tending to counteract the increases in surface temperature due to increased GHGs. The amount of

  15. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) x ultraviolet radiation (UV) interact to initiate solar injury in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunburn or solar injury (SI) in apple is associated with high temperature, high visible light and ultraviolet radiation (UV). Fruit surface temperature (FST) thresholds for SI related disorders have been developed but there are no thresholds established for solar radiation. The objectives of the s...

  16. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry; Gaidos, Eric; Kasting, James; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have started a comprehensive, interdisciplinary study of the influence of solar ultraviolet radiation on the atmosphere of of the early Earth. We plan to model the chemistry of the Earth atmosphere during its evolution, using observed UV flux distributions of early solar analogs as boundary conditions in photochemical models of the Earth's atmosphere. The study has four distinct but interlinked parts: (1) Establishing the radiation of the early Sun; (2) Determining the photochemistry of the early Earth's atmosphere; (3) Estimating the rates of H2 loss from the atmosphere; and (4) Ascertaining how sensitive is the photochemistry to the metallicity of the Sun. We are currently using STIS and EUVE to obtain high-quality far-UV and extreme-UV observations of three early-solar analogs. We will perform a detailed non-LTE study of each stars, and construct theoretical model photosphere, and an empirical model chromospheres, which can be used to extrapolate the continuum to the Lyman continuum region. Given a realistic flux distribution of the early Sun, we will perform photochemical modeling of weakly reducing primitive atmospheres to determine the lifetime and photochemistry of CH4. In particular, we will make estimates of the amount of CH4 present in the prebiotic atmosphere, and estimate the atmospheric CH4 concentration during the Late Archean (2.5-3.0 b.y. ago) and determine whether it would have been sufficiently abundant to help offset reduced solar luminosity at that time. Having obtained a photochemical model, we will solve for the concentrations of greenhouse gasses and important pre-biotic molecules, and perform a detailed radiative transfer calculations to compute the UV flux reaching the surface.

  17. [Effect of UV-B radiation on cytophysiological responses in plants].

    PubMed

    Dmytriiev, O P; Hushcha, M I

    2003-01-01

    Solar UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface is continually increased due to the stratospheric ozone layer depletion. UV-B radiation has been shown to have mutagenic effects damaging DNA, proteins and membranes. During evolution plants developed systems for UV-B perception and effective defense mechanisms. In this review the main UV-B effects, cytophysiological responses of plants and their interactions with microorganisms are analyzed. UV-B-induced signal transduction pathways in plant cells are discussed.

  18. Measuring solar UV radiation with EBT radiochromic film.

    PubMed

    Butson, Ethan T; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Butson, Martin J

    2010-10-21

    Ultraviolet radiation dosimetry has been performed with the use of a radiochromic film dosimeter called Gafchromic EBT for solar radiation exposure. The film changes from a clear colour to blue colour when exposed to ultraviolet radiation and results have shown that the colour change is reproducible within ±10% at 5 kJ m(-2) UV exposure under various conditions of solar radiation. Parameters tested included changes in season (summer versus winter exposure), time of day, as well as sky conditions such as cloudy skies versus clear skies. As the radiochromic films' permanent colour change occurs in the visible wavelengths the film can be analysed with a desktop scanner with the most sensitive channel for analysis being the red component of the signal. Results showed that an exposure of 5 kJ m(-2) (approximately 1 h exposure in full sun during summer) produced an approximate 0.28 change in the net OD when analysed in reflection mode on the desktop scanner which is significant darkening. The main advantages of this film type, and thus the new EBT2 film which has replaced EBT for measurement of UV exposure, is the visible colour change and thus easy analysis using a desktop scanner, its uniformity in response and its robust physical strength for use in outside exposure situations. PMID:20858922

  19. Integration and scaling of UV-B radiation effects on plants: from DNA to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Suchar, Vasile Alexandru; Robberecht, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    A process-based model integrating the effects of UV-B radiation through epidermis, cellular DNA, and its consequences to the leaf expansion was developed from key parameters in the published literature. Enhanced UV-B radiation-induced DNA damage significantly delayed cell division, resulting in significant reductions in leaf growth and development. Ambient UV-B radiation-induced DNA damage significantly reduced the leaf growth of species with high relative epidermal absorbance at longer wavelengths and average/low pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers (CPD) photorepair rates. Leaf expansion was highly dependent on the number of CPD present in the DNA, as a result of UV-B radiation dose, quantitative and qualitative absorptive properties of epidermal pigments, and repair mechanisms. Formation of pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PP) has no effect on the leaf expansion. Repair mechanisms could not solely prevent the UV-B radiation interference with the cell division. Avoidance or effective shielding by increased or modified qualitative epidermal absorptance was required. Sustained increased UV-B radiation levels are more detrimental than short, high doses of UV-B radiation. The combination of low temperature and increased UV-B radiation was more significant in the level of UV-B radiation-induced damage than UV-B radiation alone. Slow-growing leaves were more affected by increased UV-B radiation than fast-growing leaves. PMID:26257869

  20. Integration and scaling of UV-B radiation effects on plants: from DNA to leaf.

    PubMed

    Suchar, Vasile Alexandru; Robberecht, Ronald

    2015-07-01

    A process-based model integrating the effects of UV-B radiation through epidermis, cellular DNA, and its consequences to the leaf expansion was developed from key parameters in the published literature. Enhanced UV-B radiation-induced DNA damage significantly delayed cell division, resulting in significant reductions in leaf growth and development. Ambient UV-B radiation-induced DNA damage significantly reduced the leaf growth of species with high relative epidermal absorbance at longer wavelengths and average/low pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers (CPD) photorepair rates. Leaf expansion was highly dependent on the number of CPD present in the DNA, as a result of UV-B radiation dose, quantitative and qualitative absorptive properties of epidermal pigments, and repair mechanisms. Formation of pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PP) has no effect on the leaf expansion. Repair mechanisms could not solely prevent the UV-B radiation interference with the cell division. Avoidance or effective shielding by increased or modified qualitative epidermal absorptance was required. Sustained increased UV-B radiation levels are more detrimental than short, high doses of UV-B radiation. The combination of low temperature and increased UV-B radiation was more significant in the level of UV-B radiation-induced damage than UV-B radiation alone. Slow-growing leaves were more affected by increased UV-B radiation than fast-growing leaves. PMID:26257869

  1. Fate of Earth Microbes on Mars: UV Radiation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockell, Charles

    2000-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to quantitatively investigate aspects of the martian ultraviolet radiation environment. Biological action spectra for DNA inactivation are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances for the martian surface under cloudless skies. Although the present-day martian UV flux is similar to early earth and thus may not be a limitation to life in the evolutionary context, it is a constraint to an unadapted biota and will rapidly kill spacecraft-borne microbes not covered by a martian dust layer. Here calculations for loss of microbial viability on the Pathfinder and Polar lander spacecraft are presented and the effects of martian dust on loss of viability are discussed. Details of the radiative transfer model are presented.

  2. Fate of Earth Microbes on Mars -- UV Radiation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockell, Charles

    2000-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to quantitatively investigate aspects of the martian ultraviolet radiation environment. Biological action spectra for DNA inactivation are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances for the martian surface under cloudless skies. Although the present-day martian UV flux is similar to early earth and thus may not be a limitation to life in the evolutionary context, it is a constraint to an unadapted biota and will rapidly kill spacecraft-borne microbes not covered by a martian dust layer. Here calculations for loss of microbial viability on the Pathfinder and Polar lander spacecraft are presented and the effects of martian dust on loss of viability are discussed. Details of the radiative transfer model are presented.

  3. Protosteller Disks Under the Influence of Winds and UV Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Star formation and the creation of protostellar disks generally occur in a crowded environment. Nearby young stars and protostars can influence the disks of their closets neighbors by a combination of outflows and hard radiation. The central stars themselves can have a stellar wind and may produce sufficient UV and X-ray to ultimately destroy their surrounding disks. Here we describe the results of numerical simulations of the influence that an external UV source and a central star's wind can have on its circumstellar disk. The numerical method (axial symmetry assumed) is described elsewhere. We find that protostellar disks will be destroyed on a relatively short time scale ( 10(sup 5)yr) unless they are well shielded from O-stars. Initially isotropic T-Tauri winds do not significantly influence their disks, but instead are focused toward the rotation axis by the disk wind from photoevaporation.

  4. Modification by UV radiation of the surface of thin films based on collagen extracted from fish scales.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina; Kozłowska, Justyna; Lazare, Sylvain

    2014-06-01

    Collagen was extracted from fish scales (Esox lucius) through demineralization process. Thin films by solvent evaporation from collagen extracted from fish scales were prepared. The surface of thin films made of fish scales collagen was modified by ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation with the wavelength λ = 254 nm. The amino acid composition of the Esox lucius scale collagen was analyzed before and after UV-irradiation by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The surface properties of films were investigated using the technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by means of contact angle measurements allowing the calculation of surface free energy. Measurements of the contact angle for diiodomethane (D) and glycerol (G) on the surface of fish collagen films were made and surface free energy was calculated. The structure of collagen before and after UV-irradiation was studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that after UV-irradiation the amount of all amino acids present in collagen molecule decreased. It was found also that the contact angle and the surface free energy were altered by UV-irradiation of collagen film. AFM showed that the surface roughness of collagen films was also altered by UV-irradiation. UV-irradiation caused the decrease of surface roughness due to photochemical processes, which occurred in the top layer of collagen film. The formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation was observed using AFM. The diameter of collagen fibrils was bigger for irradiated collagen film than the diameter of collagen fibrils before UV-irradiation.

  5. Epidermal screening of UV-B radiation in loblolly pine and sweetgum

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, B.W.; Ruhland, C.T.; Day, T.A.

    1995-06-01

    Seedlings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) were grown in a greenhouse at the University of Maryland under either no UV-B radiation or daily supplemental UV-B radiation levels of 4, 8 or 11 kJ m{sup -2} of Biologically Effective. UV-B radiation. Measurements of leaf elongation, plant growth and UV-absorbing pigments were made and, at the conclusion of the growing season, measurements of UV-B screening effectiveness in different leaf age classes were made with a fiber-optic microprobe. In loblolly pine, less than 0.5 % of incident UV-B radiation was transmitted through the epidermis of fascicle needles and transmittance was less in needles that received UV-B radiation. Increases in epidermal thickness and the concentration of UV-absorbing corn may have accounted for this low transmittance. Transmission was slightly greater (about 1%) in primary needles, possibly due to a thinner epidermis. In contrast, in sweetgum, epidermal transmittance ranged from about 20% in leaves not preconditioned to UV-B exposure, to about 12% in leaves grown under UV-B radiation. These results suggest that any deleterious effects of UV-B radiation may be anticipated to be greatest in early stages of leaf development and in primary needles of conifers, before UV-B penetration is reduced by increases in epidermal thickness and UV-absorbing compounds.

  6. Skyglow effects in UV and visible spectra: Radiative fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Hector Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Several studies have tried to understand the mechanisms and effects of radiative transfer under different night-sky conditions. However, most of these studies are limited to the various effects of visible spectra. Nevertheless, the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can pose a more profound threat to nature. One visible threat is from what is popularly termed skyglow. Such skyglow is caused by injudiciously situated or designed artificial night lighting systems which degrade desired sky viewing. Therefore, since lamp emissions are not limited to visible electromagnetic spectra, it is necessary to consider the complete spectrum of such lamps in order to understand the physical behaviour of diffuse radiation at terrain level. In this paper, the downward diffuse radiative flux is computed in a two-stream approximation and obtained ultraviolet spectral radiative fluxes are inter-related with luminous fluxes. Such a method then permits an estimate of ultraviolet radiation if the traditionally measured illuminance on a horizontal plane is available. The utility of such a comparison of two spectral bands is shown, using the different lamp types employed in street lighting. The data demonstrate that it is insufficient to specify lamp type and its visible flux production independently of each other. Also the UV emissions have to be treated by modellers and environmental scientists because some light sources can be fairly important pollutants in the near ultraviolet. Such light sources can affect both the living organisms and ambient environment.

  7. The influence of UV radiation on protistan evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation has provided an evolutionary challenge to life on Earth. Recent increases in surficial ultraviolet B fluxes have focused attention on the role of UV radiation in protistan ecology, cancer, and DNA damage. Exploiting this new wealth of data, I examine the possibility that ultraviolet radiation may have played a significant role in the evolution of the first eukaryotes, that is, protists. Protists probably arose well before the formation of a significant ozone shield, and thus were probably subjected to substantial ultraviolet A, ultraviolet B, and ultraviolet C fluxes early in their evolution. Evolution consists of the generation of heritable variations and the subsequent selection of these variants. Ultraviolet radiation has played a role both as a mutagen and as a selective agent. In its role as a mutagen, it may have been crucial in the origin of sex and as a driver of molecular evolution. As a selective agent, its influence has been broad. Discussed in this paper are the influence of ultraviolet radiation on biogeography, photosynthesis, and desiccation resistance.

  8. The influence of UV radiation on protistan evolution.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, L J

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation has provided an evolutionary challenge to life on Earth. Recent increases in surficial ultraviolet B fluxes have focused attention on the role of UV radiation in protistan ecology, cancer, and DNA damage. Exploiting this new wealth of data, I examine the possibility that ultraviolet radiation may have played a significant role in the evolution of the first eukaryotes, that is, protists. Protists probably arose well before the formation of a significant ozone shield, and thus were probably subjected to substantial ultraviolet A, ultraviolet B, and ultraviolet C fluxes early in their evolution. Evolution consists of the generation of heritable variations and the subsequent selection of these variants. Ultraviolet radiation has played a role both as a mutagen and as a selective agent. In its role as a mutagen, it may have been crucial in the origin of sex and as a driver of molecular evolution. As a selective agent, its influence has been broad. Discussed in this paper are the influence of ultraviolet radiation on biogeography, photosynthesis, and desiccation resistance.

  9. Air plasma or UV-irradiation applied to surface modification of pectin/poly(vinyl alcohol) blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalonek, Jolanta; Kaczmarek, Halina; Dąbrowska, Aldona

    2010-10-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol), pectin and their blends with different components ratio were exposed to low-temperature air plasma or high energy UV-irradiation ( λ = 254 nm) for the purpose of surface modification. The physico-chemical changes in surface properties have been studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and contact angle measurements. Surface free energy of polymeric films, its polar and dispersive components have been calculated by Owens-Wendt method. Moreover, the work of adhesion was estimated and the recovery of hydrophobic properties of modified films after storage have been also studied. The few seconds air-plasma treatment caused more effective surface modification than 5-6 h UV-irradiation. The observed changes were partially reversible, contrary to these caused by photo-modification. It was found that pectin/PVA (50:50) blend was characterised by larger susceptibility to plasma modification compared to pure pectin and pure PVA, whereas the photosensitivity to radiation of 254 nm wavelength was the lowest for this specimen in comparison to other studied samples.

  10. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life On Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.; Gaidos, E.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have embarked on a program aimed at understanding the atmosphere of the early Earth, because of its importance as a greenhouse, radiation shield and energy source for life. Here, we give a progress report on the first phase of this program to establish the UV radiation from the early Sun. We have obtained ultraviolet spectra (STIS, FUSE, EUVE) of carefully selected nearby, young solar-type stars, which act as surrogates for the early Sun We are making detailed non-LTE analyses of the spectra and constructing models of their photospheres + chromospheres. Once validated, these models will allow us to extrapolate our theoretical spectra to other metallicities and to unobserved spectral regions.

  11. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.; Gaidos, E.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T. M.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have embarked on a program aimed at understanding the atmosphere of the early Earth, because of its importance as a greenhouse, radiation shield, and energy source for life. Here, we give a progress report on the first phase of this program: to establish the UV radiation from the early Sun. We are presently obtaining ultraviolet spectra (STIS, FUSE, EUVE) of carefully selected nearby, young solar-type stars, which act as surrogates for the early Sun. We are currently making detailed non-LTE analyses of the spectra and constructing models of their photospheres + chromospheres. once validated, these models will allow us to extrapolate our theoretical spectra to unobserved spectral regions, and to proceed to the next step: to develop photochemical models of the pre-biotic and Archean atmosphere of the Earth.

  12. Effect of UV-B radiation on some common antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ray, R S; Misra, R B; Farooq, M; Hans, R K

    2002-04-01

    Some of the commonly used antibiotics such as cephaloridine, cephalexin, cephradine, nystatin and nafcillin were tested for generation of singlet oxygen (1O(2)) under UV-B (290-320 nm) exposure and the order for 1O(2) generation was obtained: cephaloridine>cephalexin>nystatin>cephradine>nafcillin. In vitro study with deoxyguanosine (dGuo) showed that 1O(2) was responsible for drug-sensitized photodegradation of the guanine base of DNA and RNA. Sodium azide (NaN(3)) and 1,4-diazabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (DABCO) accorded significant inhibition (76-98%) in the production of (1)O(2) and photo-oxidation of dGuo. The combined effect of drug and UV-B irradiation is of paramount importance in view of cell-damaging reactions by 1O(2). Our findings are important because of increasing UV-B radiation on the earth's surface due to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. The selected drugs are used routinely for the treatment of various diseases and their combined action may cause undesirable phototoxic responses. Our study suggests that exposure to sunlight should be avoided after the intake of the photosensitive drugs.

  13. Is UV-B radiation affecting charophycean algae in shallow freshwater systems?

    PubMed

    de Bakker, Nancy V J; van Bodegom, P M; van de Poll, W H; Boelen, P; Nat, E; Rozema, J; Aerts, R

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of UV-B radiation on charophycean algae under natural conditions, since charophytes enhance water transparency in freshwater systems and levels of UV-B radiation have increased by ozone depletion. Potential and actual UV-B effects were studied by combining a glasshouse experiment in which plants were exposed to various levels of UV-B radiation and field measurements in two freshwater systems dominated by charophytes in the Netherlands. The glasshouse experiment showed that charophytes were sensitive to UV-B radiation. UV-B radiation negatively affected growth, while it increased levels of DNA damage in Chara aspera. Moreover, the charophytes did not seem to develop UV-B screens to protect against UV-B radiation since no increase in UV-B absorbing compounds was found. At field conditions, both spectroradiometrical measurements and DNA dosimeters showed that UV-B radiation was attenuated quickly in both freshwater systems, indicating that UV-B does not reach the submerged charophyte vegetation. However, specific conditions, like fluctuating water tables, may result in UV-B exposure to charophytes for certain periods annually.

  14. Antiradiation UV Vaccine: UV Radiation, Biological effects, lesions and medical management - immune-therapy and immune-protection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key Words: Ultraviolet radiation,Standard Erythema Dose(SED), Minimal Erythema Dose(MED), Sun Burns, Solar Dermatitis, Sun Burned Disease, DNA Damage,Cell Damage, Antiradiation UV Vaccine, Immune-Prophylaxis of Sun Burned Diseases, Immune-Prophylaxis of Sun Burns, Immune-Therapy of Sun-Burned Disease and Sun Burns,Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis(TEN). Introduction: High doses of UV generated by solar source and artificial sources create an exposure of mammals and other species which can lead to ultraviolet(UV)radiation- associated disease (including erythema, epilation, keratitis, etc.). UV radiation belongs to the non-ionizing part of the electromagnetic spectrum and ranges between 100 nm and 400 nm with 100 nm having been chosen arbitrarily as the boundary between non-ionizing and ionizing radiation, however EMR is a spectrum and UV can produce molecular ionization. UV radiation is conventionally categorized into 3 areas: UV-A (>315-400 nm),UV-B (>280-315 nm)and UV-C (>100-280 nm) [IARC,Working Group Reports,2005] An important consequence of stratospheric ozone depletion is the increased transmission of solar ultraviolet (UV)radiation to the Earth's lower atmosphere and surface. Stratospheric ozone levels have been falling, in certain areas, for the past several decades, so current surface ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation levels are thought to be close to their modern day maximum. [S.Madronich et al.1998] Overexposure of ultraviolet radiation a major cause of skin cancer including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) { collectively referred to as “non-melanoma" skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma as well, with skin cancers being the most common cancer in North America. [Armstrong et al. 1993, Gallagher et al. 2005] Methods and Experimental Design: Our experiments and testing of a novel UV “Antiradiation Vaccine” have employed a wide variety of laboratory animals which include : Chinchilla

  15. Evaluation of erythemal UV effective irradiance from UV lamp exposure and the application in shield metal arc welding processing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Tsao, Ta-Ho; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2008-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause potential effects such as erythema in skin. For UV-induced erythema (sunburn), the action spectrum from the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was adopted. Erythemal UV effects from UVR lamp exposure were investigated with commercial spectroradiometry devices in this research. Three kinds of portable UV germicidal lamps with broadband UVA (BB UVA, 350-400 nm), broadband UVB (BB UVB, 280-350 nm), and narrowband UVC (NB UVC, 254 nm) wavelengths served as the UVR emission sources. An action spectrum expresses the effectiveness of radiation for assessing the hazard of UVR in the erythemal action spectrum from 250-400 nm. The UV Index (UVI) is an irradiance scale computed by multiplying the CIE erythemal irradiance integral in milliwatts per square meter by 0.04 m mW. A comprehensive approach to detecting erythemal UVR magnitude was developed to monitor the effective exposure from UV lamps. The erythemal UVR measurement was established and the exposure assessment was applied to monitor erythemal UVR magnitude from shield metal arc welding (SMAW) processing. From this study, the erythemal UVR exposures were assessed and evaluated with environmental solar simulation of the UVI exposure.

  16. Evaluation of erythemal UV effective irradiance from UV lamp exposure and the application in shield metal arc welding processing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Tsao, Ta-Ho; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2008-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause potential effects such as erythema in skin. For UV-induced erythema (sunburn), the action spectrum from the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was adopted. Erythemal UV effects from UVR lamp exposure were investigated with commercial spectroradiometry devices in this research. Three kinds of portable UV germicidal lamps with broadband UVA (BB UVA, 350-400 nm), broadband UVB (BB UVB, 280-350 nm), and narrowband UVC (NB UVC, 254 nm) wavelengths served as the UVR emission sources. An action spectrum expresses the effectiveness of radiation for assessing the hazard of UVR in the erythemal action spectrum from 250-400 nm. The UV Index (UVI) is an irradiance scale computed by multiplying the CIE erythemal irradiance integral in milliwatts per square meter by 0.04 m mW. A comprehensive approach to detecting erythemal UVR magnitude was developed to monitor the effective exposure from UV lamps. The erythemal UVR measurement was established and the exposure assessment was applied to monitor erythemal UVR magnitude from shield metal arc welding (SMAW) processing. From this study, the erythemal UVR exposures were assessed and evaluated with environmental solar simulation of the UVI exposure. PMID:18332723

  17. Respiration shutoff in Escherichia coli K12 strains is induced by far ultraviolet radiations and by mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Swenson, P A; Norton, I L

    1984-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiations (254 nm) (UV) cause respiration to shutoff in Escherichia coli B/r. It has been reported [P.A. Swenson, Photochem. Photobiol., 33 (1981) 855-859 and J. Barbé, A. Vericat and R. Guerrero, Mutation Res., 120 (1983) 1-5] that E. coli K12 strains do not shut off respiration after UV. The latter authors also reported that mitomycin C did not cause this 'SOS' response. In this paper we report that higher UV fluences than were previously used will cause respiration shutoff in K12 strain W3110 and that cyclic AMP increases the sensitivity of respiration shutoff of irradiated cell suspensions. We also report that mitomycin C shuts off respiration in this strain. Neither UV nor mitomycin C causes respiration shutoff in the recA56 derivative of W3110. Thus respiration shutoff is a recA dependent response to UV and mitomycin C in E. coli K12 strains.

  18. Effects of ozone and UV-B radiation on growth, UV-B absorbing pigments, and antioxidants in soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh ); Pursley, W.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone is projected to cause increased UV-B radiation at the earth's surface. Some research suggests that increased UV-B radiation may be detrimental to crop growth. Current levels of ozone in the troposphere are known to suppress plant growth. Since these two stresses occur concurrently, field experiments were performed to determine their separate and combined effects on growth and physiological responses of soybean. Ozone treatments were controlled with open-top chambers, and UV-B treatments were administered with filtered lamps. Ozone (0.06 ppm mean 12-hr per day concentration during the 6 wk growth period) significantly suppressed biomass of leaves, stems, and roots throughout vegetative and early reproductive growth compared to controls receiving 0.025 ppm ozone. While plant biomass was often slightly less in elevated UV-B treatments (treatments approximating 25 to 28% depletion of stratospheric ozone), results usually were not significant. Significant interactions of ozone and UV-B usually reflected less than additive response of biomass to the two stresses in combination. Glutathione content and glutathione reductase activity were reduced by UV-B but increased by ozone. Ascorbate and UV-B absorbing pigments were increased by UV-B and unaffected by ozone. No consistent interactions of ozone and UV-B on these components were found.

  19. Long-term solar UV radiation reconstructed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feister, U.; Junk, J.; Woldt, M.

    2008-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are efficient tools to derive solar UV radiation from measured meteorological parameters such as global radiation, aerosol optical depths and atmospheric column ozone. The ANN model has been tested with different combinations of data from the two sites Potsdam and Lindenberg, and used to reconstruct solar UV radiation at eight European sites by more than 100 years into the past. Annual totals of UV radiation derived from reconstructed daily UV values reflect interannual variations and long-term patterns that are compatible with variabilities and changes of measured input data, in particular global dimming by about 1980-1990, subsequent global brightening, volcanic eruption effects such as that of Mt. Pinatubo, and the long-term ozone decline since the 1970s. Patterns of annual erythemal UV radiation are very similar at sites located at latitudes close to each other, but different patterns occur between UV radiation at sites in different latitude regions.

  20. Results of UV laser application on biological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifano, P.; Nassisi, Vincenzo; Pompa, Pier P.; Candido, A.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper we report on the biological effects of XeCL laser irradiation on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. UV interaction with cellular systems is responsible for photochemical, photothermal or photodecomposition processes. When short-wavelength UV radiation strikes biological material, the DNA is damaged causing cell killing, mutagenesis or carcinogenesis. We report on different effects of XeCl laser irradiation on two microbial systems; collection strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (in suspension) and collection strains of Eschericha coli proficient or deficient in DNA recombination/repair pathways (irradiated on solid surfaces). In S epidermidis the 308 nm radiation can significantly enhanced the proliferation rates. In wild type E. coli cells the radiation did not stimulate the growth rates. Surprisingly, the 308 nm radiation elicited a very strong lethal effect on DNA recombination/repair-defective strains (harbouring the recA56 null mutation), even more pronounced than irradiation with a UV 254 nm germicidal lamp. The unknown mechanism responsible for this biological response is currently under investigation.

  1. Enhanced UV-B radiation increases glyphosate resistance in velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti).

    PubMed

    Yin, Lina; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu; Duan, Liusheng; Wang, Shiwen

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer leads to increasing UV-B radiation on the earth's surface, which may affect weeds and their responses to herbicides. However, the effect of increased UV-B radiation on weeds and the interaction of weeds and herbicides are still obscure. The objective of this study was to compare glyphosate efficacy on velvetleaf that was grown under with and without increased UV-B radiation. Leaf area, dry weight and net photosynthesis of velvetleaf seedlings were adversely affected by increased UV-B radiation. Leaf cuticle wax significantly increased by 28% under increased UV-B radiation. Glyphosate efficacy on velvetleaf, evaluated by shoot dry weight, was significantly decreased by increased UV-B radiation. Exposure to increased UV-B radiation significantly decreased (14)C-glyphosate absorption from 49% to 43%, and also resulted in less (14)C-glyphosate translocation out of treated leaves and less glyphosate accumulation in newly expanded leaves. The decrease in glyphosate efficacy was due to changes in absorption and distribution, which were attributed to increased cuticle wax and decreased photosynthesis caused by increased UV-B radiation. These results suggest that the responses of weeds to herbicides may be affected by increased UV-B radiation, to the extent that higher rates may be required to achieve the desired effects.

  2. Short-term UV-B and UV-C radiations preferentially decrease spermidine contents and arginine decarboxylase transcript levels of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Jantaro, Saowarath; Pothipongsa, Apiradee; Khanthasuwan, Suparaporn; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the short term effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiations on changes in pigments and polyamine contents, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells after exposure to UV-radiation were extracted by dimethylformamide and perchloric acid for pigments and polyamines determination, respectively. Cell growth was slightly decreased after 1 h exposure to UV-A and UV-B radiations. UV-C had little effect on cell growth despite the decrease of photosynthetic rate by about 18%. UV-A and UV-B decreased the contents of chlorophyll a and carotenoids whereas UV-C decreased chlorophyll a but had no effect on carotenoids. Spermidine contents were unaffected by UV-A, in contrast to the reduction of 25 and 50% by UV-B and UV-C, respectively. All three types of UV-radiation particularly reduced perchloric acid-insoluble spermidine. Importantly, putrescine and spermine which accounted for less than 1% of intracellular polyamines were increased by about three- to eight-fold by UV-B and UV-C, respectively. The changes in polyamines contents by UV-B and UV-C were consistent with the changes in transcript levels of arginine decarboxylase mRNA, but not with the protein levels. The decrease in the transcripts of adc2 but not adc1 was observed with UV-B and UV-C treatments.

  3. Effect of UV Radiation on the Bacterivory of a Heterotrophic Nanoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Sommaruga, R; Oberleiter, A; Psenner, R

    1996-12-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation on the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Bodo saltans (Kinetoplastida) were examined under controlled conditions with artificial UV sources and also under natural solar radiation in an oligotrophic lake. In both types of experiments, the characteristic elongated cell morphology of this flagellate changed into a spherical one. This effect was due to UV-B but also to UV-A radiation, and after 4 h of exposure at 0.5 m of depth, 99% (UV-B plus UV-A plus photosynthetically active radiation) and 69% of the cells (UV-A plus photosynthetically active radiation) were spherical. At 6 m of depth where only 10% of the UV-B (305 nm) at the surface was measured, no significant effect was observed. The spherical cells were nonmotile, but before the morphological change took place, the swimming speed was ca. 3.5 times lower in the plus-UV-B treatment. The negative relation between the abundance of spherical cells and the average ingestion of fluorescently labeled bacteria per cell indicates that these cells are not able to feed upon bacteria. In bacterivory experiments lasting for 6 h, the total number of grazed bacteria was up to 70% lower in the plus-UV-B treatment than in the control without UV-B. This resulted in a positive feedback between UV-B and bacterial growth. The high sensitivity of B. saltans to solar UV-B and UV-A radiation strongly reduces its ability to live near the surface at times of high UV radiation.

  4. Effect of UV Radiation on the Bacterivory of a Heterotrophic Nanoflagellate

    PubMed Central

    Sommaruga, R.; Oberleiter, A.; Psenner, R.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation on the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Bodo saltans (Kinetoplastida) were examined under controlled conditions with artificial UV sources and also under natural solar radiation in an oligotrophic lake. In both types of experiments, the characteristic elongated cell morphology of this flagellate changed into a spherical one. This effect was due to UV-B but also to UV-A radiation, and after 4 h of exposure at 0.5 m of depth, 99% (UV-B plus UV-A plus photosynthetically active radiation) and 69% of the cells (UV-A plus photosynthetically active radiation) were spherical. At 6 m of depth where only 10% of the UV-B (305 nm) at the surface was measured, no significant effect was observed. The spherical cells were nonmotile, but before the morphological change took place, the swimming speed was ca. 3.5 times lower in the plus-UV-B treatment. The negative relation between the abundance of spherical cells and the average ingestion of fluorescently labeled bacteria per cell indicates that these cells are not able to feed upon bacteria. In bacterivory experiments lasting for 6 h, the total number of grazed bacteria was up to 70% lower in the plus-UV-B treatment than in the control without UV-B. This resulted in a positive feedback between UV-B and bacterial growth. The high sensitivity of B. saltans to solar UV-B and UV-A radiation strongly reduces its ability to live near the surface at times of high UV radiation. PMID:16535460

  5. The Response of Human Skin Commensal Bacteria as a Reflection of UV Radiation: UV-B Decreases Porphyrin Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhan; Zhu, Wenhong; Shu, Muya; Jiang, Yong; Gallo, Richard L.; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Recent global radiation fears reflect the urgent need for a new modality that can simply determine if people are in a radiation risk of developing cancer and other illnesses. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been thought to be the major risk factor for most skin cancers. Although various biomarkers derived from the responses of human cells have been revealed, detection of these biomarkers is cumbersome, probably requires taking live human tissues, and varies significantly depending on human immune status. Here we hypothesize that the reaction of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a human resident skin commensal, to UV radiation can serve as early surrogate markers for radiation risk because the bacteria are immediately responsive to radiation. In addition, the bacteria can be readily accessible and exposed to the same field of radiation as human body. To test our hypothesis, P. acnes was exposed to UV-B radiation. The production of porphyrins in P. acnes was significantly reduced with increasing doses of UV-B. The porphyrin reduction can be detected in both P. acnes and human skin bacterial isolates. Exposure of UV-B to P. acnes- inoculated mice led to a significant decrease in porphyrin production in a single colony of P. acnes and simultaneously induced the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the epidermal layers of mouse skin. Mass spectrometric analysis via a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL showed that five peptides including an internal peptide (THLPTGIVVSCQNER) of a peptide chain release factor 2 (RF2) were oxidized by UV-B. Seven peptides including three internal peptides of 60 kDa chaperonin 1 were de-oxidized by UV-B. When compared to UV-B, gamma radiation also decreased the porphyrin production of P. acnes in a dose-dependent manner, but induced a different signature of protein oxidation/de-oxidation. We highlight that uncovering response of skin microbiome to radiation will facilitate the development of pre-symptomatic diagnosis

  6. [Effects of UV-B radiation on the growth and reproduction of Vicia angustifolia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xing-An; Wang, Ren-Jun; Qiu, Nian-Wei; Ma, Zong-Qi; Du, Guo-Zhen

    2012-05-01

    A simulation experiment with supplementation and exclusion of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation was conducted to study the effects of enhanced and near ambient UV-B radiation on the growth and reproduction of alpine annual pasture Vicia angustifolia on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Enhanced UV-B decreased the plant height and biomass, biomass allocation to fruit, flower number, and 100-seed mass significantly, delayed flowering stage, increased the concentration degree of flowering and success rate of reproduction, but had little effect on seed yield. Near ambient UV-B radiation made the plant height increased after an initial decrease, decreased biomass allocation to fruit and 100-seed mass, but little affected flowering duration, flower number, and seed yield. Both enhanced and near ambient UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth and production of V. angustifolia, and the effect of enhanced UV-B radiation was even larger.

  7. Antiradiation UV Vaccine: UV Radiation, Biological effects, lesions and medical management - immune-therapy and immune-protection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key Words: Ultraviolet radiation,Standard Erythema Dose(SED), Minimal Erythema Dose(MED), Sun Burns, Solar Dermatitis, Sun Burned Disease, DNA Damage,Cell Damage, Antiradiation UV Vaccine, Immune-Prophylaxis of Sun Burned Diseases, Immune-Prophylaxis of Sun Burns, Immune-Therapy of Sun-Burned Disease and Sun Burns,Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis(TEN). Introduction: High doses of UV generated by solar source and artificial sources create an exposure of mammals and other species which can lead to ultraviolet(UV)radiation- associated disease (including erythema, epilation, keratitis, etc.). UV radiation belongs to the non-ionizing part of the electromagnetic spectrum and ranges between 100 nm and 400 nm with 100 nm having been chosen arbitrarily as the boundary between non-ionizing and ionizing radiation, however EMR is a spectrum and UV can produce molecular ionization. UV radiation is conventionally categorized into 3 areas: UV-A (>315-400 nm),UV-B (>280-315 nm)and UV-C (>100-280 nm) [IARC,Working Group Reports,2005] An important consequence of stratospheric ozone depletion is the increased transmission of solar ultraviolet (UV)radiation to the Earth's lower atmosphere and surface. Stratospheric ozone levels have been falling, in certain areas, for the past several decades, so current surface ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation levels are thought to be close to their modern day maximum. [S.Madronich et al.1998] Overexposure of ultraviolet radiation a major cause of skin cancer including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) { collectively referred to as “non-melanoma" skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma as well, with skin cancers being the most common cancer in North America. [Armstrong et al. 1993, Gallagher et al. 2005] Methods and Experimental Design: Our experiments and testing of a novel UV “Antiradiation Vaccine” have employed a wide variety of laboratory animals which include : Chinchilla

  8. Optical Protection Filters for Harmful Laser Beams and UV Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azim M., Osama A.

    2007-02-01

    Due to the rapid growth of radiation protection applications in various devices and instruments, it is essential to use suitable filters for eye protection of the personal working in the radiation field. Different protection filters were produced to protect from four laser beam wavelengths (at 532nm, 632.8nm, 694nm and 1064nm) and block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters used optical thin film technology. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production filter processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Dralo (mixture of oxides TiO2/Al2O3), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition by an electron beam gun. The output transmittance curves for both theoretical and experimental values of all filters are presented. To validate the suitability for use in a `real world', rather than laboratory test application, full environmental assessment was also carried out. These filters exhibited high endurance after exposing them to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance and humidity) according to military standards MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  9. Characterization of Actin Filament Dynamics during Mitosis in Wheat Protoplasts under UV-B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huize; Han, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is caused by the thinning ozone and affects photosynthesis and crop yield. Recently, UV-B radiation has been considered as an environmental signal that regulates plant growth. Elucidating the downstream effectors in UV-B-triggered pathways is of particular interest. Previous studies have shown that actin filaments (AFs) play many roles during cell physiological processes. However, the underlying response of AFs to UV-B radiation remains unclear. In this study, wheat protoplasts were isolated from 7-d-old leaves. The dynamics of AFs during mitosis were observed under different treatments. The protoplasts were treated with UV-B radiation, cytochalasin B (CB) and jasplakinolide (JAS). Ph-FITC labelling results revealed typical actin filament structures in the control group; AFs were rearranged under UV-B radiation. AFs polymerized into bundles during interphase, the preprophase band (PPB) structure was destroyed during prophase, and the AFs gathered into plaques during metaphase in response to UV-B radiation. During anaphase and telophase, the distribution of AFs was dispersed. Pharmacologic experiments revealed that CB induced apoptosis and JAS induced nuclear division without cytokinesis in wheat protoplasts. These results indicated that AFs respond to UV-B radiation during mitosis, supplying evidence of UV-B signal transduction in plants. PMID:26823006

  10. Characterization of Actin Filament Dynamics during Mitosis in Wheat Protoplasts under UV-B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huize; Han, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is caused by the thinning ozone and affects photosynthesis and crop yield. Recently, UV-B radiation has been considered as an environmental signal that regulates plant growth. Elucidating the downstream effectors in UV-B-triggered pathways is of particular interest. Previous studies have shown that actin filaments (AFs) play many roles during cell physiological processes. However, the underlying response of AFs to UV-B radiation remains unclear. In this study, wheat protoplasts were isolated from 7-d-old leaves. The dynamics of AFs during mitosis were observed under different treatments. The protoplasts were treated with UV-B radiation, cytochalasin B (CB) and jasplakinolide (JAS). Ph-FITC labelling results revealed typical actin filament structures in the control group; AFs were rearranged under UV-B radiation. AFs polymerized into bundles during interphase, the preprophase band (PPB) structure was destroyed during prophase, and the AFs gathered into plaques during metaphase in response to UV-B radiation. During anaphase and telophase, the distribution of AFs was dispersed. Pharmacologic experiments revealed that CB induced apoptosis and JAS induced nuclear division without cytokinesis in wheat protoplasts. These results indicated that AFs respond to UV-B radiation during mitosis, supplying evidence of UV-B signal transduction in plants. PMID:26823006

  11. Bystander effect induced by UV radiation; why should we be interested?

    PubMed

    Widel, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The bystander effect, whose essence is an interaction of cells directly subjected to radiation with adjacent non-subjected cells, via molecular signals, is an important component of ionizing radiation action. However, knowledge of the bystander effect in the case of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is quite limited. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by UV in exposed cells induce bystander effects in non-exposed cells, such as reduction in clonogenic cell survival and delayed cell death, oxidative DNA damage and gene mutations, induction of micronuclei, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis. Although the bystander effect after UV radiation has been recognized in cell culture systems, its occurrence in vivo has not been studied. However, solar UV radiation, which is the main source of UV in the environment, may induce in human dermal tissue an inflammatory response and immune suppression, events which can be considered as bystander effects of UV radiation. The oxidative damage to DNA, genomic instability and the inflammatory response may lead to carcinogenesis. UV radiation is considered one of the important etiologic factors for skin cancers, basal- and squamous-cell carcinomas and malignant melanoma. Based on the mechanisms of actions it seems that the UV-induced bystander effect can have some impact on skin damage (carcinogenesis?), and probably on cells of other tissues. The paper reviews the existing data about the UV-induced bystander effect and discusses a possible implication of this phenomenon for health risk.  PMID:23175338

  12. Bystander effect induced by UV radiation; why should we be interested?

    PubMed

    Widel, Maria

    2012-11-14

    The bystander effect, whose essence is an interaction of cells directly subjected to radiation with adjacent non-subjected cells, via molecular signals, is an important component of ionizing radiation action. However, knowledge of the bystander effect in the case of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is quite limited. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by UV in exposed cells induce bystander effects in non-exposed cells, such as reduction in clonogenic cell survival and delayed cell death, oxidative DNA damage and gene mutations, induction of micronuclei, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis. Although the bystander effect after UV radiation has been recognized in cell culture systems, its occurrence in vivo has not been studied. However, solar UV radiation, which is the main source of UV in the environment, may induce in human dermal tissue an inflammatory response and immune suppression, events which can be considered as bystander effects of UV radiation. The oxidative damage to DNA, genomic instability and the inflammatory response may lead to carcinogenesis. UV radiation is considered one of the important etiologic factors for skin cancers, basal- and squamous-cell carcinomas and malignant melanoma. Based on the mechanisms of actions it seems that the UV-induced bystander effect can have some impact on skin damage (carcinogenesis?), and probably on cells of other tissues. The paper reviews the existing data about the UV-induced bystander effect and discusses a possible implication of this phenomenon for health risk. 

  13. Effect of Solar UV-B Radiation on a Phyllosphere Bacterial Community

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Janette L.; Sundin, George W.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of solar UV-B radiation on the population dynamics and composition of the culturable bacterial community from peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.) was examined in field studies using plants grown under UV-B−transmitting (UV-B+) or UV-B−excluding (UV-B−) plastic filters. Our data demonstrate that solar UV-B selection alters phyllosphere bacterial community composition and that UV tolerance is a prevalent phenotype late in the season. The total bacterial population size was not affected by either UV-B treatment. However, isolates from the UV-B+ plots (n = 368) were significantly more UV tolerant than those from the UV-B− (n = 363) plots. UV sensitivity was determined as the minimal inhibitory dose of UV that resulted in an inhibition of growth compared to the growth of a nonirradiated control. The difference in minimal inhibitory doses among bacterial isolates from UV-B+ and UV-B− treatments was mainly partitioned among nonpigmented isolates, with pigmented isolates as a group being characterized as UV tolerant. A large increase in UV tolerance was observed within isolate groups collected late (89 and 96 days after planting) in the season. Identification of 200 late-season isolates indicated that the predominant UV-tolerant members of this group were Bacillus coagulans, Clavibacter michiganensis, and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens. We selected C. michiganensis as a model UV-tolerant epiphyte to study if cell survival on UV-irradiated peanut leaves was increased relative to UV survival in vitro. The results showed an enhancement in the survival of C. michiganensis G7.1, especially following high UV-C doses (300 and 375 J m−2), that was evident between 24 and 96 h after inoculation. A dramatic increase in the in planta/in vitro survival ratio was observed over the entire 96-h experiment period for C. michiganensis T5.1. PMID:11722897

  14. Synergism between UV-B radiation and a pathogen magnifies amphibian embryo mortality in nature.

    PubMed

    Kiesecker, J M; Blaustein, A R

    1995-11-21

    Previous research has shown that amphibians have differential sensitivity to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. In some species, ambient levels of UV-B radiation cause embryonic mortality in nature. The detrimental effects of UV-B alone or with other agents may ultimately affect amphibians at the population level. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a synergistic effect between UV-B radiation and a pathogenic fungus in the field that increases the mortality of amphibian embryos compared with either factor alone. Studies investigating single factors for causes of amphibian egg mortality or population declines may not reveal the complex factors involved in declines. PMID:7479934

  15. Synergism between UV-B radiation and pathogen magnifies amphibian embryo mortality in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Kiesecker, J.M.; Blaustein, R.

    1995-11-21

    Previous research has shown that amphibians have differential sensitivity to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. In some species, ambient levels of UV-B radiation cause embryonic mortality in nature. The detrimental effects of UV-B alone or with other agents may ultimately affect amphibians at the population level. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a synergistic effect between UV-B radiation and a pathogenic fungus in the field that increases the mortality of amphibian embryos compared with either factor alone. Studies investigating single factors for causes of amphibian egg mortality or population declines may not reveal the complex factors involved in declines.

  16. Effects of Solar UV Radiation and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycling: Interactions and Feedbacks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar UV radiation, climate and other drivers of global change are undergoing significant changes and models forecast that these changes will continue for the remainder of this century. Here we assess the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles and the interactions...

  17. Effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in air and under vacuum on low-k dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, F. A.; Ryan, E. T.; Nguyen, H. M.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    This work addresses the effect of ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths longer than 250 nm on Si-CH3 bonds in porous low-k dielectrics. Porous low-k films (k = 2.3) were exposed to 4.9 eV (254 nm) ultraviolet (UV) radiation in both air and vacuum for one hour. Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the chemical structures of the dielectric films were analyzed before and after the UV exposure. UV irradiation in air led to Si-CH3 bond depletion in the low-k material and made the films hydrophilic. However, no change in Si-CH3 bond concentration was observed when the same samples were exposed to UV under vacuum with a similar fluence. These results indicate that UV exposures in vacuum with wavelengths longer than ˜250 nm do not result in Si-CH3 depletion in low-k films. However, if the irradiation takes place in air, the UV irradiation removes Si-CH3 although direct photolysis of air species does not occur above ˜242nm. We propose that photons along with molecular oxygen and, water, synergistically demethylate the low-k films.

  18. [Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle: a review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Rong; Hu, Rong-Gui; Cai, Gao-Chao

    2012-07-01

    As one of the most important phenomena of global climate change, the enhancement of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) could have critical impact on the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem. Through the impacts on plant photosynthesis, litter decomposition, and soil respiration, the enhanced UV-B radiation can affect the carbon input, turnover, and output of terrestrial ecosystem. Other climatic factors (ambient CO2 concentration, air temperature, and precipitation) may promote or mitigate the impact of enhanced UV-B radiation on terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. This paper introduced the background of UV-B radiation enhancement, reviewed the impacts of enhanced UV-B radiation and its interactions with other climatic factors on terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle, summarized the existing problems in related researches, and discussed the priorities and directions of future researches.

  19. Interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling.

    PubMed

    Zepp, R G; Erickson, D J; Paul, N D; Sulzberger, B

    2007-03-01

    This report assesses research on the interactions of UV radiation (280-400 nm) and global climate change with global biogeochemical cycles at the Earth's surface. The effects of UV-B (280-315 nm), which are dependent on the stratospheric ozone layer, on biogeochemical cycles are often linked to concurrent exposure to UV-A radiation (315-400 nm), which is influenced by global climate change. These interactions involving UV radiation (the combination of UV-B and UV-A) are central to the prediction and evaluation of future Earth environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that elevated UV-B radiation has significant effects on the terrestrial biosphere with implications for the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements. The cycling of carbon and inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen can be affected by UV-B-mediated changes in communities of soil organisms, probably due to the effects of UV-B radiation on plant root exudation and/or the chemistry of dead plant material falling to the soil. In arid environments direct photodegradation can play a major role in the decay of plant litter, and UV-B radiation is responsible for a significant part of this photodegradation. UV-B radiation strongly influences aquatic carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and metals cycling that affect a wide range of life processes. UV-B radiation changes the biological availability of dissolved organic matter to microorganisms, and accelerates its transformation into dissolved inorganic carbon and nitrogen, including carbon dioxide and ammonium. The coloured part of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) controls the penetration of UV radiation into water bodies, but CDOM is also photodegraded by solar UV radiation. Changes in CDOM influence the penetration of UV radiation into water bodies with major consequences for aquatic biogeochemical processes. Changes in aquatic primary productivity and decomposition due to climate-related changes in circulation and nutrient supply occur concurrently with

  20. Interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling.

    PubMed

    Zepp, R G; Erickson, D J; Paul, N D; Sulzberger, B

    2007-03-01

    This report assesses research on the interactions of UV radiation (280-400 nm) and global climate change with global biogeochemical cycles at the Earth's surface. The effects of UV-B (280-315 nm), which are dependent on the stratospheric ozone layer, on biogeochemical cycles are often linked to concurrent exposure to UV-A radiation (315-400 nm), which is influenced by global climate change. These interactions involving UV radiation (the combination of UV-B and UV-A) are central to the prediction and evaluation of future Earth environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that elevated UV-B radiation has significant effects on the terrestrial biosphere with implications for the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements. The cycling of carbon and inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen can be affected by UV-B-mediated changes in communities of soil organisms, probably due to the effects of UV-B radiation on plant root exudation and/or the chemistry of dead plant material falling to the soil. In arid environments direct photodegradation can play a major role in the decay of plant litter, and UV-B radiation is responsible for a significant part of this photodegradation. UV-B radiation strongly influences aquatic carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and metals cycling that affect a wide range of life processes. UV-B radiation changes the biological availability of dissolved organic matter to microorganisms, and accelerates its transformation into dissolved inorganic carbon and nitrogen, including carbon dioxide and ammonium. The coloured part of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) controls the penetration of UV radiation into water bodies, but CDOM is also photodegraded by solar UV radiation. Changes in CDOM influence the penetration of UV radiation into water bodies with major consequences for aquatic biogeochemical processes. Changes in aquatic primary productivity and decomposition due to climate-related changes in circulation and nutrient supply occur concurrently with

  1. Biologically weighted measurement of UV radiation in space and on earth with the biofilm technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.

