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Sample records for 26al exposure ages

  1. In situ 10Be-26Al exposure ages at Meteor Crater, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishiizumi, K.; Kohl, C.P.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Arnold, J.R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of dating the surface exposure of rocks from in situ production of 10Be and 26Al has been applied to determine the age of Meteor Crater, Arizona. A lower bound on the crater age of 49,200 ?? 1,700 years has been obtained by this method. ?? 1991.

  2. Examination of surface exposure age of Antarctic moraines using in situ produced [sup 10]Be and [sup 26]Al

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. ); Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F. ); Kurz, M.D.; Brook, E.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Concentrations of [sup 10]Be (t[sub 1/2] = 1.5 [times] 10[sup 6]y) and [sup 26]Al (t[sub 1/2] = 0.72 [times] 10[sup 6]y) have been determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in a suite of quartz samples taken from sandstone boulders in several moraines in Arena Valley, a dry valley adjacent to the Taylor Glacier in the Quatermain Mountains, Southern Victoria Land, East Antarctica. These isotopes are produced in surficial quartz by cosmic ray spallation of O and Si. The concentrations in these samples ranged from 6.1 [times] 10[sup 5] to 3.0 [times] 10[sup 7] at g[sup [minus]1] for [sup 10]Be and from 9.4 [times] 10[sup 6] to 1.2 [times] 10[sup 8] at g[sup [minus]1] for [sup 26]Al, depending upon the extent of exposure at the surface. Production rates of 17[sub [minus]4][sup +16] at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] for [sup 10]Be and 113[sub [minus]16][sup +54] at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] for [sup 26]Al at 1300 m and 87[degree]S and a [sup 26]Al:[sup 10]Be production ratio of 6.5[sub [minus]1.3][sup +1.3] were calculated from the data. These values correspond to sea-level production rates at high geomagnetic latitude of 6.4 at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] and 41.7 at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] for [sup 10]Be and [sup 26]Al, respectively, consistent with determinations based on [approximately]11 Ky glacially polished surfaces in the Sierra Nevada in California. These production rates imply exposure ages for the various moraines ranging from 50 Ky to 2.5 My, in accordance with other geological evidence. The [sup 10]Be and [sup 26]Al ages of these rocks compare favorably with those found using a similar dating method based on in situ production of [sup 3]He.

  3. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure ages of glaciations in the Frankland Range, southwest Tasmania reveal a limited MIS-2 ice advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiernan, Kevin; Fink, David; McConnell, Anne

    2017-02-01

    New mapping of the glacial geomorphology coupled with 10Be and 26Al exposure age dating of moraines on the flanks of the Frankland Range in south west Tasmania indicate that glacier extent during MIS-2 was far smaller than during earlier glaciations with the ice cover being confined to only the uppermost cirques of the range. Moraines further down the range flanks, ∼50-150 m lower in altitude than the MIS-2 dated advance, indicate that glaciers were only slightly larger during earlier glaciations and, depending on the interpretation of their exposure ages, may range from MIS 7 to MIS 12. These older moraines are nested inside the maximum ice limits of an even more ancient and extensive glaciation, defined by degraded valley floor moraines and coalescing glacio-fluvial fans that remain undated but appear no younger than MIS 12. Patterns of glacial erosion and moraine deposition on the Frankland Range suggest that the more recent glaciations were increasingly influenced by the erosional morphology initiated by earlier glaciers. Microclimatic differences resulting from this earlier glacial topography were particularly influential determinants of glaciation during MIS 2. These results are consistent with emerging evidence from studies of other ranges in southwest Tasmania.

  4. Deglaciation of Antarctica since the Last Glacial Maximum - what can we learn from cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure ages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, David

    2015-04-01

    Ice volume changes at the coastal margins of Antarctica during the global LGM are uncertain. The little evidence available suggests that behaviour of the East and West Antarctic Ice Sheets are markedly different and complex. It is hypothesised that during interglacials, thinning of the Ross Ice Shelf, a more open-water environment and increased precipitation, allowed outlet glaciers draining the Transantarctic Mnts and fed by interior Ice Sheets to advance during moist warmer periods, out of phase with colder arid periods. In contrast, glacier dynamics along the vast coastal perimeter of East Antarctica is strongly influenced by Southern Ocean conditions. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al chronologies, although restricted to ice-free oasis and mountains flanking drainage glaciers, has become an invaluable, if not unique, tool to quantify spatial and temporal Pleistocene ice sheet variability over the past 2 Ma. Despite an increasing number of well documented areas, extracting reliable ages from glacial deposits in polar regions is problematic. Recycling of previously exposed/ buried debris and continual post-depositional modification leads to age ambiguities for a coeval glacial landform. More importantly, passage of cold-based ice can leave a landform unmodified resulting in young erratics deposited on ancient bedrock. Advances in delivering in-situ radiocarbon to routine application offer some relief. Exposure ages from different localities throughout East Antarctica (Framnes Mnts, Lutzow-Holm Bay, Vestfold Hills) and West Antarctica (Denton Ranges, Hatherton Glacier, Shackleton Range) highlight some of the new findings. This talk presents results which quantify the magnitude and timing of paleo-ice sheet thickness changes, questions the validity of an Antarctic LGM and discusses the complexities encountered in the often excessive spread in exposure ages.

  5. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure ages of tors and erratics, Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland: Timescales for the development of a classic landscape of selective linear glacial erosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Mottram, R.; Fifield, L.K.; Sugden, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of tors within glaciated regions has been widely cited as evidence for the preservation of relic pre-Quaternary landscapes beneath protective covers of non-erosive dry-based ice. Here, we test for the preservation of pre-Quaternary landscapes with cosmogenic surface exposure dating of tors. Numerous granite tors are present on summit plateaus in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland where they were covered by local ice caps many times during the Pleistocene. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al data together with geomorphic relationships reveal that these landforms are more dynamic and younger than previously suspected. Many Cairngorm tors have been bulldozed and toppled along horizontal joints by ice motion, leaving event surfaces on tor remnants and erratics that can be dated with cosmogenic nuclides. As the surfaces have been subject to episodic burial by ice, an exposure model based upon ice and marine sediment core proxies for local glacial cover is necessary to interpret the cosmogenic nuclide data. Exposure ages and weathering characteristics of tors are closely correlated. Glacially modified tors and boulder erratics with slightly weathered surfaces have 10Be exposure ages of about 15 to 43 ka. Nuclide inheritance is present in many of these surfaces. Correction for inheritance indicates that the eastern Cairngorms were deglaciated at 15.6 ?? 0.9 ka. Glacially modified tors with moderate to advanced weathering features have 10Be exposure ages of 19 to 92 ka. These surfaces were only slightly modified during the last glacial cycle and gained much of their exposure during the interstadial of marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 or earlier. Tors lacking evidence of glacial modification and exhibiting advanced weathering have 10Be exposure ages between 52 and 297 ka. Nuclide concentrations in these surfaces are probably controlled by bedrock erosion rates instead of discrete glacial events. Maximum erosion rates estimated from 10Be range from 2.8 to 12.0 mm/ka, with

  6. Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanjun; Gao, Xing; Gao, Bin; Granger, Darryl E

    2009-03-12

    The age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus, commonly known as 'Peking Man', has long been pursued, but has remained problematic owing to the lack of suitable dating methods. Here we report cosmogenic (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating of quartz sediments and artefacts from the lower strata of Locality 1 in the southwestern suburb of Beijing, China, where early representatives of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus were discovered. This study marks the first radioisotopic dating of any early hominin site in China beyond the range of mass spectrometric U-series dating. The weighted mean of six meaningful age measurements, 0.77 +/- 0.08 million years (Myr, mean +/- s.e.m.), provides the best age estimate for lower cultural layers 7-10. Together with previously reported U-series dating of speleothem calcite and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy, as well as sedimentological considerations, these layers may be further correlated to S6-S7 in Chinese loess stratigraphy or marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-19, in the range of approximately 0.68 to 0.78 Myr ago. These ages are substantially older than previously supposed and may imply early hominin's presence at the site in northern China through a relatively mild glacial period corresponding to MIS 18.

  7. Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault, from 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating of an offset alluvial fan

    SciTech Connect

    der Woerd, J v; Klinger, Y; Sieh, K; Tapponnier, P; Ryerson, F; M?riaux, A

    2006-01-13

    We determine the long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault in the southeastern Indio Hills using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al isotopes to date an offset alluvial fan surface. Field mapping complemented with topographic data, air photos and satellite images allow to precisely determine piercing points across the fault zone that are used to measure an offset of 565 {+-} 80 m. A total of twenty-six quartz-rich cobbles from three different fan surfaces were collected and dated. The tight cluster of nuclide concentrations from 19 samples out of 20 from the offset fan surface implies a simple exposure history, negligible prior exposure and erosion, and yield an age of 35.5 {+-} 2.5 ka. The long-term slip rate of the San Andreas Fault south of Biskra Palms is thus 15.9 {+-} 3.4 mm/yr. This rate is about 10 mm/yr slower than geological (0-14 ka) and short-term geodetic estimates for this part of the San Andreas Fault implying changes in slip rate or in faulting behavior. This result puts new constraints on the slip rate of the San Jacinto and on the Eastern California Shear Zone for the last 35 ka. Our study shows that more sites along the major faults of southern California need to be targeted to better constrain the slip-rates over different time scales.

  8. 26Al and 10Be Activities of Lodranites and Winona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Juenemann, D.; Middleton, R.

    1993-07-01

    Noble gas measurements by [1] indicate that four lodranites LEW 88280, Lodran (a fall), MAC 88177, and Yamato 791491 have the same cosmic ray exposure age of a few million years. The elevated ^22Ne/^21Ne ratios of these lodranites, from 1.22 to 1.28 [1], suggest that shielding was light and production rates appreciably lower than in average chondrites. Cosmic-ray irradiation in space for, say, 4 My would bring ^26Al and ^10Be to within 2% and 16% of their respective saturation values. Thus measurement of ^26Al may provide information about production rates and shielding and ^10Be about exposure age. We separated magnetically metal- and silicate-rich material from the four lodranites mentioned above and from Winona. The ^26Al and/or ^10Be activities (Table 1) were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry [2] with the statistical 1-sigma precision shown; the activities are thought to have an overall accuracy of 6-8%. Although the metal phases were etched with HF, they retained some silicate. To get a quantitative indication of the amounts of silicate present, the Mg concentrations in aliquots of the dissolved metal samples (Table 1) were measured by ICP/MS. The Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe contents of the silicate phases were determined by DCP emission spectrometry [3]. The measured activities in silicates from LEW 88280, Lodran, and Y 791491 resemble one another closely: The average ^26Al and ^10Be activities are 50.9 and 16.7 dpm/kg compared to estimated production rates of about 55 and 23 dpm/kg. These results lead to an exposure age of ~3.3 My, but do not indicate substantial lowering of production rates. The ^26Al and ^10Be contents of MAC 88177 are about half the values expected at saturation under normal shielding and are lower than those in the other three lodranites. These results are consistent with the very light shielding inferred from the exceptionally high ^22Ne/^21Ne ratio of 1.28, and perhaps with some lowering due to terrestrial age. Kirsten et al. [4

  9. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.

    PubMed

    Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-05-28

    Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.

  10. 182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    PubMed Central

    Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ∼5 × 10−5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10−6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ∼3 × 10−6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077

  11. Medical application of 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhausen, C.; Gerisch, P.; Heisinger, B.; Hohl, Ch.; Kislinger, G.; Korschinek, G.; Niedermayer, M.; Nolte, E.; Dumitru, M.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Schneider, M.; Ittel, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three.

  12. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have embarked upon a ^26Al gamma-ray survey of meteorites selected from about 2000 samples recently recovered from the Lewis Cliff Ice Fields (84 degrees 18'S/161 degrees 20'E). Due to its 705-ka half-life ^26Al can be used for estimating terrestrial ages and thus contribute to further characterization of Antarctic meteorites in addition to their classification and thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The ^26Al survey is also useful for identifying meteorites with unusual exposure histories, which merit additional measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides (by AMS) and noble gases. In addition, it provides clues on possible pairings. METHOD: Low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for ^26Al survey work, since bulk meteorite samples can be measured routinely and nondestructively without any previous sample preparation. The required size of the samples (30-500 g) makes the method relatively independent of depth effects and compositional inhomogeneities. The use of a high-resolution GeLi detector also allows the determination of the natural ^40K activity and thus the K content of the samples, which can be used as an additional pairing criterion for ordinary chondrites. Also ^137Cs, a fall-out surface contamination [1], is simultaneously measured; low values may be characteristic for meteorites recently fallen or released from the ablating ice. For the detector an efficiency calibration curve has been made that adequately accounts for differences in size and shape of the meteorite samples. RESULTS and DISCUSSION: TERRESTRIAL AGES: So far, we have measured over 30 Lewis Cliff equilibrated H and L chondrites, collected from widely differing locations. Normalized to L-chondrite composition, the ^26Al contents range from 27 to 110 dpm/kg with peaks around 43 and 53 dpm/kg. This bimodal ^26Al distribution is reminiscent of that observed for Allan Hills ordinary chondrites [2]. Tentative terrestrial ages, calculated on the basis of ^26Al saturation

  13. Complex exposure histories for meteorites with "short" exposure ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Vogt, S.; Albrecht, A.; Xue, S.; Fink, D.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Weber, H. W.; Schultz, L.

    1997-05-01

    We report measurements of 26Al and 10Be activities in nine ordinary chondrites and of the light noble gas concentrations and 36Cl and 41Ca activities in subsets of those meteorites. All but Murray have low 21Ne concentrations (<1.0 (10-8 cm3 STP/g), and have previously been used to estimate 21Ne production rates. Ladder Creek, Murchison, Sena, and Timochin have inventories of cosmogenic radionuclides compatible with a single stage of irradiation and give 21Ne production rates consistent with the standard L-chondrite value of ~0.33 ( 10-8 cm3 STP/g-My. In contrast, Cullison, Guenie, Shaw, and Tsarev experienced complex irradiation histories. They and several other meteorites with low nominal exposure ages also have lower 3He/21Ne ratios than expected based on their 22Ne/21Ne ratios. A general association between low 21Ne contents and 3He losses suggests that meteorites with short lifetimes often occupy orbits with small perihelia. Meteorites with low 21Ne contents, one-stage exposure histories, and losses of cosmogenic 3He are rare, however. Possible explanations for the scarcity are 1) statistical; 2) that it is harder for more deeply buried proto-meteoroids to lose gas in a liberating collision; and 3) that it is harder to insert more deeply buried proto-meteoroids directly into orbits with small perihelia.

  14. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of pallasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Cook, D. L.; Cosarinsky, M.; Huber, L.; Leya, I.; Park, J.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed cosmogenic nuclides in metal and/or silicate (primarily olivine) separated from the main-group pallasites Admire, Ahumada, Albin, Brahin, Brenham, Esquel, Finmarken, Glorieta Mountain, Huckitta, Imilac, Krasnojarsk, Marjalahti, Molong, Seymchan, South Bend, Springwater, and Thiel Mountains and from Eagle Station. The metal separates contained an olivine fraction which although small, <1 wt% in most cases, nonetheless contributes significantly to the budgets of some nuclides (e.g., up to 35% for 21Ne and 26Al). A correction for olivine is therefore essential and was made using model calculations and/or empirical relations for the production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in iron meteoroids and/or measured elemental concentrations. Cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages for the metal phases of the main-group pallasites range from 7 to 180 Ma, but many of the ages cluster around a central peak near 100 Ma. These CRE ages suggest that the parent body of the main-group pallasites underwent a major break-up that produced most of the meteorites analyzed. The CRE age distribution for the pallasites overlaps only a small fraction of the distribution for the IIIAB iron meteorites. Most pallasites and IIIAB irons originated in different collisions, probably on different parent bodies; a few IIIABs and pallasites may have come out of the same collision but a firm conclusion requires further study. CRE ages calculated from noble gas and radionuclide data of the metal fraction are higher on average than the 21Ne exposure ages obtained for the olivine samples. As the metal and olivine fractions were taken in most cases from different specimens, the depth-dependency of the production rate ratio 10Be/21Ne in metal, not accounted for in our calculations, may explain the difference.

  15. Half life of /sup 26/Al

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, T.L.; Gancarz, A.J.; Rokop, D.J.; Thomas, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    The half-life of /sup 26/Al has been redetermined because of suggestions of an error in the accepted value based on its use in calculating /sup 21/Ne production rates from cosmic rays in meteorites. Two solutions of /sup 26/Al were analyzed for the specific radioactivity and mass spectrometric determination of the /sup 26/Al concentration. The half-life obtained for /sup 26/Al was 7.05 x 10/sup 5/ years +- 3.7% at the two sigma level. This is identical to the accepted value of 7.16 x 10/sup 5/ years and indicates that problems with the /sup 21/Ne production rate is not due to an erroneous half-life.

  16. Observable Proxies For 26 Al Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher L; Young, Patrick A; Ellinger, Carola I; Arnett, William D

    2008-01-01

    We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of {sup 26}Al in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors we explore a range of 1D explosions at different energies and an asymmetric 3D explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of {sup 26}Al in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio ({approx} 0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multi wavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.

  17. Cosmic-ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.

    2003-12-01

    The classic idea of a cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age for a meteorite is based on a simple but useful picture of meteorite evolution, the one-stage irradiation model. The precursor rock starts out on a parent body, buried under a mantle of material many meters thick that screens out cosmic rays. At a time ti, a collision excavates a precursor rock - a "meteoroid." The newly liberated meteoroid, now fully exposed to cosmic rays, orbits the Sun until a time tf, when it strikes the Earth, where the overlying blanket of air (and possibly of water or ice) again shuts out almost all cosmic rays (cf. Masarik and Reedy, 1995). The quantity tf-ti is called the CRE age, t. To obtain the CRE age of a meteorite, we measure the concentrations in it of one or more cosmogenic nuclides (Table 1), which are nuclides that cosmic rays produce by inducing nuclear reactions. Many shorter-lived radionuclides excluded from Table 1 such as 22Na (t1/2=2.6 yr) and 60Co (t1/2=5.27 yr) can also furnish valuable information, but can be measured only in meteorites that fell within the last few half-lives of those nuclides (see, e.g., Leya et al. (2001) and references therein). Table 1. Cosmogenic nuclides used for calculating exposure ages NuclideHalf-lifea (Myr) Radionuclides 14C0.005730 59Ni0.076 41Ca0.1034 81Kr0.229 36Cl0.301 26Al0.717 10Be1.51 53Mn3.74 129I15.7 Stable nuclides 3He 21Ne 38Ar 83Kr 126Xe a http://www2.bnl.gov/ton. CRE ages have implications for several interrelated questions. From how many different parent bodies do meteorites come? How well do meteorites represent the population of the asteroid belt? How many distinct collisions on each parent body have created the known meteorites of each type? How often do asteroids collide? How big and how energetic were the collisions that produced meteoroids? What factors control the CRE age of a meteorite and how do meteoroid orbits evolve through time? We will touch on these questions below as we examine the data.By 1975, the CRE ages of

  18. Dating offset fans along the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault using cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Schwartz, D.P.; Finkel, R.; Clemmens, S.; Hanks, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in samples collected from exposed boulders (n = 20) and from buried sediment (n = 3) from offset fans along the San Andreas fault near Little Rock, California, yielded ages, ranging from 16 to 413 ka, which increase with distance from their source at the mouth of Little Rock Creek. In order to determine the age of the relatively younger fans, the erosion rate of the boulders and the cosmogenic nuclide inheritance from exposure prior to deposition in the fan were established. Cosmogenic nuclide inheritance values that range between 8.5 ?? 103 and 196 ?? 103 atoms 10Be g-1 quartz were determined by measuring the concentrations and ratios of 10Be and 26Al in boulders (n = 10) and fine sediment (n = 7) at the outlet of the present active stream. Boulder erosion rate, ranging between 17 and 160 mm k.y.-1, was estimated by measuring 10Be and 26Al concentrations in nearby bedrock outcrops (n = 8). Since the boulders on the fans represent the most resistant rocks in this environment, we used the lowest rate for the age calculations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine ages of 16 ?? 5 and 29 ?? 7 ka for the two younger fan surfaces. Older fans (older than 100 ka) were dated by analyzing 10Be and 26Al concentrations in buried sand samples. The ages of the three oldest fans range between 227 ?? 242 and 413 ?? 185 ka. Although fan age determinations are accompanied by large uncertainties, the results of this study show a clear trend of increasing fan ages with increasing distance from the source near Little Rock Creek and provide a long-term slip rate along this section of the San Andreas fault. Slip rate along the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault for the past 413 k.y. can be determined in several ways. The average slip rate calculated from the individual fan ages is 4.2 ?? 0.9 cm yr-1. A linear regression through the data points implies a slip rate of 3.7 ?? 1.0 cm yr-1. A most probable slip rate of 3.0 ?? 1.0 cm yr-1 is

  19. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  20. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system (26)Al inventory.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N; Glad, Aslaug C; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-06-15

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10-1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide (26)Al ((26)Al→(26)Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial (26)Al abundance [((26)Al/(27)Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) - the so-called canonical value. We have determined the (26)Al/(27)Al of three angrite meteorites, D'Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15)×10(-7), (3.64 ± 0.18)×10(-7), and (5.92 ± 0.59)×10(-7), respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb-Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb-Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial ((26)Al/(27)Al)0 of [Formula: see text] for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 × 10(-5). Based on their similar (54)Cr/(52)Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar (26)Al/(27)Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical (26)Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs.

  1. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system 26Al inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10-1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (26Al→26Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial 26Al abundance [(26Al/27Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) - the so-called canonical value. We have determined the 26Al/27Al of three angrite meteorites, D'Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15) ×10-7, (3.64 ± 0.18) ×10-7, and (5.92 ± 0.59) ×10-7, respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb-Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb-Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial (26Al/27Al)0 of (1.33-0.18+0.21) ×10-5 for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 ×10-5. Based on their similar 54Cr/52Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar 26Al/27Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical 26Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs.

  2. Transplacental passage of 26Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and 26Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used 26Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, 26Al ( 26AlCl 3) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. 26Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the 26Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and 26Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of 26Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that 26Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

  3. Radioactive 26Al from massive stars in the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Roland; Halloin, Hubert; Kretschmer, Karsten; Lichti, Giselher G; Schönfelder, Volker; Strong, Andrew W; von Kienlin, Andreas; Wang, Wei; Jean, Pierre; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Roques, Jean-Pierre; Weidenspointner, Georg; Schanne, Stephane; Hartmann, Dieter H; Winkler, Christoph; Wunderer, Cornelia

    2006-01-05

    Gamma-rays from radioactive 26Al (half-life approximately 7.2 x 10(5) years) provide a 'snapshot' view of continuing nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. The Galaxy is relatively transparent to such gamma-rays, and emission has been found concentrated along its plane. This led to the conclusion that massive stars throughout the Galaxy dominate the production of 26Al. On the other hand, meteoritic data show evidence for locally produced 26Al, perhaps from spallation reactions in the protosolar disk. Furthermore, prominent gamma-ray emission from the Cygnus region suggests that a substantial fraction of Galactic 26Al could originate in localized star-forming regions. Here we report high spectral resolution measurements of 26Al emission at 1808.65 keV, which demonstrate that the 26Al source regions corotate with the Galaxy, supporting its Galaxy-wide origin. We determine a present-day equilibrium mass of 2.8 (+/- 0.8) solar masses of 26Al. We use this to determine that the frequency of core collapse (that is, type Ib/c and type II) supernovae is 1.9 (+/- 1.1) events per century.

  4. ^26Al Beam Production and its Application to Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Brad

    2012-10-01

    Presumably produced during the supernova stage of stellar evolution, ^26Al offers unique opportunities to better understand the processes of nucleosynthesis occurring in pre-SN phases of stellar evolution and within the Galactic disk. When decaying to ^26Mg, ^26Al emits a unique 1.8MeV gamma ray, detectable by satellite telescopes. The production and destruction pathways of ^26Al is a key portion of understanding the on-going stellar nucleosynthesis. In order to measure the cross-section of ^26Al(n, p) ^26Mg at the astrophysical relevant energies, an indirect method, called the Trojan Horse Method(THM), is utilized. The THM allows the study of neutron induced reactions at astrophysical energies via the d break-up. This method requires the three-body cross section for the ^26Al(d, p ^26Mg)H reaction to be measured at a beam of 60 MeV. This requires that the ^26Al secondary beam is produced by the MARS facility at Cyclotron institute of Texas A&M University from a primary ^26Mg beam (E 16MeV/u) impinging on a H2 target. ^26Al beam was then degraded to 2.25MeV/u energy by means of a Beryllium foil. The obtained results will be shown and discussed in details together with the features of the obtained intense and pure beam.

