Science.gov

Sample records for 26-hour flight endurance

  1. Energy metabolism during endurance flight and the post-flight recovery phase.

    PubMed

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne

    2017-02-21

    Migrating birds are known to fly non-stop for thousands of kilometres without food or water intake and at a high metabolic rate thereby relying on energy stores which were built up preceding a flight bout. Hence, from a physiological point of view the metabolism of a migrant has to switch between an active fasting phase during flight and a fuelling phase during stopover. To meet the energetic and water requirements of endurance flight, migratory birds have to store an optimal fuel composition and they have to be able to quickly mobilize and deliver sufficient energy to the working flight muscles. After flight, birds have to recover from a strenuous exercise and sleeplessness, but, at the same time, they have to be alert to escape from predators and to prepare the next flight bout. In this overview, metabolic adaptations of free-ranging migrants to both phases will be presented and compared with results from windtunnel studies. The questions whether migratory strategy (long distance versus short distance) and diet composition influence the metabolic pathways will be discussed.

  2. Oxidative stress in endurance flight: an unconsidered factor in bird migration.

    PubMed

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas; Smith, Shona; Costantini, David

    2014-01-01

    Migrating birds perform extraordinary endurance flights, up to 200 h non-stop, at a very high metabolic rate and while fasting. Such an intense and prolonged physical activity is normally associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and thus increased risk of oxidative stress. However, up to now it was unknown whether endurance flight evokes oxidative stress. We measured a marker of oxidative damage (protein carbonyls, PCs) and a marker of enzymatic antioxidant capacity (glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in the European robin (Erithacus rubecula), a nocturnal migrant, on its way to the non-breeding grounds. Both markers were significantly higher in European robins caught out of their nocturnal flight than in conspecifics caught during the day while resting. Independently of time of day, both markers showed higher concentrations in individuals with reduced flight muscles. Adults had higher GPx concentrations than first-year birds on their first migration. These results show for the first time that free-flying migrants experience oxidative stress during endurance flight and up-regulate one component of antioxidant capacity. We discuss that avoiding oxidative stress may be an overlooked factor shaping bird migration strategies, e.g. by disfavouring long non-stop flights and an extensive catabolism of the flight muscles.

  3. Fuel cell powered small unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for extended endurance flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Deryn; Jiang, R.; Dunbar, Z.; Grew, Kyle; McClure, J.

    2015-05-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have been used for military applications and have additional potential for commercial applications [1-4]. For the military, these systems provide valuable intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and target acquisition (ISRTA) capabilities for units at the infantry, battalion, and company levels. The small UASs are light-weight, manportable, can be hand-launched, and are capable of carrying payloads. Currently, most small UASs are powered by lithium-ion or lithium polymer batteries; however, the flight endurance is usually limited less than two hours and requires frequent battery replacement. Long endurance small UAS flights have been demonstrated through the implementation of a fuel cell system. For instance, a propane fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack has been used to power a small UAS and shown to extend mission flight time. The research and development efforts presented here not only apply to small UASs, but also provide merit to the viability of extending mission operations for other unmanned systems applications.

  4. 26-Hours at Cal Poly: A Recruitment Strategy Targeting Underrepresented Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Bob; Kellogg, Bill

    The Agriculture Education Department at California Polytechnic State University conducted a program to recruit Black and Hispanic students for the school's agriculture programs during spring 1988 and twice since then. High school sophomores and juniors in Los Angeles were invited to Cal Poly for a 26-hour program of workshops designed to include a…

  5. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    PubMed

    Gill, Robert E; Tibbitts, T Lee; Douglas, David C; Handel, Colleen M; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Gottschalck, Jon C; Warnock, Nils; McCaffery, Brian J; Battley, Philip F; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-02-07

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8,117-11,680 km (10153+/-1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7,008-7,390 km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8+/-1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators.

  6. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: Ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Douglas, D.C.; Handel, C.M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Gottschalck, J.C.; Warnock, N.; McCaffery, B.J.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117-11680km (10153??1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008-7390km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8??1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  7. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Robert E.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Douglas, David C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gottschalck, Jon C.; Warnock, Nils; McCaffery, Brian J.; Battley, Philip F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117–11 680 km (10 153±1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008–7390 km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8±1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. PMID:18974033

  8. Interstellar Flight, Imagination and Myth Creation as an Effective Means for Enduring Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowitz, G. H.

    Interstellar travel to faraway star systems is humanity's most crucial mission, but we habitually focus on technological and funding challenges instead of deeply exploring the rare essence of creativity that is the source that enables us to ultimately solve all problems. Certainly, if Interstellar space flight is to succeed, inspiring and maintaining global and multigenerational support is primary to long-term development. To attract and sustain such extraordinary support the creative power of the imagination must be harnessed through independent artists. By first attracting and encouraging visionaries it's possible that we can awaken in the public a new, invigorating sense of adventure with lasting power. Going beyond our solar system to a nearby star is in reality a mythic quest and should be treated as such.

  9. Effect of larval growth conditions on adult body mass and long-distance flight endurance in a wood-boring beetle: Do smaller beetles fly better?

    PubMed

    Brown, Stav; Soroker, Victoria; Ribak, Gal

    2017-04-01

    The tropical fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer, is a large beetle that is a pest on a number of fruit trees, including fig and mango. Adults feed on the leaves and twigs and females lay their eggs under the bark of the tree. The larvae bore into the tree trunk, causing substantial damage that may lead to the collapse and death of the host tree. We studied how larval development under inferior feeding conditions (experienced during development in dying trees) affects flight endurance in the adult insect. We grew larvae either in their natural host or on sawdust enriched with stale fig tree twigs. Flight endurance of the adults was measured using a custom-built flight-mill. Beetles emerging from the natural host were significantly larger but flew shorter distances than beetles reared on less favourable substrates. There was no difference in the allometric slope of wing area with body mass between the beetles groups; however flight muscle mass scaled with total body mass with an exponent significantly lower than 1.0. Hence, smaller beetles had proportionally larger flight muscles. These findings suggest that beetles that developed smaller as a result from poor nutritional conditions in deteriorating hosts, are better equipped to fly longer distances in search of a new host tree.

  10. An adaptive dual-optimal path-planning technique for unmanned air vehicles with application to solar-regenerative high altitude long endurance flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Clifford A.

    2009-12-01

    A multi-objective technique for Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) path and trajectory autonomy generation, through task allocation and sensor fusion has been developed. The Dual-Optimal Path-Planning (D-O.P-P.) Technique generates on-line adaptive flight paths for UAVs based on available flight windows and environmental influenced objectives. The environmental influenced optimal condition, known as the driver' determines the condition, within a downstream virtual window of possible vehicle destinations and orientation built from the UAV kinematics. The intermittent results are pursued by a dynamic optimization technique to determine the flight path. This sequential optimization technique is a multi-objective optimization procedure consisting of two goals, without requiring additional information to combine the conflicting objectives into a single-objective. An example case-study and additional applications are developed and the results are discussed; including the application to the field of Solar Regenerative (SR) High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV flight. Harnessing solar energy has recently been adapted for use on high altitude UAV platforms. An aircraft that uses solar panels and powered by the sun during the day and through the night by SR systems, in principle could sustain flight for weeks or months. The requirements and limitations of solar powered flight were determined. The SR-HALE UAV platform geometry and flight characteristics were selected from an existing aircraft that has demonstrated the capability for sustained flight through flight tests. The goals were to maintain continual Situational Awareness (SA) over a case-study selected Area of Interest (AOI) and existing UAV power and surveillance systems. This was done for still wind and constant wind conditions at altitude along with variations in latitude. The characteristics of solar flux and the dependence on the surface location and orientation were established along with fixed flight maneuvers for

  11. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  12. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  13. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  14. Constitutive immune function in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, is decreased immediately after an endurance flight in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Silke; Bauchinger, Ulf; Buehler, Deborah M; Langlois, Lillie A; Boyles, Michelle; Gerson, Alexander R; Price, Edwin R; McWilliams, Scott R; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2012-01-15

    Life-history theory predicts that animals face a trade-off in energy allocation between performing strenuous exercise, such as migratory flight, and mounting an immune response. We experimentally tested this prediction by studying immune function in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, flown in a wind tunnel. Specifically, we predicted that constitutive immune function decreases in response to training and, additionally, in response to immediate exercise. We compared constitutive immune function among three groups: (1) 'untrained' birds that were kept in cages and were not flown; (2) 'trained' birds that received flight training over a 15 day period and performed a 1-4 h continuous flight, after which they rested for 48 h before being sampled; and (3) 'post-flight' birds that differed from the 'trained' group only in being sampled immediately after the final flight. A bird in our trained group represents an individual during migration that has been resting between migratory flights for at least 2 days. A bird in our post-flight group represents an individual that has just completed a migratory flight and has not yet had time to recover. Three of our four indicators (haptoglobin, agglutination and lysis) showed the predicted decrease in immune function in the post-flight group, and two indicators (haptoglobin, agglutination) showed the predicted decreasing trend from the untrained to trained to post-flight group. Haptoglobin levels were negatively correlated with flight duration. No effect of training or flight was detected on leukocyte profiles. Our results suggest that in European starlings, constitutive immune function is decreased more as a result of immediate exercise than of exercise training. Because of the recent emergence of avian-borne diseases, understanding the trade-offs and challenges faced by long-distance migrants has gained a new level of relevance and urgency.

  15. Weather Requirements and Procedures for Step 1: High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Flight Operations in the National Air Space (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This cover sheet is for version 2 of the weather requirements document along with Appendix A. The purpose of the requirements document was to identify and to list the weather functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the National Airspace System (NAS) for Step 1." A discussion of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) references and related policies, procedures, and standards is provided as basis for the recommendations supported within this document. Additional procedures and reference documentation related to weather functional requirements is also provided for background. The functional requirements and related information are to be proposed to the FAA and various standards organizations for consideration and approval. The appendix was designed to show that sources of flight weather information are readily available to UAS pilots conducting missions in the NAS. All weather information for this presentation was obtained from the public internet.

  16. Circulorespiratory Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsen, Philip E.

    1981-01-01

    Cardiovascular endurance is defined as the ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to provide the cells of the body with the necessary substances to perform work for extended periods of time. People beginning such a program need to have an understanding of warming-up, intensity, duration, and frequency of an exercise program. (JN)

  17. Circulorespiratory Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsen, Philip E.

    1981-01-01

    Cardiovascular endurance is defined as the ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to provide the cells of the body with the necessary substances to perform work for extended periods of time. People beginning such a program need to have an understanding of warming-up, intensity, duration, and frequency of an exercise program. (JN)

  18. Entering Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Perched on the edge of 'Endurance Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity prepares to roll all six wheels in and then back out to the rim as an engineering test to ensure that the slope and rock surface meet expectations. The rover executed the maneuver successfully and proceeded farther into the crater the following day. This image was taken by the rover's front hazard-avoidance camera during Opportunity's 133rd martian day, or sol, on June 8, 2004.

  19. 'Endurance' Untouched

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a cylindrical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  20. In-flight transfusion of packed red blood cells on a combat search and rescue mission: a case report from operation enduring freedom.

    PubMed

    West, Brad C; Bentley, Richard; Place, Ronald J

    2004-03-01

    Injuries on the battlefield can occur far from the nearest medical treatment facility. This is especially likely for downed pilots and special operations personnel. Some of these injuries lead to significant blood loss requiring transfusion. We present two cases of injured coalition force members during Operation Enduring Freedom that illustrate the potential need for a transfusion capability at the site of injury to prevent death. Consideration should be given to augmenting transfusion capabilities in military environments with predictably long evacuation times.

  1. Perseus in Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-11-15

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle in flight at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California in 1991. Perseus is one of several remotely-piloted aircraft designed for high-altitude, long-endurance scientific sampling missions being evaluated under the ERAST program.

  2. The Endurance Bioenergy Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Laible, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Argonne biophysicist Dr. Philip Laible and Air Force Major Matt Michaud talks about he endurance bioenergy reactor—a device that contains bacteria that can convert energy from the sun into fuel molecules.

  3. Tracks Inside 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture from the front hazard-avoidance camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows rover wheel tracks on the inner slope of 'Endurance Crater.' Opportunity took the image on sol 188 (Aug. 4, 2004), before transmitting it and other data to the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The orbiter then relayed the data to Earth.

  4. Down into 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera shows the rover's view of the floor of 'Endurance Crater.' The image was taken from just inside the rim of the crater during Opportunity's 134th martian day, or sol, on June 9, 2004.

  5. Low Reynolds number, long endurance aircraft design

    SciTech Connect

    Foch, R.J.; Ailinger, K.G. )

    1992-02-01

    Airplanes are typically designed to maximize range at the highest practical cruising speed. However, several missions require extended duration rather than range, and favor the slowest possible cruise speed. Such missions include surveillance, radio relay, and ship's electronic decoy. These missions are ideally suited for advanced technology unmanned aircraft, either remotely piloted or autonomous. Feasibility studies have been conducted and flight demonstrator prototypes of such unique aircraft have been under steady research and development at the Naval Research Laboratory since 1978. This paper discusses the design aspects and tradeoffs unique to small, slow speed long endurance unmanned aircraft operating at wing chord Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 500,000. Additionally, many of these low Reynolds number-driven design features have applicability to high altitude, long endurance aircraft. 6 refs.

  6. 'Endurance Crater's' Dazzling Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity creeps farther into 'Endurance Crater,' the dune field on the crater floor appears even more dramatic. This approximate true-color panoramic camera image highlights the reddish-colored dust present throughout the scene.

    Sinuous tendrils of sand less than 1 meter (3.3 feet) high extend from the main dune field toward the rover. Scientists hope to send the rover down to one of these tendrils in an effort to learn more about the characteristics of the dunes. Dunes are a common feature across the surface of Mars, and knowledge gleaned from investigating the Endurance dunes close-up may apply to similar dunes elsewhere.

    Before the rover heads down to the dunes, rover drivers must first establish whether the slippery slope that leads to them is firm enough to ensure a successful drive back out of the crater. Otherwise, such hazards might make the dune field a true sand trap.

  7. Thruster endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C.

    1976-01-01

    A test system was built and several short term tests were completed. The test system included, in addition to the 30-cm ion thruster, a console for powering the thruster and monitoring performance, a vacuum facility for simulating a space environment, and a storage and feed system for the thruster propellant. This system was used to perform three short term tests (one 100-hour and two 500-hour tests), an 1108-hour endurance test which was aborted by a vacuum facility failure, and finally the 10,000-hour endurance test. In addition to the two 400 series thrusters which were used in the short term and 1100-hour tests, four more 400 series thrusters were fabricated, checked out, and delivered to NASA. Three consoles similar to the one used in the test program were also fabricated and delivered.

  8. 'Endurance' All Around (cylindrical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was taken on the rover's 171st sol on Mars (July 17, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as 'site 33.' Opportunity had driven 11 meters (36 feet) into 'Endurance Crater.' The view is a cylindrical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  9. Farewell Glance at 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity climbed out of 'Endurance Crater' during the rover's 315th sol (Dec. 12, 2004), and used its front hazard-avoidance camera to look back across the crater from the rim. The rover spent just over six months inside the stadium-sized crater, examining in detail the tallest stack of bedrock layers ever seen up close on a foreign planet.

  10. 'Endurance' All Around Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was taken on the rover's 171st sol on Mars (July 17, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as 'site 33.' Opportunity had driven 11 meters (36 feet) into 'Endurance Crater.' The view is a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  11. 'Endurance' All Around (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was taken on the rover's 171st sol on Mars (July 17, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as 'site 33.' Opportunity had driven 11 meters (36 feet) into 'Endurance Crater.' The 360-degree view is a polar projection with geometrical seam correction.

  12. Microscopic Image Inside 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This magnified view of a rock surface inside 'Endurance Crater' combines four frames taken by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 142nd martian day, or sol, on June 17, 2004. This patch of rock is in a region of contact between a layer of rock corresponding to bedrock that Opportunity examined earlier at 'Eagle Crater' and the next-lower layer. The area imaged is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) on each side.

  13. Pregnancy in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Penttinen, J; Erkkola, R

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine pregnancy and delivery among Finnish endurance athletes at the national top level. A questionnaire concerning first pregnancy was sent to 30 Finnish endurance athletes who had been at national top level in cross-country skiing, running, speed-skating or orienteering. Data on labour were collected retrospectively through a questionnaire and from the diaries in the hospital concerned. The next primipara in the diaries formed a member of the control group. Twenty-three athletes (77%) had regular menstrual cycles, seven (23%) had irregularities, and four of them had received hormonal treatment for this. Seven athletes (23%) had experienced spontaneous abortion during the first trimester in previous pregnancy. Sixteen (53%) did not notice any change in their exercise performance, three (10%) subjectively felt themselves to be in a better physical condition, and seven (23%) felt themselves to be in a worse condition than before the pregnancy. Four did not respond on the question. After delivery, 18 athletes continued to compete, the median interval being 8.2 months (range 2-24 months). Two of them (11%) achieved a better condition than before the pregnancy, 11 (61%) reached the same level and five (28%) did not achieve the same performance level. There were no significant differences in labour parameters between the athletes and controls. Endurance training had no harmful side-effects on the pregnancies or deliveries of the athletes. The effect of pregnancy on exercise performance is individual.

  14. 'Endurance': A Daunting Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the approximate size of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in comparison to the impressive impact crater dubbed 'Endurance,' which is roughly 130 meters (430 feet) across. A model of Opportunity has been superimposed on top of an approximate true-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera. Scientists are eager to explore Endurance for clues to the red planet's history. The crater's exposed walls provide a window to what lies beneath the surface of Mars and thus what geologic processes occurred there in the past. While recent studies of the smaller crater nicknamed 'Eagle' revealed an evaporating body of salty water, that crater was not deep enough to indicate what came before the water. Endurance may be able to help answer this question, but the challenge is getting to the scientific targets: most of the crater's rocks are embedded in vertical cliffs. Rover planners are developing strategies to overcome this obstacle.

    This image is a portion of a larger mosaic taken with the panoramic camera's 480-, 530- and 750-nanometer filters on sols 97 and 98.

  15. Endurance training at altitude.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occur that can comprise performance at altitude; these include increased ventilation, increased heart rate, decreased stroke volume, reduced plasma volume, and lower maximal aerobic power ((.)Vo(2max)) by approximately 15% to 20%. Over a period of several weeks, one primary acclimatization response is an increase in the volume of red blood cells and consequently of (.)Vo(2max). Altitudes > approximately 2000 m for >3 weeks and adequate iron stores are required to elicit these responses. However, the primacy of more red blood cells for superior sea-level performance is not clear-cut since the best endurance athletes in the world, from Ethiopia (approximately 2000 to 3000 m), have only marginally elevated hemoglobin concentrations. The substantial reduction in (.)Vo(2max) of athletes at moderate altitude implies that their training should include adequate short-duration (approximately 1 to 2 min), high-intensity efforts with long recoveries to avoid a reduction in race-specific fitness. At the elite level, athlete performance is not dependent solely on (.)Vo(2max), and the "smallest worthwhile change" in performance for improving race results is as little as 0.5%. Consequently, contemporary statistical approaches that utilize the concept of the smallest worthwhile change are likely to be more appropriate than conventional statistical methods when attempting to understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of altitude training.

  16. Weird 'Endurance' Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a bizarre, lumpy rock dubbed 'Wopmay' on the inner slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 195 (Aug. 11, 2004). Opportunity will likely travel to this or a similar rock in coming sols for a closer look at the alien surface.

  17. Layers Inside 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of rock layers exposed in the upper portion of the inner slope of 'Endurance Crater' was captured by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from the rover's position inside the crater during Opportunity's 134th sol on June 9, 2004. Scientists and engineers are assessing possible targets and routes among these rocks. The view is looking down into the crater, so the layers at the top of the image lie lower in the crater than the rocks in the foreground.

  18. Weird 'Endurance' Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a bizarre, lumpy rock dubbed 'Wopmay' on the inner slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 195 (Aug. 11, 2004). Opportunity will likely travel to this or a similar rock in coming sols for a closer look at the alien surface.

  19. The Colors of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows visible mineral changes between the materials that make up the rim of the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' The image was taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using all 13 color filters. The cyan blue color denotes basalts, whereas the dark green color denotes a mixture of iron oxide and basaltic materials. Reds and yellows indicate dusty material containing sulfates. Scientists are very interested in exploring the interior and exterior material around the crater's rim for clues to the processes that formed the crater, as well as the rocks and textures that define the crater.

  20. 'Endurance' Untouched (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a polar projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  1. 'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  2. The Temperature of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The colored dots in this image mosaic denote thermal data in features that make up the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' The data was taken by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer instrument on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The information has been overlaid onto a view of the crater from the rover's navigation camera. Blue denotes cooler temperatures of about 220 degrees Kelvin (-63.67 degrees Fahrenheit or -53.15 degrees Celsius), and red denotes warmer temperatures of about 280 degrees Kelvin (44.33 degrees Fahrenheit or 6.85 degrees Celsius).

  3. Layers Inside 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of rock layers exposed in the upper portion of the inner slope of 'Endurance Crater' was captured by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from the rover's position inside the crater during Opportunity's 134th sol on June 9, 2004. Scientists and engineers are assessing possible targets and routes among these rocks. The view is looking down into the crater, so the layers at the top of the image lie lower in the crater than the rocks in the foreground.

  4. Layers Inside 'Endurance'

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-15

    This view of rock layers exposed in the upper portion of the inner slope of "Endurance Crater" was captured by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from the rover's position inside the crater during Opportunity's 134th sol on June 9, 2004. Scientists and engineers are assessing possible targets and routes among these rocks. The view is looking down into the crater, so the layers at the top of the image lie lower in the crater than the rocks in the foreground. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06263

  5. Clouds Over 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Clouds in the martian sky above 'Endurance Crater' in this image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity can remind the viewer that Mars, our celestial neighbor, is subject to weather. On Earth, clouds like these would be referred to as 'cirrus' or theaptly nicknamed 'mares' tails.' These clouds occur in a region of strong vertical shear. The cloud particles (ice in this martiancase) fall out, and get dragged along away from the location where they originally condensed, forming characteristic streamers. Opportunity took this picture with its navigation camera during the rover's 282nd martian day (Nov. 8, 2004).

    The mission's atmospheric science team is studying cloud observations to deduce seasonal and time-of-day behavior of the clouds. This helps them gain a better understanding of processes that control cloud formation.

  6. 'Endurance' Untouched (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree, stereo view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  7. Lizard threat display handicaps endurance.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Y

    2003-01-01

    Honest-signalling theory asserts that threat displays reliably advertise attributes that influence fighting success. Endurance, as measured by treadmill performance, predicts the outcome of agonistic interactions among lizards. If threat displays in lizards function to advertise endurance capacity then variation in threat displays should correlate with endurance. I tested this prediction for the duration of threat posturing in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) and examined whether threat displays act as quality handicaps, reliable signals that expend the attribute that is advertised. Individual variation in the duration of threat posturing correlated with endurance, while an experimental reduction of endurance diminished the duration of threat posturing. As expected of a quality handicap, endurance fell below baseline after display production. A restriction of aerobic metabolism can account for this effect. In threat posturing, lateral compression of the thorax may interfere with respiration or with circulation, limiting aerobic metabolism and causing a compensatory increase in anaerobic metabolism, thereby generating lactate and diminishing locomotor capacity. Concentrations of lactate measured after display production were higher than baseline, consistent with the proposed mechanism. By restricting aerobic metabolism, the threat posture can act as a quality handicap, simultaneously advertising and expending the endurance capacity of displaying lizards. PMID:12803896

  8. LSRA in flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-04-07

    A NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA), in flight over NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, for a test of the space shuttle landing gear system. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  9. LSRA in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA), in flight over NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, for a test of the space shuttle landing gear system. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  10. Reading 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows the area inside 'Endurance Crater' that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been examining. The rover is investigating the distinct layers of rock that make up this region. Each layer is defined by subtle color and texture variations and represents a separate chapter in Mars' history. The deeper the layer, the further back in time the rocks were formed. Scientists are 'reading' this history book by systematically studying each layer with the rover's scientific instruments. So far, data from the rover indicate that the top layers are sulfate-rich, like the rocks observed in 'Eagle Crater.' This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks.

    In figure 1, the layer labeled 'A' in this picture contains broken-up rocks that most closely resemble those of 'Eagle Crater.' Layers 'B,C and D' appear less broken up and more finely laminated. Layer 'E,' on the other hand, looks more like 'A.' At present, the rover is examining layer 'D.'

    So far, data from the rover indicates that the first four layers consist of sulfate-rich, jarosite-containing rocks like those observed in Eagle Crater. This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks, though the materials themselves may have been laid down by wind.

    This image was taken by Opportunity's navigation camera on sol 134 (June 9, 2004).

  11. Reading 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows the area inside 'Endurance Crater' that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been examining. The rover is investigating the distinct layers of rock that make up this region. Each layer is defined by subtle color and texture variations and represents a separate chapter in Mars' history. The deeper the layer, the further back in time the rocks were formed. Scientists are 'reading' this history book by systematically studying each layer with the rover's scientific instruments. So far, data from the rover indicate that the top layers are sulfate-rich, like the rocks observed in 'Eagle Crater.' This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks.

    In figure 1, the layer labeled 'A' in this picture contains broken-up rocks that most closely resemble those of 'Eagle Crater.' Layers 'B,C and D' appear less broken up and more finely laminated. Layer 'E,' on the other hand, looks more like 'A.' At present, the rover is examining layer 'D.'

    So far, data from the rover indicates that the first four layers consist of sulfate-rich, jarosite-containing rocks like those observed in Eagle Crater. This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks, though the materials themselves may have been laid down by wind.

    This image was taken by Opportunity's navigation camera on sol 134 (June 9, 2004).

  12. 'Endurance Crater' Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overview of 'Endurance Crater' traces the path of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from sol 94 (April 29, 2004) to sol 205 (August 21, 2004). The route charted to enter the crater was a bit circuitous, but well worth the extra care engineers took to ensure the rover's safety. On sol 94, Opportunity sat on the edge of this impressive, football field-sized crater while rover team members assessed the scene. After traversing around the 'Karatepe' region and past 'Burns Cliff,' the rover engineering team assessed the possibility of entering the crater. Careful analysis of the angles Opportunity would face, including testing an Earth-bound model on simulated martian terrain, led the team to decide against entering the crater at that particular place. Opportunity then backed up before finally dipping into the crater on its 130th sol (June 5, 2004). The rover has since made its way down the crater's inner slope, grinding, trenching and examining fascinating rocks and soil targets along the way. The rover nearly made it to the intriguing dunes at the bottom of the crater, but when it got close, the terrain did not look safe enough to cross.

  13. Altitude and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (< 2000-2200 m) and/or too short an altitude training period (<3-4 weeks); (2) the training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  14. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  15. Iron and the endurance athlete.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-09-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance. Endurance athletes are at increased risk for suboptimal iron status, with potential negative consequences on performance, because of the combination of increased iron needs and inadequate dietary intake. This review paper summarizes the role of iron in maximal and submaximal exercise and describes the effects of iron deficiency on exercise performance. Mechanisms that explain the increased risk of iron deficiency in endurance athletes, including exercise-associated inflammation and hepcidin release on iron sequestration, are described. Information on screening athletes for iron deficiency is presented, and suggestions to increase iron intake through diet modification or supplemental iron are provided.

  16. Ion thruster system (8-cm) cyclic endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Beattie, J. R.; Poeschel, R. L.; Hyman, J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the qualification test of an Engineering-Model 5-mN-thrust 8-cm-diameter mercury ion thruster which is representative of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) thrusters. Two of these thrusters are scheduled for future flight test. The cyclic endurance test described herein was a ground-based test performed in a vacuum facility with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cryo-surface and a frozen mercury target. The Power Electronics Unit, Beam Shield, Gimal, and Propellant Tank that were used with the thruster in the endurance test are also similar to those of the IAPS. The IAPS thruster that will undergo the longest beam-on-time during the actual space test will be subjected to 7,055 hours of beam-on-time and 2,557 cycles during the flight test. The endurance test was successfully concluded when the mercury in the IAPS Propellant Tank was consumed. At that time, 8,471 hours of beam-on-time and 599 cycles had been accumulated. Subsequent post-test-evaluation operations were performed (without breaking vacuum) which extended the test values to 652 cycles and 9,489 hours of beam-on-time. The Power Electronic Unit (PEU) and thruster were in the same vacuum chamber throughout the test. The PEU accumulated 10,268 hr of test time with high voltage applied to the operating thruster or dummy load.

  17. Enduring Issues In Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel M.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were an important tool recommended by "A Nation at Risk;" however, a generation after that report, many of the problems with student assessment still remain. This article offers brief reflections on three somewhat overlapping but enduring issues in educational assessment: validity, construct underrepresentation in outcome measures in…

  18. Fighting Terrorism: An Enduring Task,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    interview with ADN- Kronos , an Italian news service, was first published in 17. Messaggero. Subsequently it appeared in several European newspapers...ENDURING TASK Brian Michael Jenkins The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California February 1981 The following interview with ADN- Kronos , an Italian news

  19. Side View of 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture from the rear hazard-avoidance camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a side view of 'Endurance Crater.' Opportunity took the image on sol 188 (Aug. 4, 2004), before transmitting it and other data to the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The orbiter then relayed the data to Earth.

  20. 'Endurance' Courtesy of Mars Express

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera to capture this false-color image of the interior of 'Endurance Crater' on the rover's 188th martian day (Aug. 4, 2004). The image data were relayed to Earth by the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The image was generated from separate frames using the cameras 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  1. How Cells Endure Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    One of natures most gripping feats of survival is now better understood. For the first time, Berkeley Lab scientists observed the chemical changes in individual cells that enable them to survive in conditions that should kill them. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/07/07/cells-endure-extremes/

  2. Specificity of Cardiovascular Endurance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Calberth B., Jr.; Johnson, James H.

    This study determined the specificity of cardiovascular endurance training on a bicycle ergometer. Eighteen male subjects were tested on a heart rate response test of 150 beats per minute on a bicycle ergometer at the pace of 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) and at 160 beats per minute at 60 and 80 rpm, with the resistance equal to the force of…

  3. Atrial fibrillation in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    There is a growing population of veteran endurance athletes, regularly participating in training and competition. Although the graded benefit of exercise on cardiovascular health and mortality is well established, recent studies have raised concern that prolonged and strenuous endurance exercise may predispose to atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter are facilitated by atrial remodelling, atrial ectopy, and an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system. Endurance sports practice has an impact on all of these factors and may therefore act as a promoter of these arrhythmias. In an animal model, long-term intensive exercise training induced fibrosis in both atria and increased susceptibility to AF. While the prevalence of AF is low in young competitive athletes, it increases substantially in the aging athlete, which is possibly associated with an accumulation of lifetime training hours and participation in competitions. A recent meta-analysis revealed a 5-fold increased risk of AF in middle-aged endurance athletes with a striking male predominance. Beside physical activity, height and absolute left atrial size are independent risk factors for lone AF and the stature of men per se may explain part of their higher risk of AF. Furthermore, for a comparable amount of training volume and performance, male non-elite athletes exhibit a higher blood pressure at rest and peak exercise, a more concentric type of left ventricular remodelling, and an altered diastolic function, possibly contributing to a more pronounced atrial remodelling. The sports cardiologist should be aware of the distinctive features of AF in athletes. Therapeutic recommendations should be given in close cooperation with an electrophysiologist. Reduction of training volume is often not desired and drug therapy not well tolerated. An early ablation strategy may be appropriate for some athletes with an impaired physical performance, especially when continuation of

  4. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of...

  5. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of...

  6. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of...

  7. Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

  8. Assessing fitness in endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-03-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels.

  9. Out of 'Endurance,' Heading South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity climbed out of 'Endurance Crater' during the rover's 315th sol (Dec. 12, 2004), and used its rear hazard-avoidance camera to look out across the plains south of the crater. After Opportunity examines the nearby heat shield that protected it during its descent through Mars' atmosphere, the rover team plans to drive the rover south to a rugged region described as etched terrain.

  10. 'Endurance' Goal Across the Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera provides an overview of the rover's drive direction toward 'Endurance Crater,' which is in the upper right corner of image.

    The plains appear to be uniform in character from the rovers current position all the way to Endurance Crater. Granules of various sizes blanket the plains. Spherical granules fancifully called blueberries are present some intact and some broken. Larger granules pave the surface, while smaller grains, including broken blueberries, form small dunes. Randomly distributed 1-centimeter (0.4 inch) sized pebbles (as seen just left of center in the foreground of the image) make up a third type of feature on the plains. The pebbles' composition remains to be determined. Scientists plan to examine these in the coming sols.

    Examination of this part of Mars by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter revealed the presence of hematite, which led NASA to choose Meridiani Planum as Opportunity's landing site. The rover science conducted on the plains of Meridiani Planum serves to integrate what the rovers are seeing on the ground with what orbital data have shown.

    Opportunity will make stop at a small crater called 'Fram' (seen in the upper left, with relatively large rocks nearby) before heading to the rim of Endurance Crater.

  11. Common problems in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Cosca, David D; Navazio, Franco

    2007-07-15

    Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries. Tendon overuse injury is degenerative rather than inflammatory. Tendinopathy is often slow to resolve and responds inconsistently to anti-inflammatory agents. Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and lower extremity stress fractures. These injuries are treated with relative rest, usually accompanied by a rehabilitative exercise program. Cyclists may benefit from evaluation on their bicycles and subsequent adjustment of seat height, cycling position, or pedal system. Endurance athletes also are susceptible to exercise-associated medical conditions, including exercise-induced asthma, exercise-associated collapse, and overtraining syndrome. These conditions are treatable or preventable with appropriate medical intervention. Dilutional hyponatremia is increasingly encountered in athletes participating in marathons and triathlons. This condition is related to overhydration with hypotonic fluids and may be preventable with guidance on appropriate fluid intake during competition.

  12. 'Endurance' Goal Across the Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera provides an overview of the rover's drive direction toward 'Endurance Crater,' which is in the upper right corner of image.

    The plains appear to be uniform in character from the rovers current position all the way to Endurance Crater. Granules of various sizes blanket the plains. Spherical granules fancifully called blueberries are present some intact and some broken. Larger granules pave the surface, while smaller grains, including broken blueberries, form small dunes. Randomly distributed 1-centimeter (0.4 inch) sized pebbles (as seen just left of center in the foreground of the image) make up a third type of feature on the plains. The pebbles' composition remains to be determined. Scientists plan to examine these in the coming sols.

    Examination of this part of Mars by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter revealed the presence of hematite, which led NASA to choose Meridiani Planum as Opportunity's landing site. The rover science conducted on the plains of Meridiani Planum serves to integrate what the rovers are seeing on the ground with what orbital data have shown.

    Opportunity will make stop at a small crater called 'Fram' (seen in the upper left, with relatively large rocks nearby) before heading to the rim of Endurance Crater.

  13. Space shuttle horizontal flight test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosley, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A horizontal takeoff flight test concept for testing space shuttle vehicles is presented. The guidelines used in planning and support requirements for the flight tests are developed. Details of the test program are provided. The instrumentation requirements are defined. The limitations imposed by the short flight endurance and restricted maneuvering capability of the shuttle booster/orbiter in the horizontal mode are described. The test program covers the following investigations. (1) stall and lift boundary tests, (2)takeoff and landing tests, (3) level flight speed power tests, (4) longitudinal and laterial directional dynamic stability, and (5) static directional stability.

  14. The limits of endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Timothy David

    2006-09-01

    A skeletal design which favours running and walking, including the greatest ratio of leg length to body weight of any mammal; the ability to sweat and so to exercise vigorously in the heat; and greater endurance than all land mammals other than the Alaskan Husky, indicates that humans evolved as endurance animals. The development of tools to accurately measure time and distance in the nineteenth century inspired some humans to define the limits of this special capacity. Beginning with Six-Day Professional Pedestrian Races in London and New York in the 1880s, followed a decade later by Six-Day Professional Cycling Races - the immediate precursor of the first six-day Tour de France Cycliste race in 1903, which itself inspired the 1928 and 1929 4,960 km "Bunion Derbies" between Los Angeles and New York across the breadth of the United States of America - established those unique sporting events that continue to challenge the modern limits of human endurance. But an analysis of the total energy expenditure achieved by athletes competing in those events establishes that none approaches those reached by another group - the explorers of the heroic age of polar exploration in the early twentieth century. Thus the greatest recorded human endurance performances occurred during the Antarctic sledding expeditions led by Robert Scott in 1911/12 and Ernest Shackleton in 1914/16. By man-hauling sleds for 10 hours daily for approximately 159 and 160 consecutive days respectively, members of those expeditions would have expended close to a total of 1,000,000 kcal. By comparison completing a Six-Day Pedestrian event (55,000 kcal) or the Tour de France (168,000 kcal), or cycling (180,000 kcal) or running (340,000 kcal) across America, requires a considerably smaller total energy expenditure. Thus the limits of human endurance were set at the start of the twentieth century and have not recently been approached. Given good health and an adequate food supply to prevent starvation and

  15. Training modalities: impact on endurance capacity.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Martin; Eilers, Wouter

    2010-03-01

    Endurance athletes demonstrate an exceptional resistance to fatigue when exercising at high intensity. Much research has been devoted to the contribution of aerobic capacity for the economy of endurance performance. Important aspects of the fine-tuning of metabolic processes and power output in the endurance athlete have been overlooked. This review addresses how training paradigms exploit bioenergetic pathways in recruited muscle groups to promote the endurance phenotype. A special focus is laid on the genome-mediated mechanisms that underlie the conditioning of fatigue resistance and aerobic performance by training macrocycles and complements. The available data on work-induced muscle plasticity implies that different biologic strategies are exploited in athletic and untrained populations to boost endurance capacity. Olympic champions are probably endowed with a unique constitution that renders the conditioning of endurance capacity for competition particularly efficient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seeing 'Endurance' Through Infrared Eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Surface composition in 'Endurance Crater' is mapped with color-coded interpretation of data from the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The information has been overlaid onto a view of the crater from Opportunity's panoramic camera. Green, such as on some slopes, indicates material rich in the mineral hematite. Blue and purple, such as on some cliffs of exposed rock, indicate the presence of basalt. Basaltic material is volcanic in origin, but the basalt may have been broken down into sand by weathering, then re-deposited by wind or water. Red indicates areas covered by martian dust.

  17. Seeing 'Endurance' Through Infrared Eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Surface composition in 'Endurance Crater' is mapped with color-coded interpretation of data from the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The information has been overlaid onto a view of the crater from Opportunity's panoramic camera. Green, such as on some slopes, indicates material rich in the mineral hematite. Blue and purple, such as on some cliffs of exposed rock, indicate the presence of basalt. Basaltic material is volcanic in origin, but the basalt may have been broken down into sand by weathering, then re-deposited by wind or water. Red indicates areas covered by martian dust.