    Biological dosimetry has provided experimental proof of the high sensitivity of the biologically effective UVB doses to changes in atmospheric ozone and has thereby confirmed the predictions from model calculations. The biological UV dosimeter 'biofilm' whose sensitivity is based on dried spores of B. subtilis as UV target weights the incident UV radiation according to its DNA damaging potential. Biofilm dosimetry was applicated in space experiments as well as in use in remote areas on Earth. Examples are long-term UV measurements in Antarctica, measurements of diurnal UV profiles parallel in time at different locations in Europe, continuous UV measurements in the frame of the German UV measurement network and personal UV dosimetry. In space biofilms were used to determine the biological efficiency of the extraterrestrial solar UV, to simulate the effects of decreasing ozone concentrations and to determine the interaction of UVB and vitamin D production of cosmonauts in the MIR station.

  2. Species-specific effect of UV-B radiation on the temporal pattern of leaf growth.

    PubMed

    Robson, Thomas Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro José

    2012-02-01

    Recent molecular and physiological studies have demonstrated that ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) can affect some of the processes involved in leaf growth, but the phases of leaf growth affected have not been clearly delimited. We used functional growth analysis to assess the effects of UV-B radiation on the time course of leaf growth in seedlings of two birch species (Betula pendula and Betula pubescens). Our aim was to identify the phase(s) of leaf development affected by UV-B radiation. In a greenhouse study, 1-year-old birch seedlings were subjected to three daily doses of supplemental UV-B radiation treatments (UV-B⁺) and no UV-B radiation controls (UV-B⁻). Leaf growth measurements every 2 days were complemented by assessment of other functional traits over a 4-week period at the start of the growing season. Using fitted curves, we were able to determine that the rate of leaf expansion was slowed by the UV-B⁺ treatment in leaves of B. pendula because of a slower maximum leaf growth rate compared with plants under the UV-B⁻ controls, but that compensation toward the end of the period of expansion negated this difference when leaves reached their final size. UV-B⁺ had little effect on the rate of B. pubescens leaf growth despite a larger reduction in leaf final size due to UV-B⁺ than occurred in B. pendula leaves. In conclusion, effective regulation ameliorated the effects of UV-B radiation on leaf and seedling growth in B. pendula, whereas in B. pubescens, reductions in leaf final size under UV-B⁺ were consistent with a slightly reduced rate of height growth.

  3. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation combined with other climate stressors on winter wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Zheng, Youfei; Slusser, James R.; Grant, Richard H.

    2004-10-01

    Ultraviolet radiation-B (UV-B) would increase due to the Ozone depletion. Global climatic factors, such as temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and CO2 content, are changing because of the increase of greenhouse emission and the destruction of ecosystems. Climate stress factors including enhanced UV-B irradiance have effects on crop production. Many studies have assessed the effects of enhanced UV-B on crops and impacts of global climatic change on crops separately. However, when UV-B effects were discussed, other environmental stress factors were generally neglected. It is well-known that crops in nature are seldom affected by only a single stress factor, such as UV-B radiation. The impacts of enhanced UV-B radiation can be greatly increased or decreased by other environmental stress factors. In this paper, through field and plant growth chambers experiments, combined effects of enhanced UV-B radiation with other environmental stress factors including solar visible light, temperature and soil moisture content on winter wheat were investigated. The experimental results showed that enhanced UV-B irradiance can restrain growth and development of winter wheat, which leads to reduction of plant height, leaf area, and slowing physiological activity and decreasing biomass and yield of winter wheat. The response of winter wheat to enhanced UV-B varied under different UV-B intensity and its combination with other environmental stress factors.

  4. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. PMID:26944494

  5. Effects of UV radiation on marine ectotherms in polar regions.

    PubMed

    Dahms, Hans-U; Dobretsov, Sergey; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2011-05-01

    Ozone-related increase in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) during the last decades provided an important ecological stressor, particularly for polar ecosystems since these are less adapted to such changes. All life forms appear to be susceptible to UVR to a highly variable extent that depends on individual species and their environment. Differences in sensitivity between organisms may relate to efficiency differences of their protection mechanisms and repair systems. UVR impacts are masked by large seasonal and geographic differences even in confined areas like the polar regions. UVR has effects and responses on various integration levels: from genetics, physiology, biology, populations, communities, to functional changes as in food webs with consequences on material and energy circulations through ecosystems. Even at current levels, solar UV-B affects consumer organisms, such as ectotherms (invertebrates and fish), particularly through impediments on critical phases of their development (early life history stages such as gametes, zygotes and larvae). Despite the overall negative implications of UVR, effect sizes vary widely in, e.g., molecular damage, cell and tissue damage, survival, growth, behavior, histology, and at the level of populations, communities and ecosystems.

  6. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation.

  7. Solar UV-B in tropical forest gaps: Analysis using direct and diffuse radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M.

    1995-06-01

    Experiments with natural levels of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) have recently shown inhibition of the growth of some tropical forest tree seedlings. A knowledge of forest radiation environments is needed to help assess UV-B effects in natural situations. Although forest canopies strongly attenuate solar radiation, treefall gaps provide a very different radiation environment. We simultaneously measured both UV-B and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in forest gaps on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Outside the forest, UV-B is predominately diffuse even under clear sky conditions. In sunflecks of small forest gaps, most of the UV-B was in the direct beam component. Compared to conditions outside the forest, the UV-B in these sunflecks was low relative to PAR. Shaded portions of the gap, in contrast, had proportionately high levels of UV-B relative to PAR. There are indications in the literature that relatively low UV-B levels may be effective under low PFD. Seasonal trends of PAR and UV-B in different locations in gaps can be inferred from hemispherical canopy photographs.

  8. UV-B radiation and photosynthetic irradiance acclimate eggplant for outdoor exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.; Mitchell, G. A.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of greenhouse-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings with supplemental photosynthetically active radiation from cool-white fluorescent lamps increased growth of plants subsequently transferred outdoors relative to growth of plants that received no supplemental radiation or were shaded to 45% of solar irradiation in the greenhouse before transfer outdoors. Eggplant seedlings transferred outdoors were placed under plastic tarps either to provide relative protection from solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm) using Mylar film or to allow exposure to UV-B using cellulose acetate. Protection of seedlings from UV-B radiation resulted in greater leaf expansion than for UV-B-exposed seedlings, but no change in leaf or shoot dry weight occurred after 9 days of treatment. Specific leaf weight increased in response to UV-B exposure outdoors. Exposure of eggplant to UV-B radiation from fluorescent sunlamps in the greenhouse also decreased leaf expansion and leaf and shoot dry weight gain after 5 days of treatment. However, there were no differences in leaf or shoot dry weight relative to control plants after 12 days of UV-B treatment, indicating that UV-B treated plants had acclimated to the treatment and actually had caught up with non-UV-B-irradiated plants in terms of growth.

  9. Generation of tumor-specific transplantation antigens by UV radiation can occur independently of neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, L W; Ananthaswamy, H N; Kripke, M L

    1986-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the UV-associated antigens present on tumors induced in mice by chronic UV irradiation could be induced by in vitro irradiation of cells that were already tumorigenic, or whether their occurrence was associated with the primary neoplastic transformation event. Cells of a nonantigenic, spontaneous fibrosarcoma cell line were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, were cloned, and were tested for antigenic properties. A large number of the clones obtained after UV irradiation of the fibrosarcoma cells were highly antigenic (20 of 39), whereas clones derived from unirradiated cultures were not (0 of 10). The antigenic variants did not induce cross-protection among themselves, but induced only variant-specific immunity in vivo. Several antigenic variants were tested for susceptibility to the action of UV-induced suppressor cells, which seem to recognize a common determinant shared among UV-induced tumors. The variants tested were indeed subject to the activity of the UV-induced suppressor lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that the unique antigenic properties exhibited by UV-induced murine skin cancers are also exhibited by cells exposed to UV radiation in vitro. In addition, they imply that the UV-associated antigens arise as a consequence of exposing cells to UV radiation and that they can occur independently of an initial neoplastic transformation event. PMID:3760572

  10. Effects of UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with other environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Häder, Donat-P; Williamson, Craig E; Wängberg, Sten-Åke; Rautio, Milla; Rose, Kevin C; Gao, Kunshan; Helbling, E Walter; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Worrest, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between climate change and UV radiation are having strong effects on aquatic ecosystems due to feedback between temperature, UV radiation, and greenhouse gas concentration. Higher air temperatures and incoming solar radiation are increasing the surface water temperatures of lakes and oceans, with many large lakes warming at twice the rate of regional air temperatures. Warmer oceans are changing habitats and the species composition of many marine ecosystems. For some, such as corals, the temperatures may become too high. Temperature differences between surface and deep waters are becoming greater. This increase in thermal stratification makes the surface layers shallower and leads to stronger barriers to upward mixing of nutrients necessary for photosynthesis. This also results in exposure to higher levels of UV radiation of surface-dwelling organisms. In polar and alpine regions decreases in the duration and amount of snow and ice cover on lakes and oceans are also increasing exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, in lakes and coastal oceans the concentration and colour of UV-absorbing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial ecosystems is increasing with greater runoff from higher precipitation and more frequent extreme storms. DOM thus creates a refuge from UV radiation that can enable UV-sensitive species to become established. At the same time, decreased UV radiation in such surface waters reduces the capacity of solar UV radiation to inactivate viruses and other pathogens and parasites, and increases the difficulty and price of purifying drinking water for municipal supplies. Solar UV radiation breaks down the DOM, making it more available for microbial processing, resulting in the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. In addition to screening solar irradiance, DOM, when sunlit in surface water, can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increases in carbon dioxide are in turn acidifying the oceans and inhibiting

  11. Does cell cycle arrest occur in plant under solar UV-B radiation?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Wang, Yan; Björn, Lars Olof; Li, Shaoshan

    2011-06-01

    UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) is an integral part of solar radiation and has many harmful effects on plant growth and development. However, the molecular mechanism for the inhibition of plant growth by UV-B remains largely unknown. UV-B radiation induces various responses such as growth inhibition, DNA damage and changes of gene expression. Recently, by using synchronous root tip culture, we found that UV-B modulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes through DNA damage. Western blotting analysis revealed that UV-B induced G1-to-S arrest did not correlate with the protein abundance of CDKB1;1 and CYCD3;1 gene regulating proteins, but may with the posttranslational control. We extended the expression analysis of cell cycle related genes based on the published microarray data and the results strengthen our assumption that cell cycle arrest could occur in plant under solar UV-B radiation. Further study is needed to elucidate the relationship between cell cycle regulation and protective pathway induced by low dose of UV-B radiation fundamental molecular mechanism for how plants respond to solar UV-B radiation.

  12. Damage to UV-sensitive cells by short UV in photographic flashes.

    PubMed

    Menezes, S; Monteiro, C

    1996-09-01

    Light emitted by electronic photographic flash units is shown to damage bacteria and human skin fibroblasts deficient in repair systems, with survival curves very similar to those produced by 254 nm short UV. The lesions induced by these flashes are as photorepairable by the photolyase enzyme as those induced by 254 nm UV and result in equivalent survival rates. Biological dosimetry performed with microorganisms highly sensitive to UV (Escherichia coli K12 AB2480, deficient in excision and recombinational-dependent repair systems and Bacillus subtilis UVSSP spores, deficient in excision and in a specific spore repair process) revealed that each 1 ms flash of light from the photographic unit used in this work contained the equivalent of 0.25 J m-2 of 254 nm UV, when measured at a distance of 7.0 cm. This dose of UV was found to be lethal to both repair-deficient E. coli bacteria and repair-deficient human skin fibroblasts obtained from xeroderma pigmentosum donors, as well as mutagenic in B/r wild-type and HCR-mutant bacteria. PMID:8806230

  13. Evaluation of a UV/Ozone Treatment Process for Removal of MTBE in Groundwater Supplies in New Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development is funding pilot-scale studies on MTBE contaminated groundwater using UV/ozone treatment technology (254 nm UV, 5.8 mg/L ozone). The pilot-scale treatment system consists of a GW well pump, a feed tank, a pretreatment system (water soften...

  14. Evaluation of a UV/Ozone Treatment Process for Removal of MTBE in Groundwater Supplies in New Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development is funding pilot-scale studies on MTBE contaminated groundwater using UV/ozone treatment technology (254 nm UV, 5.8 mg/L ozone). The pilot-scale treatment system consists of a GW well pump, a feed tank, a pretreatment system (water softene...

  15. UV-C light inactivation kinetics of Penicillium expansum on pear surfaces: Influence on physicochemical and sensory quality during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest quality and storage life of fresh pear are often limited by fungal growth caused by Penicillium expansum. Ultraviolet-C light (UV-C 254 nm) is a promising alternative disinfestation method to reduce fruit spoilage by fungi. In this study, UV-C inactivation kinetic data of Penicillium exp...

  16. Impact of increasing Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on photosynthetic processes.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Sunita; Jajoo, Anjana; Guruprasad, Kadur N

    2014-08-01

    Increased UV-B radiation on the earth's surface due to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is one of the changes of current climate-change pattern. The deleterious effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis and photosynthetic productivity of plants are reviewed. Perusal of relevant literature reveals that UV-B radiation inflicts damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of green plants at multiple sites. The sites of damage include oxygen evolving complex, D1/D2 reaction center proteins and other components on the donor and acceptor sides of PS II. The radiation inactivates light harvesting complex II and alters gene expression for synthesis of PS II reaction center proteins. Mn cluster of water oxidation complex is the most important primary target of UV-B stress whereas D1 and D2 proteins, quinone molecules and cytochrome b are the subsequent targets of UV-B. In addition, photosynthetic carbon reduction is also sensitive to UV-B radiation which has a direct effect on the activity and content of Rubisco. Some indirect effects of UV-B radiation include changes in photosynthetic pigments, stomatal conductance and leaf and canopy morphology. The failure of protective mechanisms makes PS II further vulnerable to the UV-B radiation. Reactive oxygen species are involved in UV-B induced responses in plants, both as signaling and damaging agents. Exclusion of ambient UV components under field conditions results in the enhancement of the rate of photosynthesis, PS II efficiency and subsequently increases the biomass accumulation and crop yield. It is concluded that predicted future increase in UV-B irradiation will have significant impact on the photosynthetic efficiency and the productivity of higher plants.

  17. The Tradescantia-micronucleus test on the genotoxicity of UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Wang, X

    1999-05-19

    Lanzhou city is located in north central China near inner Mongolia. The solar UV-B background radiation in this area is occasionally extremely high (8 microW/cm2). Such high background solar UV-B radiation could be attributed to the sporadic depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere. The excessive UV-B radiation is a potential hazard in the environment. This prompted the present study on the effect of UV-B radiation on the cytogenetic damage to pollen mother cells of the plant Tradescantia. The Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was used to determine the genotoxicity of UV-B radiation. In addition to the usual 10 h of solar emission of UV light a series of increasing dosages (2, 4, 6, 8 h) of artificial UV-B radiation was applied to Tradescantia (clone 3) plant cuttings. Inflorescences of the treated and control plants were fixed and used for preparation of microslides. Micronuclei frequencies were observed in the early tetrads to show the degree of genotoxicity. Results of two repeated experiments show a dose-related increase of MCN frequencies under normal sunshine days. In the third experiment conducted under a cloudy and rainy day and an extraordinary high solar UV-B background, the MCN frequencies were markedly higher than that of the negative control but did not show the clear dose response to the treatment as in the first two experiments. The Trad-MCN test has successfully detected the effect of artificial UV-B radiation over the solar UV-B background radiation.

  18. Effects of Litter Exposure to UV Radiation on Subsequent Microbial Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Scarlett, R. D.; King, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    In arid ecosystems, photodegradation has recently been identified as a key process in ecosystem carbon cycling. Photodegradation directly contributes to organic matter decomposition through photochemical mineralization. However, it remains unclear how photodegradation interacts with biotic decomposition processes. It is commonly thought that photodegradation can facilitate subsequent microbial decomposition, as it can preferentially decompose lignin, a recalcitrant substrate in microbial decomposition. We hypothesized that ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure would increase the biodegradability of plant litter and that this effect would be greater with longer radiation exposure. In the field at the University of California's Sedgwick Reserve in Santa Ynez, CA, Bromus diandrus litter samples were exposed to two levels of UV radiation using screens: 'UV pass' (transmitting > 81% of UV radiation) and 'UV block' (transmitting < 8% of UV radiation). There were four lengths of UV exposure: 2.5 months (during summer), 4 months (during summer), 6 months, and 12 months. Litter samples were then analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content, fiber fractions, water extractable carbon and nitrogen, and biodegradability. We evaluated the biodegradability of litter using a 30-day laboratory incubation experiment. Litter samples were incubated in the dark in sealed glass microcosms with soil inoculum. The CO2 accumulation in each microcosm headspace was measured every 1-2 days to assess microbial respiration rate. In contrast to our hypothesis, litter exposed under UV block conditions had 28% higher cumulative CO2 production than litter from UV pass when the length of exposure was 2.5 months (P = 0.02, n = 4). Litter from the UV block treatment also tended to show higher cumulative CO2 production than litter from UV pass when the exposure lasted for 4 months (P = 0.10, n = 4). For samples with longer exposure times (6 and 12 months), there was no difference in CO2 production between UV

  19. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  20. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Cleaves, H J; Miller, S L

    1998-06-23

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  1. Photolytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim using UV-A, UV-C and vacuum-UV (VUV).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Tae-Hun; Yu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    The photolytic degradation of the non-degradable pharmaceuticals sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in an aqueous solution was investigated using three kinds of low-pressure mercury lamp UV-A (352 nm), UV-C (254 nm), and vacuum-UV (VUV, 185 nm and 254 nm). The degradation rates were highly dependent on the target compounds as well as the UV sources. No degradation of the target compounds was observed using UV-A treatment, because there was no overlap between the UV-A emission spectrum and absorption spectrum of the target compounds. On the other hand, UVC and VUV revealed higher reactivity. The results also indicated that SMX had a greater potential to react photochemically than TMP. Among the UV sources, VUV was the most effective process for the degradation of target compounds. Furthermore, the addition of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) to the reaction system improved the overall degradation rate significantly.The experimental results for the VUV-irradiated samples with the addition of methanol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger revealed that hydroxyl radicals contribute significantly to the elimination of the target compound. Overall, the degradation rate of the target compounds was in the order: VUV = UV-C > UV-A for sulfamethoxazole and VUV/H2O2 > VUV/ Na2S2O8 > VUV >UV-C >UV-A for trimethoprim.

  2. Oxygen radical production in bluegill sunfish liver microsomes exposed to anthracene and UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.; Oris, J.

    1995-12-31

    Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are acutely toxic to fish in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. Oxygen radicals are very reactive and are responsible for many cellular injuries including membrane peroxidation and DNA fragmentation. In this research increased oxygen radical production was hypothesized for the mechanism of UV-PAH acute toxicity. In order to test this hypothesis Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis machrochirus) liver microsomes were exposed to anthracene and UV radiation in four different combinations: (No UV + No Ant), (No UV + Ant), (UV + No Ant), (UV + Ant). The production of superoxide anion was quantified by measuring the spectrophotometric absorbance of acetylated cytochrome c, which is reduced by superoxide anion. 1 ml of reaction solution contained 1 mg of microsomes and, for Ant treatments, 7.7 {micro}g of anthracene. After 3 hours preincubation, acetylated cytochrome c solution was added. The UV treatment groups were exposed to UV-A for 20 minutes at 37 C. The highest mean concentration of reduced acetylated cytochrome c was found in the UV + Ant treatment group and it was significantly different from all other treatment groups. No significant differences were observed among the other three treatment groups. This result coincides with previous studies revealing that anthracene is acutely toxic to fish only under UV radiation, and it implies that the photoinduced toxicity of anthracene, as well as other PAHs, is manifested by the action of oxygen radicals.

  3. Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole-leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than to solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Siipola, Sari M; Kotilainen, Titta; Sipari, Nina; Morales, Luis O; Lindfors, Anders V; Robson, T Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV-B; (2) attenuate UV-B and UV-A < 370 nm; (3) attenuate UV-B and UV-A; (4) attenuate UV-B, UV-A and blue light; and (5) as a control not attenuating these wavebands. Attenuation of blue light significantly reduced the flavonoid content in leaf adaxial epidermis and reduced the whole-leaf concentrations of quercetin derivatives relative to kaempferol derivatives. In contrast, UV-B responses were not significant. These results show that pea plants regulate epidermal UV-A absorbance and accumulation of individual flavonoids by perceiving complex radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV-B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors.

  4. Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole-leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than to solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Siipola, Sari M; Kotilainen, Titta; Sipari, Nina; Morales, Luis O; Lindfors, Anders V; Robson, T Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV-B; (2) attenuate UV-B and UV-A < 370 nm; (3) attenuate UV-B and UV-A; (4) attenuate UV-B, UV-A and blue light; and (5) as a control not attenuating these wavebands. Attenuation of blue light significantly reduced the flavonoid content in leaf adaxial epidermis and reduced the whole-leaf concentrations of quercetin derivatives relative to kaempferol derivatives. In contrast, UV-B responses were not significant. These results show that pea plants regulate epidermal UV-A absorbance and accumulation of individual flavonoids by perceiving complex radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV-B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors. PMID:25040832

  5. [Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the growth of five bryophytes in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Huan; Gu, Yan-Hong; Liu, Peng; Zoltán, Tuba

    2007-09-01

    Five bryophytes (Rhytidium rugosum, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, Hylocomium splendens, Hylocomium pyrenaicum, and Polytrichum alpinum) were exposed to 0.2 kJ x m(-2) x d(-1) (visible light under native condition, CK), 3.0 kJ x m(-2) x d(-1) (simulated dose of UV-B irradiance at the tundra in Changbai Mountains, medium dose of UV-B irradiance, T1), and 6.0 kJ x m(-2) x d(-1) (high dose of UV-B irradiance, T2) to investigate the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on plant height, biomass, and chlorophyll content. The results indicated that medium and high UV-B radiations decreased the plant height, biomass, and chlorophyll content of R. triquetrus and H. splendens by 32.3%, 62.4%, and 81.3%, and 21.4%, 59.4%, and 62.8%, respectively, and the relative growth rates were negative. Enhanced UV-B radiations had less effect on P. alpinum chlorophyll content but doubled its below-ground biomass, and slightly increased the biomass of R. rugosum. P. alpinum and R. rugosum had higher tolerance against UV-B radiation, while R. triquetrus and H. splendens were more sensitive to UV-B radiation.

  6. Re-interpreting plant morphological responses to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Robson, T Matthew; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to reappraise the effects of UV-B radiation on plant morphology in light of improved mechanistic understanding of UV-B effects, particularly elucidation of the UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) photoreceptor. We review responses at cell and organismal levels, and explore their underlying regulatory mechanisms, function in UV protection and consequences for plant fitness. UV-induced morphological changes include thicker leaves, shorter petioles, shorter stems, increased axillary branching and altered root:shoot ratios. At the cellular level, UV-B morphogenesis comprises changes in cell division, elongation and/or differentiation. However, notwithstanding substantial new knowledge of molecular, cellular and organismal UV-B responses, there remains a clear gap in our understanding of the interactions between these organizational levels, and how they control plant architecture. Furthermore, despite a broad consensus that UV-B induces relatively compact architecture, we note substantial diversity in reported phenotypes. This may relate to UV-induced morphological changes being underpinned by different mechanisms at high and low UV-B doses. It remains unproven whether UV-induced morphological changes have a protective function involving shading and decreased leaf penetration of UV-B, counterbalancing trade-offs such as decreased photosynthetic light capture and plant-competitive abilities. Future research will need to disentangle seemingly contradictory interactions occurring at the threshold UV dose where regulation and stress-induced morphogenesis overlap.

  7. UV radiation, vitamin D, and cancer: how to measure the vitamin D synthetic capacity of UV sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenetskaya, Irina; Orlova, Tatiana

    2005-09-01

    UV irradiation is widely used in phototherapy. Regardless of the fact that UV overexposure is liable to cause adverse health effect, in appropriate doses UV radiation initiates synthesis of vitamin D in skin that is absolutely essential for human health. As it proved, most people in northern industrial countries have a level of vitamin D in their bodies that is insufficient for optimum health, especially in winter. These low levels of vitamin D are now known to be associated with a wide spectrum of serious disease much of which leads on to premature death. The diseases associated with D deficiency involve more than a dozen types of cancer including colon, breast and prostate, as well as the classic bone diseases: rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Irradiation with artificial UV sources can prevent the vitamin D deficiency. However, in view of different irradiation spectra of UV lamps, their ability to initiate vitamin D synthesis is different. The reliable method based on an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis has been developed for direct measurement in situ of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of artificial UV sources during a phototherapeutic procedure

  8. Human skin pigmentation as an adaptation to UV radiation

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Nina G.; Chaplin, George

    2010-01-01

    Human skin pigmentation is the product of two clines produced by natural selection to adjust levels of constitutive pigmentation to levels of UV radiation (UVR). One cline was generated by high UVR near the equator and led to the evolution of dark, photoprotective, eumelanin-rich pigmentation. The other was produced by the requirement for UVB photons to sustain cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D3 in low-UVB environments, and resulted in the evolution of depigmented skin. As hominins dispersed outside of the tropics, they experienced different intensities and seasonal mixtures of UVA and UVB. Extreme UVA throughout the year and two equinoctial peaks of UVB prevail within the tropics. Under these conditions, the primary selective pressure was to protect folate by maintaining dark pigmentation. Photolysis of folate and its main serum form of 5-methylhydrofolate is caused by UVR and by reactive oxygen species generated by UVA. Competition for folate between the needs for cell division, DNA repair, and melanogenesis is severe under stressful, high-UVR conditions and is exacerbated by dietary insufficiency. Outside of tropical latitudes, UVB levels are generally low and peak only once during the year. The populations exhibiting maximally depigmented skin are those inhabiting environments with the lowest annual and summer peak levels of UVB. Development of facultative pigmentation (tanning) was important to populations settling between roughly 23° and 46° , where levels of UVB varied strongly according to season. Depigmented and tannable skin evolved numerous times in hominin evolution via independent genetic pathways under positive selection. PMID:20445093

  9. The nucleotide excision repair pathway is required for UV-C-induced apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, L; Doukoumetzidis, K; Sendoel, A; Hengartner, M O

    2007-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a mutagen of major clinical importance in humans. UV-induced damage activates multiple signaling pathways, which initiate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To better understand these pathways, we studied the responses to UV-C light (254 nm) of germ cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that UV activates the same cellular responses in worms as in mammalian cells. Both UV-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were completely dependent on the p53 homolog CEP-1, the checkpoint proteins HUS-1 and CLK-2, and the checkpoint kinases CHK-2 and ATL-1 (the C. elegans homolog of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related); ATM-1 (ataxia telangiectasia mutated-1) was also required, but only at low irradiation doses. Importantly, mutation of genes encoding nucleotide excision repair pathway components severely disrupted both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that these genes not only participate in repair, but also signal the presence of damage to downstream components of the UV response pathway that we delineate here. Our study suggests that whereas DNA damage response pathways are conserved in metazoans in their general outline, there is significant evolution in the relative importance of individual checkpoint genes in the response to specific types of DNA damage.

  10. Sensory perception and transduction of UV-B radiation by the ciliate Blepharisma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Lenci, F; Checcucci, G; Ghetti, F; Gioffrè, D; Sgarbossa, A

    1997-07-19

    A key question to answer studying the biological effects of ultraviolet radiation on planktonic micro-organisms is whether they can perceive UV-B radiation as a sensory signal, likewise they do with visible light. We have faced this problem performing an individual-cell analysis of Blepharisma japonicum photomotile responses to UV-B stimuli. Our results on spectral responsiveness and on the effects of a photoresponse inhibitor indicate that B. japonicum is capable to perceive and transduce UV-B radiation as an environmental sensory stimulus, which it escapes from gathering in shadowed areas. Similar UV-B avoidance motile reactions could serve as a behavioural defence mechanism contributing to avoid harmful overexposure to UV-B.

  11. MicroRNA-22 promotes cell survival upon UV radiation by repressing PTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Guangyun; Shi, Yuling; Wu, Zhao-Hui

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-22 is induced in cells treated with UV radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATM is required for miR-22 induction in response to UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-22 targets 3 Prime -UTR of PTEN to repress its expression in UV-treated cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated miR-22 inhibits apoptosis in cells exposed to UV. -- Abstract: DNA damage response upon UV radiation involves a complex network of cellular events required for maintaining the homeostasis and restoring genomic stability of the cells. As a new class of players involved in DNA damage response, the regulation and function of microRNAs in response to UV remain poorly understood. Here we show that UV radiation induces a significant increase of miR-22 expression, which appears to be dependent on the activation of DNA damage responding kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated). Increased miR-22 expression may result from enhanced miR-22 maturation in cells exposed to UV. We further found that tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression was inversely correlated with miR-22 induction and UV-induced PTEN repression was attenuated by overexpression of a miR-22 inhibitor. Moreover, increased miR-22 expression significantly inhibited the activation of caspase signaling cascade, leading to enhanced cell survival upon UV radiation. Collectively, these results indicate that miR-22 is an important player in the cellular stress response upon UV radiation, which may promote cell survival via the repression of PTEN expression.

  12. Growth of a mat-forming photograph in the presence of UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Beverly K.; Ruff, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the survival and growth of microorganisms in the presence of ultraviolet radiation is important for understanding the potential for life to exist in environments exposed to high fluxes of UV radiation. The growth of a mat-forming phototrophic prokaryote, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, was examined in the presence of continuous high UV irradiation under otherwise optimal growth conditions. Evidence was sought for an intrinsic ability to grow in the presence of UV radiation in a carefully chosen organism known to be unusually resistant to UV radiation, of ancient lineage among the phototrophs, to resemble ancient microfossils from the Precambrian, and to be a mat-former. It was assumed that even a high intrinsic UV resistance would be inadequate for survival and growth in the presence of very high UV fluxes, and iron (Fe3+) was selected as a common, abundant UV-absorbing substance that might protest microorganisms growing in or under iron-bearing sediments. The effectiveness of Fe(3+) was tested as a UV protective agent at low concentrations in thin layers. It was concluded that intrinsic UV resistance in some organisms may account for growth, not just survival, of these organisms when exposed to high UV fluxes under otherwise optimal growth conditions in an anoxic environment. It was also concluded that Fe(3+) bearing sediments of 1 mm or less in thickness may provide an adequate shield against high UV fluxes permitting the growth of microorganisms just below their surface. As long as growth conditions were met, then the evolution and development of microorganisms would not be hampered by high UV fluxes impinging upon the surface of iron-bearing sediments.

  13. Degassing a vacuum system with in-situ UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Koebley, Sean R.; Outlaw, Ronald A.; Dellwo, Randy R.

    2012-11-15

    Photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) from a high-powered ultraviolet source was investigated as a technique to degas a vacuum system. A stainless steel vacuum system was pumped down from atmosphere with different time doses of 185 nm light, and the resulting outgassing rates were compared to that of a control pumpdown without UV assistance. PSD was found to provide a factor of 2 advantage in pumpdown pressure after only 30 min of UV exposure, with no additional advantage observed for longer irradiation times. Specifically, an outgassing rate of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} Torr L s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} was reached 3 h sooner in pumpdowns with UV assistance compared to those without UV, while a rate of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} Torr L s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} was reached 16 h sooner in UV runs. The authors calculated that about 22 monolayers of water were desorbed after 30 min of UV exposure. The results indicate that PSD by a 40 W 185 nm UV source can serve as a nonthermal technique to significantly speed the pumpdown of a vacuum system from atmosphere after only 30 min.

  14. Comparison of changes in metal toxicity following exposure of water with high dissolved organic carbon content to solar, UV-B and UV-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Winch, Susan; Lean, David

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effects of natural solar radiation on the metal-binding capacity of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Newington Bog water (35.5 mg L(-1) dissolved organic carbon [DOC]) was irradiated for 20 days under UV-B lamps in the laboratory and under natural solar radiation. In the presence of irradiated DOM, IC(50) (contaminant concentration required to reduce algal growth by 50%) was significantly decreased with UV-B treatment for four metals: Pb, 64%; Cu, 63%; Ni, 35% and Cd, 40%. Solar radiation also significantly decreased IC(50) of Pb (58%) and Cu (49%), DOC concentration (11%), DOM fluorescence (DOMFL, 33%) and DOC-specific UV absorbance. Further experiments on Raisin River water (20.7 mg DOC L(-1)) exposed to 20 days of artificial UV-A and UV-B radiation produced significant decreases in IC(50) for Cu (48%) with UV-A and for Pb (43%) with UV-B. DOC concentration was decreased 20% by UV-B and 24% by UV-A. DOMFL decreased 51.5% in the first 5 days of UV-A exposure, an effect that was not observed with the UV-B treatment. The UV-A treatment decreased UV absorbance more at longer wavelengths and over a broader wavelength band than did the UV-B treatment. Change in toxicity with UV irradiation was inconsistent among the metals tested in this study, indicating that some organic metal-binding ligands were more quickly removed or altered than others. The DOM remaining after irradiation appears to be qualitatively different from the unirradiated DOM. The much greater irradiance of UV-A makes its contribution to the removal and/or alteration of DOM at least as important as the influence of higher energy UV-B.

  15. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SOLAR UV RADIATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper assesses research on the interactions of UV radiation (280-400 nm) and global climate change with global biogeochemical cycles at the Earth's surface. The effects of UV-B (280-315 nm), which are dependent on the stratospheric ozone layer, on biogeochemical cycles are o...

  16. INTERACTIONS OF SOLAR UV RADIATION AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface of aquatic environments. Recent studies have demonstrated that these UV increases cause changes in photochemical reactions that affect the...

  17. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on canopy structure of Ulva communities from southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Kai; Peralta, Gloria; Kräbs, Gudrun; Van De Poll, Willem H; Pérez-Lloréns, José Lucas; Breeman, Anneke M

    2002-12-01

    Within the sheltered creeks of Cádiz bay, Ulva thalli form extended mat-like canopies. The effect of solar ultraviolet radiation on photosynthetic activity, the composition of photosynthetic and xanthophyll cycle pigments, and the amount of RubisCO, chaperonin 60 (CPN 60), and the induction of DNA damage in Ulva aff. rotundata Bliding from southern Spain was assessed in the field. Samples collected from the natural community were covered by screening filters, generating different radiation conditions. During daily cycles, individual thalli showed photoinhibitory effects of the natural solar radiation. This inhibition was even more pronounced in samples only exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Strongly increased heat dissipation in these samples indicated the activity of regulatory mechanisms involved in dynamic photoinhibition. Adverse effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis were only observed in combination with high levels of PAR, indicating the synergistic effects of the two wavelength ranges. In samples exposed either to PAR+UV-A or to UV-B+UV-A without PAR, no inhibition of photosynthetic quantum yield was found in the course of the day. At the natural site, the top layer of the mat-like canopies is generally completely bleached. Artificially designed Ulva canopies exhibited fast bleaching of the top layer under the natural solar radiation conditions, while this was not observed in canopies either shielded from UV or from PAR. The bleached first layer of the canopies acts as a selective UV-B filter, and thus prevents subcanopy thalli from exposure to harmful radiation. This was confirmed by the differences in photosynthetic activity, pigment composition, and the concentration of RubisCO in thalli with different positions within the canopy. In addition, the induction of the stress protein CPN 60 under UV exposure and the low accumulation of DNA damage indicate the presence of physiological protection mechanisms against harmful UV-B. A

  18. Induction of UV photoproducts and DNA damage by solar simulator UV irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfreys, A.; Henderson, L.; Clingen, P.

    1997-10-01

    The recent increased incidence of skin cancer and the depletion of the ozone layer has increased interest in the ultraviolet (UV) component of natural sunlight and its role in the induction of skin cancer. Previous research on UV radiation has concentrated on UVC (254nm) but, as only UVB and UVA are present in natural sunlight, its relevance is unknown. We have investigated the induction of two forms of direct DNA damage - the pyrimidine dimer and the (6-4) photoproduct - in human DNA repair deficient XP-G (Xeroderma pigmentosum group G) lymphoblastoid cells following exposure to simulated sunlight. As exposure to natural sunlight is highly variable, a solar simulator lamp was used which is known to mimic natural sunlight at midday in Central Europe. Cells were irradiated on ice to minimise DNA repair and the relative induction of pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts was measured using specific monoclonal antibodies and a computer assisted image analysis system. A time dependent increase in both cyclobutane dimer and (6-4) photoproduct antibody binding sites was seen. The increases in pyrimidine dimer and (6-4) photoproduct antibody binding sites differed to that reported with natural sunlight in the UK but was similar to that seen with a similar solar simulator lamp.

  19. Theoretical models of interstellar shocks. I - Radiative transfer and UV precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. M.; Mckee, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical models of interstellar radiative shocks are constructed, with special attention to the transfer of ionizing radiation. These models are 'self-consistent' in the sense that the emergent ionizing radiation (the UV precursor) is coupled with the ionization state of H, He, and the metals in the preshock gas. For shock velocities of at least 110 km/s the shocks generate sufficient UV radiation for complete preionization of H and He, the latter to He(+). At lower velocities the preionization can be much smaller, with important consequences for the cooling function, the shock structure, and the emission. For models with shock velocities of 40 to 130 km/s the intensities of the strongest emission lines in the UV, optical, and infrared are tabulated, as well as postshock column densities of metal ions potentially observable by UV absorption spectroscopy. Possible applications to supernova remnants and high-velocity interstellar gas are assessed.

  20. Environmental controls of UV-B radiation in forested streams of northern Michigan.

    PubMed

    Frost, Paul C; Mack, Alyson; Larson, James H; Bridgham, Scott D; Lamberti, Gary A

    2006-01-01

    We examined UV-B radiation flux and its environmental control within and among streams of northern Michigan. UV-B flux was estimated in streams by plastic dosimetry strips, which allow for the simultaneous and repeated in situ measurement of solar radiation. During the summer of 2004, UV-B flux was measured across depth gradients and along longitudinal transects in seven streams, which were chosen to encompass a range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and canopy cover. Attenuation coefficients of UV-B (K(d) (UV-B)) were estimated using plastic dosimeters placed along a depth gradient. K(d UV-B) were positively correlated with DOC concentration and similar to values obtained with laboratory and in situ spectrometry. Along 100 m longitudinal transects, UV-B flux varied along all streams regardless of their canopy cover and DOC concentration. Within-stream fluxes of UV-B were correlated to canopy cover in the only two streams that both had relatively low DOC concentration and variable canopy cover. Large differences were found among streams in the average UV-B flux (corrected for incident solar flux) reaching the dosimeters at 5 cm depth. These among-stream differences were largely accounted for by the stream width, canopy cover, and DOC concentration. Our results illustrate an inherent variability in UV-B flux within and among streams of northern Michigan that is strongly tied to the interactions of DOC concentration, stream size and riparian vegetation. PMID:16454579

  1. A study of enhanced performance of VUV/UV process for the degradation of micropollutants from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Mehdi; Mohseni, Madjid

    2015-08-30

    VUV/UV is a chemical-free and straightforward solution for the degradation of emerging contaminants from water sources. The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of VUV/UV advanced oxidation process for the effective degradation of a target micropollutant, atrazine, under continuous flow operation of 0.5-6.5L/min. To provide an in-depth understanding of process, a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, incorporating flow hydrodynamics, 185nm VUV and 254nm UV radiation propagation along with a complete kinetic scheme, was developed and validated experimentally. The experimental degradation rates and CFD predicted values showed great consistency with less than 2.9% average absolute relative deviation (AARD). Utilizing the verified model, energy-efficiency of the VUV/UV process under a wide range of reactor configurations was assessed in terms of electrical energy-per-order (EEO), OH concentration as well as delivered UV and VUV dose distributions. Thereby, the extent of mixing and circulation zones was found as key parameter controlling the treatment economy and energy-efficiency of the VUV/UV process. Utilizing a CFD-driven baffle design strategy, an improved VUV/UV process with up to 72% reduction in the total electrical energy requirement of atrazine degradation was introduced and verified experimentally. PMID:25827391

  2. Analysis of differentially expressed genes under UV-B radiation in the desert plant Reaumuria soongorica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiling; Li, Xinrong; Liu, Yubing; Shi, Yulan; Ma, Xiaofei

    2015-12-15

    Reaumuria soongorica is one of the typical desert plants that present excellent tolerance to adverse environments. However, its molecular response to UV-B radiation remains poorly understood. To test the response and tolerance mechanisms of R. soongorica to the increasing UV-B radiation, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated between the control and UV-B radiation groups. A total of 2150 DEGs were detected between the two groups, of which 561 were up-regulated and 1589 were down-regulated. For functional analysis, DEGs were divided into three groups: (i) Chloroplast-localized proteins, including photosynthesis-associated proteins, ribulose-phosphate-3-epimerase, and ATP-dependent Clp protease. Their transcripts were inhibited, implying that the normal function of chloroplast was affected by UV-B radiation. (ii) Proteins involved in signaling transduction, such as phototropins and GTP-binding proteins. The transcriptional alternation of phototropins may reduce the penetration of UV-B radiation by regulating phototropism, stomatal opening, and chloroplast relocation. The down regulation of GTP-binding proteins may inhibit replication of potentially damaged DNA through preventing cell division; and (iii) proteins for lipid transfer and flavonoids biosynthesis. The up-regulation of these genes suggested that lipid transfer and flavonoids may have a protective function in response to UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-B radiation may lead to the disruption of chloroplasts function. The induction of genes for signal transduction and protective proteins may be a strategy for responding to UV-B radiation in R. soongorica. PMID:26277248

  3. Analysis of differentially expressed genes under UV-B radiation in the desert plant Reaumuria soongorica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiling; Li, Xinrong; Liu, Yubing; Shi, Yulan; Ma, Xiaofei

    2015-12-15

    Reaumuria soongorica is one of the typical desert plants that present excellent tolerance to adverse environments. However, its molecular response to UV-B radiation remains poorly understood. To test the response and tolerance mechanisms of R. soongorica to the increasing UV-B radiation, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated between the control and UV-B radiation groups. A total of 2150 DEGs were detected between the two groups, of which 561 were up-regulated and 1589 were down-regulated. For functional analysis, DEGs were divided into three groups: (i) Chloroplast-localized proteins, including photosynthesis-associated proteins, ribulose-phosphate-3-epimerase, and ATP-dependent Clp protease. Their transcripts were inhibited, implying that the normal function of chloroplast was affected by UV-B radiation. (ii) Proteins involved in signaling transduction, such as phototropins and GTP-binding proteins. The transcriptional alternation of phototropins may reduce the penetration of UV-B radiation by regulating phototropism, stomatal opening, and chloroplast relocation. The down regulation of GTP-binding proteins may inhibit replication of potentially damaged DNA through preventing cell division; and (iii) proteins for lipid transfer and flavonoids biosynthesis. The up-regulation of these genes suggested that lipid transfer and flavonoids may have a protective function in response to UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-B radiation may lead to the disruption of chloroplasts function. The induction of genes for signal transduction and protective proteins may be a strategy for responding to UV-B radiation in R. soongorica.

  4. Ultraviolet radiation as an ant repellent

    SciTech Connect

    Thorvilson, H.G.; Russell, S.A.; Green, B.; Gransberg, D.

    1996-12-31

    In an effort to repel red imported fire ants (RIFA) from electrical devices, such as transformers, ultraviolet (UV) light was tested. Initial tests determined if RIFA`s tolerate a UV-irradiated environment when given a choice between UV-irradiated and non-irradiated. All replications in this test indicated that RIFA`s are intolerant of UV-irradiation and sought to escape it. RIFA`s moved to shaded environments and transported their brood out its well. A second test sought to determine if long-term UV-irradiation of the entire colonies cause increased RIFA mortality. Queenright colonies were exposed to UV irradiation of 254nm constantly for 115 days and colonies had a higher mortality rate than did a control colony. RIFA`s attempted to escape UV light and had increased rate when exposed to UV (254nm), but a practical application of this technique may be detrimental to insulation on electrical wiring.

  5. Molecular and physiological effects of environmental UV radiation on fungal conidia.

    PubMed

    Braga, Gilberto U L; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Flint, Stephan D; Roberts, Donald W

    2015-08-01

    Conidia are specialized structures produced at the end of the asexual life cycle of most filamentous fungi. They are responsible for fungal dispersal and environmental persistence. In pathogenic species, they are also involved in host recognition and infection. Conidial production, survival, dispersal, germination, pathogenicity and virulence can be strongly influenced by exposure to solar radiation, although its effects are diverse and often species dependent. UV radiation is the most harmful and mutagenic waveband of the solar spectrum. Direct exposure to solar radiation for a few hours can kill conidia of most fungal species. Conidia are killed both by solar UV-A and UV-B radiation. In addition to killing conidia, which limits the size of the fungal population and its dispersion, exposures to sublethal doses of UV radiation can reduce conidial germination speed and virulence. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the effects of solar radiation on conidia and on the major systems involved in protection from and repair of damage induced by solar UV radiation. The efforts that have been made to obtain strains of fungi of interest such as entomopathogens more tolerant to solar radiation will also be reviewed.

  6. Growth enhancement of soybean (Glycine max) upon exclusion of UV-B and UV-B/A components of solar radiation: characterization of photosynthetic parameters in leaves.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Kadur; Kadur, Guruprasad; Bhattacharjee, Swapan; Swapan, Bhattacharjee; Kataria, Sunita; Sunita, Kataria; Yadav, Sanjeev; Sanjeev, Yadav; Tiwari, Arjun; Arjun, Tiwari; Baroniya, Sanjay; Sanjay, Baroniya; Rajiv, Abhinav; Abhinav, Rajiv; Mohanty, Prasanna

    2007-01-01

    Exclusion of UV (280-380 nm) radiation from the solar spectrum can be an important tool to assess the impact of ambient UV radiation on plant growth and performance of crop plants. The effect of exclusion of UV-B and UV-A from solar radiation on the growth and photosynthetic components in soybean (Glycine max) leaves were investigated. Exclusion of solar UV-B and UV-B/A radiation, enhanced the fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area as well as induced a dramatic increase in plant height, which reflected a net increase in biomass. Dry weight increase per unit leaf area was quite significant upon both UV-B and UV-B/A exclusion from the solar spectrum. However, no changes in chlorophyll a and b contents were observed by exclusion of solar UV radiation but the content of carotenoids was significantly (34-46%) lowered. Analysis of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence transient parameters of leaf segments suggested no change in the F v/F m value due to UV-B or UV-B/A exclusion. Only a small reduction in photo-oxidized signal I (P700+)/unit Chl was noted. Interestingly the total soluble protein content per unit leaf area increased by 18% in UV-B/A and 40% in UV-B excluded samples, suggesting a unique upregulation of biosynthesis and accumulation of biomass. Solar UV radiation thus seems to primarily affect the photomorphogenic regulatory system that leads to an enhanced growth of leaves and an enhanced rate of net photosynthesis in soybean, a crop plant of economic importance. The presence of ultra-violet components in sunlight seems to arrest carbon sequestration in plants.

  7. Near-UV radiation acts as a beneficial factor for physiological responses in cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Mitani-Sano, Makiko; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-11-01

    Effects of near-UV radiation on the growth and physiological activity of cucumber plants were investigated morphologically, physiologically and biochemically using 3-week-old seedlings grown under polyvinyl chloride films featuring transmission either above 290 nm or above 400 nm in growth chambers. The hypocotyl length and leaf area of cucumber seedlings were reduced but the thickness of leaves was enhanced by near-UV radiation, due to increased upper/lower epidermis thickness, palisade parenchyma thickness and volume of palisade parenchyma cells. Photosynthetic and respiratory activities were also promoted by near-UV radiation, associated with general enhancement of physiological/biochemical responses. Particularly, metabolic activities in the photosynthetic system of chloroplasts and the respiratory system of mitochondria were analyzed under the conditions of visible light with and without near-UV radiation. For example, the activities of NAD(P)-dependent enzymes such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) in chloroplasts and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in mitochondria were elevated, along with levels of pyridine nucleotides (nicotinamide coenzymes) [NAD(H) and NADP(H)] and activity of NAD kinase (NADP forming enzyme). Taken together, these data suggest that promotion of cucumber plant growth by near-UV radiation involves activation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. The findings of this research showed that near-UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface is a beneficial factor for plant growth.

  8. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck).

    PubMed

    Nahon, Sarah; Castro Porras, Viviana A; Pruski, Audrey M; Charles, François

    2009-03-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m(-2), fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m(-2) and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m(-2) UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment. PMID:19157510

  9. Effects of solar UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with climate change.

    PubMed

    Häder, D-P; Kumar, H D; Smith, R C; Worrest, R C

    2007-03-01

    Recent results continue to show the general consensus that ozone-related increases in UV-B radiation can negatively influence many aquatic species and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, rivers, marshes, oceans). Solar UV radiation penetrates to ecological significant depths in aquatic systems and can affect both marine and freshwater systems from major biomass producers (phytoplankton) to consumers (e.g., zooplankton, fish, etc.) higher in the food web. Many factors influence the depth of penetration of radiation into natural waters including dissolved organic compounds whose concentration and chemical composition are likely to be influenced by future climate and UV radiation variability. There is also considerable evidence that aquatic species utilize many mechanisms for photoprotection against excessive radiation. Often, these protective mechanisms pose conflicting selection pressures on species making UV radiation an additional stressor on the organism. It is at the ecosystem level where assessments of anthropogenic climate change and UV-related effects are interrelated and where much recent research has been directed. Several studies suggest that the influence of UV-B at the ecosystem level may be more pronounced on community and trophic level structure, and hence on subsequent biogeochemical cycles, than on biomass levels per se. PMID:17344962

  10. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the responds of desert cyanobacterium Nostoc sp under UV-B radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Hu, Chunxiang; Liu, Yongding

    Cyanobacteria are renowned for tolerating extremes of desiccation, UV radiation, freezethaw cycles, hypersalinity and oligotrophy, which make them as candidate par excellence for terraforming in extraterrestrial planet. Recently Raman spectrum was applied to study the biochemical information changes in different field of life science. In this study, we investigated the respond of desert cyanobactreium Nostoc sp under UV-B radiation via FT-Raman spectra. It was found that the spectral biomarkers of protectant molecular of UV radiation such as β-carotene and scytonemin were induced by UV-B radiation, but Chlorophyll a content was decreased, and also the photosynthesis activity was inhibited significantly. After light adaptation without UV-B radiation, the Chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis activity returned to high level, butβ-carotene and scytonemin content remained in the cells. Those results indicated that desert Cyanobacteria have good adaptation ability for UV-B radiation and synthesis of protectant molecular may be an effective strategy for its adaptation in evolution.