  5. Distribution of 26Al in the CR chondrite chondrule-forming region of the protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Ogliore, Ryan C.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Amelin, Yuri; Stirling, Claudine H.; Kaltenbach, Angela

    2017-03-01

    trends with major and minor element or O-isotope compositions between these populations. The weighted mean (26Al/27Al)0 of 22 CR chondrules measured is (1.8 ± 0.3) × 10-6. An apparent agreement between the 26Al-26Mg ages (using weighted mean value) and the revised (using 238U/235U ratio for bulk CR chondrites of 137.7789 ± 0.0085) 207Pb-206Pb age of a set of chondrules from CR chondrites (Amelin et al., 2002, Science297, 1678) is consistent with the initial 26Al/27Al ratio in the CR chondrite chondrule-forming region at the canonical level (∼5.2 × 10-5), allowing the use of 26Al-26Mg systematics as a chronometer for CR chondrules. To prove chronological significance of 26Al for CR chondrules, measurements of Al-Mg and U-Pb isotope systematics on individual chondrules are required. The presence of several generations among CR chondrules indicates some chondrules that accreted into the CR chondrite parent asteroid avoided melting by later chondrule-forming events, suggesting chondrule-forming processes may have occurred on relatively limited spatial scales. Accretion of the CR chondrite parent body occurred at >4.0-0.3+0.5 Ma after the formation of CAIs with the canonical 26Al/27Al ratio, although rapid accretion after formation of the major population of CR chondrules is not required by our data.

  6. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system 26Al inventory

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10–1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (26Al→26Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial 26Al abundance [(26Al/27Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) – the so-called canonical value. We have determined the 26Al/27Al of three angrite meteorites, D’Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15)×10−7, (3.64 ± 0.18)×10−7, and (5.92 ± 0.59)×10−7, respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb–Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb–Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial (26Al/27Al)0 of (1.33−0.18+0.21)×10−5 for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 × 10−5. Based on their similar 54Cr/52Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar 26Al/27Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical 26Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs. PMID:27429474

  7. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2010-12-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70-80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a validated skin aging score. Traffic-related exposure at the place of residence was determined by traffic particle emissions and by estimation of soot in fine dust. Exposure to background particle concentration was determined by measurements of ambient particles at fixed monitoring sites. The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables. Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to wrinkles. An increase in soot (per 0.5 × 10(-5) per m) and particles from traffic (per 475  kg per year and square km) was associated with 20% more pigment spots on forehead and cheeks. Background particle pollution, which was measured in low residential areas of the cities without busy traffic and therefore is not directly attributable to traffic but rather to other sources of particles, was also positively correlated to pigment spots on face. These results indicate that particle pollution might influence skin aging as well.

  8. Exposure ages of carbonaceous chondrites, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Southon, J. R.; Nagai, H.; Honda, M.; Sharma, P.; Imamura, M.; Kobayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The recent exposure histories of carbonaceous chondrites have been investigated using cosmogenic radionuclides. Our results may indicate a clustering of exposure ages of C1 and C2 chondrites into two peaks, 0.2 My and 0.6 My, perhaps implying two collisional events of Earth-crossing parent bodies. Among carbonaceous chondrites are some having short exposure ages which Mazor et al. hypothesized cluster into a small number of families. This hypothesis is based on spallogenic Ne-21 exposure ages, which in some instances are difficult to determine owing to the large amounts of trapped noble gases in carbonaceous chondrites. Also, since Ne-21 is stable, it integrates a sample's entire exposure history, so meteorites with complex exposure histories are difficult to understand using exclusively Ne-21. Cosmogenic radionuclides provide an alternative means of determining the recent cosmic ray exposure duration. To test the hypothesis of Mazor et al. we have begun a systematic investigation of exposure histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites especially C2s.

  9. Cosmogenic 26Al/10Be surface production ratio in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Lee B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan H.; Caffee, Marc W.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Woodruff, Thomas E.

    2017-02-01

    The assumed value for the cosmogenic 26Al/10Be surface production rate ratio in quartz is an important parameter for studies investigating the burial or subaerial erosion of long-lived surfaces and sediments. Recent models and data suggest that the production ratio is spatially variable and may be greater than originally thought. Here we present measured 26Al/10Be ratios for 24 continuously exposed bedrock and boulder surfaces spanning 61-77°N in Greenland. Empirical measurements, such as ours, include nuclides produced predominately by neutron-induced spallation with percent-level contributions by muon interactions. The slope of a York regression line fit to our data is 7.3 ± 0.3 (1σ), suggesting that the 26Al/10Be surface production ratio exceeds the commonly used value of 6.75, at least in the Arctic. A higher 26Al/10Be production ratio has implications for multinuclide cosmogenic isotope studies because it results in greater modeled burial durations and erosion rates.

  10. FINDING TRACERS FOR SUPERNOVA PRODUCED {sup 26}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Patrick A.; Ellinger, Carola I.; Arnett, David; Fryer, Chris L.; Rockefeller, Gabriel

    2009-07-10

    We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of {sup 26}Al in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors, we explore a range of one-dimensional explosions at different energies and an asymmetric three-dimensional explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of {sup 26}Al in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio ({approx}0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multiwavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.

  11. Dating Plio-Pleistocene glacial sediments using the cosmic-ray-produced radionuclides 10Be and 26Al

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balco, G.; Stone, J.O.H.; Jennings, C.

    2005-01-01

    We use the cosmic-ray-produced radionuclides 26Al and 10Be to date Plio-Pleistocene glacial sediment sequences. These two nuclides are produced in quartz at a fixed ratio, but have different decay constants. If a sample is exposed at the surface for a time and then buried by overburden and thus removed from the cosmic-ray flux, the 26Al/10Be ratio is related to the duration of burial. We first attempted to date pre-Wisconsinan tills by measuring 26Al and 10Be in fluvial sediments beneath them and applying the method of "burial dating," which previous authors have used to date river sediment carried into caves. This method, however, requires simplifying assumptions about the 26Al and 10Be concentrations in the sediment at the time of burial. We show that these assumptions are not valid for river sediment in glaciated regions. 26Al and 10Be analyses of such sediment do not provide accurate ages for these tills, although they do yield limiting ages in some cases. We overcome this difficulty by instead measuring 26Al and 10Be in quartz from paleosols that are buried by tills. We use a more general mathematical approach to determine the initial nuclide concentrations in the paleosol at the time it was buried, as well as the duration of burial. This technique provides a widely applicable improvement on other means of dating Plio-Pleistocene terrestrial glacial sediments, as well as a framework for applying cosmogenic-nuclide dating techniques in complicated stratigraphic settings. We apply it to pre-Wisconsinan glacial sediment sequences in southwest Minnesota and eastern South Dakota. Pre-Wisconsinan tills underlying the Minnesota River Valley were deposited 0.5 to 1.5 Ma, and tills beneath the Prairie Coteau in eastern South Dakota and adjacent Minnesota were deposited 1 to 2 Ma.

  12. Measurement of low levels of 26Al from meteorite samples.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter N; Hult, Mikael; Altzitzoglo, Timotheos

    2002-01-01

    As part of an intercomparison to resolve discrepancies between accelerator mass spectrometry results and radiometric results, the 26Al activity in four meteorite samples was measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in the underground laboratory HADES. Although reference sources were used, extensive use was made of computer modelling to determine corrections for absorption, coincidence summing between gamma rays in the decays and annihilation radiation following positron emission. Directional correlation corrections were also taken into account. The limiting uncertainties in these measurements arose from counting statistics of 5-9%. Some computer modelling was undertaken to determine optimum geometry for this type of intercomparison involving gamma-ray spectrometry.

  13. (26)Al investigations at the AMS-laboratory in Lund.

    PubMed

    Faarinen, M; Magnusson, C E; Hellborg, R; Mattsson, S; Kiisk, M; Persson, P; Schütz, A; Skog, G; Stenström, K

    2001-11-01

    At the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratory in Lund, a facility for (26)Al analysis is under development. The sensitivity is expected to be several orders of magnitude higher than with standard mass spectrometry. The planned biomedical program includes studies of aluminium uptake, distribution and retention in man. The initial work has been concentrated on the construction and testing of a new dedicated injector for the accelerator and on the preparation of biological samples for aluminium analysis. The current quality of the facility is presented and the first experimental results reported.

  14. 26Al incorporation into the tissues of suckling rats through maternal milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Tada, W.; Horikawa, T.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2004-08-01

    Aluminium (Al) is highly neurotoxic and inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain in humans and experimental animals. However, Al incorporation into the brain of sucklings through maternal milk has not yet been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for radioactive tracer experiments. Using 26Al as a tracer, we measured 26Al incorporation into the brain of suckling rats by accelerator mass spectrometry. Lactating rats were subcutaneously injected with 26AlCl3 from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. Suckling rats were weaned from day 21 postpartum. From day 5 to day 20 postpartum, the 26Al levels measured in the brain, liver, kidneys and bone of suckling rats increased significantly. After weaning, the amounts of 26Al in the liver and kidneys decreased remarkably. However, the 26Al amount in the brain had diminished only slightly up to 140 days after weaning.

  15. Early to Late Pleistocene history of debris-flow fan evolution in western Death Valley (California) using cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dühnforth, Miriam; Densmore, Alexander L.; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Allen, Philip; Kubik, Peter W.

    2017-03-01

    Debris-flow fans with depositional records over several 105 years may be useful archives for the understanding of fan construction by debris flows and post-depositional surface modification over long timescales. Reading these archives, however, requires that we establish the temporal and spatial pattern of debris-flow activity over time. We used a combination of geomorphic mapping of fan surface characteristics, digital topographic analysis, and cosmogenic radionuclide dating using 10Be and 26Al to study the evolution of the Warm Springs fan on the west side of southern Death Valley, California. The 10Be concentrations yield dates that vary from 989 ± 43 to 595 ± 17 ka on the proximal fan and between 369 ± 13 and 125 ± 5 ka on distal fan surfaces. The interpretation of these results as true depositional ages though is complicated by high inheritance with a minimum of 65 ka measured at the catchment outlet and of at least 125 ka at the distal fan. Results from the 26Al measurements suggest that most sample locations on the fan surfaces underwent simple exposure and were not affected by complex histories of burial and re-exposure. This implies that Warm Springs fan is a relatively stable landform that underwent several 105 years of fan aggradation before fan head incision caused abandonment of the proximal and central fan surfaces and deposition continued on a younger unit at the distal fan. We show that the primary depositional debris-flow morphology is eliminated over a time scale of less than 105 years, which prevents the delineation of individual debris flows as well as the precise reconstruction of lateral shifts in deposition as we find it on younger debris-flow fans. Secondary post-depositional processes control subsequent evolution of surface morphology with the dissection of planar surfaces while smoothing of convex-up interfluves between incised channels continues through time.

  16. Did 26Al and impact-induced heating differentiate Mercury?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, G. K.; Sahijpal, S.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical models dealing with the planetary scale differentiation of Mercury are presented with the short-lived nuclide, 26Al, as the major heat source along with the impact-induced heating during the accretion of planets. These two heat sources are considered to have caused differentiation of Mars, a planet with size comparable to Mercury. The chronological records and the thermal modeling of Mars indicate an early differentiation during the initial 1 million years (Ma) of the formation of the solar system. We theorize that in case Mercury also accreted over an identical time scale, the two heat sources could have differentiated the planets. Although unlike Mars there is no chronological record of Mercury's differentiation, the proposed mechanism is worth investigation. We demonstrate distinct viable scenarios for a wide range of planetary compositions that could have produced the internal structure of Mercury as deduced by the MESSENGER mission, with a metallic iron (Fe-Ni-FeS) core of radius 2000 km and a silicate mantle thickness of 400 km. The initial compositions were derived from the enstatite and CB (Bencubbin) chondrites that were formed in the reducing environments of the early solar system. We have also considered distinct planetary accretion scenarios to understand their influence on thermal processing. The majority of our models would require impact-induced mantle stripping of Mercury by hit and run mechanism with a protoplanet subsequent to its differentiation in order to produce the right size of mantle. However, this can be avoided if we increase the Fe-Ni-FeS contents to 71% by weight. Finally, the models presented here can be used to understand the differentiation of Mercury-like exoplanets and the planetary embryos of Venus and Earth.

  17. Towards improvement of aluminium assay in quartz for in situ cosmogenic 26Al analysis at ANSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Toshiyuki; Fink, David; Mifsud, Charles

    2015-10-01

    Accuracy and precision in the measurement of natural aluminium abundances in quartz can affect the reliability of 26Al exposure dating and 26Al/10Be burial dating. At ANSTO, aliquots extracted from the HF solutions of dissolved quartz are treated in our laboratory, whereas ICP-OES analysis is performed at a commercial laboratory. The long-term inter-run reproducibility of our in-house standards show a limiting precision in Al measurements of 3-4% (1σ), which is lower than the claimed precision of Al analysis by ICP-OES. This indicates that unaccounted random errors are incorporated during our aliquot preparation. In this study, we performed several controlled tests to investigate effects of possible inconsistencies and variances during our aliquot preparation procedure. The results indicate that our procedure is robust against any subtle change in the preparation procedure, e.g., fuming temperatures, fuming reagents, and drying conditions. We found that the density of the solutions dispatched for ICP analysis is occasionally variable due to the presence of residual fuming reagents in the solution. A comparison of the results between the calibration curve and standard addition methods show that the former results are consistently lower than the latter by up to ∼14%. Similar offsets have been reported by previous studies. The reason for these discrepancies is mostly likely matrix effect, which is not accounted for by the calibration curve method. Further tests by varying matrix with impurities such as HF, HClO4, H2SO4 and Si identified that Si could cause lower offset in Al measurements; however, our ICP solutions are confirmed to be free from Si and the cause of matrix effect remains to be investigated. Hence, care must be taken for the measurement of Al concentrations in quartz by ICP-OES, either by ensuring that matrix effect is fully accounted for or by routinely employing standard additions when required.

  18. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized 26Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26Al and 27Al equilibration and incorporate the 26Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  19. 26Al incorporation into the brain of rat fetuses through the placental barrier and subsequent metabolism in postnatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Kakimi, Shigeo; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Aluminium (Al) inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain. We used 26Al as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into rat fetuses through the placental barrier by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). From day 15 to day 18 of gestation, 26AlCl 3 was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats. Considerable amounts of 26Al were measured in the tissues of newborn rats immediately after birth. The amounts of 26Al in the liver and kidneys decreased rapidly during postnatal development. However, approximately 15% of 26Al incorporated into the brain of fetuses remained in the brain of adult rats 730 days after birth.

  20. 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from Kaba and Yamato 980145 CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Komatsu, Mutsumi

    2017-03-01

    We report the mineralogy, petrography, and in situ measured 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from the least metamorphosed CV3 (Vigarano-type) chondrites, Kaba and Yamato (Y) 980145. Two Y 980145 chondrules measured show no resolvable excesses in 26Mg (26Mg∗), a decay product of a short-lived (t1/2 ∼0.7 Ma) radionuclide 26Al. Plagioclase in one of the chondrules is replaced by nepheline, indicative of thermal metamorphism. The lack of 26Mg∗ in the Y 980145 chondrules is most likely due to disturbance of their 26Al-26Mg systematics during the metamorphism. Although Kaba experienced extensive metasomatic alteration (<300 °C), it largely avoided subsequent thermal metamorphism, and the 26Al-26Mg systematics of its chondrules appear to be undisturbed. All eight Kaba chondrules measured show 26Mg∗, corresponding to the initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] ranging from (2.9 ± 1.7) × 10-6 to (6.3 ± 2.7) × 10-6. If CV parent asteroid accreted rapidly after chondrule formation, the inferred (26Al/27Al)0 ratios in Kaba chondrules provide an upper limit on 26Al available in this asteroid at the time of its accretion. The estimated initial abundance of 26Al in the CV asteroid is too low to melt it and contradicts the existence of a molten core in this body suggested from the paleomagnetic records of Allende [Carporzen et al. (2011) Magnetic evidence for a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108, 6386-6389] and Kaba [Gattacceca et al. (2013) More evidence for a partially differentiated CV parent body from the meteorite Kaba. Lunar Planet. Sci.44, abstract#1721].

  1. 26Al/10Be burial dating of Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hua; Shen, Guanjun; Li, Haixu; Xie, Fei; Granger, Darryl E

    2015-01-01

    The Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China for having provided a rich collection of hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts. Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time. However, more recent paleomagnetic analyses assigned a much older age of ∼500 ka (thousand years). This paper reports the application of 26Al/10Be burial dating as an independent check. Two quartz samples from a lower cultural horizon give a weighted mean age of 0.24 ± 0.05 Ma (million years, 1σ). The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results. On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site's lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL) dating at 160-220 ka.

  2. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

  3. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  4. Harvesting the Decay Energy of 26-Al to Drive Lightning Discharge and Chondrule Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, A.; Okuzumi, S.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate that positrons released in the decay of 26-Al cause large-scale charging of dense pebble regions. The charge separation is neutralized by lightning discharge and this can lead to the formation of chondrules.

  5. HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF {sup 26}Al AT THE BIRTH OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Yang, Le; Hellebrand, Eric; Gaidos, Eric

    2011-06-01

    It is believed that {sup 26}Al, a short-lived (t{sub 1/2} = 0.73 Ma) and now extinct radionuclide, was uniformly distributed in the nascent solar system (SS) with the initial {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5.2 x 10{sup -5}, suggesting an external, stellar origin rather than local, solar source. However, the stellar source of {sup 26}Al and the manner in which it was injected into the SS remain controversial: the {sup 26}Al could have been produced by an asymptotic giant branch star, a supernova, or a Wolf-Rayet star and injected either into the protosolar molecular cloud, protosolar cloud core, or protoplanetary disk. Corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is predicted to be the first condensate from a cooling gas of solar composition. Here we show that micron-sized corundum condensates from {sup 16}O-rich ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -25 per mille ) gas of solar composition recorded heterogeneous distribution of {sup 26}Al at the birth of the SS: the inferred initial {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio ranges from {approx}6.5x10{sup -5} to <2x10{sup -6}; 52% of corundum grains measured are {sup 26}Al-poor. Abundant {sup 26}Al-poor, {sup 16}O-rich refractory objects include grossite- and hibonite-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CH (high metal abundance and high iron concentration) chondrites, platy hibonite crystals in CM (Mighei-like) chondrites, and CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects CAIs chondrites. Considering the apparently early and short duration (<0.3 Ma) of condensation of refractory {sup 16}O-rich solids in the SS, we infer that {sup 26}Al was injected into the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud and later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk. The apparent lack of correlation between {sup 26}Al abundance and O-isotope composition of corundum grains constrains the stellar source of {sup 26}Al in the SS.

  6. Evidence for Widespread 26Al in the Solar Nebula and Constraints for Nebula Time Scales

    PubMed

    Russell; Srinivasan; Huss; Wasserburg; MacPherson

    1996-08-09

    A search was made for 26Mg (26Mg*) from the decay of 26Al (half-life = 0.73 million years) in Al-rich objects from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Two Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and two Al-rich chondrules (not CAIs) were found that contained 26Al when they formed. Internal isochrons for the CAIs yielded an initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)0] of 5 x 10(-5), indistinguishable from most CAIs in carbonaceous chondrites. This result shows that CAIs with this level of 26Al are present throughout the classes of chondrites and strengthens the notion that 26Al was widespread in the early solar system. The two Al-rich chondrules have lower 26Mg*, corresponding to a (26Al/27Al)0 ratio of approximately 9 x 10(-6). Five other Al-rich chondrules contain no resolvable 26Mg*. If chondrules and CAIs formed from an isotopically homogeneous reservoir, then the chondrules with 26Al must have formed or been last altered approximately2 million years after CAIs formed; the 26Mg*-free chondrules formed >1 to 3 million years later still. Because 26Mg*-containing and 26Mg*-free chondrules are both found in Chainpur, which was not heated to more than approximately400°C, it follows that parent body metamorphism cannot explain the absence of 26Mg* in some of these chondrules. Rather, its absence indicates that the lifetime of the solar nebula over which CAIs and chondrules formed extended over approximately5 million years.

  7. {sup 26}Al IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM: NOT SO UNUSUAL AFTER ALL

    SciTech Connect

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Young, E. D. E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-10-01

    Recently acquired evidence shows that extrasolar asteroids exhibit over a factor of 100 variation in the iron to aluminum abundance ratio. This large range likely is a consequence of igneous differentiation that resulted from heating produced by radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al with an abundance comparable to that in the solar system's protoplanetary disk at birth. If so, the conventional view that our solar system began with an unusually high amount of {sup 26}Al should be discarded.

  8. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M. ); Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation.

  9. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Benjamin B; Robinson, Meghan E; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2015-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure-one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan-is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a 'dose-response' relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast-exposed group

  10. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Benjamin B.; Robinson, Meghan E.; Milberg, William P.; McGlinchey, Regina E.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure—one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan—is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a ‘dose-response’ relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast

  11. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of 26Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prialnik, D.; Bar-Nun, A.; Owen, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    We study the effect of radiogenic heating due to 26Al on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites. Our object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial 26Al abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of approximately 10(6) yr (comparable with the lifetime of 26Al). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10(9) yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. Our main conclusion is that the initial 26Al abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, approximately 7 x 10(-7) by mass). We find, for example, that an initial 26Al mass fraction of approximately 4 x 10(-8) is sufficient for melting almost completely icy spheres with radii of 800 km, typical of the larger icy planetary satellites. We also find that for any given 26Al abundance, there is a narrow range of radii below which only marginal melting occurs and above which most of the ice melts (and refreezes later). Since extensive melting may have important consequences, such as differentiation, gas release, and volcanic activity, the effect of 26Al should be included in future studies of satellite interiors.

  12. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of 26Al.

    PubMed

    Prialnik, D; Bar-Nun, A

    1990-05-20

    We study the effect of radiogenic heating due to 26Al on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites. Our object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial 26Al abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of approximately 10(6) yr (comparable with the lifetime of 26Al). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10(9) yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. Our main conclusion is that the initial 26Al abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, approximately 7 x 10(-7) by mass). We find, for example, that an initial 26Al mass fraction of approximately 4 x 10(-8) is sufficient for melting almost completely icy spheres with radii of 800 km, typical of the larger icy planetary satellites. We also find that for any given 26Al abundance, there is a narrow range of radii below which only marginal melting occurs and above which most of the ice melts (and refreezes later). Since extensive melting may have important consequences, such as differentiation, gas release, and volcanic activity, the effect of 26Al should be included in future studies of satellite interiors.

  13. Constraints on Exposure Ages of Lunar and Asteroidal Regolith Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P

    2014-01-01

    Mineral grains in lunar and asteroidal regolith samples provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Exposure to the solar wind results in implantation effects that are preserved in the rims of grains (typically the outermost 100 nm), while impact processes result in the accumulation of vapor-deposited elements, impact melts and adhering grains on particle surfaces. These processes are collectively referred to as space weathering. A critical element in the study of these processes is to determine the rate at which these effects accumulate in the grains during their space exposure. For small particulate samples, one can use the density of solar flare particle tracks to infer the length of time the particle was at the regolith surface (i.e., its exposure age). We have developed a new technique that enables more accurate determination of solar flare particle track densities in mineral grains <50 micron in size that utilizes focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. We have applied this technique to lunar soil grains from the Apollo 16 site (soil 64501) and most recently to samples from asteroid 25143 Itokawa returned by the Hayabusa mission. Our preliminary results show that the Hayabusa grains have shorter exposure ages compared to typical lunar soil grains. We will use these techniques to re-examine the track density-exposure age calibration from lunar samples reported by Blanford et al. (1975).

  14. {sup 26}Al production: The Allende meteorite (Chihuahua) stellar nucleosynthesis and solar models

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Escalona, V.; Andrade, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Canto, C.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; Lucio, O. de; Ortiz, M. E.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E.

    2015-07-23

    In 1969 a meteorite fell near the small town of Allende, state of Chihuahua in the north of Mexico. Its study yielded information that changed the current understanding of the solar model. In particular traces of {sup 26}Al were found. Abundances of that isotope had been seen in the universe and were related to regions of active heavy nucleosynthesis. Its presence on the solar system was unexpected. It is now understood that cosmic rays induce nuclear reactions on materials to produce {sup 26}Al, on Earth this is well known and it is the basis of many environmental studies, so it is not only the product of some high metalicity star collapse. Taking advantage of the recently reinforced laboratory infrastructure of the Instituto de Física, at UNAM in Mexico City, we proposed to measure the cross section for {sup 26}Al production via some of the most likely reactions, from the nuclear physics point of view (highest Q-values). In this paper the study of the {sup 28}Si(d,α){sup 26} Al nuclear reaction is shown. A target is prepared by a mixture of silicon and aluminum powders. It is irradiated with a deuteron beam (≈1 µA current) at the MV CN-Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory. The number of projectiles is deduced by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The produced {sup 26}Al nuclei are then counted at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory.

  15. 26Al production: The Allende meteorite (Chihuahua) stellar nucleosynthesis and solar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Escalona, V.; Andrade, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Canto, C.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; de Lucio, O.; Ortiz, M. E.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E.

    2015-07-01

    In 1969 a meteorite fell near the small town of Allende, state of Chihuahua in the north of Mexico. Its study yielded information that changed the current understanding of the solar model. In particular traces of 26Al were found. Abundances of that isotope had been seen in the universe and were related to regions of active heavy nucleosynthesis. Its presence on the solar system was unexpected. It is now understood that cosmic rays induce nuclear reactions on materials to produce 26Al, on Earth this is well known and it is the basis of many environmental studies, so it is not only the product of some high metalicity star collapse. Taking advantage of the recently reinforced laboratory infrastructure of the Instituto de Física, at UNAM in Mexico City, we proposed to measure the cross section for 26Al production via some of the most likely reactions, from the nuclear physics point of view (highest Q-values). In this paper the study of the 28Si(d,α)26 Al nuclear reaction is shown. A target is prepared by a mixture of silicon and aluminum powders. It is irradiated with a deuteron beam (≈1 µA current) at the MV CN-Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory. The number of projectiles is deduced by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The produced 26Al nuclei are then counted at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory.