  18. 'Endurance' Looms on the Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera was taken from a rover position approximately 70 meters (about 230 feet) from the rim of 'Endurance Crater' on the rover's 93rd sol on Mars. The foreground highlights the now familiar ripples and dimples, common on the plains of Meridiani Planum. Some rock outcrop is seen emerging on the hill to the left, indicating that the rover is driving through the eroded remnants of the crater's ejecta blanket and is getting close to its rim. This light-colored outcrop is probably similar to the rocks seen at 'Fram Crater' and 'Anatolia,' and studied in detail at 'Eagle Crater.' The Eagle Crater rocks are believed to have been deposited in an open body of water. The science team is intrigued by the darker rock on the far side of the crater wall. Just right of the center, on the far crater wall, rocks appear to form thick, massive layers, suggesting they may have been formed by a different geologic processes than the lighter rocks in the foreground. The greater thickness of layered rocks at Endurance Crater will provide the team with a longer record of geologic processes operating at Meridiani Planum.

  19. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  20. [Fasting and physical endurance capacity].

    PubMed

    Schürch, P M

    1993-03-01

    Fasting, or zero calorie diets are used not only by overweight people as a means of losing weight, but by athletes too. Their use is then explained on philosophical grounds, with the aim of even enhancing sports performance. The purpose of this investigation consisted of quantifying the effects of a 10-day fast on maximum performance capacity and endurance (as measured on a bicycle ergometer) of 12 female students of physical education of normal weight. The measurements included resting and exercise metabolism determinants, as well as weight and lean body mass. The main results show that after the diet period the maximum ergometric performance was lower in absolute terms as well as in relation to weight or lean body mass. Performance capacity for submaximal exercise was also reduced. Fat combustion was enhanced both at rest and during exercise. The reduction of maximum performance and endurance capacity may be explained by an enhanced muscle breakdown, an efficiency drop of muscular work, and an inadequate glycogen content of the acting muscles. Shorter fasting periods of 24-36 hours also lead to a lower performance level for exercise bouts extending from several minutes to 1-3 hours. An enhancement of fat combustion was always conspicuous. One may conclude that optimal physical performance is dependent on full hepatic and muscle glycogen stores. Glycogen concentration in the liver decreases sharply as a matter of fact after merely one day of carbohydrate shortage. Zero calorie or low carbohydrate diets are thus at variance with an optimal physical work capacity.

  1. Flight Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    lefthand corner of the flight envelope relatively unexplored. This is precisely the flight regime where asymmetric thrust is most critical, however, due...seven data flights were conducted in the late spring of 1979. Seven right-seat subjects (all Caispan employees ) with differing flight experience were

  2. Along Endurance Crater's Inner Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view from the base of 'Burns Cliff' in the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater' combines several frames taken by Opportunity's navigation camera during the NASA rover's 280th martian day (Nov. 6, 2004). It is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. The cliff dominates the left and right portions of the image, while the central portion looks down into the crater. The 'U' shape of this mosaic results from the rover's tilt of about 30 degrees on the sloped ground below the cliff. Rover wheel tracks in the left half of the image show some of the slippage the rover experienced in making its way to this point. The site from which this image was taken has been designated as Opportunity's Site 37.

  3. Myasthenia gravis and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Bernd Volker; Valero-Burgos, Encarna; Costa, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of a runner with myasthenia gravis who completed an ultra endurance event. Myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease that usually results in skeletal muscle weakness, which worsens with exercise and strenuous aerobic exercise, is generally contraindicated. Our runner completed a 220-km, 5-day ultramarathon and presented with various symptoms including muscular skeletal weakness, cramps, generalized fatigue, unintelligible speech, involuntary eye and mouth movements, problems swallowing, food lodging in his throat, and problems breathing. Risk factors identified for exacerbations are running in extreme temperatures, prolonged runs (especially a distance of 30 km or more), running uphill, lack of sleep, and stress. The medical team was in the novel situation to look after a runner with myasthenia gravis and needed to be aware of the patient's condition, symptoms, and risk factors to safely care for him.

  4. Relationship between scapular muscle and core endurance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hazar Kanik, Zeynep; Pala, Omer Osman; Gunaydin, Gurkan; Sozlu, Ugur; Alkan, Zeynep Beyza; Basar, Selda; Citaker, Seyit

    2017-01-01

    Scapular muscle endurance and core endurance reportedly influence shoulder injury risk. The exact relationship between scapular muscle endurance and core endurance, and how they impact one another in the healthy subjects remain unclear. To investigate the relationship between scapular muscle endurance and core endurance in healthy subjects. Fifty healthy volunteers (23 males, 27 females; mean age 20.42 ± 1.04 years) were participated in this study. Endurance of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles was assessed using the scapular muscle endurance test. Sorensen test (endurance of trunk extensor muscles), trunk flexor endurance test, and side bridge test (endurance of lateral core muscles) were conducted to assess the core endurance. Pearson's product moment correlations examined relationships between scapular muscle endurance and each of the core endurance tests scores. Scapular muscle endurance test scores showed a positive correlation with the side bridge test scores (r = 0.414; p = 0.003). No significant correlation was found between scapular muscle endurance test scores and the other core endurance tests scores (p > 0.05). There appears to be a link between the scapular muscle endurance and lateral core muscles in healthy subjects; however, more research is needed to provide a definitive answer on the nature of this relationship. Further studies involving patients with shoulder pathology are warranted.

  5. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance Tests used Pre- and Post-Spaceflight: Test-Retest Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Amonette, William E.

    2009-01-01

    To assess changes in muscular strength and endurance after microgravity exposure, NASA measures isokinetic strength and endurance across multiple sessions before and after long-duration space flight. Accurate interpretation of pre- and post-flight measures depends upon the reliability of each measure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) isokinetic protocol. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 M/12 F, 32.0 +/- 5.6 years) volunteered to participate. Isokinetic knee, ankle, and trunk flexion and extension strength as well as endurance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using a Cybex NORM isokinetic dynamometer. The first weekly session was considered a familiarization session. Data were collected and analyzed for weeks 2-4. Repeated measures analysis of variance (alpha=0.05) was used to identify weekly differences in isokinetic measures. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (3,1). No significant differences were found between weeks in any of the strength measures and the reliability of the strength measures were all considered excellent (ICC greater than 0.9), except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion (ICC=0.67). Although a significant difference was noted in weekly endurance measures of knee extension (p less than 0.01), the reliability of endurance measure by week were considered excellent for knee flexion (ICC=0.97) and knee extension (ICC=0.96). Except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion, the isokinetic strength and endurance measures are highly reliable when following the NASA ISS protocol. This protocol should allow accurate interpretation isokinetic data even with a small number of crew members.

  6. Economy and Endurance in Human Evolution.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman

    2017-06-19

    The evolutionary pressures shaping humans' unique bipedal locomotion have been a focus of research since Darwin, but the origins of humans' economical walking gait and endurance running capabilities remain unclear. Here, I review the anatomical and physiological determinants of locomotor economy (e.g., limb length and posture) and endurance (e.g., muscle volume and fiber type) and investigate their development in the hominin fossil record. The earliest hominins were bipedal but retained ape-like features in the hind limb that would have limited their walking economy compared to living humans. Moreover, the evolution of bipedalism and the loss of the forelimbs in weight support and propulsion would have reduced locomotor endurance in the earliest hominins and likely restricted ranging. Australopithecus evinced longer hind limbs, extended limb posture, and a stiff midfoot, suggesting improved, human-like economy, but were likely still limited in their endurance compared to modern humans. The appearance of skeletal traits related to endurance (e.g., larger limb joints, spring-like plantar arch) in Homo was somewhat mosaic, with the full endurance suite apparent only ∼1 million years ago. The development of endurance capabilities in Homo appears to parallel the evolutionary increase in brain size, cognitive sophistication, and metabolic rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Testing of Badminton-Specific Endurance.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Christian M; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Madsen, CM, Højlyng, M, and Nybo, L. Testing of badminton-specific endurance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2582-2590, 2016-In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance (B-ENDURANCE) test was developed and tested in elite (n = 17) and skilled (n = 9) badminton players and in age-matched physically active men (nonbadminton players; n = 8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility was evaluated in 9 badminton players. The B-ENDURANCE test is an incremental test where each level consists of repeated sequences of badminton-specific actions toward the 4 corners of the court. The subject starts in the center of the court in front of a computer screen and within each sequence, he must, in a randomized order, complete 8 actions as dictated by the computer, providing the audiovisual input and verifying that the appropriate sensor is activated within the allocated time. Recovery time between each sequence is 10 seconds throughout the test, but the time to complete each sequence is gradually decreased until the subjects cannot follow the dictated tempo. The B-ENDURANCE test performance for elite players was better (p ≤ 0.05) compared with the skilled players and nonbadminton players. In addition, the B-ENDURANCE test performance correlated (r = 0.8 and p < 0.0001) with elite players' national single rankings. Test-retest coefficient of variation was 7.9% between the first 2 trials (i.e., without a familiarization trial) but reduced to 2.5% when comparing the second and third trials. In conclusion, the B-ENDURANCE test is relevant for the evaluation of badminton-specific endurance but at least 1 familiarization trial is recommended if the test is used for evaluation of longitudinal changes, e.g., tracking training effects.

  8. Comparison of peripheral sudomotor sensitivity to acetylcholine in endurance and non-endurance trained male subjects.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Oh; Lee, Jeong Beom

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effect of endurance and non-endurance training on peripheral sudomotor sensitivity. The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) was performed. Endurance-trained subjects (ET, long-distance runners) had a significantly shorter onset time of sweating, greater sweat volume, increased density of activated sweat glands and sweat gland output per single activated gland, greater volume of transepidermal water loss, and higher skin temperature compared with those in the other 2 groups [non-endurance-trained group (NET), sedentary control group (CT)]. NET subjects (baseball players) had a tendency to increase in these variables; thus, some values were greater than control subjects. These results suggest that endurance training much more effectively modifies sudomotor sensitivity than non-endurance training. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Long endurance underwater power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-01-01

    The development and design of deep sea power sources for long endurances (more than 1 year) and moderate power (more than 1 KW) are unique. The best primary battery (Li-thionyl chloride) would involve huge space and weight and the cost of such a system would be prohibitive. Fuel cells with stored gases need a pressure vessel and also quite a large volume and weight. Aquanautics is engaged in developing a power source to a very demanding design. The design would involve a completely open system eliminating the need for a pressure vessel. Aquanautics will capture oxygen from the seawater to be delivered to a fuel cell. The hydrogen generated in this design is envisioned to be from a reaction between aluminum and seawater. Such a completely open system is already available from Alupower, Inc. This provides for a much safer and more compact design than cryogenic hydrogen. Lithium or magnesium can also be used. Both are expensive and lithium is known to be potentially hazardous. Since the last report, there has been major improvement of the technological issue of carrier longevity. The previous carrier had an operational life of 3 days. At present, Aquanautics has discovered a carrier called 23SuzyP which has stable electrochemical performance for over a month.

  10. Caffeine and taurine enhance endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Imagawa, T F; Hirano, I; Utsuki, K; Horie, M; Naka, A; Matsumoto, K; Imagawa, S

    2009-07-01

    Caffeine enhances endurance performance; however, its effect on accumulated lactate remains unclear. Conversely, taurine, which also enhances endurance performance, decreases accumulated lactate. In this study, the effect of combination of caffeine and taurine on endurance performance was assessed. Mice ran on a treadmill, and the accumulated lactate was measured. In addition, muscle fibers from the gastrocnemius muscle of the mice were stained with ATPase and analyzed. The use of caffeine and taurine over a 2 week period enhanced endurance performance. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased the accumulated concentration of lactate over long running distances. However, the diameter of the cross-sections and ratios of Types I, IIA, and IIB muscle fibers were not affected.

  11. Daedalus - Last Dryden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  12. Maximal endurance time at VO2max.

    PubMed

    Morton, R H; Billat, V

    2000-08-01

    There has been significant recent interest in the minimal running velocity which elicits VO2max. There also exists a maximal velocity, beyond which the subject becomes exhausted before VO2max is reached. Between these limits, there must be some velocity that permits maximum endurance at VO2max, and this parameter has also been of recent interest. This study was undertaken to model the system and investigate these parameters. We model the bioenergetic process based on a two-component (aerobic and anaerobic) energy system, a two-component (fast and slow) oxygen uptake system, and a linear control system for maximal attainable velocity resulting from declining anaerobic reserves as exercise proceeds. Ten male subjects each undertook four trials in random order, running until exhaustion at velocities corresponding to 90, 100, 120, and 140% of the minimum velocity estimated as being required to elicit their individual VO2max. The model development produces a skewed curve for endurance time at VO2max, with a single maximum. This curve has been successfully fitted to endurance data collected from all 10 subjects (R2 = 0.821, P < 0.001). For this group of subjects, the maximal endurance time at VO2max can be achieved running at a pace corresponding to 88% of the minimal velocity, which elicits VO2max as measured in an incremental running test. Average maximal endurance at VO2max is predicted to be 603 s in a total endurance time of 1024 s at this velocity. Endurance time at VO2max can be realistically modeled by a curve, which permits estimation of several parameters of interest; such as the minimal running velocity sufficient to elicit VO2max, and that velocity for which endurance at VO2max is the longest.

  13. Feeding management of elite endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patricia

    2009-04-01

    This article reviews the principles of feeding management for endurance horses. The amount and type of dietary energy (calories) are key considerations in dietary management, because (1) there is evidence that the body condition score, an indicator of overall energy balance, influences endurance exercise performance, and (2) the source of dietary energy (ie, carbohydrate versus fat calories) impacts health, metabolism, and athletic performance. Optimal performance is also dependent on provision of adequate feed, water, and electrolytes on race day.

  14. Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) Flight Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, John M.; Haynes, Mark A.; Wing, David J.; Burke, Kelly A.; Henderson, Jeff; Woods, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) is a cockpit decision support tool that has the potential to achieve significant fuel and time savings when it is embedded in the data-rich Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. To address a key step towards the operational deployment of TAP and the NASA concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR), a system evaluation was conducted in a representative flight environment in November, 2013. Numerous challenges were overcome to achieve this goal, including the porting of the foundational Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) software from its original simulation-based, avionics-embedded environment to an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) platform. A flight-test aircraft was modified to host the EFB, the TAP application, an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) processor, and a satellite broadband datalink. Nine Evaluation Pilots conducted 26 hours of TAP assessments using four route profiles in the complex eastern and north-eastern United States airspace. Extensive avionics and video data were collected, supplemented by comprehensive inflight and post-flight questionnaires. TAP was verified to function properly in the live avionics and ADS-B environment, characterized by recorded data dropouts, latency, and ADS-B message fluctuations. Twelve TAP-generated optimization requests were submitted to ATC, of which nine were approved, and all of which resulted in fuel and/or time savings. Analysis of subjective workload data indicated that pilot interaction with TAP during flight operations did not induce additional cognitive loading. Additionally, analyses of post-flight questionnaire data showed that the pilots perceived TAP to be useful, understandable, intuitive, and easy to use. All program objectives were met, and the next phase of TAP development and evaluations with partner airlines is in planning for 2015.

  15. Perseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle in flight at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California in 1991. Perseus is one of several remotely-piloted aircraft designed for high-altitude, long-endurance scientific sampling missions being evaluated under the ERAST program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially

  16. Perseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle in flight at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California in 1991. Perseus is one of several remotely-piloted aircraft designed for high-altitude, long-endurance scientific sampling missions being evaluated under the ERAST program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially

  17. Reactivity of organism in prolonged space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyev, P. V.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of published data are presented as well as the results of experiments which show that the state of weightlessness and hypodynamia result in a reduced orthostatic and vestibular resistance, increased sensitivity to infections, decreased endurance of accelerations and physical exercises, and altered reactivity of the organism to drugs. Various consequences of weightlessness on the human body, especially weightlessness combined with other factors linked to long space flights are also considered.

  18. STS-78 Flight Day 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this thirteenth day of the STS-78 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Terence T. Henricks, Pilot Kevin R. Kregel, Payload Cmdr. Susan J. Helms, Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Charles E. Brady, Jr., and Payload Specialists Jean-Jacques Favier, Ph.D. and Robert B. Thirsk, M.D., begin another day of scientific investigations on board Columbia as the Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission continues its endurance record. The seven crew members continue supporting a variety of experiments investigating the effects of microgravity on the human body. Studies looking at muscle strength and energy expenditure and pulmonary function continue throughout the day, as well as the processing of advanced semiconductor materials and alloys in the Advanced Gradient Heating Facility. In an interview with the NBC News, Mission Commander Tom Henricks is shown discussing Columbia's flight and the varied experiments that are being conducted on board. Crew members are shown participating in tests that measure their performance.

  19. Postactivation potentiation and muscular endurance training.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate muscle twitch force potentiation after voluntary conditioning contractions (CC) of various intensities and the CC duration necessary to achieve maximal potentiation before and after muscular endurance training. Fourteen healthy men and women (23.6 ± 0.96 years of age) performed repeated CCs of 25%, 50%, and 100% maximal voluntary contraction of the adductor pollicis muscle until maximal potentiation. CCs were followed by electrically evoked twitches. The training group performed a fatigue task and endurance trained for 8 weeks. Endurance time increased by 79.8 ± 22.5% posttraining. Potentiation occurred after all CC intensities and was greater after training. The CC duration needed to achieve maximal potentiation decreased as CC intensity increased. Potentiation was greater during the fatigue task after compared to before training and was correlated with endurance time. An increase in muscle force potentiation may function as a mechanism to prolong muscular endurance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo.

    PubMed

    Bramble, Dennis M; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2004-11-18

    Striding bipedalism is a key derived behaviour of hominids that possibly originated soon after the divergence of the chimpanzee and human lineages. Although bipedal gaits include walking and running, running is generally considered to have played no major role in human evolution because humans, like apes, are poor sprinters compared to most quadrupeds. Here we assess how well humans perform at sustained long-distance running, and review the physiological and anatomical bases of endurance running capabilities in humans and other mammals. Judged by several criteria, humans perform remarkably well at endurance running, thanks to a diverse array of features, many of which leave traces in the skeleton. The fossil evidence of these features suggests that endurance running is a derived capability of the genus Homo, originating about 2 million years ago, and may have been instrumental in the evolution of the human body form.

  1. Flight Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  2. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  3. Enduring Mental Health: Prevalence and Prediction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We review epidemiological evidence indicating that most people will develop a diagnosable mental disorder, suggesting that only a minority experience enduring mental health. This minority has received little empirical study, leaving the prevalence and predictors of enduring mental health unknown. We turn to the population-representative Dunedin cohort, followed from birth to midlife, to compare people never-diagnosed with mental disorder (N = 171; 17% prevalence) to those diagnosed at 1–2 study waves, the cohort mode (N = 409). Surprisingly, compared to this modal group, never-diagnosed Study members were not born into unusually well-to-do families, nor did their enduring mental health follow markedly sound physical health, or unusually high intelligence. Instead, they tended to have an advantageous temperament/personality style, and negligible family history of mental disorder. As adults, they report superior educational and occupational attainment, greater life satisfaction, and higher-quality relationships. Our findings draw attention to “enduring mental health” as a revealing psychological phenotype and suggest it deserves further study. PMID:27929304

  4. Passion and Pacing in Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2017-01-01

    Endurance sports are booming, with sports passionates of varying skills and expertise battering city streets and back roads on their weekly or daily exercise rounds. The investments required for performing in endurance exercise are nevertheless considerable, and passion for their sport might explain the efforts endurance athletes are willing to make. Passion may be defined as a strong motivational force and as such might be related to the neurophysiological basis underlying the drive to exercise. A complex relationship between the brain and other systems is responsible for athletes' exercise behavior and thus performance in sports. We anticipate important consequences of athletes' short term choices, for example concerning risk taking actions, on long term outcomes, such as injuries, overtraining and burnout. We propose to consider athletes' type of passion, in combination with neurophysiological parameters, as an explanatory factor inunderstanding the apparent disparity in the regulation of exercise intensity during endurance sports. Previous research has demonstrated that athletes can be passionate toward their sport in either a harmonious or an obsessive way. Although both lead to considerable investments and therefore often to successful performances, obsessive passion may affect athlete well-being and performance on the long run, due to the corresponding inflexible exercise behavior. In this perspective we will thus examine the influence of passion in sport on athletes' short term and long term decision-making and exercise behavior, in particular related to the regulation of exercise intensity, and discuss the expected long term effects of both types of passion for sport. PMID:28265245

  5. Piaget's Enduring Contribution to Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilin, Harry

    1992-01-01

    Describes Jean Piaget's transformation of society's conception of childhood thought. Emphasizes the enduring contribution to developmental psychology of Piaget's constructivism, his description of developmental mechanisms, his cognitivism, his explication of structural and functional analysis, and his addressing of epistemological issues and…

  6. Reassessing the structure of enduring leisure involvement

    Treesearch

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; Symeon P. Vlachopoulos; Nicholas D. Theodorakis; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from U.S. and Greek respondents, we tested an alternate conceptualization of enduring leisure involvement where identity was considered a key driver of other affective and conative outcomes. Rather than existing on the same temporal plane, as has been the tradition in the leisure literature, we observed that identity was an antecedent of the other...

  7. The Personal Meaning of Participation: Enduring Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…

  8. Relationship between mental toughness and physical endurance.

    PubMed

    Crust, Lee; Clough, Peter J

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the criterion validity of the inventory, Mental Toughness 48, by assessing the correlation between mental toughness and physical endurance for 41 male undergraduate sports students. A significant correlation of .34 was found between scores for overall mental toughness and the time a relative weight could be held suspended. Results support the criterion-related validity of the Mental Toughness 48.

  9. Coaction Effects on a Muscular Endurance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; Landers, Daniel M.

    1969-01-01

    A common procedure in administering muscular endurance tests is to have several individuals perform the same task at the same time. A very old psychological concept known as social facilitation suggests that an individual's performance may be affected by the presence of others. (CK)

  10. Reassessing the causal structure of enduring involvement

    Treesearch

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2009-01-01

    Guided by tenets of identity theory, we hypothesized a causal structure of enduring involvement suggesting that self-relevant components precede the other dimensions. We used Kyle et al.'s (2004a) Modified Involvement Scale, in which leisure involvement is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of identity affirmation, identity expression,...

  11. Coaction Effects on a Muscular Endurance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; Landers, Daniel M.

    1969-01-01

    A common procedure in administering muscular endurance tests is to have several individuals perform the same task at the same time. A very old psychological concept known as social facilitation suggests that an individual's performance may be affected by the presence of others. (CK)

  12. Endurance of Undergraduate Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward older adults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…

  13. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each... power turbine rotor assembly to the engine shaft output. (7) During the runs at any rated power or... engines with augmented takeoff power ratings that involve increases in turbine inlet temperature,...

  14. Enduring Legacy? Charles Tilly and Durable Inequality.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kim

    2010-12-01

    This article assesses Charles Tilly's Durable Inequality and traces its influence. In writing Durable Inequality, Tilly sought to shift the research agenda of stratification scholars. But the book's initial impact was disappointing. In recent years, however, its influence has grown, suggesting a more enduring legacy.

  15. Passion and Pacing in Endurance Performance.

    PubMed

    Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2017-01-01

    Endurance sports are booming, with sports passionates of varying skills and expertise battering city streets and back roads on their weekly or daily exercise rounds. The investments required for performing in endurance exercise are nevertheless considerable, and passion for their sport might explain the efforts endurance athletes are willing to make. Passion may be defined as a strong motivational force and as such might be related to the neurophysiological basis underlying the drive to exercise. A complex relationship between the brain and other systems is responsible for athletes' exercise behavior and thus performance in sports. We anticipate important consequences of athletes' short term choices, for example concerning risk taking actions, on long term outcomes, such as injuries, overtraining and burnout. We propose to consider athletes' type of passion, in combination with neurophysiological parameters, as an explanatory factor inunderstanding the apparent disparity in the regulation of exercise intensity during endurance sports. Previous research has demonstrated that athletes can be passionate toward their sport in either a harmonious or an obsessive way. Although both lead to considerable investments and therefore often to successful performances, obsessive passion may affect athlete well-being and performance on the long run, due to the corresponding inflexible exercise behavior. In this perspective we will thus examine the influence of passion in sport on athletes' short term and long term decision-making and exercise behavior, in particular related to the regulation of exercise intensity, and discuss the expected long term effects of both types of passion for sport.

  16. Opportunity Spies 'Endurance' on the Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows the eastern plains that stretch beyond the small crater where the rover landed. In the distance, the rim of a larger crater dubbed 'Endurance' can be seen.

    This color mosaic was taken on the 32nd martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission and spans 20 degrees of the horizon. It was taken while Opportunity was parked at the north end of the outcrop, in front of the rock region dubbed 'El Capitan' and facing east.

    The features seen at the horizon are the near and far rims of 'Endurance,' the largest crater within about 6 kilometers (4 miles) of the lander. Using orbital data from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, scientists estimated the crater to be 160 meters (175 yards) in diameter, and about 720 meters (half a mile) away from the lander.

    The highest point visible on 'Endurance' is the highest point on the far wall of the crater; the sun is illuminating the inside of the far wall.

    Between the location where the image was taken at 'El Capitan' and 'Endurance' are the flat, smooth Meridiani plains, which scientists believe are blanketed in the iron-bearing mineral called hematite. The dark horizontal feature near the bottom of the picture is a small, five-meter (16-feet) crater, only 50 meters (164 feet) from Opportunity's present position. When the rover leaves the crater some 2 to 3 weeks from now, 'Endurance' is one of several potential destinations.

  17. Endurance exercise as a countermeasure for aging.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Ian R; Short, Daniel K; Short, Kevin R; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Basu, Rita; Joyner, Michael J; McConnell, Joseph P; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2008-11-01

    We determined whether reduced insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and other age-related dysfunctions are inevitable consequences of aging or secondary to physical inactivity. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and ATP production in mitochondria isolated from vastus lateralis biopsies of 42 healthy sedentary and endurance-trained young (18-30 years old) and older (59-76 years old) subjects. Expression of proteins involved in fuel metabolism was measured by mass spectrometry. Citrate synthase activity, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance, and expression of nuclear-encoded transcription factors for mitochondrial biogenesis were measured. SIRT3, a mitochondrial sirtuin linked to lifespan-enhancing effects of caloric restriction, was measured by immunoblot. Insulin-induced glucose disposal and suppression of endogenous glucose production were higher in the trained young and older subjects, but no age effect was noted. Age-related decline in mitochondrial oxidative capacity was absent in endurance-trained individuals. Although endurance-trained individuals exhibited higher expression of mitochondrial proteins, mtDNA, and mitochondrial transcription factors, there were persisting effects of age. SIRT3 expression was lower with age in sedentary but equally elevated regardless of age in endurance-trained individuals. The results demonstrate that reduced insulin sensitivity is likely related to changes in adiposity and to physical inactivity rather than being an inevitable consequence of aging. The results also show that regular endurance exercise partly normalizes age-related mitochondrial dysfunction, although there are persisting effects of age on mtDNA abundance and expression of nuclear transcription factors and mitochondrial protein. Furthermore, exercise may promote longevity through pathways common to effects of caloric restriction.

  18. Fire endurance research at the Forest Products Laboratory

    Treesearch

    R. H. White

    1990-01-01

    Fire endurance research activities and facilities at the FPL concern the ability of a wood member or assembly to withstand the effects of fire while acting as a fire barrier and supporting a load. Fire endurance is generally concerned with the post-flashover portion of the fire. The importance of fire endurance in fire safety is reflected in building code requirements...

  19. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Same-Session Combined Endurance and Strength Training in Recreational Endurance Runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, M; Pelttari, P; Doma, K; Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, K

    2016-12-01

    This study examined neuromuscular adaptations in recreational endurance runners during 24 weeks of same-session combined endurance and strength training (E+S, n=13) vs. endurance training only (E, n=14). Endurance training was similar in the 2 groups (4-6x/week). Additional maximal and explosive strength training was performed in E+S always after incremental endurance running sessions (35-45 min, 65-85% HRmax). Maximal dynamic leg press strength remained statistically unaltered in E+S but decreased in E at week 24 (-5±5%, p=0.014, btw-groups at week 12 and 24, p=0.014 and 0.011). Isometric leg press and unilateral knee extension force, EMG of knee extensors and voluntary activation remained statistically unaltered in E+S and E. The changes in muscle cross-sectional (CSA) differed between the 2 groups after 12 (E+S+6±8%, E -5±6%, p<0.001) and 24 (E+S+7±7%, E -6±5%, p<0.001) weeks. 1 000 m running time determined during an incremental field test decreased in E+S and E after 12 (-7±3%, p<0.001 and -8±5%, p=0.001) and 24 (-9±5%, p=0.001 and -13±5%, p<0.001) weeks. Strength training performed always after an endurance running session did not lead to increased maximal strength, CSA, EMG or voluntary activation. This possibly contributed to the finding of no endurance performance benefits in E+S compared to E. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Myocardial fibrosis in an veteran endurance athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mathew; O'Hanlon, Rory; Prasad, Sanjay; Basavarajaiah, Sandeep; Stephens, Nigel; Senior, Roxy; Shaw, Anthony; Sharma, Sanjay; Whyte, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the cardiac structure and function of a lifelong male endurance athlete, who has run over 148 000 miles, who presented with symptoms of chest discomfort, dyspnoea and loss of competitive running performance. Importantly, the athlete documented several periods of regular intensive endurance activity while suffering with flu-like symptoms. Cardiovascular MRI demonstrated a pattern of late gadolinium enhancement, which indicated myocardial scarring as a result of previous myocarditis. Myocarditis is a non-ischaemic inflammatory disease of the myocardium associated with cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmogenic substrate. The clinical course of viral myocarditis is mostly insidious with limited cardiac inflammation and dysfunction. However, as in the present case, overwhelming inflammation may occur in a subset of patients leading to myocardial fibrosis due to recurrent inflammation. PMID:21847425

  1. Medium Altitude Endurance Unmanned Air Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Larry L.

    1994-10-01

    The medium altitude endurance unmanned air vehicle (MAE UAV) program (formerly the tactical endurance TE UAV) is a new effort initiated by the Department of Defense to develop a ground launched UAV that can fly out 500 miles, remain on station for 24 hours, and return. It will transmit high resolution optical, infrared, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of well-defended target areas through satellite links. It will provide near-real-time, releasable, low cost/low risk surveillance, targeting and damage assessment complementary to that of satellites and manned aircraft. The paper describes specific objectives of the MAE UAV program (deliverables and schedule) and the program's unique position as one of several programs to streamline the acquisition process under the cognizance of the newly established Airborne Reconnaissance Office. I discuss the system requirements and operational concept and describe the technical capabilities and characteristics of the major subsystems (airframe, propulsion, navigation, sensors, communication links, ground station, etc.) in some detail.

  2. Norms for an isometric muscle endurance test.

    PubMed

    Strand, Sarah L; Hjelm, John; Shoepe, Todd C; Fajardo, Marie A

    2014-03-27

    Musculoskeletal performance assessment is critical in the analysis of physical training programs in order to prioritize goals for decreasing injury risk and focusing performance goals. Abdominal endurance as part of this analysis is often assessed with techniques that have validity that has been debated in literature. The purpose of this study was to develop normative sex- and athlete-specific percentiles for a trunk stabilization and muscular endurance by using a prone forearm plank test in college-aged students. A second purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of habitual physical activity and the reason for test termination. There were 471 participants (means ± SE; males: n = 194, age 20.4 ± 0.2 years, body height 179.4 ± 0.5 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 1.2 kg; females: n = 277, age 20.2 ± 0.2 years, body height 165.7 ± 0.4 cm, body mass 63.9 ± 0.7 kg) who performed this test to volitional or technique failure. Males produced significantly higher test durations than females (means ± SD; 124 ± 72 seconds vs. 83 ± 63 seconds) and athletes produced significantly longer test durations than non-athletes (123 ± 69 s vs. 83 ± 63 s) but no interaction effects were seen in the variables of sex and athletic status. The activity level was found to have a threshold of influence (>3 times/week) on abdominal endurance that is dose-specific where greater than 5 times/week showed the greatest influence. The fatigue of the abdominals was the termination reason producing the lowest test duration and there was no sex effect on reason for test termination. These normative percentiles for abdominal endurance suggest that the abdominal plank test can now be used as an alternative to other abdominal assessments in college students, but further investigation is warranted prior to confirmation and generalization to other populations.

  3. New Look at 'Endurance' via Mars Express

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of the interior slope and rim of 'Endurance Crater' comes from the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity with an assist from the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. Opportunity took the three frames that make up this image on the rover's 188th martian day (Aug. 4, 2004), before transmitting this and other data to Mars Express. The orbiter then relayed the data to Earth. Rover wheel tracks are visible in the foreground.

  4. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuan; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  5. Arctigenin Efficiently Enhanced Sedentary Mice Treadmill Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases. PMID:21887385

  6. Small UAV Research and Evolution in Long Endurance Electric Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Chu, Julio; Motter, Mark A.; Carter, Dennis L.; Ol, Michael; Zeune, Cale

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes recent research into the advancement of small, electric powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capabilities. Specifically, topics include the improvements made in battery technology, design methodologies, avionics architectures and algorithms, materials and structural concepts, propulsion system performance prediction, and others. The results of prototype vehicle designs and flight tests are discussed in the context of their usefulness in defining and validating progress in the various technology areas. Further areas of research need are also identified. These include the need for more robust operating regimes (wind, gust, etc.), and continued improvement in payload fraction vs. endurance.

  7. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  8. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise. PMID:25713678

  9. Static and Dynamic Handgrip Strength Endurance: Test-Retest Reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Psychou, Dimitra; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the reliability of static and dynamic handgrip strength endurance using different protocols and indicators for the assessment of strength endurance. Forty young, healthy men and women (age, 18-22 years) performed 2 handgrip strength endurance protocols: a static protocol (sustained submaximal contraction at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) and a dynamic one (8, 10, and 12 maximal repetitions). The participants executed each protocol twice to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Total work and total time were used as indicators of strength endurance in the static protocol; the strength recorded at each maximal repetition, the percentage change, and fatigue index were used as indicators of strength endurance in the dynamic protocol. The static protocol showed high reliability irrespective of sex and hand for total time and work. The 12-repetition dynamic protocol exhibited moderate-high reliability for repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change; the 8- and 10-repetition protocols demonstrated lower reliability irrespective of sex and hand. The fatigue index was not a reliable indicator for the assessment of dynamic handgrip endurance. Static handgrip endurance can be measured reliably using the total time and total work as indicators of strength endurance. For the evaluation of dynamic handgrip endurance, the 12-repetition protocol is recommended, using the repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change as indicators of strength endurance. Practitioners should consider the static (50% maximal voluntary contraction) and dynamic (12 repeated maximal repetitions) protocols as reliable for the assessment of handgrip strength endurance. The evaluation of static endurance in conjunction with dynamic endurance would provide more complete information about hand function. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal and flight-related variation of galectin expression in heart, liver and flight muscles of yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata).

    PubMed

    Bradley, Stefanie S; Dick, Morag F; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Timoshenko, Alexander V

    2017-06-08

    Galectins, a family of multifunctional glycan-binding proteins, are proposed as biomarkers of cellular stress responses. Avian migration is an energetically challenging physical stress, which represents a physiological model of muscular endurance exercises. This study assesses change in galectin gene expression profiles associated with seasonal variation in migratory state and endurance flight in yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata). Bioinformatics analysis and real-time qPCR were used to analyse the expression of galectins in flight muscle, heart and liver tissues of 15 warblers separated into three groups of winter unflown, and fall migratory flown/unflown birds. Five transcripts similar to chicken and human galectins -1, -2, -3, -4, and -8 were identified in warbler tissues. The expression of these galectins showed no seasonal changes between two experimental groups of birds maintained under unflown winter and fall conditions indicating a minor role of galectins in preparation for migration. However, endurance flight led to a significant elevation of galectin-1 and galectin-3 mRNAs in flight muscles and galectin-3 mRNA in heart tissue while no changes were observed in liver. Different changes were observed for the level of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, which were elevated in flight muscles under winter conditions. These results suggest that secreted galectin-1 and galectin-3 may be active in repair of bird muscles during and following migratory flight and serve as molecular biomarkers of recent arrival from migratory flights in field studies.

  11. Psychological Determinants of Whole-Body Endurance Performance.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2015-07-01

    No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affect endurance performance. Additional objectives were to evaluate the research practices of the included studies, to suggest theoretical and applied implications, and to guide future research. Electronic databases, forward-citation searches and manual searches of reference lists were used to locate relevant studies. Peer-reviewed studies were included when they chose an experimental or quasi-experimental research design; a psychological manipulation; endurance performance as the dependent variable; and athletes or physically active, healthy adults as participants. Consistent support was found for using imagery, self-talk and goal setting to improve endurance performance, but it is unclear whether learning multiple psychological skills is more beneficial than learning one psychological skill. The results also demonstrated that mental fatigue undermines endurance performance, and verbal encouragement and head-to-head competition can have a beneficial effect. Interventions that influenced perception of effort consistently affected endurance performance. Psychological skills training could benefit an endurance athlete. Researchers are encouraged to compare different practical psychological interventions, to examine the effects of these interventions for athletes in competition and to include a placebo control condition or an alternative control treatment. Researchers are also encouraged to explore additional psychological factors that could have a negative effect on endurance performance. Future research

  12. Fluids and hydration in prolonged endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Von Duvillard, Serge P; Braun, William A; Markofski, Melissa; Beneke, Ralph; Leithäuser, Renate

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have confirmed that performance can be impaired when athletes are dehydrated. Endurance athletes should drink beverages containing carbohydrate and electrolyte during and after training or competition. Carbohydrates (sugars) favor consumption and Na(+) favors retention of water. Drinking during competition is desirable compared with fluid ingestion after or before training or competition only. Athletes seldom replace fluids fully due to sweat loss. Proper hydration during training or competition will enhance performance, avoid ensuing thermal stress, maintain plasma volume, delay fatigue, and prevent injuries associated with dehydration and sweat loss. In contrast, hyperhydration or overdrinking before, during, and after endurance events may cause Na(+) depletion and may lead to hyponatremia. It is imperative that endurance athletes replace sweat loss via fluid intake containing about 4% to 8% of carbohydrate solution and electrolytes during training or competition. It is recommended that athletes drink about 500 mL of fluid solution 1 to 2 h before an event and continue to consume cool or cold drinks in regular intervals to replace fluid loss due to sweat. For intense prolonged exercise lasting longer than 1 h, athletes should consume between 30 and 60 g/h and drink between 600 and 1200 mL/h of a solution containing carbohydrate and Na(+) (0.5 to 0.7 g/L of fluid). Maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after training and competition will help reduce fluid loss, maintain performance, lower submaximal exercise heart rate, maintain plasma volume, and reduce heat stress, heat exhaustion, and possibly heat stroke.