  11. Hypersensitivity of skin fibroblasts from basal cell nevus syndrome patients to killing by ultraviolet B but not by ultraviolet C radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, L.A.; Goldberg, L.H.; Ley, R.D.; Ananthaswamy, H.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder in which the afflicted individuals are extremely susceptible to sunlight-induced skin cancers, particularly basal cell carcinomas. However, the cellular and molecular basis for BCNS is unknown. To ascertain whether there is any relationship between genetic predisposition to skin cancer and increased sensitivity of somatic cells from BCNS patients to killing by UV radiation, we exposed skin fibroblasts established from unexposed skin biopsies of several BCNS and age- and sex-matched normal individuals to either UV-B (280-320 nm) or UV-C (254 nm) radiation and determined their survival. The results indicated that skin fibroblasts from BCNS patients were hypersensitive to killing by UV-B but not UV-C radiation as compared to skin fibroblasts from normal individuals. DNA repair studies indicated that the increased sensitivity of BCNS skin fibroblasts to killing by UV-B radiation was not due to a defect in the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that there is an association between hypersensitivity of somatic cells to killing by UV-B radiation and the genetic predisposition to skin cancer in BCNS patients. In addition, these results suggest that DNA lesions (and repair processes) other than the pyrimidine dimer are also involved in the pathogenesis of sunlight-induced skin cancers in BCNS patients. More important, the UV-B sensitivity assay described here may be used as a diagnostic tool to identify presymptomatic individuals with BCNS.

  12. Degradation of n-butylparaben and 4- tert-octylphenol in H 2O 2/UV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BŁędzka, Dorota; Gryglik, Dorota; Olak, Magdalena; Gębicki, Jerzy L.; Miller, Jacek S.

    2010-04-01

    The degradation of two endocrine disrupting compounds: n-butylparaben (BP) and 4- tert-octylphenol (OP) in the H 2O 2/UV system was studied. The effect of operating variables: initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, initial substrate concentration, pH of the reaction solution and photon fluency rate of radiation at 254 nm on reaction rate was investigated. The influence of hydroxyl radical scavengers, humic acid and nitrate anion on reaction course was also studied. A very weak scavenging effect during BP degradation was observed indicating reactions different from hydroxyl radical oxidation. The second-order rate constants of BP and OP with OH radicals were estimated to be 4.8×10 9 and 4.2×10 9 M -1 s -1, respectively. For BP the rate constant equal to 2.0×10 10 M -1 s -1was also determined using water radiolysis as a source of hydroxyl radicals.

  13. Active oxygen species mediate the solar ultraviolet radiation-dependent increase in the tumour suppressor protein p53 in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Vile, G F

    1997-07-21

    Active oxygen species mediate many of the biological consequences of exposing cultured human skin cells to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (290-380 nm). A critical step in the escape from the carcinogenic potential of UV radiation is mediated by the protein p53. P53 activates growth arrest, allowing for DNA repair, and apoptosis, which removes damaged cells. Here I show that p53 in cultured human skin fibroblasts is elevated after treatment with hydrogen peroxide, an oxidant produced in cells during exposure to solar UV radiation. Simulated solar UV radiation increased p53, and agents that scavenge active oxygen species, N-acetylcysteine, ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol, inhibited the increase. The generation of DNA single strand breaks has been proposed to be an important step in the pathway leading to the increase in p53 initiated by a variety of cytotoxic agents. In this study I show that compounds that allow the accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, ara c and hydroxyurea, enhanced the UVC radiation (254 nm)-dependent increase in p53, but had no effect on the solar UV radiation-dependent increase. Thus, while DNA single strand breaks are involved in the UVC radiation-dependent increase in p53, the increase caused by solar UV radiation occurs by an alternative mechanism involving active oxygen species.

  14. Identification of antimycotic drugs transformation products upon UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Casado, Jorge; Rodríguez, Isaac; Ramil, María; Cela, Rafael

    2015-05-30

    The reactivity of three imidazolic, environmental persistent antimycotic drugs (clotrimazole, CTZ; ketoconazole, KTZ; and miconazole, MCZ) upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is discussed. First, precursor compounds were immobilized in a silicone support which was further exposed to UV light at two different wavelengths: 254 and 365 nm. After solvent desorption, degradation kinetics of the precursor pharmaceuticals, identification of the arising transformation products (TPs) and evaluation of their time-course were investigated by liquid chromatography (LC) with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) detection. The three antimycotics displayed similar stabilities when exposed to 254 nm light; however, CTZ was significantly more stable than MCZ and KTZ when irradiated with the 365 nm lamp. TPs identified in silicone supports resulted from de-chlorination, cleavage, intra-molecular cyclization and hydroxylation reactions. Many of these species were also detected when exposing other solid matrices, such as sand and agricultural soil, previously spiked with target compounds, to UV light. The 50% estimated lethal concentration, calculated using the 48-h Daphnia magna test, for the two main TPs of CTZ and MCZ, at both wavelengths, were lower than those corresponding to the precursor drugs.

  15. Identification of antimycotic drugs transformation products upon UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Casado, Jorge; Rodríguez, Isaac; Ramil, María; Cela, Rafael

    2015-05-30

    The reactivity of three imidazolic, environmental persistent antimycotic drugs (clotrimazole, CTZ; ketoconazole, KTZ; and miconazole, MCZ) upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is discussed. First, precursor compounds were immobilized in a silicone support which was further exposed to UV light at two different wavelengths: 254 and 365 nm. After solvent desorption, degradation kinetics of the precursor pharmaceuticals, identification of the arising transformation products (TPs) and evaluation of their time-course were investigated by liquid chromatography (LC) with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) detection. The three antimycotics displayed similar stabilities when exposed to 254 nm light; however, CTZ was significantly more stable than MCZ and KTZ when irradiated with the 365 nm lamp. TPs identified in silicone supports resulted from de-chlorination, cleavage, intra-molecular cyclization and hydroxylation reactions. Many of these species were also detected when exposing other solid matrices, such as sand and agricultural soil, previously spiked with target compounds, to UV light. The 50% estimated lethal concentration, calculated using the 48-h Daphnia magna test, for the two main TPs of CTZ and MCZ, at both wavelengths, were lower than those corresponding to the precursor drugs. PMID:25710817

  16. Biological space experiments for the simulation of Martian conditions: UV radiation and Martian soil analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Rabbow, E.; Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.

    2004-01-01

    The survivability of resistant terrestrial microbes, bacterial spores of Bacillus subtilis, was investigated in the BIOPAN facility of the European Space Agency onboard of Russian Earth-orbiting FOTON satellites (BIOPAN I -III missions). The spores were exposed to different subsets of the extreme environmental parameters in space (vacuum, extraterrestrial solar UV, shielding by protecting materials like artificial meteorites). The results of the three space experiments confirmed the deleterious effects of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation which, in contrast to the UV radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, also contains the very energy-rich, short wavelength UVB and UVC radiation. Thin layers of clay, rock or meteorite material were shown to be only successful in UV-shielding, if they are in direct contact with the spores. On Mars the UV radiation climate is similar to that of the early Earth before the development of a protective ozone layer in the atmosphere by the appearance of the first aerobic photosynthetic bacteria. The interference of Martian soil components and the intense and nearly unfiltered Martian solar UV radiation with spores of B. subtilis will be tested with a new BIOPAN experiment, MARSTOX. Different types of Mars soil analogues will be used to determine on one hand their potential toxicity alone or in combination with solar UV (phototoxicity) and on the other hand their UV protection capability. Two sets of samples will be placed under different cut-off filters used to simulate the UV radiation climate of Mars and Earth. After exposure in space the survival of and mutation induction in the spores will be analyzed at the DLR, together with parallel samples from the corresponding ground control experiment performed in the laboratory. This experiment will provide new insights into the principal limits of life and its adaptation to environmental extremes on Earth or other planets which and will also have implications for the potential for the

  17. Biological space experiments for the simulation of Martian conditions: UV radiation and Martian soil analogues.

    PubMed

    Rettberg, P; Rabbow, E; Panitz, C; Horneck, G

    2004-01-01

    The survivability of resistant terrestrial microbes, bacterial spores of Bacillus subtilis, was investigated in the BIOPAN facility of the European Space Agency onboard of Russian Earth-orbiting FOTON satellites (BIOPAN I -III missions). The spores were exposed to different subsets of the extreme environmental parameters in space (vacuum, extraterrestrial solar UV, shielding by protecting materials like artificial meteorites). The results of the three space experiments confirmed the deleterious effects of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation which, in contrast to the UV radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, also contains the very energy-rich, short wavelength UVB and UVC radiation. Thin layers of clay, rock or meteorite material were shown to be only successful in UV-shielding, if they are in direct contact with the spores. On Mars the UV radiation climate is similar to that of the early Earth before the development of a protective ozone layer in the atmosphere by the appearance of the first aerobic photosynthetic bacteria. The interference of Martian soil components and the intense and nearly unfiltered Martian solar UV radiation with spores of B. subtilis will be tested with a new BIOPAN experiment, MARSTOX. Different types of Mars soil analogues will be used to determine on one hand their potential toxicity alone or in combination with solar UV (phototoxicity) and on the other hand their UV protection capability. Two sets of samples will be placed under different cut-off filters used to simulate the UV radiation climate of Mars and Earth. After exposure in space the survival of and mutation induction in the spores will be analyzed at the DLR, together with parallel samples from the corresponding ground control experiment performed in the laboratory. This experiment will provide new insights into the principal limits of life and its adaptation to environmental extremes on Earth or other planets which and will also have implications for the potential for the

  18. Reproductive, morphological, and phytochemical responses of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to enhanced UV-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbull, V.L.; McCloud, E.S.; Paige, K.N. )

    1994-06-01

    Two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, collected from Libya and Norway, were grown in the greenhouse under. UV-B doses of 0 and 10.5 kJ m[sup [minus]2] UV-B[sub BE]. The high UV-B dose simulated midsummer ambient conditions over Libya and a 40% reduction in stratospheric ozone over Norway. The Libyan ectotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is high, showed no UV-B induced damage to plant growth. However the Norwegian ecotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is low, showed a significant reduction in plant height, inflorescence weight, and rosette weight in response to enhanced UV-B. Although fruit and seed number for both ecotypes were unaffected by enhanced UV-B radiation the germination success of the seeds harvested from the irradiated Norwegian plants were significantly reduced. The two ecotypes also differed with respect to their accumulation of kaempferol, a putative UV-B protective filter. The Libyan ecotype increased kaempferol concentration by 38% over the 0 kJ treatment whereas the Norwegian ecotype increased by only 15%. These data suggest that, for these ecotypes, variation in UV-B sensitivity may be explained by the differential induction of UV-absorbing leaf pigments.

  19. The role of coccoliths in protecting Emiliania huxleyi against stressful light and UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Juntian; Bach, Lennart T.; Schulz, Kai G.; Zhao, Wenyan; Gao, Kunshan; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-08-01

    Coccolithophores are a group of phytoplankton species which cover themselves with small scales (coccoliths) made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The reason why coccolithophores form these calcite platelets has been a matter of debate for decades but has remained elusive so far. One hypothesis is that they play a role in light or UV protection, especially in surface dwelling species like Emiliania huxleyi, which can tolerate exceptionally high levels of solar radiation. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by culturing a calcified and a naked strain under different light conditions with and without UV radiation. The coccoliths of E. huxleyi reduced the transmission of visible radiation (400-700 nm) by 7.5 %, that of UV-A (315-400 nm) by 14.1 % and that of UV-B (280-315 nm) by 18.4 %. Growth rates of the calcified strain (PML B92/11) were about 2 times higher than those of the naked strain (CCMP 2090) under indoor constant light levels in the absence of UV radiation. When exposed to outdoor conditions (fluctuating sunlight with UV radiation), growth rates of calcified cells were almost 3.5 times higher compared to naked cells. Furthermore, the relative electron transport rate was 114 % higher and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was 281 % higher in the calcified compared to the naked strain, implying higher energy transfer associated with higher NPQ in the presence of calcification. When exposed to natural solar radiation including UV radiation, the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II was only slightly reduced in the calcified strain but strongly reduced in the naked strain. Our results reveal an important role of coccoliths in mitigating light and UV stress in E. huxleyi.

  20. Direct Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Freshwater Heterotrophic Nanoflagellate Paraphysomonas sp.▿

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Amy L.; Mitchell, David L.; Sanders, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of DNA photoproducts in organisms exposed to ambient levels of UV-B radiation can lead to death and/or reduced population growth in aquatic systems. Dependence on photoenzymatic repair to reverse DNA damage caused by UV-B radiation is demonstrated for Paraphysomonas sp., a member of a widely distributed genus of heterotrophic nanoflagellates. At 20°C, Paraphysomonas sp. was exposed to a range of UV-B intensities encountered in natural systems. Populations of the flagellate survived and grew in a dose-dependent manner, but only when simultaneously exposed to photorepair radiation (PRR). In contrast, flagellates exposed to UV-B at 15°C suffered 100% mortality except at the lowest UV-B level (with PRR) tested, which suggested a photorepair temperature optimum above 15°C. After acute UV-B exposures, DNA damage (measured as the formation of pyrimidine dimers) was reduced only in organisms that underwent subsequent exposure to PRR. Populations kept in the dark after UV-B exposure maintained the initial levels of pyrimidine dimers. These results are the first to demonstrate the reliance of a heterotrophic flagellate on photoenzymatic DNA repair for survival from UV-B exposure. PMID:19429560

  1. Integrity and biological activity of DNA after UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Delina Y; Monier, Jean-Michel; Dupraz, Sébastien; Freissinet, Caroline; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

    2010-04-01

    The field of astrobiology lacks a universal marker with which to indicate the presence of life. This study supports the proposal to use nucleic acids, specifically DNA, as a signature of life (biosignature). In addition to its specificity to living organisms, DNA is a functional molecule that can confer new activities and characteristics to other organisms, following the molecular biology dogma, that is, DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated into proteins. Previous criticisms of the use of DNA as a biosignature have asserted that DNA molecules would be destroyed by UV radiation in space. To address this concern, DNA in plasmid form was deposited onto different surfaces and exposed to UVC radiation. The surviving DNA was quantified via the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results demonstrate increased survivability of DNA attached to surfaces versus non-adsorbed DNA. The DNA was also tested for biological activity via transformation into the bacterium Acinetobacter sp. and assaying for antibiotic resistance conferred by genes encoded by the plasmid. The success of these methods to detect DNA and its gene products after UV exposure (254 nm, 3.5 J/m(2)s) not only supports the use of the DNA molecule as a biosignature on mineral surfaces but also demonstrates that the DNA retained biological activity.

  2. Integrity and Biological Activity of DNA after UV Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Delina Y.; Monier, Jean-Michel; Dupraz, Sébastien; Freissinet, Caroline; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M.

    2010-04-01

    The field of astrobiology lacks a universal marker with which to indicate the presence of life. This study supports the proposal to use nucleic acids, specifically DNA, as a signature of life (biosignature). In addition to its specificity to living organisms, DNA is a functional molecule that can confer new activities and characteristics to other organisms, following the molecular biology dogma, that is, DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated into proteins. Previous criticisms of the use of DNA as a biosignature have asserted that DNA molecules would be destroyed by UV radiation in space. To address this concern, DNA in plasmid form was deposited onto different surfaces and exposed to UVC radiation. The surviving DNA was quantified via the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results demonstrate increased survivability of DNA attached to surfaces versus non-adsorbed DNA. The DNA was also tested for biological activity via transformation into the bacterium Acinetobacter sp. and assaying for antibiotic resistance conferred by genes encoded by the plasmid. The success of these methods to detect DNA and its gene products after UV exposure (254 nm, 3.5 J/m2s) not only supports the use of the DNA molecule as a biosignature on mineral surfaces but also demonstrates that the DNA retained biological activity.

  3. [Responses of enzymes in terrestrial plants to enhanced UV-B radiation].

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaoqin; Liu, Qing

    2006-05-01

    With the destruction of ozone layer, ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280 to approximately 320nm) radiation has being enhanced at the earth's surface. The energy of UV-B irradiation is far higher than that of visible light, which could be absorbed by biomacromolecules such as protein and nuclei acid. Enzyme is a sort of protein catalyzing the biochemical processes, and its content and activity in plant have strong responses to enhanced UV-B radiation. This paper summarized the research advances in the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the key enzymes, mainly including antioxidant enzymes, ribulose-1, 5-diphosphoscarboxylase, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in terrestrial plants. Some suggestions for future research in this field were put forward.

  4. [Photosynthetic responses of wheat and pea seedlings to enhanced UV-C radiation and their resistances].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Li-Hong; He, Xing-Yuan; Hao, Lin

    2007-03-01

    With wheat and pea seedlings as test materials, this paper studied the effects of UV-C radiation on their leaf photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that enhanced UV-C radiation could markedly decrease the photosynthetic rate (Pn) , stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of pea leaves, but for wheat leaves, these parameters were increased first and decreased then. Under UV-C condition, the CO2 compensation point of leaf was increased for pea, but decreased first and increased then for wheat. With the increasing duration of UV-C radiation, the antioxidant enzyme activities of both test plants increased first and decreased then, except that the POD activity of pea and SOD activity of wheat decreased gradually. All of these suggested that wheat had a stronger resistance to short-time UV-C radiation than pea, but, with the prolonged duration of UV-C radiation, the photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and pea were all decreased.

  5. Decreased frost hardiness of Vaccinium vitis-idaea in reponse to UV-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Taulavuori, Kari; Keränen, Johanna; Suokanerva, Hanne; Lakkala, Kaisa; Huttunen, Satu; Laine, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate plant frost hardiness responses to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, since the few results reported are largely contradictory. It was hypothesized that functional adaptation of life forms could explain these contradictions. Dwarf shrubs and tree seedlings, representing both evergreen and deciduous forms, were tested (Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Vaccinium myrtillus, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens and its red form f. rubra). The research was performed in Sodankylä, Northern Finland (67°N), with enhanced UV-B- and UV-A-radiation treatments between 2002 and 2009. Plant frost hardiness was determined using the freeze-induced electrolyte leakage method in early autumn, during the onset of the frost hardening process. Additional physiological variables (malondialdehyde, glutathione, total phenols, C and N contents) were analyzed in V. vitis-idaea to explain the possible responses. These variables did not respond significantly to UV-radiation treatments, but explained the frost hardiness well (r² = 0.678). The main finding was that frost hardiness decreased in the evergreen shrub V. vitis-idaea, particularly with enhanced UV-A radiation. No significant responses were observed with the other plants. Therefore, this study does not support the idea that enhanced UV radiation could increase plant frost hardiness.

  6. DNA repair and resistance to UV-B radiation in western spotted frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blaustein, A.R.; Hays, J.B.; Hoffman, P.D.; Chivers, D.P.; Kiesecker, J.M.; Leonard, W.P.; Marco, A.; Olson, D.H.; Reaser, J.K.; Anthony, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    We assessed DNA repair and resistance to solar radiation in eggs of members of the western spotted frog complex (Rana pretiosa and R. luteiventris), species whose populations are suffering severe range reductions and declines. Specifically, we measured the activity of photoreactivating enzyme (photolyase) in oocytes of spotted frogs. In some species, photoreactivation is the most important mechanism for repair of UV-damaged DNA. Using field experiments, we also compared the hatching success of spotted frog embryos at natural oviposition sites at three elevations, where some embryos were subjected to ambient levels of UV-B radiation and others were shielded from UV-B radiation. Compared with other amphibians, photolyase activities in spotted frogs were relatively high. At all sites, hatching success was unaffected by UV-B. Our data support the interpretation that amphibian embryos with relatively high levels of photolyase are more resistant to UV-B radiation than those with lower levels of photolyase. At the embryonic stage, UV-B radiation does not presently seem to be contributing to the population declines of spotted frogs.

  7. Effects of UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with climate change.

    PubMed

    Häder, D-P; Helbling, E W; Williamson, C E; Worrest, R C

    2011-02-01

    The health of freshwater and marine ecosystems is critical to life on Earth. The impact of solar UV-B radiation is one potential stress factor that can have a negative impact on the health of certain species within these ecosystems. Although there is a paucity of data and information regarding the effect of UV-B radiation on total ecosystem structure and function, several recent studies have addressed the effects on various species within each trophic level. Climate change, acid deposition, and changes in other anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants alter UV exposure levels in inland and coastal marine waters. These factors potentially have important consequences for a variety of aquatic organisms including waterborne human pathogens. Recent results have demonstrated the negative impacts of exposure to UV-B radiation on primary producers, including effects on cyanobacteria, phytoplankton, macroalgae and aquatic plants. UV-B radiation is an environmental stressor for many aquatic consumers, including zooplankton, crustaceans, amphibians, fish, and corals. Many aquatic producers and consumers rely on avoidance strategies, repair mechanisms and the synthesis of UV-absorbing substances for protection. However, there has been relatively little information generated regarding the impact of solar UV-B radiation on species composition within natural ecosystems or on the interaction of organisms between trophic levels within those ecosystems. There remains the question as to whether a decrease in population size of the more sensitive primary producers would be compensated for by an increase in the population size of more tolerant species, and therefore whether there would be a net negative impact on the absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide by these ecosystems. Another question is whether there would be a significant impact on the quantity and quality of nutrients cycling through the food web, including the generation of food proteins for humans. Interactive effects

  8. Differential responses of tetrasporophytes and gametophytes of Mazzaella laminarioides (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) under solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrés; Plastino, Estela M

    2016-06-01

    The effects of solar UV radiation on mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), growth, photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, phycobiliproteins), soluble proteins (SP), and C and N content of Mazzaella laminarioides tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were investigated. Apical segments of tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were exposed to solar radiation under three treatments (PAR [P], PAR+UVA [PA], and PAR+UVA+UVB [PAB]) during 18 d in spring 2009, Punta Arenas, Chile. Samples were taken after 2, 6, 12, and 18 d of solar radiation exposure. Most of the parameters assessed on M. laminarioides were significantly influenced by the radiation treatment, and both gametophytes and tetrasporophytes seemed to respond differently when exposed to high UV radiation. The two main effects promoted by UV radiation were: (i) higher synthesis of MAAs in gametophytes than tetrasporophytes at 2 d, and (ii) a decrease in phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and SPs, but an increase in MAA content in tetrasporophytes at 6 and 12 d of culture. Despite some changes that were observed in biochemical parameters in both tetrasporophytes and gametophytes of M. laminarioides when exposed to UVB radiation, these changes did not promote deleterious effects that might interfere with the growth in the long term (18 d). The tolerance and resistance of M. laminarioides to higher UV irradiance were expected, as this intertidal species is exposed to variation in solar radiation, especially during low tide.

  9. Differential responses of tetrasporophytes and gametophytes of Mazzaella laminarioides (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) under solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrés; Plastino, Estela M

    2016-06-01

    The effects of solar UV radiation on mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), growth, photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, phycobiliproteins), soluble proteins (SP), and C and N content of Mazzaella laminarioides tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were investigated. Apical segments of tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were exposed to solar radiation under three treatments (PAR [P], PAR+UVA [PA], and PAR+UVA+UVB [PAB]) during 18 d in spring 2009, Punta Arenas, Chile. Samples were taken after 2, 6, 12, and 18 d of solar radiation exposure. Most of the parameters assessed on M. laminarioides were significantly influenced by the radiation treatment, and both gametophytes and tetrasporophytes seemed to respond differently when exposed to high UV radiation. The two main effects promoted by UV radiation were: (i) higher synthesis of MAAs in gametophytes than tetrasporophytes at 2 d, and (ii) a decrease in phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and SPs, but an increase in MAA content in tetrasporophytes at 6 and 12 d of culture. Despite some changes that were observed in biochemical parameters in both tetrasporophytes and gametophytes of M. laminarioides when exposed to UVB radiation, these changes did not promote deleterious effects that might interfere with the growth in the long term (18 d). The tolerance and resistance of M. laminarioides to higher UV irradiance were expected, as this intertidal species is exposed to variation in solar radiation, especially during low tide. PMID:26990026

  10. The mechanisms of protection of antioxidants on Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. H.

    UV radiation is one of space harmful factor for earth organisms in space exploration In the present work we studied on the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides K u tz Cyanobacteria and the effects of exogenous antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation It was found that UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterium but promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II PSII and exogenous antioxidant sodium nitroprusside SNP N-acetylcysteine NAC had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation The activity of SOD Superoxide Dismutase EC 1 15 1 1 CAT Catalase EC 1 11 1 6 POD Peroxidase EC 1 11 1 7 and content of MDA and ASC were improved by 0 5mM and 1mM SNP but 0 1mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxide system Exogenous NAC addition decreased the activity of SOD POD CAT and the content MDA and ASC but exogenous NAC addition increased the content of GSH The results suggested that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms in which SNP maybe play double roles as sources of reactive free radicals or ROS scavengers in formation of algae s protection of PSII under UV-B radiation while NAC does function as antioxidant reagent or precursor of glutathione which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation Keyword antioxidant system exogenous or endogenous antioxidant Nostoc sphaeroides photosynthesis UV-B radiation

  11. Dynamic response of UV-absorbing compounds, quantum yield and the xanthophyll cycle to diel changes in UV-B and photosynthetic radiations in an aquatic liverwort.

    PubMed

    Fabón, Gabriel; Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier

    2012-01-01

    We studied the diel responses of the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to radiation changes under laboratory conditions. The samples were exposed to three radiation regimes: P (only PAR), PA (PAR+UV-A), and PAB (PAR+UV-A+UV-B). The day was divided in four periods: darkness, a first low-PAR period, the high-PAR plus UV period, and a second low-PAR period. After 15 days of culture, we measured photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence and UV-absorbing compounds in the four periods of the day on two consecutive days. With respect to UV-absorbing compounds, we analyzed their global amount (as the bulk UV absorbance of methanolic extracts) and the concentration of seven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, both in the soluble (mainly vacuolar) and insoluble (cell wall-bound) fractions of the plant extracts. PAB samples increased the bulk UV absorbance of the soluble and insoluble fractions, and the concentrations of p-coumaroylmalic acid in the soluble fraction and p-coumaric acid in the cell wall. Most of these variables showed significant diel changes and responded within a few hours to radiation changes (more strongly to UV-B), increasing at the end of the period of high-PAR plus UV. F(v)/F(m), Φ(PSII), NPQ and the components of the xanthophyll cycle showed significant and quick diel changes in response to high PAR, UV-A and UV-B radiation, indicating dynamic photoinhibition and protection of PSII from excess radiation through the xanthophyll cycle. Thus, the liverwort showed a dynamic protection and acclimation capacity to the irradiance level and spectral characteristics of the radiation received.

  12. Combined effect of cadmium, lead, and UV rays on Bacillus cereus using comet assay and oxidative stress parameters.

    PubMed

    El-Sonbaty, S M; El-Hadedy, D E

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals and oxidative stress particularly at low dose levels may produce additive or synergistic interactions not seen in single component exposure. Exposure to cadmium, lead, and ultraviolet rays occurs in many occupational settings, such as pigment and battery production, galvanization, and recycling of electric tools. However, little is known about interactions between heavy metals and ultraviolet rays. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions of ultraviolet rays of 254 nm (UV-B) with cadmium or lead on Bacillus cereus. B. cereus was treated with different concentrations of cadmium or lead followed by exposure to UV-B radiation as combined effect. Photoirradiation of B. cereus with UV-B with exposure to cadmium or lead results in DNA damage, cytotoxicity, depletion of glutathione, and formation of lipid peroxidation. UV-B rays alone enhanced glutathione production which was depleted with lead and high doses of cadmium. Lead alone does not increase DNA breaking. The mechanism behind these interactions might be repair inhibition of oxidative DNA damage, since a decrease in repair capacity will increase susceptibility to reactive oxygen species generated by cadmium or lead. Lipid peroxidation was increased with exposure to UV-B and cadmium or lead. DNA, glutathione, and lipid peroxidation can be used as biomarkers to identify possible environmental contamination in bacteria. One conclusion from this model is the existence of more than multiplicative effects for co-exposures of cadmium or lead and UV rays.

  13. Biochemical traits and proteomic changes in postharvest flowers of medicinal chrysanthemum exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jian-Zhou; Ma, Chun-Hui; Si, Chao; Li, Ji-Gang; Shi, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Chao-Nan

    2015-08-01

    The article studied UV-B effects on biochemical traits and proteomic changes in postharvest flowers of medicinal chrysanthemum. The experiment about UV-B effects on biochemical traits in flowers included six levels of UV-B treatments (0 (UV0), 50 (UV50), 200 (UV200), 400 (UV400), 600 (UV600) and 800 (UV800) μWcm(-2)). UV400, UV600 and UV800 treatments significantly increased the contents of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and UV-B absorbing compounds, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme over the control. The contents of chlorogenic acid and flavone in flowers were significantly increased by UV-B treatments (except for UV50 and UV800). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was utilized to analyze proteomic changes in flowers with or without UV-B radiation. Results indicated that 43 protein spots (>1.5-fold difference in volume) were detected, including 19 spots with a decreasing trend and 24 spots with an increasing trend, and 19 differentially expressed protein spots were successfully indentified by MALDI-TOF MS. The indentified proteins were classified based on functions, the most of which were involved in photosynthesis, respiration, protein biosynthesis and degradation and defence. An overall assessment using biochemical and differential proteomic data revealed that UV-B radiation could affect biochemical reaction and promote secondary metabolism processes in postharvest flowers.

  14. Ocean acidification mediates photosynthetic response to UV radiation and temperature increase in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Gao, K.; Villafañe, V. E.; Helbling, E. W.

    2012-06-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is responsible for progressive ocean acidification, ocean warming as well as decreased thickness of upper mixing layer (UML), thus exposing phytoplankton cells not only to lower pH and higher temperatures but also to higher levels of solar UV radiation. In order to evaluate the combined effects of ocean acidification, UV radiation and temperature, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a model organism and examined its physiological performance after grown under two CO2 concentrations (390 and 1000 µatm) for more than 20 generations. Compared to the ambient CO2 level (390 µatm), growth at the elevated CO2 concentration increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of cells and partially counteracted the harm to PSII caused by UV-A and UV-B. Such an effect was less pronounced under increased temperature levels. As for photosynthetic carbon fixation, the rate increased with increasing temperature from 15 to 25 °C, regardless of their growth CO2 levels. In addition, UV-induced inhibition of photosynthesis was inversely correlated to temperature. The ratio of repair to UV-induced damage showed inverse relationship with increased NPQ, showing higher values under the ocean acidification condition against UV-B, reflecting that the increased pCO2 and lowered pH counteracted UV-B induced harm.

  15. Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Solar UV Radiation, and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycling: Interactions and Feedbacks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change modulates the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, particularly for carbon cycling, resulting in UV-mediated positive or negative feedbacks on climate. Possible positive feedbacks discussed in this assessment...

  16. Plant Responses to Increased UV-B Radiation: A Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAntoni, H. L.; Skiles, J. W.; Armstrong, R.; Coughlan, J.; Daleo, G.; Mayoral, A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Ozone decrease implies more ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface of the Earth. Increased UV-B radiation triggers responses by living organisms. Despite the large potential impacts on vegetation, little is known about UV-B effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Long-term ecological studies are needed to quantify the effects of increased UV radiation on terrestrial ecosystems, asses the risks, and produce reliable data for prediction. Screening pigments are part of one of the protective mechanism in plants. Higher concentrations of screening pigments in leaves may be interpreted as a response to increased UV radiation. If the screening effect is not sufficient, important molecules will be disturbed by incoming radiation. Thus, genetics, photosynthesis, growth, plant and leaf shape and size, and pollen grains may be affected. This will have an impact on ecosystem dynamics, structure and productivity. It is necessary to monitor selected terrestrial ecosystems to permit detection and interpretation of changes attributable to global climate change and depleted ozone shield. The objectives of this project are: (1) To identify and measure indicators of the effects of increased solar UV-B radiation on terrestrial plants; (2) to select indicators with the greatest responses to UV-B exposure; (3) to test, adapt or create ecosystem models that use the information gathered by this project for prediction and to enhance our understanding of the effects of increased UV-B radiation on terrestrial ecosystems. As a first step to achieve these objectives we propose a three-year study of forest and steppe vegetation on the North slope of the Brooks Range (within the Arctic circle, in Alaska), in the Saguaro National Monument (near Tucson, Arizona) and in the forests and steppes of Patagonia (Argentina). We selected (1) vegetation north of the Polar Circle because at 70N there is 8% risk of plant damage due to increased UV-B radiation; (2) the foothills of Catalina Mountains

  17. Photoprotectant improves photostability and bioactivity of abscisic acid under UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Hu, Tanglu; Tan, Weiming; Yu, Chunxin; Li, Zhaohu; Zhang, Lizhen; Duan, Liusheng

    2016-05-01

    Photosensitivity causes serious drawback for abscisic acid (ABA) application, but preferable methods to stabilize the compound were not found yet. To select an efficient photoprotectant for the improvement of photostability and bioactivity of ABA when exposed to UV light, we tested the effects of a photostabilizer bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl) sebacate (HS-770) and two UV absorbers 2-hydroxy-4-n-octoxy-benzophenone (UV-531) and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid (BP-4) with or without HS-770 on the photodegradation of ABA. Water soluble UV absorber BP-4 and oil soluble UV absorber UV-531 showed significant photo-stabilizing capability on ABA, possibly due to competitive energy absorption of UVB by the UV absorbers. The two absorbers showed no significant difference. Photostabilizer HS-770 accelerated the photodegradation of ABA and did not improve the photo-stabilizing capability of BP-4, likely due to no absorption in UVB region and salt formation with ABA and BP-4. Approximately 26% more ABA was kept when 280mg/l ABA aqueous solution was irradiated by UV light for 2h in the presence of 200mg/l BP-4. What's more, its left bioactivity on wheat seed (JIMAI 22) germination was greatly kept by BP-4, comparing to that of ABA alone. The 300 times diluent of 280mg/l ABA plus 200mg/l BP-4 after 2h irradiation showed more than 13% inhibition on shoot and root growth of wheat seed than that of ABA diluent alone. We concluded that water soluble UV absorber BP-4 was an efficient agent to keep ABA activity under UV radiation. The results could be used to produce photostable products of ABA compound or other water soluble agrichemicals which are sensitive to UV radiation. The frequencies and amounts of the agrichemicals application could be thereafter reduced. PMID:26963431

  18. Photocarcinogenesis by methoxypsoralen, neutral red, proflavine, and long UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria, L.; Bianchi, A.; Arnaboldi, A.; Daffara, P.; Andreoni, L.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the photosensitizing effects of 8-methoxypsoralen (MOP), neutral red (NR), and proflavine (PF) on the skin of female Swiss albino mice, strain 955, was carried out using fractionated exposure to long ultraviolet light (300-400 nm) and visible light (tungsten emission). The results (1) confirmed MOP photocarcinogenicity, (2) demonstrated that both NR and PF are photocarcinogens, and, further, (3) showed that the above UV light with 2.6% of fluence at 313 nm is a long-term carcinogenic agent even though the total dose of 313 nm was 100 times less than the minimal UV tumorigenic dose in mice. The tumors were mammary adenocarcinomas, carcinomas of skin appendages, carcino-mixo-sarcomas, lymphomas, and one case of thyroid adenocarcinoma. The implications of the above data regarding the controversy about oncogenic risks in photochemotherapy are discussed.

  19. Effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: interactions and feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Zepp, R G; Erickson, D J; Paul, N D; Sulzberger, B

    2011-02-01

    Solar UV radiation, climate and other drivers of global change are undergoing significant changes and models forecast that these changes will continue for the remainder of this century. Here we assess the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles and the interactions of these effects with climate change, including feedbacks on climate. Such interactions occur in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. While there is significant uncertainty in the quantification of these effects, they could accelerate the rate of atmospheric CO(2) increase and subsequent climate change beyond current predictions. The effects of predicted changes in climate and solar UV radiation on carbon cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are expected to vary significantly between regions. The balance of positive and negative effects on terrestrial carbon cycling remains uncertain, but the interactions between UV radiation and climate change are likely to contribute to decreasing sink strength in many oceanic regions. Interactions between climate and solar UV radiation will affect cycling of elements other than carbon, and so will influence the concentration of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases. For example, increases in oxygen-deficient regions of the ocean caused by climate change are projected to enhance the emissions of nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse and ozone-depleting gas. Future changes in UV-induced transformations of aquatic and terrestrial contaminants could have both beneficial and adverse effects. Taken in total, it is clear that the future changes in UV radiation coupled with human-caused global change will have large impacts on biogeochemical cycles at local, regional and global scales. PMID:21253663

  20. Effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: Interactions and feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2011-01-01

    Solar UV radiation, climate and other drivers of global change are undergoing significant changes and models forecast that these changes will continue for the remainder of this century. Here we assess the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles and the interactions of these effects with climate change, including feedbacks on climate. Such interactions occur in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. While there is significant uncertainty in the quantification of these effects, they could accelerate the rate of atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase and subsequent climate change beyond current predictions. The effects of predicted changes in climate and solar UV radiation on carbon cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are expected to vary significantly between regions. The balance of positive and negative effects on terrestrial carbon cycling remains uncertain, but the interactions between UV radiation and climate change are likely to contribute to decreasing sink strength in many oceanic regions. Interactions between climate and solar UV radiation will affect cycling of elements other than carbon, and so will influence the concentration of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases. For example, increases in oxygen-deficient regions of the ocean caused by climate change are projected to enhance the emissions of nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse and ozone-depleting gas. Future changes in UV-induced transformations of aquatic and terrestrial contaminants could have both beneficial and adverse effects. Taken in total, it is clear that the future changes in UV radiation coupled with human-caused global change will have large impacts on biogeochemical cycles at local, regional and global scales.

  1. Effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: interactions and feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Zepp, R G; Erickson, D J; Paul, N D; Sulzberger, B

    2011-02-01

    Solar UV radiation, climate and other drivers of global change are undergoing significant changes and models forecast that these changes will continue for the remainder of this century. Here we assess the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles and the interactions of these effects with climate change, including feedbacks on climate. Such interactions occur in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. While there is significant uncertainty in the quantification of these effects, they could accelerate the rate of atmospheric CO(2) increase and subsequent climate change beyond current predictions. The effects of predicted changes in climate and solar UV radiation on carbon cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are expected to vary significantly between regions. The balance of positive and negative effects on terrestrial carbon cycling remains uncertain, but the interactions between UV radiation and climate change are likely to contribute to decreasing sink strength in many oceanic regions. Interactions between climate and solar UV radiation will affect cycling of elements other than carbon, and so will influence the concentration of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases. For example, increases in oxygen-deficient regions of the ocean caused by climate change are projected to enhance the emissions of nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse and ozone-depleting gas. Future changes in UV-induced transformations of aquatic and terrestrial contaminants could have both beneficial and adverse effects. Taken in total, it is clear that the future changes in UV radiation coupled with human-caused global change will have large impacts on biogeochemical cycles at local, regional and global scales.

  2. UV-B Radiation Impacts Shoot Tissue Pigment Composition in Allium fistulosum L. Cultigens

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Kristin R.; Kopsell, Dean A.; Sams, Carl E.; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Kopsell, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Plants from the Allium genus are valued worldwide for culinary flavor and medicinal attributes. In this study, 16 cultigens of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) were grown in a glasshouse under filtered UV radiation (control) or supplemental UV-B radiation [7.0 μmol·m−2·s−2 (2.68 W·m−2)] to determine impacts on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional quality. Supplemental UV-B radiation influenced shoot tissue carotenoid concentrations in some, but not all, of the bunching onions. Xanthophyll carotenoid pigments lutein and β-carotene and chlorophylls a and b in shoot tissues differed between UV-B radiation treatments and among cultigens. Cultigen “Pesoenyj” responded to supplemental UV-B radiation with increases in the ratio of zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin to zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin, which may indicate a flux in the xanthophyll carotenoids towards deepoxydation, commonly found under high irradiance stress. Increases in carotenoid concentrations would be expected to increase crop nutritional values. PMID:23606817

  3. UV-B radiation impacts shoot tissue pigment composition in Allium fistulosum L. cultigens.

    PubMed

    Abney, Kristin R; Kopsell, Dean A; Sams, Carl E; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Kopsell, David E

    2013-01-01

    Plants from the Allium genus are valued worldwide for culinary flavor and medicinal attributes. In this study, 16 cultigens of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) were grown in a glasshouse under filtered UV radiation (control) or supplemental UV-B radiation [7.0  μ mol·m(-2) · s(-2) (2.68 W · m(-2))] to determine impacts on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional quality. Supplemental UV-B radiation influenced shoot tissue carotenoid concentrations in some, but not all, of the bunching onions. Xanthophyll carotenoid pigments lutein and β -carotene and chlorophylls a and b in shoot tissues differed between UV-B radiation treatments and among cultigens. Cultigen "Pesoenyj" responded to supplemental UV-B radiation with increases in the ratio of zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin to zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin, which may indicate a flux in the xanthophyll carotenoids towards deepoxydation, commonly found under high irradiance stress. Increases in carotenoid concentrations would be expected to increase crop nutritional values. PMID:23606817

  4. Effects of temperature and UV radiation increases on the photosynthetic efficiency in four scleractinian coral species.

    PubMed

    Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Richard, Cécile; Forcioli, Didier; Allemand, Denis; Pichon, Michel; Shick, J Malcolm

    2007-08-01

    Experiments were performed on coral species containing clade A (Stylophora pistillata, Montipora aequituberculata) or clade C (Acropora sp., Pavona cactus) zooxanthellae. The photosynthetic efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) of the corals was first assessed during a short-term increase in temperature (from 27 degrees C to 29 degrees C, 32 degrees C, and 34 degrees C) and acute exposure to UV radiation (20.5 W m(-2) UVA and 1.2 W m(-2) UVB) alone or in combination. Increasing temperature to 34 degrees C significantly decreased the F(v)/F(m) in S. pistillata and M. aequituberculata. Increased UV radiation alone significantly decreased the F(v)/F(m) of all coral species, even at 27 degrees C. There was a combined effect of temperature and UV radiation, which reduced F(v)/F(m) in all corals by 25% to 40%. During a long-term exposure to UV radiation (17 days) the F(v)/F(m) was significantly reduced after 3 days' exposure in all species, which did not recover their initial values, even after 17 days. By this time, all corals had synthesized mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). The concentration and diversity of MAAs differed among species, being higher for corals containing clade A zooxanthellae. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation at the nonstressful temperature of 27 degrees C conferred protection against independent, thermally induced photoinhibition in all four species. PMID:17679722

  5. Rediscovering leaf optical properties: New insights into plant acclimation to solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Ryel, Ronald J; Tobler, Mark A; Barkley, Anne E; Wargent, Jason J

    2015-08-01

    The accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid derivatives) and resultant decrease in the UV transmittance of the epidermis in leaves (TUV), is a primary protective mechanism against the potentially deleterious effects of UV radiation and is a critical component of the overall acclimation response of plants to changing UV environments. Traditional measurements of TUV were laborious, time-consuming and destructive or invasive, thus limiting their ability to efficiently make multiple measurements of the optical properties of plants in the field. The development of rapid, nondestructive optical methods of determining TUV has permitted the examination of UV optical properties of leaves with increased replication, on a finer time scale, and enabled repeated sampling of the same leaf over time. This technology has therefore allowed for studies examining acclimation responses to UV in plants in ways not previously possible. Here we provide a brief review of these earlier studies examining leaf UV optical properties and some of their important contributions, describe the principles by which the newer non-invasive measurements of epidermal UV transmittance are made, and highlight several case studies that reveal how this technique is providing new insights into this UV acclimation response in plants, which is far more plastic and dynamic than previously thought.

  6. Responses of a rice-field cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR-8012 upon exposure to PAR and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-10-15

    The effects of PAR and UV radiation and subsequent responses of certain antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense systems were studied in a rice field cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012. UV radiation resulted in a decline in growth accompanied by a decrease in chlorophyll a and photosynthetic efficiency. Exposure of cells to UV radiation significantly affected the differentiation of vegetative cells into heterocysts or akinetes. UV-B radiation caused the fragmentation of the cyanobacterial filaments conceivably due to the observed oxidative stress. A significant increase of reactive oxygen species in vivo and DNA strand breaks were observed in UV-B exposed cells followed by those under UV-A and PAR radiation, respectively. The UV-induced oxidative damage was alleviated due to an induction of antioxidant enzymatic/non-enzymatic defense systems. In response to UV irradiation, the studied cyanobacterium exhibited a significant increase in antioxidative enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Moreover, the cyanobacterium also synthesized some UV-absorbing/screening substances. HPLC coupled with a PDA detector revealed the presence of three compounds with UV-absorption maxima at 326, 331 and 345 nm. The induction of the biosynthesis of these UV-absorbing compounds was found under both PAR and UV radiation, thus suggesting their possible function as an active photoprotectant.

  7. Effect of UV radiation on the bacterivory of a heterotrophic nanoflagellate

    SciTech Connect

    Sommaruga, R.; Oberleiter, A.; Psenner, R.

    1996-12-01

    Heterotrophic nanoflagellates can function as consumers of picoplankton biomass in different types of aquatic systems. However no study has looked at the effects of UV-B on the trophic interaction between HNF and bacteria. This study presents results from experiments designed to investigate the effect of solar and artificial UV radiation on the heterotrophic nonoflagellate Bodo saltans (Kinetoplastida). 33 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Listeria monocytogenes survival of UV-C radiation is enhanced by presence of sodium chloride, organic food material and by bacterial biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Bernbom, N; Vogel, B F; Gram, L

    2011-05-14

    The bactericidal effect on food processing surfaces of ceiling-mounted UV-C light (wavelength 254 nm) was determined in a fish smoke house after the routine cleaning and disinfection procedure. The total aerobic counts were reduced during UV-C light exposure (48 h) and the number of Listeria monocytogenes positive samples went from 30 (of 68) before exposure to 8 (of 68). We therefore in a laboratory model determined the L. monocytogenes reduction kinetics by UV-C light with the purpose of evaluating the influence of food production environmental variables, such as presence of NaCl, organic material and the time L. monocytogenes was allowed to adhere to steel before exposure. L. monocytogenes grown and attached in tryptone soy broth (TSB) with glucose were rapidly killed (after 2 min) by UV-C light. However, bacteria grown and adhered in TSB with glucose and 5% NaCl were more resistant and numbers declined with 4-5 log units during exposure of 8-10 min. Bacteria grown in juice prepared from cold-smoked salmon were protected and numbers were reduced with 2-3 log when UV-C light was used immediately after attachment whereas numbers did not change at all if bacteria had been allowed to form a biofilm for 7 days before exposure. It is not known if this enhanced survival is due to physiological changes in the attached bacterial cells, a physical protection of the cells in the food matrix or a combination. In conclusion, we demonstrate that UV-C light is a useful extra bacteriocidal step and that it, as all disinfecting procedures, is hampered by the presence of organic material.

  9. Ambient solar UV radiation causes mortality in larvae of three species of Rana under controlled exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Tietge, J E; Diamond, S A; Ankley, G T; DeFoe, D L; Holcombe, G W; Jensen, K M; Degitz, S J; Elonen, G E; Hammer, E

    2001-08-01

    Recent reports concerning the lethal effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) (290-320 nm) radiation on amphibians suggest that this stressor has the potential to impact some amphibian populations. In this study embryos and larvae of three anuran species, Rana pipiens, Rana clamitans and Rana septentrionalis, were exposed to full-spectrum solar radiation and solar radiation filtered to attenuate UV-B radiation or UV-B and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) (290-380 nm) radiation to determine the effects of each wavelength range on embryo and larval survival. Ambient levels of solar radiation were found to be lethal to all three species under exposure conditions that eliminated shade and refuge. Lethality was ameliorated by filtration of UV-B radiation alone, demonstrating that ambient UV-B radiation is sufficient to cause mortality. Although several studies have qualitatively demonstrated the lethality of UV-B to early life stage amphibians this study demonstrates that the larval life stages of the three species tested are more sensitive than the embryonic stages. This suggests that previous reports that have not included the larval life stage may underestimate the risk posed to some anuran populations by increasing UV-B exposure. Furthermore, this study reports quantitative UV-B dosimetry data, collected in conjunction with the exposures, which can be used to begin the assessment of the impact of environmental changes which increase UV-B exposure of these anurans. PMID:11547564

  10. [Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on physiological metabolism, DNA and protein of crops: a review].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; He, Yongmei; Zu, Yanqun

    2006-01-01

    Ozone depletion in stratosphere has led to the increase of solar UV-B radiation reaching to the earth surface, which would affect crops to various extents. This review dealt with the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the physiological metabolism, DNA damage and protein content of crops. Enhanced UV-B radiation could increase crops' flavonoid content but decrease their chlorophyll content and photosynthesis, induce gene change, and result in DNA damage and change of protein content.

  11. Structural and functional changes in catalase induced by near-UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Zigman, S; Reddan, J; Schultz, J B; McDaniel, T

    1996-06-01

    Part one of this study shows that exposure of purified beef liver catalase in buffered solutions to BL lamps that provide a mixture of 99% UVA and 1% UVB (to be labeled UVA) alters its chemistry and enzymatic activity. Thus, its spectral absorbance lost detail, it aggregated and exhibited a lower isoelectric point and its enzymatic activity was substantially reduced. These photochemically induced changes were increased by irradiation in phosphate buffer or in physiological medium (minimal essential medium) containing riboflavin and tryptophan. Neither alpha-tocopherol nor deferoxamine were protective against these UVA-induced changes in pure catalase. We further investigated the effect of UVA radiation on the activity of catalase in cultured lens epithelial cells and the protective effects of antioxidants. Cultured lens epithelial cells of rabbits and squirrels were exposed to near-UV radiation with representation in the UVA region of 99% and 1% UVB. Catalase assays were done on homogenate supernatants of cells kept dark or UV exposed. In some instances, cells were cultured in medium containing alpha-tocopherol or deferoxamine prior to UV radiation. Comparisons were made between UV-exposed lens cell catalase activity when exposure was done with or without the antioxidants. The UVA radiation was strongly inhibitory to both rabbit and squirrel lens epithelial cell catalase activities. The range of fluxes of near UV radiation was compatible with that which could reach the lens from the sunlit environment. Catalase inactivation was lessened in cells preincubated with alpha-tocopherol and deferoxamine. This suggests that both singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical formation may be involved in near-UV damage to lens epithelial cell catalase. Such inhibition of catalase by near-UV would enhance H2O2 toxicity and stimulate SH oxidation so as to damage the lens. PMID:8992503

  12. Effect of Elevated CO2, O3, and UV Radiation on Soils

    PubMed Central

    Rejšek, Klement; Vranová, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have attempted to review the current knowledge on the impact of elevated CO2, O3, and UV on soils. Elevated CO2 increases labile and stabile soil C pool as well as efficiency of organic pollutants rhizoremediation and phytoextraction of heavy metals. Conversely, both elevated O3 and UV radiation decrease inputs of assimilates to the rhizosphere being accompanied by inhibitory effects on decomposition processes, rhizoremediation, and heavy metals phytoextraction efficiency. Contrary to elevated CO2, O3, or UV-B decreases soil microbial biomass, metabolisable C, and soil Nt content leading to higher C/N of soil organic matter. Elevated UV-B radiation shifts soil microbial community and decreases populations of soil meso- and macrofauna via direct effect rather than by induced changes of litter quality and root exudation as in case of elevated CO2 or O3. CO2 enrichment or increased UV-B is hypothesised to stimulate or inhibit both plant and microbial competitiveness for soluble soil N, respectively, whereas O3 favours only microbial competitive efficiency. Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2, O3, and UV radiation for soils, especially those related to fertility, phytotoxins inputs, elements cycling, plant-microbe interactions, and decontamination of polluted sites, presents a knowledge gap for future research. PMID:24688424

  13. Ocean acidification mediates photosynthetic response to UV radiation and temperature increase in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Gao, K.; Villafañe, V. E.; Helbling, E. W.