  16. Childhood sensorineural hearing loss: effects of combined exposure with aging or noise exposure later in life.

    PubMed

    Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Nafstad, Per; Bjørgan, Eskil; Engdahl, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine childhood high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (HF-SNHL) and the effects of combined exposure with aging or noise exposure on HF hearing thresholds in adulthood. Population-based cohort study of 30,003 adults (mean age 40 years) underwent an audiometry and completed a hearing questionnaire. At age 7-13 years, the same people had participated in a longitudinal school hearing investigation, in which 283 participants were diagnosed with HF-SNHL [PTA 3-8 kHz ≥ 25 dB HL (mean 45 dB HL), worse hearing ear], and 29,720 participants had normal hearing thresholds. The effect of childhood HF-SNHL on adult hearing threshold was significantly moderated by age. Age stratified analyses showed that the difference in HF hearing thresholds between adults with and without childhood HF-SNHL was 33 dB (95 % CI 31-34) in young adults (n = 173, aged 20-39 years) and 37 dB (95 % CI 34-39) in middle-aged adults (n = 110, aged 40-56 years). The combined exposure of childhood HF-SNHL and noise exposure showed a simple additive effect. It appears to be a super-additive effect of childhood-onset HF-SNHL and aging on adult hearing thresholds. An explanation might be that already damaged hair cells are more susceptible to age-related degeneration. To exclude possible birth cohort effects, the finding should be confirmed by a study with several audiometries in adulthood.

  17. THE GALACTIC {sup 26}AL EMISSION MAP AS REVEALED BY INTEGRAL SPI

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchet, Laurent; Jourdain, Elisabeth; Roques, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-10

    Diffuse emission is often challenging since it is undetectable by most instruments, which are generally dedicated to point-source studies. The {sup 26}Al emission is a good illustration: the only available {sup 26}Al map to date has been released, more than 15 yr ago, thanks to the COMPTEL instrument. However, at the present time, the SPI spectrometer aboard the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory mission offers a unique opportunity to enrich this first result. In this paper, 2 × 10{sup 8} s of data accumulated between 2003 and 2013 are used to perform a dedicated analysis, aiming to deeply investigate the spatial morphology of the {sup 26}Al emission. The data are first compared with several sky maps based on observations at various wavelengths to model the {sup 26}Al distribution throughout the Galaxy. For most of the distribution models, the inner Galaxy flux is compatible with a value of 3.3 × 10{sup −4} photons cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, while the preferred template maps correspond to young stellar components such as core-collapse supernovae (SNe), Wolf–Rayet stars, and massive AGB stars. To get more details about this emission, an image reconstruction is performed using an algorithm based on the maximum-entropy method. In addition to the inner Galaxy emission, several excesses suggest that some sites of emission are linked to the spiral arm structure. Lastly, an estimation of the {sup 60}Fe line flux, assuming a spatial distribution similar to {sup 26}Al line emission, results in a {sup 60}Fe-to-{sup 26}Al ratio around 0.14, which agrees with the most recent studies and with the SN explosion model predictions.

  18. The Galactic 26Al Emission Map as Revealed by INTEGRAL SPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Laurent; Jourdain, Elisabeth; Roques, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse emission is often challenging since it is undetectable by most instruments, which are generally dedicated to point-source studies. The 26Al emission is a good illustration: the only available 26Al map to date has been released, more than 15 yr ago, thanks to the COMPTEL instrument. However, at the present time, the SPI spectrometer aboard the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory mission offers a unique opportunity to enrich this first result. In this paper, 2 × 108 s of data accumulated between 2003 and 2013 are used to perform a dedicated analysis, aiming to deeply investigate the spatial morphology of the 26Al emission. The data are first compared with several sky maps based on observations at various wavelengths to model the 26Al distribution throughout the Galaxy. For most of the distribution models, the inner Galaxy flux is compatible with a value of 3.3 × 10-4 photons cm-2 s-1, while the preferred template maps correspond to young stellar components such as core-collapse supernovae (SNe), Wolf-Rayet stars, and massive AGB stars. To get more details about this emission, an image reconstruction is performed using an algorithm based on the maximum-entropy method. In addition to the inner Galaxy emission, several excesses suggest that some sites of emission are linked to the spiral arm structure. Lastly, an estimation of the 60Fe line flux, assuming a spatial distribution similar to 26Al line emission, results in a 60Fe-to-26Al ratio around 0.14, which agrees with the most recent studies and with the SN explosion model predictions.

  19. Revisiting 26Al-26Mg systematics of plagioclase in H4 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Ogliore, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    Zinner and Göpel found clear evidence for the former presence of 26Al in the H4 chondrites Ste. Marguerite and Forest Vale. They assumed that the 26Al-26Mg systematics of these chondrites date "metamorphic cooling of the H4 parent body." Plagioclase in these chondrites can have very high Al/Mg ratios and low Mg concentrations, making these ion probe analyses susceptible to ratio bias, which is inversely proportional to the number of counts of the denominator isotope (Ogliore et al.). Zinner and Göpel used the mean of the ratios to calculate the isotope ratios, which exacerbates this problem. We analyzed the Al/Mg ratios and Mg isotopic compositions of plagioclase grains in thin sections of Ste. Marguerite, Forest Vale, Beaver Creek, and Sena to evaluate the possible influence of ratio bias on the published initial 26Al/27Al ratios for these meteorites. We calculated the isotope ratios using total counts, a less biased method of calculating isotope ratios. The results from our analyses are consistent with those from Zinner and Göpel, indicating that ratio bias does not significantly affect 26Al-26Mg results for plagioclase in these chondrites. Ste. Marguerite has a clear isochron with an initial 26Al/27Al ratio indicating that it cooled to below 450 °C 5.2 ± 0.2 Myr after CAIs. The isochrons for Forest Vale and Beaver Creek also show clear evidence that 26Al was alive when they cooled, but the initial 26Al/27Al ratios are not well constrained. Sena does not show evidence that 26Al was alive when it cooled to below the Al-Mg closure temperature. Given that metallographic cooling rates for Ste. Marguerite, Forest Vale, and Beaver Creek are atypical (>5000 °C/Myr at 500 °C) compared with most H4s, including Sena, which have cooling rates of 10-50 °C/Myr at 500 °C (Scott et al.), we conclude that the Al-Mg systematics for Ste. Marguerite, Forest Vale, and Beaver Creek are the result of impact excavation of these chondrites and cooling at the surface of the