  13. Norms for an Isometric Muscle Endurance Test

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Sarah L.; Hjelm, John; Shoepe, Todd C.; Fajardo, Marie A.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal performance assessment is critical in the analysis of physical training programs in order to prioritize goals for decreasing injury risk and focusing performance goals. Abdominal endurance as part of this analysis is often assessed with techniques that have validity that has been debated in literature. The purpose of this study was to develop normative sex- and athlete-specific percentiles for a trunk stabilization and muscular endurance by using a prone forearm plank test in college-aged students. A second purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of habitual physical activity and the reason for test termination. There were 471 participants (means ± SE; males: n = 194, age 20.4 ± 0.2 years, body height 179.4 ± 0.5 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 1.2 kg; females: n = 277, age 20.2 ± 0.2 years, body height 165.7 ± 0.4 cm, body mass 63.9 ± 0.7 kg) who performed this test to volitional or technique failure. Males produced significantly higher test durations than females (means ± SD; 124 ± 72 seconds vs. 83 ± 63 seconds) and athletes produced significantly longer test durations than non-athletes (123 ± 69 s vs. 83 ± 63 s) but no interaction effects were seen in the variables of sex and athletic status. The activity level was found to have a threshold of influence (>3 times/week) on abdominal endurance that is dose-specific where greater than 5 times/week showed the greatest influence. The fatigue of the abdominals was the termination reason producing the lowest test duration and there was no sex effect on reason for test termination. These normative percentiles for abdominal endurance suggest that the abdominal plank test can now be used as an alternative to other abdominal assessments in college students, but further investigation is warranted prior to confirmation and generalization to other populations. PMID:25031677

  14. Quantification of lumbar endurance on a backup lumbar extension dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Hager, Staci M; Udermann, Brian E; Reineke, David M; Gibson, Mark H; Mayer, John M; Murray, Steven R

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the reliability of static and dynamic lumbar muscle endurance measurements on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer. Sixteen healthy participants (8 male; 8 female) volunteered for this investigation. Fifty percent of each participant's body weight was calculated to determine the weight load utilized for the static (holding time) and dynamic (repetitions) lumbar extension endurance tests. Four separate tests (2 static, 2 dynamic) were conducted with at least a 24-hour rest period between tests. Test-retest intraclass correlations were shown to be high (static lumbar endurance, ICC = 0.92 (p < 0.0005); dynamic lumbar endurance, ICC = 0.93 (p < 0.0005) for both of the performed tests. Our results demonstrated that static and dynamic lumbar endurance can be assessed reliably on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer. Key PointsReliability studies that test lumbar endurance on machines that effectively stabilize the pelvis and isolate the lumbar extensors are limited.This is the first study to report reliability measures of static and dynamic lumbar endurance on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer.Static and dynamic lumbar endurance on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer, which uses a variety of pelvic stabilization mechanisms, can be reliably assessed in apparently healthy individuals.Future research is necessary to examine the reliability of lumbar extension endurance on the BackUP dynamometer in patient populations and validity in various settings.

  15. Selected Activities to Improve Cardiovascular Endurance and Strength and Muscular Endurance; K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Sharon

    Activities to help the young child improve his/her physical fitness are difficult to find because of insufficient research supporting the effectiveness of proposed activities. However, several activities are assumed to improve the fitness of various areas of the body while concurrently improving cardiovascular endurance by increasing the heart…

  16. SERT II 1980 extended flight thruster experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Ignaczak, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    The flight results obtained from mid 1979 through December 1980 are presented. Near continuous solar power in 1979 and 1980 has enabled long periods of thruster endurance testing. Three of four propellant tanks were exhausted with no significant change in thruster system operation before being empty. A new plasma mode thrust was characterized and direct thrust measurements obtained. Other tests, including beam neutralization by various neutralizer sources, give insight to electron conduction across plasmas in space and provide a basis to model neutralization of thruster arrays.

  17. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  18. Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high- vs moderate-intensity endurance training: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, T J; Collett, J; Howells, K; Morris, M G

    2017-02-16

    High-intensity exercise induces significant central and peripheral fatigue; however, the effect of endurance training on these mechanisms of fatigue is poorly understood. We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. Twenty adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6-8×5 minutes at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~60-80 minutes at 90% lactate threshold). Two time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at 50%Δ were completed pre- and post-training to assess endurance capacity; the two post-training trials were completed at the pretraining 50%Δ (same absolute intensity) and the "new" post-training 50%Δ (same relative intensity). Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. HIIT resulted in greater increases in TTE at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with CONT (38% and -4%, respectively) (P≤.019). Compared with pre-training, HIIT increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (-34% vs -43%, respectively, P=.023) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (-7% vs -3%, respectively, P=.047) following the TTE trial at the same relative intensity. There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after HIIT by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle.

  19. 'Endurance Crater's' Dazzling Dunes (false-color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity creeps farther into 'Endurance Crater,' the dune field on the crater floor appears even more dramatic. This false-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera shows that the dune crests have accumulated more dust than the flanks of the dunes and the flat surfaces between them. Also evident is a 'blue' tint on the flat surfaces as compared to the dune flanks. This results from the presence of the hematite-containing spherules ('blueberries') that accumulate on the flat surfaces.

    Sinuous tendrils of sand less than 1 meter (3.3 feet) high extend from the main dune field toward the rover. Scientists hope to send the rover down to one of these tendrils in an effort to learn more about the characteristics of the dunes. Dunes are a common feature across the surface of Mars, and knowledge gleaned from investigating the Endurance dunes close-up may apply to similar dunes elsewhere.

    Before the rover heads down to the dunes, rover drivers must first establish whether the slippery slope that leads to them is firm enough to ensure a successful drive back out of the crater. Otherwise, such hazards might make the dune field a true sand trap.

  20. Clouds over 'Endurance' on Sol 291

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Clouds appear in the martian sky above 'Endurance Crater' in this mosaic of frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the morning of the rover's 291st sol (Nov. 17, 2004). The view spans an arc from the east on the left to the southwest on the right.

    Opportunity has observed differences in cloudiness from one sol to the next, a reminder that Mars, like Earth, has daily weather as well as longer-term seasonal changes.

    The images that are combined to produce this view have been processed to remove geometrical distortion associated with the camera's 45-degree field of view. In addition, special image processing has been applied to the original images to enhance the clouds and make them visible across the entire mosaic. Glare from the Sun washed out the clouds on the left in the original images; this glare was removed. The left-most image in this mosaic contains some artifacts from pointing the camera toward the Sun. The rim of Endurance has been processed separately and merged back with the sky to better show the context.

  1. Clouds over 'Endurance' on Sol 290

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Clouds add drama to the sky above 'Endurance Crater' in this mosaic of frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity at about 9:30 a.m. on the rover's 290th sol (Nov. 16, 2004). The view spans an arc from east on the left to the southwest on the right.

    These clouds are part of a band that forms near the equator when Mars is near the part of its orbit that is farthest from the Sun. For Opportunity (and Spirit and the rest of the southern hemisphere), this occurs in late fall and early winter. During this period, atmospheric temperatures and the amount of water vapor combine to form large-scale clouds. These clouds look like Earth's cirrus clouds and share other similarities with cirrus clouds in that they are believed to be composed entirely of water-ice particles with sizes on the order of several micrometers (a few ten-thousandths of an inch).

    The images that are combined to produce this view have been processed to remove geometrical distortion associated with the camera's 45-degree field of view. In addition, special image processing has been applied to enhance the clouds and make them visible across the entire mosaic. The rim of Endurance was processed using the same technique, illustrating how much enhancement was done. Glare from the Sun washed out the clouds on the left in the original images; this glare was removed.

  2. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I.

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  3. Whole blood selenium concentrations in endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Haggett, Emily; Magdesian, K Gary; Maas, John; Puschner, Birgit; Higgins, Jamie; Fiack, Ciara

    2010-11-01

    Exercise causes an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species, which can result in oxidant/antioxidant disequilibrium. Deficiency of antioxidants can further alter this balance in favor of pro-oxidation. Selenium (Se) is one of many antioxidant catalysts, as a component of the glutathione peroxidase enzymes. Soils and forages vary widely in Se concentration and a deficient diet can lead to sub-clinical or clinical deficiency in horses. Endurance horses are prone to oxidative stress during long periods of aerobic exercise and their performance could be affected by Se status. This study investigated the blood Se concentration in a group of endurance horses (n=56) residing and competing in California, a state containing several regions that tend to produce Se-deficient forages. The rate of Se deficiency in this group of horses was low, with only one horse being slightly below the reference range. Higher blood Se concentrations were not associated with improved performance in terms of ride time. There was no significant difference in Se concentration between horses that completed the ride and those that were disqualified, although blood Se concentrations were significantly higher in horses that received oral Se supplementation. An increase in blood Se concentration was observed following exercise and this warrants further study.

  4. Hodgkin's Lymphoma in an elite endurance athlete.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Muser, Klaus; Hirschberger, Barbara; Roecker, Kai; Dickhuth, Hans Herrmann; Pottgiesser, Torben

    2008-03-01

    Cancer is a life-threatening condition. We describe the case of a 22-yr-old world-class endurance athlete who presented with mild local lymphadenopathy but without any systemic complaints or impaired performance. He was subsequently diagnosed with stage III A (S) Hodgkin's lymphoma. A complete physiological workup before the diagnosis revealed high aerobic capacity. Immediately after six courses of escalated BEACOPP chemotherapy in an identical test setting, aerobic capacity was markedly reduced (-42%), mainly because of a decrease in total hemoglobin mass (-37%), despite maintaining a certain amount of endurance training. Other potentially performance-limiting systems such as heart, lung, or aerobic metabolism did not show any signs of impairment. Two months after chemotherapy, the athlete had recovered his hemoglobin mass, and his aerobic performance was almost back to pretherapy levels. This case illustrates that advanced malignancies can be present in elite athletes without affecting performance, and that aerobic capacity can be regained within a short time after systemic chemotherapy.

  5. Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J; Coyle, Edward F

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to understand human physiology through the study of champion athletes and record performances have been ongoing for about a century. For endurance sports three main factors – maximal oxygen consumption , the so-called ‘lactate threshold’ and efficiency (i.e. the oxygen cost to generate a give running speed or cycling power output) – appear to play key roles in endurance performance. and lactate threshold interact to determine the ‘performance ‘ which is the oxygen consumption that can be sustained for a given period of time. Efficiency interacts with the performance to establish the speed or power that can be generated at this oxygen consumption. This review focuses on what is currently known about how these factors interact, their utility as predictors of elite performance, and areas where there is relatively less information to guide current thinking. In this context, definitive ideas about the physiological determinants of running and cycling efficiency is relatively lacking in comparison with and the lactate threshold, and there is surprisingly limited and clear information about the genetic factors that might pre-dispose for elite performance. It should also be cautioned that complex motivational and sociological factors also play important roles in who does or does not become a champion and these factors go far beyond simple physiological explanations. Therefore, the performance of elite athletes is likely to defy the types of easy explanations sought by scientific reductionism and remain an important puzzle for those interested in physiological integration well into the future. PMID:17901124

  6. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world`s riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future.

  7. The relationship between cervical flexor endurance, cervical extensor endurance, VAS, and disability in subjects with neck pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several tests have been suggested to assess the isometric endurance of the cervical flexor (NFME) and extensors (NEE) muscles. This study proposes to determine whether neck flexors endurance is related to extensor endurance, and whether cervical muscle endurance is related to disability, pain amount and pain stage in subjects with neck pain. Methods Thirty subjects (18 women, 12 men, mean ± SD age: 43 ± 12 years) complaining of neck pain filled out the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale-Italian version (NPDS-I). They also completed the timed endurance tests for the cervical muscles. Results The mean endurance was 246.7 ± 150 seconds for the NEE test, and 44.9 ± 25.3 seconds for the NMFE test. A significant correlation was found between the results of these two tests (r = 0.52, p = 0.003). A positive relationship was also found between VAS and NPDS-I (r = 0.549, p = 0.002). The endurance rates were similar for acute/subacute and chronic subjects, whereas males demonstrated significantly higher values compared to females in NFME test. Conclusions These findings suggest that neck flexors and extensors endurance are correlated and that the cervical endurance is not significantly altered by the duration of symptoms in subjects with neck pain. PMID:24581272

  8. Veterinary problems of endurance horses in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Dyson, S J; Murray, J K

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB). A comprehensive online self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection (30th December 2015-29th February 2016) All members of Endurance GB who were the main rider of one or more endurance horses were eligible to participate. From the target population of 1209 horses, 190 questionnaires were completed by riders, resulting in a 15.7% response rate. The most common rider-reported veterinary problem was lameness, affecting 152/190 (80.0%) of endurance horses at some point during their careers and 101/190 (53.2%) of horses in the previous 12 months. Detailed information on the most recent episode of lameness was available for 147 horses. Seventy-six percent of these lameness episodes (112/147) had been initially identified by a veterinarian, but only 52% of these lameness episodes were investigated further by a veterinarian, despite the high proportion of horses affected by lameness and the proportion of horses with recurrent lameness episodes. The second most common veterinary problem was thoracolumbar region pain, followed by non-specific cough, skin disease and colic. Education of endurance riders may improve the number, quality and timing of veterinary investigations, especially for lameness and thoracolumbar region pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Typology of Marital Quality of Enduring Marriages in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Orna; Geron, Yael; Farchi, Alva

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a typology of enduring marriages of Israeli couples married for at least 40 years. Based on the view that marital quality is a multidimensional phenomenon, the typology is derived from a cluster analysis of responses of husbands and wives in 51 couples to the ENRICH scale items. Three types of enduring marriages were found:…

  10. A Typology of Marital Quality of Enduring Marriages in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Orna; Geron, Yael; Farchi, Alva

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a typology of enduring marriages of Israeli couples married for at least 40 years. Based on the view that marital quality is a multidimensional phenomenon, the typology is derived from a cluster analysis of responses of husbands and wives in 51 couples to the ENRICH scale items. Three types of enduring marriages were found:…

  11. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  12. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  13. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  14. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  15. Zephyr HALE UAS (High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial System)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Zephyr HALE UAS (High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial System ) European Command & African Command Science & Technology Conference 8th 12th...00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Zephyr HALE UAS (High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial System ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  16. Upper Body Muscular Endurance Among Children 2-5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; And Others

    The upper body muscular endurance of males and females 2-5 years of age was assessed, and relationships relative to sex, age, endurance and selected anthropometric measures were investigated. None of the relationships were found to be of practical predicative value; while upper body muscular strength increased with age, no significant differences…

  17. Facial and Lingual Strength and Endurance in Skilled Trumpet Players.

    PubMed

    Potter, Nancy L; Johnson, Lauren R; Johnson, Stephen E; VanDam, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Trumpet players produce and manipulate sound through their instrument by articulating the lips, cheeks, and tongue to create a proper airflow. These sustained muscle contractions may result in increased facial and lingual strength and endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine if adult trumpet players who practice at least 6 hrs/wk differed from adult non-trumpet-playing controls in strength and endurance of the lips, cheeks, and tongue. This case-control study involved 16 trumpet players, 16 healthy controls balanced for age and sex, and 1 trumpet player 25 years post-Bell's palsy. Strength and endurance of lip, cheek, and tongue muscles were measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI Medical, Redmond, WA). Maximum strength was the greatest pressure value of three encouraged trials. Endurance was the length of time the participant was able to sustain 50% of maximum strength. The findings indicate that trumpet players had greater facial strength and endurance, which was objectively quantified using commercially available equipment. The trumpet players had greater cheek strength and greater lip endurance than controls. Tongue strength and endurance did not differ between the trumpet players and controls. Tongue strength was negatively associated with age, which is consistent with previous studies. The trumpet player with a history of Bell's palsy had decreased cheek strength and endurance on his affected side compared to his unaffected side, although this difference was comparable to the differences between right and left cheek strength in trumpet players without a history of facial nerve damage.

  18. Sustained Flight Operations in Navy P-3 Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    endurancoeq and resting blood chemistry. Postdeployment lung capacity, blood chemistry values, grip strength, and leg endur’ance all improved while leg...showing no trends in changes over each flight. Following the 6-month deployment, aerobic capacity decreased, lung capacity improved, blood-chemistry...standard pulmonary function test (25) was performed (Jaeger Pneumo- screen II, Gerroany) to assess lung flow and volume characteristics. Vital capacity (VC

  19. Are birds stressed during long-term flights? A wind-tunnel study on circulating corticosterone in the red knot.

    PubMed

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Hasselquist, Dennis; Lindström, Ake; Koolhaas, Anita; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    During endurance flight most birds do not feed and have to rely on their body reserves. Fat and protein is catabolised to meet the high energetic demands. Even though the hormonal regulation of migration is complex and not yet fully understood, the adrenocortical hormone corticosterone crystallizes to play a major role in controlling physiological traits in migratory birds during flight. However, results from field studies are partially equivocal, not least because data from birds during endurance flight are hard to get and present mostly a momentary shot. A wind-tunnel experiment offered the possibility to measure repeatedly under controlled conditions the effect of long flights on the stress hormone corticosterone. In a long-distance migrating shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus, we measured plasma concentrations of corticosterone within 3 min and after a restraint time of 30 min directly after 2h and 10h non-stop flights, respectively, and during rest. Baseline corticosterone levels were unchanged directly after the flights, indicating that endurance flight did not affect corticosterone levels. The adrenocortical response to restraint showed the typical rise in birds during rest, while birds after a 2 or 10h flight substantially decreased plasma corticosterone concentrations. We suggest that the negative adrenocortical response to restraint after flight is part of the mechanism to reduce the proteolytic effect of corticosterone to save muscle protein and to avoid muscle damaging effects.

  20. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p < 0.001) and 24 (-13% ± 5%, p < 0.001 and -9% ± 5%, p = 0.001). Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p < 0.001) were similar between E and E+S. This study showed no endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.

  1. Range and Endurance Tradeoffs on Personal Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotorcraft design has always been a challenging tradeoff among overall size, capabilities, complexity, and other factors based on available technology and customer requirements. Advancements in propulsion, energy systems and other technologies have enabled new vehicles and missions; complementary advances in analysis methods and tools enable exploration of these enhanced vehicles and the evolving mission design space. A system study was performed to better understand the interdependency between vehicle design and propulsion system capabilities versus hover / loiter requirements and range capability. Three representative vertical lift vehicles were developed to explore the tradeoff in capability between hover efficiency versus range and endurance capability. The vehicles were a single-main rotor helicopter, a tilt rotor, and a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew) and maximum range within one hour of flight (100-200 miles, depending on vehicle). Two types of propulsion and energy storage systems were used in this study. First was traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (such as Otto, diesel or gas turbine cycles). Second was an all-electric system using electric motors, power management and distribution, assuming batteries for energy storage, with the possibility of hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders. The high power requirements for hover significantly reduced mission radius capability. Loiter was less power intensive, resulting in about 1/2 the equivalent mission radius penalty. With so many design variables, the VTOL aircraft has the potential to perform well for a variety of missions. This vehicle is a good candidate for additional study; component model development is also required to adequately assess performance over the design space of interest.

  2. Range and Endurance Tradeoffs on Personal Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotorcraft design has always been a challenging tradeoff among overall size, capabilities, complexity, and other factors based on available technology and customer requirements. Advancements in propulsion, energy systems and other technologies have enabled new vehicles and missions; complementary advances in analysis methods and tools enable exploration of these enhanced vehicles and the evolving mission design space. A system study was performed to better understand the interdependency between vehicle design and propulsion system capabilities versus hover loiter requirements and range capability. Three representative vertical lift vehicles were developed to explore the tradeoff in capability between hover efficiency versus range and endurance capability. The vehicles were a single-main rotor helicopter, a tilt rotor, and a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew) and maximum range within one hour of flight (100-200 miles, depending on vehicle). Two types of propulsion and energy storage systems were used in this study. First was traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (such as Otto, diesel or gas turbine cycles). Second was an all-electric system using electric motors, power management and distribution, assuming batteries for energy storage, with the possibility of hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders. The high power requirements for hover significantly reduced mission radius capability. Loiter was less power intensive, resulting in about 12 the equivalent mission radius penalty. With so many design variables, the VTOL aircraft has the potential to perform well for a variety of missions. This vehicle is a good candidate for additional study; component model development is also required to adequately assess performance over the design space of interest.

  3. (-)-Hydroxycitrate ingestion and endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kiwon; Ryu, Sungpil; Suh, Heajung; Ishihara, Kengo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2005-02-01

    We have been interested in the ergogenic aid effects of food components and supplements for enhancing endurance exercise performance. For this purpose, acute or chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate (HCA) ingestion might be effective because it promotes utilization of fatty acid as an energy source. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP: citrate lyase, thereby increasing inhibition of lipogenesis in the body. Many researchers have reported that less body fat accumulation and sustained satiety cause less food intake. After focusing on exercise performance with HCA ingestion, we came up with different results that show positive effects or not. However, our previously reported data showed increased use of fatty acids during moderate intensity exercise. For future research, HCA and co-ingestion of other supplements, such as carnitine or caffeine, might have greater effect on glycogen-sparing than HCA alone.

  4. Three Fresh Exposures in 'Endurance' Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, from the panoramic camera, is an approximately true color rendering of the slope of 'Endurance Crater,' which NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is currently exploring. Between sols 143 and 148 (June 18 to June 23, 2004), the rover's rock abrasion tool ground into three targets: 'London' in the 'D' layer (top) is 4.5 millimeters (0.18 inches) deep; 'Virginia' in the 'C' layer (middle) is 4.3 millimeters (0.17 inches) deep; and 'Cobble Hill' in the 'B' layer (bottom) is 3 millimeters (0.12 inches) deep. The shadow from the rover's camera mast is visible in the lower right corner of the image. This image was captured using the 601-, 535- and 482-nanometer filters.

  5. Along Endurance Crater's Inner Wall (Right Eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view from the base of 'Burns Cliff' in the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater' combines several frames taken by Opportunity's navigation camera during the NASA rover's 280th martian day (Nov. 6, 2004). It is the right-eye member of a stereo pair, presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The cliff dominates the left and right portions of the image, while the central portion looks down into the crater. The 'U' shape of this mosaic results from the rover's tilt of about 30 degrees on the sloped ground below the cliff. Rover wheel tracks in the left half of the image show some of the slippage the rover experienced in making its way to this point. The site from which this image was taken has been designated as Opportunity's Site 37.

  6. Along Endurance Crater's Inner Wall (Left Eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view from the base of 'Burns Cliff' in the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater' combines several frames taken by Opportunity's navigation camera during the NASA rover's 280th martian day (Nov. 6, 2004). It is the left-eye member of a stereo pair, presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The cliff dominates the left and right portions of the image, while the central portion looks down into the crater. The 'U' shape of this mosaic results from the rover's tilt of about 30 degrees on the sloped ground below the cliff. Rover wheel tracks in the left half of the image show some of the slippage the rover experienced in making its way to this point. The site from which this image was taken has been designated as Opportunity's Site 37.

  7. The enduring scientific contributions of Sigmund Freud.

    PubMed

    Gedo, John E

    2002-01-01

    Through the development of a novel observational method, Sigmund Freud made possible the collection of reliable data about man's inner life. The scientific hypotheses he formulated about these formed the initial version of psychoanalysis. Many of these first thoughts have had to be revised in the light of subsequent scientific findings about the operations of the central nervous system, but even these refuted propositions often had much heuristic value. Despite the passage of a whole century, many Freudian hypotheses have retained their scientific standing. Most important among these was Freud's realization that human thought is usually unconscious. His understanding of the role of the automatic repetition of basic patterns of behavior, of the fateful consequences of early childhood emotional vicissitudes in structuring enduring mental dispositions, and of the distinction between two distinct modes of thinking are the most significant among his many contributions.

  8. 'Endurance' Tells Story of Mars' History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image mosaic shows the area inside 'Endurance Crater' that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been examining. The rover is currently investigating the distinct layers of rock that make up this region. Each layer is defined by subtle color and texture variations and represents a separate chapter in Mars' history. The deeper the layer, the farther back in time the rocks were formed. Scientists are 'reading' this history book by systematically studying each layer with the rover's scientific instruments. So far, data from the rover indicates that the top layers are sulfate-rich, like the rocks observed in 'Eagle Crater.' This image was taken on sol 134 (June 9, 2004) by Opportunity's panoramic camera with the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. 'Endurance' Tells Story of Mars' History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows the area inside 'Endurance Crater' that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been examining. The rover is currently investigating the distinct layers of rock that make up this region. Each layer is defined by subtle color and texture variations and represents a separate chapter in Mars' history. The deeper the layer, the farther back in time the rocks were formed. Scientists are 'reading' this history book by systematically studying each layer with the rover's scientific instruments. So far, data from the rover indicates that the top layers are sulfate-rich, like the rocks observed in 'Eagle Crater.' This image was taken on sol 134 (June 9, 2004) by Opportunity's panoramic camera with the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  10. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  11. NASA rotor system research aircraft flight-test data report: Helicopter and compound configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, R. E.; Kufeld, R. M.; Cross, J. L.; Hodge, R. W.; Ericson, W. F.; Carter, R. D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The flight test activities of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, from June 30, 1981 to August 5, 1982 are reported. Tests were conducted in both the helicopter and compound configurations. Compound tests reconfirmed the Sikorsky flight envelope except that main rotor blade bending loads reached endurance at a speed about 10 knots lower than previously. Wing incidence changes were made from 0 to 10 deg.

  12. Bioenergetics and psychological profile of an ultra endurance walker.

    PubMed

    Pedrinolla, Anna; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Schena, Federico; Perciavalle, Valentina; Di Corrado, Donatella

    2017-02-22

    Ultra endurance walking provides athletes with significant physiological and psychological challenges. In this study ultra endurance walking races are intended as events where the participants have to cover the largest distance within a given time, usually 24, 36, 48 hours, or longer, keeping the pause time within 5% of the total walking time. The aim of the study was to evaluate the metabolic, bioenergetics, and psychological characteristics of a world record ultra endurance walker during three different ultra endurance events characterized by different durations (36h, 48h and 70h). The participant investigated in this study was an experienced male ultra endurance walker (age 41 years; mass 69 kg; height 173 cm), who used always the Nordic walking technique. During the 70h event, our walker broke the "Longest Marathon Nordic Walking" Guinness World Record covering 274 km in 70h. An overall time-dependent increase of oxidative stress, as assessed by lipid hydroperoxide levels, was observed in 36h and 48h events. Speed and metabolic cost of walking decreased rather linearly with walking time over all the three events. The study shows how the walker was able to approach the three different ultra endurance events characterized by different durations applying physiological, and psychological strategies allowing him to reach the goal of the completion of each ultra endurance event.

  13. Innovative Operations Measures and Nutritional Support for Mass Endurance Events.

    PubMed

    Chiampas, George T; Goyal, Anita V

    2015-11-01

    Endurance and sporting events have increased in popularity and participation in recent years worldwide, and with this comes the need for medical directors to apply innovative operational strategies and nutritional support to meet such demands. Mass endurance events include sports such as cycling and running half, full and ultra-marathons with over 1000 participants. Athletes, trainers and health care providers can all agree that both participant outcomes and safety are of the utmost importance for any race or sporting event. While demand has increased, there is relatively less published guidance in this area of sports medicine. This review addresses public safety, operational systems, nutritional support and provision of medical care at endurance events. Significant medical conditions in endurance sports include heat illness, hyponatraemia and cardiac incidents. These conditions can differ from those typically encountered by clinicians or in the setting of low-endurance sports, and best practices in their management are discussed. Hydration and nutrition are critical in preventing these and other race-related morbidities, as they can impact both performance and medical outcomes on race day. Finally, the command and communication structures of an organized endurance event are vital to its safety and success, and such strategies and concepts are reviewed for implementation. The nature of endurance events increasingly relies on medical leaders to balance safety and prevention of morbidity while trying to help optimize athlete performance.

  14. Endurance training increases the efficiency of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Koziel, Agnieszka; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Celichowski, Jan; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-10-01

    Endurance training enhances mitochondrial oxidative capacity, but its effect on mitochondria functioning is poorly understood. In the present study, the influence of an 8-week endurance training on the bioenergetic functioning of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria under different assay temperatures (25, 35, and 42 °C) was investigated. The study was performed on 24 adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats, which were randomly assigned to either a treadmill training group (n = 12) or a sedentary control group (n = 12). In skeletal muscles, endurance training stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. In isolated mitochondria, endurance training increased the phosphorylation rate and elevated levels of coenzyme Q. Moreover, a decrease in mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed after training, which could explain the increased reactive oxygen species production (in nonphosphorylating mitochondria) and enhanced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. At all studied temperatures, endurance training significantly augmented H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in nonphosphorylating mitochondria and decreased H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in phosphorylating mitochondria. Endurance training magnified the hyperthermia-induced increase in oxidative capacity and attenuated the hyperthermia-induced decline in oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species formation of nonphosphorylating mitochondria via proton leak enhancement. Thus, endurance training induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in muscle mitochondria that are important for cell signaling as well as for maintaining muscle energy homeostasis, especially at high temperatures.

  15. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  16. Predictors of enduring clinical distress in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N N; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Aaronson, Neil K; van Abbema, Doris L; den Boer, Mathilda D; van Hezewijk, Marjan; Immink, Marcelle; Kaptein, Ad A; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; Reyners, Anna K L; Russell, Nicola S; Schriek, Manon; Sijtsema, Sieta; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2016-08-01

    To date, little is known about enduring clinical distress as measured with the commonly used distress thermometer. We therefore used the distress thermometer to examine: (a) the prevalence of enduring clinical distress, distress-related problems, and subsequent wish for referral of women with breast cancer, and (b) sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of enduring clinical distress. The study had a multicenter, prospective, observational design. Patients with primary breast cancer completed a questionnaire at 6 and 15 months postdiagnosis. Medical data were retrieved from chart reviews. Enduring clinical distress was defined as heightened distress levels over time. The prevalence of enduring clinical distress, problems, and wish for referral was examined with descriptive analyses. Associations between predictors and enduring clinical distress were examined with multivariate analyses. One hundred sixty-four of 746 patients (22 %) reported having enduring clinical distress at 6 and 15 months postdiagnosis. Of these, 10 % wanted to be referred for care. Fatigue was the most frequently reported problem by patients with and without clinical distress, at both time points. Lack of muscle strength (OR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.12-2.98), experience of a low level of life satisfaction (OR = 0.77, 95 % CI 0.67-0.89), more frequent cancer worry (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.05-1.89), and neuroticism (OR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.00-1.18) were predictors of enduring clinical distress. In conclusion, one in five women with breast cancer develops enduring clinical distress. Oncologists, nurse practitioners, and cancer nurses are advised to use single-item questions about distress and distress-related problems to ensure timely detection of high-risk patients. Providers should also routinely assess fatigue and its causes, as fatigue is the most frequently reported distress-related problem over time.

  17. Endurance Exercise and the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Booth, Frank W; Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Yan, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Almost a half century ago, regular endurance exercise was shown to improve the capacity of skeletal muscle to oxidize substrates to produce ATP for muscle work. Since then, adaptations in skeletal muscle mRNA level were shown to happen with a single bout of exercise. Protein changes occur within days if daily endurance exercise continues. Some of the mRNA and protein changes cause increases in mitochondrial concentrations. One mitochondrial adaptation that occurs is an increase in fatty acid oxidation at a given absolute, submaximal workload. Mechanisms have been described as to how endurance training increases mitochondria. Importantly, Pgc-1α is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis by increasing many mitochondrial proteins. However, not all adaptations to endurance training are associated with increased mitochondrial concentrations. Recent evidence suggests that the energetic demands of muscle contraction are by themselves stronger controllers of body weight and glucose control than is muscle mitochondrial content. Endurance exercise has also been shown to regulate the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission. Mitophagy removes damaged mitochondria, a process that maintains mitochondrial quality. Skeletal muscle fibers are composed of different phenotypes, which are based on concentrations of mitochondria and various myosin heavy chain protein isoforms. Endurance training at physiological levels increases type IIa fiber type with increased mitochondria and type IIa myosin heavy chain. Endurance training also improves capacity of skeletal muscle blood flow. Endurance athletes possess enlarged arteries, which may also exhibit decreased wall thickness. VEGF is required for endurance training-induced increases in capillary-muscle fiber ratio and capillary density. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Atmospheric energy harvesting: use of Doppler Wind Lidars on UAVs to extend mission endurance and enable quiet operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, S.; Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.; Costello, M.

    2014-10-01

    The investigators are developing a system tool that utilizes both pre-flight information and continuous real-time knowledge and description of the state of the atmosphere and atmospheric energetics by an Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar (ADWL) to provide the autonomous guidance for detailed and adaptive flight path planning by UAS and small manned aircraft. This flight planning and control has the potential to reduce mission dependence upon preflight assumptions, extend flight duration and endurance, enable long periods of quiet operations and allow for the optimum self-routing of the aircraft. The ADWL wind data is used in real-time to detect atmospheric energy features such as thermals, waves, wind shear and others. These detected features are then used with an onboard, weather model driven flight control model to adaptively plan a flight path that optimizes energy harvesting with frequent updates on local changes in the opportunities and atmospheric flow characteristics. We have named this package AEORA for the Atmospheric Energy Opportunity Ranking Algorithm (AEORA).

  19. [Endurance training and cardial adaptation (athlete's heart)].

    PubMed

    Dickhuth, Hans-Hermann; Röcker, Kai; Mayer, Frank; König, Daniel; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike

    2004-06-01

    One essential function of the cardiovascular system is to provide an adequate blood supply to all organs, including the skeletal muscles at rest and during exercise. Adaptation to chronic exercise proceeds mainly via the autonomic nervous system. On the one hand, peripheral muscles influence the autonomic reactions through "feedback" control via ergoreceptors, in particular, mechano- and chemoreceptors. On the other hand, there is central control in the sense of a "feed forward" regulation, e. g., the reaction of an athlete before competition. Along with other influential factors, such as circulatory presso-, chemo-, and volume receptors, the incoming impulses are processed in vegetative centers.A cardiovascular reaction, then, is the result of nerval and humoral sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. At rest, the parasympathetic tone dominates. It reduces heart frequency and conduction velocity. The high vagal tone is initially reduced with increasing physical exertion and switches at higher intensity to increasingly sympathetic activation. This mechanism of reaction to exercise is supported by inverse central and peripheral transmissions.Chronic endurance training leads to an improved local aerobic capacity of the exercised musculature. At rest, it augments parasympathetic activity when the muscle mass is sufficiently large, i. e., 20-30% of the skeletal musculature. The extent of the adaptation depends on individual factors, such as scope, intensity of training, and type of muscle fiber. A higher vagal tone delays the increase in the sympathetic tone during physical exertion. The regulatory range of heart rate, contractility, diastolic function, and blood pressure is increased. In addition, adaptation results in functional and structural changes in the vascular system. Cardiocirculatory work is economized, and maximum performance and oxygen uptake are improved. Endurance training exceeding an individual limit causes harmonic enlargement and hypertrophy of the

  20. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  1. Blood Volume: Its Adaptation to Endurance Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Expansion of blood volume (hypervolemia) has been well documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as a consequence of endurance exercise training. Plasma volume expansion can account for nearly all of the exercise-induced hypervolemia up to 2-4 wk; after this time expansion may be distributed equally between plasma and red cell volumes. The exercise stimulus for hypervolemia has both thermal and nonthermal components that increase total circulating plasma levels of electrolytes and proteins. Although protein and fluid shifts from the extravascular to intravascular space may provide a mechanism for rapid hypervolemia immediately after exercise, evidence supports the notion that chronic hypervolemia associated with exercise training represents a net expansion of total body water and solutes. This net increase of body fluids with exercise training is associated with increased water intake and decreased urine volume output. The mechanism of reduced urine output appears to be increased renal tubular reabsorption of sodium through a more sensitive aldosterone action in man. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia appears to be universal among most animal species, although the mechanisms may be quite different. The hypervolemia may provide advantages of greater body fluid for heat dissipation and thermoregulatory stability as well as larger vascular volume and filling pressure for greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise.

  2. Busy at the Bottom of 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    This mosaic from the navigation camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was compiled from images taken on the rover's 193rd and 194th sol on Mars (August 9 and 10, 2004). The rover's current work area near the bottom of 'Endurance Crater' is featured in this image. In coming sols, Opportunity will make its way toward the interesting rock, 'Wopmay,' located on the far right of this image, on the crater's inner slopes just beneath 'Burns Cliff.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. This image is presented in cylindrical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  3. Measurement of cervical flexor endurance following whiplash.

    PubMed

    Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Balsor, Brad; Parkinson, William L; Harding Bsckin, Peter; Bedard, Michel; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2005-07-22

    To investigate measurement properties of a practical test of cervical flexor endurance (CFE) in whiplash patients including inter-rater reliability, sensitivity to clinical change, criterion related validity against the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and discriminant validity for injured versus uninjured populations. Two samples were recruited, 81 whiplash patients, and a convenience sample of 160 subjects who were not seeking treatment and met criteria for normal pain and range of motion. CFE was measured using a stopwatch while the subject, in crook lying, held their head against gravity to fatigue. Inter-rater reliability in whiplash patients was in a range considered 'almost perfect' (Intraclass Correlation=0.96). CFE had greater inter-subject variability than the NDI or range of motion in any of three planes. However, the effect size for improvement in CFE over treatment was as large as the effect sizes for all of those measures. In multivariate regression, CFE changes accounted for changes on the NDI better than the three ranges of motion. CFE discriminated whiplash patients who were within six months of injury (n=71) from age and gender matched normals with high effect size (ES=1.5). These findings provide evidence of reliability and validity for CFE measurement, and demonstrate that CFE detects clinical improvements. Variance on CFE emphasizes the need to consider inter-, and intra-subject standard deviations to interpret scores.

  4. Blood Volume: Its Adaptation to Endurance Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Expansion of blood volume (hypervolemia) has been well documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as a consequence of endurance exercise training. Plasma volume expansion can account for nearly all of the exercise-induced hypervolemia up to 2-4 wk; after this time expansion may be distributed equally between plasma and red cell volumes. The exercise stimulus for hypervolemia has both thermal and nonthermal components that increase total circulating plasma levels of electrolytes and proteins. Although protein and fluid shifts from the extravascular to intravascular space may provide a mechanism for rapid hypervolemia immediately after exercise, evidence supports the notion that chronic hypervolemia associated with exercise training represents a net expansion of total body water and solutes. This net increase of body fluids with exercise training is associated with increased water intake and decreased urine volume output. The mechanism of reduced urine output appears to be increased renal tubular reabsorption of sodium through a more sensitive aldosterone action in man. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia appears to be universal among most animal species, although the mechanisms may be quite different. The hypervolemia may provide advantages of greater body fluid for heat dissipation and thermoregulatory stability as well as larger vascular volume and filling pressure for greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise.