    2012-10-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is responsible for progressive ocean acidification, ocean warming as well as decreased thickness of upper mixing layer (UML), thus exposing phytoplankton cells not only to lower pH and higher temperatures but also to higher levels of solar UV radiation. In order to evaluate the combined effects of ocean acidification, UV radiation and temperature, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a model organism and examined its physiological performance after grown under two CO2 concentrations (390 and 1000 μatm) for more than 20 generations. Compared to the ambient CO2 level (390 μatm), growth at the elevated CO2 concentration increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of cells and partially counteracted the harm to PS II (photosystem II) caused by UV-A and UV-B. Such an effect was less pronounced under increased temperature levels. The ratio of repair to UV-B induced damage decreased with increased NPQ, reflecting induction of NPQ when repair dropped behind the damage, and it was higher under the ocean acidification condition, showing that the increased pCO2 and lowered pH counteracted UV-B induced harm. As for photosynthetic carbon fixation rate which increased with increasing temperature from 15 to 25 °C, the elevated CO2 and temperature levels synergistically interacted to reduce the inhibition caused by UV-B and thus increase the carbon fixation.

  14. Kinetics of avoidance of simulated solar uv radiation by two arthropods

    SciTech Connect

    Barcelo, J.A.; Calkins, J.

    1980-12-01

    There is an increasing likelihood that the solar uv-B radiation (lambda = 280-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface will increase due to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. It is recognized that many organisms are insufficiently resistant to solar uv-B to withstand full summer sunlight and thus mechanisms which facilitate avoidance of solar uv-B exposure may have significance for the survival of sensitive species. There are many alternative pathways which would lead to avoidance of solar uv-B. We have investigated the dynamics of biological reactions to simulated solar uv-B radiation in two small arthropods, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aquatic copepod Cyclops serrulatus. Observations of positioning and rate of movement were made; a mathematical formalism was developed which assisted in interpretation of the observations. Our observations suggest that, although avoidance would mitigate increased solar uv-B effects, even organisms which specifically reduce their uv-B exposure would encounter additional stress if ozone depletion does occur.

  15. The effect of UV-B radiation on chloroplast translation in Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, M.M.; Jagendorf, A.T. )

    1990-05-01

    UV-B radiation has previously been reported to reduce growth, flowering, and net photosynthesis. The present study examines the effect of UV-B radiation on isolated chloroplast of 7-10 day old pea seedlings. Amount of ({sup 3}H)-Leu incorporated into isolated chloroplasts was measured in the presence or absence of UV-B exposure. Preliminary experiments show a 30% inhibition of protein synthesis in isolated chloroplasts after only 20 mins of UV-B exposure (6.9 J/m{sup 2}/30 min). Percent inhibition of chloroplast translation is directly correlated with UV-B exposure over a 60 min time span. Preliminary studies also show no change in both cold and radiolabeled protein profiles as expressed on 1-D PAGE and autofluorography. Comparative studies on the sensitivity of e{sup {minus}} flow vs protein synthesis following UV-B exposure are underway. Further work on the role of oxygen free radicals and the specific site of action of UV-B damage to the translation machinery of chloroplasts will be discussed.

  16. The Martian and extraterrestrial UV radiation environment--1. Biological and closed-loop ecosystem considerations.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Andrady, A L

    1999-01-01

    The Martian surface is exposed to both UVC radiation (<280 nm) and higher doses of UVB (280-315 nm) compared to the surface of the Earth. Terrestrial organisms have not evolved to cope with such high levels of UVC and UVB and thus any attempts to introduce organisms to Mars, particularly in closed-loop life support systems that use ambient sunlight, must address this problem. Here we examine the UV radiation environment of Mars with respect to biological systems. Action spectra and UV surface fluxes are used to estimate the UV stress that both DNA and chloroplasts would experience. From this vantage point it is possible to consider appropriate measures to address the problem of the Martian UV environment for future long term human exploration and settlement strategies. Some prospects for improving the UV tolerance of organisms are also discussed. Existing artificial ecosystems such as Biosphere 2 can provide some insights into design strategies pertinent to high UV environments. Some prospects for improving the UV tolerance of organisms are also discussed. The data also have implications for the establishment of closed-loop ecosystems using natural sunlight on the lunar surface and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  17. The kinetics of avoidance of simulated solar UV radiation by two arthropods.

    PubMed

    Barcelo, J A; Calkins, J

    1980-12-01

    There is an increasing likelihood that the solar UV-B radiation (lambda = 280-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface will increase due to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. It is recognized that many organisms are insufficiently resistant to solar UV-B to withstand full summer sunlight and thus mechanisms which facilitate avoidance of solar UV-B exposure may have significance for the survival of sensitive species. There are many alternative pathways which would lead to avoidance of solar UV-B. We have investigated the dynamics of biological reactions to stimulated solar UV-B radiation in two small arthropods, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aquatic copepod Cyclops serrulatus. Observations of positioning and rate of movement were made; a mathematical formalism was developed which assisted in interpretation of the observations. Our observations suggest that, although avoidance would mitigate increased solar UV-B effects, even organisms which specifically reduce their UV-B exposure would encounter additional stress if ozone depletion does occur.

  18. [Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on competition among several plant species].

    PubMed

    Yue, Ming; Wang, Xun-ling

    2003-08-01

    The effect of enhanced UV-B radiation (280-315 nm, approximating a 15% ozone layer reduction) on competitive interaction between spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and wild oat (Avena fatua) was examined in the field. The density-dependent mortality of both wheat and wild oat did not exhibit a significant difference between control and UV-B treatments. A relatively high degree of competitive stress enhanced the effect of UV-B stress on biomass reduction. Under UV-B enhancement, the relative competitive status of wheat in terms of total biomass and aboveground biomass increased, but decreased when based upon grain production. Shifts in competitive balance occurred with significant changes in total biomass, especially when plants grew at higher densities in monocultures and mixtures. There were different effects in direction and intensity of UV-B radiation on competition balance of the other three species pairs, but in general, the effect of UV-B was in favor of monocotyledonous. The results implied that total degree of competitive stress, especially interspecific competition, might be crucial to assess the effect of UV-B enhancement on agriculture ecosystem properly.

  19. Action spectrum and mechanisms of UV radiation-induced injury in lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Kochevar, I.E.

    1985-07-01

    Photosensitivity associated with lupus erythematosus (LE) is well established. The photobiologic basis for this abnormal response to ultraviolet radiation, however, has not been determined. This paper summarizes the criteria for elucidating possible photobiologic mechanisms and reviews the literature relevant to the mechanism of photosensitivity in LE. In patients with LE, photosensitivity to wavelengths shorter than 320 nm has been demonstrated; wavelengths longer than 320 nm have not been adequately evaluated. DNA is a possible chromophore for photosensitivity below 320 nm. UV irradiation of skin produces thymine photodimers in DNA. UV-irradiated DNA is more antigenic than native DNA and the antigenicity of UV-irradiated DNA has been proposed, but not proven, to be involved in the development of clinical lesions. UV irradiation of mice previously injected with anti-UV-DNA antibodies produces Ig deposition and complement fixation that appears to be similar to the changes seen in lupus lesions. Antibodies to UV-irradiated DNA occur in the serum of LE patients although a correlation between antibody titers and photosensitivity was not observed. Defective repair of UV-induced DNA damage does not appear to be a mechanism for the photosensitivity in LE. Other mechanisms must also be considered. The chromophore for photosensitivity induced by wavelengths longer than 320 nm has not been investigated in vivo. In vitro studies indicate that 360-400 nm radiation activates a photosensitizing compound in the lymphocytes and serum of LE patients and causes chromosomal aberrations and cell death. The mechanism appears to involve superoxide anion.

  20. Degradation Mechanism of Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin by Hydroxyl Radicals in Homogeneous UV/H2O2 Process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a widely distributed and highly toxic cyanobacterial toxin (cyanotoxin), remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the mechanism of CYN destruction by UV-254 nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated by mass spectrometr...

  1. Effect of UV-radiation on the migration of vinyl chloride monomer from unplasticized PVC pipes.

    PubMed

    Al-Malack, Muhammad H

    2004-01-01

    The effect of direct exposure to UV-radiation on the migration of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) from unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes was investigated using locally manufactured pipes. Specimens 33-cm long were used throughout the research. The investigation was carried out, at different times of exposure to a UV-radiation. The VCM concentration in the water was evaluated using the gas chromatography (GC)/head-space technique. A VCM concentration of 2.3 microg/L (ppb) was detected after 14 days of exposure to the UV-radiation. The initial VCM concentration in the uPVC pipe was calculated and the diffusion coefficient of VCM was expressed as a function of time.

  2. Exobiology at Southern Brazil: Spore Dosimetry and the UV Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampelotto, P. H.; Rosa, M. B.; Schuch, N. J.; Pinheiro, D. K.; Schuch, A. P.; Munakata, N.

    2009-12-01

    The ultraviolet - UV is considered the range of solar radiation most immediately lethal to the life organisms on the Earth’s surface. In this context, since 2000, the monitoring of the biologically-effective solar radiation using spore dosimeter at the Southern Space Observatory (29.4° S, 53.8° W), South of Brazil, has been performed. The biological dosimeter is based in the spore inactivation doses of Bacillus subtilis strain TKJ6312, who is sensitive to the UV solar radiation. Monthly expositions of biological dosimeter have been compared with solar irradiance obtained by Brewer spectrophotometer. Correlations indices about r > 0.86 shows the potential applicability of the biosensor in the monitoring of biologically-effective solar radiation. Since spores are stabile microorganisms, considering extreme environment variations, the biosensor may be used for studies of the effects of the solar radiation in others planetary environments for future work.

  3. Engineering of a highly efficient Xe₂*-excilamp (xenon excimer lamp, λmax=172 nm, η=40%) and qualitative comparison to a low-pressure mercury lamp (LP-Hg, λ=185/254 nm) for water purification.

    PubMed

    Al-Gharabli, Samer; Engeßer, Patrick; Gera, Diana; Klein, Sandra; Oppenländer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Excilamps are mercury-free gas-discharge sources of non-coherent VUV or UV radiation with high radiant power and a long lifetime. The most efficient excilamp that is currently available on the market is a VUV xenon excilamp system (Xe2(*)-excimer lamp, λ(max) = 172 nm) with a stated radiant efficiency η of 40% at an electrical input power P(el) of 20 W, 50 W or 100 W. In this paper, the use of this highly efficient Xe2(*)-excilamp (P(el) = 20 W) for water treatment is demonstrated using a recirculating laboratory photoreactor system with negative radiation geometry. The efficiency in the 172 nm initiated bleaching of aqueous solutions of Rhodamine B is compared to that initiated by a common low-pressure mercury (LP-Hg) lamp (185 nm, TNN 15/32). The dependence of the pseudo zero order rate constant k´ of decolorization of RhB on the flow rate and on the initial concentration of RhB was investigated. Both lamps exhibited dependences of k´ on the initial concentration of RhB, which represents a typical saturation kinetical behavior. The saturation kinetics was very prominent in the case of the Xe2(*)-excilamp. Also, the Xe2(*)-excilamp treatment exhibited a significant influence on the flow rate of the RhB aqueous solution, which was not the case during the LP-Hg lamp initiated bleaching of RhB. The results of this paper demonstrate that Xe2(*)-excilamps can be used for VUV-initiated water purification. However, to reach the maximum efficacy of the Xe2(*)-excilamp for photo-initiated water purification further engineering optimization of the photoreactor concept is necessary. PMID:26414741

  4. Engineering of a highly efficient Xe₂*-excilamp (xenon excimer lamp, λmax=172 nm, η=40%) and qualitative comparison to a low-pressure mercury lamp (LP-Hg, λ=185/254 nm) for water purification.

    PubMed

    Al-Gharabli, Samer; Engeßer, Patrick; Gera, Diana; Klein, Sandra; Oppenländer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Excilamps are mercury-free gas-discharge sources of non-coherent VUV or UV radiation with high radiant power and a long lifetime. The most efficient excilamp that is currently available on the market is a VUV xenon excilamp system (Xe2(*)-excimer lamp, λ(max) = 172 nm) with a stated radiant efficiency η of 40% at an electrical input power P(el) of 20 W, 50 W or 100 W. In this paper, the use of this highly efficient Xe2(*)-excilamp (P(el) = 20 W) for water treatment is demonstrated using a recirculating laboratory photoreactor system with negative radiation geometry. The efficiency in the 172 nm initiated bleaching of aqueous solutions of Rhodamine B is compared to that initiated by a common low-pressure mercury (LP-Hg) lamp (185 nm, TNN 15/32). The dependence of the pseudo zero order rate constant k´ of decolorization of RhB on the flow rate and on the initial concentration of RhB was investigated. Both lamps exhibited dependences of k´ on the initial concentration of RhB, which represents a typical saturation kinetical behavior. The saturation kinetics was very prominent in the case of the Xe2(*)-excilamp. Also, the Xe2(*)-excilamp treatment exhibited a significant influence on the flow rate of the RhB aqueous solution, which was not the case during the LP-Hg lamp initiated bleaching of RhB. The results of this paper demonstrate that Xe2(*)-excilamps can be used for VUV-initiated water purification. However, to reach the maximum efficacy of the Xe2(*)-excilamp for photo-initiated water purification further engineering optimization of the photoreactor concept is necessary.

  5. Pirin1 (PRN1) is a multifunctional protein that regulates quercetin, and impacts specific light and UV responses in the seed-to-seedling transition of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Nunnelly, Danielle A; Muhammad, Durreshahwar; Mezzich, Raquel; Lee, Bao-Shiang; Jayathilaka, Lasanthi; Kaufman, Lon S; Warpeha, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Pirins are cupin-fold proteins, implicated in apoptosis and cellular stress in eukaryotic organisms. Pirin1 (PRN1) plays a role in seed germination and transcription of a light- and ABA-regulated gene under specific conditions in the model plant system Arabidopsis thaliana. Herein, we describe that PRN1 possesses previously unreported functions that can profoundly affect early growth, development, and stress responses. In vitro-translated PRN1 possesses quercetinase activity. When PRN1 was incubated with G-protein-α subunit (GPA1) in the inactive conformation (GDP-bound), quercetinase activity was observed. Quercetinase activity was not observed when PRN1 was incubated with GPA1 in the active form (GTP-bound). Dark-grown prn1 mutant seedlings produced more quercetin after UV (317 nm) induction, compared to levels observed in wild type (WT) seedlings. prn1 mutant seedlings survived a dose of high-energy UV (254 nm) radiation that killed WT seedlings. prn1 mutant seedlings grown for 3 days in continuous white light display disoriented hypocotyl growth compared to WT, but hypocotyls of dark-grown prn1 seedlings appeared like WT. prn1 mutant seedlings transformed with GFP constructs containing the native PRN1 promoter and full ORF (PRN1::PRN1-GFP) were restored to WT responses, in that they did not survive UV (254 nm), and there was no significant hypocotyl disorientation in response to white light. prn1 mutants transformed with PRN1::PRN1-GFP were observed by confocal microscopy, where expression in the cotyledon epidermis was largely localized to the nucleus, adjacent to the nucleus, and diffuse and punctate expression occurred within some cells. WT seedlings transformed with the 35S::PRN1-GFP construct exhibited widespread expression in the epidermis of the cotyledon, also with localization in the nucleus. PRN1 may play a critical role in cellular quercetin levels and influence light- or hormonal-directed early development.

  6. Pirin1 (PRN1) Is a Multifunctional Protein that Regulates Quercetin, and Impacts Specific Light and UV Responses in the Seed-to-Seedling Transition of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Nunnelly, Danielle A.; Muhammad, DurreShahwar; Mezzich, Raquel; Lee, Bao-Shiang; Jayathilaka, Lasanthi; Kaufman, Lon S.; Warpeha, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Pirins are cupin-fold proteins, implicated in apoptosis and cellular stress in eukaryotic organisms. Pirin1 (PRN1) plays a role in seed germination and transcription of a light- and ABA-regulated gene under specific conditions in the model plant system Arabidopsis thaliana. Herein, we describe that PRN1 possesses previously unreported functions that can profoundly affect early growth, development, and stress responses. In vitro-translated PRN1 possesses quercetinase activity. When PRN1 was incubated with G-protein-α subunit (GPA1) in the inactive conformation (GDP-bound), quercetinase activity was observed. Quercetinase activity was not observed when PRN1 was incubated with GPA1 in the active form (GTP-bound). Dark-grown prn1 mutant seedlings produced more quercetin after UV (317 nm) induction, compared to levels observed in wild type (WT) seedlings. prn1 mutant seedlings survived a dose of high-energy UV (254 nm) radiation that killed WT seedlings. prn1 mutant seedlings grown for 3 days in continuous white light display disoriented hypocotyl growth compared to WT, but hypocotyls of dark-grown prn1 seedlings appeared like WT. prn1 mutant seedlings transformed with GFP constructs containing the native PRN1 promoter and full ORF (PRN1::PRN1-GFP) were restored to WT responses, in that they did not survive UV (254 nm), and there was no significant hypocotyl disorientation in response to white light. prn1 mutants transformed with PRN1::PRN1-GFP were observed by confocal microscopy, where expression in the cotyledon epidermis was largely localized to the nucleus, adjacent to the nucleus, and diffuse and punctate expression occurred within some cells. WT seedlings transformed with the 35S::PRN1-GFP construct exhibited widespread expression in the epidermis of the cotyledon, also with localization in the nucleus. PRN1 may play a critical role in cellular quercetin levels and influence light- or hormonal-directed early development. PMID:24705271

  7. Alteration of bacteriophage attachment capacity by near-UV irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, P S; Einsenstark, A

    1982-01-01

    Near-UV (NUV) (300 to 400 nm) and far-UV (FUV) (254 nm) radiations damage bacteriophage by different mechanisms. Host cell reactivation, Weigle reactivation, and multiplicity reactivation were observed upon FUV, but not upon NUV irradiation. Also, the number of his+ recombinants increased with P22 bacteriophage transduction in Salmonella typhimurium after FUV, but not after NUV irradiation. This loss of reactivation and recombination after NUV irradiation was not necessarily due to host incapability to repair phage damage. Instead, the phage genome failed to enter the host cell after NUV irradiation. In the case of NUV-irradiated T7 phage, this was determined by genetic crosses with amber mutants, which demonstrated that either "all" or "none" of a T7 genome entered the Escherichia coli cell after NUV treatment. Further studies with radioactively labeled phage indicated that irradiated phage failed to adsorb to host cells. This damage by NUV was compared with the protein-DNA cross-link observed previously, when phage particles were irradiated with NUV in the presence of H2O2. H2O2 (in nonlethal concentration) acts synergistically with NUV so that equivalent phage inactivation is achieved by much lower irradiation doses. PMID:7050407

  8. Investigations of UV radiation from superimposed microwave-silent discharge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Stalder, K.R.; Goren, Y.; Lally, P.; Pallakoff, O.E.

    1996-12-31

    The authors are examining the feasibility of improving the efficiency with which short wavelength ultraviolet (UV) radiation is generated from microwave and related discharges.The ultimate goal is to develop high-efficiency UV light sources that can be used in a variety of high-technology applications, including water purification, semiconductor fabrication, polymercuring and other industrial processes. The authors have designed, built and tested a hybrid discharge system combining aspects of two distinctly different discharges, each of which has been well-documented as reasonably efficient sources of UV radiation. The experimental prototype is based on combining a diffuse microwave discharge with a dielectric barrier (silent) discharge. Microwave discharges have been shown to be reasonably efficient generators of UV light, but their efficiency is limited by the amount of microwave power that can be deposited in the plasma. Silent discharges, which contain many high-current microarcs in high pressure gases have also been shown to be efficient sources of UV radiation when excimer-forming gases are used. The authors believe that microwave fields superimposed on a silent discharge may increase the effective radiating volume of the microarcs, thereby enhancing the efficiency.

  9. Isoprene emission from a subarctic peatland under enhanced UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Riikka; Faubert, Patrick; Räsänen, Janne; Holopainen, Toini; Kyrö, Esko; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2007-01-01

    Isoprene is a reactive hydrocarbon with an important role in atmospheric chemistry, and emissions from vegetation contribute to atmospheric carbon fluxes. The magnitude of isoprene emissions from arctic peatlands is not known, and it may be altered by increasing UV-B radiation. Isoprene emission was measured with the dynamic chamber method from a subarctic peatland under long-term enhancement of UV-B radiation targeted to correspond to a 20% loss in the stratospheric ozone layer. The site type of the peatland was a flark fen dominated by the moss Warnstorfia exannulata and sedges Eriophorum russeolum and Carex limosa. The relationship between species densities and the emission was also assessed. Isoprene emissions were significantly increased by enhanced UV-B radiation during the second (2004) and the fourth (2006) growing seasons under the UV-B exposure. Emissions were related to the density of E. russeolum. The dominant moss, W. exannulata, proved to emit small amounts of isoprene in a laboratory trial. Subarctic fens, even without Sphagnum moss, are a significant source of isoprene to the atmosphere, especially under periods of warm weather. Warming of the Arctic together with enhanced UV-B radiation may substantially increase the emissions.

  10. Design of autotrack detecting instrument for solar UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiangtao; Mao, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In order to autotrack the object and detect the solar UV index, a reliable real-time high-precise instrument is proposed in this paper. This instrument involves two subsystems: the autotrack and detecting modules. The autotrack module consists of four-quadrant photo detector, multi-channel signal processing circuit and precise stepping system. The detecting module designed for dada measurement and acquisition is made up of the ultraviolet sensor UV460 and high precision A/D converter MAX1162. The key component of the entire instrument is ultralow-power microprocessor MSP430 which is used for entire system controlling and data processing. The lower system of autotracking and measurement is communicated with upper PC computer by RS232 module. In the experiment, the tracking precision of two-dimensional motion revolving stage is calibrated to be less than 0.05°. Experimental results indicate that the system designed could realize the precise autotracking and detecting function well, and the measure precision of system has reached the desirable target.

  11. Dependence of erythemally weighted UV radiation on geographical parameters in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinli; Gao, Wei; Davis, John; Olson, Becky; Janson, George; Slusser, James

    2007-09-01

    The relationship between solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface and geographical parameters is helpful in estimating the spatial distribution of UV radiation, which provides useful information to evaluate the potential impacts of enhanced UV levels on human health, agriculture, environment, and ecosystems for sustainable development. Measurements of erythemally weighted UV radiation at the sites of the United States Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVBMRP) monitoring network were analyzed to investigate the geographical distribution and seasonal variations. Twenty nine observation sites, which had continuous measurements during the recent six years, are selected for this study; twenty seven of them are distributed in the United States, including one in Hawaii and one in Alaska, and two of them are located in Canada along the United States border. The measurements were taken using the Yankee Environmental Systems Inc. (YES) UVB-1 ultraviolet pyranometer. This work focuses the data from the recent six years of 2001-2006 and the measurements during summer months (June-August) are emphasized. For each day, the measurements are integrated from sunrise to sunset to produce the daily UV dosage, which is then averaged for different seasons or for the whole year over the six years to generate the average daily UV dosage. A multivariable regression technique is exploited to characterize the dependence of UV dosages on geographical parameters, including latitude and altitude. The results show that, although there are many factors, such as clouds, ozone, aerosols, air pollutants, and haze, that affect the UV radiation intensity at a location, the latitude and altitude of the site are the primary factors that regulate the average daily UV dosage. On average over the last six years in the United States, more than 95% of the variability in averaged daily UV dosages can be explained by the latitude and altitude. Longitude is

  12. Reconstruction of past and prediction of future erythemal UV-radiation at two sites in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Rieder, Harald; Wagner, Jochen; Simic, Stana; Dameris, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Since the discovery of anthropogenic ozone depletion more than 30 year ago, the scientific community has shown an increasing interest in UV-B radiation and started to monitor UV-radiation. However, difficulties involved in the routine operation and maintenance of the instruments have limited the length of reliable data records to about two decades. Further the number of places where they were measured, result in a set of observations too short and too sparse for a good understanding of past UV changes. Moreover state of the art climate models do not calculate future scenarios of UV-doses. Therefore detailed information about past and future UV-trends are lacking. Reconstruction techniques are indispensable to derive long-term time series of UV-radiation and fill this gap. Apart from the astronomical parameters, like solar zenith angle and sun-earth-distance, UV radiation is strongly influenced by clouds, ozone and surface albedo. We developed and evaluated a reconstruction technique for UV-doses (from regional climate model output) that first calculates the UV-doses under clear-sky condition and afterwards applies corrections in order to take cloud effects into account. Since the input parameters cloud cover, total ozone column and surface albedo are available from the Regional Climate Models REMO and E39/C (DLR-model), we applied our reconstruction technique for the past and for future scenarios using REMO and E39/C data as input. Hence we simulated a seamless UV long-term time series from the past to the future. Our method was applied for the high alpine station Hoher Sonnblick (3106m) situated in the Austrian Alps and for Vienna (170m) in the Eastern part of the Austrian territory. We first analyse the accuracy of the obtained backward reconstruction and intercompare the modelled and measured input parameters ozone, cloud modification factor, and ground albedo. Several approaches to improve the accuracy of the reconstruction are presented. Then we present the

  13. Researchers lack data on trends in UV radiation at Earth's surface

    SciTech Connect

    Zurer, P.S.

    1993-07-26

    Current anxiety about depletion of stratospheric ozone stems from the expected resulting increase in biologically damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation at Earth's surface. Atmospheric ozone absorbs sunlight with wavelengths shorter than 320 nm--the highest-energy UV-B wavelengths (280-320 nm) that can damage DNA in living systems. But surprisingly, despite firm evidence the ozone layer is being eroded by chlorine and bromine from man-made compounds, very little information exists on how UV light intensity is changing. Solid data from Antarctica reveal that UV radiation soars under the ozone hole, where fully half of the atmospheric ozone is destroyed each spring. But elsewhere on the globe, where ozone has been thinning at a rate of a few percent per decade, the corresponding trends in UV intensity are not at all clear. In the late 1970s and early 1980s the problem of ozone depletion seemed solved. The US had banned the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in aerosols. Model calculations were predicting CFCs would cause only a small loss of ozone by the second half of the 21st century. Costly monitoring of UV radiation commanded little attention. Attitudes began to change with the 1985 discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. The National Science Foundation (NSF) established UV monitoring stations in the Antarctic in 1988, adding an Alaskan station in 1990. Both the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have programs in the works that will eventually place monitoring stations across the US, but it will be many years before researchers have access to the kind of extensive database necessary to reliably evaluation long-term trends in UV intensity.

  14. Tissue ablation via optical fibre delivery of UV laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joseph; Yu, Xiaobo; Yu, Paula K.; Cringle, Stephen J.; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2008-04-01

    We report the use of an ultraviolet (UV) laser and optical fibre arrangement capable of precise and controllable tissue ablation. The 5th (213nm) and 4th (266nm) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser were launched into optical fibres using a hollow glass taper to concentrate the beam. Standard and modified silica/silica optical fibres were used, all commercially available. The available energy and fluence, as a function of optical fibre length, were evaluated and maximised. Single 5ns pulses were used to ablate both fresh porcine retina and in vivo rat trabecular meshwork. Fluences of 0.4 to 4.0 J/cm2 of 266nm and 0.2 to 1.0 J/cm2 of 213nm were used respectively. Thus demonstrating the potential use of this system for intraocular surgical applications.

  15. UV Radiation: a new first year physics/life sciences laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.; Siddaway, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Unfortunately, Australia leads the world in the number of skin cancer cases per capita. Three major factors that contribute to this are: 1) the level of damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation in Australia is higher than in many other countries. This is caused, among other factors, by the stratospheric ozone depletion and Antarctic ozone hole; 2) many people in Australia are of Irish-Scottish origin and their skin can not repair the damage caused by the UV radiation as effectively as the skin of people of other origins; 3) Australia is one of the world’s leaders in the outdoor activities where people tend to spend more time outside. As our experience has shown, most Australian University students, high school students, and even high school teachers were largely unaware of the UV damage details and effective safety measures. Therefore, a need for new ways to educate people became apparent. The general aim of this new 1st year laboratory experiment, developed and first offered at La Trobe University (Melbourne, Australia) in 2009, is to investigate how UV-B radiation levels change under various solar illumination conditions and how effective different types of protection are. After pre-lab readings on physical concepts and biological effects of UV radiation, and after solving all pre-lab problems, the students go outside and measure the actual change in UV-B and UV-A radiation levels under various conditions. Some of these conditions are: direct sun, shade from a building, shade under the roof, reflection from various surfaces, direct sun through cheap and expensive sunglasses and eyeglasses, direct sun through various types of cloth and hair. The equipment used is the UV-Probe manufactured by sglux SolGel Technologies GmbH. The students’ feedback on this new laboratory experiment was very positive. It was ranked top among all physics experiments offered as part of that subject (Physics for Life Sciences) in 2009 and top among all physics experiments presented for

  16. Effects of UV-A Radiation on Desmodesmus armatus: Changes in Growth Rate, Pigment Content and Morphological Appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálffy, Károly; Vörös, Lajos

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory cultures of Desmodesmus armatus (R. Chod.) Hegew. were grown under different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) supplemented with 3.75 mW . cm-2 UV-A radiation. Growth rate was monitored daily, chlorophyl-a concentration, total carotenoid content, cell number and the relative abundance of different coenobial forms was determined at the end of each experiment. Exposure to UV-A radiation resulted in an increasing inhibition of growth towards higher PAR levels, reaching 100% at 400 μmol . m-2 . s-1. Cellular carotenoid content was higher in the presence of UV-A radiation, on the other hand no differences were observed in cellular chlorophyll-a concentration. UV-A radiation also induced changes in coenobium formation with a decreasing proportion of 4-celled coenobia and an increase in the abundance of 2-celled and teratologic coenobia, suggesting that high intensity UV-A radiation may influence cell cycle events or morphology development.

  17. Cellular responses to ionizing and ultraviolet radiation in ataxia telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Loberg, L.I.; McGrath, S.J.; Dixon, K.

    1995-11-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a genetic disease characterized by a wide variety of symptoms including a marked increase of cancer incidence and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR). Hypersensitivity is expressed as decreased cell survival, increased induction of chromosomal damage, radioresistant DNA synthesis and absence of G1 arrest following exposure of cells to IR. The defect in AT may lie in the regulation of DNA replication and control of the cell cycle. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis confirms the alterations of cell cycle control in AT cells following exposure to 1Gy ionizing radiation. Replication activity in the in vitro system parallels in vivo DNA synthesis in that: (a) extracts from normal cells exposed to 1Gy IR show a dramatic decrease in replication activity, and (b) extracts from AT cells exposed 1Gy IR do not show such a decrease in replication activity. The inability of AT cells to inhibit DNA replication following exposure to IR is a response which is seen after exposure to other types of DNA damaging agents. AT and normal cells were treated with 254nm UV radiation. Following exposure to 10J UV radiation, normal cells show dramatic DNA replication arrest while AT cells do not demonstrate DNA replication arrest. It appears that failure to halt DNA synthesis is a global feature of AT cells exposed to radiation. Phosphorylation changes of the essential replication protein, single strand binding protein (hSSB), have been investigated after both UV and ionizing radiation exposure. Previous work in the lab has shown, via immunoblotting techniques, that hSSB is hyperphosphorylated in HeLa cells following exposure to 10J UV radiation. In AT cells, hyperphosphorylation of hSSB also occurs following 10J UV radiation, but not 1Gy Ir. Further research is being conducted to examine the apparent uncoupling of DNA synthesis control and hyperphosphorylation of hSSB in UV-exposed AT cells.

  18. The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Egyeki, M.; Fekete, A.; Horneck, G.; Kovács, G.; Panitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose in the harsh extraterrestrial radiation conditions. The biological detectors were exposed in vacuum-tightly cases in the European Space Agency (ESA) astrobiological exposure facility attached to the external platform of Zvezda (EXPOSE-R). EXPOSE-R took off to the International Space Station (ISS) in November 2008 and was installed on the External platform of the Russian module Zvezda of the ISS in March 2009. Our goal was to determine the dose-effect relation for the formation of photoproducts (i.e. damage to phage DNA and uracil, respectively). The extraterrestrial solar UV radiation ranges over the whole spectrum from vacuum-UV (λ<200 nm) to UVA (315 nm<λ<400 nm), which causes photolesions (photoproducts) in the nucleic acids/their components either by photoionization or excitation. However, these wavelengths cause not only photolesions but in a wavelength-dependent efficiency the reversion of some photolesions, too. Our biological detectors measured in situ conditions the resultant of both reactions induced by the extraterrestrial UV radiation. From this aspect the role of the photoreversion in the extension of the biological UV dosimetry are discussed.

  19. CO sensing properties under UV radiation of Ga-doped ZnO nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahri, R.; Hjiri, M.; Mir, L. El.; Bonavita, A.; Iannazzo, D.; Leonardi, S. G.; Neri, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect of Ga-doping and UV radiation on CO sensing of ZnO nano-powders has been investigated. GZO nanoparticles with different Ga loadings were prepared using a modified sol-gel route and charaterized by means of trasmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. Electrical and CO-sensing tests were performed on resistive planar devices consisting of thick films of GZO deposited on interdigitated alumina substrates in both dark and illumination condition by exposing the samples to UV radiation (λ = 400 nm). The baseline resistance in dark decreases strongly with the increase of Ga loading. This effect is reinforced by using UV radiation at low temperature in samples containing up to 3 at.% of Ga, which suggests also an effect of the microstructure of GZO on UV light promoting mechanism. The combined effect of Ga doping and UV irradiation allowed to monitor CO in air at low concentration with high sensitivity and lower operating temperature than on unpromoted ZnO sensor.

  20. Does enhanced solar UV-B radiation affect marine primary producers in their natural habitats?

    PubMed

    Häder, Donat-P

    2011-01-01

    This article is a highlight of the paper by Li et al. in this issue of Photochemistry and Photobiology as well as a short summary of the research on the effects of solar UV-B radiation on primary production in the oceans. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions using artificial light sources indicate species-specific damage of many phytoplankton groups. Mesocosm studies in enclosures of limited volume allow analyzing UV effects in multigeneration monitoring of natural assemblages. Field studies to determine the effects of short-wavelength solar radiation require sensitive instrumentation and measurements over extended areas of the open ocean to yield significant results. Results from a cruise described in the paper by Li et al. indicate clear effects of UV-B and UV-A on the photosynthetic carbon fixation of phytoplankton communities with spatial differences between coastal and open-ocean waters. Increasing temperatures and acidification in the ocean due to global climate change may exacerbate the detrimental effects of solar UV-B radiation. PMID:21208211

  1. Spatial resolution in thin film deposition on silicon surfaces by combining silylation and UV/ozonolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Zaera, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    A simple procedure has been developed for the processing of silicon wafers in order to facilitate the spatially resolved growth of thin solid films on their surfaces. Specifically, a combination of silylation and UV/ozonolysis was tested as a way to control the concentration of the surface hydroxo groups required for subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of metals or oxides. Water contact angle measurements were used to evaluate the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the surface, a proxy for OH surface coverage, and to optimize the UV/ozonolysis treatment. Silylation with hexamethyldisilazane, trichloro(octadecyl)silane, or trimethylchlorosilane was found to be an efficient way to block the hydroxo sites and to passivate the underlying surface, and UV/O3 treatments were shown to effectively remove the silylation layer and to regain the surface reactivity. Both O3 and 185 nm UV radiation were determined necessary for the removal of the silylation layer, and additional 254 nm radiation was found to enhance the process. Attenuated total reflection-infrared absorption spectroscopy was employed to assess the success of the silylation and UV/O3 removal steps, and atomic force microscopy data provided evidence for the retention of the original smoothness of the surface. Selective growth of HfO2 films via TDMAHf + H2O ALD was seen only on the UV/O3 treated surfaces; total inhibition of the deposition was observed on the untreated silylated surfaces (as determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry). Residual film growth was still detected on the latter if the ALD was carried out at high temperatures (250 °C), because the silylation layer deteriorates under such harsh conditions and forms surface defects that act as nucleation sites for the growth of oxide grains (as identified by electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). We believe that the silylation-UV/O3 procedure advanced here could be easily implemented for the patterning of surfaces

  2. DSMC simulation of two-phase plume flow with UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ning; Jin, Ling

    2014-12-09

    Rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume in which the phase of particles is liquid or solid flows from a solid propellant rocket of hypersonic vehicle flying at high altitudes, the aluminum oxide particulates not only impact the rarefied gas flow properties, but also make a great difference to plume radiation signature, so the radiation prediction of the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow is very important for space target detection of hypersonic vehicles. Accordingly, this project aims to study the rarefied gas-particle two-phase flow and ultraviolet radiation (UV) characteristics. Considering a two-way interphase coupling of momentum and energy, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is developed for particle phase change and the particle flow, including particulate collision, coalescence as well as separation, and a Monte Carlo ray trace model is implemented for the particulate UV radiation. A program for the numerical simulation of the gas-particle two-phase flow and radiation in which the gas flow nonequilibrium is strong is implemented as well. Ultraviolet radiation characteristics of the particle phase is studied based on the calculation of the flow field coupled with the radiation calculation, the radiation model for different size particles is analyzed, focusing on the effects of particle emission, absorption, scattering as well as the searchlight emission of the nozzle. A new approach may be proposed to describe the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow and radiation transfer characteristics in this project.

  3. DSMC simulation of two-phase plume flow with UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ning; Jin, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume in which the phase of particles is liquid or solid flows from a solid propellant rocket of hypersonic vehicle flying at high altitudes, the aluminum oxide particulates not only impact the rarefied gas flow properties, but also make a great difference to plume radiation signature, so the radiation prediction of the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow is very important for space target detection of hypersonic vehicles. Accordingly, this project aims to study the rarefied gas-particle two-phase flow and ultraviolet radiation (UV) characteristics. Considering a two-way interphase coupling of momentum and energy, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is developed for particle phase change and the particle flow, including particulate collision, coalescence as well as separation, and a Monte Carlo ray trace model is implemented for the particulate UV radiation. A program for the numerical simulation of the gas-particle two-phase flow and radiation in which the gas flow nonequilibrium is strong is implemented as well. Ultraviolet radiation characteristics of the particle phase is studied based on the calculation of the flow field coupled with the radiation calculation, the radiation model for different size particles is analyzed, focusing on the effects of particle emission, absorption, scattering as well as the searchlight emission of the nozzle. A new approach may be proposed to describe the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow and radiation transfer characteristics in this project.

  4. Adsorbable organic halogens generation and reduction during degradation of phenol by UV radiation/sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-Fu; Fu, Jie; Shi, Yin-Tao; Xia, Dong-Sheng; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2009-02-01

    The degradation of phenol by UV radiation/sodium hypochlorite (UV/NaClO) was investigated. The degradation processes were analyzed by a UV-visible spectrometer, total organic carbon analyzer, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that phenol can be photodegraded by UV/NaClO effectively. However, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were produced during the degradation process. Analysis of the mechanism of degradation indicates that the decrease in pH value would increase the formation of AOX. Also, dissolved oxygen greatly increased the rate of phenol degradation and reduced the formation of AOX. Therefore, appropriate conditions could increase degradation and inhibit chlorination. Adjusting the pH value and increasing the amount of oxygen were effective methods.

  5. Gibberella fujikuroi mutants obtained with UV radiation and N-methyl-N'-nitro-nitrosoguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Avalos, J.; Casadesus, J.; Cerda-Olmedo, E.

    1985-01-01

    N-methyl-N'-nitrosoguanidine and to a lesser extent UV radiation are very mutagenic for Gibberella microconidia. The recommended nitrosoguanidine doses lead to much higher frequencies of mutants than are found in other microorganisms. The frequency of mutants among the survivors increases linearly with the nitrosoguanidine dose (molar concentration x time); the absolute number of viable mutants in a given population reaches a maximum for a dose of ca. 0.7 M x s. The microconidia are uninucleate. The onset of germination brings about increased lethality of nitrosoguanidine, but it does not modify the action of UV radiation. Mycelia are more resistant than spores to both agents. Visible illumination effectively prevents lethality when given immediately after UV irradiation. Auxotrophs and color mutants are very easily obtained. Pink adenine auxotrophs and several classes of color mutants are affected in the biosynthesis of the carotenoid pigment, neurosporaxanthin.

  6. Radiation-damage-induced phasing: a case study using UV irradiation with light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Zubieta, Chloe; Felisaz, Franck; Caserotto, Hugo; Nanao, Max H

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to X-rays, high-intensity visible light or ultraviolet radiation results in alterations to protein structure such as the breakage of disulfide bonds, the loss of electron density at electron-rich centres and the movement of side chains. These specific changes can be exploited in order to obtain phase information. Here, a case study using insulin to illustrate each step of the radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) method is presented. Unlike a traditional X-ray-induced damage step, specific damage is introduced via ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). In contrast to UV lasers, UV-LEDs have the advantages of small size, low cost and relative ease of use.

  7. Radiation-damage-induced phasing: a case study using UV irradiation with light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Zubieta, Chloe; Felisaz, Franck; Caserotto, Hugo; Nanao, Max H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to X-rays, high-intensity visible light or ultraviolet radiation results in alterations to protein structure such as the breakage of disulfide bonds, the loss of electron density at electron-rich centres and the movement of side chains. These specific changes can be exploited in order to obtain phase information. Here, a case study using insulin to illustrate each step of the radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) method is presented. Unlike a traditional X-ray-induced damage step, specific damage is introduced via ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). In contrast to UV lasers, UV-LEDs have the advantages of small size, low cost and relative ease of use. PMID:26960126

  8. Observations of UV-B radiation during biomass burning at cuiabá, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Y.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Paes Leme, N.; Casiccia, C.

    During the last few years, a network (6 stations) of Brewer spectrophotometers has been established in different ecosystems in South America by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). A Brewer spectrophotometer permits simultaneous observations of total ozone and UV-B radiation and is operational on a routine basis at Cuiabá (16°S, 56°W), Brazil, since 1991. Surface ozone is also measured at Cuiabá using UV ozone monitor since 1987. In this paper we present and discuss the simultaneous observations from these two instruments obtained in 1995. This study permits comparison of the observations during the biomas burning period (dry season) with the wet season. Although surface ozone levels were considerably higher during the biomass burning season, no effect on the total ozone column could be observed. The UV-B radiation, however, was significantly reduced due to absorption by biomass burning aerosols.

  9. Colour change evaluation on UV radiation exposure for Păun-Repedea calcareous geomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelin, V.; Sandu, I.; Munteanu, M.; Iurcovschi, C. T.; Gurlui, S.; Sandu, AV; Vasilache, V.; Brȃnzilă, M.; Sandu, I. G.

    2016-06-01

    When talking about the preservation treatments that can be applied to natural stones used in different constructions, the surface hydrophobization plays an important part, especially when referring to porous surfaces like the calcareous oolithic stones specific to Repedea area, Iasi County, Romania. The present paper presents a method that evaluates the hydrophobization efficiency of two types of pellicles, involving UV artificial ageing and colorimetric analysis of the treated surfaces. The evaluation was done through continuous colorimetric monitoring and by comparing the evolution of the chromatic modifications of the two treated surfaces with the original colorimetric values and with the witness area, which was exposed to UV radiations under the same conditions, but left chemical untreated. The techniques used during this experiment were: CIE L*a*b* colorimetry, OM, SEM-EDX, UV radiation exposure and Spectrum Irradiance Measurement.

  10. Impulse powerful UV-radiation source pumped by the sublight ionization waves for the bacteriological disinfection of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiouguine, Igor V.; Kostiouchenko, S. V.; Koudryavtsev, N. N.; Vasilyak, Leonid M.; Yakimenko, A. V.

    1993-11-01

    The bacteriological disinfective action of UV-radiation is well known. The pioneer work on UV-radiation used for bacteriological disinfection of waste water was made in 1910. Because of the high cost and low living time of the UV-radiation sources, the alternative technique for waste water purification by chlorine introducing was spread out. During the second stage of the UV purification development, beginning in approximately 1970, the interest for bacteriological cleaning of water, increased again. Two reasons were responsible for this event: first, the significant improvement of technology and design of UV-bacteriological purificators, and second, recognition of the serious danger of chlorine compounds introduced into water under purification because of the toxicity of these compounds. Further investigations gave excellent results in the creation and industrial applications of UV- bacteriological purificators. Now we can see a rapid development of industrial technology in UV-purification of drinking and waste waters.

  11. UV radiation-induced immunosuppression is greater in men and prevented by topical nicotinamide.

    PubMed

    Damian, Diona L; Patterson, Clare R S; Stapelberg, Michael; Park, Joohong; Barnetson, Ross St C; Halliday, Gary M

    2008-02-01

    UV radiation-induced immunosuppression augments cutaneous carcinogenesis. The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase despite increased use of sunscreens, which are less effective at preventing immunosuppression than sunburn. Using the Mantoux reaction as a model of skin immunity, we investigated the effects of solar-simulated (ss) UV and its component UVA and UVB wavebands and tested the ability of topical nicotinamide to protect from UV-induced immunosuppression. Healthy, Mantoux-positive volunteers were UV-irradiated on their backs, with 5% nicotinamide or vehicle applied to different sites in a randomized, double-blinded manner. Subsequent Mantoux testing at irradiated and adjacent unirradiated sites enabled measurement of UV-induced immunosuppression with and without nicotinamide. Suberythemal ssUV caused significant immunosuppression, although component UVB and UVA doses delivered independently did not. Men were immunosuppressed by ssUV doses three times lower than those required to immunosuppress women. This may be an important cause of the higher skin cancer incidence and mortality observed in men. Topical nicotinamide prevented immunosuppression, with gene chip microarrays suggesting that the mechanisms of protection may include alterations in complement, energy metabolism and apoptosis pathways. Nicotinamide is a safe and inexpensive compound that could be added to sunscreens or after-sun lotions to improve protection from immunosuppression. immunosuppression.JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article, please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub

  12. Prevention of UV radiation-induced immunosuppression by IL-12 is dependent on DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Agatha; Maeda, Akira; Kernebeck, Kerstin; van Steeg, Harry; Beissert, Stefan; Schwarz, Thomas

    2005-01-17

    The immunostimulatory cytokine IL-12 is able to antagonize immunosuppression induced by solar/ultraviolet (UV) radiation via yet unknown mechanisms. IL-12 was recently found to induce deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair. UV-induced DNA damage is an important molecular trigger for UV-mediated immunosuppression. Thus, we initiated studies into immune restoration by IL-12 to discern whether its effects are linked to DNA repair. IL-12 prevented both UV-induced suppression of the induction of contact hypersensitivity and the depletion of Langerhans cells, the primary APC of the skin, in wild-type but not in DNA repair-deficient mice. IL-12 did not prevent the development of UV-induced regulatory T cells in DNA repair-deficient mice. In contrast, IL-12 was able to break established UV-induced tolerance and inhibited the activity of regulatory T cells independent of DNA repair. These data identify a new mechanism by which IL-12 can restore immune responses and also demonstrate a link between DNA repair and the prevention of UV-induced immunosuppression by IL-12.

  13. UV radiation-induced immunosuppression is greater in men and prevented by topical nicotinamide.

    PubMed

    Damian, Diona L; Patterson, Clare R S; Stapelberg, Michael; Park, Joohong; Barnetson, Ross St C; Halliday, Gary M

    2008-02-01

    UV radiation-induced immunosuppression augments cutaneous carcinogenesis. The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase despite increased use of sunscreens, which are less effective at preventing immunosuppression than sunburn. Using the Mantoux reaction as a model of skin immunity, we investigated the effects of solar-simulated (ss) UV and its component UVA and UVB wavebands and tested the ability of topical nicotinamide to protect from UV-induced immunosuppression. Healthy, Mantoux-positive volunteers were UV-irradiated on their backs, with 5% nicotinamide or vehicle applied to different sites in a randomized, double-blinded manner. Subsequent Mantoux testing at irradiated and adjacent unirradiated sites enabled measurement of UV-induced immunosuppression with and without nicotinamide. Suberythemal ssUV caused significant immunosuppression, although component UVB and UVA doses delivered independently did not. Men were immunosuppressed by ssUV doses three times lower than those required to immunosuppress women. This may be an important cause of the higher skin cancer incidence and mortality observed in men. Topical nicotinamide prevented immunosuppression, with gene chip microarrays suggesting that the mechanisms of protection may include alterations in complement, energy metabolism and apoptosis pathways. Nicotinamide is a safe and inexpensive compound that could be added to sunscreens or after-sun lotions to improve protection from immunosuppression. immunosuppression.JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article, please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub PMID:17882270

  14. Temperature stress tolerance of conifer seedlings after exposure to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    L'Hirondelle, Sylvia J; Binder, Wolfgang D

    2005-01-01

    Ground-level UV-B radiation has increased globally due to a thinning stratospheric ozone layer. We estimated the effects of increased UV-B on 10 conifer species grown in chambers in greenhouses with supplemental UV-B. Species were selected from a wide range of geographic locations. Plant material of two ages (germinants, first growing season; seedlings, second season) were exposed to three levels of UV-B from ambient (at Victoria, B.C., Canada) to three times ambient (12 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) for up to four months. Frost hardiness and heat tolerance of shoots were estimated from changes in chlorophyll fluorescence after exposure to test temperatures. There were no significant differences among seed sources from different elevations in their response to temperature stresses. When UV-B increased above the ambient level, three species (interior Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, and interior lodgepole pine) increased in frost hardiness and four (grand fir, interior spruce, yellow-cedar, and western redcedar) decreased. Two species (western redcedar and western hemlock) increased in heat tolerance when UV-B increased to the 12 kJ level. The main differences in stress tolerance were between the triple ambient and the other two treatments, not between ambient and double ambient, suggesting that any changes in UV-B would have to be large to elicit physiological changes in conifer seedlings.