  20. Heterogeneous distribution of 26Al at the birth of the solar system: Evidence from refractory grains and inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Makide, K.; Nagashima, K.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Ciesla, F. J.; Yang, L.; Hellebrand, E.; Gaidos, E.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-We review recent results on O- and Mg-isotope compositions of refractory grains (corundum, hibonite) and calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from unequilibrated ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. We show that these refractory objects originated in the presence of nebular gas enriched in 16O to varying degrees relative to the standard mean ocean water value: the Δ17OSMOW value ranges from approximately -16‰ to -35‰, and recorded heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in their formation region: the inferred (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 ranges from approximately 6.5 × 10-5 to <2 × 10-6. There is no correlation between O- and Mg-isotope compositions of the refractory objects: <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor refractory objects have similar O-isotope compositions. We suggest that <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> was injected into the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor collapsing protosolar molecular cloud core, possibly by a wind from a neighboring massive star, and was later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk by radial mixing, possibly at the canonical value of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratio (approximately 5 × 10-5). The <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor refractory grains and inclusions represent different generations of refractory objects, which formed prior to and during the injection and homogenization of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>. Thus, the duration of formation of refractory grains and CAIs cannot be inferred from their <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg systematics, and the canonical (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 does not represent the initial abundance of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the solar system; instead, it may or may not represent the average abundance of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the fully formed disk. The latter depends on the formation time of CAIs with the canonical <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratio relative to the timing of complete delivery of stellar <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> to the solar system, and the degree of its subsequent homogenization in the disk. The injection of material containing <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> resulted in no observable changes in O-isotope composition of the solar system. Instead, the variations in O-isotope compositions between individual</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PSA..76.5085P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PSA..76.5085P"><span>Heterogeneity of Mg Isotopes and Variable ^<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/^27Al Ratio in FUN CAIs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, C.; Nagashima, K.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Davis, A. M.; Huss, G. R.; Krot, A. N.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We report high-precision Mg-isotope data of individual minerals from the Axtell 2271, BG82DH8, EK1-4-1, C1, TE, and CG14 FUN CAIs, which shows variations in both Mg-isotope ratio and ^<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/^27Al ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/756734','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/756734"><span>Update on terrestrial <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Antarctic meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Welten, K C; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W</p> <p>2000-01-14</p> <p>Terrestrial <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Antarctic meteorites are one of the few parameters that will help us to understand the meteorite concentration mechanism on blue-ice fields. Traditionally, terrestrial <span class="hlt">ages</span> were determined on the basis of {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase, which has an uncertainty of about 70 ky. For young meteorites (< 40 ky), the terrestrial <span class="hlt">age</span> is usually and most accurately determined using {sup 14}C in the stone phase. In recent years two methods have been developed which are independent of shielding effects, the {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method and the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 36}Cl method. These methods have reduced the typical uncertainties in terrestrial <span class="hlt">ages</span> by a factor of 2, to about 30 ky. The {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method is quite dependent on the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span>, which is unknown for most Antarctic meteorites. The authors therefore also attempt to use the relation between {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 36}Cl/{sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> to derive a terrestrial <span class="hlt">age</span> less dependent on the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span>. The authors have measured the concentrations of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be, {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase of {approximately} 70 Antarctic meteorites, from more than 10 different ice-fields, including many new ones. They then discuss the trends in terrestrial <span class="hlt">ages</span> of meteorites from different ice-fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30Q.512G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30Q.512G"><span>36Cl-36Ar <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Chondritic Metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graf, Th.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Marti, K.; Nishiizumi, K.; Ponganis, K. V.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Metal separates were prepared to determine ^36Cl-^36Ar <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for six H4 p.m. falls (with reported bulk <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 4 to 10Ma), for ten H5 a.m. falls (T(sub)e = 4-10 Ma) and for the Acapulco meteorite (T(^36Cl-^36Ar)= 5.7 Ma). This dating method uses production rate ratios P(^36Cl)/P(^36Ar) and is independent of the shielding-sensitive absolute production rates. It is also known that for protons the production rate ratio is rather insensitive to changes in the energy spectrum; the dependence of this ratio for secondary neutrons is at present less understood. First results were already reported [1]. The cosmic-ray-produced ^3He/^38Ar ratios show a bimodal distribution with two clusters at about 15 and about 9 (Fig. 1). About half of the ^3He is produced via ^3H which is known to diffuse in metal at relatively low temperatures. Therefore, Fig. 1 provides evidence for a quasi-continuous loss of ^3H from such metals. If this loss mechanism is due to solar heating, perihelia <1 AU are indicated for these meteorites. Losses are prominent for H5 a.m. falls, but not for H4 p.m. falls. The orbital implications are consistent with those already known from the time-of-fall parameter (p.m. falls / total falls) which was used in the selection of the H4,H5 sample sets [2]. The <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> histograms of both H groups show the well known clusters at about 7 Ma. The width of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> peaks differ, however, and the collisional break-up event can be further constrained. Except for Nassirah, all members of the H4 p.m. group fall into the range 7.0 +/- 0.3 Ma. Bulk rock <span class="hlt">ages</span> (8.2-9.3 Ma) [3] as well as the ^36Cl-^36Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> (8.3 Ma) of Nassirah are higher and may indicate that this meteorite does not belong to the collisional event. We observe a small but systematic difference in calculated <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> by the ^36Cl-^36Ar method, when compared with <span class="hlt">ages</span> obtained by conventional noble gas production rates. This shift (about 10%) does not appear to be dependent on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26538535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26538535"><span>Telomere dynamics may link stress <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">ageing</span> across generations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haussmann, Mark F; Heidinger, Britt J</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to stressors is known to increase disease susceptibility and accelerate <span class="hlt">ageing</span>, evidence is accumulating that these effects can span more than one generation. Stressors experienced by parents have been reported to negatively influence the longevity of their offspring and even grand offspring. The mechanisms underlying these long-term, cross-generational effects are still poorly understood, but we argue here that telomere dynamics are likely to play an important role. In this review, we begin by surveying the current connections between stress and telomere dynamics. We then lay out the evidence that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to stressors in the parental generation influences telomere dynamics in offspring and potentially subsequent generations. We focus on evidence in mammalian and avian studies and highlight several promising areas where our understanding is incomplete and future investigations are critically needed. Understanding the mechanisms that link stress <span class="hlt">exposure</span> across generations requires interdisciplinary studies and is essential to both the biomedical community seeking to understand how early adversity impacts health span and evolutionary ecologists interested in how changing environmental conditions are likely to influence <span class="hlt">age</span>-structured population dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4685533','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4685533"><span>Telomere dynamics may link stress <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">ageing</span> across generations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haussmann, Mark F.; Heidinger, Britt J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to stressors is known to increase disease susceptibility and accelerate <span class="hlt">ageing</span>, evidence is accumulating that these effects can span more than one generation. Stressors experienced by parents have been reported to negatively influence the longevity of their offspring and even grand offspring. The mechanisms underlying these long-term, cross-generational effects are still poorly understood, but we argue here that telomere dynamics are likely to play an important role. In this review, we begin by surveying the current connections between stress and telomere dynamics. We then lay out the evidence that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to stressors in the parental generation influences telomere dynamics in offspring and potentially subsequent generations. We focus on evidence in mammalian and avian studies and highlight several promising areas where our understanding is incomplete and future investigations are critically needed. Understanding the mechanisms that link stress <span class="hlt">exposure</span> across generations requires interdisciplinary studies and is essential to both the biomedical community seeking to understand how early adversity impacts health span and evolutionary ecologists interested in how changing environmental conditions are likely to influence <span class="hlt">age</span>-structured population dynamics. PMID:26538535</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8825E..08R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8825E..08R"><span>UV <span class="hlt">aging</span> and outdoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> correlation for EVA PV encapsulants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reid, Charles G.; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Woods, Joseph T.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A widely cited approximation in the solar industry is that "one week of xenon arc weather-o-meter <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is equivalent to one year of field <span class="hlt">exposure</span>." This statement is a generalization of test data generated in the mid-1990s as part of the NREL managed PVMaT-3 project. This approximation was based entirely upon yellowing of first generation EVA-based encapsulants in two different accelerated test conditions, xenon arc and mirror accelerated outdoor <span class="hlt">aging</span>. First generation EVA encapsulants were developed by STR under the JPL solar project (1975-1986) and exhibit yellowing (or browning) with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to UV and heat. This yellowing mechanism was understood and resolved with newer generation EVA encapsulation products introduced in late 1990s. Modules were manufactured at the end of the PVMaT-3 project that included both older and newer generation encapsulants. Those modules were on a two-axis tracker in Arizona from 1996 to 2012 and are now undergoing diagnostic tests. Older generation standard-cure encapsulant used in these modules exhibited severe browning over cells and the modules exhibit approximate power loss of about two percent per year. This same standard cure encapsulant material has been tested with updated xenon arc <span class="hlt">exposure</span> methods and optical transmission tests to estimate the loss in power due only to browning and reduction in light transmission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790042425&hterms=Ice+Age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DIce%2BAge','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790042425&hterms=Ice+Age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DIce%2BAge"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and terrestrial <span class="hlt">ages</span> of four Allan Hills Antarctic meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kirsten, T.; Ries, D.; Fireman, E. L.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Terrestrial <span class="hlt">ages</span> of meteorites are based on the amount of cosmic-ray-produced radioactivity in the sample and the number of observed falls that have similar cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> histories. The cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposures</span> are obtained from the stable noble gas isotopes. Noble gas isotopes are measured by high-sensitivity mass spectrometry. In the present study, the noble gas contents were measured in four Allan Hill meteorites (No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, and No. 8), whose C-14, Al-26, and Mn-53 radioactivities are known. These meteorites are of particular interest because they belong to a large assemblage of distinct meteorites that lie exposed on a small (110 sq km) area of ice near the Allan Hills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2934752','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2934752"><span>Cumulative Lead <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">Age</span>-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on <span class="hlt">age</span>-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25 to 8 kHz and pure tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K x-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> may be an important risk factor for <span class="hlt">age</span>-related hearing loss and reduction of lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> could help prevent or delay development of <span class="hlt">age</span>-related hearing loss. PMID:20638461</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5307374','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5307374"><span>Acceleration of cardiovascular-biological <span class="hlt">age</span> by amphetamine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is a power function of chronological <span class="hlt">age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Norman, Amanda; Hulse, Gary Kenneth</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Amphetamine abuse is becoming more widespread internationally. The possibility that its many cardiovascular complications are associated with a prematurely <span class="hlt">aged</span> cardiovascular system, and indeed biological organism systemically, has not been addressed. Methods Radial arterial pulse tonometry was performed using the SphygmoCor system (Sydney). 55 amphetamine exposed patients were compared with 107 tobacco smokers, 483 non-smokers and 68 methadone patients (total=713 patients) from 2006 to 2011. A cardiovascular-biological <span class="hlt">age</span> (VA) was determined. Results The <span class="hlt">age</span> of the patient groups was 30.03±0.51–40.45±1.15 years. This was controlled for with linear regression. The sex ratio was the same in all groups. 94% of amphetamine exposed patients had used amphetamine in the previous week. When the (log) VA was regressed against the chronological <span class="hlt">age</span> (CA) and a substance-type group in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, models quadratic in CA were superior to linear models (both p<0.02). When log VA/CA was regressed in a mixed effects model against time, body mass index, CA and drug type, the cubic model was superior to the linear model (p=0.001). Interactions between CA, (CA)2 and (CA)3 on the one hand and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> type were significant from p=0.0120. The effects of amphetamine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> persisted after adjustment for all known cardiovascular risk factors (p<0.0001). Conclusions These results show that subacute <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to amphetamines is associated with an advancement of cardiovascular-organismal <span class="hlt">age</span> both over <span class="hlt">age</span> and over time, and is robust to adjustment. That this is associated with power functions of <span class="hlt">age</span> implies a feed-forward positively reinforcing exacerbation of the underlying <span class="hlt">ageing</span> process. PMID:28243315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826...22K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826...22K"><span>Tracking the Distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 60Fe during the Early Phases of Star and Disk Evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuffmeier, Michael; Frostholm Mogensen, Troels; Haugbølle, Troels; Bizzarro, Martin; Nordlund, Åke</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The short-lived <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 60Fe radionuclides are synthesized and expelled into the interstellar medium by core-collapse supernova events. The solar system’s first solids, calcium-aluminum refractory inclusions (CAIs), contain evidence for the former presence of the <span class="hlt">26</span> <span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclide defining the canonical <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27 Al ratio of ˜ 5× {10}-5. A different class of objects temporally related to canonical CAIs are CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs), which record a low initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al of 10-6. The contrasting level of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> between these objects is often interpreted as reflecting the admixing of the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclides during the early formative phase of the Sun. We use giant molecular cloud scale adaptive mesh-refinement numerical simulations to trace the abundance of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 60Fe in star-forming gas during the early stages of accretion of individual low-mass protostars. We find that the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al and 60Fe/56Fe ratios of accreting gas within a vicinity of 1000 au of the stars follow the predicted decay curves of the initial abundances at the time of star formation without evidence of spatial or temporal heterogeneities for the first 100 kyr of star formation. Therefore, the observed differences in <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios between FUN and canonical CAIs are likely not caused by admixing of supernova material during the early evolution of the proto-Sun. Selective thermal processing of dust grains is a more viable scenario to account for the heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios at the time of solar system formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..245..112R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..245..112R"><span>Space erosion and cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of stony meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rubincam, David Parry</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Space erosion from dust impacts may set upper limits on the cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">ages</span> of stony meteorites. A meteoroid orbiting within the asteroid belt is bombarded by both cosmic rays and interplanetary dust particles. Galactic cosmic rays penetrate only the first few meters of the meteoroid; deeper regions are shielded. The dust particle impacts create tiny craters on the meteoroid's surface, eroding it away by abrasion at a particular rate. Hence a particular point inside a meteoroid accumulates cosmic ray products only until that point wears away, limiting CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span>. The results would apply to other regolith-free surfaces in the Solar System as well, so that abrasion may set upper CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> limits which depend on the dusty environment. Calculations based on N. Divine's dust populations and on micrometeoroid cratering indicate that large stony meteoroids in circular ecliptic orbits at 2 AU will record 21Ne CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of ∼176 × 106 y if dust masses are in the range 10-21-10-3 kg. This is in broad agreement with the maximum observed CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of ∼100 × 106 y for stones. High erosion rates in the inner Solar System may limit the CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) to ∼120 × 106 y. A characteristic of erosion is that the neon concentrations tend to rise as the surface of the meteorite is approached, rather than drop off as for meteorites with fixed radii. Pristine samples recovered from space may show the rise. If the abrasion rate for stones were a factor of ∼6 larger than found here, then the <span class="hlt">ages</span> would drop into the 30 × 106 y range, so that abrasion alone might be able to explain many CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span>. However, there is no strong evidence for higher abrasion rates, and in any case would probably not be fast enough to explain the youngest <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 0.1-1 × 106 y. Further, space erosion is much too slow to explain the ∼600 × 106 y <span class="hlt">ages</span> of iron meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NIMPB.123..259K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NIMPB.123..259K"><span>Investigations of the human aluminium biokinetics with <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and AMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kislinger, G.; Steinhausen, C.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Winklhofer, C.; Ittel, T.-H.; Nolte, E.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>Continuing the investigations on two healthy volunteers and on two patients with renal failure, the aluminium biokinetics in humans was studied by administering oral and intravenous doses of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> to three further healthy volunteers. Blood samples were drawn at times between 20 min and half a year after administration of the doses. The complete daily urine was collected during the first nine days, spot urine samples were taken at later times when blood samples were obtained. Creatinin renal clearances and haematocrit values were also obtained in the time period of the investigations. The <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations of the samples were measured using the Munich Tandem accelerator. An open compartment model was developed to describe the time dependences of the measured <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations in blood and urine and to establish the human Al biokinetics. The model comprises stomach and duodenum for oral administration, a central compartment consisting of blood plasma and interstitial fluid with transferrin and citrate binding and three peripheral compartments which are needed to describe the time dependence for the long observation period of up to three years. Excretion of Al was mainly described from plasma citrate via the kidneys into the urine and to a lesser extent from the plasma transferrin via the liver into the stool. Time constants between the compartments, fractional intestinal absorption factors and aluminium renal clearances were derived. It was found that the sizes of two peripheral compartments of the patients with renal failure were different to those of the healthy volunteers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150021127','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150021127"><span>CM Carbonaceous Chondrite Lithologies and Their Space <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zolensky, Michael; Gregory, Timothy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Velbel, Michael; Imae, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Akira</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The CMs are the most commonly falling C chondrites, and therefore may be a major component of C-class asteroids, the targets of several current and future space missions. Previous work [1] has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct cosmic ray space <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">age</span> groups (0.1 million years, 0.2 million years, 0.6 million years and greater than 2.0 million years), an unusually large number, but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios, or something else entirely. The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity of lithologies which make up CM chondrites, in order to determine whether the different <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> correspond to specific, different CM lithologies, which permit us to constrain the history of the CM parent body(ies). We have already reported significant petrographic differences among CM chondrites [2-4]. We report here our new results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26427886','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26427886"><span>Conditional and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on PTSD symptoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller-Graff, Laura E; Scrafford, Kathryn; Rice, Catherine</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Childhood violence <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CVE) in formative developmental years may have potent effects on severity and complexity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in adulthood, yet little research has examined the role of <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the context of polyvictimization or gone beyond an examination of direct effects. The current study examines the specific associations between <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, total CVE, and posttraumatic stress symptoms in adulthood. Further, the conditional and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on posttraumatic stress symptoms were examined. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to violence would be associated with higher total violence <span class="hlt">exposure</span> across childhood, thereby predicting current posttraumatic stress symptom severity (i.e., indirect effect). We also postulated that <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> would affect the relationship between total violence <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and posttraumatic stress symptoms such that earlier <span class="hlt">exposure</span> would exacerbate the effects of violence <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (i.e., conditional effect). Participants included 269 violence-exposed adults recruited through MTurk; the mean <span class="hlt">age</span> of first CVE was 6 years (SD=3.29). Conditional process models indicated that <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was significantly associated with higher total childhood violence <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, which in turn, was significantly associated with current posttraumatic stress symptoms in all domains. Further, a conditional effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was present such that the relationship between total <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to violence and symptoms of hyperarousal was stronger for those first exposed at earlier <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Findings provide support suggesting the particular potency of early trauma on regulatory response systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.176..295L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.176..295L"><span>Accretion timescales and style of asteroidal differentiation in an <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor protoplanetary disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, K. K.; Schiller, M.; Bizzarro, M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The decay of radioactive <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> to 26Mg (half-life of 730,000 years) is postulated to have been the main energy source promoting asteroidal melting and differentiation in the nascent solar system. High-resolution chronological information provided by the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg decay system is, therefore, intrinsically linked to the thermal evolution of early-formed planetesimals. In this paper, we explore the timing and style of asteroidal differentiation by combining high-precision Mg isotope measurements of meteorites with thermal evolution models for planetesimals. In detail, we report Mg isotope data for a suite of olivine-rich [Al/Mg ∼ 0] achondritic meteorites, as well as a few chondrites. Main Group, pyroxene and the Zinder pallasites as well as the lodranite all record deficits in the mass-independent component of μ26Mg (μ26Mg∗) relative to chondrites and Earth. This isotope signal is expected for the retarded ingrowth of radiogenic 26Mg∗ in olivine-rich residues produced through partial silicate melting during <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> decay and consistent with their marginally heavy Mg isotope composition relative to ordinary chondrites, which may reflect the early extraction of isotopically light partial melts from the source rock. We propose that their parent planetesimals started forming within ∼250,000 years of solar system formation from a hot (>∼500 K) inner protoplanetary disk region characterized by a reduced initial (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 abundance (∼1-2 × 10-5) relative to the (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 value in CAIs of 5.25 × 10-5. This effectively reduced the total heat production and allowed for the preservation of solid residues produced through progressive silicate melting with depth within the planetesimals. These 'non-carbonaceous' planetesimals acquired their mass throughout an extended period (>3 Myr) of continuous accretion, thereby generating onion-shell structures of incompletely differentiated zones, consisting of olivine-rich residues, overlaid by metachondrites and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040062431&hterms=wakefield&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwakefield','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040062431&hterms=wakefield&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwakefield"><span>Cosmic Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span>, Ar-Ar <span class="hlt">Ages</span>, and the Origin and History of Eucrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wakefield, Kelli; Bogard, Donald; Garrison, Daniel</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>HED meteorites likely formed at different depths on the large asteroid 4-Vesta, but passed through Vesta-derived, km-sized intermediary bodies (Vestoids), before arriving at Earth. Most eucrites and diogenites (and all howardites) are brecciated, and impact heating disturbed or reset the K-Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> (and some Rb-Sr <span class="hlt">ages</span>) of most eucrites in the time period of approx. 3.4 - 4.1 Gyr ago. Some basaltic eucrites and most cumulate eucrites, however, are not brecciated. We recently showed that the Ar-39 - Ar-40 <span class="hlt">ages</span> for several of these eucrites tightly cluster about a value of 4.48 +/- 0.02 Gyr, and we argue that this time likely represents a single large impact event on Vesta, which ejected these objects from depth and quenched their temperatures. A different parent body has been suggested for cumulate eucrites, although the Ar-Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> argue for a common parent. Similarities in the cosmic-ray (space) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for basaltic eucrites and diogenites also have been used to infer a common parent body for some HEDs. Here we present CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of several cumulate and unbrecciated basaltic (UB) eucrites and compare these with CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of other HEDs. This comparison also has some interesting implications for the relative locations of various HED types on Vesta and/or the Vestoids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4950964','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4950964"><span>Accretion timescales and style of asteroidal differentiation in an <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor protoplanetary disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Larsen, K.K.; Schiller, M.; Bizzarro, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The decay of radioactive <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> to 26Mg (half-life of 730,000 years) is postulated to have been the main energy source promoting asteroidal melting and differentiation in the nascent solar system. High-resolution chronological information provided by the 26Al−26Mg decay system is, therefore, intrinsically linked to the thermal evolution of early-formed planetesimals. In this paper, we explore the timing and style of asteroidal differentiation by combining high-precision Mg isotope measurements of meteorites with thermal evolution models for planetesimals. In detail, we report Mg isotope data for a suite of olivine-rich [Al/Mg ~ 0] achondritic meteorites, as well as a few chondrites. Main Group, pyroxene and the Zinder pallasites as well as the lodranite all record deficits in the mass-independent component of μ26Mg (μ26Mg*) relative to chondrites and Earth. This isotope signal is expected for the retarded ingrowth of radiogenic 26Mg* in olivine-rich residues produced through partial silicate melting during <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> decay and consistent with their marginally heavy Mg isotope composition relative to ordinary chondrites, which may reflect the early extraction of isotopically light partial melts from the source rock. We propose that their parent planetesimals started forming within ~250,000 years of solar system formation from a hot (>~500 K) inner protoplanetary disk region characterized by a reduced initial (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 abundance (~1–2 × 10−5) relative to the (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 value in CAIs of 5.25 × 10−5. This effectively reduced the total heat production and allowed for the preservation of solid residues produced through progressive silicate melting with depth within the planetesimals. These ‘non-carbonaceous’ planetesimals acquired their mass throughout an extended period (>3 Myr) of continuous accretion, thereby generating onion-shell structures of incompletely differentiated zones, consisting of olivine-rich residues, overlaid by metachondrites and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440..147C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440..147C"><span>Constraining multi-stage <span class="hlt">exposure</span>-burial scenarios for boulders preserved beneath cold-based glacial ice in Thule, northwest Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Corbett, Lee B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan H.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Boulders and landscapes preserved beneath cold-based, non-erosive glacial ice violate assumptions associated with simple cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating. In such a setting, simple single isotope <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> over-estimate the latest period of surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span>; hence, alternate approaches are required to constrain the multi-stage <span class="hlt">exposure</span>/burial histories of such samples. Here, we report 28 paired analyses of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in boulder samples from Thule, northwest Greenland. We use numerical models of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and burial as well as Monte Carlo simulations to constrain glacial chronology and infer process in this Arctic region dominated by cold-based ice. We investigate three specific cases that can arise with paired nuclide data: (1) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> that are coeval with deglaciation and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be ratios consistent with constant <span class="hlt">exposure</span>; (2) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> that pre-date deglaciation and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be ratios consistent with burial following initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span>; and (3) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> that pre-date deglaciation and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be ratios consistent with constant <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Most glacially-transported boulders in Thule have complex histories; some were exposed for tens of thousands of years and buried for at least hundreds of thousands of years, while others underwent only limited burial. These boulders were probably recycled through different generations of till over multiple glacial/interglacial cycles, likely experiencing partial or complete shielding during interglacial periods due to rotation or shallow burial by sediments. Our work demonstrates that the landscape in Thule, like many high-latitude landscapes, was shaped over long time durations and multiple glacial and interglacial periods throughout the Quaternary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27.1257S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27.1257S"><span>New Evidence for <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in CAI and Chondrules from Type 3 Ordinary Chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasan, G.; Russell, S. S.; MacPherson, G. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>We have known since 1976 that 26A1 (tl/2 = 7.2 x 105 yrs) was alive in the early solar system, at a level of (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)o z 5 x 10-5 in calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAI). However, several outstanding questions remain. Little evidence for 26A1 has been found in other chondritic material, and none has been found in differentiated meteorites. These results might imply that 26A1 was heterogeneously distributed in the nebula or by mineralogic site in nebular dust, or they might reflect differences in time of formation. There are strict limitations on finding evidence of 26A1 in normal chondrules with bulk Al/Mg ~ 0.1, since even quenched, perfectly preserved, late-stage glasses would have low Al/Mg. Primary plagioclase crystals provide the only possibility, but these only crystallize rarely in melts within the compositional range of normal chondrules. Also, metamorphism can erase the evidence in high-AI/Mg phases. To address these issues, we have conducted a search for chondrules and CAI with high-Al/Mg phases suitable for ion-probe measurement in type 3 ordinary chondrites. Previous work has revealed evidence for <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in a plagioclase bearing, olivine-pyroxene class from Semarkona (LL3.0; (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)o = 7.7+/-2.1 x 10-6)), a plagioclase-rich object from Bovedy (L3.7?; 2.5+/-1.2 x 10-7), in separated plagioclase from St. Marguerite (H4; 2.0+/-0.6 x 10-7), an isolated hibonite grain from Dhajala (H3.8; 8.4+0.5 x 10-6), and in Al2O3 and hibonite grains ((<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)o = 2-5 x 10-5; [GRH, unpublished]) from acid residues of Semarkona, Bishunpur (LL3.1), and Krymka (LL3.1). We have identified and measured Al-Mg isotope systematics in two CAI and seven chondrules from ordinary chondrites of low metamorphic grade and have found clear evidence for 26A1 in both CAI and in two chondrules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300663','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300663"><span>{sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> AND THE FORMATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM FROM A MOLECULAR CLOUD CONTAMINATED BY WOLF-RAYET WINDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gaidos, Eric; Krot, Alexander N.