  5. Effects of submaximal and supramaximal interval training on determinants of endurance performance in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Paquette, M; Le Blanc, O; Lucas, S J E; Thibault, G; Bailey, D M; Brassard, P

    2017-03-01

    We compared the effects of submaximal and supramaximal cycling interval training on determinants of exercise performance in moderately endurance-trained men. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ), peak power output (Ppeak ), and peak and mean anaerobic power were measured before and after 6 weeks (3 sessions/week) of submaximal (85% maximal aerobic power [MP], HIIT85 , n = 8) or supramaximal (115% MP, HIIT115 , n = 9) interval training to exhaustion in moderately endurance-trained men. High-intensity training volume was 47% lower in HIIT115 vs HIIT85 (304 ± 77 vs 571 ± 200 min; P < 0.01). Exercise training was generally associated with increased VO2max (HIIT85 : +3.3 ± 3.1 mL/kg/min; HIIT115 : +3.3 ± 3.6 ml/kg/min; Time effect P = 0.002; Group effect: P = 0.95), Ppeak (HIIT85 : +18 ± 9 W; HIIT115 : +16 ± 27 W; Time effect P = 0.045; Group effect: P = 0.49), and mean anaerobic power (HIIT85 : +0.42 ± 0.69 W/kg; HIIT115 : +0.55 ± 0.65 W/kg; Time effect P = 0.01; Group effect: P = 0.18). Six weeks of submaximal and supramaximal interval training performed to exhaustion seems to equally improve VO2max and anaerobic power in endurance-trained men, despite half the accumulated time spent at the target intensity.

  6. Tracking Decrement as a Result of Grip Holding Endurance.

    PubMed

    Bloswick, D S; Ellis, N C

    1974-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of using the static strength and endurance relationships suggested by Rohmert in 1960 to predict pursuit tracking performance, Ten male subjects are tested on a pursuit rotor before and after being subjected to specific levels of loading on a grip holding device. The loading corresponded to specific levels of each subject's maximum endurance as determined from Rohmert's strength and endurance equation. The hypotheses are: (a) predetermined schedules of strength expenditure cause a systematic decrement in tracking efficiency; and (b) the process of recovering efficiency is dependent upon the expenditure schedules. Resulting data support these hypotheses, suggesting that tracking efficiency can be reliably predicted using some of the strength and endurance relationships postulated by Rohmert.

  7. Mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercises.

    PubMed

    Freyssenet, D; Berthon, P; Denis, C

    1996-01-01

    Repeated bouts of endurance exercise stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The synthesis of mitochondrial proteins involves a coordinated expression of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes. During this process, multiples sites of regulation have been identified at the transcriptional and translational levels. After their synthesis, mitochondrial proteins originating from the nuclear genome are imported into newly synthesized preexisting membranes and directed to one of the four mitochondrial subcompartments. The detailed mechanisms of the endurance training-induced mitochondrial biogenesis are still poorly understood. In particular, much work is needed to identify the molecular signals able to stimulate and coordinate the expression of mitochondrial proteins in response to endurance training. This will be a great help in the future to understand clearly the intimate mechanisms of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and the factors involved in endurance exercise performance.

  8. Flight projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Jack

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the activities of the Flight Projects Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Information is given on space research and technology strategy, current space flight experiments, the Long Duration Exposure Facility, the Orbiter Experiment Program, the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System, the Arcjet Flight Experiment, the Telerobotic Intelligent Interface Flight Experiment, the Cryogenic Fluid Management Flight Experiment, the Industry/University In-Space Flight Experiments, and the Aeroassist Flight Experiment.

  9. Upper limb muscle strength & endurance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Swati; Nahar, Pradeep; Vaidya, Savita; Salvi, Sundeep

    2013-10-01

    There are very few studies that have investigated the muscle strength and endurance of upper limbs (UL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We undertook this study to measure and compare the skeletal muscle strength and endurance of UL in COPD patients and age matched healthy controls and to study the association between lung function parameters and UL muscle strength and endurance. Forty one COPD patients and 45 height and weight matched healthy subjects of the same age group were studied. UL skeletal muscle strength and endurance were measured using the hand grip dynamometer test. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV₁), forced expiratory flow during 25-75% FVC (FEF (25-75%)) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured. The handgrip muscle strength and endurance between the two groups were compared and correlations between FVC and FEV 1 with muscle strength and endurance were analyzed. The mean handgrip strength and mean muscle endurance in COPD patients were significantly lesser than the normal subjects in both males and females (P<0.001). There was significant positive correlation between muscle strength and FVC in males (r² =0.32, P<0.05); and between muscle strength and FEV₁ in females (r² =0.20, P<0.05). The study showed that the handgrip muscle strength decreases as the FVC and FEV₁ decrease in patients with COPD. Identifying those patients who have reduced strength and endurance will allow early interventions targeted at improving the quality of life of the patient.

  10. Handgrip and quadriceps muscle endurance testing in young adults.

    PubMed

    White, Ciara; Dixon, Kimberley; Samuel, Dinesh; Stokes, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Grip strength is widely used for estimating whole body strength but there is a lack of information relating to grip endurance. Comparison between endurance of different muscle groups has received little attention. The main aim of the present study was to determine the endurance characteristics of hand grip and quadriceps muscles in healthy young adults and then to examine the association between fatigability of the two muscle groups. Twenty one healthy participants (8 males and 13 females) aged 18-35 years were studied. A maximal intermittent endurance test, consisting of 12 isometric contractions held for 3 seconds separated by 5 second rest periods, was utilised to measure muscle endurance. A Biodex isokinetic dynamometer and Jamar dynamometer were used to assess quadriceps and hand grip respectively. The mean of first (M1) and last (M2) three repetitions was calculated. Fatigue index values were calculated for both muscle groups by the 1st peak torque (PT) minus the last (12th) PT, divided by the 1st PT multiplied by 100. Quadriceps torque (M1:197.3 ± 65.2 Nm; M2:163.1 ± 47.6 Nm) and grip strength (M1:33.6 ± 9.9 Kg; M2:25.2 ± 8.1 Kg) both declined significantly during the 12 repetitions (p < 0.05). Hand grip showed a significantly higher mean fatigue index of 30% compared to 18% in the quadriceps (p < 0.05). Quadriceps showed better fatigability than hand grip. The findings therefore indicate caution against using grip endurance as a surrogate measure of quadriceps endurance. Further research is warranted to confirm observed differences between genders and to study endurance in different age groups.

  11. Altitude training for elite endurance performance: a 2012 update.

    PubMed

    Fudge, Barry W; Pringle, Jamie S M; Maxwell, Neil S; Turner, Gareth; Ingham, Stephen A; Jones, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Altitude training is commonly used by endurance athletes and coaches in pursuit of enhancement of performance on return to sea level. The purpose of the current review article was to update and evaluate recent literature relevant to the practical application of altitude training for endurance athletes. Consequently, the literature can be considered in either of two categories: performance-led investigations or mechanistic advancements/insights. Each section discusses the relevant literature and proposes future directions where appropriate.

  12. Master Athletes Are Extending the Limits of Human Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The increased participation of master athletes (i.e., >40 years old) in endurance and ultra-endurance events (>6 h duration) over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Aging does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration, and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented. The relative stability of gender differences observed across the ages suggests that the age-related declines in physiological function did not differ between males and females. Among the main physiological determinants of endurance performance, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) appears to be the parameter that is most altered by age. Exercise economy and the exercise intensity at which a high fraction of VO2max can be sustained (i.e., lactate threshold), seem to decline to a lesser extent with advancing age. The ability to maintain a high exercise-training stimulus with advancing age is emerging as the single most important means of limiting the rate of decline in endurance performance. By constantly extending the limits of (ultra)-endurance, master athletes therefore represent an important insight into the ability of humans to maintain physical performance and physiological function with advancing age. PMID:28018241

  13. The effect of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M; Carter, H

    2000-06-01

    Endurance exercise training results in profound adaptations of the cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular systems that enhance the delivery of oxygen from the atmosphere to the mitochondria and enable a tighter regulation of muscle metabolism. These adaptations effect an improvement in endurance performance that is manifest as a rightward shift in the 'velocity-time curve'. This shift enables athletes to exercise for longer at a given absolute exercise intensity, or to exercise at a higher exercise intensity for a given duration. There are 4 key parameters of aerobic fitness that affect the nature of the velocity-time curve that can be measured in the human athlete. These are the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), exercise economy, the lactate/ventilatory threshold and oxygen uptake kinetics. Other parameters that may help determine endurance performance, and that are related to the other 4 parameters, are the velocity at VO2max (V-VO2max) and the maximal lactate steady state or critical power. This review considers the effect of endurance training on the key parameters of aerobic (endurance) fitness and attempts to relate these changes to the adaptations seen in the body's physiological systems with training. The importance of improvements in the aerobic fitness parameters to the enhancement of endurance performance is highlighted, as are the training methods that may be considered optimal for facilitating such improvements.

  14. Master Athletes Are Extending the Limits of Human Endurance.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The increased participation of master athletes (i.e., >40 years old) in endurance and ultra-endurance events (>6 h duration) over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Aging does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration, and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented. The relative stability of gender differences observed across the ages suggests that the age-related declines in physiological function did not differ between males and females. Among the main physiological determinants of endurance performance, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) appears to be the parameter that is most altered by age. Exercise economy and the exercise intensity at which a high fraction of VO2max can be sustained (i.e., lactate threshold), seem to decline to a lesser extent with advancing age. The ability to maintain a high exercise-training stimulus with advancing age is emerging as the single most important means of limiting the rate of decline in endurance performance. By constantly extending the limits of (ultra)-endurance, master athletes therefore represent an important insight into the ability of humans to maintain physical performance and physiological function with advancing age.

  15. Radiation endurance of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers--a review.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A N; Chertov, A M

    2015-03-01

    A literature survey is presented on the radiation endurance of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer components and complete transducer assemblies, as functions of cumulative gamma dose and neutron fluence. The most extensive data on this topic has been acquired in CANDU electrical generating stations, which use piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers manufactured commercially with minor accommodation for high radiation fields. They have been found to be reliable for cumulative gamma doses of up to approximately 2 MegaGrays; a brief summary is made of the associated accommodations required to the transducer design, and the ultimate expected failure modes. Outside of the CANDU experience, endurance data have been acquired under a diverse spectrum of operating conditions; this can impede a direct comparison of the information from different sources. Much of this data is associated with transducers immersed in liquid metal coolants associated with advanced reactor designs. Significant modifications to conventional designs have led to the availability of custom transducers that can endure well over 100 MegaGrays of cumulative gamma dose. Published data on transducer endurance against neutron fluence are reviewed, but are either insufficient, or were reported with inadequate description of test conditions, to make general conclusions on transducer endurance with high confidence. Several test projects are planned or are already underway by major laboratories and research consortia to augment the store of transducer endurance data with respect to both gamma and neutron radiation.

  16. Cardiovascular damage resulting from chronic excessive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Patil, Harshal R; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Magalski, Anthony; Vogel, Robert A; McCullough, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    A daily routine of physical activity is highly beneficial in the prevention and treatment of many prevalent chronic diseases, especially of the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, chronic, excessive sustained endurance exercise may cause adverse structural remodeling of the heart and large arteries. An evolving body of data indicates that chronically training for and participating in extreme endurance competitions such as marathons, ultra-marathons, Iron-man distance triathlons, very long distance bicycle racing, etc., can cause transient acute volume overload of the atria and right ventricle, with transient reductions in right ventricular ejection fraction and elevations of cardiac biomarkers, all of which generally return to normal within seven to ten days. In veteran extreme endurance athletes, this recurrent myocardial injury and repair may eventually result in patchy myocardial fibrosis, particularly in the atria, interventricular septum and right ventricle, potentially creating a substrate for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Furthermore, chronic, excessive, sustained, high-intensity endurance exercise may be associated with diastolic dysfunction, large-artery wall stiffening and coronary artery calcification. Not all veteran extreme endurance athletes develop pathological remodeling, and indeed lifelong exercisers generally have low mortality rates and excellent functional capacity. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology of extreme endurance exercise, and make suggestions about healthier fitness patterns for promoting optimal CV health and longevity.

  17. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    Endurance sports are increasing in popularity and athletes at all levels are looking for ways to optimize their performance by training and nutrition. For endurance exercise lasting 30 min or more, the most likely contributors to fatigue are dehydration and carbohydrate depletion, whereas gastrointestinal problems, hyperthermia, and hyponatraemia can reduce endurance exercise performance and are potentially health threatening, especially in longer events (>4 h). Although high muscle glycogen concentrations at the start may be beneficial for endurance exercise, this does not necessarily have to be achieved by the traditional supercompensation protocol. An individualized nutritional strategy can be developed that aims to deliver carbohydrate to the working muscle at a rate that is dependent on the absolute exercise intensity as well as the duration of the event. Endurance athletes should attempt to minimize dehydration and limit body mass losses through sweating to 2-3% of body mass. Gastrointestinal problems occur frequently, especially in long-distance races. Problems seem to be highly individual and perhaps genetically determined but may also be related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, hyperosmotic drinks, as well as the intake of fibre, fat, and protein. Hyponatraemia has occasionally been reported, especially among slower competitors with very high intakes of water or other low sodium drinks. Here I provide a comprehensive overview of recent research findings and suggest several new guidelines for the endurance athlete on the basis of this. These guidelines are more detailed and allow a more individualized approach.

  18. Nutritional status of endurance athletes: what is the available information?

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Júlia A D; Da Costa, Teresa H M

    2005-03-01

    Nutritional status is a critical determinant of athletic performance. We question whether currently available studies can give adequate information on nutritional status of endurance athletes. This paper is a critical review of articles published from 1989 to 2003 that investigate nutritional status of endurance athletes. The terms, "nutrition", "diet", or "nutrient", were combined with "endurance athletes" to perform Medline and Pubmed electronic database searches. Two inclusion criteria were considered: (a) study subjects should be adults and (b) articles should report gender-specific values for total energy expenditure and intake of energy, macro and micronutrient from food. Only seven studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. In general, the conclusions of these studies are that endurance athletes have negative energy balance, low intake of carbohydrate, adequate to high intake of protein, and high intake of fat. A critical discussion of the articles' data on vitamins, minerals and trace elements adequacy is conducted using insights and methodology proposed by the newly published assessment and interpretation of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The studies evaluated give an inappropriate evaluation of the prevalence of adequacy/inadequacy of micronutrient intake among endurance athletes. In this work we indicate potential limitations of existing nutritional data, which reflects the misconceptions found in published literature on nutritional group evaluation. This review stresses the need for a comprehensive and well-conducted nutrition assessment planning to fulfill the existing gap in reliable information about micronutrient adequacy of endurance athletes.

  19. Mitochondrial capacity, muscle endurance, and low energy in friedreich ataxia.

    PubMed

    Bossie, Hannah M; Willingham, T Bradley; Schoick, Robbi A Van; O'Connor, Patrick J; McCully, Kevin K

    2017-10-01

    In this study we noninvasively evaluated skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity, muscle-specific endurance, and energy/fatigue feelings in persons with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and able-bodied controls (AB). Forearm mitochondrial capacity was measured in FRDA (n = 16) and AB (n = 10) study participants using the rate of recovery of oxygen consumption after electrical stimulation with near-infrared spectroscopy. Mechanomyography (MMG) assessed muscle endurance after electrical stimulation for 3 minutes at 2 Hz, 4 Hz, and 6 Hz. Validated scales assessed disease severity and energy/fatigue feelings. Groups did not differ in mitochondrial capacity (FRDA and AB: 1.8 ± 0.3 L/min). The difference in muscle endurance at 6 Hz was lower by 19.2% in the FRDA group (group effect: P < 0.001). Feelings of physical energy were 34% lower in FRDA group. In FDRA muscle, endurance was positively related to mitochondrial capacity (r = 0.59, P = 0.03), and disease severity was negatively related to mitochondrial capacity (r = -0.55, P = 0.04) and muscle endurance (r = -0.60, P = 0.01). Non-invasive measures of skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity and muscle-specific endurance are useful in monitoring FRDA. Muscle Nerve 56: 773-779, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How to measure muscular endurance in children: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Kević, Gordana; Siljeg, Klara; Mrgan, Josip; Sporis, Goran

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was primarily to determine the reliability and factor validity of four muscular endurance tests, and secondly, to identify gender differences in muscular endurance tests. For this purpose, a new muscular endurance test was constructed for pupils aged between seven and eight (CROCO). The research was done on a sample of 71 pupils aged between seven and eight (35 girls and 36 boys), their body height being 129.2 +/- 1.3 cm for boys and 127.1 +/- 1.4 cm for girls, body weight 29.3 +/- 7.2 kg for boys and 27.1 +/- 6.5 for girls. According to the results, all tests have shown a good level of reliability and factor validity. Also, the present study confirmed the expected gender differences (p < or = 0.05). In all muscular endurance tests, the boys were slightly better than girls (p < or = 0.05). The authors recommend the implementation of the CROCO test and other muscular endurance tests used in this study, both for the implementation in the primary school curricula and in sports because of these tests' satisfactory level of reliability and factor validity. The school curricula need to be adjusted to the age and gender differences of children in order to promote positive health behavior from the earliest age on the one hand, and on the other to be able to objectively measure muscular endurance.

  1. Effects of endurance and endurance-strength exercise on biochemical parameters of liver function in women with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Mądry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the standard therapy for obesity involves physical exercise, well-planned studies of the changes in liver function in response to different exercise intensities in obese subjects are scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine a question of how does exercise mode affect the liver function. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into two exercise groups: endurance (group A) and endurance-strength (group B). Women in each group exercised for 60min 3 times/week for a 3-month period. Markers of liver function: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and bilirubin levels were quantified. We found significant differences in ALT (p<0.01) and AST (p<0.05) activities between group A and B after training exercise. Blood ALT and AST tended to decrease in group B, increase in group A. Significant reduction in serum GGT level after exercise in both groups was observed (p<0.001, group A; p<0.01, group B). Neither endurance nor endurance-strength exercise led to changes in serum ALP activity and total or direct bilirubin level. However, endurance-strength training resulted in significant decreases in serum indirect bilirubin (p<0.05). Strong positive correlations between serum indirect bilirubin and body mass (r=0.615; p=0.0085) and BMI (r=0.576; p=0.0154) were found after endurance-strength exercise (group B). The mode of exercise does matter: endurance-strength exercise led to a greater improvement, compared to endurance exercise, in the liver function in women with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The enduring impact of violence against children.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Susan D; Mercy, James A; Saul, Janet R

    2017-04-01

    More than one billion children - half of all children in the world - are exposed to violence every year. The violence children are exposed to includes both direct experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, as well as indirectly witnessing violence in their homes, schools, and communities. What these various forms of violence share, based on a review of the literature, is their enduring potential for life-long consequences. These consequences include increases in the risks of injury, HIV, sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, reproductive health problems, and non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes. Studies addressing biologic underpinnings of such consequences demonstrate that violence-associated toxic stress may cause damage to the nervous, endocrine, circulatory, musculo-skeletal, reproductive, respiratory, and immune systems. Furthermore, rigorous economic evaluations suggest that costs associated with the consequences of violence against children exceed $120 billion in the U.S. and account for up to 3.5% of the GDP in sub-regions of East Asia. The expanding literature confirming the mechanisms of consequences and the associated costs of violence against children has been accompanied by growing evidence on effective approaches to prevention. Moreover, the expanding evidence on prevention has been accompanied by a growing determination on the part of global leaders to accelerate action. Thus, as part of the Post-2015 Sustainable Development agenda, the UN has issued a call-to-action: to eliminate violence against children. This unprecedented UN call may foster new investments, to fuel new progress for protecting children around the world from violence and its preventable consequences.

  3. Parametric study of microwave-powered high-altitude airplane platforms designed for linear flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of a class of remotely piloted, microwave powered, high altitude airplane platforms is studied. The first part of each cycle of the flight profile consists of climb while the vehicle is tracked and powered by a microwave beam; this is followed by gliding flight back to a minimum altitude above a microwave station and initiation of another cycle. Parametric variations were used to define the effects of changes in the characteristics of the airplane aerodynamics, the energy transmission systems, the propulsion system, and winds. Results show that wind effects limit the reduction of wing loading and the increase of lift coefficient, two effective ways to obtain longer range and endurance for each flight cycle. Calculated climb performance showed strong sensitivity to some power and propulsion parameters. A simplified method of computing gliding endurance was developed.

  4. X-33 Flight Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 flight visualization effort has resulted in the integration of high-resolution terrain data with vehicle position and attitude data for planned flights of the X-33 vehicle from its launch site at Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Michael Army Air Field, Utah, and Maelstrom AFB, Montana. Video and Web Site representations of these flight visualizations were produced. In addition, a totally new module was developed to control viewpoints in real-time using a joystick input. Efforts have been initiated, and are presently being continued, for real-time flight coverage visualizations using the data streams from the X-33 vehicle flights. The flight visualizations that have resulted thus far give convincing support to the expectation that the flights of the X-33 will be exciting and significant space flight milestones... flights of this nation's one-half scale predecessor to its first single-stage-to-orbit, fully-reusable launch vehicle system.

  5. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  6. Study of Flapping Flight Using Discrete Vortex Method Based Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devranjan, S.; Jalikop, Shreyas V.; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent times, research in the area of flapping flight has attracted renewed interest with an endeavor to use this mechanism in Micro Air vehicles (MAVs). For a sustained and high-endurance flight, having larger payload carrying capacity we need to identify a simple and efficient flapping-kinematics. In this paper, we have used flow visualizations and Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) based simulations for the study of flapping flight. Our results highlight that simple flapping kinematics with down-stroke period (tD) shorter than the upstroke period (tU) would produce a sustained lift. We have identified optimal asymmetry ratio (Ar = tD/tU), for which flapping-wings will produce maximum lift and find that introducing optimal wing flexibility will further enhances the lift.

  7. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    A full spatio-temporal four-dimensional characterization of the microphysics and dynamics of cloud formation including the onset of precipitation has never been reached. Such a characterization would yield a better understanding of clouds, e.g. to assess the dominant mixing mechanism and the main source of cloudy updraft dilution. It is the sampling strategy that matters: fully characterizing the evolution over time of the various parameters (P, T, 3D wind, liquid water content, aerosols...) within a cloud volume requires dense spatial sampling for durations of the order of one hour. A fleet of autonomous lightweight UAVs that coordinate themselves in real-time as an intelligent network can fulfill this purpose. The SkyScanner project targets the development of a fleet of autonomous UAVs to adaptively sample cumuli, so as to provide relevant data to address long standing questions in atmospheric science. It mixes basic researches and experimental developments, and gathers scientists in UAV conception, in optimal flight control, in intelligent cooperative behaviors, and of course atmospheric scientists. Two directions of researches are explored: optimal UAV conception and control, and optimal control of a fleet of UAVs. The design of UAVs for atmospheric science involves the satisfaction of trade-offs between payload, endurance, ease of deployment... A rational conception scheme that integrates the constraints to optimize a series of criteria, in particular energy consumption, would yield the definition of efficient UAVs. This requires a fine modeling of each involved sub-system and phenomenon, from the motor/propeller efficiency to the aerodynamics at small scale, including the flight control algorithms. The definition of mission profiles is also essential, considering the aerodynamics of clouds, to allow energy harvesting schemes that exploit thermals or gusts. The conception also integrates specific sensors, in particular wind sensor, for which classic

  8. Biodynamics--the key to flight.

    PubMed

    Stapp, J P

    1986-10-01

    Biodynamics measures the effects of mechanical force on living tissues. The quantitative relations of mechanical stress factors and biological strain responses of the living body provide criteria for limits of injury threshold, reversible injury, permanently disabling injury, and fatal injury. These criteria are guidelines for aerospace design and performance standards involving human survival in the environment of flight. Below these limits, the effects of mechanical force factors on human performance while acutely or chronically exposed to them in aerial or space flight are crucial. Some can be accumulatively disabling; others can be adapted to over a period of time. Extremes of low-frequency vibration cannot be long endured, while sustained zero gravity in space flight produces mild, transient malaise followed by adaptation in several hours. Aerospace flight biodynamics deals with human reactions to absence of gravity; sustained curvilinear acceleration; sustained acceleration and deceleration (launch and reentry in space flight); single impact force (collisions); low-frequency vibration in the whole human body resonance response range; whole-body tumbling and spinning, as in high-altitude free-fall; acoustical range vibrations; explosive blast in air or water; abrupt decompression, as in cabin pressure failure; static forces in tension, compression, torsion and shear. Biodynamic stress analysis takes into account whole-body responses, particular responses of rigid bone, viscous elastic soft tissues, pneumatic and hydraulic effects of gas and fluids in hollow organs, and displacements of solid organs suspended in body cavities. Accurate and comprehensive results require physical measurements, clinical and laboratory studies before and after exposure, subjective reports of trained volunteer subjects, and objective medical and bioengineering evaluation of results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country`s nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  10. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance.

    PubMed

    Graham, T E

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine is a common substance in the diets of most athletes and it is now appearing in many new products, including energy drinks, sport gels, alcoholic beverages and diet aids. It can be a powerful ergogenic aid at levels that are considerably lower than the acceptable limit of the International Olympic Committee and could be beneficial in training and in competition. Caffeine does not improve maximal oxygen capacity directly, but could permit the athlete to train at a greater power output and/or to train longer. It has also been shown to increase speed and/or power output in simulated race conditions. These effects have been found in activities that last as little as 60 seconds or as long as 2 hours. There is less information about the effects of caffeine on strength; however, recent work suggests no effect on maximal ability, but enhanced endurance or resistance to fatigue. There is no evidence that caffeine ingestion before exercise leads to dehydration, ion imbalance, or any other adverse effects. The ingestion of caffeine as coffee appears to be ineffective compared to doping with pure caffeine. Related compounds such as theophylline are also potent ergogenic aids. Caffeine may act synergistically with other drugs including ephedrine and anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that male and female athletes have similar caffeine pharmacokinetics, i.e., for a given dose of caffeine, the time course and absolute plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites are the same. In addition, exercise or dehydration does not affect caffeine pharmacokinetics. The limited information available suggests that caffeine non-users and users respond similarly and that withdrawal from caffeine may not be important. The mechanism(s) by which caffeine elicits its ergogenic effects are unknown, but the popular theory that it enhances fat oxidation and spares muscle glycogen has very little support and is an incomplete explanation at best. Caffeine may work, in part, by

  11. Flight experience with flight control redundancy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Larson, R. R.; Glover, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experience with both current and advanced redundancy management schemes was gained in recent flight research programs using the F-8 digital fly by wire aircraft. The flight performance of fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) methods for sensors, computers, and actuators is reviewed. Results of induced failures as well as of actual random failures are discussed. Deficiencies in modeling and implementation techniques are also discussed. The paper also presents comparison off multisensor tracking in smooth air, in turbulence, during large maneuvers, and during maneuvers typical of those of large commercial transport aircraft. The results of flight tests of an advanced analytic redundancy management algorithm are compared with the performance of a contemporary algorithm in terms of time to detection, false alarms, and missed alarms. The performance of computer redundancy management in both iron bird and flight tests is also presented.

  12. Blunted blood pressure response during hyperpnoea in endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuka; Katayama, Keisho; Iwamoto, Erika; Goto, Kazushige; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Ohya, Toshiyuki; Takao, Kenji; Ishida, Koji

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the cardiovascular response during hyperpnoea in endurance-trained runners compared to sedentary controls. Twelve runners and ten sedentary individuals participated in this study. A maximal respiratory endurance test (MRET) was performed as follows: target minute ventilation was initially set at 30% of maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV12) and was increased by 10% MVV12 every 3min. The test was terminated when the subject could no longer maintain the target ventilation. Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) were continuously measured. Respiratory endurance time during the MRET was longer in the runners than the controls. The change in MBP during the MRET was lower in the runners compared to the sedentary controls (runners: 100.2±2.4mmHg vs. 109.1±3.0mmHg at 6min of hyperpnoea). Therefore, the blood pressure response during hyperpnoea is blunted in endurance runners, suggesting that whole-body endurance exercise training attenuates the respiratory muscle-induced metaboreflex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Endurance training: is it bad for you?

    PubMed Central

    Gruttad’Auria, Claudia I.; Baiamonte, Pierpaolo; Mazzuca, Emilia; Castrogiovanni, Alessandra; Bonsignore, Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    Educational aims To illustrate the characteristics of endurance exercise training and its positive effects on health. To provide an overview on the effects of endurance training on airway cells and bronchial reactivity. To summarise the current knowledge on respiratory health problems in elite athletes. Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol­ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes. Conversely, elite athletes of both summer and winter sports show increased susceptibility to development of asthma, possibly related to environmental exposures to allergens or poor conditioning of inspired air, so that a distinct phenotype of “sports asthma” has been proposed to characterise such athletes, who more often practise aquatic and winter sports. Overall, endurance training is good for health but may become deleterious when performed at high intensity or volume. PMID:27408632

  14. Inspiratory muscle performance in endurance athletes and sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, P R; Hillman, D R; Finucane, K E

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether whole-body endurance training is associated with increased respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax)) and endurance (progressive threshold loading of the inspiratory muscles) were measured in six marathon runners and six sedentary subjects. PImax was similar between the two groups of subjects but the maximum threshold pressure achieved was greater in marathon runners (90 +/- 8 vs 78 +/- 10% of PImax, respectively, mean +/- SD, P < 0.05). During progressive threshold loading, marathon runners breathed with lower frequency, higher tidal volume, and longer inspiratory and expiratory time. At maximum threshold pressure, marathon runners had lower arterial O2 saturation, but perceived effort (Borg scale) was maximal in both groups. Efficiency of the respiratory muscles was similar in both groups being 2.0 +/- 1.7% and 2.3 +/- 1.8% for marathon runners and sedentary subjects, respectively. The apparent increase in respiratory muscle endurance of athletes was a consequence of a difference in the breathing pattern adopted during loaded breathing rather than respiratory muscle strength or efficiency. This implies that sensory rather than respiratory muscle conditioning may be an important mechanism by which whole-body endurance is increased.

  15. Muscular endurance and surface electromyogram in isometric and dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, M

    1981-07-01

    In nine male volunteers, the endurance time for sustained isometric exercise (right-angle elbow flexion) and dynamic exercise (continuous concentric and eccentric elbow flexions) was measured at different contraction levels. Intermittent isometric exercises were also performed by four of the subjects in whom surface electromyographic elbow flexor recordings were obtained during the three types of exercise. A rapid decrease of the endurance time was seen at contraction levels above 15-20% of the maximum voluntary contraction for both the sustained isometric and dynamic exercise. There were no significant difference between the regression of the endurance time vs. the contraction level for the sustained isometric exercise and that of the dynamic exercise. However, the endurance time was enhanced in the intermittent isometric exercise compared with the sustained isometric exercise. The development of muscle fatigue was well correlated to change of the myoelectric rootmean-square amplitude and the mean power frequency. Differences in exercise did not significantly affect the relation between the time constant of the mean power frequency decrease and the endurance time.

  16. Creatine supplementation enhances endurance performance in trained rats.

    PubMed

    Malin, Steven K; Cotugna, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Minimal evidence has shown creatine (Cr) supplementation to enhance endurance performance in either humans or rats. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Cr supplementation on endurance performance during high-intensity exercise in trained male rats. Endurance performance was defined as the distance run. Sixteen days of running were performed over 28 days. A cycle of 7 days consisted of 2 days of training, 1 day off, 2 days of training then 2 days off and this was repeated over a total of 28 days. Cr was administered on all 28 days. Treatment rats (n = 7) drank water containing Cr while the control rats drank water with no supplement (n = 6). The Cr group's average distance run increased significantly from baseline to exercise day 16 (baseline = 128.91 m ± 18.23 vs. exercise day 16 = 217.11m ± 18.11; p < 0.005), while the control groups did not (baseline = 137.24 m ± 10.14, exercise day 16 = 101.04 m ± 14.97; p > 0.05). Over the course of the study, the treatment group's running endurance improved by 81% compared to baseline (p < 0.001) and we conclude that Cr supplementation provided rats an increased ability to run farther demonstrating possible implications for improving endurance athletes' performances.

  17. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  18. 'Mighty Eagle' Takes Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, had a successful first untethered flight Aug. 8 at the Marshall Center. During the 34-second flight, the Mighty Eagle soared and hovered at 30 f...

  19. Pathfinder aircraft flight #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-19

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996.

  20. Pathfinder aircraft flight #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-19

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, November, 1996.

  1. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and...

  2. In Flight, Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  3. Challenger's night flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-08-01

    STS Mission 8 and its night flight (both launch and landing) are highlighted in this color video. The 5-member crew is introduced and their special assignments for this flight are discussed, along with their continuous weightlessness experiments performed during the flight. The first black astronaut, Guion S. Blufords, Jr., is introduced and file footage of an STS Mission orbiting the earth is shown.

  4. Challenger's Night Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    STS Mission 8 and its night flight (both launch and landing) are highlighted in this color video. The 5-member crew is introduced and their special assignments for this flight are discussed, along with their continuous weightlessness experiments performed during the flight. The first black astronaut, Guion S. Blufords, Jr., is introduced and file footage of an STS Mission orbiting the earth is shown.

  5. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  6. In Flight, Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  7. Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ergogenic action via central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHO mouth rinse can lead to improved performance of cyclists, and this may be associated with the activation of brain areas linked to motivation and reward. These findings have already been replicated in other endurance modalities, such as running. This alternative seems to be an attractive nutritional tool to improve endurance exercise performance. PMID:20799963

  8. Effects of excessive endurance activity on the heart.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Jamie; Asplund, Chad A

    2014-01-01

    Regular moderate exercise confers many cardiovascular and health benefits. Because of this, endurance sports events have become very popular with participation increasing tremendously over the past few years. In conjunction with this increase in popularity and participation, people also have increased the amount that they exercise with many training for and competing in ultraendurance events such as ultradistance running events, iron distance triathlons, or multiday races. This excess endurance activity may appear to increase the risk of cardiac abnormalities, which may increase the risk for long-term morbidity or mortality. While it is known that moderate exercise has benefits to cardiovascular health, ultimately, the long-term cardiac effects of excessive endurance activity are unclear. What is clear, however, is that moderate exercise is beneficial, and to date, the evidence does not support recommending against physical activity.

  9. Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Eric D B; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2005-02-01

    The use of nutritional ergogenic aids containing Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES), a plant which is also known as ciwujia or Siberian ginseng, is relatively common among endurance athletes. Eleutherococcus senticosus has been suggested to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CF) and fat metabolism (FAM) and, therefore, endurance performance (EP). This article reviews the studies that evaluated the effects of ES during endurance exercise, three of which suggest that ES substantially improves CF, FAM, and EP. However, each of these reports contains severe methodological flaws, which seriously threaten their internal validity, thereby rendering hazardous the generalization of the results. On the other hand, 5 studies that used rigorous research protocols show no benefit of ES on CF, FAM, and EP. It is therefore concluded that ES supplementation (up to 1000 to 1200 mg/d for 1 to 6 wk) offers no advantage during exercise ranging in duration from 6 to 120 min.

  10. Wind and Wake Sensing with UAV Formation Flight: System Development and Flight Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrabee, Trenton Jameson

    Wind turbulence including atmospheric turbulence and wake turbulence have been widely investigated; however, only recently it become possible to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a validation tool for research in this area. Wind can be a major contributing factor of adverse weather for aircraft. More importantly, it is an even greater risk towards UAVs because of their small size and weight. Being able to estimate wind fields and gusts can potentially provide substantial benefits for both unmanned and manned aviation. Possible applications include gust suppression for improving handling qualities, a better warning system for high wind encounters, and enhanced control for small UAVs during flight. On the other hand, the existence of wind can be advantageous since it can lead to fuel savings and longer duration flights through dynamic soaring or thermal soaring. Wakes are an effect of the lift distribution across an aircraft's wing or tail. Wakes can cause substantial disturbances when multiple aircraft are moving through the same airspace. In fact, the perils from an aircraft flying through the wake of another aircraft is a leading cause of the delay between takeoff times at airports. Similar to wind, though, wakes can be useful for energy harvesting and increasing an aircraft's endurance when flying in formation which can be a great advantage to UAVs because they are often limited in flight time due to small payload capacity. Formation flight can most often be seen in manned aircraft but can be adopted for use with unmanned systems. Autonomous flight is needed for flying in the "sweet spot" of the generated wakes for energy harvesting as well as for thermal soaring during long duration flights. For the research presented here formation flight was implemented for the study of wake sensing and gust alleviation. The major contributions of this research are in the areas of a novel technique to estimate wind using an Unscented Kalman filter and experimental wake

  11. Impact of Probabilistic Weather on Flight Routing Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil; Sridhar, Banavar; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Flight delays in the United States have been found to increase year after year, along with the increase in air traffic. During the four-month period from May through August of 2005, weather related delays accounted for roughly 70% of all reported delays, The current weather prediction in tactical (within 2 hours) timeframe is at manageable levels, however, the state of forecasting weather for strategic (2-6 hours) timeframe is still not dependable for long-term planning. In the absence of reliable severe weather forecasts, the decision-making for flights longer than two hours is challenging. This paper deals with an approach of using probabilistic weather prediction for Traffic Flow Management use, and a general method using this prediction for estimating expected values of flight length and delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). The current state-of-the-art convective weather forecasting is employed to aid the decision makers in arriving at decisions for traffic flow and flight planing. The six-agency effort working on the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) have considered weather-assimilated decision-making as one of the principal foci out of a list of eight. The weather Integrated Product Team has considered integrated weather information and improved aviation weather forecasts as two of the main efforts (Ref. 1, 2). Recently, research has focused on the concept of operations for strategic traffic flow management (Ref. 3) and how weather data can be integrated for improved decision-making for efficient traffic management initiatives (Ref. 4, 5). An overview of the weather data needs and benefits of various participants in the air traffic system along with available products can be found in Ref. 6. Previous work related to use of weather data in identifying and categorizing pilot intrusions into severe weather regions (Ref. 7, 8) has demonstrated a need for better forecasting in the strategic planning timeframes and moving towards a

  12. Impact of Probabilistic Weather on Flight Routing Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil; Sridhar, Banavar; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Flight delays in the United States have been found to increase year after year, along with the increase in air traffic. During the four-month period from May through August of 2005, weather related delays accounted for roughly 70% of all reported delays, The current weather prediction in tactical (within 2 hours) timeframe is at manageable levels, however, the state of forecasting weather for strategic (2-6 hours) timeframe is still not dependable for long-term planning. In the absence of reliable severe weather forecasts, the decision-making for flights longer than two hours is challenging. This paper deals with an approach of using probabilistic weather prediction for Traffic Flow Management use, and a general method using this prediction for estimating expected values of flight length and delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). The current state-of-the-art convective weather forecasting is employed to aid the decision makers in arriving at decisions for traffic flow and flight planing. The six-agency effort working on the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) have considered weather-assimilated decision-making as one of the principal foci out of a list of eight. The weather Integrated Product Team has considered integrated weather information and improved aviation weather forecasts as two of the main efforts (Ref. 1, 2). Recently, research has focused on the concept of operations for strategic traffic flow management (Ref. 3) and how weather data can be integrated for improved decision-making for efficient traffic management initiatives (Ref. 4, 5). An overview of the weather data needs and benefits of various participants in the air traffic system along with available products can be found in Ref. 6. Previous work related to use of weather data in identifying and categorizing pilot intrusions into severe weather regions (Ref. 7, 8) has demonstrated a need for better forecasting in the strategic planning timeframes and moving towards a

  13. Pilates for improvement of muscle endurance, flexibility, balance, and posture.

    PubMed

    Kloubec, June A

    2010-03-01

    Many claims have been made about the effectiveness of Pilates exercise on the basic parameters of fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Pilates exercise on abdominal endurance, hamstring flexibility, upper-body muscular endurance, posture, and balance. Fifty subjects were recruited to participate in a 12-week Pilates class, which met for 1 hour 2 times per week. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 25) or control group (n = 25). Subjects performed the essential (basic) mat routine consisting of approximately 25 separate exercises focusing on muscular endurance and flexibility of the abdomen, low back, and hips each class session. At the end of the 12-week period, a 1-way analysis of covariance showed a significant level of improvement (p < or = 0.05) in all variables except posture and balance. This study demonstrated that in active middle-aged men and women, exposure to Pilates exercise for 12 weeks, for two 60-minute sessions per week, was enough to promote statistically significant increases in abdominal endurance, hamstring flexibility, and upper-body muscular endurance. Participants did not demonstrate improvements in either posture or balance when compared with the control group. Exercise-training programs that address physical inactivity concerns and that are accessible and enjoyable to the general public are a desirable commodity for exercise and fitness trainers. This study suggests that individuals can improve their muscular endurance and flexibility using relatively low-intensity Pilates exercises that do not require equipment or a high degree of skill and are easy to master and use within a personal fitness routine.