  15. Improving radiation data quality of USDA UV-B monitoring and research program and evaluating UV decomposition in DayCent and its ecological impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maosi

    Solar radiation impacts many aspects of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. The total solar radiation impacts the atmospheric temperature profile and the Earth's surface radiative energy budget. The solar visible (VIS) radiation is the energy source of photosynthesis. The solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation impacts plant's physiology, microbial activities, and human and animal health. Recent studies found that solar UV significantly shifts the mass loss and nitrogen patterns of plant litter decomposition in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. The potential mechanisms include the production of labile materials from direct and indirect photolysis of complex organic matters, the facilitation of microbial decomposition with more labile materials, and the UV inhibition of microbes' population. However, the mechanisms behind UV decomposition and its ecological impacts are still uncertain. Accurate and reliable ground solar radiation measurements help us better retrieve the atmosphere composition, validate satellite radiation products, and simulate ecosystem processes. Incorporating the UV decomposition into the DayCent biogeochemical model helps to better understand long-term ecological impacts. Improving the accuracy of UV irradiance data is the goal of the first part of this research and examining the importance of UV radiation in the biogeochemical model DayCent is the goal of the second part of the work. Thus, although the dissertation is separated into two parts, accurate UV irradiance measurement links them in what follows. In part one of this work the accuracy and reliability of the current operational calibration method for the (UV-) Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), which is used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP), is improved. The UVMRP has monitored solar radiation in the 14 narrowband UV and VIS spectral channels at 37 sites across U.S. since 1992. The improvements in the quality of the data result

  16. Photocatalytic ROS production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is dependent on solar UV radiation spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar UV radiation spectrum by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UVB (280-32...

  17. Effects of solar UV radiation on alkaloid production in Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-producing species of Erythroxylum have been cultivated in South America for centuries, yet little is know of environmental effects on alkaloid production in these species. Given the high incidence of UV radiation in the equatorial and high altitude environments in which cocaine-producing sp...

  18. GROWTH RESPONSE OF SYMBODINIUM SPP. TO COMBINED TEMPERATURE AND UV RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rogers, J.E. and D. Marcovich. In press. Growth Response of a Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp., to Combined Temperature and UV Radiation Exposure (Abstract). To be presented at the ASLO 2004 Summer Meeting: The Changing Landscapes of Oceans and Freshwater, 13-18 June 2004, Savann...

  19. AMBIENT SOLAR UV RADIATION CAUSES MORTALITY IN LARVAE OF THREE SPECIES OF RANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports concerning the lethal effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on amphibians suggest that this stressor has the potential to impact some amphibian populations. In this study embryos and larvae of three anuran species, Rana pipiens, R. clamitans, and R. septe...

  20. ATTENUATION OF SOLAR UV RADIATION BY AEROSOLS DURING AIR POLLUTION EPISODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increase in the amount of solar UV radiation reaching the surface due to decrease in stratospheric ozone continues to be a major concern (WMO, 1998). However, recent studies show that absorption and smattering by aerosols during air pollution episode decreases the amount of radi...

  1. Effects of UV-B radiation on tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta), and effects of red and blue light on repair of UV-B-induced damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of red and blue light on the repair of UV-B radiation-induced damage in tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm. Tetraspores of C. ocellatus were treated with different UV-B radiation levels (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 and 180 J/m2), and thereafter subjected to PAR, darkness, or red or blue light during a 2-h repair stage, each day for 48 days. The diameters and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs) contents of the tetraspores were determined. Our results show that low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) promoted the growth of C. ocellatus; however, increased UV-B radiation gradually reduced the C. ocellatus growth (greater than 72 J/m2). The MAAs (palythine and asterina-330) in C. ocellatus were detected and analyzed by LC/MS. Our results suggest that moderate red light could induce the growth of this alga in aquaculture. In addition, photorepair was inhibited by red light, so there may be some other DNA repair mechanism activated by red light. Blue light promoted the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency. Red and blue lights were found to reduce the capacity of C. ocellatus to form MAAs. Therefore, PAR, red light, and blue light play different roles during the repair processes for damage induced by UV-B radiation.

  2. The genotoxic effects of DNA lesions induced by artificial UV-radiation and sunlight.

    PubMed

    Schuch, André Passaglia; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2010-06-01

    Solar radiation sustains and affects all life forms on Earth. The increase in solar UV-radiation at environmental levels, due to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, highlights serious issues of social concern. This becomes still more dramatic in tropical and subtropical regions where radiation-intensity is still higher. Thus, there is the need to evaluate the harmful effects of solar UV-radiation on the DNA molecule as a basis for assessing the risks involved for human health, biological productivity and ecosystems. In order to evaluate the profile of DNA damage induced by this form of radiation and its genotoxic effects, plasmid DNA samples were exposed to artificial-UV lamps and directly to sunlight. The induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photoproducts (CPDs) and oxidative DNA damage in these molecules were evaluated by means of specific DNA repair enzymes. On the other hand, the biological effects of such lesions were determined through the analysis of the DNA inactivation rate and mutation frequency, after replication of the damaged pCMUT vector in an Escherichia coliMBL50 strain. The results indicated the induction of a significant number of CPDs after exposure to increasing doses of UVC, UVB, UVA radiation and sunlight. Interestingly, these photoproducts are those lesions that better correlate with plasmid inactivation as well as mutagenesis, and the oxidative DNA damages induced present very low correlation with these effects. The results indicated that DNA photoproducts play the main role in the induction of genotoxic effects by artificial UV-radiation sources and sunlight.

  3. Extremely high UV-C radiation resistant microorganisms from desert environments with different manganese concentrations.

    PubMed

    Paulino-Lima, Ivan Glaucio; Fujishima, Kosuke; Navarrete, Jesica Urbina; Galante, Douglas; Rodrigues, Fabio; Azua-Bustos, Armando; Rothschild, Lynn Justine

    2016-10-01

    Desiccation resistance and a high intracellular Mn/Fe ratio contribute to ionizing radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans. We hypothesized that this was a general phenomenon and thus developed a strategy to search for highly radiation-resistant organisms based on their natural environment. While desiccation is a typical feature of deserts, the correlation between radiation resistance and the intracellular Mn/Fe ratio of indigenous microorganisms or the Mn/Fe ratio of the environment, has not yet been described. UV-C radiation is highly damaging to biomolecules including DNA. It was used in this study as a selective tool because of its relevance to early life on earth, high altitude aerobiology and the search for life beyond Earth. Surface soil samples were collected from the Sonoran Desert, Arizona (USA), from the Atacama Desert in Chile and from a manganese mine in northern Argentina. Microbial isolates were selected after exposure to UV-C irradiation and growth. The isolates comprised 28 genera grouped within six phyla, which we ranked according to their resistance to UV-C irradiation. Survival curves were performed for the most resistant isolates and correlated with their intracellular Mn/Fe ratio, which was determined by ICP-MS. Five percent of the isolates were highly resistant, including one more resistant than D. radiodurans, a bacterium generally considered the most radiation-resistant organism, thus used as a model for radiation resistance studies. No correlation was observed between the occurrence of resistant microorganisms and the Mn/Fe ratio in the soil samples. However, all resistant isolates showed an intracellular Mn/Fe ratio much higher than the sensitive isolates. Our findings could represent a new front in efforts to harness mechanisms of UV-C radiation resistance from extreme environments. PMID:27614243

  4. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the germination of Nosema algerae Vavra and Undeen (Microsporida: Nosematidae) spores

    SciTech Connect

    Undeen, A.H.; Vander Meer, R.K. )

    1990-05-01

    Spores of Nosema algerae Vavra and Undeen were subjected to various dosages of 254 nm ultraviolet radiation (UV). Very high dosages of UV were required to block germination. Germination was normal immediately after UV dosages of 0.2 to 1.0 J/cm2, followed by a delayed effect in which both percentage germination and the intrasporal concentration of trehalose decreased with time after UV exposure. Although a few spores were germinated, most of them were inactivated (rendered temporarily unable to germinate) by exposure to UV of 1.1 J/cm2. Ultraviolet radiation between 1.1 and 3.4 J/cm2 stimulated spores to germinate. However, spores were completely unable to germinate immediately after exposure to dosages above 3.8 J/cm2. Ammonia had little effect on stimulation by UV but was inhibitory to germination after stimulation had occurred. These results demonstrate that UV behaves like a germination stimulus and are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that germination is initiated by the breakdown of barriers between trehalose and trehalase.

  5. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the germination of Nosema algerae Vávra and Undeen (Microsporida: Nosematidae) spores.

    PubMed

    Undeen, A H; Vander Meer, R K

    1990-01-01

    Spores of Nosema algerae Vávra and Undeen were subjected to various dosages of 254 nm ultraviolet radiation (UV). Very high dosages of UV were required to block germination. Germination was normal immediately after UV dosages of 0.2 to 1.0 J/cm2, followed by a delayed effect in which both percentage germination and the intrasporal concentration of trehalose decreased with time after UV exposure. Although a few spores were germinated, most of them were inactivated (rendered temporarily unable to germinate) by exposure to UV of 1.1 J/cm2. Ultraviolet radiation between 1.1 and 3.4 J/cm2 stimulated spores to germinate. However, spores were completely unable to germinate immediately after exposure to dosages above 3.8 J/cm2. Ammonia had little effect on stimulation by UV but was inhibitory to germination after stimulation had occurred. These results demonstrate that UV behaves like a germination stimulus and are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that germination is initiated by the breakdown of barriers between trehalose and trehalase. PMID:2359047

  6. The effects of UV radiation, litter chemistry, and drought on desert litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Nieto, B.; Hewins, D. B.; Barnes, P. W.; McDowell, N. G.; Pockman, W.; Rahn, T.; Throop, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that photodegradation by solar UV radiation can be a major driver of litter decomposition in dryland ecosystems. The importance of photodegradation in litter decomposition appears to decline with precipitation, suggesting that the relative importance of photodegradation may increase given current projections of future increases in drought severity in the southwestern USA. Several previous studies indicate that UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) is the most effective waveband in breaking chemical bonds forming organic material, but whether UV-B exposure may facilitate subsequent decomposition by microbes (i.e., photo-priming) has received little attention. In this study, we tested the effects of pre-exposure UV radiation (photo-priming), litter chemistry (lignin and cellulose content and nitrogen content), and drought on the rate of litter decomposition in a semi-arid ecosystem. To understand the effects of UV radiation on litter decomposition, we pre-exposed litter to three radiation treatments: control (no radiation), UV-A+visible, UV-A+UV-B+visible. Litter was exposed to the equivalent of three months' solar radiation of southern New Mexico prior to microbial decomposition. There were three litter types: basswood sheets (high lignin content), pure cellulose filter paper, and mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaflets. Following radiation treatment, litter was placed in mesh litterbags that were buried within a large-scale precipitation manipulation experiment at the Sevilleta Long-Term Ecological Research site: control (ambient precipitation), elevated precipitation (x2 ambient precipitation), and drought (x0.5 ambient precipitation). We collected a subset of bags at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months and measured mass remaining and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content. After 6 months, mass remaining of filter paper and basswood sheets did not differ from the initial mass, but mesquite mass remaining declined over 30%. The pre-exposure UV effects had minimal

  7. Effect of solar UV radiation on earthworm (Metaphire posthuma).

    PubMed

    Misra, R B; Lal, K; Farooq, M; Hans, R K

    2005-11-01

    Human health risks like damage to the eyes, immune system, and skin are known to be associated with increasing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the environment. In this study, we evaluated the phototoxic effects of UVR in sunlight and its possible mechanism of action by using earthworm as an alternative model because earthworm skin contains several biomolecules (tetraene and triene sterol) similar to human beings. We studied the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), photooxidation of lipids, and histopathological changes in earthworm integument. It was observed that UVR-exposed earthworm skin homogenate produced a significant amount of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), superoxide anion (O(2)(*)(-)), hydroxyl radicals ((*)OH), and photooxidation of lipids. The production of ROS and lipid peroxidation product was found dependent on the dose of solar UVR in earthworm integument. Histological anomalies such as thickening, vacuolation, and hypertrophy of epidermal cells were observed when the animals were exposed for 1 to 2h, while a higher exposure period (3h) caused degeneration of circular and longitudinal muscles. Continuous sunlight exposure for more than 3h was found lethal to worms. These observations suggested that the current level of UVR in sunlight may produce significant phototoxic effects in the earthworms probably via the generation of ROS (photodynamic action). Possible increases in UVR in view of ozone depletion may be more detrimental to the biomolecules in the worm's skin. The earthworm thus turned out as a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective test organism for the assessment of the hazardous potential of solar radiation and also for planning safety measures for human beings.

  8. Predicting the ultraviolet radiation distribution in a room with multilouvered germicidal fixtures.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, S N

    2001-01-01

    Irradiating the upper part of a room with 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation from a low-pressure mercury discharge lamp has the potential to be a relatively inexpensive method to reduce transmission of airborne infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. To protect occupants in the lower part of a room from radiation, multilouvered UV germicidal fixtures producing a horizontal, collimated beam are often used, particularly in rooms having a normal ceiling height. Knowledge of the fixture's emission characteristics and the airflow field are needed to estimate the UV dose to airborne microorganisms and assess the fixture's overall effectiveness in controlling disease transmission. In this article, a model is developed to predict the UV fluence rate at any location in the upper room for ceiling-mounted, multilouvered, pendant-type fixtures, which provide 360-degree emission in the horizontal plane. The model also predicts total UV power emitted by the fixture, which is the best single-number effectiveness index for comparing multilouvered UV germicidal fixtures. Model predictions compared favorably with laboratory and field measurements.

  9. Past changes in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems, climate and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus

    2004-11-01

    that are apparently without precedent during the Pleistocene is likely to be considerable, particularly as their exposure to co-occurring environmental changes (such as enhanced levels of UV-B, deposition of nitrogen compounds from the atmosphere, heavy metal and acidic pollution, radioactive contamination, increased habitat fragmentation) is also without precedent. PMID:15573568

  10. Past changes in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems, climate and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus

    2004-11-01

    that are apparently without precedent during the Pleistocene is likely to be considerable, particularly as their exposure to co-occurring environmental changes (such as enhanced levels of UV-B, deposition of nitrogen compounds from the atmosphere, heavy metal and acidic pollution, radioactive contamination, increased habitat fragmentation) is also without precedent.

  11. The changes in quality ingredients of Qi chrysanthemum flowers treated with elevated UV-B radiation at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jianzhou; He, Xueli; Ma, Chunhui; Han, Chao; Shen, Haiyu

    2015-05-01

    The paper mainly reported the changes in quality ingredients of Qi chrysanthemum flowers treated with elevated UV-B radiation at different growth stages. The experiment included two levels of UV-B radiation (ambient UV-B, a 10% increase in ambient UV-B). Elevated UV-B radiation was carried out for 10-days during seedling, vigorous growth, bud and flower stages of Qi chrysanthemum, respectively. Elevated UV-B treatments applied during four development stages did not significantly affect flower yield, the rate of superoxide radical production and malondialdehyde concentration in flowers, while increased free amino acid concentration. The amino acid concentration induced by elevated UV-B radiation applied during bud stage was higher than that during the other stages. Elevated UV-B radiation applied during vigorous growth (except for flavone), bud and flower stages of chrysanthemum significantly increased hydrogen peroxide concentration, phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme activity, vitamin C, chlorogenic acid and flavone concentrations in flowers. These results suggested that active and nutritional ingredients in flowers of chrysanthemum could be increased by elevated UV-B radiation applied during the later growth stages of chrysanthemum. The paper supplied a simple and environmental-friendly method to improve quality of medicinal plants.

  12. UV-B absorbing compounds in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles, seed coats and wood: evaluation of a proxy for solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Rozema, J; Blokker, P; Mayoral Fuertes, M A; Broekman, R

    2009-09-01

    UV-B absorbing compounds (UACs) in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles, seed coats and wood have been evaluated as a proxy for past UV. This proxy may not only provide information on variation of stratospheric ozone and solar UV in the period preceding and during the Antarctic ozone hole (1974-present day), but also on the development and variation of the stratospheric ozone layer and solar surface UV during the evolution of life on Earth. Sporopollenin and cutin are highly resistant biopolymers, preserving well in the geological record and contain the phenolic acids p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic acid (FA). pCA and FA represent a good perspective for a plant-based proxy for past surface UV radiation since they are induced by solar UV-B via the phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP). UV-B absorption by these monomers in the wall of pollen and spores and in cuticles may prevent damage to the cellular metabolism. Increased pCA and FA in pollen of Vicia faba exposed to enhanced UV-B was found in greenhouse experiments. Further correlative evidence comes from UV-absorbing compounds in spores from 1960-2000 comparing exposure of land plants (Lycopodium species) to solar UV before and during ozone depletion and comparing plants from Antarctica (severe ozone depletion), Arctic, and other latitudes with less or negligible ozone depletion. Wood-derived compounds guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p-hydroxyphenyl (P) are produced via the PPP. The proportions of P, G, and S in the lignin differ between various plant groups (e.g. dicotyledons/monocotyledons, gymnosperms/angiosperms). It is hypothesized that this lignin composition and derived physiological and physical properties of lignin (such as tree-ring wood density) has potential as a proxy for palaeo-UV climate. However validation by exposure of trees to enhanced UV is lacking. pCA and FA also form part of cutin polymers and are found in extant and fossil Ginkgo leaf cuticles as shown by thermally-assisted hydrolysis and

  13. UV-B absorbing compounds in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles, seed coats and wood: evaluation of a proxy for solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Rozema, J; Blokker, P; Mayoral Fuertes, M A; Broekman, R

    2009-09-01

    UV-B absorbing compounds (UACs) in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles, seed coats and wood have been evaluated as a proxy for past UV. This proxy may not only provide information on variation of stratospheric ozone and solar UV in the period preceding and during the Antarctic ozone hole (1974-present day), but also on the development and variation of the stratospheric ozone layer and solar surface UV during the evolution of life on Earth. Sporopollenin and cutin are highly resistant biopolymers, preserving well in the geological record and contain the phenolic acids p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic acid (FA). pCA and FA represent a good perspective for a plant-based proxy for past surface UV radiation since they are induced by solar UV-B via the phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP). UV-B absorption by these monomers in the wall of pollen and spores and in cuticles may prevent damage to the cellular metabolism. Increased pCA and FA in pollen of Vicia faba exposed to enhanced UV-B was found in greenhouse experiments. Further correlative evidence comes from UV-absorbing compounds in spores from 1960-2000 comparing exposure of land plants (Lycopodium species) to solar UV before and during ozone depletion and comparing plants from Antarctica (severe ozone depletion), Arctic, and other latitudes with less or negligible ozone depletion. Wood-derived compounds guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p-hydroxyphenyl (P) are produced via the PPP. The proportions of P, G, and S in the lignin differ between various plant groups (e.g. dicotyledons/monocotyledons, gymnosperms/angiosperms). It is hypothesized that this lignin composition and derived physiological and physical properties of lignin (such as tree-ring wood density) has potential as a proxy for palaeo-UV climate. However validation by exposure of trees to enhanced UV is lacking. pCA and FA also form part of cutin polymers and are found in extant and fossil Ginkgo leaf cuticles as shown by thermally-assisted hydrolysis and

  14. Separate and combined responses to water deficit and UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Bandurska, Hanna; Niedziela, Justyna; Chadzinikolau, Tamara

    2013-12-01

    Crops and other plants in natural conditions are routinely affected by several stresses acting simultaneously or in sequence. In areas affected by drought, plants may also be exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation (280-315nm). Each of these stress factors differently affects cellular metabolism. A common consequence of plant exposure to the separate action of water deficit and UV-B radiation is the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA. Despite this destructive activity, ROS also act as signalling molecules in cellular processes responsible for defence responses. Plants have evolved many physiological and biochemical mechanisms that avoid or tolerate the effects of stress factors. Water deficit avoidance leads to stomatal closure, stimulation of root growth, and accumulation of free proline and other osmolytes. Secondary metabolites (flavonols, flavones and anthocyanins) that accumulate in epidermal cells effectively screen UV-B irradiation and reduce its penetration to mesophyll tissue. The coordinated increased activity of the enzymatic antioxidant defence system such as up-regulation of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase is an important mechanism of tolerance to water deficit and UV-B radiation. The accumulation of low molecular antioxidants (proline, glycine betaine, ascorbate and glutathione) can also contribute to tolerance to water deficit. Polyamines, tocopherol, carotenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids and other secondary metabolites participate in the removal of ROS under conditions of increased UV-B radiation. The combination of water deficit and UV-B radiation induces responses that can be antagonistic, additive or synergistic in comparison with the action of single stresses. UV-B radiation may enhance resistance to water deficit and vice versa. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide (NO), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid, ethylene

  15. Separate and combined responses to water deficit and UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Bandurska, Hanna; Niedziela, Justyna; Chadzinikolau, Tamara

    2013-12-01

    Crops and other plants in natural conditions are routinely affected by several stresses acting simultaneously or in sequence. In areas affected by drought, plants may also be exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation (280-315nm). Each of these stress factors differently affects cellular metabolism. A common consequence of plant exposure to the separate action of water deficit and UV-B radiation is the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA. Despite this destructive activity, ROS also act as signalling molecules in cellular processes responsible for defence responses. Plants have evolved many physiological and biochemical mechanisms that avoid or tolerate the effects of stress factors. Water deficit avoidance leads to stomatal closure, stimulation of root growth, and accumulation of free proline and other osmolytes. Secondary metabolites (flavonols, flavones and anthocyanins) that accumulate in epidermal cells effectively screen UV-B irradiation and reduce its penetration to mesophyll tissue. The coordinated increased activity of the enzymatic antioxidant defence system such as up-regulation of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase is an important mechanism of tolerance to water deficit and UV-B radiation. The accumulation of low molecular antioxidants (proline, glycine betaine, ascorbate and glutathione) can also contribute to tolerance to water deficit. Polyamines, tocopherol, carotenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids and other secondary metabolites participate in the removal of ROS under conditions of increased UV-B radiation. The combination of water deficit and UV-B radiation induces responses that can be antagonistic, additive or synergistic in comparison with the action of single stresses. UV-B radiation may enhance resistance to water deficit and vice versa. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide (NO), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid, ethylene

  16. Effect of UV radiation and temperature on mineralization and volatilization of coumaphos in water.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Tanu; Singh, Dileep K; Agarwal, H C

    2007-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the dissipation and degradation of coumaphos [O-(3-chloro-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl) O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate] under different sunlight conditions and at different temperatures. The effect of the ultra violet (UV) component of solar radiation was also studied using quartz tubes in addition to other radiation in the visible range using glass tubes and the results were compared with those obtained under the dark light conditions. Water suspensions of coumaphos were incubated at three temperatures viz. 22 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 53 degrees C in closed systems to study the effect of temperature. Volatilization, mineralization and degradation of coumaphos increased with an increase in temperature and exposure to solar radiation, particularly under the UV component of the solar radiation. Major loss of the pesticide occurred through volatilization. The optimum temperature for the degradation of coumaphos was found to be at 37 degrees C. The data obtained from the mineralization and degradation studies indicated that 53 degrees C crosses the biological range for suitable growth of microorganism. UV radiation exposure along with maintaining temperature at 37 degrees C may prove useful in the dissipation and/or degradation of coumaphos prior to its disposal as waste from cattle dipping vats. PMID:17474015

  17. Photostability study of commercial sunscreens submitted to artificial UV irradiation and/or fluorescent radiation.

    PubMed

    Romanhole, Rodrigo Colina; Ataide, Janaina Artem; Cefali, Leticia Caramori; Moriel, Patricia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava

    2016-09-01

    Sunscreens contain molecules with the ability to absorb and/or reflect UVA (ultraviolet A) and UVB (ultraviolet B) radiation, thereby preventing this radiation from reaching the epidermis or dermis. Their photo stabilities after exposure to UV radiation are well known and described, but there is little data on the stability of these filters after fluorescent indoors light radiation, such as from light emitted by commercial lamps present in homes and offices. Those lamps can expose people to varying levels of UVB, UVA, visible light, and IR (infrared). This study assesses the photostability of four different commercial products containing chemical sun filters after artificial UV and fluorescent irradiation, correlating the UVB and UVA absorption efficiencies of each product against the different types of radiation. The tested products were applied on a plate of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and irradiated by a solar simulator with specific filters for UVA and UVB and a commercial fluorescent light source. According to the results, three formulations did not show photostability, suffering significant changes in their UV absorption spectra, and one of the selected formulations can be considered photostable. This reinforces the importance of conducting stability studies for sunscreen formulations in different conditions, including under artificial (indoor) light exposure.

  18. Photostability study of commercial sunscreens submitted to artificial UV irradiation and/or fluorescent radiation.

    PubMed

    Romanhole, Rodrigo Colina; Ataide, Janaina Artem; Cefali, Leticia Caramori; Moriel, Patricia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava

    2016-09-01

    Sunscreens contain molecules with the ability to absorb and/or reflect UVA (ultraviolet A) and UVB (ultraviolet B) radiation, thereby preventing this radiation from reaching the epidermis or dermis. Their photo stabilities after exposure to UV radiation are well known and described, but there is little data on the stability of these filters after fluorescent indoors light radiation, such as from light emitted by commercial lamps present in homes and offices. Those lamps can expose people to varying levels of UVB, UVA, visible light, and IR (infrared). This study assesses the photostability of four different commercial products containing chemical sun filters after artificial UV and fluorescent irradiation, correlating the UVB and UVA absorption efficiencies of each product against the different types of radiation. The tested products were applied on a plate of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and irradiated by a solar simulator with specific filters for UVA and UVB and a commercial fluorescent light source. According to the results, three formulations did not show photostability, suffering significant changes in their UV absorption spectra, and one of the selected formulations can be considered photostable. This reinforces the importance of conducting stability studies for sunscreen formulations in different conditions, including under artificial (indoor) light exposure. PMID:27341636

  19. Compression zone of a magnetoplasma compressor as a source of extreme UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Garkusha, I. E.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Solyakov, D. G.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Ladygina, M. S.; Marchenko, A. K.; Staltsov, V. V.; Yelisyeyev, D. V.

    2012-02-15

    Results from experimental studies of extreme UV (EUV) radiation from the compression zone of a magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) operating with xenon are presented. Two MPC operating modes that differ in the method of xenon injection into the discharge were studied. It is shown that EUV radiation in the wavelength range of 5-80 nm is emitted from the compression zone. In the MPC operating mode with local xenon injection directly into the compression zone surrounded by helium plasma, the radiation power reaches it peak value of 16-18 kW in the wavelength range of 12.2-15.8 nm.

  20. Excision repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, P.S.; Hevelone, J.; Dwarakanath, V.; Mitchell, D.L. )

    1989-06-01

    Radioimmunoassays were used to monitor the removal of antibody-binding sites associated with the two major UV radiation-induced DNA photoproducts (cyclobutane dimers and (6-4) photoproducts). Unlike with cultured human cells, where (6-4) photoproducts are removed more rapidly than cyclobutane dimers, the kinetics of repair were similar for both lesions. Repair capacity in wild type diminished throughout development. The radioimmunoassays were also employed to confirm the absence of photoreactivation in C. elegans. In addition, three radiation-sensitive mutants (rad-1, rad-2, rad-7) displayed normal repair capacities. An excision defect was much more pronounced in larvae than embryos in the fourth mutant tested (rad-3). This correlates with the hypersensitivity pattern of this mutant and suggests that DNA repair may be developmentally regulated in C. elegans. The mechanism of DNA repair in C. elegans as well as the relationship between the repair of specific photoproducts and UV radiation sensitivity during development are discussed.

  1. System for monitoring UV radiation level in phototherapy cabins in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Narbutt, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Mariola; Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Sobolewski, Piotr; Rajewska-Więch, Bonawentura; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ultraviolet phototherapy (UVP) is widely used in dermatological practice for the treatment of various skin diseases. Numerous studies support its beneficial curing effectiveness; however, overexposure to ultraviolet radiation can cause adverse health effects, such as sunburn reaction, erythema response, cataract, skin aging, etc. For these reasons, it is of special importance to monitor performance of UVP cabins using a calibration system to evaluate the UV doses incident upon the patient. Material and methods A mechanized cabin control system (CCS) is proposed. It consists of radiometers with a wide and narrow field of view to estimate the body irradiation and to identify malfunctioning cabin tubes. Quality control and quality assurance procedures are developed to keep high accuracy of the calibration procedure. The CCS has been used in the examination of two different types of UVP cabins routinely working in Poland. Results It allows precise calculation of UV doses and spatial variability of UV radiance inside the cabin, thus providing uncertainties of the doses assigned by medical staff. The CCS could potentially serve as a primary standard for monitoring various UVP cabins working in Poland. Conclusions The methodology developed to quantify UV doses in UVP cabins may be easily extended to any UV radiation source. PMID:25624865

  2. Multiple roles for UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 in regulating gene expression and metabolite accumulation in Arabidopsis under solar ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Morales, Luis O; Brosché, Mikael; Vainonen, Julia; Jenkins, Gareth I; Wargent, Jason J; Sipari, Nina; Strid, Åke; Lindfors, Anders V; Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2013-02-01

    Photomorphogenic responses triggered by low fluence rates of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B; 280-315 nm) are mediated by the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Beyond our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-B perception by UVR8, there is still limited information on how the UVR8 pathway functions under natural sunlight. Here, wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the uvr8-2 mutant were used in an experiment outdoors where UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B irradiances were attenuated using plastic films. Gene expression, PYRIDOXINE BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PDX1) accumulation, and leaf metabolite signatures were analyzed. The results show that UVR8 is required for transcript accumulation of genes involved in UV protection, oxidative stress, hormone signal transduction, and defense against herbivores under solar UV. Under natural UV-A irradiance, UVR8 is likely to interact with UV-A/blue light signaling pathways to moderate UV-B-driven transcript and PDX1 accumulation. UVR8 both positively and negatively affects UV-A-regulated gene expression and metabolite accumulation but is required for the UV-B induction of phenolics. Moreover, UVR8-dependent UV-B acclimation during the early stages of plant development may enhance normal growth under long-term exposure to solar UV.

  3. In situ stratospheric ozone measurements by long path UV absorption - Developments and interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Schiller, C. M.; Anderson, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    A high-sensitivity, in situ UV absorption ozone sensor has been developed for use in the stratosphere. The instrument couples 254-nm radiation from a low-pressure mercury discharge lamp into a 40-pass White cell to attain a high-sensitivity ozone absorption measurement. Preflight/postflight laboratory tests utilizing an ozone source coupled to a laboratory UV ozone photometer in a fast-flow system as well as in-flight diagnostics verify the successful operation of the instrument. Evidence is presented to verify that in situ UV absorption ozone photometers can measure stratospheric ozone with better than 3 percent precision and 5 percent accuracy, provided proper attention is given to both the thermal field surrounding the gondola and the ambient pressure measurements. Ozone data are compared with modeled profiles in the 28- to 40-km region. An assessment of the disagreement between observations and modeled profiles is given along with suggestions for future experiments designed to constrain photochemical models.

  4. UV protectants for the biopesticide based on Bacillus sphaericus Neide and their role in protecting the binary toxins from UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Hadapad, A B; Hire, R S; Vijayalakshmi, N; Dongre, T K

    2009-03-01

    The UV protectant properties of 26 natural and synthetic compounds were investigated for a biopesticide based on an indigenously isolated strain (ISPC-8) of Bacillus sphaericus Neide. In initial screening, spores of ISPC-8 with 0.1% (w/w for solid and v/w for liquid materials) concentration of different compounds were exposed to UV-B radiation (4.9 x 10(5) J/m(2)) for 6h and their spore viability and larvicidal activity were studied. The larvicidal activity was evaluated against third-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. There was a complete loss of spore viability (1.4% viable spores) and partial reduction in larvicidal activity (57.7% of original activity) after exposure of spores to UV-B for 6h. However, spore viability as well as larvicidal activity protected significantly when spores were mixed with different compounds before exposing them to UV-B. Among the different compounds tested benzaldehyde, congo red, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and cinnamaldehyde were found to be promising in protecting the spores from UV-B radiation. The presence of binary toxins (41.9 kDa and 51.4 kDa) in protected and unprotected samples were examined by SDS-PAGE. The binary toxin bands disappeared in unprotected spores after 24h of exposure to UV-B, whereas toxin bands were distinctly visible when spores with benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde were exposed to UV-B for 96 h and 120 h, respectively. Congo red and PABA were found to be most effective in protecting binary toxins even after 168 h of exposure to UV-B. Incorporation of these promising UV protectant compounds in biopesticides would help in protecting the spores from the adverse effects of UV radiation and prolong the persistence of biopesticides under field conditions. PMID:19167401

  5. From ozone depletion to agriculture: understanding the role of UV radiation in sustainable crop production.

    PubMed

    Wargent, Jason J; Jordan, Brian R

    2013-03-01

    Largely because of concerns regarding global climate change, there is a burgeoning interest in the application of fundamental scientific knowledge in order to better exploit environmental cues in the achievement of desirable endpoints in crop production. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an energetic driver of a diverse range of plant responses and, despite historical concerns regarding the damaging consequences of UV-B radiation for global plant productivity as related to stratospheric ozone depletion, current developments representative of a range of organizational scales suggest that key plant responses to UV-B radiation may be exploitable in the context of a sustainable contribution towards the strengthening of global crop production, including alterations in secondary metabolism, enhanced photoprotection, up-regulation of the antioxidative response and modified resistance to pest and disease attack. Here, we discuss the prospect of this paradigm shift in photobiology, and consider the linkages between fundamental plant biology and crop-level outcomes that can be applied to the plant UV-B response, in addition to the consequences for related biota and many other facets of agro-ecosystem processes.

  6. [Effects of UV Radiation on the Physicochemical Properties and Coagulation Properties of Humic Acid Solution].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-dong; Zhang, Ke; Fan, Qing-hai; Zheng, Dan

    2016-03-15

    To investigate the mechanism of UV light in promoting the removal of humic acid ( HA) by coagulation, the variations of the physical and chemical properties of the HA solution before and after UV light radiation were investigated. The effects of the changes in water quality conditions on the removal performance of HA in coagulation were also observed. Experimental results showed that except zeta potential, pH, chromaticity and viscosity of the HA solution exhibited varying degrees of decline after UV radiation. Further study showed that the impact of changes in viscosity of the solution on humic acid coagulation performance was relatively small. Under acidic conditions, the coagulation performance of HA significantly increased. The increase of zeta potential led to easy gathering of colloidal particles and improved the coagulation performance. Furthermore, except for HA with relative molecular mass of between (10-30) x 10³ and less than 10³, there was little variation in the proportion of low molecular weight HA, which may be an important reason that the coagulation performance of the humic acid solution increased after UV radiation. PMID:27337892

  7. Sensitivity of pathogenic and free-living Leptospira spp. to UV radiation and mitomycin C

    SciTech Connect

    Stamm, L.V.; Charon, N.W.

    1988-03-01

    The habitats for the two major Leptospira spp. differ. The main habitat of L. biflexa is soil and water, whereas L. interrogans primarily resides in the renal tubules of animals. We investigated whether these two species, along with L. illini (species incertae sedis), differ with respect to their sensitivity to UV radiation. The doses of UV resulting in 37, 10 and 1% survival were determined for representive serovars from each species. L. interrogans serovar pomona was 3.0 to 4.8 times more sensitive to UV than the other Leptospira species under the 37, 10, and 1% survival parameters. In comparison to other bacteria, L. interrogans serovar pomona is among the most sensitive to UV. In a qualitative UV sensitivity assay., L. interrogans serovars were found to be in general more sensitive than L. biflexa serovars. All three species were found to have a photoreactivation DNA repair mechanism. Since organisms that are resistant to UV are often resistant to the DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C, we tested the relative sensitivity of several Leptospira serovars to this compound. With few exceptions, L. biflexa and L. illini serovars were considerably more resistant to mitomycin C than the L. interrogans serovars. The mitomycin C sensitivity assay could be a useful addition to current characterization tests used to differentiate the Leptospira species.

  8. Duality of solar UV-B radiation and relevant dosimetry: vitamin D synthesis versus skin erythema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenetskaya, Irina P.

    2003-06-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) gives rise to beneficial or adverse health effects depending on the dose. Excessive UV exposures are associated with acute and chronic health effect but in appropriate doses UV sunlight is advisable. Important biological function of UVR is initiation of endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in human skin. A useful method based on an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis ('D-dosimeter') has been specially developed to measure the vitamin D synthetic capacity of sunlight in situ. For the first time laboratory and field tests have been performed to link commonly used erythemal units (MEDs) and previtamin D accumulation.

  9. Responses of a marine red tide alga Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyceae) to long-term UV radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongyan; Gao, Kunshan; Wu, Haiyan

    2009-02-01

    UV radiation (280-400 nm) is known to affect phytoplankton in negative, neutral and positive ways depending on the species or levels of irradiation energy. However, little has been documented on how photosynthetic physiology and growth of red tide alga respond to UVR in a long-term period. We exposed the cells of the marine red tide diatom Skeletonema costatum for 6 days to simulated solar radiations with UV-A (320-400 nm) or UV-A+UV-B (295-400 nm) and examined their changes in photosynthesis and growth. Presence of UV-B continuously reduced the effective photosynthetic quantum yield of PSII, and resulted in complete growth inhibition and death of cells. When UV-B or UV-B+UV-A was screened off, the growth rate decreased initially but regained thereafter. UV-absorbing compounds and carotenoids increased in response to the exposures with UVR. However, mechanisms for photoprotection associated with the increased carotenoids or UV-absorbing compounds were not adequate under the continuous exposure to a constant level of UV-B (0.09 Wm(-2), DNA-weighted). In contrast, under solar radiation screened off UV-B, the photoprotection was first accomplished by an initial increase of carotenoids and a later increase in UV-absorbing compounds. The overall response of this red tide alga to prolonged UV exposures indicates that S. costatum is a UV-B-sensitive species and increased UV-B irradiance would influence the formation of its blooms.

  10. In vivo evaluation of black and green tea dermal products against UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Türkoğlu, M; Uğurlu, T; Gedik, G; Yılmaz, A M; Süha Yalçin, A

    2010-10-01

    Aqueous extracts of black and green tea (Camellia sinensis) were obtained by freeze-drying for this study. The extracts were evaluated based on tea quality control tests, UV, IR scans, and in vitro antioxidant capacity tests. Dermal products from the tea extracts were designed and manufactured. Black and green tea gels were tested in vivo in the forearms of six subjects using an artifical UV (200-400 nm) source. The tested formulations were green tea gel, black tea gel, 0.3% caffeine gel, carbomer gel base, and a control. Depending on tea quality, the samples resulted in water soluble fractions of 24.5-39.5%. UV and IR scans specifically showed peaks for alkaloids like caffeine, catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate, and polyphenols with dimeric and polymeric structures such as theaflavins (TFs) and thearubigins (TRs). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of black and green tea samples were found to be high and comparable; activity levels for black tea, green tea, high quality black tea, and L-ascorbic acid were 0.48, 0.50, 0.82, and 1.32 mM TR/mg, respectively. No UV-induced erythema was observed at the black and green tea gel sites in any of the subjects. UV-induced erythema was consistently present in various grades at caffeine gel, carbomer gel, and control sites. Results led to the conclusion that freeze-dried black and green tea extracts had strong UV absorbance. Formulating those extracts into dermal gels protected the skin against UV-induced erythema. Therefore, tea extracts were found to be promising candidates for their ability to protect against the harmful effects of UV radiation, such as erythema and premature aging of the skin.

  11. Radiation-induced mating-type switching in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Luggen-Hölscher, J; Kiefer, J

    1988-09-01

    Haploid yeast cells possess two different mating types which are controlled genetically by the MAT locus. Information of the opposite mating type is stored on the same chromosome but not expressed. Radiation may initiate a gene conversion event leading to 'mating-type switching'. This was studied by using X-rays and 254 nm ultraviolet light. X-ray-induced mating type switching shows an oxygen enhancement ratio of 2.9 which is higher than that for survival (1.8) and equals that for double-strand break induction. Mating-type switching by UV is not photoreactivable and depends on a functioning excision repair system. The results are compatible with the interpretation that mating type switching is initiated by a double-strand break in the MAT coding region.

  12. Biological dosimetry to determine the UV radiation climate inside the MIR station and its role in vitamin D biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Zittermann, A.; Heer, M.

    1998-11-01

    The vitamin D synthesis in the human skin, is absolutely dependent on UVB radiation. Natural UVB from sunlight is normally absent in the closed environment of a space station like MIR. Therefore it was necessary to investigate the UV radiation climate inside the station resulting from different lamps as well as from occasional solar irradiation behind a UV-transparent quartz window. Biofilms, biologically weighting and integrating UV dosimeters successfully applied on Earth (e.g. in Antarctica) and in space (D-2, Biopan I) were used to determine the biological effectiveness of the UV radiation climate at different locations in the space station. Biofilms were also used to determine the personal UV dose of an individual cosmonaut. These UV data were correlated with the concentration of vitamin D in the cosmonaut's blood and the dietary vitamin D intake. The results showed that the UV radiation climate inside the Mir station is not sufficient for an adequate supply of vitamin D, which should therefore be secured either by vitamin D supplementat and/or by the regular exposure to special UV lamps like those in sun-beds. The use of natural solar UV radiation through the quartz window for `sunbathing' is dangerous and should be avoided even for short exposure periods.

  13. Long-term variability and impact on human health of biologically active UV radiation in Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Chubarova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of erythemally weighted UV irradiance (Qer) have been performed at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University since 1999 with the UVB-1 YES pyranometers. These types of devices are broadband with a spectral sensitivity curve close to the action spectrum of erythema. Main uncertainties of UVB-1 YES measurements include the difference in spectral curves of the instrument and the action spectrum of erythema, as well as the deviation from the cosine law. These uncertainties were taken into account in the database of Qer measurements (Chubarova, 2008. Additional corrections of UVB-1 measurements at low ambient temperatures have been made. We analyze interannual, seasonal and diurnal Qer changes over the time period 1999-2012. In addition, the comparisons with the results of UV reconstruction model (Chubarova, 2008) are made. This model allows us to evaluate relative changes in Qer due to variations in total ozone, effective cloud amount transmission, aerosol and cloud optical thickness since 1968. It is important to note that the main reason for UV irradiance monitoring development is the strong influence of UV irradiance on the biosphere and especially on human health mainly on human skin (CIE, 1993, CIE, 2006) and eyes (Oriowo, M. et al., 2001). Based on the detailed studies we have shown the possibility of utilizing UVB-1 pyranometers for measuring the eye-damage UV radiation. Parallel measurements by the Bentham DTM-300 spectrometer and the UVB-1 YES pyranometer at the Innsbruck Medical University (Austria) have provided us the calibration factor in eye-damage units for this broadband instrument. Influence of main geophysical factors on different types of UV irradiance is estimated by means the RAF ideology (Booth, Madronich, 1994). We discuss the responses of different types of biologically active UV radiation to the impact of various atmospheric factors. The UV conditions (deficiency, optimum, excess for human) are analyzed according to

  14. Influence on UV Radiation by wildfire smoke in Valparaíso, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, L.; Cortés, O.; Ossandón, Á.; Mera, E.

    2012-02-01

    UV absorption in Valparaíso, Chile, is analyzed during the passage of a smoke column from a nearby forest fire. Total solar absorption is measured, UVB and UVA radiation, UV nanometre to nanometre between 295 nm and 315 nm. With the purpose of seeing what factors intervene in this absorption, tropospheric ozone and PM10 particulate material are measured during the passage of this smoke column from the forest fire. In addition, considerations were made on the chemical compounds which are normally present during a forest fire such as, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, etc., depreciating their evidence that is the PM10 particulate material, which acts as a black body that is primarily responsible for the UV absorption. This affirmation is based on the fact that no absorption, which notoriously indicates some particular compound, was observed on the spectroradiometer register. All of the bands, nanometre to nanometre, showed the same behaviour, indicating the same type of absorption.

  15. Gaseous mercury emissions from unsterilized and sterilized soils: the effect of temperature and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Holsen, Thomas M

    2009-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from the soils taken from two different sites (deciduous and coniferous forests) in the Adirondacks were measured in outdoor and laboratory experiments. Some of the soil samples were irradiated to eliminate biological activity. The result from the outdoor measurements with different soils suggests the Hg emission from the soils is partly limited by fallen leaves covering the soils which helps maintain relatively high soil moisture and limits the amount of heat and solar radiation reaching the soil surface. In laboratory experiments exposure to UV-A (365 nm) had no significant effect on the Hg emissions while the Hg emissions increased dramatically during exposure to UV-B (302 nm) light suggesting UV-B directly reduced soil-associated Hg. Overall these results indicate that for these soils biotic processes have a relatively constant and smaller influence on the Hg emission from the soil than the more variable abiotic processes.

  16. UV radiation induces delayed hyperrecombination associated with hypermutation in human cells.

    PubMed

    Durant, Stephen T; Paffett, Kimberly S; Shrivastav, Meena; Timmins, Graham S; Morgan, William F; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2006-08-01

    Ionizing radiation induces delayed genomic instability in human cells, including chromosomal abnormalities and hyperrecombination. Here, we investigate delayed genome instability of cells exposed to UV radiation. We examined homologous recombination-mediated reactivation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in p53-proficient human cells. We observed an approximately 5-fold enhancement of delayed hyperrecombination (DHR) among cells surviving a low dose of UV-C (5 J/m2), revealed as mixed GFP+/- colonies. UV-B did not induce DHR at an equitoxic (75 J/m2) dose or a higher dose (150 J/m2). UV is known to induce delayed hypermutation associated with increased oxidative stress. We found that hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) mutation frequencies were approximately 5-fold higher in strains derived from GFP+/- (DHR) colonies than in strains in which recombination was directly induced by UV (GFP+ colonies). To determine whether hypermutation was directly caused by hyperrecombination, we analyzed hprt mutation spectra. Large-scale alterations reflecting large deletions and insertions were observed in 25% of GFP+ strains, and most mutants had a single change in HPRT. In striking contrast, all mutations arising in the hypermutable GFP+/- strains were small (1- to 2-base) changes, including substitutions, deletions, and insertions (reminiscent of mutagenesis from oxidative damage), and the majority were compound, with an average of four hprt mutations per mutant. The absence of large hprt deletions in DHR strains indicates that DHR does not cause hypermutation. We propose that UV-induced DHR and hypermutation result from a common source, namely, increased oxidative stress. These two forms of delayed genome instability may collaborate in skin cancer initiation and progression. PMID:16880516

  17. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on shell eggs by ozone and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Romo, Luis A; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2005-04-01

    The presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in shell eggs has serious public health implications. Several treatments have been developed to control Salmonella on eggs with mixed results. Currently, there is a need for time-saving, economical, and effective egg sanitization treatments. In this study, shell eggs externally contaminated with Salmonella (8.0 x 10(5) to 4.0 x 10(6) CFU/g of eggshell) were treated with gaseous ozone (O3) at 0 to 15 lb/in2 gauge for 0 to 20 min. In other experiments, contaminated shell eggs were exposed to UV radiation at 100 to 2,500 microW/cm2 for 0 to 5 min. Treatment combination included exposing contaminated eggs to UV (1,500 to 2,500 microW/cm2) for 1 min, followed by ozone at 5 lb/in2 gauge for 1 min. Eggs that were (i) noncontaminated and untreated, (ii) contaminated and untreated, and (iii) contaminated and treated with air were used as controls. Results indicated that treating shell eggs with ozone or UV, separately or in combination, significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Salmonella on shell eggs. For example, contaminated eggs treated with ozone at 4 to 8 degrees C and 15 lb/in2 gauge for 10 min or with UV (1,500 to 2,500 microW/cm2) at 22 to 25 degrees C for 5 min produced 5.9- or 4.3-log microbial reductions or more, respectively, when compared with contaminated untreated controls. Combinations including UV followed by ozone treatment resulted in synergistic inactivation of Salmonella by 4.6 log units or more in about 2 min of total treatment time. Salmonella was effectively inactivated on shell eggs in a short time and at low temperature with the use of a combination of UV radiation and ozone.

  18. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on shell eggs by ozone and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Romo, Luis A; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2005-04-01

    The presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in shell eggs has serious public health implications. Several treatments have been developed to control Salmonella on eggs with mixed results. Currently, there is a need for time-saving, economical, and effective egg sanitization treatments. In this study, shell eggs externally contaminated with Salmonella (8.0 x 10(5) to 4.0 x 10(6) CFU/g of eggshell) were treated with gaseous ozone (O3) at 0 to 15 lb/in2 gauge for 0 to 20 min. In other experiments, contaminated shell eggs were exposed to UV radiation at 100 to 2,500 microW/cm2 for 0 to 5 min. Treatment combination included exposing contaminated eggs to UV (1,500 to 2,500 microW/cm2) for 1 min, followed by ozone at 5 lb/in2 gauge for 1 min. Eggs that were (i) noncontaminated and untreated, (ii) contaminated and untreated, and (iii) contaminated and treated with air were used as controls. Results indicated that treating shell eggs with ozone or UV, separately or in combination, significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Salmonella on shell eggs. For example, contaminated eggs treated with ozone at 4 to 8 degrees C and 15 lb/in2 gauge for 10 min or with UV (1,500 to 2,500 microW/cm2) at 22 to 25 degrees C for 5 min produced 5.9- or 4.3-log microbial reductions or more, respectively, when compared with contaminated untreated controls. Combinations including UV followed by ozone treatment resulted in synergistic inactivation of Salmonella by 4.6 log units or more in about 2 min of total treatment time. Salmonella was effectively inactivated on shell eggs in a short time and at low temperature with the use of a combination of UV radiation and ozone. PMID:15830660

  19. Influence of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis near the sea-surface

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, J.J.; MacIntyre, H.L. )

    1990-01-09

    Middle ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) is harmful to marine phytoplankton. This has been demonstrated repeatedly in the laboratory and in the field. In a typical field experiment, photosynthesis (uptake of [sup 14]C-biocarbonate) is reduced in samples exposed to the full range of environmental radiation as compared to samples from which UV-B has been screened. The nature of this inhibition of photosynthesis is not well documented. Specifically, it is not known how much of the effect is due to reduction of photosynthetic capacity and how much is due to destruction of photosynthetic pigment or disruption of sensitive cells. Experiments were performed to help resolve unanswered questions about the effects of UV-B on photosynthesis of phytoplankton near the sea-surface. Samples from the sea-surface microlayer (SSM), upper 10cm, and greater depths were exposed to different irradiance regimes for several hours and analyzed for changes in in vivo fluorescence, chlorophyll a concentration, and photosynthesis vs irradiance. Consistent with previous studies, exposure to environmental UV-B resulted in reduced rates of photosynthesis in confined samples. Samples from the SSM were less susceptible to solar irradiance that were those from the upper 10cm. Deeper samples were the most sensitive. The principal reason for reduced photosynthesis was destruction of chlorophyll, not inhibition of photosynthesis per unit chlorophyll. These results suggest that the increased resistance of near-surface populations to UV-B might be in part due to the fact that at the time of sampling, sensitive cells have already been damaged and their photosynthetic pigment destroyed. If this is true, simple measurements of chlorophyll concentration might be useful in assessing the effects of UV-B on phytoplankton.