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Raymond, Sean N. E-mail: sasha@higp.hawaii.edu E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu</p> <p>2009-05-10</p> <p>In agreement with previous work, we show that the presence of the short-lived radionuclide (SLR) {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the early solar system was unlikely (less than 2% a priori probability) to be the result of direct introduction of supernova (SN) ejecta into the gaseous disk during the Class II stage of protosolar evolution. We also show that Bondi-Hoyle accretion of any contaminated residual gas from the Sun's natal star cluster contributed negligible {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> to the primordial solar system. Our calculations are consistent with the absence of the oxygen isotopic signature expected with any late introduction of SN ejecta into the protoplanetary disk. Instead, the presence of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the oldest solar system solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs)) and its apparent uniform distribution with the inferred canonical {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al ratio of (4.5-5) x 10{sup -5} support the inheritance of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> from the Sun's parent giant molecular cloud. We propose that this radionuclide originated in a prior generation of massive stars that formed in the same molecular cloud and contaminated that cloud by Wolf-Rayet winds. We calculated the Galactic distribution of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al ratios that arise from such contamination using the established embedded cluster mass and stellar initial mass functions, published nucleosynthetic yields from the winds of massive stars, and by assuming rapid and uniform mixing into the cloud. Although our model predicts that the majority of stellar systems contain no {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> from massive stars, and that the a priori probability that the {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al ratio will reach or exceed the canonical solar system value is only {approx}6%, the maximum in the distribution of nonzero values is close to the canonical {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al ratio. We find that the Sun most likely formed 4-5 million years (Myr) after the massive stars that were the source of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Furthermore, our model can explain the initial solar system</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...578A.113K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...578A.113K"><span><span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> kinematics: superbubbles following the spiral arms?. Constraints from the statistics of star clusters and HI supershells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krause, Martin G. H.; Diehl, Roland; Bagetakos, Yiannis; Brinks, Elias; Burkert, Andreas; Gerhard, Ortwin; Greiner, Jochen; Kretschmer, Karsten; Siegert, Thomas</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Context. High-energy resolution spectroscopy of the 1.8 MeV radioactive decay line of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> with the SPI instrument onboard the INTEGRAL satellite has recently revealed that diffuse <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> has higher velocities than other components of the interstellar medium in the Milky Way. <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> shows Galactic rotation in the same sense as the stars and other gas tracers, but reaches excess velocities of up to 300 km s-1. Aims: We investigate whether this result can be understood in the context of superbubbles, taking into account the statistics of young star clusters and HI supershells as well as the association of young star clusters with spiral arms. Methods: We derived energy output and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> mass of star clusters as a function of the cluster mass by population synthesis from stellar evolutionary tracks of massive stars. Using the limiting cases of weakly and strongly dissipative superbubble expansion, we linked this to the size distribution of HI supershells and assessed the properties of possible <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-carrying superbubbles. Results: <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> is produced by star clusters of all masses above ≈200 M⊙, is roughly equally contributed over a logarithmic star cluster mass scale and strongly linked to the injection of feedback energy. The observed superbubble size distribution cannot be related to the star cluster mass function in a straightforward manner. To avoid the added volume of all superbubbles exceeding the volume of the Milky Way, individual superbubbles have to merge frequently. If any two superbubbles merge, or if <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> is injected off-centre into a larger HI supershell, we expect the hot <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-carrying gas to obtain velocities of the order of the typical sound speed in superbubbles, ≈300 km s-1 before decay. For star formation coordinated by the spiral arm pattern which, inside co-rotation, is overtaken by the faster moving stars and gas, outflows from spiral arm star clusters would preferentially flow into the cavities that are inflated by previous star formation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255183-feasibility-isobaric-suppression-via-post-accelerator-foil-stripping-measurement-feasibility-isobaric-suppression-via-post-accelerator-foil-stripping-measurement','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255183-feasibility-isobaric-suppression-via-post-accelerator-foil-stripping-measurement-feasibility-isobaric-suppression-via-post-accelerator-foil-stripping-measurement"><span>The feasibility of isobaric suppression of 26Mg via post-accelerator foil stripping for the measurement of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> [The feasibility of isobaric suppression of 26Mg via post-accelerator foil stripping for the measurement of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Tumey, Scott J.; Brown, Thomas A.; Finkel, Robert C.; ...</p> <p>2012-09-13</p> <p>Most accelerator mass spectrometry measurements of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> utilize the Al- ion despite lower source currents compared with AlO- since the stable isobar 26Mg does not form elemental negative ions. A gas-filled magnet allows sufficient suppression of 26Mg thus enabling the use of the more intense <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>O- ion. However, most AMS systems do not include a gas-filled magnet. We therefore explored the feasibility of suppressing 26Mg by using a post-accelerator stripping foil. With this approach, combined with the use of alternative cathode matrices, we were able to suppress 26Mg by a factor of twenty. This suppression was insufficient to enable themore » use of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>O-, however further refinement of our system may permit its use in the future.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611562"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to an enriched environment up to middle <span class="hlt">age</span> allows preservation of spatial memory capabilities in old <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fuchs, Fanny; Cosquer, Brigitte; Penazzi, Lorène; Mathis, Chantal; Kelche, Christian; Majchrzak, Monique; Barbelivien, Alexandra</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>In rats, some cognitive capabilities, like spatial learning and memory, are preserved from <span class="hlt">age</span>-related decline by whole adult life enriched environment (EE) <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. However, to which extent late EE contributes to such maintenance remains to be investigated. Here we assessed the impact of late housing condition (e.g., from the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 18 months) on spatial learning and memory of <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats (24 months) previously exposed or unexposed to EE from young adulthood. The results showed that late EE was not required for spatial memory maintenance in <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats previously housed in EE. In contrast, late EE mitigates spatial memory deficit in <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats previously unexposed to EE. These outcomes suggest that EE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> up to middle <span class="hlt">age</span> provides a "reserve"-like advantage which supports an enduring preservation of spatial capabilities in old <span class="hlt">age</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeCoA..77..415B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeCoA..77..415B"><span><span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>- 26Mg deficit dating ultramafic meteorites and silicate planetesimal differentiation in the early Solar System?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Joel A.; Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>=+0.0015±0.0020‰, which is identical to terrestrial olivine. Model <span class="hlt">ages</span> from these deficits can be calculated by assuming that <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> was homogeneously distributed in the planetesimal-forming regions of the proto-planetary disc at the same level as calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). The absence of 26Mg deficits in aubrites, means these can only be constrained to have formed relatively late >2.9 Myr after CAI formation. Model <span class="hlt">ages</span> calculated from pallasite olivine deficits would suggest that pallasite olivine crystallised and was diffusively isolated on its parent body 1.24-0.28+0.40 Myr after formation of CAIs. Similarly, ureilites would have experienced silicate partial melting and lowering of their bulk Al/Mg ratios 1.9-0.7+2.2 Myr after CAI formation. The model <span class="hlt">ages</span> for silicate differentiation on the main group pallasite parent body are intermediate between those for metal-silicate fractionation for core formation obtained from magmatic iron meteorites and those for asteroidal silicate magmatism obtained from basaltic meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22581321','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22581321"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and attained <span class="hlt">age</span> variations of cancer risk in the Japanese A-bomb and radiotherapy cohorts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schneider, Uwe; Walsh, Linda</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>Purpose: Phenomenological risk models for radiation-induced cancer are frequently applied to estimate the risk of radiation-induced cancers at radiotherapy doses. Such models often include the effect modification, of the main risk to radiation dose response, by <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and attained <span class="hlt">age</span>. The aim of this paper is to compare the patterns in risk effect modification by <span class="hlt">age</span>, between models obtained from the Japanese atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivor data and models for cancer risks previously reported for radiotherapy patients. Patterns in risk effect modification by <span class="hlt">age</span> from the epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients were also used to refine and extend the risk effect modification by <span class="hlt">age</span> obtained from the A-bomb survivor data, so that more universal models can be presented here. Methods: Simple log-linear and power functions of <span class="hlt">age</span> for the risk effect modification applied in models of the A-bomb survivor data are compared to risks from epidemiological studies of second cancers after radiotherapy. These functions of <span class="hlt">age</span> were also refined and fitted to radiotherapy risks. The resulting <span class="hlt">age</span> models provide a refined and extended functional dependence of risk with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and attained <span class="hlt">age</span> especially beyond 40 and 65 yr, respectively, and provide a better representation than the currently available simple <span class="hlt">age</span> functions. Results: It was found that the A-bomb models predict risk similarly to the outcomes of testicular cancer survivors. The survivors of Hodgkin’s disease show steeper variations of risk with both <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and attained <span class="hlt">age</span>. The extended models predict solid cancer risk increase as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> beyond 40 yr and the risk decrease as a function of attained <span class="hlt">age</span> beyond 65 yr better than the simple models. Conclusions: The standard functions for risk effect modification by <span class="hlt">age</span>, based on the A-bomb survivor data, predict second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients for <span class="hlt">ages</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to 40 yr and attained <span class="hlt">ages</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..116...95D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..116...95D"><span>Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> evidence for rapid Laurentide deglaciation of the Katahdin area, west-central Maine, USA, 16 to 15 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, P. Thompson; Bierman, Paul R.; Corbett, Lee B.; Finkel, Robert C.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Katahdin, the highest peak in Maine and part of the second highest mountain range in New England, provides an opportunity to assess the timing and style of continental ice sheet surface lowering during deglaciation. We collected 14 samples from boulders on the adjacent Basin Ponds moraine, from bedrock and boulders on the upper part of the mountain, and from boulders in the surrounding area to estimate the <span class="hlt">age</span> at which they were exposed by deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Measurements of in situ produced 10Be, which are consistent with measurements of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, indicate that the Katahdin edifice became exposed from under ice by 15.3 ± 2.1 ka (n = 6), an <span class="hlt">age</span> indistinguishable from the adjacent Basin Ponds moraine (16.1 ± 1.2 ka, n = 5). A boulder in the lowlands several km south of the moraine dates to 14.5 ± 0.8 ka, and a boulder deposited at Pineo Ridge, about 170 km SE of Katahdin, dates to 17.5 ± 1.1 ka. These data show that samples collected over an elevation range of 1.6 km and a distance of >170 km all have <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> that are indistinguishable within uncertainties. Together these data suggest that the Laurentide Ice Sheet surface dropped rapidly and the ice sheet margin retreated quickly across Maine between about 16 and 15 ka, perhaps influenced by calving of the marine-based ice sheet in the St. Lawrence Lowlands to the north and the Penobscot basin to the south.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26796881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26796881"><span>Arsenite <span class="hlt">exposure</span> accelerates <span class="hlt">aging</span> process regulated by the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Chan-Wei; How, Chun Ming; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and high levels of arsenic contamination in food, soils, water, and air are of toxicology concerns. Nowadays, arsenic is still a contaminant of emerging interest, yet the effects of arsenic on <span class="hlt">aging</span> process have received little attention. In this study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of chronic arsenite <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process in Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that prolonged arsenite <span class="hlt">exposure</span> caused significantly decreased lifespan compared to non-exposed ones. In addition, arsenite <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (100 μM) caused significant changes of <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent biomarkers, including a decrease of defecation frequency, accumulations of intestinal lipofuscin and lipid peroxidation in an <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent manner in C. elegans. Further evidence revealed that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was significantly increased in an <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent manner upon 100 μM arsenite <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Moreover, the mRNA levels of transcriptional makers of <span class="hlt">aging</span> (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.49, and hsp-70) were increased in <span class="hlt">aged</span> worms under arsenite <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (100 μM). Finally, we showed that daf-16 mutant worms were more sensitive to arsenite <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (100 μM) on lifespan and failed to induce the expression of its target gene sod-3 in <span class="hlt">aged</span> daf-16 mutant under arsenite <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (100 μM). Our study demonstrated that chronic arsenite <span class="hlt">exposure</span> resulted in accelerated <span class="hlt">aging</span> process in C. elegans. The overproduction of intracellular ROS and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO play roles in mediating the accelerated <span class="hlt">aging</span> process by arsenite <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in C. elegans. This study implicates a potential ecotoxicological and health risk of arsenic in the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4081836','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4081836"><span>Maternal <span class="hlt">Age</span> at Holocaust <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, with the greatest effects associated with increased <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27255804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27255804"><span>Probabilistic assessment of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cosmetic products by French children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 0-3 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Very few <span class="hlt">exposure</span> data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cosmetic products used on children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The <span class="hlt">exposure</span> data obtained in this study for children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French <span class="hlt">exposure</span> values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...809...31G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...809...31G"><span>Inferred Initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al Ratios in Presolar Stardust Grains from Supernovae are Higher than Previously Estimated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Groopman, Evan; Zinner, Ernst; Amari, Sachiko; Gyngard, Frank; Hoppe, Peter; Jadhav, Manavi; Lin, Yangting; Xu, Yuchen; Marhas, Kuljeet; Nittler, Larry R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We performed an in-depth exploration of the Al-Mg system for presolar graphite, SiC, and Si3N4 grains found to contain large excesses of 26Mg, indicative of the initial presence of live <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>. Ninety of the more than 450 presolar grains processed in this study contain well-correlated {δ }26{Mg}{/}24{Mg} and 27Al/24Mg ratios, derived from Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer depth profiles, whose isochron-like regression lines yield inferred initial {}<span class="hlt">26</span>{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}{/}27{Al} ratios that, on average, are ˜1.5-2 times larger than the ratios previously reported for the grains. The majority of presolar graphite and SiC grains are heavily affected by Al contamination, resulting in large negative {δ }26{Mg}{/}24{Mg} intercepts of the isochron lines. Al contamination is potentially due to etching of the grains’ surfaces and subsequent capture of dissolved Al during the acid dissolution of their meteorite host rocks. From the isochron fits, the magnitude of Al contamination was quantified for each grain. The amount of Al contamination on each grain was found to be random and independent of grain size, following a uniform distribution with an upper bound at 59% contamination. The Al contamination causes conventional whole-grain estimates to underpredict the initial {}<span class="hlt">26</span>{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}{/}27{Al} ratios. The presolar grains with the highest {}<span class="hlt">26</span>{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}{/}27{Al} ratios are from Type II supernovae whose isochron-derived initial {}<span class="hlt">26</span>{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}{/}27{Al} ratios greatly exceed those predicted in the He/C and He/N zones of SN models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21484502','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21484502"><span>COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ellinger, Carola I.; Young, Patrick A.; Desch, Steven J.</p> <p>2010-12-20</p> <p>Injection of material from a core-collapse supernova into the solar system's already-formed disk is one proposed mechanism for producing the short-lived radionuclides, such as {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 41}Ca, inferred from isotopic studies of meteorites to have existed in the solar nebula. This hypothesis has recently been challenged on the basis that the injection of enough supernova material to match the meteoritic abundances of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 41}Ca would produce large, measurable, and unobserved collateral effects on oxygen isotopes. Here we calculate again the shifts in oxygen isotopes due to the injection of supernova material in the solar nebula, using a variety of nucleosynthetic conditions of our own progenitor explosions. Unlike previous studies of this type, we also consider the effect of non-homogeneity in abundance distribution of the nucleosynthesis products after the explosion. We calculate the shifts in oxygen isotopes due to the injection of sufficient supernova material to produce the meteoritic abundances of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 41}Ca, and analyze the predicted shifts in detail for compatibility with meteoritic data. We find that the range in possible isotopic shifts is considerable and sensitive to parameters such as progenitor mass and anisotropy of the explosion; however, a small number of compatible scenarios do exist. Because of the wide range of outcomes and the sensitivity of isotopic yields to assumed conditions, it is difficult to constrain the supernova that may have led to the injection of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the solar nebula. Conversely, we argue that the existence of viable counterexamples demonstrates that it is premature to use oxygen isotopes to rule out the injection of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 41}Ca into the solar nebula protoplanetary disk by a nearby supernova.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217124&keyword=stress+AND+effect+AND+oral+AND+health&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78135329&CFTOKEN=44918414','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217124&keyword=stress+AND+effect+AND+oral+AND+health&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78135329&CFTOKEN=44918414"><span><span class="hlt">AGE</span>-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The influence of <span class="hlt">aging</span> on susceptibility to environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf"><span>28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf"><span>28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf"><span>28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf"><span>28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf"><span>28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780062907&hterms=gibbon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgibbon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780062907&hterms=gibbon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgibbon"><span>Some correlation of rock <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and regolith dynamics. [in lunar samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horz, F.; Gibbons, R. V.; Gault, D. E.; Hartung, J. B.; Brownlee, D. E.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> information on lunar rocks and regolith turnover rates are correlated. If plotted in a cumulative fashion, the distribution of spallogenic noble-gas <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> is remarkably parallel to the rate at which various fractions of the regolith surface are cratered and/or excavated. It appears that the rate at which lunar rocks are excavated from within the regolith is strongly controlled by the impact environment. Some suggestions for future refinement of regolith dynamics are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2759761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2759761"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as a new window into bilingual reading development*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A.; Petitto, Laura-Ann</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>How does <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2–3, <span class="hlt">ages</span> 7–9) in bilingual Spanish–English schools who were either from Spanish-speaking homes (new to English) or English-speaking homes (new to Spanish), as compared with English-speaking children in monolingual English schools. An early <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> had a positive effect on reading, phonological awareness, and language competence in both languages: early bilinguals (<span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> 0–3 years) outperformed other bilingual groups (<span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> 3–6 years). Remarkably, schooling in two languages afforded children from monolingual English homes an advantage in phoneme awareness skills. Early bilingual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is best for dual language reading development, and it may afford such a powerful positive impact on reading and language development that it may possibly ameliorate the negative effect of low SES on literacy. Further, <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> provides a new tool for evaluating whether a young bilingual has a reading problem versus whether he or she is a typically-developing dual-language learner. PMID:19823598</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19823598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19823598"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as a new window into bilingual reading development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A; Petitto, Laura-Ann</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>How does <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2-3, <span class="hlt">ages</span> 7-9) in bilingual Spanish-English schools who were either from Spanish-speaking homes (new to English) or English-speaking homes (new to Spanish), as compared with English-speaking children in monolingual English schools. An early <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> had a positive effect on reading, phonological awareness, and language competence in both languages: early bilinguals (<span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> 0-3 years) outperformed other bilingual groups (<span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> 3-6 years). Remarkably, schooling in two languages afforded children from monolingual English homes an advantage in phoneme awareness skills. Early bilingual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is best for dual language reading development, and it may afford such a powerful positive impact on reading and language development that it may possibly ameliorate the negative effect of low SES on literacy. Further, <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> provides a new tool for evaluating whether a young bilingual has a reading problem versus whether he or she is a typically-developing dual-language learner.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19471953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19471953"><span>Heterogeneity of variation of relative risk by <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Little, Mark P</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained <span class="hlt">age</span>) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) variations of relative risk by cancer type, and statistically significant variations by cancer type in the adjustments for sex (P = 0.010) and <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (P = 0.013) to the relative risk. There is no statistically significant (P > 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained <span class="hlt">age</span>. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (P = 0.060).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25819108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25819108"><span>Bisphenol A <span class="hlt">exposure</span> accelerated the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Ling; Wang, Shunchang; Wang, Yun; He, Mei; Liu, Dahai</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental estrogenic disruptor that causes adverse effects. Recent studies have found that chronic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to BPA is associated with a high incidence of several <span class="hlt">age</span>-related diseases. <span class="hlt">Aging</span> is characterized by progressive function decline, which affects quality of life. However, the effects of BPA on the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process are largely unknown. In the present study, by using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we investigated the influence of BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process. The decrease in body length, fecundity, and population size and the increased egg laying defection suggested that BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> resulted in fitness loss and reproduction <span class="hlt">aging</span> in this animal. Lifetime <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of worms to BPA shortened the lifespan in a dose-dependant manner. Moreover, prolonged BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> resulted in <span class="hlt">age</span>-related behavior degeneration and the accumulation of lipofuscin and lipid peroxide products. The expression of mitochondria-specific HSP-6 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related HSP-70 exhibited hormetic decrease. The expression of ER-related HSP-4 decreased significantly while HSP-16.2 showed a dose-dependent increase. The decreased expression of GCS-1 and GST-4 implicated the reduced antioxidant ability under BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and the increase in SOD-3 expression might be caused by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Finally, BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> increased the generation of hydrogen peroxide-related ROS and superoxide anions. Our results suggest that BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> resulted in an accelerated <span class="hlt">aging</span> process in C. elegans mediated by the induction of oxidative stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21305099','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21305099"><span>EARLY SOLAR NEBULA CONDENSATES WITH CANONICAL, NOT SUPRACANONICAL, INITIAL {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al RATIOS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>MacPherson, G. J.; Bullock, E. S.; Janney, P. E.; Wadhwa, M.; Kita, N. T.; Ushikubo, T.; Davis, A. M.; Krot, A. N.</p> <p>2010-03-10</p> <p>The short-lived radionuclide {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> existed throughout the solar nebula 4.57 Ga ago, and the initial abundance ratio ({sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al){sub 0}, as inferred from magnesium isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites, has become a benchmark for understanding early solar system chronology. Internal mineral isochrons in most CAIs measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) give ({sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al){sub 0} {approx} (4-5) x 10{sup -5}, called 'canonical'. Some recent high-precision analyses of (1) bulk CAIs measured by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS), (2) individual CAI minerals and their mixtures measured by laser-ablation MC-ICPMS, and (3) internal isochrons measured by multicollector (MC)-SIMS indicated a somewhat higher 'supracanonical' ({sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al){sub 0} ranging from (5.85 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -5} to >7 x 10{sup -5}. These measurements were done on coarse-grained Type B and Type A CAIs that probably formed by recrystallization and/or melting of fine-grained condensate precursors. Thus the supracanonical ratios might record an earlier event, the actual nebular condensation of the CAI precursors. We tested this idea by performing in situ high-precision magnesium isotope measurements of individual minerals in a fine-grained CAI whose structures and volatility-fractionated trace element abundances mark it as a primary solar nebula condensate. Such CAIs are ideal candidates for the fine-grained precursors to the coarse-grained CAIs, and thus should best preserve a supracanonical ratio. Yet, our measured internal isochron yields ({sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al){sub 0} = (5.27 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -5}. Thus our data do not support the existence of supracanonical ({sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al){sub 0} = (5.85-7) x 10{sup -5}. There may not have been a significant time interval between condensation of the CAI precursors and their subsequent melting into coarse-grained CAIs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910068701&hterms=kohls&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dkohls','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910068701&hterms=kohls&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dkohls"><span>In situ Be-10-Al-26 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> at Meteor Crater, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nishiizumi, K.; Kohl, C. P.; Arnold, J. R.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A new method of dating the surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of rocks from in situ production of Be-10 and Al-26 has been applied to determine the <span class="hlt">age</span> of Meteor Crater, Arizona. A lower bound on the crater <span class="hlt">age</span> of 49,200 + or - 1,700 years has been obtained by this method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Developing+AND+English+AND+speaking+AND+skills&pg=6&id=EJ804606','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Developing+AND+English+AND+speaking+AND+skills&pg=6&id=EJ804606"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> of First Bilingual Language <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> as a New Window into Bilingual Reading Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A.; Petitto, Laura-Ann</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>How does <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2-3, <span class="hlt">ages</span> 7-9) in "bilingual" Spanish-English schools who were either from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Geomo..93..316A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Geomo..93..316A"><span>Origin, structure and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history of a wave-cut platform more than 1 Ma in <span class="hlt">age</span> at the coast of northern Spain: A multiple cosmogenic nuclide approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alvarez-Marrón, J.; Hetzel, R.; Niedermann, S.; Menéndez, R.; Marquínez, J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Along the Asturian coast of northern Spain an uplifted wave-cut platform extends for ˜ 100 km east-west. The steep cliff which bounds the gently seaward-dipping platform to the north increases in height from 30 m in the west to 100 m in the east and reflects the overall eastward increase in platform elevation. The southern edge of the 2-4 km-wide platform runs along the foothills of the Cantabrian Mountains, as constrained by a high-resolution digital elevation model. The marine platform, which was carved into deformed Paleozoic bedrock with abundant quartzite beds, is largely covered by weathered marine and continental sediments. Quartzite samples from flat bedrock outcrops which are currently not covered by sediment or soil yield cosmogenic nuclide concentrations ( 21Ne, 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>) that demonstrate a long and complex <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history, including periods of burial with partial or complete shielding from cosmic rays. The combination of multiple cosmogenic nuclides yields a minimum <span class="hlt">age</span> of 1-2 Ma for the platform. Taking into account (i) the horizontal and vertical extent of the platform, (ii) the high resistance to erosion of the quartzitic bedrock, and (iii) published data on the magnitude of past sea level fluctuations, we suggest that the wave-cut platform formed in the Pliocene. Subvertical faults cutting the platform at high angles to the coastline offset the southern edge of the platform by 20 to 40 m and reactivate the pre-existing anisotropy in the Paleozoic bedrock. Uplift and crustal deformation of the coastal region have occurred after platform formation in the Pliocene and may still be active. The slow deformation of the northern edge of the Iberian plate including the Cantabrian Mountains may result from the ongoing slow convergence at an incipient subduction zone extending along the coast of northern Spain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17..410P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17..410P"><span>Erosion rate study at the Allchar deposit (Macedonia) based on radioactive and stable cosmogenic nuclides (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, 36Cl, 3He, and 21Ne)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pavićević, M. K.; Cvetković, V.; Niedermann, S.; Pejović, V.; Amthauer, G.; Boev, B.; Bosch, F.; Aničin, I.; Henning, W. F.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on constraining the erosion rate in the area of the Allchar Sb-As-Tl-Au deposit (Macedonia). It contains the largest known reserves of lorandite (TlAsS2), which is essential for the LORanditeEXperiment (LOREX), aimed at determining the long-term solar neutrino flux. Because the erosion history of the Allchar area is crucial for the success of LOREX, we applied terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides including both radioactive (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 36Cl) and stable (3He and 21Ne) nuclides in quartz, dolomite/calcite, sanidine, and diopside. The obtained results suggest that there is accordance in the values obtained by applying <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, 36Cl, and 21Ne for around 85% of the entire sample collection, with resulting erosion rates varying from several tens of m/Ma to ˜165 m/Ma. The samples from four locations (L-8 CD, L1b/R, L1c/R, and L-4/ADR) give erosion rates between 300 and 400 m/Ma. Although these localities reveal remarkably higher values, which may be explained by burial events that occurred in part of Allchar, the erosion rate estimates mostly in the range between 50 and 100 m/Ma. This range further enables us to estimate the vertical erosion rate values for the two main ore bodies Crven Dol and Centralni Deo. We also estimate that the lower and upper limits of average paleo-depths for the ore body Centralni Deo from 4.3 Ma to the present are 250-290 and 750-790 m, respectively, whereas the upper limit of paleo-depth for the ore body Crven Dol over the same geological <span class="hlt">age</span> is 860 m. The estimated paleo-depth values allow estimating the relative contributions of 205Pb derived from pp-neutrino and fast cosmic-ray muons, respectively, which is an important prerequisite for the LOREX experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27587984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27587984"><span>Erosion rate study at the Allchar deposit (Macedonia) based on radioactive and stable cosmogenic nuclides ((<span class="hlt">26</span>)<span class="hlt">Al</span>, (36)Cl, (3)He, and (21)Ne).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pavićević, M K; Cvetković, V; Niedermann, S; Pejović, V; Amthauer, G; Boev, B; Bosch, F; Aničin, I; Henning, W F</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on constraining the erosion rate in the area of the Allchar Sb-As-Tl-Au deposit (Macedonia). It contains the largest known reserves of lorandite (TlAsS2), which is essential for the LORanditeEXperiment (LOREX), aimed at determining the long-term solar neutrino flux. Because the erosion history of the Allchar area is crucial for the success of LOREX, we applied terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides including both radioactive ((<span class="hlt">26</span>)<span class="hlt">Al</span> and (36)Cl) and stable ((3)He and (21)Ne) nuclides in quartz, dolomite/calcite, sanidine, and diopside. The obtained results suggest that there is accordance in the values obtained by applying (<span class="hlt">26</span>)<span class="hlt">Al</span>, (36)Cl, and (21)Ne for around 85% of the entire sample collection, with resulting erosion rates varying from several tens of m/Ma to ∼165 m/Ma. The samples from four locations (L-8 CD, L1b/R, L1c/R, and L-4/ADR) give erosion rates between 300 and 400 m/Ma. Although these localities reveal remarkably higher values, which may be explained by burial events that occurred in part of Allchar, the erosion rate estimates mostly in the range between 50 and 100 m/Ma. This range further enables us to estimate the vertical erosion rate values for the two main ore bodies Crven Dol and Centralni Deo. We also estimate that the lower and upper limits of average paleo-depths for the ore body Centralni Deo from 4.3 Ma to the present are 250-290 and 750-790 m, respectively, whereas the upper limit of paleo-depth for the ore body Crven Dol over the same geological <span class="hlt">age</span> is 860 m. The estimated paleo-depth values allow estimating the relative contributions of (205)Pb derived from pp-neutrino and fast cosmic-ray muons, respectively, which is an important prerequisite for the LOREX experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4984835','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4984835"><span>Erosion rate study at the Allchar deposit (Macedonia) based on radioactive and stable cosmogenic nuclides (<span class="hlt">26</span> <span class="hlt">Al</span>, 36 Cl, 3 He, and 21 Ne)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cvetković, V.; Niedermann, S.; Pejović, V.; Amthauer, G.; Boev, B.; Bosch, F.; Aničin, I.; Henning, W. F.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract This paper focuses on constraining the erosion rate in the area of the Allchar Sb‐As‐Tl‐Au deposit (Macedonia). It contains the largest known reserves of lorandite (TlAsS2), which is essential for the LORanditeEXperiment (LOREX), aimed at determining the long‐term solar neutrino flux. Because the erosion history of the Allchar area is crucial for the success of LOREX, we applied terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides including both radioactive (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 36Cl) and stable (3He and 21Ne) nuclides in quartz, dolomite/calcite, sanidine, and diopside. The obtained results suggest that there is accordance in the values obtained by applying <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, 36Cl, and 21Ne for around 85% of the entire sample collection, with resulting erosion rates varying from several tens of m/Ma to ∼165 m/Ma. The samples from four locations (L‐8 CD, L1b/R, L1c/R, and L‐4/ADR) give erosion rates between 300 and 400 m/Ma. Although these localities reveal remarkably higher values, which may be explained by burial events that occurred in part of Allchar, the erosion rate estimates mostly in the range between 50 and 100 m/Ma. This range further enables us to estimate the vertical erosion rate values for the two main ore bodies Crven Dol and Centralni Deo. We also estimate that the lower and upper limits of average paleo‐depths for the ore body Centralni Deo from 4.3 Ma to the present are 250–290 and 750–790 m, respectively, whereas the upper limit of paleo‐depth for the ore body Crven Dol over the same geological <span class="hlt">age</span> is 860 m. The estimated paleo‐depth values allow estimating the relative contributions of 205Pb derived from pp‐neutrino and fast cosmic‐ray muons, respectively, which is an important prerequisite for the LOREX experiment. PMID:27587984</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5342683','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5342683"><span>Long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollution is associated with biological <span class="hlt">aging</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C.; Wolf, Kathrin; Wahl, Simone; Colicino, Elena; Trevisi, Letizia; Kloog, Itai; Just, Allan C.; Vokonas, Pantel; Cyrys, Josef; Gieger, Christian; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Schneider, Alexandra; Peters, Annette</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollution is associated with <span class="hlt">age</span>-related diseases. We explored the association between accelerated biological <span class="hlt">aging</span> and air pollution, a potential mechanism linking air pollution and health. We estimated long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance/black carbon (BC), and NOx via land-use regression models in individuals from the KORA F4 cohort. Accelerated biological <span class="hlt">aging</span> was assessed using telomere length (TeloAA) and three epigenetic measures: DNA methylation <span class="hlt">age</span> acceleration (DNAmAA), extrinsic epigenetic <span class="hlt">age</span> acceleration (correlated with immune cell counts, EEAA), and intrinsic epigenetic <span class="hlt">age</span> acceleration (independent of immune cell counts, IEAA). We also investigated sex-specific associations between air pollution and biological <span class="hlt">aging</span>, given the published association between sex and <span class="hlt">aging</span> measures. In KORA an interquartile range (0.97 μg/m3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.33 y increase in EEAA (CI = 0.01, 0.64; P = 0.04). BC and NOx (indicators or traffic <span class="hlt">exposure</span>) were associated with DNAmAA and IEAA in women, while TeloAA was inversely associated with BC in men. We replicated this inverse BC-TeloAA association in the Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study, a male cohort based in the USA. A multiple phenotype analysis in KORA F4 combining all <span class="hlt">aging</span> measures showed that BC and PM10 were broadly associated with biological <span class="hlt">aging</span> in men. Thus, we conclude that long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollution is associated with biological <span class="hlt">aging</span> measures, potentially in a sex-specific manner. However, many of the associations were relatively weak and further replication of overall and sex-specific associations is warranted. PMID:27793020</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21199603','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21199603"><span>Lowest l=0 proton resonance in {sup 26}Si and implications for nucleosynthesis of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peplowski, P. N.; Baby, L. T.