  14. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Švedas, Edmundas; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Abaravičius, Jonas Algis

    2015-01-01

    For athletes, the main purpose of nutrition is to ensure the compensation of increased energy consumption and the need for nutrients in the athlete's body, thereby enabling maximum adaptation to physical loads. The aim of this study was to determine the habits of highly trained endurance athletes depending on sports type, sex and age in order to improve the planning and management of the training of athletes using targeted measures. In 2009-2012, the dietary habits of 146 endurance athletes were analyzed. The actual diet of Lithuania endurance athletes was investigated using a 24-h dietary survey method. Data on the athletes' actual diet were collected for the previous day. It was found that 80.8% of endurance athletes used lower-than-recommended amounts of carbohydrates in their diet, and more than 70% of athletes used higher-than-recommended levels of fat, saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. The diet of female athletes was low in carbohydrates, dietary fiber, protein, omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, and zinc. Athletes aged 14-18 years tended to consume quantities of protein that were either lower than recommended or excessive. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes does not fully meet their requirements and in this situation cannot ensure maximum adaptation to very intense and/or long-duration physical loads. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes must be optimized, adjusted and individualized. Particular attention should be focused on female athletes. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability of a measurement of neck flexor muscle endurance.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kevin D; Heer, Darren M; Roy, Tanja C; Santos, Diane M; Whitman, Julie M; Wainner, Robert S

    2005-12-01

    Neck flexor muscle endurance has been negatively correlated with cervical pain and dysfunction. The purposes of this study were to determine rater reliability in subjects both with and without neck pain and to determine whether there was a difference in neck flexor muscle endurance between the 2 groups. Forty-one subjects with and without neck pain were enrolled in this repeated-measures reliability study. Two raters used an isometric neck retraction test to assess neck flexor muscle endurance for all subjects during an initial session, and subjects without neck pain returned for testing 1 week later. For the group without neck pain, intrarater reliability was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC(3,1)]=.82-.91), and interrater reliability was moderate to good (ICC[2,1]=.67-.78). The associated standard error of measurement (SEM) ranged from 8.0 to 11.0 seconds and from 12.6 to 15.3 seconds, respectively. For the group with neck pain, interrater reliability was moderate (ICC[2,1]=.67, SEM=11.5). Neck flexor muscle endurance test results for the group without neck pain (mean=38.95 seconds, SD=26.4) and the group with neck pain (mean=24.1 seconds, SD=12.8) were significantly different. Reliability coefficients differed between the 2 groups and ranged from moderate to excellent and improved after the first test session. The interrater reliability of data obtained with the neck flexor muscle endurance test in people with neck pain must be improved in order for clinicians to distinguish a clinically meaningful change from measurement error. Neck flexor muscle endurance was both statistically and clinically greater for subjects without neck pain than for those with neck pain.

  16. Loss of Adipocyte VEGF Impairs Endurance Exercise Capacity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, Nicole J; O'Connell, Grant C; Stricker, Janelle C; Allen, Jessica; Vona-Davis, Linda; Bryner, Randall; Mandler, William; Olfert, I Mark

    2015-11-01

    Reducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in adipose tissue alters adipose vascularity and metabolic homeostasis. We hypothesized that this would also affect metabolic responses during exercise-induced stress and that adipocyte-specific VEGF-deficient (adipoVEGF-/-) mice would have impaired endurance capacity. Endurance exercise capacity in adipoVEGF-/- (n = 10) and littermate control (n = 11) mice was evaluated every 4 wk between 6 and 24 wk of age using a submaximal endurance run to exhaustion at 20 m·min(-1) at 10° incline. Maximal running speed, using incremental increases in speed at 30-s intervals, was tested at 25 and 37 wk of age. White and brown adipose tissue capillarity were reduced by 40% in adipoVEGF-/-, and no difference in skeletal muscle capillarity was observed. Endurance run time to exhaustion was 30% lower in adipoVEGF-/- compared with that in controls at all time points (P < 0.001), but no difference in maximal running speed was observed between the groups. After exercise (1 h at 50% maximum running speed), adipoVEGF-/- mice displayed lower circulating insulin (P < 0.001), lower glycerol (P < 0.05), and tendency for lower blood glucose (P = 0.06) compared with controls. There was no evidence of altered oxidative damage or changes in carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1β expression in skeletal muscle of adipoVEGF-/- mice. These data suggest that VEGF-mediated deficits in adipose tissue blunt the availability of lipid substrates during endurance exercise, which likely reduced endurance performance. Surprisingly, we also found an unchanged basal blood glucose despite lower circulating insulin in adipoVEGF-/- mice, suggesting that loss of adipocyte VEGF can blunt insulin release and/or increase basal insulin sensitivity.

  17. Loss of Adipocyte VEGF Impairs Endurance Exercise Capacity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zachwieja, Nicole J.; O’Connell, Grant C.; Stricker, Janelle C.; Allen, Jessica; Vona-Davis, Linda; Bryner, Randall; Mandler, William; Olfert, I. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Reducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in adipose tissue alters adipose vascularity and metabolic homeostasis. We hypothesized that this would also affect metabolic responses during exercise-induced stress, and that adipocyte-specific VEGF deficient (adipoVEGF−/−) mice would have impaired endurance capacity. Methods Endurance exercise capacity in adipoVEGF−/− (n=10) and littermate control (n=11) mice was evaluated every 4 weeks between 6 & 24 weeks of age using a submaximal endurance run to exhaustion at 20 m/min, 10-degree incline. Maximal running speed, using incremental increases in speed at 30-second intervals, was tested at 25 weeks of age. Results White and brown adipose tissue capillarity were reduced by 40% in adipoVEGF−/−, and no difference in skeletal muscle capillarity was observed. Endurance run time to exhaustion was 30% lower in adipoVEGF−/− compared to controls at all time points (p<0.001), but no difference in maximal running speed was observed between the groups. Following exercise (1 hour at 50% maximum running speed), adipoVEGF−/− mice displayed lower circulating insulin, (p<0.001), lower glycerol (p<0.05), and a tendency for lower blood glucose (p=0.06) compared to controls. There was no evidence of altered oxidative damage or changes in carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1β expression in skeletal muscle of adipoVEGF−/− mice. Conclusions These data suggest that VEGF-mediated deficits in adipose tissue blunts the availability of lipid substrates during endurance exercise, both of which likely reduce endurance performance. Surprisingly, we also find an unchanged basal blood glucose, despite lower circulating insulin in adipoVEGF−/− mice, suggesting loss of adipocyte VEGF can blunt insulin release and/or increase basal insulin sensitivity. PMID:25785931

  18. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  19. X-37 Flight Demonstrator: X-40A Flight Test Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The flight test objectives are: Evaluate calculated air data system (CADS) experiment. Evaluate Honeywell SIGI (GPS/INS) under flight conditions. Flight operation control center (FOCC) site integration and flight test operations. Flight test and tune GN&C algorithms. Conduct PID maneuvers to improve the X-37 aero database. Develop computer air date system (CADS) flight data to support X-37 system design.

  20. Endurance factors improve hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and neurogenesis. Mice were injected with GW for 7 d or AICAR for 7 or 14 d. Two weeks thereafter mice were tested in the Morris water maze. AICAR (7 d) and GW improved spatial memory. Moreover, AICAR significantly, and GW modestly, elevated dentate gyrus neurogenesis. Thus, pharmacological activation of skeletal muscle may mediate cognitive effects. PMID:21245211

  1. Endurance testing of a 30-cm Kaufman thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a program to demonstrate lifetime capability of a 30-cm Kaufman ion thruster with a 6000 hour endurance test are described. Included in the program are (1) thruster fabrication, (2) design and construction of a test console containing a transistorized high frequency power processor, and control circuits which provide unattended automatic operation of the thruster, and (3) modification of a vacuum facility to incorporate a frozen mercury collector and permit unattended operation. Four tests ranging in duration from 100 to 1100 hours have been completed. These tests and the resulting thruster modifications are described. The status of the endurance test is also presented.

  2. Acute effects of different stretching exercises on muscular endurance.

    PubMed

    Franco, Bruno L; Signorelli, Gabriel R; Trajano, Gabriel S; de Oliveira, Carlos G

    2008-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the acute effects of different stretching exercises on muscular endurance in men, in terms of the number of sets, set duration, and type of stretching. Two experiments were conducted; in the first one (E1), the subjects (n = 19) were evaluated to test the effect on the number of sets, and, in the second one (E2), the subjects (n = 15) were tested for the effect of set duration and type of stretching. After a warm-up of 10-15 repetitions of a bench press (BP) with submaximal effort, a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test was applied. For E1, BP endurance was evaluated after static stretching comprising one set of 20 seconds (1 x 20), two sets of 20 seconds (2 x 20), and three sets of 20 seconds (3 x 20). For E2, BP endurance was evaluated after static stretching comprising one set of 20 seconds (1 x 20), one set of 40 seconds (1 x 40), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching. All tests were performed 48-72 hours apart, at which time the muscular endurance was assessed through the maximal number of repetitions (NR) of BP at 85% of 1RM until fatigue. The NR and the overload volume (OV) were compared among tests through repeated-measures analysis of variance. No significant effect of the number of sets on muscular endurance was observed because no statistically significant difference was found when comparing all stretching exercises of E1 in terms of NS (p = 0.5377) and OV (p = 0.5723). However, significant reductions were obtained in the set duration and PNF on NR (p < 0.0001) and OV (p < 0.0001), as observed in E2. The results suggest that a stretching protocol can influence BP endurance, whereas a decrease in endurance is suggested to be attributable to set duration and PNF. On the other hand, a low volume of static stretching does not seem to have a significant effect on muscular endurance.

  3. Rosa rugosa Aqueous Extract Alleviates Endurance Exercise-Induced Stress.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunjin; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Boemjeong; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Chung, Jin Woong; Shim, Sangin; Jun, Woojin

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of water extract from Rosa rugosa (RRW) on endurance exercise-induced stress in mice. The mice were orally administered with distilled water or RRW, respectively. The endurance capacity was evaluated by exhaustive swimming using an adjustable-current water pool. Mice administered RRW swam longer before becoming exhausted. Also, RRW administration resulted in less lipid peroxidation, lower muscular antioxidant enzyme activities, and lower cortisol level. The results suggest that RRW can prevent exercise-induced stress by decreasing oxidative stress levels.

  4. Comparison between three different endurance tests in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Matthias W; Baumgart, Christian; Sperlich, Billy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Jansen, Christian; Willis, Sarah J; Freiwald, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to assess and correlate interval shuttle run test (ISRT) performance, maximum oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max), running economy (RE), running velocity at the first rise in blood lactate concentrations above baseline (vLT) and running velocity at 4 mmol·L(-1) blood lactate concentration (v4) in professional soccer players and (b) to investigate whether a correlation exists between the respective results of time to exhaustion (T(lim)) from continuous and intermittent endurance tests, respectively. Eleven male professional field soccer players (mean ± SD: age 23.8 ± 3.0 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max 58.2 ± 4.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed a continuous Incremental Test with lactate measurements to determine vLT and v4, a continuous Ramp Test with gas exchange analysis to determine V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max and RE, and an intermittent ISRT to determine intermittent endurance capacity during the first week of preseason preparation. There were significant correlations between ISRT performance and V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max (r = 0.70, p < 0.05), and between T(lim) in both continuous endurance tests (r = 0.89, p < 0.01). Between all other variables no significant correlations were found overall (best r = 0.60, p > 0.05). The assessment of all values of V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max, RE, vLT, and v4 should be included when investigating aerobic endurance performance among groups or over time in professional soccer players. Although V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max, RE, vLT, and v4 have been regarded as important factors of aerobic performance in endurance related sports, the present data revealed that V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max was the only factor, which correlated with intermittent endurance capacity in professional soccer players. Hence, V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max should be increased through soccer-specific training interventions including universal agility components. The T(lim) in continuous and

  5. Advanced flight software reconfiguraton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcher, Bryan

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on advanced flight software reconfiguration. Reconfiguration is defined as identifying mission and configuration specific requirements, controlling mission and configuration specific data, binding this information to the flight software code to perform specific missions, and the release and distribution of the flight software. The objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and validate advanced software reconfiguration tools and techniques; to demonstrate reconfiguration approaches on Space Station Freedom (SSF) onboard systems displays; and to interactively test onboard systems displays, flight software, and flight data.

  6. Ariane flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedrenne, M.

    1983-11-01

    The object of this paper is to present the way in which the flight development tests of the Ariane launch vehicle have enabled the definition to be frozen and its qualification to be demonstrated before the beginning of the operational phase. A first part is devoted to the in-flight measurement facilities, the acquisition and evaluation systems, and to the organization of the in-flight results evaluation. The following part consists of the comparison between ground predictions and flight results for the main parameters as classified by system (stages, trajectory, propulsion, flight mechanics, auto pilot and guidance). The corrective actions required are then identified and the corresponding results shown.

  7. Engine Operation in Flight for Minimum Fuel Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, George

    1939-01-01

    Engine and airplane performance data have been gathered from various sources and analyzed to determine indications of the most economical methods of flight operation from a consideration of fuel expenditure. The analysis includes the influence of such facts as fuel-air ratio, engine speed, engine knock, altitude, cylinder cooling, spark timing, and limits of cruising brake mean effective pressure. The results indicate that the cheapest power is obtained with approximately correct mixture at low engine speed and highest permissible manifold pressure. If more power is desired, the methods of obtaining it are, in order of fuel economy: (a) increasing the engine speed and maintaining safe cylinder temperatures by cooling; (b) retarding the spark or cooling further to permit higher manifold pressure; and, (c) riching the mixture. The analysis further shows that the maximum time endurance of flight occurs at the air speed corresponding to minimum thrust horsepower required and with minimum practicable engine speed. Maximum mileage per pound of fuel is obtained at slightly higher air speed. The fuel-air ratio should be approximately the theoretically correct ratio in both cases. For an engine equipped with a geared supercharger, as in the example presented, and with knock as the limiting condition, a comparison of operation at sea level and at 6,000 feet shoes flight at altitude to be more economical on the basis of both range and endurance.

  8. Flight performance effects of thermal stress and two aviator uniforms in a UH-60 helicopter simulator.

    PubMed

    Reardon, M J; Fraser, E B; Omer, J M

    1998-06-01

    The effects on flight performance of the four combinations of an unencumbered mission oriented protective posture (MOPP) aviator battle dress uniform (ABDU) and encumbered MOPP4 over ABDU flight ensemble in cool (70 degrees F or 21.1 degrees C, 50% relative humidity [RH]) and hot (100 degrees F or 37.8 degrees C, 50% RH) UH-60 simulator cockpit conditions were evaluated with a repeated measures, 2 x 2 factorial study using nine crews. The encumbered MOPP4 uniform had the most frequent adverse effect on flight performance followed by heat stress, with less frequent effects from the combination or interaction of these two factors. This study confirmed that heat stress and wearing an encumbered U.S. Army MOPP4 flight uniform significantly reduced endurance and flight performance in a UH-60 simulator.

  9. Helicopter mission optimization study. [portable computer technology for flight optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using low-cost, portable computer technology to help a helicopter pilot optimize flight parameters to minimize fuel consumption and takeoff and landing noise was demonstrated. Eight separate computer programs were developed for use in the helicopter cockpit using a hand-held computer. The programs provide the helicopter pilot with the ability to calculate power required, minimum fuel consumption for both range and endurance, maximum speed and a minimum noise profile for both takeoff and landing. Each program is defined by a maximum of two magnetic cards. The helicopter pilot is required to key in the proper input parameter such as gross weight, outside air temperature or pressure altitude.

  10. Regulation of step frequency in transtibial amputee endurance athletes using a running-specific prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Oudenhoven, Laura M; Boes, Judith M; Hak, Laura; Faber, Gert S; Houdijk, Han

    2017-01-25

    Running specific prostheses (RSP) are designed to replicate the spring-like behaviour of the human leg during running, by incorporating a real physical spring in the prosthesis. Leg stiffness is an important parameter in running as it is strongly related to step frequency and running economy. To be able to select a prosthesis that contributes to the required leg stiffness of the athlete, it needs to be known to what extent the behaviour of the prosthetic leg during running is dominated by the stiffness of the prosthesis or whether it can be regulated by adaptations of the residual joints. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how athletes with an RSP could regulate leg stiffness during distance running at different step frequencies. Seven endurance runners with an unilateral transtibial amputation performed five running trials on a treadmill at a fixed speed, while different step frequencies were imposed (preferred step frequency (PSF) and -15%, -7.5%, +7.5% and +15% of PSF). Among others, step time, ground contact time, flight time, leg stiffness and joint kinetics were measured for both legs. In the intact leg, increasing step frequency was accompanied by a decrease in both contact and flight time, while in the prosthetic leg contact time remained constant and only flight time decreased. In accordance, leg stiffness increased in the intact leg, but not in the prosthetic leg. Although a substantial contribution of the residual leg to total leg stiffness was observed, this contribution did not change considerably with changing step frequency. Amputee athletes do not seem to be able to alter prosthetic leg stiffness to regulate step frequency during running. This invariant behaviour indicates that RSP stiffness has a large effect on total leg stiffness and therefore can have an important influence on running performance. Nevertheless, since prosthetic leg stiffness was considerably lower than stiffness of the RSP, compliance of the residual leg should

  11. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  12. Endurance Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.; Sugimura, Russell S.

    1989-01-01

    Failure mechanisms in high-power service studied. Report discusses factors affecting endurance of amorphous-silicon solar cells. Based on field tests and accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules. Concludes that aggressive research needed if amorphous-silicon modules to attain 10-year life - value U.S. Department of Energy established as goal for photovoltaic modules in commercial energy-generating plants.

  13. Molecular responses to moderate endurance exercise in skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined alterations in skeletal-muscle growth and atrophy-related molecular events after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 men (23 +/- 1 yr, body mass 80 +/- 2 kg, and VO(2peak) 45 +/- 1 ml x kg'¹ x min'¹) immediately (0 hr) and...

  14. Motivational antecedent beliefs of endurance, strength, and flexibility activities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2007-03-01

    Research into the correlates of physical activity has focused almost exclusively on physical activity as an omnibus construct. Health Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine, however, advocate physical activity in terms of performing regular endurance, strength, and flexibility activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absolute and relative contributions of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs associated with endurance, strength, and flexibility activities within a theory of planned behavior (TPB) structure. Participants were 185 undergraduates who completed measures of the TPB and a 2-week follow-up of endurance, strength, and flexibility behavior. Results using structural equation modeling and Hotelling's t-tests for dependent correlations identified different motivational antecedents for each type of physical activity (p < .05). Endurance behavior was influenced exclusively by behavioral beliefs, flexibility behavior was influenced by normative and control beliefs, and strength behavior was influenced by key behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. The different motivational profiles for each physical activity allude to the importance of tailoring interventions by physical activity type.

  15. Cardiopulmonary Fitness and Endurance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng K.; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiopulmonary fitness and endurance in 9-11-year-old children with DCD against a group of typically developing children in Taiwan. The Movement ABC test was used to evaluate the motor abilities of children. Forty-one participants (20 children with DCD and 21 children without DCD) were recruited for this…

  16. Solution-Space Screening of a Hypersonic Endurance Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudoba, Bernd; Coleman, Gary; Oza, Amit; Gonzalez, Lex; Czysz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a parametric sizing study performed to develop a program strategy for research and development and procurement of a feasible next-generation hypersonic air-breathing endurance demonstrator. Overall project focus has been on complementing technical and managerial decision-making during the earliest conceptual design phase towards minimization of operational, technical, and managerial risks.

  17. Endurance Training and Cardiorespiratory Conditioning after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mossberg, Kurt A.; Amonette, William E.; Masel, Brent E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the importance of cardiorespiratory conditioning after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and provide recommendations for patients recovering from TBI. Method Review of literature assessing the effectiveness of endurance training programs. Main outcomes and results A sedentary lifestyle and lack of endurance are common characteristics of individuals with TBI who have a reduction in peak aerobic capacity of 25-30% compared to healthy sedentary persons. Increased physical activity and exercise training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in many populations with physical and cognitive impairments. Therefore, increasing the endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness of persons with TBI would seem to have important health implications. However, review of the TBI literature reveals that there have been few well-designed, well-controlled studies of physiologic and psychological adaptations of fitness training. Also lacking are long-term follow-up studies of persons with TBI. Conclusions Assessing endurance capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness early in the TBI rehabilitation process merits consideration as a standard of care by professional rehabilitation societies. Also, providing effective, safe and accessible training modalities would seem to be an important consideration for persons with TBI, given the mobility impairments many possess. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of cardiorespiratory training programs on overall morbidity and mortality. PMID:20473091

  18. The Effect of Variant Dosages of Amphetamine Upon Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melvin H.; Thompson, John

    The purpose of this study was to provide basic information concerning the acute effects of a small, moderate, and large dose of d-amphetamine sulfate upon muscular endurance; a secondary purpose involved the effect upon resting (R), and submaximal, and maximal (MAX) heart rate (HR). Twelve male university students underwent four separate trials of…

  19. Cardiopulmonary Fitness and Endurance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng K.; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiopulmonary fitness and endurance in 9-11-year-old children with DCD against a group of typically developing children in Taiwan. The Movement ABC test was used to evaluate the motor abilities of children. Forty-one participants (20 children with DCD and 21 children without DCD) were recruited for this…

  20. Instructions to Adopt an External Focus Enhance Muscular Endurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, David C.; Greig, Matt; Bullough, Jonathan; Hitchen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of internal (movement focus) and external (outcome focus) attentional-focusing instructions on muscular endurance were investigated using three exercise protocols with experienced exercisers. Twenty-three participants completed a maximal repetition, assisted bench-press test on a Smith's machine. An external focus of attention…

  1. New treatment approaches for severe and enduring eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Janet; Cardi, Valentina; Leppanen, Jenni; Turton, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to map the possibility of new treatment approaches for eating disorders. Eating disorders have a protracted trajectory with over 50% of cases developing a severe and enduring stage of illness. Although a good response to family-based interventions occurs in the early phase, once the illness has become severe and enduring there is less of a response to any form of treatment. Neuroprogressive changes brought about by poor nutrition and abnormal eating patterns contribute to this loss of treatment responsivity. We have summarised the profile of symptoms at the various stages of illness and considered new treatments that might be applied. In the enduring stage of illness in addition to problems with body image, food and eating, there are additional problems of low mood, high anxiety and compulsivity and problems in social functioning. This suggests that there are dysfunctions in circuits subsuming reward, punishment, decision-making and social processes. New approaches have been developed targeting these areas. New interventions targeting both the primary and secondary symptoms seen in the enduring stage of eating disorders may improve the response to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endurance training reduces renal vasoconstriction to orthostatic stress.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Erin E; Fogelman, Amy E; Sauder, Charity L; Ray, Chester A

    2010-02-01

    Endurance training has been associated with increased orthostatic intolerance. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that endurance training reduces renal vasoconstriction to orthostatic stress. Blood pressure, heart rate, and renal blood flow velocity were measured during a 25-min 60 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) test before and after 8 wk of endurance training in eight healthy sedentary subjects (26 +/- 1 yrs). Training elicited a 21 +/- 3% increase in peak oxygen uptake (V(O(2)peak)) and a reduction in heart rate at rest of 8 +/- 2 beats/min. During HUT, heart rate progressively increased (approximately 20 beats/min) over the 25-min HUT trial both before and after training. Systolic arterial blood pressure during HUT was unchanged with training, whereas diastolic arterial blood pressure was lower at the end of HUT after training. Before training renal blood flow velocity (Delta14 +/- 5 cm/s) and renal vascular conductance (Delta22 +/- 7%) decreased during HUT, whereas after training renal blood flow velocity (Delta2 +/- 5 cm/s) and renal vascular conductance (Delta1 +/- 12%) did not change significantly during HUT. Renal blood flow velocity and vascular conductance responses to HUT did not change in control subjects during the 8-wk period. These results demonstrate that endurance training reduces renal vasoconstriction during an orthostatic challenge and may contribute to training-induced orthostatic intolerance.

  3. An examination of the motivation - enduring involvement relationship

    Treesearch

    Gerard Kyle; James Absher; William Hammitt

    2006-01-01

    We explored the relationship between motivation and enduring involvement using a sample of campers drawn from three distinct campsites in a southeastern National Forest. The campsites varied along the ROS continuum form developed to wilderness. Using multidimensional conceptualizations of both constructs, we hypothesized that the dimensions of motivation would...

  4. Strength and Endurance Training Prescription in Healthy and Frail Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Bottaro, Martim; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with declines in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is an age-associated biological syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors due to changes in several physiological systems, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the neuromuscular and cardiovascular declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle hypertrophy, strength and power output, as well as endurance performance. The first purpose of this review was discuss the neuromuscular adaptations to strength training, as well as the cardiovascular adaptations to endurance training in healthy and frail elderly subjects. In addition, the second purpose of this study was investigate the concurrent training adaptations in the elderly. Based on the results found, the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e., concurrent training) performed at moderate volume and moderate to high intensity in elderly populations is the most effective way to improve both neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, exercise interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to frail elderly in order to improve the overall physical status of this population and prevent disability. PMID:24900941

  5. Instructions to Adopt an External Focus Enhance Muscular Endurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, David C.; Greig, Matt; Bullough, Jonathan; Hitchen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of internal (movement focus) and external (outcome focus) attentional-focusing instructions on muscular endurance were investigated using three exercise protocols with experienced exercisers. Twenty-three participants completed a maximal repetition, assisted bench-press test on a Smith's machine. An external focus of attention…

  6. Strength and endurance training prescription in healthy and frail elderly.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Bottaro, Martim; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-06-01

    Aging is associated with declines in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is an age-associated biological syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors due to changes in several physiological systems, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the neuromuscular and cardiovascular declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle hypertrophy, strength and power output, as well as endurance performance. The first purpose of this review was discuss the neuromuscular adaptations to strength training, as well as the cardiovascular adaptations to endurance training in healthy and frail elderly subjects. In addition, the second purpose of this study was investigate the concurrent training adaptations in the elderly. Based on the results found, the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e., concurrent training) performed at moderate volume and moderate to high intensity in elderly populations is the most effective way to improve both neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, exercise interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to frail elderly in order to improve the overall physical status of this population and prevent disability.

  7. Endurance Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.; Sugimura, Russell S.

    1989-01-01

    Failure mechanisms in high-power service studied. Report discusses factors affecting endurance of amorphous-silicon solar cells. Based on field tests and accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules. Concludes that aggressive research needed if amorphous-silicon modules to attain 10-year life - value U.S. Department of Energy established as goal for photovoltaic modules in commercial energy-generating plants.

  8. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  9. Nutritional strategies to modulate the adaptive response to endurance training.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, advances in molecular biology have allowed scientists to elucidate how endurance exercise training stimulates skeletal muscle remodeling (i.e. promotes mitochondrial biogenesis). A growing field of interest directly arising from our understanding of the molecular bases of training adaptation is how nutrient availability can alter the regulation of many contraction-induced events in muscle in response to endurance exercise. Acutely manipulating substrate availability can exert profound effects on muscle energy stores and patterns of fuel metabolism during exercise, as well as many processes activating gene expression and cell signaling. Accordingly, such interventions when repeated over weeks and months have the potential to modulate numerous adaptive processes in skeletal muscle that ultimately drive the phenotype-specific characteristics observed in highly trained athletes. In this review, the molecular and cellular events that occur in skeletal muscle during and after endurance exercise are discussed and evidence provided to demonstrate that nutrient availability plays an important role in modulating many of the adaptive responses to training. Emphasis is on human studies that have determined the regulatory role of muscle glycogen availability on cell metabolism, endurance training capacity and performance.

  10. Exercise-Associated Collapse in Endurance Events: A Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classification system devised for exercise-associated collapse in endurance events based on casualties observed at six Twin Cities Marathons. Major diagnostic criteria are body temperature and mental status. Management protocol includes fluid and fuel replacement, temperature correction, and leg cramp treatment. (Author/SM)

  11. Merlin C. Wittrock's Enduring Contributions to the Science of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Among his many accomplishments in educational psychology, Merlin C. Wittrock is perhaps best remembered for his enduring contributions to the science of learning. His vision of how learning works is best explicated in articles published in "Educational Psychologist" (Wittrock, 1974, 1978, 1989, 1991, 1992), beginning with his classic 1974 article,…

  12. Recommendations for Healthy Nutrition in Female Endurance Runners: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45 kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2–1.4 g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6 g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8 g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels. PMID:26075206

  13. A New Curl-Up Test of Abdominal Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Larry

    This study evaluates a new method of administering a trunk-curl test of abdominal muscular endurance and establishes a series of norms for college students and adults. The test utilizes a piece of cardboard that is cut out so that it can be held at the level of the navel of the testee and perpendicular to the floor. The test is administered with…

  14. Effect of Varient Dosages of Amphetamine Upon Endurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melvin H.; Thompson, John

    1973-01-01

    This study sought to provide basic information concerning the acute effects of a small, moderate, and large dose of d-amphetamine sulfate upon muscular endurance; a secondary purpose involved the effect upon submaximal and maximal heart rate. (Author/JA)

  15. Exercise-Associated Collapse in Endurance Events: A Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classification system devised for exercise-associated collapse in endurance events based on casualties observed at six Twin Cities Marathons. Major diagnostic criteria are body temperature and mental status. Management protocol includes fluid and fuel replacement, temperature correction, and leg cramp treatment. (Author/SM)

  16. RESISTIVE EXERCISES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURNHAM, STAN; MCCRAW, LYNN W.

    A STUDY WAS CONCERNED WITH A COMPARISON OF ISOTONIC, ISOMETRIC, AND SPEED EXERCISE PROGRAMS AS A MEANS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, SPEED, AND POWER. SUBJECTS FOR THE INVESTIGATION WERE 93 FRESHMEN AND SOPHOMORE MEN ENROLLED IN A PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASS. AFTER MEASUREMENT OF INITIAL STATUS IN THE ATTRIBUTES UNDER CONSIDERATION, THE…

  17. Merlin C. Wittrock's Enduring Contributions to the Science of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Among his many accomplishments in educational psychology, Merlin C. Wittrock is perhaps best remembered for his enduring contributions to the science of learning. His vision of how learning works is best explicated in articles published in "Educational Psychologist" (Wittrock, 1974, 1978, 1989, 1991, 1992), beginning with his classic 1974 article,…

  18. An example of endurance in an old wolf, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    An 11 to 13-year-old Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus arctos) was observed chasing a young Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) for 6 to 7 minutes and catching it. This provides an example of the degree of endurance of which an old wolf is capable.

  19. RESISTIVE EXERCISES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURNHAM, STAN; MCCRAW, LYNN W.

    A STUDY WAS CONCERNED WITH A COMPARISON OF ISOTONIC, ISOMETRIC, AND SPEED EXERCISE PROGRAMS AS A MEANS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, SPEED, AND POWER. SUBJECTS FOR THE INVESTIGATION WERE 93 FRESHMEN AND SOPHOMORE MEN ENROLLED IN A PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASS. AFTER MEASUREMENT OF INITIAL STATUS IN THE ATTRIBUTES UNDER CONSIDERATION, THE…

  20. Ischemic Preconditioning Enhances Muscle Endurance during Sustained Isometric Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, D; Suga, T; Tanaka, T; Kido, K; Honjo, T; Fujita, S; Hamaoka, T; Isaka, T

    2016-07-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) enhances whole-body exercise endurance. However, it is poorly understood whether the beneficial effects originate from systemic (e. g., cardiovascular system) or peripheral (e. g., skeletal muscle) adaptations. The present study examined the effects of IPC on local muscle endurance during fatiguing isometric exercise. 12 male subjects performed sustained isometric unilateral knee-extension exercise at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction until failure. Prior to the exercise, subjects completed IPC or control (CON) treatments. During exercise trial, electromyography activity and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived deoxygenation in skeletal muscle were continuously recorded. Endurance time to task failure was significantly longer in IPC than in CON (mean±SE; 233±9 vs. 198±9 s, P<0.001). Quadriceps electromyography activity was not significantly different between IPC and CON. In contrast, deoxygenation dynamics in the quadriceps vastus lateralis muscle was significantly faster in IPC than in CON (27.1±3.4 vs. 35.0±3.6 s, P<0.01). The present study found that IPC can enhance muscular endurance during fatiguing isometric exercise. Moreover, IPC accelerated muscle deoxygenation dynamics during the exercise. Therefore, we suggest that the origin of beneficial effects of IPC on exercise performance may be the enhanced mitochondrial metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  1. A Field Test for Upper Body Strength and Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Researchers studied the reliability of the modified push-up test in measuring upper body strength and endurance in elementary through college students. It also examined the accuracy of partner scoring. The test proved much easier to administer than the regular floor push-up. It was valid and reliable for all students and suitable for partner…

  2. Cardiovascular Endurance Activities for Children in Grades Four Through Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary Ann

    A program of cardiovascular endurance activities for children in grades four through six was developed to emphasize success and improvement and establish lifelong patterns of concern for and enjoyment of activities that contribute to physical fitness and optimum health. The activities in the program require more teacher preparation than the…

  3. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  8. Chronic and acute effects of endurance training on telomere length.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Andrea; Giardini, Guido; Tonacci, Alessandro; Mastorci, Francesca; Mercuri, Antonella; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Sposta, Simona Mrakic; Moretti, Sarah; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Pratali, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Telomere shortening is considered a cellular marker of health status and biological ageing. Exercise may influence the health and lifespan of an individual by affecting telomere length (TL). However, it is unclear whether different endurance exercise levels may have beneficial or detrimental effects on biological aging. The aims of the study were to assess both chronic and acute effects of endurance training on TL after an exceptional and extreme trail race. TL was assessed in 20 endurance athletes (17 males; age = 45.4 ± 9.2 years) and 42 age- and gender-matched sedentary controls (32 males; age = 45.9 ± 9.5 years) with quantitative real-time PCR at baseline conditions. Of the 20 runners enrolled in the 'Tor des Géants ®' ultra-distance trail race, 15 athletes (12 males; age = 47.2 ± 8.5 years) were re-evaluated at the intermediate point and 14 athletes (11 males; age = 47.1 ± 8.8 years) completed the competition and were analysed at the final point. Comparison between the two groups (endurance athletes vs. sedentary controls) revealed a significant difference in TL (1.28 ± 0.4 vs. 1.02 ± 0.3, P = 0.005). TL was better preserved in elder endurance runners compared with the same age control group (1.3 ± 0.27 vs. 0.91 ± 0.21, P = 0.003). TL was significantly reduced at the intermediate (0.88 ± 0.36 vs. 1.11 ± 0.34, P = 0.002) and final point compared with baseline measurements (0.86 ± 0.4 vs. 1.11 ± 0.34, P = 0.0006) for athletes engaged in the ultra-marathon race. Our data suggest that chronic endurance training may provide protective effects on TL attenuating biological aging. Conversely, acute exposure to an ultra-distance endurance trail race implies telomere shortening probably caused by oxidative DNA damage. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Inspiratory muscle endurance in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. T.; Andrews, R.; Johnson, P.; Phillips, L.; Cowley, A. J.; Kinnear, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of changes in respiratory muscle endurance in relation to respiratory and limb muscle strength in patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure using a threshold loading technique. SUBJECTS: 20 patients with chronic heart failure (17 male) aged 63.8 (SD 7.4) years and 10 healthy men aged 63.1 (5.6) years. Heart failure severity was New York Heart Association (NYHA) grade II (n = 11) and NYHA grade III/IV (n = 9). METHODS: Respiratory muscle strength was measured from mouth pressures during maximum inspiratory effort (MIP) at functional residual capacity (FRC) and limb muscle strength was measured using a hand grip dynamometer. Inspiratory muscle endurance was measured using a threshold loading technique. The total endurance duration, the maximum threshold pressure achieved (P-Max), and the inspiratory load (% ratio of P-Max/MIP) were recorded in all subjects. RESULTS: Inspiratory muscles were weaker in patients with heart failure than in the controls [MIP 53.6 (16.5) v 70.9 (20.2) cm H2O, P < 0.05]. Hand grip strength was similar in both subject groups [31.6 (SD) v 36.1 (15.9) dynes]. Total endurance duration was significantly reduced in the patient group [494 (223) v 996 (267) s, P < 0.01], as was the maximal threshold pressure achieved [P-Max 18.5 (6.4) v 30.7 (6.6) cm H2O, P < 0.01]. When expressed as a percentage of MIP, P-Max was also lower in the patients [35.2 (11.8) v 44.8 (11.4)%, P < 0.05]. There was no significant correlation between any measure of endurance and limb muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory muscle endurance is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure. These changes probably reflect a generalised skeletal myopathy and provide further evidence of respiratory muscle dysfunction in patients with this disease. Respiratory muscle endurance needs now to be related to symptoms and the effects of treatment and respiratory muscle training should also be explored. PMID:8983680

  10. Dietary milk fat globule membrane improves endurance capacity in mice.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu; Otsuka, Atsuko; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Sugita, Satoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2014-10-15

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) comprises carbohydrates, membrane-specific proteins, glycoproteins, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. We evaluated the effects of MFGM consumption over a 12-wk period on endurance capacity and energy metabolism in BALB/c mice. Long-term MFGM intake combined with regular exercise improved endurance capacity, as evidenced by swimming time until fatigue, in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of dietary MFGM plus exercise was accompanied by higher oxygen consumption and lower respiratory quotient, as determined by indirect calorimetry. MFGM intake combined with exercise increased plasma levels of free fatty acids after swimming. After chronic intake of MFGM combined with exercise, the triglyceride content in the gastrocnemius muscle increased significantly. Mice given MFGM combined with exercise had higher mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (Pgc1α) and CPT-1b in the soleus muscle at rest, suggesting that increased lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle contributes, in part, to improved endurance capacity. MFGM treatment with cyclic equibiaxial stretch consisting of 10% elongation at 0.5 Hz with 1 h on and 5 h off increased the Pgc1α mRNA expression of differentiating C2C12 myoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Supplementation with sphingomyelin increased endurance capacity in mice and Pgc1α mRNA expression in the soleus muscle in vivo and in differentiating myoblasts in vitro. These results indicate that dietary MFGM combined with exercise improves endurance performance via increased lipid metabolism and that sphingomyelin may be one of the components responsible for the beneficial effects of dietary MFGM. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Hydration and electrolyte balance in horses during an endurance season.