  20. The role of solar UV radiation in the ecology of alpine lakes.

    PubMed

    Sommaruga, R

    2001-09-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 290-400 nm) is a crucial environmental factor in alpine lakes because of the natural increase of the UVR flux with elevation and the high water transparency of these ecosystems. The ecological importance of UVR, however, has only recently been recognized. This review, examines the general features of alpine lakes regarding UVR, summarizes what is known about the role of solar UVR in the ecology of alpine lakes, and identifies future research directions. Unlike the pattern observed in most lowland lakes, variability of UV attenuation in alpine lakes is poorly explained by differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, and depends mainly on optical characteristics (absorption) of the chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Within the water column of lakes with low DOC concentrations (0.2-0.4 mg l(-1)), UV attenuation is influenced by phytoplankton whose development at depth (i.e. the deep chlorophyll maximum) causes important changes in UV attenuation. Alpine aquatic organisms have developed a number of strategies to minimize UV damage. The widespread synthesis or bioaccumulation of different compounds that directly or indirectly absorb UV energy is one such strategy. Although most benthic and planktonic primary producers and crustacean zooplankton are well adapted to high intensities of solar radiation, heterotrophic protists, bacteria, and viruses seem to be particularly sensitive to UVR. Understanding the overall impact of UVR on alpine lakes would need to consider synergistic and antagonistic processes resulting from the pronounced climatic warming, which have the potential to modify the UV underwater climate and consequently the stress on aquatic organisms.

  1. Investigations of the effects of air quality on surface UV solar radiation using measurements from the NOAA-EPA Brewer UV Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, K. O.; Kiedron, P.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Lichtenberger, A.

    2009-12-01

    Effects of air quality on the variability of erythemally-weighted solar irradiance and ultraviolet spectral solar irradiance is explored at five sites of the NOAA-EPA Brewer UV network (NEUBrew). NEUBrew site locations include Table Mountain near Boulder, CO, Bondville, IL, Fort Peck, MT, Raleigh, NC, and Houston, TX. The NEUBrew UV Network consists of Mark IV Brewer spectrophotometers and provides UV spectral solar irradiance, total ozone, and ozone profiles. Tropospheric ozone column is calculated from Umkehr retrievals from the Brewer spectrophotometer and is compared with NOAA ozone-sondes at the Boulder, CO. The NEUBrew locations were chosen because of proximity to sites from the SURFRAD Network and the USDA UV Network to provide cloud and aerosol optical properties in the ultraviolet and visible regions. A cloud screening algorithm is used to limit analysis to cloud free days. Using model calculations from the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible Radiative Transfer Model (TUV-RTM) and ground-based UV solar irradiance measurements, UV spectral “transmittance factors” are computed. The sensitivity of UV solar radiation is investigated statistically as a function of solar zenith angle, total ozone, tropospheric ozone column, and aerosol optical depth.

  2. Effects of UV radiation on the preparation of polypyrrole in the presence of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shihu; Lv, Guowei; Wang, Guolong; Zhu, Kaiming; Yu, Demei; Shao, Jinyou

    2015-10-01

    Conductive polypyrrole was synthesized with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant. To promote the polymerization of pyrrole, UV radiation was employed. The effects of UV radiation on the preparation of polypyrrole were investigated. The polymerization of pyrrole was conducted with the H2O2 concentration in the range of 0.12-0.96 M and the H2SO4 concentration in the range of 6.8×10-4-0.19 M. The structure characterization indicated that the product polypyrrole was overoxidized partly depending on the concentrations of H2SO4 and H2O2. The increase in H2O2 concentration led to a slight increase in the oxidation and overoxidation of polypyrrole, simultaneously. However, the increase in H2SO4 concentration effectively suppressed the overoxidation of polypyrrole. The morphology, conductivity and thermal stability of the products were also characterized.

  3. Improving radiation data quality of USDA UV-B monitoring and research program and evaluating UV decomposition in DayCent and its ecological impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maosi

    Solar radiation impacts many aspects of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. The total solar radiation impacts the atmospheric temperature profile and the Earth's surface radiative energy budget. The solar visible (VIS) radiation is the energy source of photosynthesis. The solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation impacts plant's physiology, microbial activities, and human and animal health. Recent studies found that solar UV significantly shifts the mass loss and nitrogen patterns of plant litter decomposition in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. The potential mechanisms include the production of labile materials from direct and indirect photolysis of complex organic matters, the facilitation of microbial decomposition with more labile materials, and the UV inhibition of microbes' population. However, the mechanisms behind UV decomposition and its ecological impacts are still uncertain. Accurate and reliable ground solar radiation measurements help us better retrieve the atmosphere composition, validate satellite radiation products, and simulate ecosystem processes. Incorporating the UV decomposition into the DayCent biogeochemical model helps to better understand long-term ecological impacts. Improving the accuracy of UV irradiance data is the goal of the first part of this research and examining the importance of UV radiation in the biogeochemical model DayCent is the goal of the second part of the work. Thus, although the dissertation is separated into two parts, accurate UV irradiance measurement links them in what follows. In part one of this work the accuracy and reliability of the current operational calibration method for the (UV-) Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), which is used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP), is improved. The UVMRP has monitored solar radiation in the 14 narrowband UV and VIS spectral channels at 37 sites across U.S. since 1992. The improvements in the quality of the data result

  4. Leaf expansion and development of photosynthetic capacity and pigments in Liquidambar Styraciflua (Hamamelidaceae)-effects of UV-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dillenburg, L.R.; Sullivan, J.H.; Teramura, A.H.

    1995-07-01

    In order to perform their functions as photosynthetic organs, leaves must cope with excess heat and potentially damaging ultraviolet radiation. Possible increases in the UV-B portion of the solar spectrum may place an additional burden on leaves, and this could be particularly important for young expanding leaves with poorly developed UV-B defense mechanisms. We evaluated the effects of supplemental UV-B radiation on leaf expansion and the development of photosynthetic capacity and pigments in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seedlings. Seedlings were grown in the field under either ambient or ambient plus 3 or 5.0 kJ of biologically effective supplemental UV-B radiation. Although final leaf size was unaffected, the rate of leaf elongation and accumulation of leaf area was slower in leaves exposed to the lower supplemental UV-B irradiance. In contrast, chlorophyll accumulation and the development of photosynthetic capacity was more rapid in plants exposed to the higher, compared to the lower supplemental UV-B irradiance. The accumulation of anthocyanins and other putative flavonoids or UV-absorbing compounds was scarcely affected by exposure to supplemental UV-B radiation. These results suggest that the UV-B portion of the solar spectrum may, in the absence of gross affects on biomass, exert subtle influences on leaf ontogeny and the development of photosynthetic pigments and capacity in sweetgum. 44 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Rapid Maize Leaf and Immature Ear Responses to UV-B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Casati, Paula; Morrow, Darren J; Fernandes, John F; Walbot, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Because of their sessile lifestyle, plants have evolved adaptations to environmental factors, including UV-B present in solar radiation. To gain a better understanding of the initial events in UV-B acclimation, we have analyzed a 10 min to 1 h time course of transcriptome responses in irradiated and shielded leaves, and immature maize ears to unravel the systemic physiological and developmental responses in exposed and shielded organs. After 10 min of UV-B exposure, 262 transcripts are changed by at least two-fold in irradiated leaves, and this number doubles after 1 h. Indicative of the rapid modulation of transcription, 130 transcripts are only changed after 10 min. This is true not only in irradiated leaves, but also in shielded tissues. After 10 min of exposure, the overlap in transcriptome changes in irradiated and shielded organs is significant; however, after 30 min of UV-B, there are only two transcripts showing similar UV-B regulation between the three organs; 35 are similarly regulated in both IL and SL. Therefore, at longer irradiation times, there is more specificity of responses, and these are organ-specific. We suggest that early signaling in different tissues may be elicited by common signaling pathways, while at longer exposure times responses become more specific. To identify metabolites as possible signaling molecules, we looked for compounds that increased within 5-90 min in both irradiated and shielded leaves, to explain the kinetics of profound transcript changes within 1 h. We found that myoinositol is one such candidate metabolite; and we also demonstrate that if 0.1 mM myoinositol is applied to leaves of greenhouse maize, some metabolites that are changed by UV-B are also changed similarly by the chemical treatment. Therefore, this metabolite can partially mimic UV irradiation.

  6. Rapid Maize Leaf and Immature Ear Responses to UV-B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Casati, Paula; Morrow, Darren J.; Fernandes, John F.; Walbot, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Because of their sessile lifestyle, plants have evolved adaptations to environmental factors, including UV-B present in solar radiation. To gain a better understanding of the initial events in UV-B acclimation, we have analyzed a 10 min to 1 h time course of transcriptome responses in irradiated and shielded leaves, and immature maize ears to unravel the systemic physiological and developmental responses in exposed and shielded organs. After 10 min of UV-B exposure, 262 transcripts are changed by at least two-fold in irradiated leaves, and this number doubles after 1 h. Indicative of the rapid modulation of transcription, 130 transcripts are only changed after 10 min. This is true not only in irradiated leaves, but also in shielded tissues. After 10 min of exposure, the overlap in transcriptome changes in irradiated and shielded organs is significant; however, after 30 min of UV-B, there are only two transcripts showing similar UV-B regulation between the three organs; 35 are similarly regulated in both IL and SL. Therefore, at longer irradiation times, there is more specificity of responses, and these are organ-specific. We suggest that early signaling in different tissues may be elicited by common signaling pathways, while at longer exposure times responses become more specific. To identify metabolites as possible signaling molecules, we looked for compounds that increased within 5–90 min in both irradiated and shielded leaves, to explain the kinetics of profound transcript changes within 1 h. We found that myoinositol is one such candidate metabolite; and we also demonstrate that if 0.1 mM myoinositol is applied to leaves of greenhouse maize, some metabolites that are changed by UV-B are also changed similarly by the chemical treatment. Therefore, this metabolite can partially mimic UV irradiation. PMID:22666224

  7. Beneficial effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean yield mediated by reduced insect herbivory under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Carlos A; Giménez, Patricia I; Kantolic, Adriana G; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280-315 nm) has damaging effects on cellular components and macromolecules. In plants, natural levels of UV-B can reduce leaf area expansion and growth, which can lead to reduced productivity and yield. UV-B can also have important effects on herbivorous insects. Owing to the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol, current models predict that clear-sky levels of UV-B radiation will decline during this century in response to ozone recovery. However, because of climate change and changes in land use practices, future trends in UV doses are difficult to predict. In the experiments reported here, we used an exclusion approach to study the effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean crops, which are extensively grown in many areas of the world that may be affected by future variations in UV-B radiation. In a first experiment, performed under normal management practices (which included chemical pest control), we found that natural levels of UV-B radiation reduced soybean yield. In a second experiment, where no pesticides were applied, we found that solar UV-B significantly reduced insect herbivory and, surprisingly, caused a concomitant increase in crop yield. Our data support the idea that UV-B effects on agroecosystems are the result of complex interactions involving multiple trophic levels. A better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate the anti-herbivore effect of UV-B radiation may be used to design crop varieties with improved adaptation to the cropping systems that are likely to prevail in the coming decades in response to agricultural intensification. PMID:22671980

  8. Beneficial effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean yield mediated by reduced insect herbivory under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Carlos A; Giménez, Patricia I; Kantolic, Adriana G; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280-315 nm) has damaging effects on cellular components and macromolecules. In plants, natural levels of UV-B can reduce leaf area expansion and growth, which can lead to reduced productivity and yield. UV-B can also have important effects on herbivorous insects. Owing to the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol, current models predict that clear-sky levels of UV-B radiation will decline during this century in response to ozone recovery. However, because of climate change and changes in land use practices, future trends in UV doses are difficult to predict. In the experiments reported here, we used an exclusion approach to study the effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean crops, which are extensively grown in many areas of the world that may be affected by future variations in UV-B radiation. In a first experiment, performed under normal management practices (which included chemical pest control), we found that natural levels of UV-B radiation reduced soybean yield. In a second experiment, where no pesticides were applied, we found that solar UV-B significantly reduced insect herbivory and, surprisingly, caused a concomitant increase in crop yield. Our data support the idea that UV-B effects on agroecosystems are the result of complex interactions involving multiple trophic levels. A better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate the anti-herbivore effect of UV-B radiation may be used to design crop varieties with improved adaptation to the cropping systems that are likely to prevail in the coming decades in response to agricultural intensification.

  9. UV-VUV synchrotron radiation spectroscopy of NiWO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, A.; Pankratov, V.; Kalinko, A.; Kotlov, A.; Shirmane, L.; Popov, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    Photoluminescence and excitation spectra of microcrystalline and nanocrystalline nickel tungstate (NiWO4) were measured using UV-VUV synchrotron radiation source. The origin of the bands is interpreted using comparative analysis with isostructural ZnWO4 tungstate and based on the results of recent first-principles band structure calculations. The influence of the local atomic structure relaxation and of Ni2+ intra-ion d-d transitions on the photoluminescence band intensity are discussed.

  10. Sum frequency generation of UV laser radiation at 266  nm in LBO crystal.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, D G; Byalkovskiy, O A; Vershinin, O I; Puyu, P V; Tyrtyshnyy, V A

    2016-04-01

    We report experimental results of generation at 266 nm in LBO crystal by frequency mixing of the fundamental (1064 nm) and third harmonic (355 nm) of ytterbium pulsed fiber laser radiation. Deep ultraviolet (DUV) output power of 3.3 W at 266 nm was achieved with 14% IR-to-DUV conversion efficiency. UV-induced bulk degradation of LBO crystals was observed and visualized by the dark field method. PMID:27192312

  11. [Medico-biological effects of natural UV-radiation: global consequences of the destruction of the ozone layer].

    PubMed

    Strzhizhovskiĭ, A D; D'iakonov, A S; Belousov, V V

    1991-01-01

    The effect of UV-B-radiation of high intensity on terrestrial microorganisms, aqueous ecosystems, and plants is described. The effect of UV-B-radiation on humans and animals is discussed and quantitative evaluation of ozone layer destruction is given. It is indicated that potential changes will grow continuously, producing a significant effect on the biosphere. It is concluded that UV-B-radiation as a stimulating agent should be applied with caution in general biology and medicine and in space biology and medicine.

  12. Metastasis suppressor NM23-H1 promotes repair of UV-induced DNA damage and suppresses UV-induced melanomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Stuart G; Novak, Marian; Dabernat, Sandrine; Daniel, Jean-Yves; Mellon, Isabel; Zhang, Qingbei; Harris, Nathan; Ciesielski, Michael J; Fenstermaker, Robert A; Kovacic, Diane; Slominski, Andrzej; Kaetzel, David M

    2012-01-01

    Reduced expression of the metastasis suppressor NM23-H1 is associated with aggressive forms of multiple cancers. Here, we establish that NM23-H1 (termed H1 isoform in human, M1 in mouse) and two of its attendant enzymatic activities, the 3'-5' exonuclease and nucleoside diphosphate kinase, are novel participants in the cellular response to UV radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage. NM23-H1 deficiency compromised the kinetics of repair for total DNA polymerase-blocking lesions and nucleotide excision repair of (6-4) photoproducts in vitro. Kinase activity of NM23-H1 was critical for rapid repair of both polychromatic UVB/UVA-induced (290-400 nm) and UVC-induced (254 nm) DNA damage, whereas its 3'-5' exonuclease activity was dominant in the suppression of UVR-induced mutagenesis. Consistent with its role in DNA repair, NM23-H1 rapidly translocated to sites of UVR-induced (6-4) photoproduct DNA damage in the nucleus. In addition, transgenic mice hemizygous-null for nm23-m1 and nm23-m2 exhibited UVR-induced melanoma and follicular infundibular cyst formation, and tumor-associated melanocytes displayed invasion into adjacent dermis, consistent with loss of invasion-suppressing activity of NM23 in vivo. Taken together, our data show a critical role for NM23 isoforms in limiting mutagenesis and suppressing UVR-induced melanomagenesis.

  13. The role of UV-B radiation in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems--an experimental and functional analysis of the evolution of UV-absorbing compounds.

    PubMed

    Rozema, J; Björn, L O; Bornman, J F; Gaberscik, A; Häder, D-P; Trost, T; Germ, M; Klisch, M; Gröniger, A; Sinha, R P; Lebert, M; He, Y-Y; Buffoni-Hall, R; de Bakker, N V J; van de Staaij, J; Meijkamp, B B

    2002-02-01

    We analysed and compared the functioning of UV-B screening pigments in plants from marine, fresh water and terrestrial ecosystems, along the evolutionary line of cyanobacteria, unicellular algae, primitive multicellular algae, charophycean algae, lichens, mosses and higher plants, including amphibious macrophytes. Lichens were also included in the study. We were interested in the following key aspects: (a) does the water column function effectively as an 'external UV-B filter'?; (b) do aquatic plants need less 'internal UV-B screening' than terrestrial plants?; (c) what role does UV screening play in protecting the various plant groups from UV-B damage, such as the formation of thymine dimers?; and (d) since early land 'plants' (such as the predecessors of present-day cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses) experienced higher UV-B fluxes than higher plants, which evolved later, are primitive aquatic and land organisms (cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, mosses) better adapted to present-day levels of UV-B than higher plants? Furthermore, polychromatic action spectra for the induction of UV screening pigments of aquatic organisms have been determined. This is relevant for translating 'physical' radiation measurements of solar UV-B into 'biological' and 'ecological' effects. From the action spectra, radiation amplification factors (RAFs) have been calculated. These action spectra allow us to determine any mitigating or antagonistic effects in the ecosystems and therefore qualify the damage prediction for the ecosystems under study. We summarize and discuss the main results based on three years of research of four European research groups. The central theme of the work was the investigation of the effectiveness of the various screening compounds from the different species studied in order to gain some perspective of the evolutionary adaptations from lower to higher plant forms. The induction of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) was studied in the marine dinoflagellate

  14. The role of UV-B radiation in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems--an experimental and functional analysis of the evolution of UV-absorbing compounds.

    PubMed

    Rozema, J; Björn, L O; Bornman, J F; Gaberscik, A; Häder, D-P; Trost, T; Germ, M; Klisch, M; Gröniger, A; Sinha, R P; Lebert, M; He, Y-Y; Buffoni-Hall, R; de Bakker, N V J; van de Staaij, J; Meijkamp, B B

    2002-02-01

    We analysed and compared the functioning of UV-B screening pigments in plants from marine, fresh water and terrestrial ecosystems, along the evolutionary line of cyanobacteria, unicellular algae, primitive multicellular algae, charophycean algae, lichens, mosses and higher plants, including amphibious macrophytes. Lichens were also included in the study. We were interested in the following key aspects: (a) does the water column function effectively as an 'external UV-B filter'?; (b) do aquatic plants need less 'internal UV-B screening' than terrestrial plants?; (c) what role does UV screening play in protecting the various plant groups from UV-B damage, such as the formation of thymine dimers?; and (d) since early land 'plants' (such as the predecessors of present-day cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses) experienced higher UV-B fluxes than higher plants, which evolved later, are primitive aquatic and land organisms (cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, mosses) better adapted to present-day levels of UV-B than higher plants? Furthermore, polychromatic action spectra for the induction of UV screening pigments of aquatic organisms have been determined. This is relevant for translating 'physical' radiation measurements of solar UV-B into 'biological' and 'ecological' effects. From the action spectra, radiation amplification factors (RAFs) have been calculated. These action spectra allow us to determine any mitigating or antagonistic effects in the ecosystems and therefore qualify the damage prediction for the ecosystems under study. We summarize and discuss the main results based on three years of research of four European research groups. The central theme of the work was the investigation of the effectiveness of the various screening compounds from the different species studied in order to gain some perspective of the evolutionary adaptations from lower to higher plant forms. The induction of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) was studied in the marine dinoflagellate

  15. Vacuum-UV radiation at 185 nm in water treatment--a review.

    PubMed

    Zoschke, Kristin; Börnick, Hilmar; Worch, Eckhard

    2014-04-01

    The vacuum-UV radiation of water results in the in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals. Low-pressure mercury vapor lamps which emit at 185 nm are potential sources of VUV radiation. The scope of this article is to give an overview of the application of VUV radiation at 185 nm for water treatment including the transformation of inorganic and organic water constituents, and the disinfection efficiency. Another focus is on the generation of ozone by VUV radiation from oxygen or air and the application of the produced ozone in combination with VUV irradiation of water in the VUV/O3 process. The advantages and limitation of the VUV process at 185 nm as well as possible applications in water treatment are outlined.

  16. Kolmogorov Complexity Spectrum for Use in Analysis of Uv-B Radiation Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Malinović-Milićević, Slavica; Arsenić, Ilija; Drešković, Nusret; Bukosa, Beata

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we have used the Kolmogorov complexity and sample entropy measures to estimate the complexity of the UV-B radiation time series in the Vojvodina region (Serbia) for the period 1990-2007. We have defined the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum and have introduced the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum highest value (KCH). We have established the UV-B radiation time series on the basis of their daily sum (dose) for seven representative places in this region using: (i) measured data, (ii) data calculated via a derived empirical formula and (iii) data obtained by a parametric UV radiation model. We have calculated the Kolmogorov complexity (KC) based on the Lempel-Ziv algorithm (LZA), KCH and sample entropy (SE) values for each time series. We have divided the period 1990-2007 into two subintervals: (i) 1990-1998 and (ii) 1999-2007 and calculated the KC, KCH and SE values for the various time series in these subintervals. It is found that during the period 1999-2007, there is a decrease in the KC, KCH and SE, compared to the period 1990-1998. This complexity loss may be attributed to (i) the increased human intervention in the post civil war period causing increase of the air pollution and (ii) the increased cloudiness due to climate changes.

  17. Intraspecific variations in growth, yield and photosynthesis of sorghum varieties to ambient UV (280-400 nm) radiation.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N

    2012-11-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of ambient solar UV on the various growth, physiological and yield parameters of four sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) varieties-Indore-12, Indore-26, CSV-23 and Indore-27 by excluding either UV-B (<315 nm) or UV-A/B (<400 nm) components of solar spectrum. Exclusion of UV significantly enhanced plant height, area and specific leaf weight of flag leaf, biomass accumulation, yield parameters and harvest index in all the sorghum varieties. Chlorophyll b was significantly enhanced and chlorophyll a increased to a lesser extent, UV-B absorbing substances and chlorophyll a/b ratio were significantly decreased by the exclusion of solar UV. The enhancement in the vegetative growth and yield by UV exclusion might be linked to the remarkable increase in rate of photosynthesis in sorghum varieties. The magnitude of the response was high in I-26 and I-27 as compared to CSV-23 and I-12 after exclusion of solar UV. All the varieties of sorghum had a negative cumulative stress response index (CSRI), the sensitivity of the sorghum varieties was in the following sequence I-12>CSV-23>I-26>I-27. Thus I-27 was the most sensitive and I-12 the least sensitive variety to present level of solar UV radiation. The differences in UV sensitivity identified among sorghum varieties might be useful in breeding programs for increased tolerance to UV-B radiation.

  18. A structural study of the retinal photoreceptor, plexiform and ganglion cell layers following exposure to UV-B and UV-C radiation in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Miguel, Nadia Campos; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno; Allodi, Silvana

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, ultraviolet radiation levels (UV), reaching the Earth's surface, have been increasing at a rate of 1.5% per each 1% loss of the ozone layer. Moreover, artificial UV-sources have also proliferated and contributed to the rising UV-stress that many organisms have to face. To assess how the vertebrate retina responds to an exposure of short wavelength UV, we focused our attention on the rat retina, observing photoreceptor (containing outer and inner segments of rods and cones), inner plexiform, and ganglion cell layers by light and transmission electron microscopy using conventional and cytochemical techniques. We analyzed how cells of the layers in question responded to a 30 min exposure to UV-C and UV-B radiation with doses of 7200 and 590 J/cm(2), respectively. The results show that there are significant changes in the nuclei and cytoplasmic organelles of the exposed retinae when compared with those of the unexposed controls. The changes include an increase in heterochromatin, distension of rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial disruptions, and increases in the number of myelin bodies. The recorded morphological changes, especially those of the ganglion cells, are suggestive of apoptotic processes and show that the exposure of vertebrate retina to wavelengths ranging from 254 to 312 nm can produce alterations that are likely to impact negatively on the retina's proper functioning.

  19. Growth and production of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) treated with reduced, ambient, and enhanced UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Gaberscik, Alenka; Voncina, Meta; Trost, Tadeja; Germ, Mateja; Olof Björn, Lars

    2002-02-01

    The effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. variety 'Darja'), an important high elevation crop, was studied in order to estimate its vulnerability in changing UV-B environment. Plants were grown in outdoor experiments from July to October under reduced and ambient UV-B levels, and an UV-B level simulating 17% ozone depletion in Ljubljana. During the development the following parameters were monitored: light saturated photosynthetic activity, transpiration, potential and effective photochemical efficiencies of photosystem II, the contents of photosynthetic pigments and methanol soluble UV-B absorbing compounds. At the end of the experiment, growth rate and production of seeds were estimated. In the following growth season the seeds collected from plants exposed to different UV-B treatments were tested for germination capacity. Total UV-B absorbing compounds during plant development were increased by UV-B radiation, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids) decreased. Photosynthetic rate was lowered in an early stage of development. UV-B treatment resulted in the increase in the transpiration rate and consequently the decrease in water use efficiency (WUE). The disturbances in water economy and in photosynthesis affected the reproduction potential negatively; the production of seeds in plants cultivated under ambient and enhanced UV-B was 57 and 39% of the production of specimens treated with reduced UV-B, respectively. The germination of seeds collected from treated plants revealed on average about 95% success, independently of the treatment, but the time needed for germination was the shortest for seeds developed under enhanced UV-B level treatment. Enhanced UV-B radiation affected water relations and production of buckwheat, but not the potential of seeds for germination.

  20. [Effects of silicon supply on diurnal variations of physiological properties at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Lou, Yun-sheng; Meng, Yan; Wang, Wei-qing; Cui, He-yang

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) supply on diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation. The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient UV-B. (ambient, A) and elevated UV-B (elevated by 20%, E), and four Si supply levels, i.e. Sio (control, 0 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si, (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 . hm2), Si3 (slag fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 . hm-2). The results showed that, compared with ambient UV-B radiation, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) , intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3%, 5.5%, 10.4%, 20.3% and 6.3%, respectively, in the treatment without Si supply (Si, level), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8%-5.5%, 0.7%-4.8%, 4.0%-8.7%, 7.4%-20.2% and 0.7%-5.9% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1, Si2 and Si3 levels) , respectively. Namely, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters, but silicon supply could obviously mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, compared with control (Si0 level), silicon supply increased Pn, Ci, gs and WUE by 16.9%-28.0%, 3.5%-14.3%, 16.8% - 38.7% and 29.0% - 51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9% - 10.8% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1 , Si2 and Si3 levels). That is, silicon supply could mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation through significantly increasingnP., CigsgK and WUE, but decreasing T,. However, the difference existed in ameliorating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among the treatments of silicon supply, with the sequence of Si3>Si2>1i >Si0. This study suggested that fertilizing slag was

  1. [Effects of silicon supply on diurnal variations of physiological properties at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Lou, Yun-sheng; Meng, Yan; Wang, Wei-qing; Cui, He-yang

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) supply on diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation. The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient UV-B. (ambient, A) and elevated UV-B (elevated by 20%, E), and four Si supply levels, i.e. Sio (control, 0 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si, (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 . hm2), Si3 (slag fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 . hm-2). The results showed that, compared with ambient UV-B radiation, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) , intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3%, 5.5%, 10.4%, 20.3% and 6.3%, respectively, in the treatment without Si supply (Si, level), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8%-5.5%, 0.7%-4.8%, 4.0%-8.7%, 7.4%-20.2% and 0.7%-5.9% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1, Si2 and Si3 levels) , respectively. Namely, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters, but silicon supply could obviously mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, compared with control (Si0 level), silicon supply increased Pn, Ci, gs and WUE by 16.9%-28.0%, 3.5%-14.3%, 16.8% - 38.7% and 29.0% - 51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9% - 10.8% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1 , Si2 and Si3 levels). That is, silicon supply could mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation through significantly increasingnP., CigsgK and WUE, but decreasing T,. However, the difference existed in ameliorating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among the treatments of silicon supply, with the sequence of Si3>Si2>1i >Si0. This study suggested that fertilizing slag was

  2. RESPONSE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS DEFENSE SYSTEMS IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) LEAVES WITH SUPPLEMENTAL UV-B RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) on membrane systems and lipid peroxidation, and possible involvement of active oxygen radicals was investigated in leaves of two UV-B susceptible rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. cvs IR74 and Dular). Rice seedlings ...

  3. Effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, solar UV radiation, and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: interactions and feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David J; Sulzberger, Barbara; Zepp, Richard G; Austin, Amy T

    2015-01-01

    Climate change modulates the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, particularly for carbon cycling, resulting in UV-mediated positive or negative feedbacks on climate. Possible positive feedbacks discussed in this assessment include: (i) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of above ground litter due to aridification; (ii) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of photoreactive dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems due to changes in continental runoff and ice melting; (iii) reduced efficiency of the biological pump due to UV-induced bleaching of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in stratified aquatic ecosystems, where CDOM protects phytoplankton from the damaging solar UV-B radiation. Mineralisation of organic matter results in the production and release of CO2, whereas the biological pump is the main biological process for CO2 removal by aquatic ecosystems. This paper also assesses the interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on the biogeochemical cycling of aerosols and trace gases other than CO2, as well as of chemical and biological contaminants. Interacting effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycles are particularly pronounced at terrestrial-aquatic interfaces. PMID:25380348

  4. Effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, solar UV radiation, and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: interactions and feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J.; Sulzberger, Barbara; Zepp, Richard G.; Austin, Amy T.

    2014-11-07

    Climate change modulates the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, particularly for carbon cycling, resulting in UV-mediated positive or negative feedbacks on climate. Possible positive feedbacks discussed in this assessment include: (i) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of above ground litter due to aridification; (ii) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of photoreactive dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems due to changes in continental runoff and ice melting; (iii) reduced efficiency of the biological pump due to UV-induced bleaching of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in stratified aquatic ecosystems, where CDOM protects phytoplankton from the damaging solar UV-B radiation. Mineralisation of organic matter results in the production and release of CO2, whereas the biological pump is the main biological process for CO2 removal by aquatic ecosystems. This research also assesses the interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on the biogeochemical cycling of aerosols and trace gases other than CO2, as well as of chemical and biological contaminants. Lastly,, interacting effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycles are particularly pronounced at terrestrial-aquatic interfaces.

  5. Effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, solar UV radiation, and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: interactions and feedbacks

    DOE PAGES

    Erickson III, David J.; Sulzberger, Barbara; Zepp, Richard G.; Austin, Amy T.

    2014-11-07

    Climate change modulates the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, particularly for carbon cycling, resulting in UV-mediated positive or negative feedbacks on climate. Possible positive feedbacks discussed in this assessment include: (i) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of above ground litter due to aridification; (ii) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of photoreactive dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems due to changes in continental runoff and ice melting; (iii) reduced efficiency of the biological pump due to UV-induced bleaching of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in stratified aquatic ecosystems, where CDOM protects phytoplankton from the damaging solarmore » UV-B radiation. Mineralisation of organic matter results in the production and release of CO2, whereas the biological pump is the main biological process for CO2 removal by aquatic ecosystems. This research also assesses the interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on the biogeochemical cycling of aerosols and trace gases other than CO2, as well as of chemical and biological contaminants. Lastly,, interacting effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycles are particularly pronounced at terrestrial-aquatic interfaces.« less

  6. Effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, solar UV radiation, and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: interactions and feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David J; Sulzberger, Barbara; Zepp, Richard G; Austin, Amy T

    2015-01-01

    Climate change modulates the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, particularly for carbon cycling, resulting in UV-mediated positive or negative feedbacks on climate. Possible positive feedbacks discussed in this assessment include: (i) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of above ground litter due to aridification; (ii) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of photoreactive dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems due to changes in continental runoff and ice melting; (iii) reduced efficiency of the biological pump due to UV-induced bleaching of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in stratified aquatic ecosystems, where CDOM protects phytoplankton from the damaging solar UV-B radiation. Mineralisation of organic matter results in the production and release of CO2, whereas the biological pump is the main biological process for CO2 removal by aquatic ecosystems. This paper also assesses the interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on the biogeochemical cycling of aerosols and trace gases other than CO2, as well as of chemical and biological contaminants. Interacting effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycles are particularly pronounced at terrestrial-aquatic interfaces.

  7. Elevational differences in trait response to UV-B radiation by long-toed salamander populations.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Lindsey L; Garcia, Tiffany S; Hoffman, Peter D

    2014-07-01

    Amphibian species capable of optimizing trait response to environmental stressors may develop complex strategies for defending against rapid environmental change. Trait responses may differ between populations, particularly if stressor strength varies across spatial or temporal gradients. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is one such stressor that poses a significant threat to amphibian species. We examined the ability of long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) at high- and low-elevation breeding sites to cooperatively employ behavioral and physiological trait responses to mediate UV-B damage. We performed a microhabitat survey to examine differences in oviposition behavior and UV-B conditions among breeding populations at high- (n = 3; >1,500 m) and low-elevation (n = 3; <100 m) sites. We found significant differences in oviposition behavior across populations, with females at high-elevation sites selecting oviposition substrates in UV-B protected microhabitats. We also collected eggs (n = 633) from each of the breeding sites for analysis of photolyase activity, a photoreactivating enzyme that repairs UV-B damage to the DNA, using a photoproduct immunoassay. Our results revealed no significant differences in photolyase activity between long-toed salamander populations at high and low elevations. For high-elevation salamander populations, relatively low physiological repair capabilities in embryos appear to be buffered by extensive behavioral modifications to reduce UV-B exposure and standardize developmental temperatures. This study provides valuable insight into environmental stress responses via the assessment of multiple traits in allowing sensitive species to persist in rapidly changing landscapes.

  8. Elevational differences in trait response to UV-B radiation by long-toed salamander populations.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Lindsey L; Garcia, Tiffany S; Hoffman, Peter D

    2014-07-01

    Amphibian species capable of optimizing trait response to environmental stressors may develop complex strategies for defending against rapid environmental change. Trait responses may differ between populations, particularly if stressor strength varies across spatial or temporal gradients. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is one such stressor that poses a significant threat to amphibian species. We examined the ability of long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) at high- and low-elevation breeding sites to cooperatively employ behavioral and physiological trait responses to mediate UV-B damage. We performed a microhabitat survey to examine differences in oviposition behavior and UV-B conditions among breeding populations at high- (n = 3; >1,500 m) and low-elevation (n = 3; <100 m) sites. We found significant differences in oviposition behavior across populations, with females at high-elevation sites selecting oviposition substrates in UV-B protected microhabitats. We also collected eggs (n = 633) from each of the breeding sites for analysis of photolyase activity, a photoreactivating enzyme that repairs UV-B damage to the DNA, using a photoproduct immunoassay. Our results revealed no significant differences in photolyase activity between long-toed salamander populations at high and low elevations. For high-elevation salamander populations, relatively low physiological repair capabilities in embryos appear to be buffered by extensive behavioral modifications to reduce UV-B exposure and standardize developmental temperatures. This study provides valuable insight into environmental stress responses via the assessment of multiple traits in allowing sensitive species to persist in rapidly changing landscapes. PMID:24833287

  9. The effects of UV radiation during the vegetative period on antioxidant compounds and postharvest quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Topcu, Yasin; Dogan, Adem; Kasimoglu, Zehra; Sahin-Nadeem, Hilal; Polat, Ersin; Erkan, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effects of supplementary UV radiation during the vegetative period on antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and postharvest quality of broccoli heads during long term storage was studied. The broccolis were grown under three different doses of supplementary UV radiation (2.2, 8.8 and 16.4 kJ/m(2)/day) in a soilless system in a glasshouse. Harvested broccoli heads were stored at 0 °C in modified atmosphere packaging for 60 days. The supplementary UV radiation (280-315 nm) during the vegetative period significantly decreased total carotenoid, the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content but increased the ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of broccolis. All supplementary UV treatments slightly reduced the antioxidant activity of the broccolis, however, no remarkable change was observed between 2.2 and 8.8 kJ/m(2) radiation levels. The sinigrin and glucotropaeolin contents of the broccolis were substantially increased by UV treatments. The prolonged storage period resulted in decreased ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activity. Discoloration of the heads, due to decreased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, was also observed with prolonged storage duration. Glucosinolates levels showed an increasing tendency till the 45th day of storage, and then their levels started to decline. The weight loss of broccoli heads during storage progressively increased with storage time in all treatments. Total soluble solids, solids content and titratable acidity decreased continuously during storage. Titratable acidity was not affected by UV radiation doses during the storage time whereas soluble solids and solids content (dry matter) were significantly affected by UV doses. Supplementary UV radiation increased the lightness (L*) and chroma (C*) values of the broccoli heads. Pre-harvest UV radiation during vegetative period seems to be a promising tool for increasing the beneficial health components

  10. Effect of UV-B radiation on the antibody response of fish - implication on high altitude fish culture.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Parasuraman Aiya; Hameed, Byju; Michael, R Dinakaran

    2015-02-01

    Literally, all living forms are either directly or indirectly dependent upon sun for energy. Radiation from sun is differentiated into several components of a spectrum based on the wavelength. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation may be one of the infamous radiations emitted by the sun. Ozone depletion is another critical factor by which UV induced ill-effects are intensified. Though there are numerous studies on effects of UV radiation on terrestrial organisms, its effect on freshwater and aquaculture ecosystems has been largely neglected. Here, we report that enhanced UV irradiation may suppress the primary and secondary antibody responses to a soluble protein antigen in fish. Fishes exposed for longer periods (80min) were particularly very sensitive to infection, as shown by our sensitivity index. PMID:25579806

  11. Simultaneous Observation of Cells and Nuclear Tracks from the Boron Neutron Capture Reaction by UV-C Sensitization of Polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Portu, Agustina; Rossini, Andrés Eugenio; Thorp, Silvia Inés; Curotto, Paula; Pozzi, Emiliano César Cayetano; Granell, Pablo; Golmar, Federico; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis; Martin, Gisela Saint

    2015-08-01

    The distribution of boron in tissue samples coming from boron neutron capture therapy protocols can be determined through the analysis of its autoradiography image on a nuclear track detector. A more precise knowledge of boron atom location on the microscopic scale can be attained by the observation of nuclear tracks superimposed on the sample image on the detector. A method to produce an "imprint" of cells cultivated on a polycarbonate detector was developed, based on the photodegradation properties of UV-C radiation on this material. Optimal conditions to generate an appropriate monolayer of Mel-J cells incubated with boronophenylalanine were found. The best images of both cells and nuclear tracks were obtained for a neutron fluence of 1013 cm-2, 6 h UV-C (254 nm) exposure, and 4 min etching time with a KOH solution. The imprint morphology was analyzed by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Similar samples, exposed to UV-A (360 nm) revealed no cellular imprinting. Etch pits were present only inside the cell imprints, indicating a preferential boron uptake (about threefold the incubation concentration). Comparative studies of boron absorption in different cell lines and in vitro evaluation of the effect of diverse boron compounds are feasible with this methodology. PMID:26155721

  12. Simultaneous Observation of Cells and Nuclear Tracks from the Boron Neutron Capture Reaction by UV-C Sensitization of Polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Portu, Agustina; Rossini, Andrés Eugenio; Thorp, Silvia Inés; Curotto, Paula; Pozzi, Emiliano César Cayetano; Granell, Pablo; Golmar, Federico; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis; Martin, Gisela Saint

    2015-08-01

    The distribution of boron in tissue samples coming from boron neutron capture therapy protocols can be determined through the analysis of its autoradiography image on a nuclear track detector. A more precise knowledge of boron atom location on the microscopic scale can be attained by the observation of nuclear tracks superimposed on the sample image on the detector. A method to produce an "imprint" of cells cultivated on a polycarbonate detector was developed, based on the photodegradation properties of UV-C radiation on this material. Optimal conditions to generate an appropriate monolayer of Mel-J cells incubated with boronophenylalanine were found. The best images of both cells and nuclear tracks were obtained for a neutron fluence of 1013 cm-2, 6 h UV-C (254 nm) exposure, and 4 min etching time with a KOH solution. The imprint morphology was analyzed by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Similar samples, exposed to UV-A (360 nm) revealed no cellular imprinting. Etch pits were present only inside the cell imprints, indicating a preferential boron uptake (about threefold the incubation concentration). Comparative studies of boron absorption in different cell lines and in vitro evaluation of the effect of diverse boron compounds are feasible with this methodology.

  13. Effects induced by XeCl laser radiation and germicidal lamp radiation on E. coli strains survival and mutability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, F.; Alifano, P.; Lorusso, A.; Monaco, C.; Nassisi, V.; Talà, A.; Tredici, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this work the mutagenic effect on Escherichia coli strains induced by UV radiation emitted by a XeCl laser (λ = 308 nm) has been analysed as a function of the exposure dose and compared with the effect induced by 254 nm radiation emitted by a conventional germicidal lamp. E. coli strains, wild-type (recA+) and mutant (recA1, defective in DNA damage repair systems), plated on LB agar, supplemented with rifampicin when requested, were irradiated by means of a germicidal lamp in the dose range 0 - 9 mJ/cm2. Similar strains were exposed to 308 nm pulsed laser radiation (τ = 20 ns FWHM; max. pulse energy: 100 mJ) in the dose range 0-1.0 x 10 4 mJ/cm2. The discrepancy between the results obtained with the lamp and the laser on the mutation frequency, suggested that the biological response to the two radiation sources involves distinct mechanisms. This hypothesis was supported by the evidence that exposure to near-UV 308 nm induced mutagenesis in the recA-defective strain at an extent considerably higher than in the recA-proficient strain.

  14. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  15. Mediated modeling of the impacts of enhanced UV-B radiation on ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    van den Belt, Marjan; Bianciotto, Oscar A; Costanza, Robert; Demers, Serge; Diaz, Susana; Ferreyra, Gustavo A; Koch, Evamaria W; Momo, Fernando R; Vernet, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of group model building to facilitate interaction with stakeholders, synthesize research results and assist in the development of hypotheses about climate change at the global level in relation to UV-B radiation and ecosystem service valuation. The objective was to provide a platform for integration of the various research components within a multidisciplinary research project as a basis for interaction with stakeholders with backgrounds in areas other than science. An integrated summary of the scientific findings, along with stakeholder input, was intended to produce a bridge between science and policymaking. We used a mediated modeling approach that was implemented as a pilot project in Ushuaia, Argentina. The investigation was divided into two participatory workshops: data gathering and model evaluation. Scientists and the local stakeholders supported the valuation of ecosystem services as a useful common denominator for integrating the various scientific results. The concept of economic impacts in aquatic and marsh systems was represented by values for ecosystem services altered by UV-B radiation. In addition, direct local socioeconomic impacts of enhanced UV-B radiation were modeled, using data from Ushuaia. We worked with 5 global latitudinal regions, focusing on net primary production and biomass for the marine system and on 3 plant species for the marsh system. Ecosystem service values were calculated for both sectors. The synthesis model reflects the conclusions from the literature and from experimental research at the global level. UV-B is not a significant stress for the marshes, relative to the potential impact of increases in the sea level. Enhanced UV-B favors microbial dynamics in marine systems that could cause a significant shift from primary producers to bacteria at the community level. In addition, synergetic effects of UV-B and certain pollutants potentiate the shift to heterotrophs. This may impact the oceanic

  16. Plasma Jet (V)UV-Radiation Impact on Biologically Relevant Liquids and Cell Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresp, H.; Bussiahn, R.; Bundscherer, L.; Monden, A.; Hammer, M. U.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Woedtke, Th. V.; Reuter, S.

    2014-10-01

    In this study the generation of radicals in plasma treated liquids has been investigated. To quantify the contribution of plasma vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the species investigated, three cases have been studied: UV of plasma jet only, UV and VUV of plasma jet combined, and the plasma effluent including all reactive components. The emitted VUV has been observed by optical emission spectroscopy and its effect on radical formation in liquids has been analyzed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Radicals have been determined in ultrapure water (dH2O), as well as in more complex, biorelevant solutions like phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, and two different cell culture media. Various compositions lead to different reactive species formation, e.g. in PBS superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals have been detected, in cell suspension also glutathione thiyl radicals have been found. This study highlights that UV has no impact on radical generation, whereas VUV is relevant for producing radicals. VUV treatment of dH2O generates one third of the radical concentration produced by plasma-effluent treatment. It is relevant for plasma medicine because although plasma sources are operated in open air atmosphere, still VUV can lead to formation of biorelevant radicals. This work is funded by German Federal Ministry of Education a Research (BMBF) (Grant # 03Z2DN12+11).

  17. Antioxidant enzymes expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to UV-C radiation.

    PubMed

    Salma, Kloula Ben Ghorbal; Lobna, Maalej; Sana, Khefacha; Kalthoum, Chourabi; Imene, Ouzari; Abdelwaheb, Chatti

    2016-07-01

    It was well known that, UV-C irradiation increase considerably the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In the enzymatic ROS-scavenging pathways, superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX) were developed to deal with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of UV-C radiations on antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidases) expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidases activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Isozymes of superoxide dismutase were revealed by native gel activity staining method. Lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring malondialdehyde formation. Our results showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities exhibited a gradual increase during the exposure time (30 min). However, the superoxide dismutase activity was maximized at 15 min. Native gel activity staining assays showed the presence of three superoxide dismutase isozymes. The iron-cofactored isoform activity was altered after exposure to UV-C stress. These finding suggest that catalase and peroxidase enzymes have the same importance toward UV-C rays at shorter and longer exposure times and this may confer additional protection to superoxide dismutase from damage caused by lipid peroxidation. Moreover, our data demonstrate the significant role of the antioxidant system in the resistance of this important human pathogen. PMID:27059814

  18. Risk of ocular exposure to biologically effective UV radiation in different geographical directions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Hu, Liwen; Gao, Qian; Gao, Yanyan; Liu, Guangcong; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To quantify ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and to assess the risk of eye damage in different geographical directions due to UVR exposure, we used a spectrometer and a manikin to measure horizontal ambient and ocular exposure UVR in different geographical directions at four different locations at the Northern Hemisphere. Describing the relationship of exposure to risk of eye damage requires the availability of UV hazard weighting function. So, we used the UV hazard weighting function (ICNIRP) proposed by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection to determine the biologically effective UV irradiance (UVBEeye ) and then cumulative effective radiant exposure (Heye ) to shown the risk of eye. We found that in different geographical directions, distributions of ocular exposure to UVR were markedly different from those of horizontal ambient UVR. When the midday maximum SEA > 50°, eye received more UVR from the east and west directions during the morning and evening hours, respectively. However, when the midday maximum SEA < 50°, eye received more UVR from the south direction at noon. The results of this research indicate that the higher risk of eye caused by UVR varies according to the midday maximum SEA corresponding to different geographical direction.

  19. [Resistance to UV radiation of microorganisms isolated from the rock biotopes of the Antarctic region].

    PubMed

    Romanovskaia, V A; Tashirev, A B; Shilin, S O; Chernaia, N A

    2010-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of terrestrial biotopes of the Antarctic Region has shown, that vertical rocks of the Antarctic islands open for the Sun were characterized by special microcenoses. The wide distribution of pigmented microorganisms in the rock Antarctic samples, a higher frequency of their occurrence, the total number and biologic diversity, than in other Antarctic biotopes, has been demonstrated. For the first time the presence of bacteria and yeast, resistant to high doses of UV radiation on the vertical rocks in the Antarctic Region was shown. The lethal doze of UV radiation for the Antarctic pink pigmented Methylobacterium strains exceeded 200-300 J/m2, for coal-black yeast--500-800 J/m2, for red yeast--1200-1500 J/m2. The distinctions in lethal UV effect against strains of Methylobacterium isolated from the regions with different climate have not been found. Probably, adaptation of the rock microcenosis to extreme factors of the environment proceeds by natural selection of microorganisms, which resistance to this factor is genetically determined. PMID:20695223

  20. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujanpää, J.; Kalakoski, N.