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Diffenderfer, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Rojas, A.; Volya, A.; Dekat, S. E.; Gay, D. L.; Grubor-Urosevic, O.; Kaye, R. A.; Keeley, N.</p> <p>2009-03-15</p> <p>Using a beam of the radioactive isotope {sup 25}Al, produced with the new RESOLUT facility, we measured the direct (d,n) proton-transfer reaction leading to low-lying proton resonances in {sup 26}Si. We observed the lowest l=0 proton resonance, identified with the 3{sup +} state at 5.914-MeV excitation energy. This result eliminates the largest uncertainty in astrophysical reaction rates involved in the nucleosynthesis of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448880"><span>{sup 60}Fe AND {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> IN CHONDRULES FROM UNEQUILIBRATED CHONDRITES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.; Rudraswami, N. G.; Tachibana, S.; Huss, G. R.</p> <p>2010-05-10</p> <p>The presence of about a dozen short-lived nuclides in the early solar system, including {sup 60}Fe and {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>, has been established from isotopic studies of meteorite samples. An accurate estimation of solar system initial abundance of {sup 60}Fe, a distinct product of stellar nucleosynthesis, is important to infer the stellar source of this nuclide. Previous studies in this regard suffered from the lack of exact knowledge of the time of formation of the analyzed meteorite samples. We present here results obtained from the first combined study of {sup 60}Fe and {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> records in early solar system objects to remove this ambiguity. Chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites belonging to low petrologic grades were analyzed for their Fe-Ni and Al-Mg isotope systematics. The Al-Mg isotope data provide the time of formation of the analyzed chondrules relative to the first solar system solids, the Ca-Al-rich inclusions. The inferred initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe values of four chondrules, combined with their time of formation based on Al-Mg isotope data, yielded a weighted mean value of (6.3 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -7} for solar system initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe. This argues for a high-mass supernova as the source of {sup 60}Fe along with {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and several other short-lived nuclides present in the early solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010092167&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DBody%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010092167&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DBody%2Btemperature"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> on Temperature Responses During <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Hypergravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fung, C.K.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Wang, T. J.; Yuan, F.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Wade, C. E.; Dalfan, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Rats subjected to centrifugation show a marked decrease in body temperature relating to gravity level. Several studies have indicated, that an initial response to centrifugation is followed by acclimation. To test for differences between young (Y; 2 months) and mature (M; 8 months) rats in their response in temperature, both groups were exposed to hypergravity induced by centrifugation. Thirty-six male rats were divided into four groups according to <span class="hlt">age</span> and G-load (control (1.0G-Y and 1.0G-M), 2.0G-Y or 2.0G-M) and were housed in pairs in standard vivarium cages. During the 7-day period of centrifugation, temperature was measured every five minutes by surgically implanted telemeters. Body mass was measured daily. We found that initial body temperature in 2.0G-M was less than that of 2.0G-Y. Both hypergravity groups (2.0G-Y and 2.0G-M) showed a decrease in temperature at the onset of centrifugation, and the change in temperature (Delta = 0.5 C) remained the same between the groups. Significant differences persisted with 2.0G-Y recovering to control values in four days and 2.0G-M recovering in five days. These results indicate that the mature animals have a similar response as the younger animals, but take longer to acclimate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=english&pg=4&id=EJ1046362','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=english&pg=4&id=EJ1046362"><span>The Relationship of Korean Students' <span class="hlt">Age</span> and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present cross-<span class="hlt">age</span> study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of <span class="hlt">age</span> and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' <span class="hlt">age</span> and number of years of English <span class="hlt">exposure</span> interact in relation to English-reading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41B2895Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41B2895Y"><span>Uplift rates of the marine terraces in the south coast of Japan deduced from in situ cosmogenic 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yokoyama, Y.; Nagano, G.; Nakamura, A.; Maemoku, H.; Miyairi, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Marine terraces are low-relief platforms located along coastal areas. They are formed by waves action with the changes in the relative sea level (RSL) that is affected by combined effects of the eustatic sea level (ESL) and the tectonic movements (e.g. uplift, subsidence and isostatic effect). Therefore, determining the <span class="hlt">ages</span> and the elevations of the marine terraces allows us to reconstruct the ESL and/or the tectonic history of the study area. The Kii Peninsula and the southern coast of the Shikoku Island are located along the Nankai Trough where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Eurasian plate. There exist relatively well-preserved marine terraces along the coastal line with the elevation of ca. 50 -100 m. Because of this unique tectonic setting, the terraces are regarded as the suitable counterparts to reconstruct uplift history of the south coast of Japan. However, the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of these terraces are poorly understood due to the lack of the ash layers that is suitable for the tephrochronology. In this study, we determine the <span class="hlt">age</span> of the marine terraces using terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic radionuclides (TCN), 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>. This is the first <span class="hlt">age</span> estimation of the marine terraces in Japan using TCN, allowing us to determine the uplift rates and the seismic history of the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5593R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5593R"><span>Late Pleistocene glacial chronology of the Retezat Mts, Southern Carpathians, using 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Kern, Zoltán; Urdea, Petru; Braucher, Régis; Madarász, Balázs; Schimmelpfennig, Irene</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Our knowledge on the timing of glacial advances in the Southern Carpathians is limited. Recently, some attempts have been made to develop an improved temporal framework for the glaciations of the region using cosmogenic 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating. However, glacial chronology of the Romanian Carpathians remains contradictory. E.g. the timing of the maximum ice advance appears to be asynchronous within the area and also with other dated glacial events in Europe. Main objective of our study is to utilize cosmogenic in situ produced 10Be dating to disentangle the contradictions of the Southern Carpathian Late Pleistocene glacial chronology. Firstly, previously published 10Be data are recalculated in accordance with the new half-life, standardization and production rate of 10Be. The recalculated 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of the second largest (M2) moraines in the Retezat Mts. appear to be ca. 19-24% older than <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> calculated by Reuther et al. (2007, Quat. Int. 164-165, 151-169). This contradicts the earlier conclusions suggesting post LGM <span class="hlt">age</span> of M2 glacial advance and suggests that M2 moraines can be connected to the end of the LGM with final stabilization possibly at the beginning of the Late Glacial. We emphasize that it is ambiguous to correlate directly the <span class="hlt">exposure</span>-dated glacier chronologies with millennial scale climate changes due to uncertainties in sample collection and in computation of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from measured nuclide concentrations. New 10Be samples were collected in order to determine the 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of moraines outside the most prominent generation (M2) including the largest and oldest moraine (M1) and the landforms connected to the smallest ice advances (M4), which remained undated so far. The new <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of M2 moraines are well in harmony with the recalculated <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Reuther at al. (2007). 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of boulders on the smallest moraine suggest that the last glaciers disappeared in the area during the Late Glacial, indicating no</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=258802','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=258802"><span>Resistance of calves to Cryptosporidium parvum: effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> and previous <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harp, J A; Woodmansee, D B; Moon, H W</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian parasite that causes diarrheal disease in many vertebrate species, including young (less than or equal to 1 month old) calves. Older calves and adult cattle are resistant to infection. In this study, newborn calves were raised in isolation from C. parvum for 1 week to 3 months before experimental challenge with the parasite. Calves orally challenged with C. parvum at 1 week of <span class="hlt">age</span> shed oocysts in their feces and had diarrhea after challenge <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. When these calves were rechallenged at 1 and 3 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>, they neither shed oocysts nor had diarrhea. There was no significant increase in the mean anticryptosporidium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serum antibody titer in these calves following any of the challenge <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. Calves orally inoculated with C. parvum for the first time at 1 month of <span class="hlt">age</span> shed oocysts, had diarrhea after challenge <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and were resistant to rechallenge at 3 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. These calves had a twofold increase in serum antibody titer after the first challenge and no increase after the second challenge. Calves orally inoculated with C. parvum for the first time at 3 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> shed oocysts, and two of seven animals had diarrhea. These calves had a 10-fold increase in serum antibody to C. parvum after <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. This study demonstrates that calves raised in isolation from C. parvum remain susceptible to challenge until at least 3 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Furthermore, within this time period, initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and recovery renders calves resistant to further challenge with the parasite. The data also suggest that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of young calves to C. parvum may inhibit the development of a serum antibody response to the parasite. PMID:2365460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021806','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021806"><span>Mid-Pleistocene cosmogenic minimum-<span class="hlt">age</span> limits for pre-Wisconsinan glacial surfaces in southwestern Minnesota and southern Baffin Island: A multiple nuclide approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bierman, P.R.; Marsella, K.A.; Patterson, Chris; Davis, P.T.; Caffee, M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Paired 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> analyses (n = 14) indicate that pre-Wisconsinan, glaciated bedrock surfaces near the northern (Baffin Island) and southern (Minnesota) paleo-margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet have long and complex histories of cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, including significant periods of partial or complete shielding from cosmic rays. Using the ratio, <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be, we calculate that striated outcrops of Sioux Quartzite in southwestern Minnesota (southern margin) were last overrun by ice at least 500,000 years ago. Weathered bedrock tors on the once-glaciated uplands of Baffin Island (northern margin) are eroding no faster than 1.1 m Myr-1, the equivalent of at least 450,000 years of surface and near-surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Our data demonstrate that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and erosion rates calculated from single nuclides can underestimate surface stability dramatically because any intermittent burial, and the resultant lowering of nuclide production rates and nuclide abundances, will remain undetected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17781496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17781496"><span>Trapped solar wind noble gases, kr81/kr <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and k/ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> in apollo 11 lunar material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eberhardt, P; Geiss, J; Graf, H; Grögler, N; Krähenbühl, U; Schwaller, H; Schwarzmüller, J; Stettler, A</p> <p>1970-01-30</p> <p>Grain size and etching experiments show that the fine lunar material contains large amounts of trapped solar wind particles. Elemental and isotopic compositions of the noble gases in solar material and in the terrestrial atmosphere are significantly different, except for the Ar(36)/ Ar(38) and the Kr isotope ratios. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of two rocks and of the fine material are between 380 and 510 x 10(6) years. Feldspar concentrates give K/Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 3220 and 3300 x 10(6) years, significantly higher than the unseparated rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20955229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20955229"><span>Prenatal and childhood environmental tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferris, Jennifer S; Flom, Julie D; Tehranifar, Parisa; Mayne, Susan T; Terry, Mary Beth</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the association between <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche and environmental tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, both prenatally and during early childhood; however, few studies have had data available during both time periods. The present study examined whether <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to prenatal tobacco smoke (PTS) via maternal smoking during pregnancy or childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was associated with <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche in a multi-ethnic birth cohort. With the uniquely available prospectively collected data on body size and growth at birth and in early life, we further examined whether the association between PTS and ETS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche was mediated by these variables. From 2001 to 2006, we recruited 262 women born between 1959 and 1963 who were enrolled previously in a New York City site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Mothers who smoked during pregnancy vs. those who did not were more likely to be White, younger, have more education and have lower birthweight babies. Daughters with heavy PTS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (≥ 20 cigarettes per day) had a later <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche (>12 years vs. ≤ 12 years), odds ratio (OR) =2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 5.0] compared with daughters with no PTS. Daughters exposed to only childhood ETS had a later <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche, OR=2.1 [95% CI 1.0, 4.3], and those exposed to PTS and ETS combined had a statistically significant later <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche, OR=2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 4.6] compared with daughters with no PTS and no ETS. These results did not change after further adjustment for birthweight and postnatal growth suggesting that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PTS and ETS is associated with later <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche even after considering possible relationships with growth.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5373674','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5373674"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to any antenatal corticosteroids and outcomes in preterm infants by gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>: prospective cohort study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Travers, Colm P; Clark, Reese H; Spitzer, Alan R; Das, Abhik; Garite, Thomas J</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objective To determine whether <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to any antenatal corticosteroids is associated with a lower rate of death at each gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> at which administration is currently recommended. Design Prospective cohort study. Settings 300 participating neonatal intensive care units of the Pediatrix Medical Group in the United States. Participants 117 941 infants 23 0/7 to 34 6/7 weeks’ gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> born between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Any antenatal corticosteroids. Main outcomes measures Death or major hospital morbidities analyzed by gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to antenatal corticosteroids with models adjusted for birth weight, sex, mode of delivery, and multiple births. Results Infants exposed to antenatal corticosteroids (n=81 832) had a significantly lower rate of death before discharge at each gestation 29 weeks or less, 31 weeks, and 33-34 weeks compared with infants without <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (range of adjusted odds ratios 0.32 to 0.55). The number needed to treat with antenatal corticosteroids to prevent one death before discharge increased from six at 23 and 24 weeks’ gestation to 798 at 34 weeks’ gestation. The rate of survival without major hospital morbidity was higher among infants exposed to antenatal corticosteroids at the lowest gestations. Infants exposed to antenatal corticosteroids had lower rates of severe intracranial hemorrhage or death, necrotizing enterocolitis stage 2 or above or death, and severe retinopathy of prematurity or death compared with infants without <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at all gestations less than 30 weeks and most gestations for infants born at 30 weeks’ gestation or later. Conclusion Among infants born from 23 to 34 weeks’ gestation, antenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to corticosteroids compared with no <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with lower mortality and morbidity at most gestations. The effect size of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to antenatal corticosteroids on mortality seems to be larger in infants born at the lowest gestations. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007549&hterms=Age+Distribution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAge%2BDistribution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007549&hterms=Age+Distribution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAge%2BDistribution"><span>Peculiarities of distributions of the cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of H chondrite falls and finds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Alexeev, V. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Well known peak in the distribution of the cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of H chondrites at 6-7 My can be employed as mark in comparison of different populations of H chondrites. It is found the <span class="hlt">age</span> corresponding to maximum of peak for non-Antarctic falls is higher by (15+/-5) percent of this for non-Antarctic finds. Antarctic H chondrites occupy intermediate position. This effect is probably due to process of weathering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5380439','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5380439"><span>Does pupil constriction under blue and green monochromatic light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> change with <span class="hlt">age</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Daneault, Véronique; Vandewalle, Gilles; Hébert, Marc; Teikari, Petteri; Mure, Ludovic S.; Doyon, Julien; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M.; Dumont, Marie; Carrier, Julie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Many non-visual functions are regulated by light through a photoreceptive system involving melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that are maximally sensitive to blue light. Several studies have suggested that the ability of light to modulate circadian entrainment and to induce acute effects on melatonin secretion, subjective alertness and gene expression, decreases during <span class="hlt">aging</span>, particularly for blue light. This could contribute to the documented changes in sleep and circadian regulatory processes with <span class="hlt">aging</span>. However, <span class="hlt">age</span>-related modification in the impact of light on steady-state pupil constriction, which regulates the amount of light reaching the retina, is not demonstrated. We measured pupil size in 16 young (22.8±4y) and 14 older (61±4.4y) healthy subjects during 45s <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to blue (480nm) and green (550nm) monochromatic lights at low (7×1012 photons/cm2/s), medium (3×1013 photons/cm2/s), and high (1014 photons/cm2/s) irradiance levels. Results showed that young subjects had consistently larger pupils than older subjects, for dark adaptation and during all light <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. Steady-state pupil constriction was greater under blue than green light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in both <span class="hlt">age</span> groups and increased with increasing irradiance. Surprisingly, when expressed in relation to baseline pupil size, no significant <span class="hlt">age</span>-related differences were observed in pupil constriction. The observed reduction in pupil size in older individuals, both in darkness and during light <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, may reduce retinal illumination and consequently affect non-visual responses to light. The absence of a significant difference between <span class="hlt">age</span> groups for relative steady-state pupil constriction suggests that other factors such as tonic, sympathetic control of pupil dilation, rather than light sensitivity per se, account for the observed <span class="hlt">age</span> difference in pupil size regulation. Compared to other nonvisual functions, the light sensitivity of steady-state pupil constriction appears to remain relatively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846617"><span>Prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> differentially affects hippocampal neurogenesis in the adolescent and <span class="hlt">aged</span> brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R</p> <p>2014-07-25</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in <span class="hlt">aged</span> animals following prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young <span class="hlt">age</span>, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3392459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3392459"><span>Prenatal Methamphetamine <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Inhibitory Control among Young School-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Derauf, Chris; LaGasse, Linda L.; Smith, Lynne M.; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Neal, Charles; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective To examine the association between prenatal methamphetamine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and inhibitory control in 66 month old children followed since birth in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Study design The sample included 137 children with prenatal methamphetamine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and 130 comparison children, matched for race, birth weight, maternal education and type of insurance. Inhibitory control, an executive function related to emotional and cognitive control, was assessed using a computerized Stroop-like task developed for young children. Hierarchical linear modeling tested the relationship between the extent (heavy, some and no use) of prenatal methamphetamine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and accuracy and reaction time outcomes, adjusting for prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to alcohol, tobacco and marijuana, <span class="hlt">age</span>, sex, socioeconomic status, caregiver IQ and psychological symptoms, child protective services report of physical or sexual abuse, and site. Results In adjusted analyses, heavy prenatal methamphetamine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was related to reduced accuracy in both the incongruent and mixed conditions on the Stroop task. Caregiver psychological symptoms and Child Protective Services (CPS) report of physical or sexual abuse were associated with reduced accuracy in the incongruent and mixed, and incongruent conditions, respectively. Conclusions Heavy prenatal methamphetamine <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, along with caregiver psychological distress and child maltreatment, is related to subtle deficits in inhibitory control during the early school-<span class="hlt">aged</span> years. PMID:22424953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957520','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957520"><span>Long-term ambient particle <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and blood DNA methylation <span class="hlt">age</span>: findings from the VA normative <span class="hlt">aging</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C.; Colicino, Elena; Trevisi, Letizia; Kloog, Itai; Just, Allan C.; Shen, Jincheng; Brennan, Kasey; Dereix, Alexandra; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Ambient particles have been shown to exacerbate measures of biological <span class="hlt">aging</span>; yet, no studies have examined their relationships with DNA methylation <span class="hlt">age</span> (DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span>), an epigenome-wide DNA methylation based predictor of chronological <span class="hlt">age</span>. Objective We examined the relationship of DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a measure of total inhalable particle mass, and black carbon (BC), a measure of particles from vehicular traffic. Methods We used validated spatiotemporal models to generate 1-year PM2.5 and BC <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels at the addresses of 589 older men participating in the VA Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study with 1–3 visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1032 observations). Blood DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> was calculated using 353 CpG sites from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated associations of PM2.5 and BC with DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> using linear mixed effects models adjusted for <span class="hlt">age</span>, lifestyle/environmental factors, and <span class="hlt">aging</span>-related diseases. Results After adjusting for covariates, a 1-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.75, P<0.0001) was significantly associated with a 0.52-year increase in DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span>. Adjusted BC models showed similar patterns of association (β = 3.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 5.57, P = 0.02). Only PM2.5 (β = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.84, P = 0.0004) remained significantly associated with DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> in two-particle models. Methylation levels from 20 of the 353 CpGs contributing to DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels in our two-particle models. Several of these CpGs mapped to genes implicated in lung pathologies including LZTFL1, PDLIM5, and ATPAF1. Conclusion Our results support an association of long-termambient particle levels with DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> and suggest that DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> is a biomarker of particle-related physiological processes. PMID:27453791</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.158..245D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.158..245D"><span>Isotopic mass fractionation laws for magnesium and their effects on <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg systematics in solar system materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Andrew M.; Richter, Frank M.; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Janney, Philip E.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; McKeegan, Kevin D.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Magnesium isotope ratios are known to vary in solar system objects due to the effects of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> decay to 26Mg and mass-dependent fractionation, but anomalies of nucleosynthetic origin must also be considered. In order to infer the amount of enhancement of 26Mg/24Mg due to <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> decay or to resolve small nucleogenetic anomalies, the exact relationship between 26Mg/24Mg and 25Mg/24Mg ratios due to mass-dependent fractionation, the mass-fractionation "law", must be accurately known so that the 25Mg/24Mg ratio can be used to correct the 26Mg/24Mg ratio for mass fractionation. Mass-dependent fractionation in mass spectrometers is reasonably well characterized, but not necessarily fully understood. It follows a simple power fractionation law, sometimes referred to as the "exponential law". In contrast, mass fractionation in nature, in particular that due to high temperature evaporation that likely caused the relatively large effects observed in calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), is reasonably well understood, but mass-fractionation laws for magnesium have not been explored in detail. The magnesium isotopic compositions of CAI-like evaporation residues produced in a vacuum furnace indicate that the slope on a log 25Mg/24Mg vs. log 26Mg/24Mg plot is ∼0.5128, and different from those predicted by any of the commonly used mass-fractionation laws. Evaporation experiments on forsterite-rich bulk compositions give exactly the same slope, indicating that the measured mass-fractionation law for evaporation of magnesium is applicable to a wide range of bulk compositions. We discuss mass-fractionation laws and the implications of the measured fractionation behavior of magnesium isotopes for <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg chronology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005733&hterms=Ages&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DAges','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005733&hterms=Ages&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DAges"><span>In Situ Radiometric and <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Age</span> Dating of the Martian Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farley, K. A.; Malespin, C.; Mahaffy, P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Milliken, R. E.; Malin, M.; Edgett, K. S.; Pavlov, A. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Grant, J. A.; Miller, H. B.; Arvidson, R.; Beegle, L.; Calef, F.; Conrad, P. G.; Dietrich, W. E.; Eigenbrode, J.; Gellert, R.; Gupta, S.; Hamilton, V.; Hassler, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; McLennan, S. M.; Ming, D. M.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Steele, A.; Stolper, E. M.; Sumner, D. Y.; Vaniman, D.; Vasavada, A.; Williford, K.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> of 4.21 +/- 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced 3He, 21Ne, and 36Ar yield concordant surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 78 T 30 million years. Surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324273"><span>In situ radiometric and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> dating of the martian surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farley, K A; Malespin, C; Mahaffy, P; Grotzinger, J P; Vasconcelos, P M; Milliken, R E; Malin, M; Edgett, K S; Pavlov, A A; Hurowitz, J A; Grant, J A; Miller, H B; Arvidson, R; Beegle, L; Calef, F; Conrad, P G; Dietrich, W E; Eigenbrode, J; Gellert, R; Gupta, S; Hamilton, V; Hassler, D M; Lewis, K W; McLennan, S M; Ming, D; Navarro-González, R; Schwenzer, S P; Steele, A; Stolper, E M; Sumner, D Y; Vaniman, D; Vasavada, A; Williford, K; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F</p> <p>2014-01-24</p> <p>We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> of 4.21 ± 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced (3)He, (21)Ne, and (36)Ar yield concordant surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 78 ± 30 million years. Surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=171545&keyword=growing+AND+old&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90000177&CFTOKEN=80997297','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=171545&keyword=growing+AND+old&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90000177&CFTOKEN=80997297"><span>TOXICOGENOMIC ANALYSIS OF TOLUENE <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> AT 3 <span class="hlt">AGES</span> IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A major concern in assessing toxicity to environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> is differential<br><br>susceptibility in subsets of the population. <span class="hlt">Aging</span> adults, who comprise the fastest<br><br>growing segment of the population, may possess a greater sensitivity due to changes in<br><br>metabol...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arrhythmia&pg=3&id=EJ858890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arrhythmia&pg=3&id=EJ858890"><span>The Association between Prenatal Cocaine <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Physiological Regulation at 13 Months of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D.; Danielewicz, Susan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (PCE) and autonomic regulation at 13 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Methods: Measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were obtained from 156 (79 exposed, and 77 nonexposed) infants during baseline and during tasks designed to elicit positive (PA) and negative affect (NA).…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marijuana&pg=2&id=EJ936802','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marijuana&pg=2&id=EJ936802"><span>A Case Series of Marijuana <span class="hlt">Exposures</span> in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana <span class="hlt">exposures</span> that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nonlinear&pg=7&id=EJ1095764','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nonlinear&pg=7&id=EJ1095764"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> of English <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226564&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78779073&CFTOKEN=38758905','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226564&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78779073&CFTOKEN=38758905"><span>TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN <span class="hlt">AGING</span> BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The influence of <span class="hlt">aging</span> on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute <span class="hlt">exposure</span> by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022368','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022368"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and erosional history of an upland planation surface in the US Atlantic Piedmont</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The upland planation surface in the Piedmont of central New Jersey consists of summit flats, as much as 130 km2 in area, that truncate bedding and structure in diabase, basalt, sandstone, mudstone and gneiss. These flats define a low-relief regional surface that corresponds in elevation to residual hills in the adjacent Coastal Plain capped by a fluvial gravel of late Miocene <span class="hlt">age</span>. A Pliocene fluvial sand is inset 50 m below the upland features. These associations suggest a late Miocene or early Pliocene <span class="hlt">age</span> for the surface. To assess <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and erosional history, a 4??4 m core of clayey diabase saprolite on a 3 km2 remnant of the surface was sampled at six depths for atmospherically produced cosmogenic 10Be. The measured inventory, assuming a deposition rate of 1??3 x 106 atoms cm-2 a-1, yields a minimum <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of 227 000 years, or, assuming continuous surface erosion, a constant erosion rate of 10 m Ma-1. Because the sample site lies about 60 m above the aggradation surface of the Pliocene fluvial deposit, and itself supports a pre-Pliocene fluvial gravel lag, this erosion rate is too high. Rather, episodic surface erosion and runoff bypassing probably have produced an inventory deficit. Reasonable estimates of surface erosion (up to 10 m) and bypassing (up to 50 per cent of total precipitation) yield <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of as much as 6??4 Ma. These results indicate that (1) the surface is probably of pre-Pleistocene <span class="hlt">age</span> and has been modified by Pleistocene erosion, and (2) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> based on 10Be inventories are highly sensitive to surface erosion and runoff bypassing. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497781','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497781"><span>Maternal occupational <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> offspring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives While some of the highest maternal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed <span class="hlt">exposure</span> assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal <span class="hlt">age</span>, there was a significant association of occupational <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..94f5804A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..94f5804A"><span>Experimental study of the astrophysically important 23Na(α ,p )26Mg and 23Na(α ,n )<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Dickerson, C.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The 23Na(α ,p )26Mg and 23Na(α ,n )<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> reactions are important for our understanding of the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> abundance in massive stars. The aim of this work is to report on a direct and simultaneous measurement of these astrophysically important reactions using an active target system. The reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using 4He as the active target gas in the detector. We measured the excitation functions in the energy range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We have found that the cross sections of the 23Na(α ,p )26Mg and the 23Na(α ,n )<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> reactions are in good agreement with previous experiments and with statistical-model calculations. The astrophysical reaction rate of the 23Na(α ,n )<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> reaction has been reevaluated and it was found to be larger than the recommended rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.1827S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.1827S"><span>Interaction Between <span class="hlt">Age</span> and <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to 56Fe Particles on Behavior and Neurochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.</p> <p></p> <p>Previous research has shown that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles and protons which will be encountered on long-term space missions can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks This outcome has implications for an astronaut s ability to successfully complete requirements associated with these missions It has also been found that irradiation can lead to increases in oxidative stress similar to that seen in the <span class="hlt">aging</span> brain Given that astronauts are often middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> or older it is important to determine if their <span class="hlt">age</span> puts them at higher risk for the potentially hazardous effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles Therefore we exposed young and old rats to either 1 or 2Gy of 56 Fe irradiation and evaluated performance in a spatial learning and memory task in addition to examining levels of dopamine DA release from superfused striatal slices Results indicated that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 56 Fe particles can produce alterations in behavior and signaling and that these alterations may be more apparent in older organisms which suggests that the <span class="hlt">aging</span> brain may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of irradiation on performance Therefore <span class="hlt">age</span> may be a factor for consideration in planning long-term missions into space Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39..987C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39..987C"><span>Interaction between <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 56Fe particles on behavior and neurochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carey, Amanda N.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Rabin, Bernard M.; Joseph, James A.</p> <p></p> <p>Previous research has shown that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles, which will be encountered on long-term space missions, can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks. This outcome has implications for an astronaut’s ability to successfully complete requirements associated with these missions. It has also been found that irradiation can lead to increases in oxidative stress, similar to that seen in the <span class="hlt">aging</span> brain. Given that astronauts are often middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> or older it is important to determine if their <span class="hlt">age</span> puts them at higher risk for the potentially hazardous effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles. Therefore, we exposed young and old rats to either 1 or 2 Gy of 56Fe irradiation and evaluated performance in a spatial learning and memory task, in addition to examining levels of dopamine (DA) release from superfused striatal slices. Results indicated that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 56Fe particles can produce alterations in behavior and neuronal signaling and that these alterations may be more apparent in older organisms, a finding which suggests that the <span class="hlt">aging</span> brain may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of irradiation on performance. Therefore, <span class="hlt">age</span> may be a factor for consideration in planning long-term missions into space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2075473','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2075473"><span>Maternal <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Infant Birth Weight and Gestational <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Givens, Marjory L.; Small, Chanley M.