    PubMed

    Robert, C; Goachet, A-G; Fraipont, A; Votion, D-M; Van Erck, E; Leclerc, J-L

    2010-11-01

    Limited information exists about the physiological training-induced changes in electrolyte balance of horses competing in long distance endurance races. To determine the effects of endurance training and racing on hydration and electrolyte balance in horses. Blood and urine were sampled at rest in 8 endurance horses before training and after two 11 week training periods (T1 and T2). Each training was followed by a 120 km endurance ride and horses were sampled before, during and 2 h after the rides. Blood was analysed for packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP), urea, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Urine was analysed for pH, specific gravity, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations, which allowed calculation of fractional excretion of electrolytes (FE). Changes associated with training and with the rides were assessed using a Student paired t test (P ≤ 0.05). Plasma TP, urea, creatinine and sodium concentrations increased during T1 and PCV decreased significantly during T2. FE(Cl) increased during T1 then decreased. FE(K) increased significantly during both training periods. Other blood and urine parameters did not show remarkable changes with training. PCV, plasma TP, urea, creatinine and total Ca concentrations increased and plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations decreased during both rides. Urine concentrations of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-), FE(Na) and FE(Cl) decreased during the rides while urinary creatinine increased. FE(K) increased during the first part of the rides then decreased. These data contribute to the understanding of changes associated with training and prolonged endurance exercise. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle by endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Irrcher, Isabella; Adhihetty, Peter J; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Hood, David A

    2003-01-01

    Behavioural and hereditary conditions are known to decrease mitochondrial volume and function within skeletal muscle. This reduces endurance performance, and is manifest both at high- and low-intensity levels of exertion. A programme of regular endurance exercise, undertaken over a number of weeks, produces significant adaptations within skeletal muscle such that noticeable improvements in oxidative capacity are evident, and the related decline in endurance performance can be attenuated. Notwithstanding the important implications that this has for the highly trained endurance athlete, an improvement in mitochondrial volume and function through regular physical activity also endows the previously sedentary and/or aging population with an improved quality of life, and a greater functional independence. An understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern the increases in mitochondrial volume with repeated bouts of exercise can provide insights into possible therapeutic interventions to care for those with mitochondrially-based diseases, and those unable to withstand regular physical activity. This review focuses on the recent developments in the molecular aspects of mitochondrial biogenesis in chronically exercising muscle. Specifically, we discuss the initial signalling events triggered by muscle contraction, the activation of transcription factors involved in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription, as well as the post-translational import mechanisms required for mitochondrial biogenesis. We consider the importance and relevance of chronic physical activity in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis, with particular emphasis on how an endurance training programme could positively affect the age-related decline in mitochondrial content and delay the progression of age- and physical inactivity-related diseases.

  13. Endurance training in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Keller-Varady, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Adomßent, Björn; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to examine the feasibility of and adaptations to endurance training in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and to address the question whether the principles and beneficial effects of endurance training established in the healthy population apply also to patients with schizophrenia. In this controlled interventional study, 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed a standardized aerobic endurance training on bicycle ergometers over 12 weeks. Another group of 21 patients with schizophrenia played table soccer. Endurance capacity was measured with incremental cycle ergometry before and after the intervention and 3 months later. A specific set of outcome parameters was defined. The training stimuli can be assumed to be similar in both endurance groups. Endurance capacity improved significantly in the endurance groups, but not in the table soccer group. Patients and healthy controls showed comparable adaptations to endurance training, as assessed by physical working capacity and maximal achieved power. Differences were found in changes of performance at a lactate concentration of 3 mmol/l. Endurance training was feasible and effective in both groups. The principles and types of training that are usually applied to healthy controls need to be verified in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patients benefited from endurance training in terms of improvement of endurance capacity and reduction in the baseline deficit in comparison with healthy controls. Therefore, endurance training should be implemented in future therapy programs. These programs need to pay special attention to the differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

  14. Age-Related Differences in Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance among Female Masters Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, Gail M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated age-related differences in muscular strength and muscular endurance among 73 female masters swimmers aged 24 to 71 years. While an age-related decline in muscular strength was apparent, the results failed to reveal a similar trend for endurance, suggesting that swimming influences endurance more than strength among women.…

  15. Age-Related Differences in Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance among Female Masters Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, Gail M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated age-related differences in muscular strength and muscular endurance among 73 female masters swimmers aged 24 to 71 years. While an age-related decline in muscular strength was apparent, the results failed to reveal a similar trend for endurance, suggesting that swimming influences endurance more than strength among women.…

  16. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  17. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  18. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  19. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  20. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  1. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  2. Digital flight control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  3. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus research aircraft in flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Edwards, California, during a 1996 research flight. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

  4. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The twin pusher propeller-driven engines of the Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken during a 1996 research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite

  5. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its unique design as it flies low over Rogers Dry Lake during a 1996 test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global

  6. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The twin pusher engines of the prototype Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo of the aircraft during a 1996 research flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite

  7. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The PhoEnix aircraft prepares to takeoff for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The e-Genius aircraft is pulled out to the runway for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    Media and ground crew look at aircraft as they participate in the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The e-Genius aircraft prepares to takeoff for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4 aircraft prepares to takeoff for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The Pipistrel-USA team look up at aircraft as they participate in the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Flight telerobotic servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Space Station Flight Telerobotic Servicer (SSFTS) are presented. Topics covered include: SSFTS design; SSFTS elements; FTS mission requirements; FTS general requirements; flight telerobotic servicer - telerobot; FTS manipulator; force-torque transducer; end effector changeout mechanism; flight telerobotic servicer - end-of-arm tooling; user interfaces; FTS data management and processing; control subsystem; FTS vision subsystem and camera positioning assembly; FTS workstation display assembly panel; mini-master hand controller; and FTS NASREM system architecture.

  14. Flight telerobotic servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Space Station Flight Telerobotic Servicer (SSFTS) are presented. Topics covered include: SSFTS design; SSFTS elements; FTS mission requirements; FTS general requirements; flight telerobotic servicer - telerobot; FTS manipulator; force-torque transducer; end effector changeout mechanism; flight telerobotic servicer - end-of-arm tooling; user interfaces; FTS data management and processing; control subsystem; FTS vision subsystem and camera positioning assembly; FTS workstation display assembly panel; mini-master hand controller; and FTS NASREM system architecture.

  15. Pathfinder aircraft flight #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-19

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's solar cell arrays are prominently displayed as it touches down on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following a test flight. The solar arrays covered more than 75 percent of Pathfinder's upper wing surface, and provided electricity to power its six electric motors, flight controls, communications links and a host of scientific sensors.

  16. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The e-Genius aircraft is pulled pulled out to the runway for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. YF-17 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator aircraft in flight during a 1976 flight research program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. From May 27 to July 14, 1976, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, flew the Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator to test the high-performance U.S. Air Force fighter at transonic speeds. The objectives of the seven-week flight test program included the study of maneuverability of this aircraft at transonic speeds and the collection of in-flight pressure data from around the afterbody of the aircraft to improve wind-tunnel predictions for future fighter aircraft. Also studied were stability and control and buffeting at high angles of attack as well as handling qualities at high load factors. Another objective of this program was to familiarize center pilots with the operation of advanced high-performance fighter aircraft. During the seven-week program, all seven of the center's test pilots were able to fly the aircraft with Gary Krier serving as project pilot. In general the pilots reported no trouble adapting to the aircraft and reported that it was easy to fly. There were no familiarization flights. All 25 research flights were full-data flights. They obtained data on afterbody pressures, vertical-fin dynamic loads, agility, pilot physiology, and infrared signatures. Average flight time was 45 minutes, although two flights involving in-flight refueling lasted approximately one hour longer than usual. Dryden Project Manager Roy Bryant considered the program a success. Center pilots felt that the aircraft was generations ahead of then current active military aircraft. Originally built for the Air Force's lightweight fighter program, the YF-17 Cobra left Dryden to support the Northrop/Navy F-18 Program. The F-18 Hornet evolved from the YF-17.

  18. Acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses to combined strength and endurance loadings: the "order effect" in recreationally endurance trained runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Schumann, Moritz; Mikkola, Jussi; Nyman, Kai; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses and recovery (24 and 48 h) to combined strength and endurance sessions (SEs). Recreationally endurance trained men (n = 12) and women (n = 10) performed: endurance running followed immediately by a strength loading (combined endurance and strength session (ES)) and the reverse order (SE). Maximal strength (MVC), countermovement jump height (CMJ), and creatine kinase activity were measured pre-, mid-, post-loading and at 24 and 48 h of recovery. MVC and CMJ were decreased (P < 0.05) at post-ES and SE sessions in men. Only MVC decreased in ES and SE women (P < 0.05). During recovery, no order differences in MVC were observed between sessions in men, but MVC and CMJ remained decreased. During recovery in women, a delayed decrease in CMJ was observed in ES but not in SE (P < 0.01), while MVC returned to baseline at 24 h. Creatine kinase increased (P < 0.05) during both ES and SE and peaked in all groups at 24 h. The present combined ES and SE sessions induced greater neuromuscular fatigue at post in men than in women. The delayed fatigue response in ES women may be an order effect related to muscle damage.

  19. Predictors of individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Laine, T; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Nummela, A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that can predict individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training. After the first 8-week preparation period, 37 recreational endurance runners were matched into the high-volume training group (HVT) and high-intensity training group (HIT). During the next 8-week training period, HVT increased their running training volume and HIT increased training intensity. Endurance performance characteristics, heart rate variability (HRV), and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after the training periods. While HIT improved peak treadmill running speed (RSpeak ) 3.1 ± 2.8% (P < 0.001), no significant changes occurred in HVT (RSpeak : 0.5 ± 1.9%). However, large individual variation was found in the changes of RSpeak in both groups (HVT: -2.8 to 4.1%; HIT: 0-10.2%). A negative relationship was observed between baseline high-frequency power of HRV (HFPnight ) and the individual changes of RSpeak (r = -0.74, P = 0.006) in HVT and a positive relationship (r = 0.63, P = 0.039) in HIT. Individuals with lower HFP showed greater change of RSpeak in HVT, while individuals with higher HFP responded well in HIT. It is concluded that nocturnal HRV can be used to individualize endurance training in recreational runners.

  20. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.

  1. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1988-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic R and D chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing have been the crucible in which aeronautical concepts have advanced and been proven to the point that engineers and companies have been willing to stake their future to produce and design new aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress made and the challenges to come.

  2. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  3. A single set of exhaustive exercise before local muscular endurance training improves quadriceps strength and endurance in young men.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Sanches, Vanda Cristina; Pereira, Rafael Mendes; Da Silva Júnior, Rubens Alexandre; Januário, Renata Selvatici; Rabelo, Lucas Maciel; Dos Santos Silva, André Luís

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an additional set of exhaustive exercise before local muscular endurance (LME) training on maximal dynamic strength and endurance of quadriceps muscle in young men. Twenty-seven healthy men (age: 20.9±1.8 years) performed one repetition maximum (1RM), muscular endurance, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests on two separate occasions (before and after an 8-wk LME training program using a bilateral knee extensor machine). After baseline testing, the subjects were divided into three groups: untrained control (CO, N.=9), traditional training (TR, N.=9), and prior exhaustive training (PE, N.=9). Both the TR and PE groups trained using the same LME training protocol (2 d∙wk-1; 3 sets of 15-20 repetitions at 50% of 1RM) throughout the 8-wk experimental period; the only difference was that the PE group performed an additional set of exhaustive exercise at 80% of 1RM immediately before each training session. After 8 wk, the PE group experienced a greater (P<0.05) increase in 1RM, endurance, and work efficiency than the TR group. Additionally, no changes (P>0.05) in cross-sectional area (CSA), body mass and daily dietary intake were observed from pre- to post-test in either group. These results suggest that the inclusion of a single set of exhaustive exercise at 80% of 1RM immediately before LME training can be a suitable strategy for inducing additional beneficial effects on quadriceps strength and endurance in young men.

  4. Flight calibration source development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicker, S.

    1988-01-01

    An important element in monitoring the sensitivity of flight instrumentation throughout a flight is a reliable reference. Tungsten filament quartz halogen and deuterium UV sources were tested for this purpose. All three types were obtained from available commercial supplies and were tested against various mission requirements, particularly long term stability characteristics. Stability tests were made before and after thermal vacuum and vibration tests.

  5. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  6. Flight Test Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Fort Rucker, AL 36362-5276 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER TOP 7-4-020 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...2 3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS ............................................. 3 3.1...3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS . 3.1 Air Vehicle Flight Test Techniques. Many different flight test techniques are in existence. As technology

  7. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4)…

  8. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4)…

  9. Flight termination receiver catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-02-01

    This catalog provides reference information on ultra-high frequency flight termination receivers used at various U.S. missile ranges and test facilities. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all available flight termination receivers. Inclusion in this catalog does not constitute approval or endorsement for use at any government installation. Information in this catalog was extracted from manufacturers' specifications.

  10. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  11. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  12. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  13. X-43A Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation detailing X-43A Flight controls at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Dryden, Overview and current and recent flight test programs; 2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Program, Program Overview and Platform Precision Autopilot; and 3) Hyper-X Program, Program Overview, X-43A Flight Controls and Flight Results.

  14. Fatigue Induced by Physical and Mental Exertion Increases Perception of Effort and Impairs Subsequent Endurance Performance.

    PubMed

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system. First, the impact of physical and mental exertion on force production capacity is presented, with specific emphasize on the fact that solely physical exertion and not mental exertion induces a decrease in force production capacity of the working muscles. Then, the negative impact of fatigue induced by physical exertion and mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance is highlighted based on experimental data. Perception of effort being identified as the variable altered by both prior physical exertion and mental exertion, future studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms increasing perception of effort overtime and in presence of fatigue during endurance exercise. Perception of effort should be considered not only as marker of exercise intensity, but also as a factor limiting endurance performance. Therefore, using a psychophysiological approach to explain the regulation of endurance performance would allow a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and psychological phenomena known to impact endurance performance.

  15. Fatigue Induced by Physical and Mental Exertion Increases Perception of Effort and Impairs Subsequent Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system. First, the impact of physical and mental exertion on force production capacity is presented, with specific emphasize on the fact that solely physical exertion and not mental exertion induces a decrease in force production capacity of the working muscles. Then, the negative impact of fatigue induced by physical exertion and mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance is highlighted based on experimental data. Perception of effort being identified as the variable altered by both prior physical exertion and mental exertion, future studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms increasing perception of effort overtime and in presence of fatigue during endurance exercise. Perception of effort should be considered not only as marker of exercise intensity, but also as a factor limiting endurance performance. Therefore, using a psychophysiological approach to explain the regulation of endurance performance would allow a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and psychological phenomena known to impact endurance performance. PMID:27965592

  16. Exercise responses during endurance testing at different intensities in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Oga, Toru; Nishimura, Koichi; Tsukino, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Susumu

    2004-06-01

    Endurance time on submaximal exercise tests is a sensitive measure in detecting changes after medical intervention and is used as an outcome in clinical trials, although there has been little discussion regarding the appropriate intensity. Therefore, we investigated whether there were differences in exercise responses between endurance tests at high versus moderate intensity, and analyzed which test was more appropriate. Thirty-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease participated in the study. They performed cycle endurance tests at high and moderate submaximal workloads representing 80% and 60% of the maximum work rate reached on progressive cycle ergometry, respectively. Each type of exercise test was performed after inhaling salbutamol 400 microg, ipratropium bromide 80 microg or an identical placebo. Endurance time on the 80% endurance test was much shorter than on the 60% endurance test. The coefficients of variation for the endurance time were lower on the 80% test. Statistically significant improvements in the endurance time after bronchodilators in comparison to placebo were found only on the 80% test. When using the endurance time as an outcome, the high intensity endurance test is preferable to the moderate intensity endurance test, as the high intensity test demonstrated shorter exercise time, less variability and higher sensitivity.

  17. The flight of Archaeopteryx.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Templin, R Jack

    2003-01-01

    The origin of avian flight is often equated with the phylogeny, ecology, and flying ability of the primitive Jurassic bird, Archaeopteryx. Debate persists about whether it was a terrestrial cursor or a tree dweller. Despite broad acceptance of its arboreal life style from anatomical, phylogenetic, and ecological evidence, a new version of the cursorial model was proposed recently asserting that a running Archaeopteryx could take off from the ground using thrust and sustain flight in the air. However, Archaeopteryx lacked both the powerful flight muscles and complex wing movements necessary for ground takeoff. Here we describe a flight simulation model, which suggests that for Archaeopteryx, takeoff from a perch would have been more efficient and cost-effective than from the ground. Archaeopteryx may have made short flights between trees, utilizing a novel method of phugoid gliding.

  18. Vortex attenuation flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, M. R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Champine, R. A.; Tymczyszyn, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests evaluating the effects of altered span loading, turbulence ingestion, combinations of mass and turbulence ingestion, and combinations of altered span loading turbulance ingestion on trailed wake vortex attenuation were conducted. Span loadings were altered in flight by varying the deflections of the inboard and outboard flaps on a B-747 aircraft. Turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by mounting splines on a C-54G aircraft. Mass and turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by varying the thrust on the B-747 aircraft. Combinations of altered span loading and turbulence ingestion were achieved in flight by installing a spoiler on a CV-990 aircraft and by deflecting the existing spoilers on a B-747 aircraft. The characteristics of the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes were determined by probing them with smaller aircraft. Acceptable separation distances for encounters with the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes are presented.

  19. Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Anderson, Jeri L.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T.; Luo, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results Of 2654 women interviewed (2273 flight attendants and 381 teachers), 958 pregnancies among 764 women met study criteria. A hypothetical pregnant flight attendant with median firsttrimester exposures flew 130 hours in 53 flight segments, crossed 34 time zones, and flew 15 hours during her home-base sleep hours (10 pm–8 am), incurring 0.13 mGy absorbed dose (0.36 mSv effective dose) of cosmic radiation. About 2% of flight attendant pregnancies were likely exposed to a solar particle event, but doses varied widely. Analyses suggested that cosmic radiation exposure of 0.1 mGy or more may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage in weeks 9–13 (odds ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 0.95–3.2]). Risk of a first-trimester miscarriage with 15 hours or more of flying during home-base sleep hours was increased (1.5 [1.1–2.2]), as was risk with high physical job demands (2.5 [1.5–4.2]). Miscarriage risk was not increased among flight attendants compared with teachers. Conclusions Miscarriage was associated with flight attendant work during sleep hours and high physical job demands and may be associated with cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:25563432

  20. Free-piston stirling engine endurance test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dochat, G.; Rauch, J.; Antonelli, G.

    1983-01-01

    The Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) has the potential to be a long-lived, highly reliable, power conversion device attractive for many product applications such as space, residential, or remote-site power. The purpose of endurance testing the FPSE is to demonstrate its potential for long life. The endurance program was directed at obtaining 1000 operational hours under various test conditions: low power, full stroke, duty cycle, and stop/start. Critical performance parameters were measured to note any change and/or trend. Inspections were conducted to measure and compare critical seal/bearing clearance. The engine performed well throughout the program, completing the 1000 hours. Hardware inspection, including the critical clearances, showed no significant change in hardware or clearance dimensions. The performance parameters did not exhibit any increasing or decreasing trends. The test program confirms the potential for long-life FPSE applications. Additional testing is planned to increase the test hours to 10,000.

  1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and ultra-endurance running - two incompatible entities?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Regular and prolonged exercise is associated with increased left ventricular wall thickness that can overlap with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Differentiating physiological from pathological hypertrophy has important implications, since HCM is the commonest cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Most deaths have been reported in intermittent 'start-stop' sports such as football (soccer) and basketball. The theory is that individuals with HCM are unable to augment stroke volume sufficiently to meet the demands of endurance sports and are accordingly 'selected-out' of participation in such events. We report the case of an ultra-endurance athlete with 25 years of > 50 km competitive running experience, with genetically confirmed HCM; thereby demonstrating that these can be two compatible entities. PMID:22122802

  2. Willard and Spackman's Enduring Legacy for Future Occupational Therapy Pathways.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Wanda J; Peters, Christine O; Martin, Peggy M

    Helen Willard (1894-1980) and Clare Spackman (1909-1992) paved the way for modern and future occupational therapy. This article validates the need for historical research in occupational therapy and presents a historical study on how the personal and professional collaboration of Willard and Spackman influenced occupational therapy. Data were gathered from archival documents, private papers, and 10 oral histories with colleagues, students, family, and friends. We used text analysis with triangulation to develop themes to reconstruct a proximity of the historical story. Two major themes that describe Willard's and Spackman's influence on occupational therapy are (1) Enduring Legacies and (2) Sacred Solitude and Chosen Gatherings. Subthemes within Enduring Legacies include Guiding Practice, Leaders in Service, and Educational Leadership. These women strongly influenced practitioners worldwide while maintaining the sacredness of their private lives. Their example can serve as a model for current and future occupational therapy practitioners and leaders.

  3. Regulation of muscle fiber type and running endurance by PPARdelta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xu; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yu, Ruth T; Cho, Helen K; Nelson, Michael C; Bayuga-Ocampo, Corinne R; Ham, Jungyeob; Kang, Heonjoong; Evans, Ronald M

    2004-10-01

    Endurance exercise training can promote an adaptive muscle fiber transformation and an increase of mitochondrial biogenesis by triggering scripted changes in gene expression. However, no transcription factor has yet been identified that can direct this process. We describe the engineering of a mouse capable of continuous running of up to twice the distance of a wild-type littermate. This was achieved by targeted expression of an activated form of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) in skeletal muscle, which induces a switch to form increased numbers of type I muscle fibers. Treatment of wild-type mice with PPARdelta agonist elicits a similar type I fiber gene expression profile in muscle. Moreover, these genetically generated fibers confer resistance to obesity with improved metabolic profiles, even in the absence of exercise. These results demonstrate that complex physiologic properties such as fatigue, endurance, and running capacity can be molecularly analyzed and manipulated.

  4. Anaerobic Endurance of Young Untrained Male and Female Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sienkiewicz-Dianzenza, Edyta; Tomaszewski, Pawel; Iwanska, Dagmara; Stupnicki, Romuald

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the anaerobic endurance of untrained male and female subjects by applying repeated maximal exercises. Material and methods: Untrained male subjects aged 23-27 years (n = 17, body height 170-197 cm, body mass 65-110 kg) and female ones aged 20-25 years (n = 10, body height 168-184 cm, body mass 55-86 kg) performed 6 maximal…

  5. Whole Body Vibration Training - Improving Balance Control and Muscle Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Kramer, Andreas; Bernhardt, Sascha; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Exercise combined with whole body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular, although additional effects of WBV in comparison to conventional exercises are still discussed controversially in literature. Heterogeneous findings are attributed to large differences in the training designs between WBV and “control” groups in regard to training volume, load and type. In order to separate the additional effects of WBV from the overall adaptations due to the intervention, in this study, a four-week WBV training setup was compared to a matched intervention program with identical training parameters in both training settings except for the exposure to WBV. In a repeated-measures matched-subject design, 38 participants were assigned to either the WBV group (VIB) or the equivalent training group (CON). Training duration, number of sets, rest periods and task-specific instructions were matched between the groups. Balance, jump height and local static muscle endurance were assessed before and after the training period. The statistical analysis revealed significant interaction effects of group×time for balance and local static muscle endurance (p<0.05). Hence, WBV caused an additional effect on balance control (pre vs. post VIB +13%, p<0.05 and CON +6%, p = 0.33) and local static muscle endurance (pre vs. post VIB +36%, p<0.05 and CON +11%, p = 0.49). The effect on jump height remained insignificant (pre vs. post VIB +3%, p = 0.25 and CON ±0%, p = 0.82). This study provides evidence for the additional effects of WBV above conventional exercise alone. As far as balance and muscle endurance of the lower leg are concerned, a training program that includes WBV can provide supplementary benefits in young and well-trained adults compared to an equivalent program that does not include WBV. PMID:24587114

  6. Long-Endurance Maritime Surveillance with Ocean Glider Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    MARITIME SURVEILLANCE WITH OCEAN GLIDER NETWORKS by Bradley J. Nott September 2015 Thesis Advisor: John E. Joseph Second Reader: Tetyana...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LONG-ENDURANCE MARITIME SURVEILLANCE WITH OCEAN GLIDER NETWORKS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nott...unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This study examines the integration of ocean glider Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs

  7. Development of a Coping Strategies Questionnaire to Assess Endurance Performance,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-16

    assessing the performance of two individuals trained similarly for a sustained operation (an operation lasting longer than six hours) or other...endurance related tasks, a question that often arises is "why is one individual able to complete the mission or task while his similarly trained partner is...primarily with psychological processes (e.g. used positive mental Imagery), (2) eight training or event strategies (e.g. tapered for this race), (3) tw

  8. Noninvasive measurement of respiratory muscle performance after exhaustive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Perret, C; Pfeiffer, R; Boutellier, U; Wey, H M; Spengler, C M

    1999-08-01

    The use of noninvasive techniques to measure respiratory muscle performance after different types of endurance exercise has not been entirely successful, as the results have not consistently indicated diminished performance for similar types of exercise. The aim of the present study was 1) to compare different, noninvasive methods to assess respiratory muscle performance before and after an exhaustive cycling endurance test (which has previously been shown to induce diaphragmatic fatigue) and 2) to determine which of the tests best reflect published results of measurements of diaphragmatic fatigue. Twelve healthy subjects participated in the study and performed three different test series in a random order on three different days. These tests were performed before, and 5, 40 and 75 min after an exhausting task (a cycling endurance run at 85% of maximal oxygen uptake (V'O2,max)). The tests of the three test series were 1) breathing against a constant inspiratory resistance to task failure, 2) determination of 12-min sustained ventilatory capacity, and 3) spirometric and maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressure measurements. The only measurement that was affected by exhaustive cycling was the time to task failure breathing against inspiratory resistance. It was significantly reduced from (mean+/-sD) 364+/-88 s before exercise to 219+/-122 s at 5 min after cessation of exercise. It is concluded that the constant-load resistive breathing test to task failure is the only noninvasive respiratory muscle performance test evaluated in this study which shows a decrease in respiratory muscle performance after exhaustive endurance exercise.

  9. Hannelore Wass: Death Education--An Enduring Legacy.

    PubMed

    Doka, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Hannelore Wass's enduring contribution to the field of thanatology focused on death education In addition to developing a journal initially focused on that topic, Wass also created one of the first text books in the field. This article explores the factors that caused death education to emerge in the late 1960s as well as issues that death education still faces as it continues to evolve.

  10. Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montner, P.; Stark, D. M.; Riedesel, M. L.; Murata, G.; Robergs, R.; Timms, M.; Chick, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.

  11. Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montner, P.; Stark, D. M.; Riedesel, M. L.; Murata, G.; Robergs, R.; Timms, M.; Chick, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.

  12. Muscular endurance training and motor unit firing patterns during fatigue.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    With muscular training, the central nervous system may regulate motor unit firing rates to sustain force output and delay fatigue. The aims of this study were to investigate motor unit firing rates and patterns of the adductor pollicis (AdP) muscle in young, able-bodied adults throughout a sustained submaximal isometric fatiguing contraction and postactivation potentiation pre-post 4 weeks of muscular endurance training. Fifteen participants (training group: N = 10; control group: N = 5) performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and a sustained isometric 20 % MVC fatigue task pre-post training. Single-motor-unit potentials were recorded from the AdP during the fatigue task with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. Twitch force potentiation was measured during single-pulse electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve before and after MVCs. The training group endurance trained their AdP muscle at 20 % MVC for 4 weeks. Mean motor unit firing rates were calculated every 5 % of endurance time (ET). ET increased by 45.2 ± 8.7 % (p < 0.001) following muscular endurance training. Although ET increased, mean motor unit firing rates during the fatigue task did not change significantly with training. The general motor unit firing pattern consisted of an initial slowing followed by an increase in firing rate late in fatigue and remained consistent pre-post training. Potentiation did not change following training. These data suggest that the ability of the neuromuscular system to sustain motor unit firing rate may serve as a mechanism to augment the duration of submaximal muscle performance and delay muscular fatigue.

  13. Infants learn enduring functions of novel tools from action demonstrations

    PubMed Central

    Hernik, Mikołaj; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    According to recent theoretical proposals, one function of infant goal attribution is to support early social learning of artifact functions from instrumental actions, and one function of infant sensitivity to communication is to support early acquisition of generic knowledge about enduring, kind-relevant properties of the referents. The present study tested two hypotheses, derived from these proposals, about the conditions that facilitate the acquisition of enduring functions for novel tools in human infancy. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we show that 13.5-months-old infants encode arbitrary end-states of action-sequences in relation to the novel tools employed to bring them about. These mappings are not formed if the same end states of action sequences cannot be interpreted as action goals. Moreover, the tool-goal mappings acquired from infant-directed communicative demonstrations are more resilient to counter-evidence than those acquired from non-infant-directed presentations, and thus show similarities to generic rather than episodic representations. These findings suggest that the acquisition of tool functions in infancy is guided by both teleological action interpretation mechanisms and the expectation that communicative demonstrations reveal enduring dispositional properties of tools. PMID:25462040

  14. Enduring symbols of dentistry: international metaphors of dental science.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2008-12-13

    Dentists' contributions to science and society extend beyond the practice of clinical dentistry and preventive oral health. Such service encompasses contributions to biology specifically and more generally to societal good works for which dentists are particularly esteemed. The profession of dentistry promotes the history and heritage of its craft and those who practise it. Enduring symbols of dentistry take many forms. These include metonymic emblems such as those of Cadmus and Saint Apollonia and the portrayal of effigies of twentieth century dentists on eponymous medals. Other enduring symbols are to be found in the names of streets and towns (eg Normanville in Australia) which commemorate dentists; and in the worldwide scientific names of plants and animal species which perpetuate singular contributions of dentists to biological science. Such include the scientific names of grasses (Deyeuxia rodwayi) after the Tasmanian dentist, Dr Leonard Rodway (1853-1936); seaweeds (Jeannerettia sp.) after a seaweed of the Pacific and Southern Oceans, after Dr Henry Jeannerett (1802-1886); gastropods (Typhina yatesi) after Dr Lorenzo Yates (1837-1909); copepods (eg Mimocalanus heronae) named to commemorate the life and works of Gayle Ann Heron (b.1923), a dental hygienist of the University of Washington, USA; and crabs (eg Cancer bellianus) named to commemorate the life and works of the leading British dentist of his day, Thomas Bell (1792-1880). This paper explores this theme of the creation and promotion of enduring symbols of dental science - enshrined in the civic, numismatic and taxonomic record.

  15. Effects of yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Juliana Costa; Bezerra, Lídia Mara Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a systematized yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women. Twenty six women (24 ± 3.5 years old) participated in six weeks of yoga classes, and twenty one women (25 ± 5.1 years old) participated as the control group. The yoga intervention was composed of eighteen sessions, three times per week, at 1 h per session. The muscular endurance of upper limbs (push-up) and abdominal (sit-up) was assessed through the protocol suggested by Gettman (1989) [1] and Golding, Myers and Sinning (1989) [2] to the maximum repetitions performed in 1 min. To verify the significant differences intra groups and between groups a SPANOVA was performed, and the level of significance was p ≤ 0.05. The findings suggest that yoga provides improvement in upper limb and in abdominal muscular endurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Training principles and issues for ultra-endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Zaryski, Calvin; Smith, David J

    2005-06-01

    Ultra-endurance competition is defined as events that exceed than 6 hours in duration. The longer events rely on long-term preparation, sufficient nutrition, accommodation of environmental stressors, and psychologic toughness. Successful ultra-endurance performance is characterized by the ability to sustain a higher absolute speed for a given distance than other competitors. This can be achieved through a periodized training plan and by following key principles of training. Periodization is an organization of training into large, medium and small training blocks which are referred to as macro-, meso-, and microcycles, respectively. When the sequencing of training is correctly applied, athletes can achieve a high state of competition readiness and during the months of hard training, avoid the overtraining syndrome. A plan is executed in accordance with the following principles of training: all-around development, overload, specificity, individualization, consistent training, and structural tolerance. Training relies heavily on the athlete's tolerance to repetitive strain. Today's ultra-endurance athlete must also follow appropriate nutritional practices in order to recover and prepare for daily training and remain injury free and healthy. Rehydration after exercise, together with the timing and method of increased food intake to cope with heavy training, are essential for optimal performance. Furthermore, the treatment of soft tissue after training or racing is necessary to control inflammation.

  17. Long endurance materials for aluminum fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.E.; Carter, D.L.; Weber, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Appropriate selection of long endurance materials is critical to the cost effective use of fuel cell technology for near-term commercial and defense applications. To effectively transition this technology from laboratory prototype to fielded system, the durability of all fuel cell subsystems must be addressed. Material selection based upon a thorough understanding of system performance requirements, operational environments, and user interfaces not only provides high reliability and enhanced safety, but also lowers life cycle costs. This paper discusses the development of an Aluminum Fuel Cell Power System (FCPS) for the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) program, focusing on the operational endurance testing that was conducted to evaluate candidate materials for cell stack, electrolyte, and coolant subsystems. The FCPS is a 15 kW closed aluminum-oxygen fuel cell system that provides up to 1.1 MWh energy. Loral has completed small-scale bench tests and is currently fabricating a full-scale system to be demonstrated in 1995. A materials/component endurance test program was established and conducted early in the design phase of the FCPS program. To date, Loral has completed over 3,000 operational test hours, with nearly 8,000 hours of accumulated exposure to KOH. Results of these tests have been incorporated into the FCPS detailed design, and are expected to significantly enhance the performance of the fielded system. This program is sponsored by ARPA Maritime Systems Technology Office under NASA contract NAS3-26715.

  18. Serum cardiac troponin T after repeated endurance exercise events.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, A; Tirelli, F; Albertini, R; Monica, C; Monica, M; Tredici, G

    1996-05-01

    Recently Dr. Rowe made a hypothesis according to which small areas of myocardial necrosis can be caused by microvascular spasm, related to high catecholamine concentrations and other mechanisms, following extraordinary unremitting endurance exercises or due to the cumulative effect of several endurance events. It was this last suggestion which prompted us to investigate 25 top cyclists, taking part in the 77th Giro d'Italia. Blood samples were obtained the day before the start of the competition and once a week thereafter until the end. We measured myoglobin, lactic dehydrogenase, total creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and serum cardiac troponin T (Tn-T), a highly sensitive and specific method for the detection of myocardial injury. While at measuring time points which followed we found a significant increase in the serum indicators of muscle damage, compared with their values at the beginning of the race, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB did not rise significantly and cardiac Tn-T was found in the serum of only 5 athletes, repeatedly in some cases, but always below the cut off values considered as indicating myocardial ischemia. On the basis of the behaviour of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and, above all, of cardiac Tn-T, we can conclude that heavy endurance exercises, repeated daily for 22 days, as was the case in our study, do not seem able to produce, in top athletes, permanent heart damage by means of acute myocardial injury.

  19. Endurance exercise attenuates ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Smuder, Ashley J.; Min, Kisuk; Hudson, Matthew B.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Nelson, W. Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for patients in respiratory failure. However, MV renders the diaphragm inactive leading to diaphragm weakness due to both atrophy and contractile dysfunction. It is now established that oxidative stress is a requirement for MV-induced diaphragmatic proteolysis, atrophy, and contractile dysfunction to occur. Given that endurance exercise can elevate diaphragmatic antioxidant capacity and the levels of the cellular stress protein heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), we hypothesized that endurance exercise training before MV would protect the diaphragm against MV-induced oxidative stress, atrophy, and contractile dysfunction in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results confirm that endurance exercise training before MV increased both HSP72 and the antioxidant capacity in the diaphragm. Importantly, compared with sedentary animals, exercise training before MV protected the diaphragm against MV-induced oxidative damage, protease activation, myofiber atrophy, and contractile dysfunction. Further, exercise protected diaphragm mitochondria against MV-induced oxidative damage and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These results provide the first evidence that exercise can provide protection against MV-induced diaphragm weakness. These findings are important and establish the need for future experiments to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for exercise-induced diaphragm protection. PMID:22074717

  20. Endurance exercise attenuates ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smuder, Ashley J; Min, Kisuk; Hudson, Matthew B; Kavazis, Andreas N; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Nelson, W Bradley; Powers, Scott K

    2012-02-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for patients in respiratory failure. However, MV renders the diaphragm inactive leading to diaphragm weakness due to both atrophy and contractile dysfunction. It is now established that oxidative stress is a requirement for MV-induced diaphragmatic proteolysis, atrophy, and contractile dysfunction to occur. Given that endurance exercise can elevate diaphragmatic antioxidant capacity and the levels of the cellular stress protein heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), we hypothesized that endurance exercise training before MV would protect the diaphragm against MV-induced oxidative stress, atrophy, and contractile dysfunction in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results confirm that endurance exercise training before MV increased both HSP72 and the antioxidant capacity in the diaphragm. Importantly, compared with sedentary animals, exercise training before MV protected the diaphragm against MV-induced oxidative damage, protease activation, myofiber atrophy, and contractile dysfunction. Further, exercise protected diaphragm mitochondria against MV-induced oxidative damage and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These results provide the first evidence that exercise can provide protection against MV-induced diaphragm weakness. These findings are important and establish the need for future experiments to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for exercise-induced diaphragm protection.