    2015-05-01

    The surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument aboard EUMETSAT's polar orbiting meteorological operational (Metop) satellites. The input total ozone product is generated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) also within the O3M SAF framework. Polar orbiting satellites provide global coverage but infrequent sampling of the diurnal cloud cover. The diurnal variation of the surface UV radiation is extremely strong due to modulation by solar elevation and rapidly changing cloud cover. At the minimum, one sample of the cloud cover in the morning and another in the afternoon are needed to derive daily maximum and daily integrated surface UV radiation quantities. This is achieved by retrieving cloud optical depth from the channel 1 reflectance of the third Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3) instrument aboard both Metop in the morning orbit (daytime descending node around 09:30 LT) and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the afternoon orbit (daytime ascending node around 14:30 LT). In addition, more overpasses are used at high latitudes where the swaths of consecutive orbits overlap. The input satellite data are received from EUMETSAT's Multicast Distribution System (EUMETCast) using commercial telecommunication satellites for broadcasting the data to the user community. The surface UV product includes daily maximum dose rates and integrated daily doses with different biological weighting functions, integrated UVB and UVA radiation, solar noon UV Index and daily maximum photolysis

  1. Divergence in DNA photorepair efficiency among genotypes from contrasting UV radiation environments in nature.

    PubMed

    Miner, Brooks E; Kulling, Paige M; Beer, Karlyn D; Kerr, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Populations of organisms routinely face abiotic selection pressures, and a central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the mechanistic underpinnings of adaptive phenotypes. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of earth's most pervasive environmental stressors, potentially damaging DNA in any organism exposed to solar radiation. We explored mechanisms underlying differential survival following UVR exposure in genotypes of the water flea Daphnia melanica derived from natural ponds of differing UVR intensity. The UVR tolerance of a D. melanica genotype from a high-UVR habitat depended on the presence of visible and UV-A light wavelengths necessary for photoenzymatic repair of DNA damage, a repair pathway widely shared across the tree of life. We then measured the acquisition and repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, the primary form of UVR-caused DNA damage, in D. melanica DNA following experimental UVR exposure. We demonstrate that genotypes from high-UVR habitats repair DNA damage faster than genotypes from low-UVR habitats in the presence of visible and UV-A radiation necessary for photoenzymatic repair, but not in dark treatments. Because differences in repair rate only occurred in the presence of visible and UV-A radiation, we conclude that differing rates of DNA repair, and therefore differential UVR tolerance, are a consequence of variation in photoenzymatic repair efficiency. We then rule out a simple gene expression hypothesis for the molecular basis of differing repair efficiency, as expression of the CPD photolyase gene photorepair did not differ among D. melanica lineages, in both the presence and absence of UVR. PMID:26547143

  2. Oxidation of guanine in cellular DNA by solar UV radiation: biological role.

    PubMed

    Douki, T; Perdiz, D; Gróf, P; Kuluncsics, Z; Moustacchi, E; Cadet, J; Sage, E

    1999-08-01

    The formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) was investigated in Chinese hamster ovary cells upon exposure to either UVC, UVB, UVA or simulated sunlight (SSL). Two cell lines were used, namely AT3-2 and UVL9, the latter being deficient in nucleotide excision repair and consequently UV sensitive. For all types of radiation, including UVA, CPD were found to be the predominant lesions quantitatively. At the biologically relevant doses used, UVC, UVB and SSL irradiation yielded 8-oxodGuo at a rather low level, whereas UVA radiation produced relatively higher amounts. The formation of CPD was 10(2) and 10(5) more effective upon UVC than UVB and UVA exposure. These yields of formation followed DNA absorption, even in the UVA range. The calculated relative spectral effectiveness in the production of the two lesions showed that efficient induction of 8-oxodGuo upon UVA irradiation was shifted toward longer wavelengths, in comparison with those for CPD formation, in agreement with a photosensitization mechanism. In addition, after exposure to SSL, about 19% and 20% of 8-oxodGuo were produced between 290-320 nm and 320-340 nm, respectively, whereas CPD were essentially (90%) induced in the UVB region. However, the ratio of CPD to 8-oxodGuo greatly differed from one source of light to the other: it was over 100 for UVB but only a few units for UVA source. The extent of 8-oxodGuo and CPD was also compared to the lethality for the different types of radiation. The involvement of 8-oxodGuo in cell killing by solar UV radiation was clearly ruled out. In addition, our previously reported mutation spectra demonstrated that the contribution of 8-oxodGuo in the overall solar UV mutagenic process is very minor.

  3. Divergence in DNA photorepair efficiency among genotypes from contrasting UV radiation environments in nature.

    PubMed

    Miner, Brooks E; Kulling, Paige M; Beer, Karlyn D; Kerr, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Populations of organisms routinely face abiotic selection pressures, and a central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the mechanistic underpinnings of adaptive phenotypes. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of earth's most pervasive environmental stressors, potentially damaging DNA in any organism exposed to solar radiation. We explored mechanisms underlying differential survival following UVR exposure in genotypes of the water flea Daphnia melanica derived from natural ponds of differing UVR intensity. The UVR tolerance of a D. melanica genotype from a high-UVR habitat depended on the presence of visible and UV-A light wavelengths necessary for photoenzymatic repair of DNA damage, a repair pathway widely shared across the tree of life. We then measured the acquisition and repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, the primary form of UVR-caused DNA damage, in D. melanica DNA following experimental UVR exposure. We demonstrate that genotypes from high-UVR habitats repair DNA damage faster than genotypes from low-UVR habitats in the presence of visible and UV-A radiation necessary for photoenzymatic repair, but not in dark treatments. Because differences in repair rate only occurred in the presence of visible and UV-A radiation, we conclude that differing rates of DNA repair, and therefore differential UVR tolerance, are a consequence of variation in photoenzymatic repair efficiency. We then rule out a simple gene expression hypothesis for the molecular basis of differing repair efficiency, as expression of the CPD photolyase gene photorepair did not differ among D. melanica lineages, in both the presence and absence of UVR.

  4. Effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis activity of Wolffia arrhiza as probed by chlorophyll fluorescence transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Anken, Ralf H.; Lu, Jinying; Liu, Yongding

    2010-04-01

    The higher plant Wolffia arrhiza is regarded to be well suited concerning the provision of photosynthetic products in the cycle of matter of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) to be established in the context of extraterrestrial, human-based colonization and long-term space flight. Since UV radiation is one major extraterrestrial environmental stress for growth of any plant, effects of UV-B radiation on W. arrhiza were assessed in the present study. We found that UV-B radiation significantly inhibited photosynthetic CO2 assimilation activity, and the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b (Chl a, Chl b) and carotenoids considerably decreased when plants were exposed to UV-B radiation for 12 h. High UV-B radiation also declined the quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φpo), the quantum yield for electron transport (φEo) and the efficiency per trapped excitation (Ψo) in W. arrhiza simultaneously, while the amount of active PSII reaction centers per excited cross section (RC/CS) and the total number of active reaction centers per absorption (RC/ABS) had comparative changes. These results indicate that the effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis of W. arrhiza is due to an inhibition of the electron transport and via inactivation of reaction centers, but the inhibition may take place at more than one site in the photosynthetic apparatus.

  5. Long-term solar UV radiation reconstructed by ANN modelling with emphasis on spatial characteristics of input data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feister, U.; Junk, J.; Woldt, M.; Bais, A.; Helbig, A.; Janouch, M.; Josefsson, W.; Kazantzidis, A.; Lindfors, A.; den Outer, P. N.; Slaper, H.

    2008-06-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are efficient tools to derive solar UV radiation from measured meteorological parameters such as global radiation, aerosol optical depths and atmospheric column ozone. The ANN model has been tested with different combinations of data from the two sites Potsdam and Lindenberg, and used to reconstruct solar UV radiation at eight European sites by more than 100 years into the past. Special emphasis will be given to the discussion of small-scale characteristics of input data to the ANN model. Annual totals of UV radiation derived from reconstructed daily UV values reflect interannual variations and long-term patterns that are compatible with variabilities and changes of measured input data, in particular global dimming by about 1980/1990, subsequent global brightening, volcanic eruption effects such as that of Mt. Pinatubo, and the long-term ozone decline since the 1970s. Patterns of annual erythemal UV radiation are very similar at sites located at latitudes close to each other, but different patterns occur between UV radiation at sites in different latitude regions.

  6. Efficacy of olive mill wastewater for protecting Bacillus thuringiensis formulation from UV radiations.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Wafa; Sellami, Sameh; Sellami, Maissa; Tounsi, Slim

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of 10 low-cost UV-absorbers in protecting Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki BLB1 toxins against inactivation by UV-A and UV-B irradiation was evaluated in this study. Among them, two by-products, molasses and olive mill wastewater (OMW) were selected for further studies. They were tested at different concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% using the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a common UV protectant. Interestingly, addition of PABA and OMW to BLB1 formulations was found to be most effective in protecting BLB1 spores at 90.8 and 76.4% respectively and in preserving delta-endotoxin concentration at a level of 81.7 and 72.2%, respectively when used at a concentration of 0.2%. The lowest preserved spores (46.3%) and delta-endotoxin level (12.4%) was found using molasses. In contrast, spore count and delta-endotoxin concentration were completely reduced after an exposure of unprotected Bt strain BLB1 to UV radiations up to 96h. SDS-PAGE analysis of protected and unprotected samples revealed that delta-endotoxin bands (130, 65-70kDa) were conserved until 96h of UV exposure in presence of PABA or OMW compared with their disappearance in presence of molasses after 72h of exposure and their dramatically decline from 8h of exposure in unprotected mixture. A complete loss of larvicidal toxicity against Ephestia kuehniella was found after 24h of exposure in absence of any UV-absorber. Addition of OMW or PABA offered the highest levels of insecticidal activity with 63.2 and 74.7% of residual toxicity, respectively. Whereas, molasses addition, as UV protectant retained only 26.3% of residual activity after 96h of exposure. Therefore, addition of OMW by-product to Bt formulation may be a suitable alternative to others synthetic chemical compounds. OMW may also provided added value, be environmentally friendly and less hazardous, when used at low concentration.

  7. Enhanced resistance to UV-B radiation in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanophyceae) by repeated exposure.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongjie; Li, Dunhai

    2014-07-01

    In natural habitats, organisms especially phytoplankton are not always continuously subjected to ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR). By simulation of the natural situation, the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was subjected to UV-B exposure and recovery cycles. A series of morphological and physiological changes were observed in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 under repeated UVBR when compared with controls. Such as the breakage of filaments, intervals between heterocysts, heterocyst frequency, total carbohydrate, and carotenoids were increased, while the nitrogenase activity and photosynthetic activity were inhibited by repeated UVBR; however, these activities could recover when UV-B stress was removed. Unexpectedly, the over-compensatory growth was observed at the end of the second round of exposure and recovery cycle. Our results showed that discontinuous UVBR could increase the growth rate and the tolerance as well as repair capacity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. These results indicate that moderate UVBR may increase the growth of cyanobacteria in natural habitats.

  8. Sunlight suppressing rejection of 280- to 320-nm UV-radiation-induced skin tumors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Morison, W.L.; Kelley, S.P.

    1985-02-01

    Repeated exposure of female C3H/HeNCR- mice to sunlight prevented the normal immunologic rejection of a UV-induced tumor. This systemic immunologic alteration was transferred to syngeneic lethally X-irradiated animals with lymphoid cells from mice exposed to sunlight. The lymphoid cells also were able to suppress the capacity of lymphoid cells from normal animals to reject a UV-induced tumor. The 295- to 320-nm wave band appeared to be responsible for this immunosuppressive effect of sunlight because suppression was prevented by filtration of the radiation through Mylar and by application of a sunscreen containing para-aminobenzoic acid. These observations may have importance in understanding the pathogenesis of sunlight-induced skin cancer in humans.

  9. Investigating microbial diversity and UV radiation impact at the high-altitude Lake Aguas Calientes, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Lorena; Chong, Guillermo; Demergasso, Cecilia; Farías, María Eugenia; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond; Minkley, Edwin, Jr.; Yu, Yeoungeob

    2007-09-01

    The High-Lakes Project is funded by the NAI and explores the highest perennial volcanic lakes on Earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several lakes ~6,000 m elevation. These lakes represent an opportunity to study the evolution of microbial organisms in relatively shallow waters not providing substantial protection against UV radiation. Aguas Calientes (5,870 m) was investigated (November 2006) and samples of water and sediment collected at 1, 3, 5, and 10 cm depth. An Eldonet UV dosimeter positioned on the shore records UV radiation and temperature, and is logging data year round. A UV SolarLight sensor allowed acquisition of point measurements in all channels at the time of the sampling. UVA, UVB, and PAR peaks between 11:00 am and 1:00 pm reached 7.7 mW/cm2, 48.5 μW/cm2, and 511 W/m2, respectively. The chemical composition of the water sample was analyzed. DNA was extracted and DGGE analyses with bacterial and archaeal 16S fragments were performed to describe microbial diversity. Antibiotic resistances were established previously in similar environments in Argentine Andean wetlands. In order to determine these resistances in our samples, they were inoculated onto LB and R2A media and onto R2A medium containing either chloramphenicol, ampicillin or tetracycline. Bacterial was higher than archeal cell number determined by RT-PCR in all the samples, reaching maximum total values of 5x10 5 cell mL-1. DGGE results from these samples and Licancabur summit lake (5,916 m) samples were also compared. Eight antibiotic-resistant Gram negative strains have been isolated with distinct resistance patterns.

  10. Supplemental UV-B radiation induced changes in growth, pigments and antioxidant pool of bean (Dolichos lablab) under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raghubansh; Singh, Suruchi; Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

    2011-03-01

    Present study is conducted to evaluate the response of bean (Dolichos lablabcv . pusa early prolific) plants to supplemental UV-B (sUV-B: 280-315 nm: 7.2 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) radiation. UV-B caused alteration in biomass translocation pattern with more retention of biomass in below ground parts leading to an increment in root shoot ratio. Specific leaf area (SLA) which is the measure of leaf thinness, increased in plants under sUV-B exposure by 95.7 and 82.3% after 15 and 30 days after germination. Photosynthetic machinery of bean plants was the potential target of UV-B as photosynthetic rate was decreased by 88.6% at 30 days after germination. sUV-B lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species thus generating oxidative stress. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) was observed due to sUV-B radiation. Phenolic content decreased (34.7 and 18.6%) but protein showed varied response, increased initially (34%) thereafter declined (10.2%) under sUV-B radiation.

  11. Controlling adverse and beneficial effects of solar UV radiation by wearing suitable clothes - spectral transmission of different kinds of fabrics.

    PubMed

    Sobolewski, Piotr S; Krzyścin, Janusz W; Jarosławski, Janusz; Wink, Jakub; Lesiak, Aleksandra; Narbutt, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    Humans should avoid prolonged exposure to the Sun during the warm subperiod of the year with naturally high solar UV level. One of the known recommendations to avoid excessive UV radiation is wearing clothes with UV protection additives. However there is an important question: how do we get an adequate solar UV radiation, which maintains a healthy status of vitamin D, without facing overexposure risks? It is found that some kind of 100% cotton knitted fabric, used in the production of normal daily clothing, has ∼15% transmittance of solar UV. Model studies show that a garment made of this fabric allows larger synthesis of vitamin D3 in human body without the erythema risks (skin redness). Thus the adequate level of vitamin D could be attained safely by a person exposing only small part of the body (face, palms) during the period (May-August) of the year. PMID:25113622

  12. Effect of UV-B radiation on UV absorbing compounds and pigments of moss and lichen of Schirmacher oasis region, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Gautam, S; Bhushan Pant, A

    2012-01-01

    The survival of Antarctic flora under ozone depletion depends on their ability to acclimate against increasing UV—B radiation by employing photo protective mechanisms either by avoiding or repairing UV—B damage. A fifteen days experiment was designed to study moss (Bryum argenteum) and lichen (Umbilicaria aprina) under natural UV—B exposure and under UV filter frames at the Maitri region of Schirmacher oasis, East Antarctica. Changes in UV absorbing compounds, phenolics, carotenoids and chlorophyll content were studied for continuous fifteen days and significant changes were observed in the UV exposed plants of B. argenteum and U. aprina. The change in the UV absorbing compounds was more significant in B. argenteum (P<0.0001) than U. aprina (P<0.0002). The change in phenolic contents and total carotenoid content was significant (P<0.0001) in both B. argenteum and lichen U. aprina indicating that the increase in UV absorbing compounds, phenolic contents and total carotenoid content act as a protective mechanism against the deleterious effect of UV—B radiations.

  13. Rpb1 sumoylation in response to UV radiation or transcriptional impairment in yeast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuefeng; Ding, Baojin; LeJeune, Danielle; Ruggiero, Christine; Li, Shisheng

    2009-01-01

    Covalent modifications of proteins by ubiquitin and the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) have been revealed to be involved in a plethora of cellular processes, including transcription, DNA repair and DNA damage responses. It has been well known that in response to DNA damage that blocks transcription elongation, Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), is ubiquitylated and subsequently degraded in mammalian and yeast cells. However, it is still an enigma regarding how Pol II responds to damaged DNA and conveys signal(s) for DNA damage-related cellular processes. We found that Rpb1 is also sumoylated in yeast cells upon UV radiation or impairment of transcription elongation, and this modification is independent of DNA damage checkpoint activation. Ubc9, an E2 SUMO conjugase, and Siz1, an E3 SUMO ligase, play important roles in Rpb1 sumoylation. K1487, which is located in the acidic linker region between the C-terminal domain and the globular domain of Rpb1, is the major sumoylation site. Rpb1 sumoylation is not affected by its ubiquitylation, and vice versa, indicating that the two processes do not crosstalk. Abolishment of Rpb1 sumoylation at K1487 does not affect transcription elongation or transcription coupled repair (TCR) of UV-induced DNA damage. However, deficiency in TCR enhances UV-induced Rpb1 sumoylation, presumably due to the persistence of transcription-blocking DNA lesions in the transcribed strand of a gene. Remarkably, abolishment of Rpb1 sumoylation at K1487 causes enhanced and prolonged UV-induced phosphorylation of Rad53, especially in TCR-deficient cells, suggesting that the sumoylation plays a role in restraining the DNA damage checkpoint response caused by transcription-blocking lesions. Our results demonstrate a novel covalent modification of Rpb1 in response to UV induced DNA damage or transcriptional impairment, and unravel an important link between the modification and the DNA damage checkpoint response. PMID:19384408

  14. Characterization of the adaptive response of grapevine (cv. Tempranillo) to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Delrot, S; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Gomès, E; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I

    2015-03-01

    This work aims to characterize the physiological response of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Tempranillo to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions. Grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to three levels of supplemental biologically effective UV-B radiation (0, 5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)day(-1)) and two water regimes (well watered and water deficit), in a factorial design, from fruit-set to maturity under glasshouse-controlled conditions. UV-B induced a transient decrease in net photosynthesis (Anet), actual and maximum potential efficiency of photosystem II, particularly on well watered plants. Methanol extractable UV-B absorbing compounds (MEUVAC) concentration and superoxide dismutase activity increased with UV-B. Water deficit effected decrease in Anet and stomatal conductance, and did not change non-photochemical quenching and the de-epoxidation state of xanthophylls, dark respiration and photorespiration being alternative ways to dissipate the excess of energy. Little interactive effects between UV-B and drought were detected on photosynthesis performance, where the impact of UV-B was overshadowed by the effects of water deficit. Grape berry ripening was strongly delayed when UV-B and water deficit were applied in combination. In summary, deficit irrigation did not modify the adaptive response of grapevine to UV-B, through the accumulation of MEUVAC. However, combined treatments caused additive effects on berry ripening. PMID:25617319

  15. Effect of UV-B Radiation (290-320nm) on the Nitrogen Metabolism of Several Marine Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Döhler, G

    1985-04-01

    The marine diatoms Bellerochea yucatanensis, Biddulphia sinensis, Ditylum brightwellii, Lauderia annulata and Thalassiosira rotula were grown for 2 days under different levels of UV-B radiation (439, 717, and 1230J · m (-2) ·d(-1)). UV-B stress depressed the growth rates of all species. A low UV-B dose (439 J · m (-2) · d (-1), weighted), usually caused a slight increase in biomass production (dry weight} in comparison to nontreated cells. Enhanced UV-B reduced the dry matter productivity of all diatoms. All marine diatoms exposed to UV-B showed a diminution of protein and pigment content (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c(1) + C(2), and carotenoids). Algae grown in 20 %o or 35 %o salt concentrations were more sensitive to UV-B radiation than those grown in 45%o. S. The effect of higher UV-B dose (717J · m (-2) · d(-1), weighted) upon the pools of free amino acids was species-dependent. Aspartate and asparagine levels were reduced in all diatoms. A marked increase in glutamine levels was found in Bellerochea, Biddulphia, Ditylum and Lauderia. Thalassiosira cells exposed to UV-B showed a significant increase in glutamate levels and a reduction of glutamine levels. (15)N and (14)C incorporation into several amino acids was reduced by exposure to UV-B. The results are discussed with reference to the inhibition of the enzymes for carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:23196172

  16. Acclimation to UV-B radiation and visible light in Lactuca sativa involves up-regulation of photosynthetic performance and orchestration of metabolome-wide responses.

    PubMed

    Wargent, J J; Nelson, B C W; McGhie, T K; Barnes, P W

    2015-05-01

    UV-B radiation is often viewed as a source of stress for higher plants. In particular, photosynthetic function has been described as a common target for UV-B impairment; yet as our understanding of UV-B photomorphogenesis increases, there are opportunities to expand the emerging paradigm of regulatory UV response. Lactuca sativa is an important dietary crop species and is often subjected to rapid sunlight exposure at field transfer. Acclimation to UV-B and visible light conditions in L. sativa was dissected using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, in addition to non-destructive assessments of UV epidermal shielding (SUV ). After UV-B treatment, seedlings were subjected to wide-range metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-HRMS). During the acclimation period, net photosynthetic rate increased in UV-treated plants, epidermal UV shielding increased in both subsets of plants transferred to the acclimatory conditions (UV+/UV- plants) and Fv /Fm declined slightly in UV+/UV- plants. Metabolomic analysis revealed that a key group of secondary compounds was up-regulated by higher light conditions, yet several of these compounds were elevated further by UV-B radiation. In conclusion, acclimation to UV-B radiation involves co-protection from the effects of visible light, and responses to UV-B radiation at a photosynthetic level may not be consistently viewed as damaging to plant development.

  17. "UV-olution, a photochemistry experiment in Low Earth Orbit": investigation of the photostability of carboxylic acids exposed to Mars surface UV radiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Macari, Frederique; Raulin, Francois; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Hervé

    The detection and identification of organics at Mars are necessary to establish the existence of a possible ancient prebiotic chemistry or even a biological activity. Excepted methane, no organic matter was detected. The harsh environmental conditions on the surface could explain this non detection but only rare studies tested this hypothesis. To investigate the nature, abundance, and stability of organics that could survive under such conditions, we exposed in low Earth orbit organic molecules with martian astrobiological relevance to solar UV radiation ¿ 200 nm during 12 days, during the UVolution experiment, onboard the BIOPAN ESA module which was set outside a Russian Foton capsule. We also studied the photostability of these molecules in laboratory. Indeed we developed a laboratory experiment, MOMIE (Martian Organic Material Irradiation and Evolution) in order to investigate the behaviour of material related to Mars under UV radiation. The targeted molecules (AIB, mellitic, phthalic and trimesic acids) have been exposed with and without an analogous martian soil. Here, we present results with regard to the impact of solar UV radiation on the targeted molecules. Our results show that no sample seems to resist to UVs if directly exposed to them. Moreover, the presence of a mineral matrix seems to increases the photodestruction rate. These molecules should then not be considered as primary targets for in situ molecular analyses during future surface missions if samples are only collected at the top of the surface.

  18. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on plant chemistry: nutritional consequences for a specialist and generalist lagomorph.

    PubMed

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Fellman, John K; Mattison, D Scott; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been increasing in temperate latitudes in recent decades and is expected to continue rising for some time. Enhanced UV-B radiation can change plant chemistry, yet the effects of these changes on mammalian herbivores are unknown. To examine the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation on nutrition of a specialist and generalist hindgut fermenter, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of three common North American range plants, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoregneria spicata), and how these changes influenced in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vivo digestibility by pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) and eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus). Forages were irradiated for 3 mo with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, WA, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal effects on the nutritional content and the tannin-binding capacity of forages. Similarly, the terpene concentration in sagebrush and yarrow was not affected by higher UV-B irradiances. Flavonoid compounds increased in sagebrush but decreased in yarrow. Rabbit preference and intake was not affected by treatment levels for any forage species and no differences were found between treatments for dry matter, fiber, protein digestibility, and apparent digestible energy. PMID:17406969

  19. [Effects of UV-radiation on biological characteristics of different body-color biotypes of Sitobion avenae (Fab.)].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Kang, Ju-Xia; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Li, Dong-Hong

    2009-04-01

    UV-radiation exerts strong selection stress on the evolution of aphid populations, and thus, leads to their genetic differentiation. However, the effects of UV-radiation on different body-color biotypes of aphids are still ambiguous. In this study, new-born nymphae of red and green biotypes of Sitobion avenae were placed on two wheat varieties (Xiaoyan-22 and Astron), bred in an artificial bioclimatic chamber under strict controlled conditions (at 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 25 degrees C, and treated with 30 W lamp of UV-B for 30 min per day for 5 days), and their development duration, mass, and mean relative growth rate were measured. The results showed that at lower temperature, UV-radiation delayed the growth of green biotype aphid on Xiaoyan-22 and Astron significantly; while at higher temperature, UV-radiation significantly delayed the growth of red biotype aphid on Xiaoyan-22, but had lesser effects on the growth of the two biotypes on Astron, illustrating that different biotypes of aphids had different responses to UV-radiation, and the responses were correlated to temperature and wheat varieties.

  20. AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K. X.

    2011-05-31

    This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

  1. Electric discharge in water as a source of UV radiation, ozone and hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anpilov, A. M.; Barkhudarov, E. M.; Bark, Yu B.; Zadiraka, Yu V.; Christofi, M.; Kozlov, Yu N.; Kossyi, I. A.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Silakov, V. P.; Taktakishvili, M. I.; Temchin, S. M.

    2001-03-01

    Results are presented from investigations of multispark electric discharge in water excited along multielectrode metal-dielectric systems with gas supply into the interelectrode gaps. The intensity distribution of discharge radiation in the region covering the biologically active soft UV (190≤λ≤430 nm) has been determined and the absolute number of quanta in this wavelength interval has been measured. The potentiality of the slipping surface discharge in water for its disinfection is analysed. The energy expenditure for water cleansing is estimated to be as low as ~10-4 kWh l-1.

  2. Nonlinear cellular dynamics of keratinocytes in normal and psoriatic epidermis under action of UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolnitz, Mikhail M.; Medvedev, Boris A.; Gribko, Tatyana V.

    2004-05-01

    The semi-phenomenological model of epidermal cell dynamics is submitted. The model takes into account three types of basal layer keratinocytes (stem, transient amplifying, terminally differentiated), distribution of first two types cells on mitotic cycle stages and resting states, keratinocytes-lymphocytes interactions that provide a positive feedback loop, influence of more differentiated cells on their progenitors that provide a negative feedback loop. Simplified model are developed and its stationary solutions are received. The opportunity of interpretation of some received modes as corresponding to various stages of psoriasis is discussed. Influence of UV-radiation on transitions between various modes of epidermis functioning is qualitatively analyzed.

  3. HAZMAT II: Modeling the Evolution of Extreme-UV Radiation from M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis S.; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2015-01-01

    M dwarf stars make up nearly 75% of the Milky Way's stellar population. Due to their low luminosities, the habitable zones around these stars are very close in (~0.1-0.4 AU), increasing the probability of finding terrestrial planets located in these regions. While there is evidence that stars emit their highest levels of far and near ultraviolet (FUV; NUV) radiation in the earliest stages of their evolution while planets are simultaneously forming and accumulating their atmospheres, we are currently unable to directly measure the extreme UV radiation (EUV). High levels of EUV radiation can alter the abundance of important molecules such as H2O, changing the chemistry in extrasolar planet atmospheres. Most previous stellar atmosphere models under-predict FUV and EUV emission from M dwarfs; here we present new models for M stars that include prescriptions for the hot, lowest density, atmospheric layers (chromosphere, transition region and corona), from which this radiation is emitted. By comparing our model spectra to GALEX near and far ultraviolet fluxes, we are able to predict the evolution of EUV radiation for M dwarfs from 10 Myr - 1 Gyr. This research is the next major step in the HAZMAT (HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time) project to analyze how the habitable zone evolves with the evolving properties of stellar and planetary atmospheres.

  4. [Effect of UV Light Radiation on the Coagulation of Chlorella and Its Mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-dong; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Hong-bin; Liu, Guo-qi

    2016-01-15

    Considering algae were difficult to be effectively removed in conventional water treatment process, UV radiation was used to enhance the coagulation of algae in this study. The results showed that with the increase of radiation time, the removal rates of both algae and turbidity experienced a decrease after an increase, and reached their maximum values at 50 min. When the dosage of PAC was 5 mg x L(-1), the removal rates of algae and turbidity of the radiated sample were 20.1% and 18% higher than the blank sample, respectively. When pH ranged from 6 to 9, the coagulation efficiency varied little. At pH 8 and with a radiation time of 50 min, the removal rates of algae and turbidity reached 93.5% and 90.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the Zeta potential reached the maximum, and the algae generated extracellular organic matter, which favored the subsequent coagulation. After radiated for 60 min, the algal cells was destroyed, leading to a release of intracellular organic matter into the solution. Accordingly, the Zeta potential decreased, which had a negative effect on the subsequent coagulation process. PMID:27078957

  5. In vitro recombination of bacteriophage T7 DNA damaged by UV radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Masker, W E; Kuemmerle, N B

    1980-01-01

    A system capable of in vitro packaging of exogenous bacteriophage T7 DNA has been used to monitor the biological activity of DNA replicated in vitro. This system has been used to follow the effects of UV radiation on in vitro replication and recombination. During the in vitro replication process, a considerable exchange of genetic information occurs between T7 DNA molecules present in the reaction mixture. This in vitro recombination is reflected in the genotype of the T7 phage produced after in vitro encapsulation; depending on the genetic markers selected, recombinants can comprise nearly 20% of the total phage production. When UV-irradiated DNA is incubated in this system, the amount of in vitro synthesis is reduced and the total amount of viable phage produced after in vitro packaging is diminished. In vitro recombination rates are also lower when the participating DNA molecules have been exposed to UV. However, biochemical and genetic measurements confirmed that there is little or no transfer of pyrimidine dimers from irradiated DNA into undamaged molecules. PMID:6245236

  6. Effects of the interaction between genetic diversity and UV-B radiation on wood frog fitness.

    PubMed

    Weyrauch, Shauna L; Grubb, Thomas C

    2006-06-01

    Genetic diversity may buffer amphibian populations against environmental vicissitudes. We hypothesized that wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)from populations with lower genetic diversity are more susceptible to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation than those from populations with higher diversity. We used RAPD markers to obtain genetic diversity estimates for 12 wood frog populations. We reared larval wood frogs from these populations and exposed experimental groups of eggs and larvae to one of three treatments: unfiltered sunlight, sunlight filtered through a UM-B-blocking filter (Mylar), and sunlight filtered through a UV-B-transmitting filter (acetate). In groups exposed to UVB, larval mortality and deformity rates increased significantly, but egg mortality did not. We found a significant negative relationship between genetic diversity and egg mortality, larval mortality, and deformity rates. Furthermore, the interaction between UV-B treatment and genetic diversity significantly affected larval mortality. Populations with low genetic diversity experienced higher larval mortality rates when exposed to UVB than did populations with high genetic diversity. This is the first time an interaction between genetic diversity and an environmental stressor has been documented in amphibians. Differences in genetic diversity among populations, coupled with environmental stressors, may help explain patterns of amphibian decline. PMID:16909573

  7. UV-CD12: synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamline at ANKA

    PubMed Central

    Bürck, Jochen; Roth, Siegmar; Windisch, Dirk; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Moss, David; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a rapidly growing technique for structure analysis of proteins and other chiral biomaterials. UV-CD12 is a high-flux SRCD beamline installed at the ANKA synchrotron, to which it had been transferred after the closure of the SRS Daresbury. The beamline covers an extended vacuum-UV to near-UV spectral range and has been open for users since October 2011. The current end-station allows for temperature-controlled steady-state SRCD spectroscopy, including routine automated thermal scans of microlitre volumes of water-soluble proteins down to 170 nm. It offers an excellent signal-to-noise ratio over the whole accessible spectral range. The technique of oriented circular dichroism (OCD) was recently implemented for determining the membrane alignment of α-helical peptides and proteins in macroscopically oriented lipid bilayers as mimics of cellular membranes. It offers improved spectral quality <200 nm compared with an OCD setup adapted to a bench-top instrument, and accelerated data collection by a factor of ∼3. In addition, it permits investigations of low hydrated protein films down to 130 nm using a rotatable sample cell that avoids linear dichroism artifacts. PMID:25931105

  8. Relative ultraviolet spectral intensity of direct solar radiation, sky radiation and surface reflections. Relative contribution of natural sources to the outdoor UV irradiation of man.

    PubMed

    Kromann, N; Wulf, H C; Eriksen, P; Brodthagen, H

    1986-04-01

    Relative measurements of UVA and UVB radiation from the sun and the sky, as well as the reflected intensity from various land and water surfaces, have been carried out in the Copenhagen area. The measurements were taken in January and in the period April through July and supplemented by measurements in Greenland during May. Likewise, the angular distribution of direct solar radiation and sky radiation close to the direction of the sun was measured with a 0.5 degree field of view. Absolute UV irradiances were measured with detector-filter combinations. Calculations of the relative contributions of direct solar radiation, sky radiation and reflected radiation to the irradiation of a standing person show, in particular, that if seawater with waves is the surrounding scene, its reflected radiation will account for more than 10% of the received UV dose.

  9. Hope and challenge: the importance of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Reichrath, Jörg; Reichrath, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation is the most important environmental risk factor for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (most importantly basal and squamous cell carcinomas), that represent the most common malignancies in Caucasian populations. To prevent these malignancies, public health campaigns were developed to improve the awareness of the general population of the role of UV-radiation. The requirements of vitamin D is mainly achieved by UV-B-induced cutaneous photosynthesis, and the vitamin D-mediated positive effects of UV-radiation were not always adequately considered in these campaigns; a strict "no sun policy" might lead to vitamin D-deficiency. This dilemma represents a serious problem in many populations, for an association of vitamin D-deficiency and multiple independent diseases has been convincingly demonstrated. It is crucial that guidelines for UV-exposure (e.g. in skin cancer prevention campaigns) consider these facts and give recommendations how to prevent vitamin D-deficiency. In this review, we analyze the present literature to help developing well-balanced guidelines on UV-protection that ensure an adequate vitamin D-status without increasing the risk to develop UV-induced skin cancer.

  10. DNA damage and altered gene expression in cultured human skin fibroblasts exposed to 193-nm excimer laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samid, Dvorit; Flessate, Denise M.; Miller, Alexandra C.; Rimoldi, Donata

    1990-06-01

    Tissue ablation using 193nm excimer lasers is being considered for a variety of surgical procedures, yet little is known regarding the potential mutagenic risk to human cells. The effects of sublethal doses of radiation on cellular DNA and gene expression have been examined in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Northern blot analysis of mRNA revealed an increase in the levels of the c-f. proto-oncogene, interstitial collagenase, and metallothionein transcripts after laser radiation at either 193nm or 248nm. Similar changes in gene expression have been previously observed in cells treated with different carcinogens, including classical UV light (254nm) and phorbol esters. In contrast to the conventional UV light or laser radiation at 248nm, the 193nm radiation did not cause significant pyrimidine dimer formation, as determined by measurements of unscheduled DNA synthesis. However, both 193nm and 248nm radiation induced micronuclei formation, indicative of chromosome breakage. These data indicate that exposure of actively replicating human skin cells to sublethal doses of 193nm laser radiation may result in molecular changes associated with carcinogenesis.

  11. A comparative study of the bactericidal activity and daily disinfection housekeeping surfaces by a new portable pulsed UV radiation device.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Miyachi, Hayato

    2012-06-01

    Daily cleaning and disinfecting of non-critical surfaces in the patient-care areas are known to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. However, the conventional means for decontamination of housekeeping surfaces of sites of frequent hand contact such as manual disinfection using ethanol wipes are laborious and time-consuming in daily practice. This study evaluated a newly developed portable pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation device for its bactericidal activity in comparison with continuous UV-C, and investigated its effect on the labor burden when implemented in a hospital ward. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were irradiated with pulsed UV or continuous UV-C. Pulsed UV and continuous UV-C required 5 and 30 s of irradiation, respectively, to attain bactericidal activity with more than 2Log growth inhibition of all the species. The use of pulsed UV in daily disinfection of housekeeping surfaces reduced the working hours by half in comparison to manual disinfection using ethanol wipes. The new portable pulsed UV radiation device was proven to have a bactericidal activity against critical nosocomial bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria after short irradiation, and was thus found to be practical as a method for disinfecting housekeeping surfaces and decreasing the labor burden.

  12. Involvement of cathepsin B in mitochondrial apoptosis by p-phenylenediamine under ambient UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shruti; Amar, Saroj Kumar; Dubey, Divya; Pal, Manish Kumar; Singh, Jyoti; Verma, Ankit; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2015-12-30

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD), a derivative of paranitroaniline has been most commonly used as an ingredient of oxidative hair dye and permanent tattoos. We have studied the phototoxic potential of PPD under ambient ultraviolet radiation. PPD is photodegraded and form a novel photoproduct under UV A exposure. PPD shows a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability of human Keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) through MTT and NRU test. Significant intracellular ROS generation was measured by DCFDA assay. It caused an oxidative DNA damage via single stranded DNA breaks, micronuclei and CPD formation. Both lysosome and mitochondria is main target for PPD induced apoptosis which was proved through lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot analysis. Cathepsin B process BID to active tBID which induces the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. Mitochondrial depolarization was reported through transmission electron microscopy. The cathepsin inhibitor reduced the release of cytochrome C in PPD treated cells. Thus study suggests that PPD leads to apoptosis via the involvement of lysosome and mitochondria both under ambient UV radiation. Therefore, photosensitizing nature of hair dye ingredients should be tested before coming to market as a cosmetic product for the safety of human beings. PMID:26223015

  13. Energy Thresholds of DNA Damage Induced by UV Radiation: An XPS Study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P J; Ferraria, A M; Botelho do Rego, A M; Hoffmann, S V; Ribeiro, P A; Raposo, M

    2015-04-30

    This work stresses on damage at the molecular level caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV) in the range from 3.5 to 8 eV, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) films observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Detailed quantitative XPS analysis, in which all the amounts are relative to sodium-assumed not to be released from the samples, of the carbon, oxygen, and particularly, nitrogen components, reveals that irradiation leads to sugar degradation with CO-based compounds release for energies above 6.9 eV and decrease of nitrogen groups which are not involved in hydrogen bonding at energies above 4.2 eV. Also the phosphate groups are seen to decrease to energies above 4.2 eV. Analysis of XPS spectra allowed to conclude that the damage on bases peripheral nitrogen atoms are following the damage on phosphates. It suggests that very low kinetic energy photoelectrons are ejected from the DNA bases, as a result of UV light induced breaking of the phosphate ester groups which forms a transient anion with resonance formation and whereby most of the nitrogen DNA peripheral groups are removed. The degree of ionization of DNA was observed to increase with radiation energy, indicating that the ionized phosphate groups are kept unchanged. This result was interpreted by the shielding of phosphate groups caused by water molecules hydration near sodium atoms. PMID:25844940

  14. Low-temperature low-damage sterilization based on UV radiation through plasma immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, J.; Moisan, M.; Kéroack, D.; Boudam, M. K.

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduces a new type of high-frequency (HF) sustained discharge where the HF field applicator is a planar transmission line that allows us to fill with plasma a long chamber of rectangular cross-section (typically 1 m × 15 cm × 5 cm). Peculiar interesting features of this plasma source are a low gas temperature (typically below 40 °C in the 1 Torr range in argon), broadband impedance matching with no need for retuning, stability and reproducibility of the discharge (non-resonant behaviour). This type of plasma source could be useful for web processing; nonetheless, it is applied here to plasma sterilization, taking advantage of its low gas temperature to inactivate microorganisms on polymer-made medical devices to avoid damaging them. The predominant biocide species are the UV photons emitted by the discharge whereas most plasma sterilization techniques call for reactive species such as O atoms and OH molecules, which induce significant erosion damage on polymers. Polystyrene microspheres are actually observed to be erosion-free under the current plasma sterilization conditions (scanning electron micrographs have been examined). Moreover, inactivation is quite fast: 106 B. atrophaeus spores deposited on a Petri dish are inactivated in less than 1 min. Correlation of the UV radiation with the spore inactivation rate is examined by (i) considering the emitted light intensity integrated over the 112-180 nm vacuum UV (VUV) range with a photomultiplier; (ii) looking with an optical spectrometer at the emission spectrum over the 200-400 nm UV range; (iii) using absorption spectroscopy to determine the role of the VUV argon resonant lines (105 and 107 nm) on spore inactivation. It is found that the test-reference spores are mainly inactivated by VUV photons (112-180 nm) that are primarily emitted by impurities present in the argon plasma.

  15. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujanpää, J.; Kalakoski, N.

    2015-10-01

    The surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument aboard EUMETSAT's polar orbiting meteorological operational (Metop) satellites. Cloud cover is taken into account by retrieving cloud optical depth from the channel 1 reflectance of the third Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3) instrument aboard both Metop in the morning orbit and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the afternoon orbit. In addition, more overpasses are used at high latitudes where the swaths of consecutive orbits overlap. The input satellite data are received from EUMETSAT's Multicast Distribution System (EUMETCast). The surface UV product includes daily maximum dose rates and integrated daily doses with different biological weighting functions, integrated ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, solar noon UV index and daily maximum photolysis frequencies of ozone and nitrogen dioxide at the surface level. The quantities are computed in a 0.5°×0.5° regular latitude-longitude grid and stored as daily files in the hierarchical data format (HDF5) within 2 weeks from sensing. The product files are archived in the O3M SAF distributed archive and can be ordered via the EUMETSAT Data Centre.

  16. [Effects of silicon supply on rice growth and methane emission from paddy soil under elevated UV-B radiation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan; Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Cui, He-yang; Wang, Wei-qing

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon supply on rice growth and methane (CH4) emission in paddy field under elevated UV-B radiation. The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient UV-B (ambient, A) and elevated UV-B radiation (elevated by 20%, E) ; with four silicon supply levels, i.e., Si0 (control, without silicon), Si2 (as sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si2 (as sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 hm-2) and Si3 (as slag fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 . hm-2). The results indicated that, silicon supply obviously alleviated the depressive effect of elevated UV-B radiation on rice growth, and increased the tiller numbers, chlorophyll content, and shoot and root dry masses. Silicon supply promoted rice growth, which increased with the silicon supply level (sodium silicate). Slag fertilizer was better than*sodium silicate in promoting rice growth. CH4 flux and accumulated CH4emission were obviously increased by elevated UV-B radiation, but significantly decreased by silicon application. CH4 emission was reduced with increasing the silicon supply level. Under the same silicon supply level, slag fertilizer was better than sodium silicate in inhibiting CH4 flux and accumulated CH4 emission. This research suggested that fertilizing slag in rice production was helpful not only in utilizing industrial wastes, but also in significantly mitigating CH4 emissions in rice paddy under elevated UV-B radiation.

  17. [Physiological responses of 2-year-old Acer davidii seedings to short-term enhanced UV-B radiation].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yuanyuan; Liu, Qing; Lin, Bo; He, Hai

    2005-09-01

    At the Maoxian Ecological Experimental Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences in northwest Sichuan Province, 2-year-old native maple(Acer davidii) seedlings were potted outdoors with enhanced UV-B radiation(280 - 320 nm) of 0.27 W x m(-2) (7.7 kJ x m(-2) x d(-1)), which was approximated to the predicted enhanced UV-B reaching the earth surface when stratosphere ozone was depleted by 15% in the local area, with the control plant received ambient UV-B. The gas exchange index and chlorophyll fluorescence, and the contents of chlorophyll and UV-absorbing compounds were examined after 50 days of the radiation. The results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation significantly lowered the maximal net photosynthetic rate (CK = 6.214, TR = 4.452), raised the dark respiration rate(CK = 0.413, TR = 1.295) and light compensation point (CK = 21.629, TR = 59.861), but had little effect on quantum yield (CK = 0.021, TR = 0.032). Under enhanced UV-B radiation, the diurnal changes in net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, quantum efficiency of photosystem II centers (Fv/Fm), and quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (phi(pspi)) were reduced, chlorophyll a, total chlorophylls, and chlorophyll a/b (CK= 16.23, 5.39, TR = 13.17, 4.93) were also markedly reduced, but chlorophyll b remained nearly unchanged. Contrary to the previous studies, enhanced UV-B radiation decreased the content of UV-absorbing compounds (CK = 0.87, TR = 0.79) in 2-year-old Acer davidii seedling leaves, indicating that the measurement of leaf UV-B absorbing compounds didn't necessarily provide a good indicator of plant tolerance to UV-B. It could be concluded that enhanced UV-B radiation had some inhibitory effects on the photosynthesis of Acer davidii seedlings. Long-term researches are necessary to confirm this conclusion.

  18. Integration and scaling of UV-B radiation effects on plants: from molecular interactions to whole plant responses.

    PubMed

    Suchar, Vasile Alexandru; Robberecht, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    A process based model integrating the effects of UV-B radiation to molecular level processes and their consequences to whole plant growth and development was developed from key parameters in the published literature. Model simulations showed that UV-B radiation induced changes in plant metabolic and/or photosynthesis rates can result in plant growth inhibitions. The costs of effective epidermal UV-B radiation absorptive compounds did not result in any significant changes in plant growth, but any associated metabolic costs effectively reduced the potential plant biomass. The model showed significant interactions between UV-B radiation effects and temperature and any factor leading to inhibition of photosynthetic production or plant growth during the midday, but the effects were not cumulative for all factors. Vegetative growth were significantly delayed in species that do not exhibit reproductive cycles during a growing season, but vegetative growth and reproductive yield in species completing their life cycle in one growing season did not appear to be delayed more than 2-5 days, probably within the natural variability of the life cycles for many species. This is the first model to integrate the effects of increased UV-B radiation through molecular level processes and their consequences to whole plant growth and development. PMID:27547319

  19. Reduction of Solar UV Radiation Due to Urban High-Rise Buildings – A Coupled Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Yu, Peter K. N.; Lam, Ka-Se

    2015-01-01

    Solar UV radiation has both adverse and beneficial effects to human health. Using models (a radiative transfer model coupled to a building shading model), together with satellite and surface measurements, we studied the un-obstructed and obstructed UV environments in a sub-tropical urban environment featured with relatively high pollution (aerosol) loadings and high-rise buildings. Seasonal patterns of the erythemal UV exposure rates were governed by solar zenith angles, seasonal variations of aerosol loadings and cloud effects. The radiative transfer modelling results agreed with measurements of erythemal UV exposure rates and spectral irradiances in UVA and UVB ranges. High-rise buildings and narrow road width (height to width, H/W, ratios up to 15) reduced the modelled total UV (UVA+UVB) radiation and leave 10% of the un-obstructed exposure rate at ground-level at noon. No more than 80% of the un-obstructed exposure rate was received in the open area surrounded by 20-storey buildings. Our modelled reduction of UVB radiation in the urban environment was consistent with similar measurements obtained for Australia. However, our results in more extreme environments (higher H/W ratios) were for the first time reported, with 18% of the un-obstructed exposure rate remained at the ground-level center of the street canyon. PMID:26263507

  20. Monitoring ultraviolet (UV) radiation inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in dry infant formula using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan; Swanson, Barry G; Rasco, Barbara A; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with dry infant formula presenting a high risk to low birth weight neonates. The inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula by ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone and combined with hot water treatment at temperatures of 55, 60, and 65 °C were applied in this study. UV radiation with doses in a range from 12.1 ± 0.30 kJ/m² to 72.8 ± 1.83 kJ/m² at room temperature demonstrated significant inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula (P < 0.05). UV radiation combining 60 °C hot water treatment increased inactivation of C. sakazakii cells significantly (P < 0.05) in reconstituted infant formula. Significant effects of UV radiation on C. sakazakii inactivation kinetics (D value) were not observed in infant formula reconstituted in 55 and 65 °C water (P > 0.05). The inactivation mechanism was investigated using vibrational spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy detected significant stretching mode changes of macromolecules on the basis of spectral features, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Minor changes on cell membrane composition of C. sakazakii under UV radiation could be accurately and correctly monitored by infrared spectroscopy coupled with 2nd derivative transformation and principal component analysis.

  1. Solar UV-radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer surveillance in organ transplant recipients (OTRs).

    PubMed

    Reichrath, Jörg; Nürnberg, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of organ transplantation in clinical medicine has resulted in a constantly increasing, large population of patients that are chronically on immunosuppressive medication. It is well known that skin cancer, especially SCC, in this population has higher incidence rates, behaves more aggressively and has higher rates of metastasis. OTRs who have been treated for many years with immunosuppressive medication are at the highest risk for developing malignant skin tumors. Therefore, the intensity of surveillance for cutaneous lesions is of high importance in OTRs. A full-body skin exam at least once a year and more frequently if skin cancer or precancerous cutaneous lesions develop is recommended. Clinicians should not hesitate to biopsy or to surgically excise any suspicious skin lesion. Of high importance is also the education of OTRs about their increased risk. Protection against solar and artificial UV-radiation and monthly self-examinations are good ways to prevent and to recognize any new suspicious skin lesions. Patients are advised to always wear solar UV-radiation protection (e.g., clothing, sunscreen) before going outdoors. However, investigations have revealed that solar UV-B-exposure and serum 25(OH)D levels positively correlate with decreased risk for various internal malignancies (e.g., breast, colon, prostate and ovarian cancer) and other severe diseases. As we have shown previously, renal transplant recipients are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency. A sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF)-8 reduces the skin's production of vitamin D by 95%. Clothing completely blocks all solar UVB-radiation and this prevents any vitamin D production. Therefore, it is important to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency in solid organ transplant recipients. Optimal management of these patients requires communication between the transplant teams and the treating dermatologist and other clinicians. For advanced or metastatic disease, collaboration

  2. Spore UV and acceleration resistance of endolithic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis isolates obtained from Sonoran desert basalt: implications for lithopanspermia.

    PubMed

    Benardini, James N; Sawyer, John; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial spores have been used as model systems for studying the theory of interplanetary transport of life by natural processes such as asteroidal or cometary impacts (i.e., lithopanspermia). Because current spallation theory predicts that near-surface rocks are ideal candidates for planetary ejection and surface basalts are widely distributed throughout the rocky planets, we isolated spore-forming bacteria from the interior of near-subsurface basalt rocks collected in the Sonoran desert near Tucson, Arizona. Spores were found to inhabit basalt at very low concentrations (254-nm UV and ballistics tests in order to assess their resistance to UV radiation and to extreme acceleration shock, two proposed lethal factors for spores during interplanetary transfer. Specific natural isolates of B. pumilus were found to be substantially more resistant to UV and extreme acceleration than were reference laboratory strains of B. subtilis, the benchmark organism, suggesting that spores of environmental B. pumilus isolates may be more likely to survive the rigors of interplanetary transfer.