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige E.; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden K.; Marcus, Michele</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the influence of maternal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> on gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> and birth weight is essential given that pre-term and/or low birth weight infants are at risk for increased mortality and morbidity. We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) through accidental contamination of cattle feed and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) through residual contamination in the geographic region. Our study population consisted of 444 mothers and their 899 infants born between 1975 and 1997. Using restricted maximum likelihood estimation, no significant association was found between estimated maternal serum PBB at conception or enrollment PCB levels and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> or infant birth weight in unadjusted models or in models that adjusted for maternal <span class="hlt">age</span>, smoking, parity, infant gender, and decade of birth. For enrollment maternal serum PBB, no association was observed for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. However, a negative association with high levels of enrollment maternal serum PBB and birth weight was suggested. We also examined the birth weight and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> among offspring of women with the highest (10%) PBB or PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and observed no significant association. Because brominated compounds are currently used in consumer products and therefore, are increasingly prevalent in the environment, additional research is needed to better understand the potential relationship between in utero <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:17617441</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8354579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8354579"><span>Elbow joint disorders in relation to vibration <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span> in stone quarry workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakakibara, H; Suzuki, H; Momoi, Y; Yamada, S</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Elbow joint disorders were studied in relation to vibration <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span> in 74 male stone quarry workers who operated mainly chipping hammers and sometimes rock drills. They were examined for range of active motion in elbow extension and flexion, and by means of radiographs of the elbow joint. Effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> and vibratory tool operation on the elbow joint were statistically estimated using multiple regression analysis. In the analysis of all subjects, including those <span class="hlt">aged</span> over 60 years, <span class="hlt">age</span> was significantly related to the range of motion in extension and to radiographic changes in both elbows, and the duration of vibratory tool operation was associated with the range of right elbow flexion. Among subjects under the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 60 years, duration of vibratory tool operation showed a significant dose-effect relationship to the range of flexion and radiographic changes in the right elbow, but there was no significant relationship with <span class="hlt">age</span>. The present results suggest that the operation of chipping hammers and rock drills contributes to elbow joint disorders or osteoarthrosis, even when the effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> is taken into account. Besides vibration <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, it may be necessary to consider various loads on the elbow joint such as firmly grasping and pressing the tool against stones with the arm bent at about 90 degrees, and carrying stones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..119R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..119R"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to heavy particles on a behavioral measure of anxiety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carrihill-Knoll, K. L.; Carey, A.; Foster, B. C.</p> <p></p> <p>On forthcoming exploratory class missions astronauts will be expected to function in novel and possibly dangerous environments This requirement may produce anticipatory fear or anxiety Previous research has shown that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles such as those experienced on missions beyond the protection provided by the magnetic shield of the earth can affect the performance of the organism on a variety of tasks In addition research has shown that there is an interaction between <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to heavy particles on a variety of behavioral tasks such that older organisms are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of irradiation Because there are changes in exploration-induced anxiety as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> it is possible that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles will also affect a middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> astronaut s ability to respond appropriately in anxiety producing situations The present experiment utilized the elevated plus-maze to evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particle radiation on anxiety Fischer-344 rats 2 7 12 and 16 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> at the time of irradiation were exposed to 56 Fe particles 1 GeV n 0 25-2 00 Gy in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory Control rats at each <span class="hlt">age</span> were not irradiated At the time of testing the rats were 3- 11- 13- and 20-months old respectively Anxiety was studied using an elevated plus-maze The maze is composed of four arms in the shape of a sign placed 90 cm above the floor Two of the arms are enclosed and two of the arms are open The amount of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=19697','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=19697"><span>Phosphatidylserine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and red cell viability in red cell <span class="hlt">aging</span> and in hemolytic anemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boas, Franz Edward; Forman, Linda; Beutler, Ernest</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Phosphatidylserine (PS) normally localizes to the inner leaflet of cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cells, signaling macrophages to ingest them. Along similar lines, it seemed possible that the removal of red cells from circulation because of normal <span class="hlt">aging</span> or in hemolytic anemias might be triggered by PS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. To investigate the role of PS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in normal red cell <span class="hlt">aging</span>, we used N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin to tag rabbit red cells in vivo, then used phycoerythrin-streptavidin to label the biotinylated cells, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to detect the exposed PS. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells drawn at 10-day intervals up to 70 days after biotinylation indicated that older, biotinylated cells expose more PS. Furthermore, our data match a simple model of red cell senescence that assumes both an <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent destruction of senescent red cells preceded by several hours of PS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and a random destruction of red cells without PS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. By using this model, we demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of PS parallels the rate at which biotinylated red cells are removed from circulation. On the other hand, using an annexin V-FITC label and flow cytometry demonstrates that exposed PS does not cause the reduced red cell life span of patients with hemolytic anemia, with the possible exception of those with unstable hemoglobins or sickle cell anemia. Thus, in some cases PS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the cell surface may signal the removal of red cells from circulation, but in other cases some other signal must trigger the sequestration of cells. PMID:9501218</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4670285','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4670285"><span>Cognitive deficits at <span class="hlt">age</span> 22 years associated with prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to methylmercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to mercury has been associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment. The present study aims to determine the extent to which methylmercury-associated cognitive deficits persist into adult <span class="hlt">age</span>. In a Faroese birth cohort originally formed in 1986–1987 (N=1,022), prenatal methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was assessed in terms of the mercury concentration in cord blood and maternal hair. Clinical examinations of 847 cohort members at <span class="hlt">age</span> 22 years were carried out in 2008–2009 using a panel of neuropsychological tests that reflected major functional domains. Subjects with neurological and psychiatric diagnoses were excluded from the data analysis, thus leaving 814 subjects. Multiple regression analysis included covariates previously identified for adjustment. Deficits in Boston Naming Test and other tests of verbal performance were significantly associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration. Deficits were also present in all other tests applied, although most were not statistically significant. Structural equation models were developed to ascertain the possible differences in vulnerability of specific functional domains and the overall association with general intelligence. In models for individual domains, all of them showed negative associations, with crystallized intelligence being highly significant. A hierarchical model for general intelligence based on all domains again showed a highly significant negative association with the <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, with an approximate deficit that corresponds to about 2.2 IQ points at a 10-fold increased prenatal methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Thus, although the cognitive deficits observed were smaller than at examinations at younger <span class="hlt">ages</span>, maternal seafood diets were associated with adverse effects in this birth cohort at <span class="hlt">age</span> 22 years. The deficits affected major domains of brain functions as well as general intelligence. Thus, prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to this marine contaminant appears to cause permanent adverse effects on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5193478','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5193478"><span>Bedtime and evening light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> influence circadian timing in preschool-<span class="hlt">age</span> children: A field study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Akacem, Lameese D.; Wright, Kenneth P.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and sleep timing are two factors that influence inter-individual variability in the timing of the human circadian clock. The aim of this study was to quantify the degree to which evening light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> predicts variance in circadian timing over and above bedtime alone in preschool children. Participants were 21 children <span class="hlt">ages</span> 4.5–5.0 years (4.7 ± 0.2 years; 9 females). Children followed their typical sleep schedules for 4 days during which time they wore a wrist actigraph to assess sleep timing and a pendant light meter to measure minute-by-minute illuminance levels in lux. On the 5th day, children participated in an in-home dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) assessment. Light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the 2 h before bedtime was averaged and aggregated across the 4 nights preceding the DLMO assessment. Mean DLMO and bedtime were 19:22 ± 01:04 and 20:07 ± 00:46, respectively. Average evening light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was 710.1 ± 1418.2 lux. Children with later bedtimes (lights-off time) had more delayed melatonin onset times (r=0.61, p=0.002). Evening light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was not independently associated with DLMO (r=0.32, p=0.08); however, a partial correlation between evening light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and DLMO when controlling for bedtime yielded a positive correlation (r=0.46, p=0.02). Bedtime explained 37.3% of the variance in the timing of DLMO, and evening light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> accounted for an additional 13.3% of the variance. These findings represent an important step in understanding factors that influence circadian phase in preschool-<span class="hlt">age</span> children and have implications for understanding a modifiable pathway that may underlie late sleep timing and the development of evening settling problems in early childhood. PMID:28042611</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3407364','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3407364"><span>Neurobehavioral deficits at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 years associated with prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to toxicants from maternal seafood diet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986–1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22705177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22705177"><span>Neurobehavioral deficits at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 years associated with prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to toxicants from maternal seafood diet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15203174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15203174"><span>Prenatal marijuana and alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and academic achievement at <span class="hlt">age</span> 10.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The effects of prenatal marijuana and alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on school achievement at 10 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> were examined. Women were interviewed about their substance use at the end of each trimester of pregnancy, at 8 and 18 months, and at 3, 6, 10, 14, and 16 years. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, high-school-educated, and light-to-moderate users of marijuana and alcohol. The sample was equally divided between Caucasian and African-American women. At the 10-year follow-up, the effects of prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to marijuana or alcohol on the academic performance of 606 children were assessed. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to one or more marijuana joints per day during the first trimester predicted deficits in Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) reading and spelling scores and a lower rating on the teachers' evaluations of the children's performance. This relation was mediated by the effects of first-trimester marijuana <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the children's depression and anxiety symptoms. Second-trimester marijuana use was significantly associated with reading comprehension and underachievement. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to alcohol during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy predicted poorer teachers' ratings of overall school performance. Second-trimester binge drinking predicted lower reading scores. There was no interaction between prenatal marijuana and alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Each was an independent predictor of academic performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750061688&hterms=Babies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBabies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750061688&hterms=Babies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBabies"><span>Cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of features and events at the Apollo landing sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arvidson, R.; Crozaz, G.; Drozd, R. J.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Morgan, C. J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of lunar samples have been used to date surface features related to impact cratering and downslope movement of material. Only when multiple samples related to a feature have the same rare-gas <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> or when a single sample has the same Kr-81 -Kr and track-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> can a feature be considered as reliably dated. Based on these criteria, there are only five well-dated lunar features: Cone Crater (Apollo 14), 26 m.y,; North Ray Crater (Apollo 16), 50 m.y.; South Ray Crater (Apollo 16), 2 m.y.; the emplacement of the Station 6 boulders (Apollo 17), 22 m.y.; and the emplacement of the Station 7 boulder (Apollo 17), 28 m.y. Other features are tentatively dated or have limits set on their <span class="hlt">ages</span>: Bench Crater (Apollo 12), upper limit of 99 m.y.; Baby Ray Crater (Apollo 16), upper limit of 2 m.y.; Shorty Crater (Apollo 17), approximately 30 m.y.; Camelot Crater (Apollo 17) upper limit of 140 m.y.; the emplacement of the Station 2 boulder 1 (Apollo 17), 45 to 55 m.y.; and the slide which generated the light mantle (Apollo 17), lower limit of 50 m.y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C53A0824Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C53A0824Q"><span>Cosmogenic 10Be <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Age</span> for the Cut Bank Creek terminal moraine, Glacier National Park, MT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quirk, B.; Laabs, B. J.; Leonard, E. M.; Caffee, M. W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Mountain glaciers are highly sensitive to temperature and precipitation with geologic records that are superb proxies of climate change. In the Rocky Mountains of the western United States, abundant records of Late Pleistocene glaciation provide an opportunity for understanding paleoclimate throughout this region, especially in places where the chronology of glaciation is precisely known. Cosmogenic 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating has been widely applied to glacial deposits in the Rocky Mountains, providing precise numerical <span class="hlt">ages</span> and improving the understanding of glacial chronologies in this region. Despite these improvements, the chronology of the last Pleistocene glaciation of the northernmost Rocky Mountains is not completely understood. Cosmogenic 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating was applied to the Cut Bank Creek valley in the Lewis Range of the Northern Rocky Mountains, where a discrete mountain glacier deposited a broad terminal moraine during the last Pleistocene glaciation. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of eight quartzite and sandstone boulders at the crest of the ice-distal sector of the terminal moraine indicate that abandonment occurred at 15.6 ± 0.8 ka. This <span class="hlt">age</span> is consistent with <span class="hlt">age</span> limits of several terminal moraines elsewhere in the Northern Rocky Mountains, suggesting that the last Pleistocene glaciation culminated in this region after the global Last Glacial Maximum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1751102','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1751102"><span>The effect of brief neonatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cows' milk on atopic symptoms up to <span class="hlt">age</span> 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Jong, M H; Scharp-Van, D; Aalberse, R; Heymans, H; Brunekreef, B</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Aims: To determine the effect of brief early <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cows' milk on the expression of atopy during the first five years of life. Methods: Follow up analysis of a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised feeding intervention trial (BOKAAL study). Subjects were 1108 children from 1533 initially randomised breast fed neonates in the Netherlands. Atopic disease and prevalence of allergic symptoms at <span class="hlt">age</span> 1, 2, and 5, and specific IgE at <span class="hlt">age</span> 1 and 5 were determined. Results: Atopic disease in the first year was found in 10.0% (cows' milk) versus 9.3% (placebo) of the children, with a relative risk (RR) of 1.07. No differences were found in the second year either. At <span class="hlt">age</span> 5, atopic disease was found in 26.3% (cows' milk) versus 25.0% (placebo), RR 1.05. There was no difference in the prevalence of allergic symptoms. Specific IgE to cows' milk (RAST positive 2+ or more) was 5.8% (cows' milk) versus 4.1% (placebo) at <span class="hlt">age</span> 1 (RR 1.43), and 5.3% versus 3.0% at <span class="hlt">age</span> 5 (RR 1.77). There was no difference in sensitisation to other common allergens between the two groups. Conclusion: Early, brief <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cows' milk in breast fed children is not associated with atopic disease or allergic symptoms up to <span class="hlt">age</span> 5. PMID:11970933</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5211193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5211193"><span>Estimating dose rates to organs as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> following internal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Cristy, M.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Williams, L.R.</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>The AGEDOS methodology allows estimates of dose rates, as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span>, to radiosensitive organs and tissues in the human body at arbitrary times during or after internal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to radioactive material. Presently there are few, if any, radionuclides for which sufficient metabolic information is available to allow full use of all features of the methodology. The intention has been to construct the methodology so that optimal information can be gained from a mixture of the limited amount of <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent, nuclide-specific data and the generally plentiful <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent physiological data now available. Moreover, an effort has been made to design the methodology so that constantly accumulating metabolic information can be incorporated with minimal alterations in the AGEDOS computer code. Some preliminary analyses performed by the authors, using the AGEDOS code in conjunction with <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent risk factors developed from the A-bomb survivor data and other studies, has indicated that the doses and subsequent risks of eventually experiencing radiogenic cancers may vary substantially with <span class="hlt">age</span> for some <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenarios and may be relatively invariant with <span class="hlt">age</span> for other scenarios. We believe that the AGEDOS methodology provides a convenient and efficient means for performing the internal dosimetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inversion&pg=3&id=EJ1023331','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inversion&pg=3&id=EJ1023331"><span>Wh-Questions in Child L2 French: Derivational Complexity and Its Interactions with L1 Properties, Length of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, <span class="hlt">Age</span> of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, and the Input</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Prévost, Philippe; Strik, Nelleke; Tuller, Laurie</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates how derivational complexity interacts with first language (L1) properties, second language (L2) input, <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the target language, and length of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in child L2 acquisition. We compared elicited production of "wh"-questions in French in two groups of 15 participants each, one with L1 English…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5435563','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5435563"><span>Mechanical properties of types 304 and 316 stainless steel after long-term <span class="hlt">aging</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Horak, J.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Raske, D.T.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Because designs for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) power plants include plant lifetimes to 40 years, an understanding of the mechanical behavior of the structural alloys used is required for times of approx. 2 to 2.5 x 10/sup 5/ h. Most of the alloys used for LMFBR out-of-core structures and components are in a metastable state at the beginning of plant lifetime and evolve to a more stable state and, therefore, microstructure during plant operation. We reviewed mechanical properties and microstructures after prolonged elevated-temperature <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of types 304 and 316 stainless steel, two alloys used extensively in fast breeder systems. <span class="hlt">Aging</span> alters properties; in particular, it decreases toughness and tensile ductility, but the properties are still adequate for service. Because stable microstructures have been reached in long-term <span class="hlt">exposures</span> achieved so far, properties can be expected to remain adequate for service life <span class="hlt">exposures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123519"><span>Evidence of subclinical prion disease in <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice following <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Karen L; Mabbott, Neil A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The occurrence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) disease in humans was almost certainly the result of consumption of food contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions. Despite probable widespread <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of the UK population to BSE-contaminated food in the 1980s, vCJD has been identified predominantly in young individuals, and there have been fewer cases of clinical disease than anticipated. The reasons for this are uncertain. Following peripheral <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, many prions replicate within the lymphoid tissues before infecting the central nervous system. We have shown that the effects of host <span class="hlt">age</span> on the microarchitecture of the spleen significantly impair susceptibility to mouse-adapted prions after peripheral <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The transmission of prions between different mammalian species is considered to be limited by the 'species barrier', which is dependent on several factors, including an intact immune system. Thus, cross-species prion transmission may be much less efficient in <span class="hlt">aged</span> individuals. To test this hypothesis, we compared prion pathogenesis in groups of young (6-8 weeks old) and <span class="hlt">aged</span> (600 days old) mice injected with primary BSE brain homogenate. We showed that prion pathogenesis was impaired dramatically in <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice when compared with young animals. Whereas most young mice succumbed to clinical prion disease, all <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice failed to develop clinical disease during their lifespans. However, the demonstration that prion accumulation was detected in the lymphoid tissues of some <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice after injection with primary BSE brain homogenate, in the absence of clinical signs of prion disease, has important implications for human health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887008','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887008"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Famine at a Young <span class="hlt">Age</span> and Unhealthy Lifestyle Behavior Later in Life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fransen, Heidi P.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; de Wit, G. Ardine; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Elias, Sjoerd G.; May, Anne M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background A healthy diet is important for normal growth and development. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to undernutrition during important developmental periods such as childhood and adolescence can have effects later in life. Inhabitants of the west of the Netherlands were exposed to severe undernutrition during the famine in the last winter of the second World War (1944–1945). Objective We investigated if <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of women to the Dutch famine during childhood and adolescence was associated with an unhealthy lifestyle later in life. Design We studied 7,525 women from the Prospect-EPIC cohort, recruited in 1993–97 and <span class="hlt">aged</span> 0–18 years during the Dutch famine. An individual famine score was calculated based on self-reported information about experience of hunger and weight loss. We investigated the association between famine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in early life and four lifestyle factors in adulthood: smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity level and a Mediterranean-style diet. Results Of the 7,525 included women, 46% were unexposed, 38% moderately exposed and 16% severely exposed to the Dutch famine. Moderately and severely exposed women were more often former or current smokers compared to women that did not suffer from the famine: adjusted prevalence ratio 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05; 1.14) and 1.18 (1.12; 1.25), respectively. They also smoked more pack years than unexposed women. Severely exposed women were more often physically inactive than unexposed women, adjusted prevalence ratio 1.32 (1.06; 1.64). Results did not differ between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> categories (0–9 and 10–17 years). We found no associations of famine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with alcohol consumption and no dose-dependent relations with diet. Conclusions <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to famine early in female life may be associated with higher prevalence of smoking and physical inactivity later in life, but not with unhealthy diet and alcohol consumption. PMID:27244088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908601"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2015-04-24</p> <p>The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730035001&hterms=Gadolinium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGadolinium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730035001&hterms=Gadolinium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGadolinium"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and neutron capture record in lunar samples from Fra Mauro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Apollo 14 rocks and rock fragments obtained by the Kr81-Kr83 method range from 27 to 700 m.y. Rock 14321, collected near the Cone crater rim, is one of the many approximately 27 m.y. old ejecta which were reported at the Third Lunar Science Conference. All the other rocks have considerably higher <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Isotopic anomalies from neutron capture in gadolinium, bromine, and barium are used to obtain information on the lunar neutron spectrum at various depths below the lunar surface. The flux ratio of resonance and slow (less than 0.3 eV) neutrons is found to be nearly constant in the topmost approximately 100 g/sq cm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4421805','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4421805"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10840176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10840176"><span>Effects of prenatal marijuana <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on child behavior problems at <span class="hlt">age</span> 10.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goldschmidt, L; Day, N L; Richardson, G A</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This is a prospective study of the effects of prenatal marijuana <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on child behavior problems at <span class="hlt">age</span> 10. The sample consisted of low-income women attending a prenatal clinic. Half of the women were African-American and half were Caucasian. The majority of the women decreased their use of marijuana during pregnancy. The assessments of child behavior problems included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher's Report Form (TRF), and the Swanson, Noland, and Pelham (SNAP) checklist. Multiple and logistic regressions were employed to analyze the relations between marijuana use and behavior problems of the children, while controlling for the effects of other extraneous variables. Prenatal marijuana use was significantly related to increased hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention symptoms as measured by the SNAP, increased delinquency as measured by the CBCL, and increased delinquency and externalizing problems as measured by the TRF. The pathway between prenatal marijuana <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and delinquency was mediated by the effects of marijuana <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on inattention symptoms. These findings indicate that prenatal marijuana <span class="hlt">exposure</span> has an effect on child behavior problems at <span class="hlt">age</span> 10.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711644L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711644L"><span>Surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating of Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> ice cap advances on Disko Island, West Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lane, Timothy; Jomelli, Vincent; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Swingedouw, Didier; Favier, Vincent; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> (LIA: 1200-1920 AD) glacier advances in Greenland often form the most extensive positions of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) ice cap and margins since the Early Holocene. Across Greenland these advances are commonly represented by un-vegetated moraines, usually within 1-5 km of the present ice margin. However, chronological constraints on glacier advances during this period are sparse, meaning that GrIS and ice cap behavior and advance/retreat chronology remains poorly understood during this period. At present the majority of <span class="hlt">ages</span> are based on historical accounts, ice core data, and radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> from proglacial threshold lakes. However, developments in the accuracy and precision of surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> methods allow dating of LIA moraine boulders, permitting an opportunity to better understand of ice dynamics during this period. Geomorphological mapping and surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating (36Cl) were used to interpret moraine deposits from the Lyngmarksbræen on Disko Island, West Greenland. A Positive Degree Day (PDD) model was used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) and mass balance changes for two distinct paleo-glacial extents. Three moraines (M1, M2, and M3) were mapped in the field, and sampled for 36Cl surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating. The outermost moraine (M1) was of clearly different morphology to the inner moraines, and present only in small fragments. M2 and M3 were distinct arcuate termino-lateral moraines within 50 m of one another, 1.5 km from the present ice margin. The weighted average of four 36Cl <span class="hlt">ages</span> from M1 returned an early Holocene <span class="hlt">age</span> of 8.4 ± 0.6 ka. M2 (four samples) returned an <span class="hlt">age</span> of 0.57 ± 0.04 ka (1441 AD) and M3 (four samples) returned an <span class="hlt">age</span> of 0.28 ± 0.02 ka (1732 AD). These surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> represent the first robustly dated Greenlandic ice cap moraine sequence from the LIA. The two periods of ice cap advance and marginal stabilisation are similar to recorded periods of LIA GrIS advance in west Greenland, constrained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17731363','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17731363"><span>Gas-retention and cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of lunar rock 15555.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Podosek, F A; Huneke, J C; Wasserburg, G J</p> <p>1972-01-28</p> <p>The last lava flow in the Hadley Rille area of Mare Imbrium, as inferred from an argon-40-argon-39 experiment on a plagioclase separate from the lunar basalt 15555, occurred 3.31+/-0.03x10(9) years ago. An argon-40-argon-39 experiment on a whole rock sample shows significant loss of radiogenic argon-40 and yields a well-defined, high-temperature plateau indicating a lower <span class="hlt">age</span> of 3.22+/-0.03x10(9) years. A cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of 90+/-10x10(6) years is determined from the ratio of spallogenic argon-38 to calcium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24747554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24747554"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to mercury among Spanish preschool children: trend from birth to <span class="hlt">age</span> four.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Cases, Amparo; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Ballester, Ferran</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from birth to the <span class="hlt">age</span> four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008-2009). Total mercury concentration at <span class="hlt">age</span> four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal <span class="hlt">age</span>, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and <span class="hlt">age</span> four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2537R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2537R"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to heavy particles and <span class="hlt">aging</span> on object recognition memory in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Shannahan, Ryan; Hering, Kathleen</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to HZE particles produces changes in neurocognitive performance. These changes, including deficits in spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory and operant responding, are also observed in the <span class="hlt">aged</span> organism. As such, it has been proposed that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to heavy particles produces "accelerated <span class="hlt">aging</span>". Because <span class="hlt">aging</span> is an ongoing process, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and the effects of <span class="hlt">aging</span>, such that doses of HZE particles that do not affect the performance of younger organisms will affect the performance of organisms as they <span class="hlt">age</span>. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that young rats that had been exposed to HZE particles would show a progressive deterioration in object recognition memory as a function of the <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing. Rats were exposed to 12 C, 28 S or 48 Ti particles at the N.A.S.A. Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. HZE particle-induced changes in object recognition memory were tested using a standard procedure: rats were placed in an open field and allowed to interact with two identical objects for up to 30 sec; twenty-four hrs later the rats were again placed in the open field, this time containing one familiar and one novel object. Non-irradiated control animals spent significantly more time with the novel object than with the familiar object. In contrast, the rats that been exposed to heavy particles spent equal amounts of time with both the novel and familiar object. The lowest dose of HZE particles which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was determined three months and eleven months following <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The threshold dose needed to disrupt object recognition memory three months following irradiation varied as a function of the specific particle and energy. When tested eleven months following irradiation, doses of HZE particles that did</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760051483&hterms=Stone+Age&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DStone%2BAge','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760051483&hterms=Stone+Age&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DStone%2BAge"><span>On the calculation of cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of stone meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cressy, P. J., Jr.; Bogard, D. D.