  1. Effects of habitual physical activity on response to endurance training.

    PubMed

    Hautala, Arto; Martinmaki, Kaisu; Kiviniemi, Antti; Kinnunen, Hannu; Virtanen, Paula; Jaatinen, Jukka; Tulppo, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesised that habitual physical activity (PA) together with progressive endurance training contributes to the differences in training response (Δ[V(·)]O(2max)) in healthy and physically active male participants. Twenty volunteers (age 30±3 years and [V(·)]O(2max) 54±7 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) participated in an eight-week training program which included four to six heart rate-guided exercise sessions weekly. PA data over the whole period were collected by an accelerometer-equipped wristwatch. Individual relative intensities of endurance training and PA were separately determined by adjusting to [V(·)]O(2max) reserve and calculated as mean daily duration (min) of training and PA at light, moderate, high and very high intensity levels. [V(·)]O(2max) increased 6.4±4.1% (p < 0.0001) during the training period. Δ[V(·)]O(2max) correlated with the amount of habitual PA that was mainly of light intensity (r = 0.53, p = 0.016), but not with the duration of moderate, high or very high intensity PA (p = ns for all). Age, body mass index, and daily amount of training at any intensity level of exercise were not related to Δ[V(·)]O(2max) (p = ns for all). In conclusion, a high amount of habitual PA together with prescribed endurance training was associated with good training response in physically active males.

  2. Reliability of a clinical test for deep cervical flexor endurance.

    PubMed

    Olson, Lee E; Millar, A Lynn; Dunker, Jeremy; Hicks, Jennifer; Glanz, Devin

    2006-02-01

    Endurance deficiencies of the deep cervical flexors are associated with pain, increased lordosis, and headache. A need exists for reliable clinical tests of flexor endurance. This study determined intrarater and interrater reliability of such a test in persons without neck pain. Twenty-seven subjects (aged 20-35 years) without a history of neck pain or injury were tested. Supine subjects were timed in maintaining a position involving two components: (1) craniovertebral flexion (chin tuck) and (2) lower cervical flexion (holding the occiput at a fixed height). Each subject was examined twice by 3 different examiners with 1 to 2 days between trials. When two values were averaged, interrater reliability for the 3 testers was 0.83, 0.85, and 0.88. Intrarater reliability values were 0.78 and 0.85 for tests 1 and 2, respectively. The flexor endurance test showed good intertester and intratester reliability when two values were averaged and, thus, may represent a useful clinical tool for practitioners involved in treating and preventing neck pain.

  3. Y chromosome haplogroups of elite Ethiopian endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Moran, Colin N; Scott, Robert A; Adams, Susan M; Warrington, Samantha J; Jobling, Mark A; Wilson, Richard H; Goodwin, William H; Georgiades, Evelina; Wolde, Bezabhe; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2004-11-01

    Favourable genetic endowment has been proposed as part of the explanation for the success of East African endurance athletes, but no evidence has yet been presented. The Y chromosome haplogroup distribution of elite Ethiopian athletes (n=62) was compared with that of the general Ethiopian population (n=95) and a control group from Arsi (a region producing a disproportionate number of athletes; n=85). Athletes belonged to three groups: marathon runners (M; n=23), 5-km to 10-km runners (5-10K; n=21) and other track and field athletes (TF; n=18). DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and haplogroups were assigned after the typing of binary markers in multiplexed minisequencing reactions. Frequency differences between groups were assessed by using contingency exact tests and showed that Y chromosome haplogroups are not distributed amongst elite Ethiopian endurance runners in the same proportions as in the general population, with statistically significant (P<0.05) differences being found in four of the individual haplogroups. The geographical origins and languages of the athletes and controls suggest that these differences are less likely to be a reflection of population structure and that Y chromosome haplogroups may play a significant role in determining Ethiopian endurance running success.

  4. Analysis of Tests Evaluating Sport Climbers’ Strength and Isometric Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Ozimek, Mariusz; Staszkiewicz, Robert; Rokowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and “conditioning” variables on the one hand, and climber’s performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades. The strongest correlations (Spearman’s rank) were found between climber’s competence and the relative results of the finger strength test (r = 0.7); much lower, but still statistically significant coefficients were found between the level of competence and the results of the muscle endurance tests (r = 0.53 – 0.57). Climbers aspiring to attain an elite level must have strong finger and forearm muscles, but most of all, they must be capable of releasing their potential during specific motor capability tests engaging these parts of the body. The forearm muscles of elite climbers must also be very resistant to fatigue. Since highly trained athletes vary only slightly in body mass, this variable does not have a major effect on their performance during strength and endurance tests. PMID:28149428

  5. Analysis of Tests Evaluating Sport Climbers' Strength and Isometric Endurance.

    PubMed

    Ozimek, Mariusz; Staszkiewicz, Robert; Rokowski, Robert; Stanula, Arkadiusz

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and "conditioning" variables on the one hand, and climber's performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades. The strongest correlations (Spearman's rank) were found between climber's competence and the relative results of the finger strength test (r = 0.7); much lower, but still statistically significant coefficients were found between the level of competence and the results of the muscle endurance tests (r = 0.53 - 0.57). Climbers aspiring to attain an elite level must have strong finger and forearm muscles, but most of all, they must be capable of releasing their potential during specific motor capability tests engaging these parts of the body. The forearm muscles of elite climbers must also be very resistant to fatigue. Since highly trained athletes vary only slightly in body mass, this variable does not have a major effect on their performance during strength and endurance tests.

  6. Design considerations for high-altitude, long-endurance, microwave-powered aircraft. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Washington, D.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. Q.

    1985-01-01

    The sizing and performance analyses have been conducted in the design of long-endurance, high-altitude airplanes. These airplanes receive power either continuously beamed from a phased array transmitter or intermittently beamed from a dish transmitter. Results are presented for the cases of flight in zero wind speed and nonzero wind speed. Sensitivity studies indicate that the vehicle size is relatively insensitive to changes in the transmitter size. Cost estimates were made using models that excluded the airplane cost. Using a reference payload, results obtained from array and dish configurations were compared. Comparisons showed savings in cost as well as smaller vehicle sizes when an array transmitter was used.

  7. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  8. Performance and endurance testing of a prototype carbon dioxide and humidity control system for Space Shuttle extended mission capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Cusick, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    An advanced flight prototype regenerable CO2 and humidity control system was delivered to NASA-JSC in February 1980. It is pointed out that this system offers substantial weight savings compared with the Shuttle Orbiter expendable lithium hydroxide CO2 removal system for extended duration missions. The present paper provides a brief description of the 4- to 10-man regenerable CO2 and humidity control system. The potential advantages which can be realized for an extended duration Shuttle mission are considered along with the results of extensive testing conducted at JSC. The performance evaluation and endurance tests show that the system is capable of long-term operation (up to 60 days) without maintenance.

  9. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  10. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    Pipistrel-USA Pilots Robin Reid, left, and David Morss, talk on their cell phones shortly after participating in the miles per gallon (MPG) flight in their Taurus G4 aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Columbia's first shakedown flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The space shuttle orbiter Columbia, first of the planned fleet of spacecraft in the nation's space transportation system, will liftoff on its first orbital shakedown flight on or about the 10th of April 1981. Launch will be from the NASA Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39A, no earlier than 45 minutes after sunrise. Crew for the first orbital flight will be John W. Young, commander, veteran of two Gemini and two Apollo space flights, and U.S. Navy Capt. Robert L. Crippen, pilot. Crippen has not flown in space.

  12. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Brien A. Seeley M.D., President of Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation briefs pilots and ground crew prior to competition as part of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Brien A. Seeley M.D., President of Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation, right, briefs pilots and ground crew prior to competition as part of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The checkered flag is waved as the PhoEnix aircraft crosses the finish line of the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the checkered flag as aircraft pass the finish line of the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, EcoEagle prepares to takeoff as an demonstration aircraft for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The e-Genius pilots talk with a fellow team member prior to their takeoff for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4 aircraft is seen as it participates in the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  20. [Diagnostic tools for endurance testing in handball players].

    PubMed

    Schwesig, R; Weirauch, H; Eder, P; Becker, S; Leuchte, S

    2010-03-01

    The physiological demands of handball players on international level has increased during the last years mainly due to rule changes. Therefore a scientific funded training method under sports medical supervision gets more and more important. Nevertheless any only limited data are available concerning adequate tests and methods on endurance and sports related assessment of physical performance in handball. Goal of this experimental cross sectional study was to record the endurance of handball players (regional league) in general and related to their sport. This study was performed in conjunction with the development and testing of a new handball specific complexity test (HBKT) and the use of a new lactate analysis software wesp-analysis during a treadmill test (TT). 16 semi-professional handball players (mean age: 27.5 +/- 6.78 years) of a regional team were investigated with TT and HBKT on two different days (time delay 72 h). The parameters lactate, heart rate (TT/HBKT) and the time and rate of faults in the HBKT were recorded. The players showed large deficits in basic endurance capacity. There was a great performance difference within the team, especially in the lower intensity regions (< or = 3 mmol/l). Whereas the maximal heart rate was significantly higher in the TT versus the HBKT (TT: 192 +/- 8.67 min (-1) versus HBKT: 180 +/- 9.23 min (-1); p < 0.001; eta(2) = 0.794). The maximum lactate levels showed directly the opposite (10.1 +/- 2.91 mmol/l for TT versus 12.8 +/- 1.99 mmol/l for HBKT; p < 0.001, eta(2) = 0.644). Maximal run velocity (TT) and general performance (HBKT) was related on a mean level (r = -0.566). The results show the necessity of individual heart rate dependant basic endurance training. The correlation between the tests is a further sign for the significant importance of endurance capacity for sports performance. A comparison of these results to a higher level handball team would yield further information regarding interpretation and

  1. Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 9) from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers. Key points Two weekly sessions of dry land strength training improves the

  2. Anaerobic capacity, isometric endurance, and Laser sailing performance.

    PubMed

    Vangelakoudi, A; Vogiatzis, I; Geladas, N

    2007-08-01

    Laser sailors have to tolerate fatiguing contractions of the lower-body muscles for prolonged periods. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the difference between top-ranked and club sailors, in their capacity to resist fatigue during sustained isometric and maximal power exercise, and (2) to examine the relationships between the above parameters and performance on a Laser simulator and competitive racing performance according to the national ranking list. Eight Greek nationally ranked Laser sailors were compared with eight club sailors. Each sailor performed: (a) an effort to the limit of tolerance on the Laser simulator, (b) an effort to the limit of tolerance of isometric endurance for the right leg on an isokinetic dynamometer, and (c) a Wingate test of maximal lower-body anaerobic power on a cycle ergometer. In the nationally ranked sailors, isometric endurance time (mean 160 s, s = 50) and endurance time on the Laser simulator (1381 s, s = 1354) were significantly (P < 0.05) longer than in the club sailors (101 s, s = 29 and 565 s, s = 367, respectively), whereas the final minute heart rate (in both groups: 149 beats . min(-1), s = 22) and the mean arterial pressure (nationally ranked sailors: 129 mmHg, s = 16; club sailors: 120 mmHg, s = 21) on the Laser simulator were not different between groups. During the Wingate test, the nationally ranked sailors had a significantly lower index of fatigue (42%, s = 5) than the club sailors (49%, s = 6). Isometric endurance time was significantly correlated with the Wingate index of fatigue (r = -0.73; P < 0.001). The nationally ranked sailors' mean and maximal anaerobic powers were significantly correlated with their national ranking positions (r = -0.83 and -0.71, respectively). It is suggested that isometric endurance and anaerobic power are well-developed in Laser class sailors and may influence their sailing performance. Furthermore, compared with club sailors, the nationally ranked sailors are able

  3. Does Endurance Training Compensate for Neurotrophin Deficiency Following Diabetic Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Rasoul; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemi, Abdolreza; Dakhili, Amir Bahador; Sorkhkamanzadeh, Ghazaleh; Sheikhy, Ayob

    2016-01-01

    Background A lack of neurotrophic support is believed to contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy. On the other hand, neurotrophins have consistently been shown to increase in the central and peripheral nervous system following exercise, but the effects of exercise intervention on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic neuropathy are not understood. Objectives This experimental study was designed and carried out at the Tarbiat Modares university (TMU) in Tehran, Iran, to investigate the hypothesis that increased activity as endurance training can help to increase the endogenous expression of neurotrophins in diabetic rats. Methods This was an experimental study with 2 × 2 factorial plans performed at TMU in Iran. Sampling was accidental and 28 adult male Wistar rats in the body mass range of 326.3 ± 8.4 g comprised the sample, with each rat randomly assigned to four groups: diabetic control (DC), diabetic training (DT), healthy control (HC), and healthy training (HT). To induce diabetic neuropathy, after 12 hours of food deprivation, an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) solution (45 mg/Kg) method was used. Two weeks after STZ injection, the endurance training protocol was performed for 6 weeks; 24 hours after the last training session, the rats were sacrificed. Real-time PCR was used for BDNF and NGF expression. Results The data indicate that diabetes decreases BDNF and NGF expression in sensory (92%, P = 0.01; 90%, P = 0.038, respectively) and motor (93%, P = 0.05; 60%, P = 0.029, respectively) roots. However, NGF mRNA levels in the DT group were significantly higher than in the HC group ((7.1-fold), P = 0.01; (2.2-fold), P = 0.001, respectively, for sensory and motor roots), but this was not shown for BDNF. In addition, endurance training can increase NGF expression in healthy rats ((7.4-fold), P = 0.01; (3.8-fold), P = 0.001, respectively, for sensory and motor roots). Conclusions This

  4. Automated flight test management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.; Agarwal, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Phase 1 development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight concepts is discussed. The ATMS provides a flight engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight test planning, monitoring, and simulation. The system is also capable of controlling an aircraft during flight test by performing closed loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The ATMS is being used as a prototypical system to develop a flight research facility for AI based flight systems concepts at NASA Ames Dryden.

  5. The physiology of long-distance migration: extending the limits of endurance metabolism.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jean-Michel

    2009-03-01

    Long-distance migrants have evolved specific adaptations that make their athletic records possible. Unique mechanisms explaining their amazing capacity for endurance exercise have now been uncovered, particularly with respect to energy storage, mobilization, transport and utilization. Birds are champions of migration because flying offers a key compromise: it allows more rapid movement than swimming, but has a lower cost of transport than running. High efficiency for muscle contraction, pointed wings, low wingloading, travelling in V-formations, storing fuel as energy-dense lipids and atrophy of non-essential organs are some of their strategies to decrease the cost of transport. The ability to process lipids rapidly also emerges as a crucial component of the migrant phenotype. High lipid fluxes are made possible by lipoprotein shuttles and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that accelerate lipid transport and by upgrading the metabolic machinery for lipolysis and lipid oxidation. Preparation for long flights can include natural doping on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) from unique invertebrate diets. Muscle performance is improved by restructuring membrane phospholipids and by activating key genes of lipid metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The physiological secret to long migrations does not depend on a single ;magic' adaptation but on the integration of multiple adjustments in morphology, biomechanics, behavior, nutrition and metabolism. Research on the physiology of migrants improves the fundamental knowledge of exercise biology, but it also has important implications for wildlife conservation, treating obesity and improving the performance of human athletes.

  6. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  7. Contrasting effects in anthropometric measures of total fatness and abdominal fat mass following endurance and concurrent endurance and resistance training.

    PubMed

    Shaw, B S; Shaw, I; Mamen, A

    2010-06-01

    An increased total fatness, and especially abdominal fat deposition, is associated with a greater risk for a variety of health problems and metabolic disturbances. It is commonly accepted that endurance training induces the greatest alterations in total adiposity despite resistance training possibly having other advantages on body fat distribution. Thirty-seven males were assigned to 16 weeks of endurance training (ET) (N=12), concurrent endurance and resistance training (CT) (N=13) or no exercise (N=12) to compare the effects of these modes of training on anthropometric measures of fat distribution in previously sedentary males on an Ad Libitum diet. The ET significantly (P

  8. Space flight hazards catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The most significant hazards identified on manned space flight programs are listed. This summary is of special value to system safety engineers in developing safety checklists and otherwise tailoring safety tasks to specific systems and subsystems.

  9. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  10. Flight Over Ceres

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-28

    This animated flight over Ceres explores the most prominent craters, as well as the mountain Ahuna Mons. The movie shows Ceres in enhanced color, using images taken by the NASA's Dawn spacecraft as it orbited the dwarf planet.

  11. Perseus in Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-11-15

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle flies over Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test basic design concepts for the remotely-piloted, high-altitude vehicle.

  12. SR-71 Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Two SR-71A aircraft were loaned from the U.S. Air Force for use for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. One of them was later returned...

  13. Hypersonic flight testing

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, W.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation is developed for people attending the University of Texas week-long short course in hypersonics. The presentation will be late in the program after the audience has been exposed to computational tehniques and ground test methods. It will attempt to show why we flight test, flight test options, what we learn from flight tests and how we use this information to improve our knowledge of hypersonics. It presupposes that our primary interest is in developing vehicles which will fly in the hypersonic flight region and not in simply developing technology for technology's sake. The material is presented in annotated vugraph form so that the author's comments on each vugraph are on the back of the preceding page. It is hoped that the comments will help reinforce the message on the vugraph.

  14. BIOPAN -- Flight experiment CARD''

    SciTech Connect

    Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Meijer, H.; Ronnet, J.C.; Demets, R.; Adams, L. ); Heinrich, W.; Roecher, H. . Dept. of Physics)

    1994-12-01

    As part of the BIOPAN-0 test flight payload, ESA/ESTEC together with University of Siegen, designed an experiment called CARD, for flight on the first BIOPAN model. The CARD experiment, consisting of commercially available 128K-bit EEPROM cards and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector foils, was flown in order to assess the EEPROMs sensitivity to cosmic rays and the CR-39 foils to measure the cosmic rays seen during the mission. The EEPROMs were unbiased during the flight so only the charged content of the memories could be assessed after returning to earth. This paper presents the results from a 15.6 day flight on-board the Russian Photon-8 satellite, launched October the 8th 1992 (altitude 300 km, inclination 62.8[degree]), and gives details of the ground testing and analyses performed.

  15. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  16. Identification of atypical flight patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing aircraft data, including multiple selected flight parameters for a selected phase of a selected flight, and for determining when the selected phase of the selected flight is atypical, when compared with corresponding data for the same phase for other similar flights. A flight signature is computed using continuous-valued and discrete-valued flight parameters for the selected flight parameters and is optionally compared with a statistical distribution of other observed flight signatures, yielding atypicality scores for the same phase for other similar flights. A cluster analysis is optionally applied to the flight signatures to define an optimal collection of clusters. A level of atypicality for a selected flight is estimated, based upon an index associated with the cluster analysis.

  17. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  18. Isokinetic and isometric strength-endurance after 6 hours of immersion and 6 degrees head-down tilt in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer-Bailey, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Hutchinson, T. M.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine weight (water) loss levels for onset of muscular strength and endurance changes during deconditioning. METHODS: Seven men (27-40 yr) performed maximal shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint isometric (0 degree.s(-1) load) and isokinetic (60 degrees, 120 degrees, 180 degrees.s(-1) velocity) exercise tests during ambulatory control (AC), after 6 h of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT; dry-bulb temp. = 23.2 +/- SD 0.6 degrees C, relative humidity = 31.1+/- 11.1%) and after 6 h of 80 degrees foot-down head-out water immersion (WI; water temp. = 35.0 +/- SD 0.1 degree C) treatments. RESULTS: Weight (water) loss after HDT (1.10 +/- SE 0.14 kg, 1.4 +/- 0.2% body wt) and WI (1.54+/- 0.19 kg, 2.0 +/- 0.2% body wt) were not different, but urinary excretion with WI (1,354 +/- 142 ml.6 h(-1)) was 28% greater (p < 0.05) than that of 975 +/- 139 ml.6 h(-1) with HDT. Muscular endurance (total work; maximal flexion-extension of the non-dominant knee at 180 degrees.s(-1) for 30 s) was not different between AC and the WI or HDT treatments. Shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint strength was unchanged except for three knee-joint peak torques: AC torque (120 degrees.s(-1), 285 +/- 20 Nm) decreased to 268 +/- 21 Nm (delta = -6%, p < 0.05) with WI; and AC torques (180 degrees.s(-1), 260 +/- 19 Nm) decreased to 236 +/- 15 Nm (delta = -9%, p < 0.01) with HDT, and to 235 +/- 19 Nm (delta = -10%, p < 0.01) with WI. CONCLUSION: Thus, the total body hypohydration threshold level for shoulder- and ankle-joint strength and endurance decrements is more than 2% body weight (water) loss, while significant reduction in knee-joint muscular strength-endurance occurred only at moderate (120 degrees.s(-1) and lighter (180 degrees.s(-1)) loads with body weight loss of 1.4-2.0% following WI or HDT, respectively. These weight (water) losses and knee-joint strength decrements are somewhat less than the mean weight loss of 2.6% and knee-joint strength decrements of 6-20% of American astronauts after

  19. Isokinetic and isometric strength-endurance after 6 hours of immersion and 6 degrees head-down tilt in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer-Bailey, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Hutchinson, T. M.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine weight (water) loss levels for onset of muscular strength and endurance changes during deconditioning. METHODS: Seven men (27-40 yr) performed maximal shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint isometric (0 degree.s(-1) load) and isokinetic (60 degrees, 120 degrees, 180 degrees.s(-1) velocity) exercise tests during ambulatory control (AC), after 6 h of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT; dry-bulb temp. = 23.2 +/- SD 0.6 degrees C, relative humidity = 31.1+/- 11.1%) and after 6 h of 80 degrees foot-down head-out water immersion (WI; water temp. = 35.0 +/- SD 0.1 degree C) treatments. RESULTS: Weight (water) loss after HDT (1.10 +/- SE 0.14 kg, 1.4 +/- 0.2% body wt) and WI (1.54+/- 0.19 kg, 2.0 +/- 0.2% body wt) were not different, but urinary excretion with WI (1,354 +/- 142 ml.6 h(-1)) was 28% greater (p < 0.05) than that of 975 +/- 139 ml.6 h(-1) with HDT. Muscular endurance (total work; maximal flexion-extension of the non-dominant knee at 180 degrees.s(-1) for 30 s) was not different between AC and the WI or HDT treatments. Shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint strength was unchanged except for three knee-joint peak torques: AC torque (120 degrees.s(-1), 285 +/- 20 Nm) decreased to 268 +/- 21 Nm (delta = -6%, p < 0.05) with WI; and AC torques (180 degrees.s(-1), 260 +/- 19 Nm) decreased to 236 +/- 15 Nm (delta = -9%, p < 0.01) with HDT, and to 235 +/- 19 Nm (delta = -10%, p < 0.01) with WI. CONCLUSION: Thus, the total body hypohydration threshold level for shoulder- and ankle-joint strength and endurance decrements is more than 2% body weight (water) loss, while significant reduction in knee-joint muscular strength-endurance occurred only at moderate (120 degrees.s(-1) and lighter (180 degrees.s(-1)) loads with body weight loss of 1.4-2.0% following WI or HDT, respectively. These weight (water) losses and knee-joint strength decrements are somewhat less than the mean weight loss of 2.6% and knee-joint strength decrements of 6-20% of American astronauts after

  20. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  1. Hypersonic Flight Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    ACTUAL fLIGHT • VALIDATE OVERALL SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE • GENERATE INFORMATION NOT AVAILABLE ON THE GROUND • PROVIDE AN EFFICIENT EXPANSION OF THE FLIGHT...development. DESCRIPTION OBJECTIVES • SUPERSONIC/HYPERSONIC RAMJET ENGINE TESTBED CHARACTERISTICS • LENGTH: 10 m (33 FY) • SPAN: 3.7 m (12 FY) • GROSS...20, 21, 22 Using ground test data, the Russians have AEDC·TR·94·7 DESCRIPTION OBJECTIVES • DEMONSTRATE RAMJET /SCRAMJET PROPULSION OPERATION IN

  2. Adaptive Structures Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Maurice

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  3. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  4. International Flight Planning Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    SAC pilots and navigators for international operations and provide increased confidence to deal effectively with contingencies that might occur. -, The...control and altitude separation. Therefore, aircrft separation is greater than operations within a radar enviro :..en:. The service is provided by the ICAO...within the CONUS ARTCC system are connected. Therefore, a handoff of a flight will be effected prior to entry into an adjoining FIR or UIR. Once a flight

  5. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    A hot air balloon passes over the campus of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    A hot air balloons pass over the campus of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Sid Siddiqi, seated, and other support personnel prepare noise level measuring equipment for the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Support personnel prepare noise level measuring equipment along the runway for the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The PhoEnix aircraft takes off during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The e-Genius aircraft crew wait as their aircraft is inspected during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, EcoEagle aircraft takes off during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    e-Genius Aircraft Pilot Eric Raymond poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn directs the EcoEagle aircraft to the start of the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    e-Genius Aircraft Pilot Klaus Ohlmann poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    Various team members applaud as aircraft return from the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition start flag for the EcoEagle aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    PhoEnix Aircraft Co-Pilot Jeff Shingleton poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The e-Genius aircraft takes off during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    Pipistrel-USA Taurus G4 Aircraft Pilot David Morss poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition checkered flag for the e-Genius aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    The PhoEnix aircraft takes off for the start of the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The campus of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, is seen in this aerial view at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Wednesday, Sept. 28, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Team members of the e-Genius aircraft prepare their plane prior to competition as part of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition checkered flag for the Taurus G4 aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4 aircraft takes off during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition checkered flag for the EcoEagle aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition checkered flag for the PhoEnix aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn directs the e-Genius aircraft to the start of the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    Pipistrel-USA Taurus G4 Aircraft Pilot Robin Reid poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The EcoEagle, left, and the PhoEnix aircraft are seen on the campus of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Wednesday, Sept. 28, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    A Pipistrel-USA team member wipes down the Taurus G4 aircraft prior to competition as part of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    PhoEnix Aircraft Pilot Jim Lee poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    EcoEagle Aircraft Pilot Mikhael Ponso poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    The e-Genius aircraft takes off for the start of the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. X-29 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This 23 second clip begins with a camera pan from the aircraft's right rear quarter forward as the X-29 flies along in a near- stall maneuver.

  16. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, EcoEagle is seen as it passes a Grumman Albatross during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  18. Controlled Hypersonic Flight Air Data System and Flight Instrumentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    strongly on the flight envelope, re-entry trajectory and vehicle structure. Flight envelope and re-entry trajectory influence primarily the sensor...6 3.3 Flight Wind angles and basic considerations...determination the Mach number independence principle can however be used to derive simple analytic expressions. 3.3 Flight Wind angles and basic

  19. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Vorup, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Ravnholt, Tanja; Dalsgaard, Sarah; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate (1 × week(-1)) intensity training with a reduction in total volume of ~58 %, whereas CON continued their training (~45 km week(-1)). In CSS, 400-m and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance was improved by 5 % (P < 0.01) and 19 % (P < 0.001), respectively, during the intervention period. Maximal aerobic speed was 0.6 km h(-1) higher (P < 0.05), and maximal activity of lactate dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 2 was 17 % (P < 0.05) higher after compared to before the intervention period. Time to exhaustion and peak blood lactate during an incremental treadmill test was 9 % (P < 0.05) and 32 % (P < 0.01), respectively, higher and expression of Na(+)-K(+) pump β1 subunit was 15 % higher (P < 0.05) after compared to before the intervention period. 10-K performance, maximum oxygen uptake and running economy were unchanged. In CON, no changes were observed. Adding strength and speed endurance training, along with a reduced training volume, can improve short-term exercise capacity and induce muscular adaptations related to anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.

  20. A 26-hour system of highly sensitive whole genome sequencing for emergency management of genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Miller, Neil A; Farrow, Emily G; Gibson, Margaret; Willig, Laurel K; Twist, Greyson; Yoo, Byunggil; Marrs, Tyler; Corder, Shane; Krivohlavek, Lisa; Walter, Adam; Petrikin, Josh E; Saunders, Carol J; Thiffault, Isabelle; Soden, Sarah E; Smith, Laurie D; Dinwiddie, Darrell L; Herd, Suzanne; Cakici, Julie A; Catreux, Severine; Ruehle, Mike; Kingsmore, Stephen F

    2015-09-30

    While the cost of whole genome sequencing (WGS) is approaching the realm of routine medical tests, it remains too tardy to help guide the management of many acute medical conditions. Rapid WGS is imperative in light of growing evidence of its utility in acute care, such as in diagnosis of genetic diseases in very ill infants, and genotype-guided choice of chemotherapy at cancer relapse. In such situations, delayed, empiric, or phenotype-based clinical decisions may meet with substantial morbidity or mortality. We previously described a rapid WGS method, STATseq, with a sensitivity of >96 % for nucleotide variants that allowed a provisional diagnosis of a genetic disease in 50 h. Here improvements in sequencing run time, read alignment, and variant calling are described that enable 26-h time to provisional molecular diagnosis with >99.5 % sensitivity and specificity of genotypes. STATseq appears to be an appropriate strategy for acutely ill patients with potentially actionable genetic diseases.

  1. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  2. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  3. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    PubMed

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  5. Combined speed endurance and endurance exercise amplify the exercise-induced PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA response in trained human muscle.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Brandt, Nina; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA response related to mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and myogenesis in trained human skeletal muscle to speed endurance exercise (S), endurance exercise (E), and speed endurance followed by endurance exercise (S + E). Seventeen trained male subjects (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 57.2 ± 3.7 (mean ± SD) mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed S (6 × 30 sec all-out), E (60 min ~60% VO2-max), and S + E on a cycle ergometer on separate occasions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 1, 2, and 3 h after the speed endurance exercise (S and S + E) and at rest, 0, 1, and 2 h after exercise in E In S and S + E, muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. Muscle PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA levels were higher (P < 0.05) after exercise in S + E than in S and E, and higher (P < 0.05) in S than in E after exercise. In S and S + E, muscle vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA was higher (P < 0.05) 1 (S only), 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. In S + E, muscle regulatory factor-4 and muscle heme oxygenase-1 mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) 1, 2, and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. In S, muscle hexokinase II mRNA was higher (P < 0.05) 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest and higher (P < 0.05) than in E after exercise. These findings suggest that in trained subjects, speed endurance exercise provides a stimulus for muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, substrate regulation, and angiogenesis that is not evident with endurance exercise. These responses are reinforced when speed endurance exercise is followed by endurance exercise.

  6. The effects of elevated pain inhibition on endurance exercise performance

    PubMed Central

    Waddington, Gordon; Keegan, Richard J.; Thompson, Kevin G.; Cathcart, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Background The ergogenic effects of analgesic substances suggest that pain perception is an important regulator of work-rate during fatiguing exercise. Recent research has shown that endogenous inhibitory responses, which act to attenuate nociceptive input and reduce perceived pain, can be increased following transcranial direct current stimulation of the hand motor cortex. Using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS; 2 mA, 20 min), the current study aimed to examine the effects of elevated pain inhibitory capacity on endurance exercise performance. It was hypothesised that HD-tDCS would enhance the efficiency of the endogenous pain inhibitory response and improve endurance exercise performance. Methods Twelve healthy males between 18 and 40 years of age (M = 24.42 ± 3.85) were recruited for participation. Endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and exercise performance were assessed before and after both active and sham (placebo) stimulation. The conditioned pain modulation protocol was used for the measurement of pain inhibition. Exercise performance assessment consisted of both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and submaximal muscular endurance performance trials using isometric contractions of the non-dominant leg extensors. Results Active HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.32 ± 1.33 kg; post-tDCS, −1.23 ± 1.21 kg) significantly increased pain inhibitory responses relative to the effects of sham HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.91 ± .92 kg; post-tDCS, −.26 ± .92 kg; p = .046). Irrespective of condition, peak MVC force and muscular endurance was reduced from pre- to post-stimulation. HD-tDCS did not significantly influence this reduction in maximal force (active: pre-tDCS, 264.89 ± 66.87 Nm; post-tDCS, 236.33 ± 66.51 Nm; sham: pre-tDCS, 249.25 ± 88.56 Nm; post-tDCS, 239.63 ± 67.53 Nm) or muscular endurance (active: pre-tDCS, 104.65 ± 42.36 s; post-tDCS, 93.07 ± 33.73 s; sham: pre-tDCS, 123.42 ± 72.48 s; post-tDCS, 100.27 ± 44

  7. Factors associated with calf muscle endurance recovery 1 year after achilles tendon rupture repair.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Geoff P; Jomha, Nadr M; Suchak, Amar A; Beaupré, Lauren A

    2010-06-01

    Cohort study. To describe calf muscle endurance recovery and to explore factors predictive of poor calf muscle endurance recovery 1 year after surgical repair of an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). ATR is a common sports-related injury and is often managed with open surgical repair. After ATR repair most patients return to usual activities 6 months after surgery. However, calf endurance impairment can persist up to 6 years, possibly impacting performance of daily activities and sport. A secondary analysis of a 73-patient cohort from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of early weight bearing after surgical repair of an ATR was performed. Calf muscle endurance recovery was measured by single-heel raises using a customized counting device at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Descriptive statistics were used to outline recovery of calf muscle endurance. Physical and patient-reported outcomes were examined for their association with calf-muscle endurance recovery. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore variables associated with recovery of calf endurance 1 year postoperatively. Mean recovery of calf muscle endurance was 76% at 1 year. Multivariate regression analysis showed an association of being female, reporting no resting pain at 3 months, and physical functioning and calf endurance at 6 months, with better recovery of calf endurance at 1 year. Calf muscle endurance at 1 year remained impaired in a considerable portion of the sample. Pain, gender, and physical functioning are likely important factors in determining recovery of calf muscle endurance. Prognosis, level 2b.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010;40(6):345-351, Epub 15 April 2010. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.3204.

  8. Essential Role of Estrogen for Improvements in Vascular Endothelial Function With Endurance Exercise in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Brian L.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In contrast to age-matched men, endurance exercise training is not consistently associated with enhanced endothelial function in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. We determined whether endurance exercise training improves endothelial function in postmenopausal women treated with estrogen. In a substudy, we determined if oxidative stress is mechanistically linked to endothelial function adaptations to endurance exercise training. Participants and Design: Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured in 36 sedentary, estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women (45–65 y) at study entry (baseline), after 12 weeks of either placebo, oral (1 mg/d) estradiol, or transdermal estradiol (0.05 mg/d) (randomized), and after an additional 12 weeks of continued estradiol or placebo treatment with concurrent endurance exercise training. In subgroups of women, FMD also was measured during the infusion of ascorbic acid at baseline and following estradiol/placebo plus endurance exercise training, and in seven habitually endurance-trained estrogen-deficient controls. Results: FMD increased in the estrogen-treated groups (both P < .01) after 12 weeks and remained unchanged in placebo. FMD further increased following 12 weeks of endurance exercise training in estrogen-treated (both P < .025), but not placebo-treated women (P = .55). In the substudy, baseline FMD was similar between sedentary and endurance-trained controls. Ascorbic acid increased FMD at baseline in sedentary women and endurance-trained controls, and following endurance exercise training in placebo-treated, but not in estrogen-treated women. Conclusions: Estrogen status appears to play an important modulatory role in improvements in endothelial function with endurance exercise training in postmenopausal women. The restored endurance exercise training adaptation in estrogen-treated postmenopausal women may be related to mitigation of oxidative stress. PMID:24092827

  9. Measurement of quadriceps endurance by fNIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Devrim; Şayli, Ömer; Karahan, Mustafa; Akin, A.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, the changes in muscle deoxygenation trends during a sustained isometric quadriceps (chair squat/half squat) endurance exercise were evaluated among twelve male subjects and the relationship between muscle oxygenation and endurance times was investigated by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Neuromuscular activation and predictions of muscle performance decrements during extended fatiguing task was investigated by means of surface electromyography (sEMG). The results of the study showed that in the subjects who maintained exercise longer than five minutes (group 1), mean Hb recovery time (33 [sec.]) was 37.4% less than the others (group 2, 52.7 [sec.]). Also mean HbO II decline amplitude (2.53 [a.u.] in group 1 and 2.07 [a.u.] in group 2) and oxy decline amplitude (8.4 [a.u.] in group 1 and 3.04 [a.u.] in group 2) in the beginning of squat exercise are found to be 22.6% and 176.9% bigger in these group. For the EMG parameters, mean slope of MNF and MDF decline are found to be 57.5% and 42.2% bigger in magnitude in group 2 which indicates higher degree of decrement in mean and median frequencies although their mean squat duration time is less. This indicates higher index of fatigue for this group. It is concluded that training leads to altered oxygenation and oxygen extraction capability in the exercising muscle and investigated fNIRS parameters could be used for endurance evaluation.

  10. Predictive Indicators of Overuse Injuries in Adolescent Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Silván, Daniel; Díaz-Ocejo, Jaime; Murray, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes. Five adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 y) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q and Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for 1 season (37 wk) to detect signs of overtraining and underrecovery (RC-q) and early symptoms of lower-limb injuries (OSTRC-q). All overuse injuries were retrospectively analyzed to detect which variations in the questionnaires in the weeks preceding injury were best associated. Overuse incidence rates were calculated based on training exposure. Lower-limb overuse injuries accounted for 73% of total injuries. The incidence rate for overuse training-related injuries was 10 injuries/1000 h. Strong correlations were observed between individual running exposure and overuse injury incidence (r(2) = .66), number of overuse injuries (r(2) = .69), and days lost (r(2) = .66). A change of 20% or more in the RC-q score in the preceding week was associated with 67% of the lower-limb overuse injuries. Musculoskeletal symptoms were only detected in advance by the OSTRC-q in 27% of the episodes. Training exposure (especially running exposure) was shown to be related to overuse injuries, suggesting that monitoring training load is a key factor for injury prevention. Worsening scores in the RC-q (but not the OSTRC) may be an indicator of overuse injury in adolescent endurance runners when used longitudinally.

  11. Current Scientific Evidence for a Polarized Cardiovascular Endurance Training Model.

    PubMed

    Hydren, Jay R; Cohen, Bruce S

    2015-12-01

    Recent publications have provided new scientific evidence for a modern aerobic or cardiovascular endurance exercise prescription that optimizes the periodization cycle and maximizes potential endurance performance gains in highly trained individuals. The traditional threshold, high volume, and high-intensity training models have displayed limited improvement in actual race pace in (highly) trained individuals while frequently resulting in overreaching or overtraining (physical injury and psychological burnout). A review of evidence for replacing these models with the proven polarized training model seems warranted. This review provides a short history of the training models, summarizes 5 key studies, and provides example training programs for both the pre- and in-season periods. A polarized training program is characterized by an undulating nonlinear periodization model with nearly all the training time spent at a "light" (≤13) and "very hard" (≥17) pace with very limited time at "hard" (14-16) or race pace (6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion [RPE] scale). To accomplish this, the polarization training model has specific high-intensity workouts separated by one or more long slow distance workouts, with the exercise intensity remaining below ventilatory threshold (VT) 1 and/or blood lactate of less than 2 mM (A.K.A. below race pace). Effect sizes for increasing aerobic endurance performance for the polarized training model are consistently superior to that of the threshold training model. Performing a polarized training program may be best accomplished by: going easy on long slow distance workouts, avoiding "race pace" and getting after it during interval workouts.