  3. Study of cloud enhanced surface UV radiation at the atmospheric observatory of Southern Patagonia, Río Gallegos, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, Elian A.; Salvador, Jacobo; Orte, Facundo; Bulnes, Daniela; D'Elia, Raul; Antón, Manuel; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Quel, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    Ozone and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are two important issues in the study of Earth's atmosphere. The anthropogenic perturbation of the ozone layer has induced change in the amount of UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, mainly through the Antarctic ozone hole. Also clouds have been identified as the main modulator of UV amount over short time scales. While clouds can decrease direct radiation, they can produce an increase in the diffuse component, and as a consequence the surface UV radiation may be higher than during an equivalent clear sky scenario. In particular this situation can be important when a low ozone column and partially cloud coverered skies occur simultaneously. These situations happen frequently in southern Patagonia, where the CEILAP Lidar Division has established the Atmospheric Observatory of Southern Patagonia, an atmospheric remote sensing site near the city of Río Gallegos (51°55'S, 69°14'W). In this paper, the impact of clouds on UV radiation is investigated by the use of ground based measurements from the passive remote sensing instruments operating at this site, mainly broad and moderate narrow band filter radiometers. Cloud modification factors (CMF, ratio between the measured UV radiation in a cloudy sky and the simulated radiation under cloud-free conditions) are evaluated for the study site. CMFs higher than 1 are found during spring and summer time, when lower total ozone columns, higher solar elevations and high cloud cover occur simultaneously, producing extreme erythemal irradiance at the ground surface. Enhancements as high as 25% were registered. The maximum duration of the enhancement was around 30 minutes. This produces dangerous sunbathing conditions for the Río Gallegos citizen.

  4. Self-Assembly of Oligosaccharide-b-PMMA Block Copolymer Systems: Glyco-Nanoparticles and Their Degradation under UV Exposure.

    PubMed

    Zepon, Karine M; Otsuka, Issei; Bouilhac, Cécile; Muniz, Edvani C; Soldi, Valdir; Borsali, Redouane

    2016-05-10

    This paper discusses the self-assembly of oligosaccharide-containing block copolymer and the use of ultraviolet (UV) to obtain nanoporous glyco-nanoparticles by photodegradation of the synthetic polymer block. Those glyco-nanoparticles consisting of oligosaccharide-based shell and a photodegradable core domain were obtained from the self-assembly of maltoheptaose-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (MH-b-PMMA48) using the nanoprecipitation protocol. MH-b-PMMA48 self-assembled into well-defined spherical micelles (major compound) with a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of ca. 10 nm and also into large compound micellar aggregates (minor compound) with an Rh of ca. 65 nm. The oligosaccharide shells of these glyco-nanoparticles were cross-linked through the Michael-type addition of divinyl sulfone under dilute conditions to minimize the intermicellar cross-linking. The core domain photodegradation of the cross-linked glyco-nanoparticles was induced under exposure to 254 nm UV radiation, resulting in porous glyco-nanoparticles with an Rh of ca. 44 nm. The morphology of the cross-linked shell and the core photodegradation of these glyco-nanoparticles were characterized using static light scattering, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, field-emission gun-scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The innovative aspect of this approach concerns the fact that after removing the PMMA domains the porous nanoparticles are mostly composed of biocompatible and nontoxic oligosaccharides. PMID:27054350

  5. Self-Assembly of Oligosaccharide-b-PMMA Block Copolymer Systems: Glyco-Nanoparticles and Their Degradation under UV Exposure.

    PubMed

    Zepon, Karine M; Otsuka, Issei; Bouilhac, Cécile; Muniz, Edvani C; Soldi, Valdir; Borsali, Redouane

    2016-05-10

    This paper discusses the self-assembly of oligosaccharide-containing block copolymer and the use of ultraviolet (UV) to obtain nanoporous glyco-nanoparticles by photodegradation of the synthetic polymer block. Those glyco-nanoparticles consisting of oligosaccharide-based shell and a photodegradable core domain were obtained from the self-assembly of maltoheptaose-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (MH-b-PMMA48) using the nanoprecipitation protocol. MH-b-PMMA48 self-assembled into well-defined spherical micelles (major compound) with a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of ca. 10 nm and also into large compound micellar aggregates (minor compound) with an Rh of ca. 65 nm. The oligosaccharide shells of these glyco-nanoparticles were cross-linked through the Michael-type addition of divinyl sulfone under dilute conditions to minimize the intermicellar cross-linking. The core domain photodegradation of the cross-linked glyco-nanoparticles was induced under exposure to 254 nm UV radiation, resulting in porous glyco-nanoparticles with an Rh of ca. 44 nm. The morphology of the cross-linked shell and the core photodegradation of these glyco-nanoparticles were characterized using static light scattering, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, field-emission gun-scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The innovative aspect of this approach concerns the fact that after removing the PMMA domains the porous nanoparticles are mostly composed of biocompatible and nontoxic oligosaccharides.

  6. An enhancing effect of visible light and UV radiation on phenolic compounds and various antioxidants in broad bean seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Hasaneen, Mohammed Naguib Abdel-Ghany; Abdel-Aziz, Heba Mahmoud Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of dark- or ambient visible light-grown broad bean seedlings to low (LL) and high (HL) visible light intensities, UV-A or UV-C, either alone or in combination, induced significant increases in total phenolic compounds as well as in anthocyanins content, throughout the germination period, as compared with the respective levels in control seedlings. In general, as compared with control levels, exposure of both dark- or light-grown broad bean seedlings to LL, HL, UV-A or UV-C, induced significant increases in the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (total ascorbate; ASA-DASA and total glutathione; GSSG-GSH) and enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase; SOD, catalase; CAT, ascorbate peroxidase; APO and glutathione reductase; GR). The obtained results are discussed in relation to induced mechanisms of protection and repair from the inevitable exposure to damaging visible light and UV radiation. PMID:20505357

  7. Latitudinal variation in ambient UV-B radiation is an important determinant of Lolium perenne forage production, quality, and digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Comont, David; Winters, Ana; Gomez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Few studies to date have considered the responses of agriculturally important forage grasses to UV-B radiation. Yet grasses such as Lolium perenne have a wide current distribution, representing exposure to a significant variation in ambient UV-B. The current study investigated the responses of L. perenne (cv. AberDart) to a simulated latitudinal gradient of UV-B exposure, representing biologically effective UV-B doses at simulated 70, 60, 50, 40, and 30° N latitudes. Aspects of growth, soluble compounds, and digestibility were assessed, and results are discussed in relation to UV-B effects on forage properties and the implications for livestock and bio-ethanol production. Aboveground biomass production was reduced by approximately 12.67% with every 1 kJ m–2 day–1 increase in biologically weighted UV-B. As a result, plants grown in the highest UV-B treatment had a total biomass of just 13.7% of controls. Total flavonoids were increased by approximately 76% by all UV-B treatments, while hydroxycinnamic acids increased in proportion to the UV-B dose. Conversely, the digestibility of the aboveground biomass and concentrations of soluble fructans were reduced by UV-B exposure, although soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations were unaffected. These results highlight the capacity for UV-B to directly affect forage productivity and chemistry, with negative consequences for digestibility and bioethanol production. Results emphasize the need for future development and distribution of L. perenne varieties to take UV-B irradiance into consideration. PMID:23580749

  8. In-situ monitoring of biologically active solar UV-B radiation: a new biosensor of vitamin D synthetic capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenetskaya, Irina P.; Gvozdovskyy, I. A.

    2001-06-01

    The new biosensor of vitamin D synthetic capacity of solar/artificial UV-B radiation is based on liquid crystal with provitamin D dopant. Nematic liquid crystals (LC-805, ZLI-1695) are converted into induced cholesteric phase using photosensitive steroid biomolecules of provitamin D3 (7- dehydrocholesterol). During UV exposure remarkable decrease in the number of the Cano-Grandjean stripes has been observed in the wedge-like cell as a result of UV initiated photoisomerization of provitamin D3 that changed helical twisting power of the dopant molecules.

  9. He-Ne laser treatment improves the photosynthetic efficiency of wheat exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huize; Han, Rong

    2014-10-01

    The level of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on the Earth’s surface has increased due to depletion of the ozone layer. Here, we explored the effects of continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation (632 nm, 5 mW mm-2, 2 min d-1) on the physiological indexes of wheat seedlings exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation (10 KJ m-2 d-1) at the early growth stages. Wheat seedlings were irradiated with enhanced UV-B, He-Ne laser treatment or a combination of the two. Enhanced UV-B radiation had deleterious effects on wheat photosynthesis parameters including photosystem II (chlorophyll content, Hill reaction, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, electron transport rate (ETR), and yield), the thylakoid (optical absorption ability, cyclic photophosphorylation, Mg2+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase) and some enzymes in the dark reaction (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), carbonic anhydrase (CA), malic dehydrogenase (MDH), and chlorophyllase). These parameters were improved in UV-B-exposed wheat treated with He-Ne laser irradiation; the parameters were near control levels and the enzyme activities increased, suggesting that He-Ne laser treatment partially alleviates the injury caused by enhanced UV-B irradiation. Furthermore, the use of He-Ne laser alone had a favourable effect on seedling photosynthesis compared with the control. Therefore, He-Ne laser irradiation can enhance the adaptation capacity of crops.

  10. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on growth, stomata, flavonoid, and ABA content in cucumber leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Lizhe; Wang, Jianhui; Liu, Yanhong; Chen, Tuo; Xu, Shijian; Feng, Huyuan; Wang, Xunling

    2003-06-01

    Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinchun No 3) grown in a greenhouse were treated with three different biologically effective ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation levels: 1.28 kJ. m-2 (CK), 8.82kJ.m-2 (T1) and 12.6 kJ. m-2 (T2). Irradiances corresponded to 8% and 21% reduction in stratospheric ozone in Lanzhou. Plants at three-leaf stage were irradiated 7 h daily for 25 days. The growth, stomata, flavonoid and ABA content in cucumber leaves exposed to 3 levels of UV-B radiation were determined in this paper. The results indicated that, compared with the control after 25 days UV-B radiation, RI of cucumber under T1 treatment is -18.0% and RI under T2 treatment is -48% mostly because of the reduce of leave area and dry weight accompanying with the increase of SLW; the rate of stomata closure under the treatments of T1 and T2 on the 6th day was up to respectively 70% and 89%, and amounted to 90% and 100% on the 18th day, and the guard cells in some stomata apparatus became permanent pores and lost their function at the same time; with the duration of UV-B radiation, the rise of the absorbance to ultraviolet light (305nm) showed the content increase of flavonoid; Abscisic acid (ABA) was determined by means of ELISA which showed that under the T1 treatment, the content of ABA was up to maximum to 510% higher than that of the control on the 21st day, meanwhile, under the treatment of T2, it was the highest on the 18th day to 680% of the control, and then had a decrease tendency on 21st day. The result still indicated that ABA accumulation could be induced by enhanced UV-B the radiation. The bigger was the dose of radiation, the higher was the accumulation of ABA. When intensity of UV-B radiation went beyond the degree of endurance of cucumber plants, ABA content descended then. Cucumber plants resist enhanced UV-B radiation by means of improving the contents of ABA and flavonoid. The increase of ABA content in cucumber leaves could lead to the stomata closure. Therefore

  11. Impact of shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation on the antioxidant activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Dogu-Baykut, Esra; Gunes, Gurbuz; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2014-08-15

    Thyme is a good source of antioxidant compounds but it can be contaminated by microorganisms. An experimental fluid bed ultraviolet (UV) reactor was designed for microbial decontamination of thyme samples and the effect of shortwave ultraviolet light (UV-C) radiation on antioxidant properties of thyme was studied. Samples were exposed to UV-C radiation for 16 or 64 min. UV-C treatment led to 1.04 and 1.38 log CFU/g reduction of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) counts. Hunter a(∗) value was the most sensitive colour parameter during UV-C treatment. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of extracts was not significantly affected by UV-C. Addition of thyme extracts at 0.15 and 0.3 μmol GAE/ml emulsion delayed the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and headspace hexanal in the 5.0%(wt) corn oil-in-water emulsion from 4 to 9 and 14 days, respectively. No significant changes in oxidation rates were observed between UV-C treated and untreated samples at same concentrations.

  12. Impact of shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation on the antioxidant activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Dogu-Baykut, Esra; Gunes, Gurbuz; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2014-08-15

    Thyme is a good source of antioxidant compounds but it can be contaminated by microorganisms. An experimental fluid bed ultraviolet (UV) reactor was designed for microbial decontamination of thyme samples and the effect of shortwave ultraviolet light (UV-C) radiation on antioxidant properties of thyme was studied. Samples were exposed to UV-C radiation for 16 or 64 min. UV-C treatment led to 1.04 and 1.38 log CFU/g reduction of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) counts. Hunter a(∗) value was the most sensitive colour parameter during UV-C treatment. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of extracts was not significantly affected by UV-C. Addition of thyme extracts at 0.15 and 0.3 μmol GAE/ml emulsion delayed the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and headspace hexanal in the 5.0%(wt) corn oil-in-water emulsion from 4 to 9 and 14 days, respectively. No significant changes in oxidation rates were observed between UV-C treated and untreated samples at same concentrations. PMID:24679766

  13. Limnoithona sinensis as refuge for bacteria: protection from UV radiation and chlorine disinfection in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Cai, Bo; Chen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we tested the potential of Limnoithona sinensis to provide its attached bacteria refuge against disinfection. The experimental results indicated that in water devoid of zooplankton, both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection significantly decreased the viability of free-living bacteria. In the presence of L. sinensis, however, the attached bacteria could survive and rapidly recover from disinfection. This demonstrated that L. sinensis provided protection from external damage to various aquatic bacteria that were attached to its body. The surviving bacteria remained on L. sinensis after disinfection exposure, which enabled a rapid increase in the bacterial population followed by their subsequent release into the surrounding water. Compared with UV radiation, chlorine disinfection was more effective in terms of inactivating attached bacteria. Both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection had little effect in terms of preventing the spread of undesirable bacteria, due to the incomplete inactivation of the bacteria associated with L. sinensis.

  14. Study of long term effect of Solar UV and X-ray radiation on the VLF signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sanki, Dipak

    2016-07-01

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) is one of the bands of Radio waves having frequencies lying between 3-30 KHz, with wavelengths 100-10 Km. It propagates through the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide which is formed by lower part of the ionosphere and upper part of Earth's surface. Ionosphere is the ionized component of upper atmosphere. In the present work, we have studied the long term effect of the high energy solar UV and X-ray radiation on the VLF signals. We have analyzed the VLF signal transmitted at 24 KHz from NAA (Cutler, Maine) and received at Moore Observatory in Brownsboro, Kentucky. Also we have collected X-ray and UV data to study the long term effect of UV and X-ray radiation on the VLF signal. We have analyzed the VLF signal for 2007 to 2015. We calculate the average diurnal peak amplitude of the VLF signal for each day and compare it with the UV and X-ray solar radiation. We found that the correlation coefficient of diurnal peak VLF signal amplitude with both solar X-ray and UV radiation is 0.7 indicating a strong correlation between these two phenomena.

  15. The response of antioxidant systems in Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation and the protective effects of exogenous antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hu, Chunxiang; Li, Dunhai; Zhang, Delu; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Kun; Liu, Yongding

    UV radiation is one of many harmful factors found in space that are detrimental to organisms on earth in space exploration. In the present work, we examined the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz (Cyanobacterium) and the effects of exogenously applied antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation. It was found that UV-B radiation promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II (PSII) and exogenously applied antioxidant: sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and content of MDA (malondialdehyde) and ASC (ascorbate) were improved by 0.5 mM and 1 mM SNP, but 0.1 mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxidant system. Addition of exogenous NAC decreased the activity of SOD, POD, CAT and the content MDA and ASC. In contrast, exogenously applied NAC increased GSH content. The results suggest that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms: SNP may play double roles as both sources of reactive free radicals as well as ROS scavengers in mediating the protective role of PSII on algae under UV-B radiation. On the other hand, NAC functions as an antioxidant or precursor of glutathione, which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation.

  16. Effect of various conditions on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in fresh-cut lettuce using ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Hee; Jeong, Seul-Gi; Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2013-09-16

    The effect of various conditions on inactivation of foodborne pathogens and quality of fresh-cut lettuce during ultraviolet (254 nm, UVC) radiation was investigated. Lettuce was inoculated with a cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes and treated at different temperatures (4 and 25 °C), distances between sample and lamp (10 and 50 cm), type of exposure (illuminated from one or two sides), UV intensities (1.36 to 6.80 mW/cm²), and exposure times (0.5 to 10 min), sequentially. UV treatment at 25 °C for 1 min achieved 1.45-, 1.35-, and 2.12-log reductions in surface-inoculated E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively, whereas the reduction of these pathogens at 4 °C was 0.31, 0.57, and 1.16 log, respectively. UV radiation was most effective when distance from UV lamp to the sample was minimal (10 cm) and radiation area was maximal (two-sided exposure). All UV intensities significantly (P<0.05) reduced the three pathogens after 10 min exposure, but the effect of treatment was correlated with UV intensity and exposure time. Color values and texture parameters of lettuce subjected to UV treatment under the optimum conditions (25 °C, 10 cm between sample and lamp, two-sided exposure, 6.80 mW/cm²) were not significantly (P>0.05) different from those of nontreated samples up to 5 min exposure. However, these qualities significantly (P<0.05) changed at prolonged treatment time. These results suggest that UV radiation under optimized conditions could reduce foodborne pathogens without adversely affecting color quality properties of fresh-cut lettuce.

  17. Effect of tetracycline and UV radiation on melanization and antioxidant status of melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa; Delijewski, Marcin; Otręba, Michał; Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota

    2015-07-01

    Tetracycline is a semisynthetic antibiotic and is used in several types of infections against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This therapy is often associated with phototoxic reactions that occur after exposure to UV radiation and lead to photo-onycholysis, pseudoporphyria, solar urticaria and the fixed drug eruption in the skin. The phototoxic reactions may be related to the melanin content which, on one side may bind drugs - leading to their accumulation, and on the other side, they have photoprotective and antioxidant properties. In this study the effect of tetracycline and UVA irradiation on cell viability, biosynthesis of melanin and antioxidant defense system in cultured normal human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn-DP) was analyzed. The viability of the cells treated with tetracycline and exposed to UVA radiation decreased in a drug concentration-dependent manner. At the same time, the induction of the melanization process was observed. The significant alterations in antioxidant defense system, on the basis of changes in SOD, CAT and GPx activities, were stated. The obtained results may give explanation for the phototoxic effects of tetracycline therapy observed in skin cells exposed to UVA radiation. PMID:25935746

  18. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on pollen quantity, quality, and seed yield in Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Demchik, S.M.; Day, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    Three experiments examined the influence of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) exposure on reproduction in Brassica rapa (Brassicacaeae). Plants were grown in a greenhouse under three biologically effective UV-B levels that stimulated either an ambient stratospheric ozone level (control), 16% ({open_quotes}low enhanced{close_quotes}), or 32% ({open_quotes}high enhanced{close_quotes}) ozone depletion levels at Morgantown, WV, USA in mid-March. In the first experiment,pollen production and viability per flower were reduced by {approx}50% under both enhanced UV-B levels relative to ambient controls. While plants under high-enhanced UV-B produced over 40% more flowers than plants under the two lower UV-B treatments, whole-plant production of viable pollen was reduced under low-enhanced UV-B to 34% of ambient controls. In the second experiment, the influence of source-plant UV-B exposure on in vitro pollen from plants was examined and whether source-plant UV-B exposure influenced in vitro pollen germination and viability. Pollen from plants under both enhanced-UV-B was reduced from 65 to 18%. Viability of the pollen from plants grown under both enhanced UV-B treatments was reduced to a much lesser extent: only from {approx}43 to 22%. Thus, ambient source-plant pollen was more sensitive to enhanced UV-B levels to fertilize plants growing under ambient-UV-B levels, and assessed subsequent seed production and germination. Seed abortion rates were higher in plants pollinated with pollen from the enhanced UV-B treatments, than from ambient UV-B. Despite this, seed yield (number and mass) per plant was similar, regardless of the UV-B exposure of their pollen source. Our findings demonstrate that enhanced UV-B levels associated with springtime ozone depletion events have the capacity to substantially reduce viable pollen production, and could ultimately reduce reproductive success of B. rapa. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effect of UV Radiation on the Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets Orbiting M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Segura, A.; Linsky, J.; Mohanty, S.

    2015-08-01

    We model the atmospheres and spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting the entire grid of M dwarfs for active and inactive stellar models with Teff = 2300 K to Teff = 3800 K and for six observed MUSCLES M dwarfs with UV radiation data. We set the Earth-like planets at the 1 AU equivalent distance and show spectra from the visible to IR (0.4-20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges with the James Webb Space Telescope and other future ground- and spaced-based missions to characterize exo-Earths. We focus on the effect of UV activity levels on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl. To observe signatures of life—O2/O3 in combination with reducing species like CH4—we find that early and active M dwarfs are the best targets of the M star grid for future telescopes. The O2 spectral feature at 0.76 μm is increasingly difficult to detect in reflected light of later M dwarfs owing to low stellar flux in that wavelength region. N2O, another biosignature detectable in the IR, builds up to observable concentrations in our planetary models around M dwarfs with low UV flux. CH3Cl could become detectable, depending on the depth of the overlapping N2O feature. We present a spectral database of Earth-like planets around cool stars for directly imaged planets as a framework for interpreting future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone to design and assess future telescope capabilities.

  20. EFFECT OF UV RADIATION ON THE SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING M STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Segura, A.; Linsky, J.; Mohanty, S.

    2015-08-10

    We model the atmospheres and spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting the entire grid of M dwarfs for active and inactive stellar models with T{sub eff} = 2300 K to T{sub eff} = 3800 K and for six observed MUSCLES M dwarfs with UV radiation data. We set the Earth-like planets at the 1 AU equivalent distance and show spectra from the visible to IR (0.4–20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges with the James Webb Space Telescope and other future ground- and spaced-based missions to characterize exo-Earths. We focus on the effect of UV activity levels on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 3}Cl. To observe signatures of life—O{sub 2}/O{sub 3} in combination with reducing species like CH{sub 4}—we find that early and active M dwarfs are the best targets of the M star grid for future telescopes. The O{sub 2} spectral feature at 0.76 μm is increasingly difficult to detect in reflected light of later M dwarfs owing to low stellar flux in that wavelength region. N{sub 2}O, another biosignature detectable in the IR, builds up to observable concentrations in our planetary models around M dwarfs with low UV flux. CH{sub 3}Cl could become detectable, depending on the depth of the overlapping N{sub 2}O feature. We present a spectral database of Earth-like planets around cool stars for directly imaged planets as a framework for interpreting future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone to design and assess future telescope capabilities.

  1. The sunburn cell in hairless mouse epidermis: quantitative studies with UV-A radiation and mono- and bifunctional psoralens

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.R.; Magnus, I.A.

    1982-10-01

    The production of the sunburn cell by UV-A radiation and topical psoralens in hairless mouse epidermis has been studied. It has been shown that the appearance of this cell is dependent on the dose of both UV-A radiation and of the psoralen. The time-course with 8-methoxypsoralen has peak sunburn cell numbers at 28 hr postirradiation. A comparison of 2 bifunctional (8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen) and 2 monofunctional (angelicin and 3-carbethoxypsoralen) psoralens showed the former are more potent. This suggests that DNA crosslink lesions may play a rle in sunburn cell production.

  2. Rapid induction of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA) in Nannochloropsis sp. by UV-C radiation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kalpesh; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), provide substantial health benefits. As global fish stocks are declining and in some cases are contaminated with heavy metals, there is a need to find more sustainable land-based sources of these essential fatty acids. The oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis sp. has been identified as a highly efficient producer of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, we present a new process to rapidly induce biosynthesis of essential fatty acids, including EPA in Nannochloropsis sp. BR2. Short exposure to UV-C at a dose of 100 or 250 mJ/cm(2) led to a significant increase in total cellular lipid contents when compared to mock-treated controls. A low dosage of 100 mJ/cm(2) also led to a twofold increase in total EPA content within 24 h that constituted 30% of total fatty acids and up to 12% of total dry weight at higher dosages. UV-C radiation may find uses as an easily applicable external inducer for large-scale production of omega-3 production from microalgae.

  3. Enhanced resistance to UV-B radiation in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanophyceae) by repeated exposure.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongjie; Li, Dunhai

    2014-07-01

    In natural habitats, organisms especially phytoplankton are not always continuously subjected to ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR). By simulation of the natural situation, the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was subjected to UV-B exposure and recovery cycles. A series of morphological and physiological changes were observed in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 under repeated UVBR when compared with controls. Such as the breakage of filaments, intervals between heterocysts, heterocyst frequency, total carbohydrate, and carotenoids were increased, while the nitrogenase activity and photosynthetic activity were inhibited by repeated UVBR; however, these activities could recover when UV-B stress was removed. Unexpectedly, the over-compensatory growth was observed at the end of the second round of exposure and recovery cycle. Our results showed that discontinuous UVBR could increase the growth rate and the tolerance as well as repair capacity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. These results indicate that moderate UVBR may increase the growth of cyanobacteria in natural habitats. PMID:24562674

  4. Environmental- and growth stage-related differences in the susceptibility of terrestrial isopods to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Tourinho, Paula; Ribeiro, Fabianne; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Global environmental changes are nowadays one of the most important issues affecting terrestrial ecosystems. One of its most significant expressions is the increasing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) arising from the human-induced depletion in ozone layer. Therefore, to investigate the effects of UVR on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus a multiple biomarker approach was carried out. Two experiments were performed in order to analyze the importance of the exposure environment and the growth stage on the UV-induced damages. First, adult individuals were exposed to UVR in three exposure environments (soil, soil with leaves, and plaster). Thereafter, three growth stages using soil as the exposure condition were tested. Integrated biomarker responses (IBR) suggested that UV effects were higher in plaster, and mostly identified by changes in acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferases activities, lipid peroxidation rates, and total energy available. The effects in soil and soil with leaves were not so clear. In the growth stages' experiment, juveniles and pre-adults were found to be more affected than adults, with the greatest differences between irradiated and non-irradiated isopods occurring in energy-related parameters. Our findings suggest that soil surface-living macrofauna may be prone to deleterious effects caused by UVR, highlighting the importance of taking the media of exposure and growth stage in account.

  5. Laboratory investigation of electric charging of dust particles by electrons, ions, and UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svestka, Jiri; Pinter, S.; Gruen, E.

    1989-01-01

    In many cosmic environments electric charging of dust particles occurs by electrons, ions, and UV radiation. In case of interstellar dust particles the value of their electric charge can have, for instance, very important consequences for their destruction rate in supernova remnant's shock waves and can globally influence the overall life cycle of dust particles in galaxies. For experimental simulation of charging processes a vacuum chamber was used in which the particles fall through an electron or ion beam of energies up to 10 KeV. The aim of the experiments was to attain maximum charge of dust particles. Furthermore the influence of the rest gas was also determined because electrons and ions produced by collisional ionization of the rest gas can result in significant effects. For measurement particles from 1 to 100 microns from glass, carbon, Al, Fe, MgO, and very loosely bound conglomerates of Al2O3 were used.

  6. Leukotoxicity of pyoverdin, production of reactive oxygen species, and effect of UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Becerra, C; Albesa, I; Eraso, A J

    2001-07-13

    Pyoverdin was purified by solvent extraction, gel filtration, and ionic exchange chromatography. Assays of cytotoxic of pyoverdin were done with human leukocytes and macrophages from the peritoneum of mice. Both cell quantities showed a significant reduction. Death was followed by lysis in a dose-dependent form. The mechanism of action of pyoverdin involved the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT) reaction and chemiluminescence (CL). UV radiation at 368 nm increased the leukotoxicity; expositions of 5 min were enough to photostimulate the effect of pyoverdin on cellular oxydative metabolism, which increased between 35.4 and 53.2%. Genestein, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, counteracted the ROS stimuli of pyoverdin, suggesting endocytic mechanism of action for this pigment. The little chloroquine interference on oxydative stress indicated that intraphagosomal pH and the stimuli of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (RNI) seem to be of less importance than ROS in pyoverdin action on leukocytes. PMID:11444858

  7. Study of the Effect of UV Radiation on the Decomposition of 4-Chloro-2-Methylphenoxyacetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Karetnikova, E. A.; Sokolova, I. V.; Mayer, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    The influence of UV radiation wavelength on the disappearance kinetics of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in the presence of activated sludge and humic acids has been examined. Variations in the kinetic curves of MCPA removal in the presence of humic acids were determined from results on accumulation of carbon dioxide gas. Spectral-luminescence and chromato-mass-spectrometry data reveal the presence in the medium of the biotransformation product 2-methyl-4-chlorophenol, which is utilized after 14 days. Addition of humic acids, on the one hand, reduced the rates of subsequent biodecomposition of MCPA. On the other hand, in the process of transformation of the herbicide in the presence of humic acids a photobioproduct was detected which does not contain chlorine: 2-methylphenoxyacetic acid.

  8. UV radiation is the primary factor driving the variation in leaf phenolics across Chinese grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Litong; Niu, Kechang; Wu, Yi; Geng, Yan; Mi, Zhaorong; Flynn, Dan FB; He, Jin-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to the role leaf phenolics in defending against ultraviolet B (UVB) under previously controlled conditions, we hypothesize that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) could be a primary factor driving the variation in leaf phenolics in plants over a large geographic scale. We measured leaf total phenolics, ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVAC), and corresponding leaf N, P, and specific leaf area (SLA) in 151 common species. These species were from 84 sites across the Tibetan Plateau and Inner Mongolian grasslands of China with contrasting UVR (354 vs. 161 mW/cm2 on average). Overall, leaf phenolics and UVAC were all significantly higher on the Tibetan Plateau than in the Inner Mongolian grasslands, independent of phylogenetic relationships between species. Regression analyses showed that the variation in leaf phenolics was strongly affected by climatic factors, particularly UVR, and soil attributes across all sites. Structural equation modeling (SEM) identified the primary role of UVR in determining leaf phenolic concentrations, after accounting for colinearities with altitude, climatic, and edaphic factors. In addition, phenolics correlated positively with UVAC and SLA, and negatively with leaf N and N: P. These relationships were steeper in the lower-elevation Inner Mongolian than on the Tibetan Plateau grasslands. Our data support that the variation in leaf phenolics is controlled mainly by UV radiation, implying high leaf phenolics facilitates the adaptation of plants to strong irradiation via its UV-screening and/or antioxidation functions, particularly on the Tibetan Plateau. Importantly, our results also suggest that leaf phenolics may influence on vegetation attributes and indirectly affect ecosystem processes by covarying with leaf functional traits. PMID:24363898

  9. Aerosol radiative forcing efficiency in the UV-B region over central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palancar, Gustavo G.; Olcese, Luis E.; Lanzaco, Bethania L.; Achad, Mariana; López, María Laura; Toselli, Beatriz M.

    2016-07-01

    AEROSOL Robotic Network (AERONET), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and global UV-B (280-315 nm) irradiance measurements and calculations were combined to investigate the effects of aerosol loading on the ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) reaching the surface under cloudless conditions in Córdoba, Argentina. The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and the aerosol forcing efficiency (ARFE) were calculated for an extended period of time (2000-2013) at a ground-based monitoring site affected by different types and loading of aerosols. The ARFE was evaluated by using the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 340 nm retrieved by AERONET at the Cordoba CETT site. The individual and combined effects of the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the solar zenith angle (SZA) on the ARFE were also analyzed. In addition, and for comparison purposes, the MODIS AOD at 550 nm was used as input in a machine learning method to better characterize the aerosol load at 340 nm and evaluate the ARFE retrieved from AOD satellite measurements. The ARFE at the surface calculated using AOD data from AERONET ranged from (-0.11 ± 0.01) to (-1.76 ± 0.20) Wm-2 with an average of -0.61 Wm-2; however, when using AOD data from MODIS (TERRA/AQUA satellites), it ranged from (-0.22 ± 0.03) to (-0.65 ± 0.07) Wm-2 with an average value of -0.43 Wm-2. At the same SZA and SSA, the maximum difference between ground and satellite-based was 0.22 Wm-2.

  10. Degradation of linuron by UV, ozonation, and UV/O(3) processes--effect of anions and reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y F; Chu, W

    2010-08-15

    A comprehensive study of the degradation of linuron, one of the phenylurea herbicides, was conducted by using different treatment processes including UV, ozonation and UV/O(3). The effect of various anions on the performance of ozonation has been examined. N-terminus demethoxylation, photohydrolysis with or without dechlorination, and N-terminus demethylation have been found to be the major mechanisms in the linuron decay under the irradiation of UV at 254 nm while N-terminus demethoxylation, dechlorination and hydroxylation on benzene ring was observed to be involved in the ozonation process. Eight new intermediates were identified in UV process in this study compared with previous studies. Different decay pathways were proposed based on the identified intermediates in the three studied processes. UV/O(3) has demonstrated the best performance among these three processes in terms of LNR decay, mineralization, dechlorination and de-nitrogenation.

  11. Role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of astrophysical ices in protostellars environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Monteiro Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    The astrophysical ices survival is directly related with the temperature and ionizing radiation field in protostellars environments such as disks and envelopes. Computational models has shown that pure volatile molecules like CO and CH _{4} should survive only inside densest regions of molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks On the other hand, solid molecules such as H _{2}O and CH _{3}OH can be placed around 5 - 10 AU from the central protostar. Unlike of the previous models, we investigate the role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of ices in disks and envelopes. Once that a star-forming region is composed by the formation of many protostars, the external radiation field should be an important component to understand the real localization of the ices along the sight line. To address this topic it was employed the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D based on the Monte Carlo method. The code was used to model the spectrum and the near-infrared image of Elias 29. The initial parameters of the disk and envelope was taken from our previous paper (Rocha & Pilling (2015), ApJ 803:18). The opacities of the ices were calculated from the complex refractive index obtained at laboratory experiments perfomed at Grand Accélerateur National d'Íons Lourds (GANIL), by using the NKABS code from Rocha & Pilling (2014), SAA 123:436. The partial conclusions that we have obtained shows that pure CO volatile molecule cannot be placed at disk or envelope of Elias 29, unlike shown in our paper about Elias 29. Once it was observed in Elias 29 spectrum obtained with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 2.5 - 190 μm, this molecule should be placed in foreground molecular clouds or trapped in the water ice matrix. The next calculations will be able to show where are placed the ices such as CH _{3}OH and CH _{3}CHO observed in Elias 29 spectrum.

  12. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves.

    PubMed

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2016-10-01

    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment. PMID:27343876

  13. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves.

    PubMed

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2016-10-01

    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment.

  14. Soluble ferric iron as an effective protective agent against UV radiation: Implications for early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Felipe; Aguilera, Angeles; Amils, Ricardo

    2007-11-01

    Some recent MER Rover Opportunity results on ancient sedimentary rocks from Mars describe sandstones originated from the chemical weathering of olivine basalts by acidic waters [Squyres, S.W., Knoll, A.H., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 1-10]. The absence of protective components in early Mars atmosphere forced any possible primordial life forms to deal with high doses of UV radiation. A similar situation occurred on the primitive Earth during the development of early life in the Archean [Berkner, L.V., Marshall, L.C., 1965. J. Atmos. Sci. 22 (3), 225-261; Kasting, J.F., 1993. Science 259, 920-926]. It is known that some cellular and/or external components can shield organisms from damaging UV radiation or quench its toxic effects [Olson, J.M., Pierson, B.K., 1986. Photosynth. Res. 9, 251-259; García-Pichel, F., 1998. Origins Life Evol. B 28, 321-347; Cockell, C., Rettberg, P., Horneck, G., Scherer, K., Stokes, M.D., 2003. Polar Biol. 26, 62-69]. The effectiveness of iron minerals for UV protection has also been reported [Phoenix, V.R., Konhauser, K.O., Adams, D.G., Bottrell, S.H., 2001. Geology 29 (9), 823-826], but nothing is known about the effect of iron in solution. Here we demonstrate the protective effect of soluble ferric iron against UV radiation on acidophilic photosynthetic microorganisms. These results offer an interesting alternative means of protection for life on the surface of early Mars and Earth, especially in light of the geochemical conditions in which the sedimentary minerals, jarosite and goethite, recently reported by the MER missions, were formed [Squyres, S.W., Arvidson, R.E., Bell III, J.F., Brückner, J., Cabrol, N.A., Calvin, W., Carr, M.H., Christensen, P.R., Clark, B.C., Crumpler, L., Des Marais, D.J., d'Uston, C., Economou, T., Farmer, J., Farrand, W., Folkner, W., Golombek, M., Gorevan, S., Grant, J.A., Greeley, R., Grotzinger, J., Haskin, L., Herkenhoff, K.E., Hviid, S., Johnson, J., Klingelhöfer, G., Knoll, A.H., Landis, G

  15. A ΔdinB mutation that sensitizes Escherichia coli to the lethal effects of UV and X-radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mei-Chong W.; Franco, Magdalena; Vargas, Doris M.; Hudman, Deborah A.; White, Steven J.; Fowler, Robert G.; Sargentini, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    The DinB (PolIV) protein of Escherichia coli participates in several cellular functions. We investigated a dinB mutation, Δ(dinB-yafN)883(::kan) [referred to as ΔdinB883], which strongly sensitized E. coli cells to both UV- and X-radiation killing. Earlier reports indicated dinB mutations had no obvious effect on UV radiation sensitivity which we confirmed by showing that normal UV radiation sensitivity is conferred by the ΔdinB749 allele. Compared to a wild-type strain, the ΔdinB883 mutant was most sensitive (160-fold) in early to mid-logarithmic growth phase and much less sensitive (twofold) in late log or stationary phases, thus showing a growth phase-dependence for UV radiation sensitivity. This sensitizing effect of ΔdinB883 is assumed to be completely dependent upon the presence of UmuDC protein; since the ΔdinB883 mutation did not sensitize the ΔumuDC strain to UV radiation killing throughout log phase and early stationary phase growth. The DNA damage checkpoint activity of UmuDC was clearly affected by ΔdinB883 as shown by testing a umuC104 ΔdinB883 double-mutant. The sensitivities of the ΔumuDC strain and the ΔdinB883 ΔumuDC double-mutant strain were significantly greater than for the ΔdinB883 strain, suggesting that the ΔdinB883 allele only partially suppresses UmuDC activity. The ΔdinB883 mutation partially sensitized (fivefold) uvrA and uvrB strains to UV radiation, but did not sensitize a ΔrecA strain. A comparison of the DNA sequences of the ΔdinB883 allele with the sequences of the Δ(dinB-yafN)882(::kan) and ΔdinB749 alleles, which do not sensitize cells to UV radiation, revealed ΔdinB883 is likely a “gain-of-function” mutation. The ΔdinB883 allele encodes the first 54 amino acids of wild-type DinB followed by 29 predicted residues resulting from the continuation of the dinB reading frame into an adjacent insertion fragment. The resulting polypeptide is proposed to interfere directly or indirectly with UmuDC function

  16. Water clarity, maternal behavior, and physiology combine to eliminate UV radiation risk to amphibians in a montane landscape.

    PubMed

    Palen, Wendy J; Schindler, Daniel E

    2010-05-25

    Increasing UV-B radiation (UV-B; 290-320 nm) due to stratospheric ozone depletion has been a leading explanation for the decline in amphibians for nearly 2 decades. Yet, the likelihood that UV-B can influence amphibians at the large spatial scales relevant to population declines has not yet been evaluated. A key limitation has been in relating results from individual sites to the effect of UV-B for populations distributed across heterogeneous landscapes. We measured critical embryonic exposures to UV-B for two species of montane amphibians with contrasting physiological sensitivities, long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Cascades frog (Rana cascadae), at field sites spanning a gradient of UV-B attenuation in water. We then used these experimental results to estimate the proportion of embryos exposed to harmful UV-B across a large number of breeding sites. By combining surveys of the incubation timing, incident UV-B, optical transparency of water, and oviposition depth and light exposure of embryos at each site, we present a comprehensive assessment of the risk posed by UV-B for montane amphibians of the Pacific Northwest. We found that only 1.1% of A. macrodactylum and no R. cascadae embryos across a landscape of breeding sites are exposed to UV-B exceeding lethal levels. These results emphasize that accurately estimating the risk posed by environmental stressors requires placing experimental results in a broader ecological context that accounts for the heterogeneity experienced by populations distributed across natural landscapes. PMID:20479221

  17. P1 Epigenetic Regulation in Leaves of High Altitude Maize Landraces: Effect of UV-B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rius, Sebastián P.; Emiliani, Julia; Casati, Paula

    2016-01-01

    P1 is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the accumulation of a specific group of flavonoids in maize floral tissues, such as flavones and phlobaphenes. P1 is also highly expressed in leaves of maize landraces adapted to high altitudes and higher levels of UV-B radiation. In this work, we analyzed the epigenetic regulation of the P1 gene by UV-B in leaves of different maize landraces. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation in the P1 proximal promoter, intron1 and intron2 is decreased by UV-B in all lines analyzed; however, the basal DNA methylation levels are lower in the landraces than in B73, a low altitude inbred line. DNA demethylation by UV-B is accompanied by a decrease in H3 methylation at Lys 9 and 27, and by an increase in H3 acetylation. smRNAs complementary to specific regions of the proximal promoter and of intron 2 3′ end are also decreased by UV-B; interestingly, P1 smRNA levels are lower in the landraces than in B73 both under control conditions and after UV-B exposure, suggesting that smRNAs regulate P1 expression by UV-B in maize leaves. Finally, we investigated if different P1 targets in flower tissues are also regulated by this transcription factor in response to UV-B. Some targets analyzed show an induction in maize landraces in response to UV-B, with higher basal expression levels in the landraces than in B73; however, not all the transcripts analyzed were found to be regulated by UV-B in leaves. PMID:27148340

  18. Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis cells to Archean-like UV climate: relevant hints of microbial evolution to remarkably increased radiation resistance.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Marko; Moeller, Ralf; Reitz, Günther; Rettberg, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In a precursory study for the space experiment ADAPT ("Molecular adaptation strategies of microorganisms to different space and planetary UV climate conditions"), cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 were continuously cultured for 700 generations under periodic polychromatic UV irradiation (200-400 nm) to model the suggested UV radiation environment on early Earth at the origin of the first microbial ecosystem during the Archean eon when Earth lacked a significant ozone layer. Populations that evolved under UV stress were about 3-fold more resistant than the ancestral and non-UV-evolved populations. UV-evolved cells were 7-fold more resistant to ionizing radiation than their non-UV-exposed evolved relatives and ancestor. In addition to the acquired increased UV resistance, further changes in microbial stress response to hydrogen peroxide, increased salinity, and desiccation were observed in UV-evolved cells. This indicates that UV-sensitive ancestral cells are capable of adapting to periodically applied UV stress via the evolution of cells with an increased UV resistance level and further enhanced responses to other environmental stressors, which thereby allows them to survive and reproduce under extreme UV radiation as a selection pressure.

  19. Effect of UV-C radiation and hypergravity on germination, growth and content of chlorophyll of wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupiasih, N. Nyoman; Vidyasagar, Pandit B.

    2016-03-01

    An investigation of the effects of UV-C radiation and hypergravity on germination, growth and content of chlorophyll of wheat seedlings has been done. The UV-C irradiation periods of exposure were 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes. The hypergravity used were 1000 g, 2000 g and 2500 g. The combination treatment is UV-C irradiation for 180 min followed by each hypergravity. The results showed that irradiation of UV-C on wheat seeds have stimulated the seed germination, but hypergravity and combination treatments on wheat seeds have inhibited the seed germination. Those treatments gave negative effects to growth rate, the content of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll of wheat seedlings.

  20. Effects of UV-B radiation and water stress on gas exchange of soybeans under two different nitrogen levels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, L.M.; Forseth, I.N. )

    1993-06-01

    Due to anthropogenic destruction of stratospheric ozone, UV-B radiation is projected to increase in the near future. Other potential global climate changes in temperature and precipitation patterns raise the need for research into plant responses to multiple environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to document UV-B and water stress effects on gas exchange of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) under two nitrogen levels. Two soybean cultivars differing in sensitivity to UV-B were tested at fluence rates of 19.1 or 8.5 kJ m[sub [minus]2]day[sub [minus]1] (enhance and natural levels of UV-B, respectively). Measurements of photosaturated CO[sub 2] uptake at ambient CO[sub 2] (A). stomatal conductance. photosaturated O[sub 2] evolution at saturating CO[sub 2] (A[sub max]), long term water use efficiency (using [delta][sup 13]C), and nitrogen fixation (using [sup 15]N) were performed. No significant treatment effects on A could be detected. However A[sub max] was significantly increased, and stomatal conductance reduced (p<0.01) by increased UV-B at all levels of water and nitrogen for both cultivars, suggesting a stronger stomal limitation of photosynthesis under UV-B. Water and nitrogen use efficiency also decreased under increased UV-B in both cultivars (p<0.01).

  1. [Study on the stability variation mechanism of humic acid water solution after radiated by the UV light].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Dong; Zhou, Li-chuan; Ding, Zhen-Zhen; Wang, Hong-Ping; Sun, Xue-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Humic acid widely presents in various surface waters. Molecular structure has significant impacts on its physical and chemical properties. To explore the stability variation of humic acid before and after the UV light radiation, spectroscopic and electrochemical analysis were applied in this paper. Structural parameters selected in the experiments include reactive sites, such as phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl contents, Zeta potential, and colloidal size. It was found that there was little humic acid being removed in the solution without UV radiation pretreatment; while its remove ratio increased notably with radiation time. After 3 h pretreatment, humic acid removal ratio was above 80% in coagulation. Spectroscopy analysis results showed that partial of the groups with fluorescent effects might be shed or rearranged after the radiation; while its aromatic structure was not destroyed. Both the Zeta potential and average colloidal size decreased with the radiation time, which was not conducive to the aggregation of humic acid. However, -OH content decreased slightly after the UV radiation, and new carboxyl and carbonyl groups formed simultaneously. The increasing of the reactive sites and the improvement of the reaction effectiveness were the major reasons leading to humic acid stability decrease in PAC! coagulation. PMID:24364311

  2. [Study on the stability variation mechanism of humic acid water solution after radiated by the UV light].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Dong; Zhou, Li-chuan; Ding, Zhen-Zhen; Wang, Hong-Ping; Sun, Xue-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Humic acid widely presents in various surface waters. Molecular structure has significant impacts on its physical and chemical properties. To explore the stability variation of humic acid before and after the UV light radiation, spectroscopic and electrochemical analysis were applied in this paper. Structural parameters selected in the experiments include reactive sites, such as phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl contents, Zeta potential, and colloidal size. It was found that there was little humic acid being removed in the solution without UV radiation pretreatment; while its remove ratio increased notably with radiation time. After 3 h pretreatment, humic acid removal ratio was above 80% in coagulation. Spectroscopy analysis results showed that partial of the groups with fluorescent effects might be shed or rearranged after the radiation; while its aromatic structure was not destroyed. Both the Zeta potential and average colloidal size decreased with the radiation time, which was not conducive to the aggregation of humic acid. However, -OH content decreased slightly after the UV radiation, and new carboxyl and carbonyl groups formed simultaneously. The increasing of the reactive sites and the improvement of the reaction effectiveness were the major reasons leading to humic acid stability decrease in PAC! coagulation.

  3. Effect of UV-B and high visual radiation on photosynthesis in freshwater (nostoc spongiaeforme) and marine (Phormidium corium) cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Rupali; Sharma, Prabhat Kumar

    2007-08-01

    Human activity is causing depletion of ozone in stratosphere, resulting in increased UV-B radiation and global warming. However, impact of these climatic changes on the aquatic organism (especially marine) is not fully understood. Here, we have studied the effect of excess UV-B and visible radiation on photosynthetic pigments, fatty acids content, lipid peroxidation, nitrogen content, nitrogen reductase activity and membrane proteins, induction of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in freshwater (Nostoc spongiaeform) and marine (Phormidium corium) cyanobacteria. UV-B treatment resulted in an increase in photosynthetic pigments in Nostoc and decrease in Phormidium, but high light treatment caused photobleaching of most of the pigments in both the species. Unsaturation level of fatty acids of both total and glycolipids remained unchanged in both the cyanobacteria, as a result of UV-B and high light treatments. Saturated fatty acids of total and glycolipids declined slightly in Nostoc by both the treatments. but remained unchanged in Phormidium. No changes in the unsaturated lipid content in our study probably suggested adaptation of the organism to the treatments. However, both treatments resulted in peroxidation of membrane lipids, indicating oxidative damage to lipids without any change in the level of unsaturation of fatty acid in the cell membrane. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed in membrane protein profile due to the treatments. Cyanobacteria were able to synthesize MAAs in response to the UV-B treatment. Both treatments also increased the activities of SOD and APX. In conclusion, the study demonstrated induction of antioxidants such as SOD and APX under visible light treatment and screening pigment (MAAs) under UV-B treatment, which might protect the cyanobacteria from oxidative damage caused by high light and UV-B radiation.

  4. Abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds from plant biomass and its dependence on temperature and UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derendorp, L.; Holzinger, R.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from living vegetation are measured for many different plant species. However, almost no research has been performed on the VOC emissions from plant litter and senescent leaves. The few studies that are done on plant litter indicate that the VOC emissions from this material can be significant for atmospheric chemistry and the global budgets of those VOCs. Recently, research showed that methane is emitted from dead and senescent leaves, and that the emission rates are influenced by temperature and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is also observed that not only methane, but also ethane and ethylene were emitted from leaf material under the influence of UV radiation. In this study, the emissions of ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, propylene, i-butane, n-butane and methyl chloride are measured with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. The effect of temperature and UV radiation on the emission rates of the different VOCs is measured for leaves of several plant species. The emission rates of ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, and methylchloride increased exponentially with increasing temperature for all measured plant species, while a linear increase of the emission rates was observed for increasing intensity of the UV radiation. Emissions of acetylene, i-butane, and n-butane were not observed.

  5. Increasing UV-B radiation at the earth's surface and potential effects on aqueous mercury cycling and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bonzongo, Jean Claude J; Donkor, Augustine K

    2003-09-01

    In the past two decades, a great deal of attention ha