  12. Intensity- and Duration-Based Options to Regulate Endurance Training

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Peter; Tschakert, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of endurance training is usually based on the prescription of exercise intensity. Exercise duration, another important variable of training load, is rarely prescribed by individual measures and mostly set from experience. As the specific exercise duration for any intensity plays a substantial role regarding the different kind of cellular stressors, degree, and kind of fatigue as well as training effects, concepts integrating the prescription of both intensity and duration within one model are needed. An according recent approach was the critical power concept which seems to have a physiological basis; however, the mathematical approach of this concept does not allow applying the three zones/two threshold model of metabolism and its different physiological consequences. Here we show the combination of exercise intensity and duration prescription on an individual basis applying the power/speed to distance/time relationship. The concept is based on both the differentiation of intensities by two lactate or gas exchange variables derived turn points, and on the relationship between power (or velocity) and duration (or distance). The turn points define three zones of intensities with distinct acute metabolic, hormonal, and cardio-respiratory responses for endurance exercise. A maximal duration exists for any single power or velocity such as described in the power-duration relationship. Using percentages of the maximal duration allows regulating fatigue, recovery time, and adaptation for any single endurance training session. Four domains of duration with respect to induced fatigue can be derived from maximal duration obtained by the power-duration curve. For any micro-cycle, target intensities and durations may be chosen on an individual basis. The model described here is the first conceptual framework of integrating physiologically defined intensities and fatigue related durations to optimize high-performance exercise training. PMID:28596738

  13. Pre-exercise hypervolemia and cycle ergometer endurance in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Wisherd, J. L.; McKenzie, M. A.; Jensen, C. D.; Whittam, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Time to exhaustion at 87-91% of peak VO2 was measured in 5 untrained men (age: 31 +/- 8 years, body mass: 74.20 +/- 16.50 kg, body surface area: 1.90 +/- 0.24 m2, peak VO2: 2.87 +/- 0.40 l min-1, plasma volume: 3.21 +/- 0.88 l; means +/-SD) after consuming nothing (N) or two fluid formulations (10 ml kg-1, 743 +/- 161 ml): Performance 1 (P1), a multi-ionic carbohydrate drink, containing 55 mEq l-1 Na+, 4.16 g l-1 citrate, 20.49 g l-1 glucose, and 365 mOsm kg-1 H2O, and AstroAde (AA), a sodium chloride-sodium citrate hyperhydration drink, containing 164 mEq l-1 Na+, 8.54 g l-1 citrate, <5 mg l-1 glucose, and 253 mOsm kg-1 H2O. Mean (+/-SE) endurance for N, P1 and AA was 24.68 +/- 1.50, 24.55 +/- 1.09, and 30.50 +/- 3.44 min respectively. Percent changes in plasma volume (PV) from -105 min of rest to zero min before exercise were -1.5 +/- 3.2% (N), 0.2 +/- 2.2% (P1), and 4.8 +/- 3.0% (AA; P < 0.05). The attenuated endurance for N and P1 could not be attributed to differences in exercise metabolism (VE, RE, VO2) from the carbohydrate or citrate, terminal heart rate, levels of perceived exertion, forehead or thigh skin blood flow velocity, changes or absolute termination levels of rectal temperature. Thus, the higher level of resting PV for AA just before exercise, as well as greater acid buffering and possible increased energy substrate from citrate, may have contributed to the greater endurance.

  14. Pre-exercise hypervolemia and cycle ergometer endurance in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Wisherd, J. L.; McKenzie, M. A.; Jensen, C. D.; Whittam, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Time to exhaustion at 87-91% of peak VO2 was measured in 5 untrained men (age: 31 +/- 8 years, body mass: 74.20 +/- 16.50 kg, body surface area: 1.90 +/- 0.24 m2, peak VO2: 2.87 +/- 0.40 l min-1, plasma volume: 3.21 +/- 0.88 l; means +/-SD) after consuming nothing (N) or two fluid formulations (10 ml kg-1, 743 +/- 161 ml): Performance 1 (P1), a multi-ionic carbohydrate drink, containing 55 mEq l-1 Na+, 4.16 g l-1 citrate, 20.49 g l-1 glucose, and 365 mOsm kg-1 H2O, and AstroAde (AA), a sodium chloride-sodium citrate hyperhydration drink, containing 164 mEq l-1 Na+, 8.54 g l-1 citrate, <5 mg l-1 glucose, and 253 mOsm kg-1 H2O. Mean (+/-SE) endurance for N, P1 and AA was 24.68 +/- 1.50, 24.55 +/- 1.09, and 30.50 +/- 3.44 min respectively. Percent changes in plasma volume (PV) from -105 min of rest to zero min before exercise were -1.5 +/- 3.2% (N), 0.2 +/- 2.2% (P1), and 4.8 +/- 3.0% (AA; P < 0.05). The attenuated endurance for N and P1 could not be attributed to differences in exercise metabolism (VE, RE, VO2) from the carbohydrate or citrate, terminal heart rate, levels of perceived exertion, forehead or thigh skin blood flow velocity, changes or absolute termination levels of rectal temperature. Thus, the higher level of resting PV for AA just before exercise, as well as greater acid buffering and possible increased energy substrate from citrate, may have contributed to the greater endurance.

  15. Eccentric endurance exercise economically improves metabolic and inflammatory risk factors.

    PubMed

    Zeppetzauer, Markus; Drexel, Heinz; Vonbank, Alexander; Rein, Philipp; Aczel, Stefan; Saely, Christoph H

    2013-08-01

    Exercise is a cornerstone of cardiovascular prevention. Because many individuals are not willing or not able to perform regular exercise, new methods of exercise (like eccentric exercise) are necessary. Eccentric endurance exercise is supposed to be less strenuous than concentric exercise but its effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in relation to energy expenditure are unclear. We randomly allocated 45 healthy sedentary individuals to one of two groups, each hiking upwards or downwards for 2 months, with a crossover for a further 2 months; for the opposite way, a cable car was used. The difference in altitude was 540 metres; the distance was covered between three and five times a week. Energy expenditure was assessed for each hiking period. Both eccentric and concentric endurance exercise improved glucose tolerance vs. baseline (by 4.1%, p = 0.136; 6.2%, p = 0.023, respectively). Of note, adjustment for energy expenditure per exercise unit (127 ± 22 kcal/unit with eccentric and 442 ± 78 kcal/unit with concentric exercise) revealed a significantly greater improvement of glucose tolerance per kilocalorie spent by eccentric than by concentric exercise (4-times more economical; 0.1123 mg h/dl/kcal vs. 0.0245 mg h/dl/kcal; p = 0.038). Also the decrease of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol per kilocalorie spent was significantly stronger with eccentric exercise (0.0982 mg/dl/kcal vs. 0.0346 mg/dl/kcal, p = 0.014). Serum levels of C-reactive protein and creatine kinase activity were reduced in both groups. Eccentric endurance exercise economically improves glucose tolerance and LDL cholesterol. It therefore is a promising new exercise modality for individuals who are not able to participate in more strenuous exercise regimens.

  16. Cortical thickness and low insight into symptoms in enduring schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Emami, Seema; Guimond, Synthia; Mallar Chakravarty, M; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Poor insight is a common, multidimensional phenomenon in patients with schizophrenia, associated with poorer outcomes and treatment non-adherence. Yet scant research has investigated the neuronal correlates of insight into symptoms (IS), a dimension of insight that may be particularly significant in enduring schizophrenia. Sixty-six patients with enduring schizophrenia (duration >4years) and 33 healthy controls completed MRI scanning and IQ, depression, and anxiety assessments. The Scale to Assess Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) measured insight into patients' four most prominent symptoms and patients were classified into two groups: low IS (0-2; n=33), and high IS (>2; n=33). We evaluated the association between cortical thickness (CT) and insight into symptoms using two methods: (1) a between-patients region-of-interest analysis in the insula, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and frontal lobe; and (2) a whole-brain exploratory regression between patient and controls. Brain regions were segmented using a neuroanatomical atlas and vertex-wise CT analyses were conducted with CIVET, covaried for age and sex. ROI analysis revealed thinner insula cortex in patients with low IS (p<0.05, surviving FDR correction). Patients with low IS also showed significantly thinner right insula, STG, and parahippocampal cortex compared to healthy controls (p<0.05, surviving FDR correction). Regions of observed CT reductions have been hypothesized to subserve self-monitoring, error awareness, and ability to identify hallucinations. Results highlight an important association between right insula abnormalities and impaired IS in schizophrenia. The diverse clinical presentation of patients further suggests an independent relationship between symptomology and insight-related differences in CT that has been previously unexplored in enduring schizophrenia.

  17. Altered adrenal steroid metabolism underlying hypercortisolism in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, C; Hirschberg, A L; Carlström, K; von Schoultz, B

    1995-06-01

    To explore possible changes in adrenal steroid metabolism and androgenic-anabolic status in female endurance athletes as a mechanism for their hypercortisolism. Adrenal steroids and androgenic-anabolic factors were studied during basal conditions and in response to ACTH stimulation related to menstrual status. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Thirteen female elite middle to long distance runners (six eumenorrheic, seven oligoamenorrheic) and seven regularly menstruating controls. Blood samples were collected before and after an injection of 250 micrograms IV synthetic ACTH 1-24. Body weight, height, and body fat were measured. Basal serum concentrations of cortisol, androstenedione (A), DHEA, DHEAS, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), T, steroid-binding proteins, and insulin-like growth factor I and ACTH-induced response (area under the curve) of cortisol, DHEA, and 17-OHP. Oligoamenorrheic athletes had higher basal cortisol and A concentrations compared with healthy controls, whereas basal levels of DHEA and DHEAS were normal. Important findings in the oligoamenorrheic athletes were a significantly lower ratio between the ACTH-induced increments of DHEA and 17-OHP and an increased ratio between basal A and DHEAS. Insulin-like growth factor I was correlated negatively to sex hormone-binding globulin and to the amount of body fat in the combined material. The results indicate a redistribution of adrenal steroid metabolism in favor of glucocorticoid production in female endurance athletes. We suggest that hypercortisolism in female endurance athletes is a physiological adaptation to maintain adequate blood glucose levels during a condition of energy deficiency.

  18. Lack of Activation of Mitophagy during Endurance Exercise in Human.

    PubMed

    Schwalm, Céline; Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether fission and mitophagy are activated by acute endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle and to investigate if this activation is dependent upon the nutritional state. Trained athletes (n = 7) cycled for 2 h at 70% V˙O2peak in a fed or fasted state. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, before, immediately after, and 1 h after exercise. Protein and mRNA markers for mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, fission, and fusion were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Fission, assessed by phospho-DRP1 in the mitochondrial fraction, increased postexercise and 1 h postexercise only in the fed state. LC3bII and p62/SQSTM1 in the mitochondrial fraction were unchanged, whereas the LC3bII/LC3bI ratio was decreased only postexercise in the fasted state (P = 0.019), indicating a reduced mitophagy. Genes implicated in fission and mitophagy, such as Drp1, Bnip3, and Bnip3L, and proteins involved in fission (Fis1) or mitophagy (BNIP3) were all more expressed after exercise in the fed state (P < 0.05). As expected, the mRNA levels of PGC1α, Tfam, and Hsp60, all markers of mitogenesis, were increased after endurance exercise, but to a larger extent in the fed than that in the fasted state. The present study provides the very first evidence that mitophagy is not activated during and early after high-intensity endurance exercise in human, whatever the nutritional state, despite a selective activation of fission in the fed state. However, when nutrient availability is optimal, muscle cells seem capable of preparing mitochondria for lysosomal degradation. Thus, we may not exclude an activation of mitophagy at a later stage after exercise.

  19. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Trappe, Scott; Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per

    2013-01-01

    We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m(2)] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m(2)). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their lives. Each subject performed a maximal cycle test to assess aerobic capacity (VO(2max)). Subjects had a resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsy to assess oxidative enzymes (citrate synthase and βHAD) and molecular (mRNA) targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)]. The octogenarian athletes had a higher (P < 0.05) absolute (2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 l/min) and relative (38 ± 1 vs. 21 ± 1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) VO(2max), ventilation (79 ± 3 vs. 64 ± 7 l/min), heart rate (160 ± 5 vs. 146 ± 8 beats per minute), and final workload (182 ± 4 vs. 131 ± 14 W). Skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes were 54% (citrate synthase) and 42% (βHAD) higher (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. Likewise, basal PGC-1α and Tfam mRNA were 135% and 80% greater (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. To our knowledge, the VO(2max) of the lifelong endurance athletes is the highest recorded in humans >80 yr of age and comparable to nonendurance trained men 40 years younger. The superior cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health profile of the octogenarian athletes provides a large functional reserve above the aerobic frailty threshold and is associated with lower risk for disability and mortality.

  20. Plasma biochemistry alterations in horses during an endurance ride.

    PubMed

    Rose, R J; Purdue, R A; Hensley, W

    1977-07-01

    The effects of prolonged strenous exercise on the plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, albumin, cholesterol, glucose, creatinine, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase and asparate amino transferase were studied in a group of 26 horses competing in an endurance ride. There were significant changes in most parameters, when control values were compared with those taken immediately after the ride. There was also a significant correlation between several biochemical parameters and heart rate taken 30 minutes after the ride. When faster and slower horses were compared, significant differences were found only in phosphate and glucose values.

  1. War leaves an enduring legacy in combatants' lives.

    PubMed

    Smith, Barbara; Parsons, Matthew; Hand, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The memory of combat experience endures in World War II veterans. As veterans age, traumatic memory that previously may have been suppressed in the busyness of family and everyday life can re-emerge. Combat stress may affect not only the veterans, but also those people closely associated with them. Interviews were conducted with World War II veteran aircrew, wives, children, grandchildren, siblings, and friends to examine the impact of combat experience on the veterans and the family across the life course from the perspectives of the various participants. The combat experience significantly affected the life course of most.

  2. Heat pipe gas combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion (HPGC) system suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator, and a film-cooled gas combustor. The principal component is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. Given here are the test results of the endurance tests run on a Gas Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE).

  3. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  4. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  5. Diverse patterns of myocardial fibrosis in lifelong, veteran endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    O'Hanlon, R.; Prasad, S.; Deighan, A.; MacMillan, P.; Oxborough, D.; Godfrey, R.; Smith, G.; Maceira, A.; Sharma, S.; George, K.; Whyte, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the cardiac structure and function of a unique cohort of documented lifelong, competitive endurance veteran athletes (>50 yr). Twelve lifelong veteran male endurance athletes [mean ± SD (range) age: 56 ± 6 yr (50–67)], 20 age-matched veteran controls [60 ± 5 yr; (52–69)], and 17 younger male endurance athletes [31 ± 5 yr (26–40)] without significant comorbidities underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess cardiac morphology and function, as well as CMR imaging with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) to assess myocardial fibrosis. Lifelong veteran athletes had smaller left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (P < 0.05), but maintained LV and RV systolic function compared with young athletes. However, veteran athletes had a significantly larger absolute and indexed LV and RV end-diastolic and systolic volumes, intraventricular septum thickness during diastole, posterior wall thickness during diastole, and LV and RV stroke volumes (P < 0.05), together with significantly reduced LV and RV ejection fractions (P < 0.05), compared with veteran controls. In six (50%) of the veteran athletes, LGE of CMR indicated the presence of myocardial fibrosis (4 veteran athletes with LGE of nonspecific cause, 1 probable previous myocarditis, and 1 probable previous silent myocardial infarction). There was no LGE in the age-matched veteran controls or young athletes. The prevalence of LGE in veteran athletes was not associated with age, height, weight, or body surface area (P > 0.05), but was significantly associated with the number of years spent training (P < 0.001), number of competitive marathons (P < 0.001), and ultraendurance (>50 miles) marathons (P < 0.007) completed. An unexpectedly high prevalence of myocardial fibrosis (50%) was observed in healthy, asymptomatic, lifelong veteran male athletes, compared with zero cases in age-matched veteran controls and young athletes. These data suggest a

  6. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per

    2013-01-01

    We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m2] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m2). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their lives. Each subject performed a maximal cycle test to assess aerobic capacity (V̇o2max). Subjects had a resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsy to assess oxidative enzymes (citrate synthase and βHAD) and molecular (mRNA) targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)]. The octogenarian athletes had a higher (P < 0.05) absolute (2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 l/min) and relative (38 ± 1 vs. 21 ± 1 ml·kg−1·min−1) V̇o2max, ventilation (79 ± 3 vs. 64 ± 7 l/min), heart rate (160 ± 5 vs. 146 ± 8 beats per minute), and final workload (182 ± 4 vs. 131 ± 14 W). Skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes were 54% (citrate synthase) and 42% (βHAD) higher (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. Likewise, basal PGC-1α and Tfam mRNA were 135% and 80% greater (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. To our knowledge, the V̇o2max of the lifelong endurance athletes is the highest recorded in humans >80 yr of age and comparable to nonendurance trained men 40 years younger. The superior cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health profile of the octogenarian athletes provides a large functional reserve above the aerobic frailty threshold and is associated with lower risk for disability and mortality. PMID:23065759

  7. Excellent oxidation endurance of boron nitride nanotube field electron emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yenan; Song, Yoon-Ho; Milne, William I.; Jin Lee, Cheol

    2014-04-21

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are considered as a promising cold electron emission material owing to their negative electron affinity. BNNT field emitters show excellent oxidation endurance after high temperature thermal annealing of 600 °C in air ambient. There is no damage to the BNNTs after thermal annealing at a temperature of 600 °C and also no degradation of field emission properties. The thermally annealed BNNTs exhibit a high maximum emission current density of 8.39 mA/cm{sup 2} and show very robust emission stability. The BNNTs can be a promising emitter material for field emission devices under harsh oxygen environments.

  8. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  9. Effects of Endurance and Endurance-strength Exercise on Renal Function in Abdominally Obese Women with Renal Hyperfiltration: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Szulińska, Monika; Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Madry, Edyta; Musialik, Katarzyna; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is associated with kidney defects. Physical activity is a key element in the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on kidney function in abdominally obese women. Forty-four abdominally obese women were randomized to endurance training or endurance-strength training, three times a week for 3 months. Before and after the intervention, kidney function was assessed by measuring blood creatinine, urine creatinine, and urine albumin levels, and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were calculated. Renal hyperperfusion was present in both groups before the study. Following both types of physical activity, similar modifications of the investigated parameters were observed, but with no significant between-group differences. Both courses of training led to a significant increase in blood creatinine and a subsequent decrease in the GFR. A significant increase in urine creatinine and album levels, though not exceeding the range for microalbuminuria, was not accompanied by any difference in the albumin-to-creatinine ratio after endurance-strength training alone. Three months of either endurance or endurance-strength training has a favorable and comparable effect on renal function in abdominally obese women with renal hyperfiltration. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. DAST in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  11. Is the clinical cervical extensor endurance test capable of differentiating the local and global muscles?

    PubMed

    Kahlaee, Amir H; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Ghamkhar, Leila

    2017-07-01

    Differential alterations have been reported in the local and global cervical muscles in the presence of chronic neck pain (CNP), including the endurance alterations of these muscles. Identifying the involved muscles is crucial to the assessment and rehabilitation of patients with CNP. To assess the relationship between clinical endurance test results, pain and disability indices, and ultrasonographic (US) measurements of the neck extensor muscles; to compare the deep and superficial cervical extensor muscle endurance and size of CNP patients with those of asymptomatic subjects and to compare the relationship between local and global extensor endurance with US measures, pain intensity, and disability. Cross-sectional correlational analysis with a case-control design. Thirty patients with CNP and 30 asymptomatic subjects participated in this study. Endurance, thickness, cross-sectional area, and shape ratio of the cervical extensor muscles (splenius capitis [SpCap], semispinalis capitis [SSCap], semispinalis cervicis [SSCer], and multifidus [MF]); pain intensity measured by the visual analog scale (VAS); neck disability index (NDI); correlation between US measures, pain intensity and NDI and extensor endurance; and correlation of US measures with pain intensity and NDI. The deep and superficial cervical extensor muscle endurance and dimensions were measured via a clinical test and by US, respectively. Participants were asked to hold the neutral chin-tuck position while lying prone. The test would be terminated if the head moved into either flexion or extension, which would yield "global" or "local" extensor muscle endurance, respectively. The CNP patients showed lower global extensor endurance levels than the control participants (p<.05). The US measures of the deep extensor muscles were also smaller in the CNP group (p<.05). There were no significant correlations between extensor endurance test results and US measures in either group except for the SSCap muscle size

  12. Effect of additional respiratory muscle endurance training in young well-trained swimmers.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Frédéric; Coquart, Jérémy B; Chavallard, Florence; Castres, Ingrid; Mucci, Patrick; Costalat, Guillaume; Chollet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    While some studies have demonstrated that respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) improves performances during various exercise modalities, controversy continues about the transfer of RMET effects to swimming performance. The objective of this study was to analyze the added effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET; normocapnic hyperpnea) on the respiratory muscle function and swimming performance of young well-trained swimmers. Two homogenous groups were recruited: ten swimmers performed RMET (RMET group) and ten swimmers performed no RMET (control group). During the 8-week RMET period, all swimmers followed the same training sessions 5-6 times/week. Respiratory muscle strength and endurance, performances on 50- and 200-m trials, effort perception, and dyspnea were assessed before and after the intervention program. The results showed that ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance, and performances were improved only in the RMET group. Moreover, perceived exertion and dyspnea were lower in the RMET group in both trials (i.e., 50- and 200-m). Consequently, the swim training associated with RMET was more effective than swim training alone in improving swimming performances. RMET can therefore be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers. Key PointsRespiratory muscle endurance training improves the performance.Respiratory muscle endurance training improves the ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance.Respiratory muscle endurance training decreases the perceived exertion and dyspnea.Respiratory muscle endurance training can be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers.

  13. Effect of Additional Respiratory Muscle Endurance Training in Young Well-Trained Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Frédéric; Coquart, Jérémy B.; Chavallard, Florence; CASTRES, Ingrid; MUCCI, Patrick; Costalat, Guillaume; Chollet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    While some studies have demonstrated that respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) improves performances during various exercise modalities, controversy continues about the transfer of RMET effects to swimming performance. The objective of this study was to analyze the added effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET; normocapnic hyperpnea) on the respiratory muscle function and swimming performance of young well-trained swimmers. Two homogenous groups were recruited: ten swimmers performed RMET (RMET group) and ten swimmers performed no RMET (control group). During the 8-week RMET period, all swimmers followed the same training sessions 5-6 times/week. Respiratory muscle strength and endurance, performances on 50- and 200-m trials, effort perception, and dyspnea were assessed before and after the intervention program. The results showed that ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance, and performances were improved only in the RMET group. Moreover, perceived exertion and dyspnea were lower in the RMET group in both trials (i.e., 50- and 200-m). Consequently, the swim training associated with RMET was more effective than swim training alone in improving swimming performances. RMET can therefore be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers. Key Points Respiratory muscle endurance training improves the performance. Respiratory muscle endurance training improves the ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Respiratory muscle endurance training decreases the perceived exertion and dyspnea. Respiratory muscle endurance training can be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers. PMID:24421721

  14. X-38 Full Scale TPS Flight Qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfer, G.

    2002-01-01

    The X-38 of NASA which is an experimental vehicle to prove crucial technologies of a future Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station (ISS) will be equipped with a large number of newly developed components and systems. In particular, the thermal protection system of the most severely loaded surface areas such as the nose cap and the control surfaces represent a promising approach with respect to thermal endurance and re-usability aspects. The foremost nose section, the body flaps and a wing leading edge segment are all made from SiC-based fiber ceramics. Moreover, the body flap is an entire hot structure. The Nose Skirt Assembly and the Body Flap were developed and manufactured by German industry (MAN Technologie, DLR and ASTRIUM) within the frame of the national TETRA program. The Leading Edge Unit was developed and manufactured by MAN Technologie within the ESA-ARTP. As another effort within the TETRA program aimed at extending the national competence range, IABG developed and built a high-temperature test facility enabling full-scale flight qualification of thermal protection components. The main purpose of this facility was to allow application of all relevant load categories encountered during re-entry flight, i.e. thermal, mechanical and oxidative loads. The facility is in service since April 1999. Within the scope of the X-38 qualification tests the flexibility of the test facility could be demonstrated. Three full scale thermal protection components of X-38 which were very different in size, shape and test requirements were successfully flight qualified in the years 1999 - 2001. For all of the three components, namely the Leading Edge Unit, the Nose Skirt Assembly and the Body Flap, the time- dependent and locally variable temperature profiles of the re-entry flight had to be simulated in order to verify the structural integrity under thermal loads. Within these tests a superposition of the thermal loads with oxidative loads, with the

  15. Long duration flights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  16. XV-15 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt-Rotor aircraft was designed by Bell Aircraft, Niagara Falls, New York, in the mid-1970's under a contract with NASA and the U.S. Army. It was capable of taking off and landing vertically like a helicopter and of flying horizontally when its 'prop rotors' were rotated forward and downward. NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and the Army Air Mobility Laboratory cooperated in a program to obtain two of the aircraft for flight research. The first aircraft arrived at Ames on March 23, 1978. After wind-tunnel testing in the Ames 40-by-80-foot wind tunnel, the aircraft began its contractor flight tests at Ames on April 23, 1979. Bell, Army, and U.S. Marine pilots flew it on 140 separate missions over the next year before turning the aircraft over to Ames. That center, in turn, chose to perform the initial flight research at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, where aircraft Number 2 began flight research with Dryden pilots on October 3, 1980, followed by aircraft Number 1 (previously the wind-tunnel model) the following year. Service pilots continued to fly the aircraft, including missions at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, and aboard the Navy USS Tripoli. Ames pilots also flew the XV-15 extensively during its lengthy period of flight research. The Ames flight research team finally returned aircraft Number 2 to Bell Helicopter in April 1994. The successful flight research with the XV-15, spearheaded by the team at Ames, led to the military V-22 Osprey and to the possibility of using tilt-rotor aircraft as a solution to the problem of crowded airports and highways. The XV-15 weighed 9,076 pounds empty and measured slightly more than 46 feet in length. The distance from the ground to the top of the tail was nearly 13 feet, and the span of its forward-swept wings was about 32 feet. It featured two three-bladed rotors, each measuring 25 feet in diameter. This movie clip runs about 49 seconds showing the XV-15 aircraft turning and

  17. Perseus Post-flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Crew members check out the Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a test flight in 1991. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved

  18. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  19. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  20. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  1. Lessons from dragonfly flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2005-11-01

    I will describe two lessons we learned from analyzing dragonfly flight using computers and table-top experiments. Part I: The role of drag in insect flight. Airplanes and helicopters are airborne via aerodynamic lift, not drag. However, it is not a priori clear that insects use only lift to fly. We find that dragonfly uses mainly drag to hover, which explains an anomalous factor of four in previous estimates of dragonfly lift coefficients, where drag was assumed to be negligible. Moreover, we show that the use of drag for flight is efficient at insect size. This suggests a re-consideration of the hovering efficiency of flapping flight, which is no longer described by the lift to drag ratio. Part II. Fore-hind wing interaction in dragonfly flight. A distinctive feature of dragonflies is their use of two pairs of wings which are driven by separate direct muscles. Dragonflies can actively modulate the phase delay between fore-hind wings during different maneuver. We compute the Navier-Stokes equation around two wings following the motion measured from our tethered dragonfly experiments, and find an explanation of the advantage of counter-stroking during hovering.

  2. Perseus Post-flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Crew members check out the Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a test flight in 1991. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved

  3. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  4. Perseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle flies over Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test basic design concepts for the remotely-piloted, high-altitude vehicle. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA

  5. Perseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle flies over Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test basic design concepts for the remotely-piloted, high-altitude vehicle. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA

  6. X-37 Flight Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The photograph depicts the X-37 neutral buoyancy simulator mockup at Dryden Flight Research Center. The X-37 experimental launch vehicle is roughly 27.5 feet (8.3 meters) long and 15 feet (4.5 meters) in wingspan. Its experiment bay is 7 feet (2.1 meters) long and 4 feet (1.2 meters) in diameter. Designed to operate in both the orbital and reentry phases of flight, the X-37 will increase both safety and reliabiltiy, while reducing launch costs from $10,000 per pound to $1000 per pound. Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the boeing Company, the X-37 is scheduled to fly two orbital missions in 2002/2003 to test the reusable launch vehicle technologies.

  7. Pathfinder aircraft flight #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-19

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft settles in for landing on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a successful test flight Nov. 19, 1996. The ultra-light craft flew a racetrack pattern at low altitudes over the flight test area for two hours while project engineers checked out various systems and sensors on the uninhabited aircraft. The Pathfinder was controlled by two pilots, one in a mobile control unit which followed the craft, the other in a stationary control station. Pathfinder, developed by AeroVironment, Inc., is one of several designs being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program.

  8. Endurance training, overtraining and baroreflex sensitivity in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, A L; Uusitalo, A J; Rusko, H K

    1998-11-01

    We examined heavy training-induced changes in baroreflex sensitivity, plasma volume and resting heart rate and blood pressure variability in female endurance athletes. Nine athletes (experimental training group, ETG) increased intense training (70-90% VO2max) volume by 130% and low-intensity training (< 70% Vo2max) volume by 100% during 6-9 weeks, whereas the corresponding increases in six control athletes (CG) were 5% and 10% respectively. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the ETG and CG did not change, but in five ETG athletes VO2max decreased from 53.0 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- SEM) (CI 46.8-59.2) ml kg-1 min-1 to 50.2 +/- 2.3 (43.8-56.6) ml kg-1 min-1 (P < 0.01), indicating overtraining. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) measured using the phenylephrine technique and blood pressure variability (BPV) did not change, but the low-frequency power of the R-R interval variability increased in the ETG (P < 0.05). The relative change in plasma volume was 7% in the ETG and 3% in the CG. The changes in BRS did not correlate with the changes in plasma volume, heart rate variability and BPV. We conclude that heavy endurance training and overtraining did not change baroreflex sensitivity or BPV but significantly increased the low-frequency power of the R-R interval variability during supine rest in female athletes as a marker of increased cardiac sympathetic modulation.

  9. Effects of a Herbal Drink on Cycling Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kiew, Ooi Foong; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Sirisinghe, Roland G.; Suen, Ang Boon; Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin Sahil

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of a herbal drink (H) or a coloured water placebo (P) on physiological responses and performance during cycling exercise. Eight healthy and trained male young cyclists (age: 16.0±0.5years) exercised on a cycle ergometer at 72.0±0.8% of the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) until exhaustion in a room maintained at 23.9±0.2 °C and 64.2±1.6% relative humidity on two occasions, 1-week apart. During each exercise bout, subjects received 3ml.kg−1 body weight of H or P every 20 minutes in a double-blind randomised study design. There was no significant difference between H and P trials in the total work time to exhaustion (84.5±5.1 and 82.3±5.6 min respectively). Changes in heart rate, oxygen consumption, plasma glucose concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, rectal temperature, respiratory exchange ratio and energy expenditure were similar with both type of drinks. Loss of plasma volume was also similar with both drinks. Herbal drink elicited similar physiological responses, thermoregularity responses and exercise performances during endurance cycling when compared to the placebo ingestion. Thus, it can be concluded that the ingredient in the herbal drink did not provide any added advantage to cycling endurance performance. PMID:23365505

  10. Speed and Endurance Do Not Trade Off in Phrynosomatid Lizards.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Ralph Lacerda; Bonine, Kevin E; Garland, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Trade-offs are a common focus of study in evolutionary biology and in studies of locomotor physiology and biomechanics. A previous comparative study of 12 species of European lacertid lizards found a statistically significant negative correlation between residual locomotor speed and stamina (controlling for variation in body size), consistent with ideas about trade-offs in performance based on variation in muscle fiber type composition and other subordinate traits. To begin examining the generality of this finding in other groups of squamates, we measured maximal sprint running speed on a high-speed treadmill and endurance at 1.0 km/h (0.28 m/s) in 14 species of North American phrynosomatid lizards, plus a sample of nine additional species to encompass some of the broadscale diversity of lizards. We used both conventional and phylogenetically informed regression analyses to control for some known causes of performance variation (body size, stockiness, body temperature) and then computed residual performance values. We found no evidence for a trade-off between speed and endurance among the 14 phrynosomatids or among the 23 species in the extended data set. Possible explanations for the apparent difference between lacertids and phrynosomatids are discussed.

  11. Emotions and trait emotional intelligence among ultra-endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Lane, Andrew M; Wilson, Mathew

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between trait emotional intelligence and emotional state changes over the course of an ultra-endurance foot race covering a route of approximately 175 miles (282 km) and held in set stages over six days. A repeated measures field design that sought to maintain ecological validity was used. Trait emotional intelligence was defined as a relatively stable concept that should predict adaptive emotional states experienced over the duration of the race and therefore associate with pleasant emotions during a 6-stage endurance event. Thirty-four runners completed a self-report measure of trait emotional intelligence before the event started. Participants reported emotional states before and after each of the six races. Repeated measures ANOVA results showed significant variations in emotions over time and a main effect for trait emotional intelligence. Runners high in self-report trait emotional intelligence also reported higher pleasant and lower unpleasant emotions than runners low in trait emotional intelligence. Findings lend support to the notion that trait emotional intelligence associates with adaptive psychological states, suggesting that it may be a key individual difference that explains why some athletes respond to repeated bouts of hard exercise better than others. Future research should test the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance trait emotional intelligence and examine the attendant impact on emotional responses to intense exercise during multi-stage events. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of endurance training on gross energy expenditure during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A W; Poehlman, E T; Corrigan, D L

    1989-08-01

    We compared the effect of endurance exercise training on gross energy expenditure (GEE) during steady-state exercise in 20 younger men (31.2 +/- 0.6 years) and 20 middle-aged men (49.2 +/- 1.1 years). The subjects trained for eight months. The training program consisted of three 45-min walking and jogging exercise sessions per week at an intensity of approximately 60-85% of the heart rate at peak VO2. We administered bicycle ergometer tests at 0, 4, and 8 months into training. Participants exercised at a power output of 100 W for 10 min using a pedaling frequency of 50 rpm. We determined GEE (kcal/min) by measuring the oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio. We found a significant reduction (p less than 0.05) in GEE (0.7-1.3 kcal/min) following 4 months of endurance training in both age groups, with a further reduction (p less than 0.05) noted in only the middle-aged group at month 8. We found no difference (p greater than 0.05) in GEE between the younger and middle-aged men. We conclude that chronic exercise may modify GEE during a submaximal exercise bout and that this adaptation is similar in magnitude in younger and middle-aged men.

  13. The effect of endurance running training on asthmatic adults.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, W; Nute, M G; Williams, C

    1989-01-01

    Nine mild to moderate asthmatic adults (three males, six females) and six non-asthmatics (one male, five females) underwent endurance running training three times per week for five weeks, at self selected running speeds on a motorized treadmill. After training, the asthmatic group had a significantly higher maximum oxygen uptake, significantly lower blood lactate and heart rate in submaximal running, and significantly reduced time to complete a two mile treadmill run, partly attributable to the ability to exercise at a higher % VO2 max after training. These training induced changes of the asthmatic group were generally of a greater magnitude than those shown by the non-asthmatic group. Although seven of the nine asthmatics did show a reduction in the post-exercise fall in FEV1 after the five week training period, this was not statistically significant for the asthmatic group as a whole. The results of this study therefore suggest that endurance running training can improve the aerobic fitness of asthmatic adults, and may reduce the severity of exercise-induced asthma. PMID:2605441

  14. Endurance athletes' coping function use during competitive suffering episodes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Michael Blair; Hoar, Sharleen D; Gebotys, Robert J; Marchesin, Courtney A

    2014-01-01

    Endurance athletes who realise that they are falling short of important personal goals during competition are expected to experience competitive suffering. As a negative affective state with implications for performance and personal experiences, it is important to understand how endurance athletes cope with competitive suffering. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in athletes' momentary coping function use over time during a competitive suffering episode. Twenty-six runners (mean age: 35.8 years) completed a 5-km running time trial that evoked an experience of competitive suffering using false failure-oriented feedback. Momentary assessments of goal attainment feelings and coping function use were completed immediately following the running time trial using video-mediated recall. Pooled time series analysis was used to predict coping function use across several points in time (i.e. earlier and later stages of a competitive suffering episode) and at different ratings of goal attainment feelings. Analyses revealed that negative feelings about goal attainment moderately predicted problem-focused coping use, and strongly predicted emotion-focused coping use. Although it was not predicted by goal attainment feelings, avoidance coping use was decreased over time throughout suffering episodes. Overall, this study supports propositions that the coping process is continually adapted to competitive demands and identifies the roles of distinct coping functions within the total coping effort.

  15. Enduring Personality Changes after Intense Stressful Event: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arsova, Slavica; Manusheva, Nensi; Kopacheva-Barsova, Gabriela; Bajraktarov, Stojan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND World statistical data show that a large number of individuals suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to the intense traumatic event. PTSD can have a chronic course with enduring changes in the functioning of the person. CASE PRESENTATION Here we report two adult individuals of different gender and education who were exposed to the extremely severe stressful event after which difficulties in psychological functioning developed. The first case we present is a 46-year-old man, with completed high education, divorced, father of two children, who lives with his parents, and is retired. Disorders appeared 20 years ago when he was exposed to extremely severe stressful events in war circumstances that included captivity, torture, and loss of fellow soldiers. The second case is a 50-year-old female patient, with a university degree, professor of art, married, and mother of two children of whom the son died six years ago. She suffered from disorders after the sudden injury of her son that ended with his death. CONCLUSION Posttraumatic stress disorder after the intense stress is a risk of development enduring personality changes with serious individual and social consequences. PMID:27703573

  16. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation safety volunteers Meg Hurt, left, and Gail Vann wait on the runway for the arrival of the next aircraft to take part in the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    Pipistrel Taurus G4 Pilot David Morss, center, is is weighed-in as CAFE Foundation Weights Chief Wayne Cook, right, and Weight crew member Ron Stout look on during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Pipistrel-USA Pilot David Morss, left, CAFE Foundation Weights Chief Wayne Cook, 2nd from left, and Weight crew member Ron Stout look on as Pipistrel-USA Pilot Robin Reid is weighed-in during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Space Flight Support Building

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    This archival image was released as part of a gallery comparing JPL’s past and present, commemorating the 80th anniversary of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory on Oct. 31, 2016. Building 264, also known as the Space Flight Support Building, hosts engineers supporting space missions in flight at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It used to be just two stories, as seen in this image from January 1972, but then the Viking project to Mars needed more room. The building still serves the same function today, but now has eight floors. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21123

  20. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Phoenix Air team members reattach the wings to their PhoEnix aircraft after pulling it out the weigh-in hanger as they start the day's 2011 Green Flight Challenge competition, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)