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Abundances of cosmic ray-produced noble gases and Al-26, including some new measurements, have been compiled for some 23 stone meteorites with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> less than 3,000,000 yr. Concentrations of cosmogenic He, Ne, and Ar in these meteorites have been corrected for differences in target element abundances by normalization to L-chondrite chemistry. Combined noble gas measurements in depth samples of the Keyes and St. Severin chondrites are utilized to derive equations for normalizing the production rates of cosmogenic He-3, Ne-21, and Ar-38 in chondrites to an adopted 'average' shielding. The measured unsaturated AL-26 concentrations and the calculated equilibrium Al-26 for these meteorites are combined to estimate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>. These <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> are statistically compared with chemistry- and shielding-corrected concentrations of cosmogenic He, Ne, and Ar to derive absolute production rates for these nuclides, which are found to be roughly 25% higher than production rates used in the past. From these production rates and relative chemical correction factors, production rates for other classes of stone meteorites are derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820033469&hterms=wind+exposure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwind%2Bexposure','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820033469&hterms=wind+exposure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwind%2Bexposure"><span>Cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of the ordinary chondrites and their significance for parent body stratigraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crabb, J.; Schultz, L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Improved <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> are derived for 201 H, 203 L, and 38 LL chondrites in an effort to understand the characteristics of the chondrite parent body. The Ne-21 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> were calculated from literature values taking into account shielding differences, a trapped component and radiogenic He. The <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> distributions show clear peaks at 4.5 and 20 million years for the H chondrites, while the Ls and LLs appear more as a continuous series of intermediate peaks which may be modeled by at least six peaks between 1 and 35 million years in the case of L chondrites. The observations that every petrological type occurs in each large peak and contain solar wind gases suggest that the parent bodies have been fragmented and reassembled into a megabreccia. The H meteorites are proposed to represent the surface layer of a body with a substantial, active regolith as indicated by the relatively high abundances of solar gases. The L chondrites, on the other hand, are attributed to a parent body that was fragmented by collision about 500 million years ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731065','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731065"><span>Interpersonal Trauma <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Cognitive Development in Children to <span class="hlt">Age</span> 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Childhood trauma <span class="hlt">exposure</span> has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Methods Children (N = 206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient scores (IQ) were assessed at 24, 64, and 96 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. Results IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first two years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared to children not exposed to IPT in the first two years, exposed children scored one-half standard deviation lower across cognitive assessments. Conclusion IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first two years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood. PMID:22493459</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26875182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26875182"><span>Arsenic <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Immunotoxicity: a Review Including the Possible Influence of <span class="hlt">Age</span> and Sex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferrario, Daniele; Gribaldo, Laura; Hartung, Thomas</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Increasing evidence suggests that inorganic arsenic, a major environmental pollutant, exerts immunosuppressive effects in epidemiological, in vitro, and animal models. The mechanisms, however, remain unclear, and little is known about variation in susceptibilities due to <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex. We performed a review of the experimental and epidemiologic evidence on the association of arsenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and immune diseases. The majority of the studies described arsenic as a potent immunosuppressive compound, though others have reported an increase in allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting that arsenic may also act as an immune system stimulator, depending on the dose or timing of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Limited information, due to either the high concentrations of arsenic used in in vitro studies or the use of non-human data for predicting human risks, is available from experimental studies. Moreover, although there is emerging evidence that health effects of arsenic manifest differently between men and women, we found limited information on sex differences on the immunotoxic effects of arsenic. In conclusion, preliminary data show that chronic early-life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to arsenic might impair immune responses, potentially leading to increased risk of infections and inflammatory-like diseases during childhood and in adulthood. Further investigation to evaluate effects of arsenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the developing immune system of both sexes, particularly in human cells and using concentrations relevant to human <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, should be a research priority.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11A2204M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11A2204M"><span>The CREp program, a fully parameterizable program to compute <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> (3He, 10Be)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, L.; Blard, P. H.; Lave, J.; Delunel, R.; Balco, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Over the last decades, cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating permitted major advances in Earth surface sciences, and particularly in paleoclimatology. Yet, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> calculation is a dense procedure. It requires numerous choices of parameterization and the use of an appropriate production rate. Nowadays, Earth surface scientists may either calculate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> on their own or use the available programs. However, these programs do not offer the possibility to include all the most recent advances in Cosmic Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> (CRE) dating. Notably, they do not propose the most recent production rate datasets and they only offer few possibilities to test the impact of the atmosphere model and the geomagnetic model on the computed <span class="hlt">ages</span>. We present the CREp program, a Matlab © code that computes CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> for 3He and 10Be over the last 2 million years. The CREp program includes the scaling models of Lal-Stone in the "Lal modified" version (Balco et al., 2008; Lal, 1991; Stone, 2000) and the LSD model (Lifton et al., 2014). For any of these models, CREP allows choosing between the ERA-40 atmosphere model (Uppala et al., 2005) and the standard atmosphere (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1976). Regarding the geomagnetic database, users can opt for one of the three proposed datasets: Muscheler et al. 2005, GLOPIS-75 (Laj et al. 2004) and the geomagnetic framework proposed in the LSD model (Lifton et al., 2014). They may also import their own geomagnetic database. Importantly, the reference production rate can be chosen among a large variety of possibilities. We made an effort to propose a wide and homogenous calibration database in order to promote the use of local calibration rates: CREp includes all the calibration data published until July 2015 and will be able to access an updated online database including all the newly published production rates. This is crucial for improving the <span class="hlt">ages</span> accuracy. Users may also choose a global production rate or use their own data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615879"><span>Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in mice: Effect of <span class="hlt">age</span>, frailty and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> type.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kane, Alice E; Mitchell, Sarah J; Mach, John; Huizer-Pajkos, Aniko; McKenzie, Catriona; Jones, Brett; Cogger, Victoria; Le Couteur, David G; de Cabo, Rafael; Hilmer, Sarah N</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Acetaminophen is a commonly used analgesic that can cause severe hepatotoxicity in overdose. Despite old <span class="hlt">age</span> and frailty being associated with extensive and long-term utilization of acetaminophen and a high prevalence of adverse drug reactions, there is limited information on the risks of toxicity from acetaminophen in old <span class="hlt">age</span> and frailty. This study aimed to assess changes in the risk and mechanisms of hepatotoxicity from acute, chronic and sub-acute acetaminophen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with old <span class="hlt">age</span> and frailty in mice. Young and old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either acute (300 mg/kg via oral gavage), chronic (100 mg/kg/day in diet for six weeks) or sub-acute (250 mg/kg, t.i.d., for three days) acetaminophen, or saline control. Pre-dosing mice were scored for the mouse clinical frailty index, and after dosing serum and liver tissue were collected for assessment of toxicity and mechanisms. There were no differences with old <span class="hlt">age</span> or frailty in the degree of hepatotoxicity induced by acute, chronic or subacute acetaminophen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as assessed by serum liver enzymes and histology. <span class="hlt">Age</span>-related changes in the acetaminophen toxicity pathways included increased liver GSH concentrations, increased NQO1 activity and an increased pro- and anti-inflammatory response to acetaminophen in old <span class="hlt">age</span>. Frailty-related changes included a negative correlation between frailty index and serum protein, albumin and ALP concentrations for some mouse groups. In conclusion, although there were changes in some pathways that would be expected to influence susceptibility to acetaminophen toxicity, there was no overall increase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity with old <span class="hlt">age</span> or frailty in mice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPB.259..600F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPB.259..600F"><span>An inter-comparison of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> AMS reference standards and the 10Be half-life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fink, David; Smith, Andrew</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>We have completed a survey and inter-comparison of several 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> standard reference materials (SRMs) that are in routine use at various AMS laboratories to assess their relative values and the accuracy of their quoted nominal ratios. The accelerator measurement cycle, analysis procedure and setup used at the ANTARES AMS facility for this survey are described. We focused on a new set of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> serial dilutions of standard reference materials (SRMs) prepared by Kuni Nishiizumii at the University of California, Berkeley, and found excellent systematic reproducibility and internal consistency. For other standard materials, minor deviations are evident even when the results have been recalibrated to a common half-life. In particular, we confirm that the NIST 10Be SRM-4325 has a 14% greater 10Be/Be ratio than that certified by NIST when it is calibrated against other SRMs whose ratios have been normalized to a common 1.5 Ma 10Be half-life. In order to investigate this apparent discrepancy, we report on the results of an absolute, normalization independent, measure of the NIST-4325 10Be/Be ratio. Within the constraints of this type of measurement and its systematic errors, we determine an absolute value for the 10Be/Be SRM-4325 ratio in the range 26,050 to 24,800 × 10-15 in support of the certified value of 26,800 × 10-15 given by NIST. We hesitate to directly infer as a consequence that the 10Be half-life is 1.34 Ma because such an inference is contingent on a direct and accurate specific activity in the parent solution, which at present is not available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167129"><span>IMPACT OF A REVISED {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> REACTION RATE ON THE OPERATION OF THE Mg-Al CYCLE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Straniero, O.; Cristallo, S.; Imbriani, G.; DiLeva, A.; Limata, B.; Strieder, F.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Lemut, A.; Formicola, A.; Gustavino, C.; Junker, M.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; and others</p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>Proton captures on Mg isotopes play an important role in the Mg-Al cycle active in stellar H-burning regions. In particular, low-energy nuclear resonances in the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> reaction affect the production of radioactive {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup gs} as well as the resulting Mg/Al abundance ratio. Reliable estimations of these quantities require precise measurements of the strengths of low-energy resonances. Based on a new experimental study performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics, we provide revised rates of the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup gs} and the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> {sup m} reactions with corresponding uncertainties. In the temperature range 50-150 MK, the new recommended rate of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> {sup m} production is up to five times higher than previously assumed. In addition, at T = 100 MK, the revised total reaction rate is a factor of two higher. Note that this is the range of temperature at which the Mg-Al cycle operates in a H-burning zone. The effects of this revision are discussed. Due to the significantly larger {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> {sup m} rate, the estimated production of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup gs} in H-burning regions is less efficient than previously obtained. As a result, the new rates should imply a smaller contribution from Wolf-Rayet stars to the galactic {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> budget. Similarly, we show that the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) extra-mixing scenario does not appear able to explain the most extreme values of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al, i.e., >10{sup -2}, found in some O-rich presolar grains. Finally, the substantial increase of the total reaction rate makes the hypothesis of self-pollution by massive AGBs a more robust explanation for the Mg-Al anticorrelation observed in globular-cluster stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3713136','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3713136"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to light at night accelerates <span class="hlt">aging</span> and spontaneous uterine carcinogenesis in female 129/Sv mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Panchenko, Andrei V.; Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Tyndyk, Maragriata L.; Yurova, Maria N.; Anisimov, Vladimir N.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The effect of the constant illumination on the development of spontaneous tumors in female 129/Sv mice was investigated. Forty-six female 129/Sv mice starting from the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 2 mo were kept under standard light/dark regimen [12 h light (70 lx):12hr dark; LD, control group], and 46 of 129/Sv mice were kept under constant illumination (24 h a day, 2,500 lx, LL) from the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 5 mo until to natural death. The <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the LL regimen significantly accelerated body weight gain, increased body temperature as well as acceleration of <span class="hlt">age</span>-related disturbances in estrous function, followed by significant acceleration of the development of the spontaneous uterine tumors in female 129/Sv mice. Total tumor incidence as well as a total number of total or malignant tumors was similar in LL and LD group (p > 0.05). The mice from the LL groups survived less than those from the LD group (χ2 = 8.5; p = 0.00351, log-rank test). According to the estimated parameters of the Cox’s regression model, constant light regimen increased the relative risk of death in female mice compared with the control (LD) group (p = 0.0041). The data demonstrate in the first time that the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to constant illumination was followed by the acceleration of <span class="hlt">aging</span> and spontaneous uterine tumorigenesis in female 129/Sv mice. PMID:23656779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Geomo..67..423M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Geomo..67..423M"><span>Cosmogenic 3He <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Pleistocene debris flows and desert pavements in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marchetti, David W.; Cerling, Thure E.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>The Quaternary history of the Capitol Reef area, Utah, is closely linked to the basaltic-andesite boulder deposits that cover much of the landscape. Understanding the <span class="hlt">age</span> and mode of emplacement of these deposits is crucial to deciphering the Quaternary evolution of this part of the Colorado Plateau. Using cosmogenic 3He <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> dating, we obtained apparent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for several key deposits in the Capitol Reef area. Coarse boulder diamicts capping the Johnson Mesa and Carcass Creek Terraces are not associated with the Bull Lake glaciation as previously thought, but were deposited 180±15 to 205±17 ka (minimum <span class="hlt">age</span>) and are the result of debris flow deposition. Desert pavements on the Johnson Mesa surface give <span class="hlt">exposure</span> ranging from 97±8 to 159±14 ka and are 34-96 kyears younger than the boulder <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>. The offset between the boulder and pavement <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> appears to be related to a delay in pavement formation until the penultimate glacial/interglacial transition or periodic burial and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of pavement clasts since debris flow deposition. Incision rates for the Capitol Reef reach of the Fremont River calculated from the boulder <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> range from 0.40 to 0.43 m kyear -1 (maximum rates) and are some of the highest on the Colorado Plateau.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814508R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814508R"><span>Potentials and pitfalls of depth profile (10Be), burial isochron (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be) and palaeomagnetic techniques for dating Early Pleistocene terrace deposits of the Moselle valley (Germany)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rixhon, Gilles; Cordier, Stéphane; May, Simon Matthias; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Szemkus, Nina; Keulertz, Rebecca; Dunai, Tibor; Binnie, Steven; Hambach, Ulrich; Scheidt, Stephanie; Brueckner, Helmut</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Throughout the river network of the Rhenish Massif the so-called main terraces complex (MTC) forms the morphological transition between a wide upper palaeovalley and a deeply incised lower valley. The youngest level of this complex (YMT), directly located at the edge of the incised valley, represents a dominant geomorphic feature; it is often used as a reference level to identify the beginning of the main middle Pleistocene incision episode (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). Although the main terraces are particularly well preserved in the lower Moselle valley, a questionable <span class="hlt">age</span> of ca. 800 ka is assumed for the YMT, mainly based on the uncertain extrapolation of controversially interpreted palaeomagnetic data obtained in the Rhine valley. In this study, we applied terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating (10Be/<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>) and palaeomagnetic dating to Moselle fluvial sediments of the MTC. To unravel the spatio-temporal characteristics of the Pleistocene evolution of the valley, several sites along the lower Moselle were sampled following two distinct TCN dating strategies: depth profiles where the original terrace (palaeo-) surface is well preserved and did not experience a major post-depositional burial (e.g., loess cover); and the isochron technique, where the sediment thickness exceeds 4.5-5 m. One terrace deposit was sampled for both approaches (reference site). In addition, palaeomagnetic sampling was systematically performed in each terrace sampled for TCN measurements. The TCN dating techniques show contrasting results for our reference site. Three main issues are observed for the depth profile method: (i) an inability of the modeled profile to constrain the 10Be concentration of the uppermost sample; (ii) an overestimated density value as model output; and (iii) a probable concentration steady state of the terrace deposits. By contrast, the isochron method yields a burial <span class="hlt">age</span> estimate of 1.26 +0.29/-0.25 Ma, although one sample showed a depleted <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be ratio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9152R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9152R"><span>Testing seismic hazard models with Be-10 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for precariously balanced rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rood, D. H.; Anooshehpoor, R.; Balco, G.; Brune, J.; Brune, R.; Ludwig, L. Grant; Kendrick, K.; Purvance, M.; Saleeby, I.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Currently, the only empirical tool available to test maximum earthquake ground motions spanning timescales of 10 ky-1 My is the use of fragile geologic features, including precariously balanced rocks (PBRs). The <span class="hlt">ages</span> of PBRs together with their areal distribution and mechanical stability ("fragility") constrain probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) over long timescales; pertinent applications include the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM) and tests for ground motion models (e.g., Cybershake). Until recently, <span class="hlt">age</span> constraints for PBRs were limited to varnish microlamination (VML) dating techniques and sparse cosmogenic nuclide data; however, VML methods yield minimum limiting <span class="hlt">ages</span> for individual rock surfaces, and the interpretations of cosmogenic nuclide data were ambiguous because they did not account for the exhumation history of the PBRs or the complex shielding of cosmic rays. We have recently published a robust method for the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating of PBRs combining Be-10 profiles, a numerical model, and a three-dimensional model for each PBR constructed using photogrammetry (Balco et al., 2011, Quaternary Geochronology). Here, we use this method to calculate new <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and fragilities for 6 PBRs in southern California (USA) near the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Elsinore faults at the Lovejoy Buttes, Round Top, Pacifico, Beaumont South, Perris, and Benton Road sites (in addition to the recently published <span class="hlt">age</span> of 18.7 +/- 2.8 ka for a PBR at the Grass Valley site). We combine our <span class="hlt">ages</span> and fragilities for each PBR, and use these data to test the USGS 2008 NSHM PGA with 2% in 50 year probability, USGS 2008 PSHA deaggregations, and basic hazard curves from USGS 2002 NSHM data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13D2632R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13D2632R"><span>Testing seismic hazard models with Be-10 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for precariously balanced rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rood, D. H.; Anooshehpoor, R.; Balco, G.; Biasi, G. P.; Brune, J. N.; Brune, R.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Kendrick, K. J.; Purvance, M.; Saleeby, I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Currently, the only empirical tool available to test maximum earthquake ground motions spanning timescales of 10 ky-1 My is the use of fragile geologic features, including precariously balanced rocks (PBRs). The <span class="hlt">ages</span> of PBRs together with their areal distribution and mechanical stability ("fragility") constrain probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) over long timescales; pertinent applications include the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM) and tests for ground motion models (e.g., Cybershake). Until recently, <span class="hlt">age</span> constraints for PBRs were limited to varnish microlamination (VML) dating techniques and sparse cosmogenic nuclide data; however, VML methods yield minimum limiting <span class="hlt">ages</span> for individual rock surfaces, and the interpretations of cosmogenic nuclide data were ambiguous because they did not account for the exhumation history of the PBRs or the complex shielding of cosmic rays. We have recently published a robust method for the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating of PBRs combining Be-10 profiles, a numerical model, and a three-dimensional shape model for each PBR constructed using photogrammetry (Balco et al., 2011, Quaternary Geochronology). Here, we use our published method to calculate new <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for PBRs at 6 sites in southern California near the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Elsinore faults, including: Lovejoy Buttes (9 +/- 1 ka), Round Top (35 +/- 1 ka), Pacifico (19 +/- 1 ka, but with a poor fit to data), Beaumont South (17 +/- 2 ka), Perris (24 +/- 2 ka), and Benton Road (40 +/- 1 ka), in addition to the recently published <span class="hlt">age</span> of 18.5 +/- 2.0 ka for a PBR at the Grass Valley site. We combine our <span class="hlt">ages</span> and fragilities for each PBR, and use these data to test the USGS 2008 NSHM PGA with 2% in 50 year probability, USGS 2008 PSHA deaggregations, and basic hazard curves from USGS 2002 NSHM data. Precariously balanced rock in southern California</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26862123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26862123"><span>Perinatal air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and development of asthma from birth to <span class="hlt">age</span> 10 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span> affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school <span class="hlt">age</span>" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65,254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until <span class="hlt">age</span> 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and <span class="hlt">age</span>-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school <span class="hlt">age</span> (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school <span class="hlt">age</span> periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5331426','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5331426"><span>Deoxynivalenol <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human <span class="hlt">Age</span> Groups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different <span class="hlt">age</span> groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to DON is not of concern in any <span class="hlt">age</span> group. PMID:28165414</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28075338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28075338"><span>Maternal <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of <span class="hlt">Age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Kato, Takahiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Ariki, Nagako; Komine, Yoko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Kato, Nobumasa</p> <p>2017-01-08</p> <p>The possible association between maternal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5235449','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5235449"><span>Graphical method for forecasting radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from multi-<span class="hlt">aged</span> fallout from nuclear weapons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haaland, C.M.</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>After a nuclear attack it may be necessary for emergency workers, such as firemen, utility workers and medical personnel, to perform urgent tasks in areas highly contaminated by radioactive fallout. To assist the control of radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of these workers, it will be useful to provide means to forecast radiation <span class="hlt">exposures</span> both inside and outside the fallout shelter. The method described in this paper is intended for use during the first few days to weeks after the attack, after which time more sophisticated methods may become available. This method requires only a radiation-rate meter, special graph paper, and a timepiece. Communications with Emergency Operating Centers or other sources of information are not necessary. The method permits the determination of the <span class="hlt">age</span> of fallout and future <span class="hlt">exposure</span> rates for a location that might be subjected to a number of different fallout clouds, without requiring knowledge of the weapon yields or times of detonation. This method will provide results with less accuracy if different-<span class="hlt">aged</span> fallout clouds arrive simultaneously. The method is self-correcting so that if the actual decay rate is different than that which is assumed, the forecasted rates will have less error than results obtained by previous methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3710780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3710780"><span>A graphical method for forecasting radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from multi-<span class="hlt">aged</span> fallout from nuclear weapons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haaland, C M</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>After a nuclear attack it may be necessary for emergency workers, such as firemen, utility workers and medical personnel, to perform urgent tasks in areas highly contaminated by radioactive fallout. To assist the control of radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of these workers, it will be useful to provide means to forecast radiation <span class="hlt">exposures</span> both inside and outside the fallout shelter. The method described in this paper is intended for use during the first few days to weeks after the attack, after which time more sophisticated methods may become available. This method requires only a radiation-rate meter, special graph paper, and a timepiece. Communications with Emergency Operating Centers or other sources of information are not necessary. The method permits the determination of the <span class="hlt">age</span> of fallout and future <span class="hlt">exposure</span> rates for a location that might be subjected to a number of different fallout clouds, without requiring knowledge of the weapon yields or times of detonation. This method will provide results with less accuracy if different-<span class="hlt">aged</span> fallout clouds arrive simultaneously. The method is self-correcting so that if the actual decay rate is different than that which is assumed, the forecasted rates will have less error than results obtained by previous methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5295303','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5295303"><span>Maternal <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Katoh, Takahiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Ariki, Nagako; Komine, Yoko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Kato, Nobumasa</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The possible association between maternal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected. PMID:28075338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227302"><span>Assessing dietary <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: <span class="hlt">age</span> and gender aspects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ngo, Duc Minh; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Le, Thi Thuy; Nyberg, Ylva; Le, Bach Mai; Nguyen, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Manh Khai; Oborn, Ingrid</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>This study estimates the dietary <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n=132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n=130). Individual-level <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level <span class="hlt">exposure</span> estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working <span class="hlt">age</span> adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p<0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461±162g/d, followed by water spinach (103±51kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ>3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ>1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361..599S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361..599S"><span>Glaciation history of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) - New <span class="hlt">exposure</span> data from nunataks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strub, E.; Wiesel, H.; Delisle, G.; Binnie, S. A.; Liermann, A.; Dunai, T. J.; Herpers, U.; Dewald, A.; Heinze, S.; Christl, M.; Coenen, H. H.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for the Wohlthat Massif (Antarctica), have previously been determined. This was done with 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the AMS facility at the ETH Zurich. In order to determine the extent to which the results from the Wohlthat Massif are of regional significance, additional samples were collected during the 2007 BGR-expedition "Queenmet". Two of the Steingarden Nunataks (isolated mountain peaks) were chosen as sampling locations, approximately 100 km south-east of the Wohlthat Massif/Queen Maud Land, at the edge of the Polar Plateau. Quartz rich samples were collected at different elevations on the nunataks to reconstruct an elevation-dependent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history. The in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in these samples were measured by AMS. During sample processing the quartz separates were prepared by two different methods (Kohl and Nishiizumi, 1992, Altmaier, 2000) and measurements were performed at two different facilities (CologneAMS und Zurich AMS) to confirm the reproducibility of the results. The new results of rock surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> reveal that the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of the lower nunatak to cosmic radiation started between 0.65 and 1.1 Ma ago, while the more elevated regions of the second nunatak were apparently above the ice 3-4 Ma ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3404666','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3404666"><span>Associations of Prenatal <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Organophosphate Pesticide Metabolites with Gestational <span class="hlt">Age</span> and Birth Weight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rauch, Stephen A.; Braun, Joe M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Calafat, Antonia M.; Khoury, Jane; Montesano, M. Angela; Yolton, Kimberly</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background: Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to organophosphate (OP) insecticides, a widely used class of pesticides, may be associated with decreased gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> and lower birth weight. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in paroxanase (PON1) enzyme genotypes may modify the relationships between OP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and perinatal outcomes. Objective: We examined the relationship of prenatal OP insecticide <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, measured using urinary dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolite concentrations, with gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> and birth weight. Methods: We measured the concentrations of six nonspecific DAP metabolites of OP insecticides in two maternal spot urine samples collected in a prospective birth cohort. We performed multivariable regression to examine associations between the sum of six DAP concentrations (ΣDAP) with gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> and birth weight. We also examined whether these associations differed according to infant PON1192 and PON1–108 genotypes. Results: Among 306 mother–infant dyads, a 10-fold increase in ΣDAP concentrations was associated with a decrease in covariate-adjusted gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> [–0.5 weeks; 95% confidence interval (CI): –0.8, –0.1] and birth weight (–151 g; CI: –287, –16); the decrements in birth weight were attenuated after adjusting for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. The relationship between ΣDAP concentrations and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> was stronger for white (–0.7 weeks; CI: –1.1, –0.3) than for black (–0.1 weeks; 95% CI: –0.9, 0.6) newborns. In contrast, there was a greater decrease in birth weight with increasing urinary ΣDAP concentrations for black (–188 g; CI: –395, 19) than for white (–118 g; CI: –296, 60) newborns. Decrements in birth weight and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> associated with ΣDAP concentrations were greatest among infants with PON1192QR and PON–108CT genotypes. Conclusions: Prenatal urinary ΣDAP concentrations were associated with shortened gestation and reduced birth weight in this cohort, but the effects differed by race/ethnicity and PON</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447522','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447522"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to <span class="hlt">age</span> four</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva; and others</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from birth to the <span class="hlt">age</span> four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at <span class="hlt">age</span> four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal <span class="hlt">age</span>, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and <span class="hlt">age</span> four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5129004','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5129004"><span>Cannabis <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as an interactive cardiovascular risk factor and accelerant of organismal <span class="hlt">ageing</span>: a longitudinal study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reece, Albert Stuart; Hulse, Gary Kenneth</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives Many reports exist of the cardiovascular toxicity of smoked cannabis but none of arterial stiffness measures or vascular <span class="hlt">age</span> (VA). In view of its diverse toxicology, the possibility that cannabis-exposed patients may be <span class="hlt">ageing</span> more quickly requires investigation. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal, observational. Prospective. Setting Single primary care addiction clinic in Brisbane, Australia. Participants 11 cannabis-only smokers, 504 tobacco-only smokers, 114 tobacco and cannabis smokers and 534 non-smokers. Exclusions: known cardiovascular disease or therapy or acute <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to alcohol, amphetamine, heroin or methadone. Intervention Radial arterial pulse wave tonometry (AtCor, SphygmoCor, Sydney) performed opportunistically and sequentially on patients between 2006 and 2011. Main outcome measure Algorithmically calculated VA. Secondary outcomes: other central haemodynamic variables. Results Differences between group chronological <span class="hlt">ages</span> (CA, 30.47±0.48 to 40.36±2.44, mean±SEM) were controlled with linear regression. Between-group sex differences were controlled by single-sex analysis. Mean cannabis <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among patients was 37.67±7.16 g-years. In regression models controlling for CA, Body Mass Index (BMI), time and inhalant group, the effect of cannabis use on VA was significant in males (p=0.0156) and females (p=0.0084). The effect size in males was 11.84%. A dose–response relationship was demonstrated with lifetime <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (p<0.002) additional to that of tobacco and opioids. In both sexes, the effect of cannabis was robust to adjustment and was unrelated to its acute effects. Significant power interactions between cannabis <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and the square and cube of CA were demonstrated (from p<0.002). Conclusions Cannabis is an interactive cardiovascular risk factor (additional to tobacco and opioids), shows a prominent dose–response effect and is robust to adjustment. Cannabis use is associated with an acceleration of the cardiovascular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156247','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156247"><span>Gender and <span class="hlt">age</span> differences in mixed metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and urinary excretion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berglund, Marika; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Grander, Margaretha; Loennerdal, Bo; Vahter, Marie</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>Background: Little is known about the variation in <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to toxic metals by <span class="hlt">age</span> and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated <span class="hlt">age</span> and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three <span class="hlt">age</span> groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, living in an area with no point sources of metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, <span class="hlt">age</span>, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all <span class="hlt">age</span> groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all <span class="hlt">age</span> groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15901621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15901621"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and progression of <span class="hlt">age</span>-related macular degeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robman, Luba; Mahdi, Olaimatu; McCarty, Catherine; Dimitrov, Peter; Tikellis, Gabriella; McNeil, John; Byrne, Gerald; Taylor, Hugh; Guymer, Robyn</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Recent studies have found an association between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and risk of <span class="hlt">age</span>-related macular degeneration (AMD). To assess a potential risk of AMD progression posed by <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to C. pneumoniae, the authors reexamined Australian residents in 2001-2002 who were <span class="hlt">aged</span> 51-89 years with early AMD at baseline (1992-1995). Examination included macular photography and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine antibody titers to the elementary bodies from C. pneumoniae AR39. AMD progression was assessed quantitatively, using both coarse and fine progression steps following an international classification for AMD grading, and also qualitatively, by side-by-side comparison of baseline and follow-up macular photographs. Serologic data were available for 246 of 254 (97%) subjects. AMD progression was associated with a higher antibody titer. After adjustment for <span class="hlt">age</span>, smoking, family history of AMD, history of cardiovascular diseases, and source study, the subjects in the upper tertiles of antibody titers were 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.92, 4.69), 2.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.24, 5.41), and 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.46, 6.37) times more at risk of progression than those in the lowest tertile, using three definitions of progression, respectively. The fact that seroreactivity to C. pneumoniae was independently associated with the risk of AMD progression suggests that C. pneumoniae infection may be an additional risk factor for AMD progression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26568445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26568445"><span>Early Childhood Household Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at <span class="hlt">Age</span> 10.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and later classroom behavior. Using a longitudinal birth cohort, we examined the unique contribution of household tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to children's subsequent classroom engagement at <span class="hlt">age</span> 10. From child <span class="hlt">ages</span> 1.5 to 7 years, parents of 2,055 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development reported on household smoking by themselves and other home occupants. At <span class="hlt">age</span> 10, fourth-grade teachers reported on the child's classroom engagement. In terms of prevalence, 58% of parents reported that their children were never exposed to smoke in the home, while 34% and 8% of children were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, respectively. Compared with never exposed children, those who were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke scored 13% and 9% of a standard deviation lower on classroom engagement in fourth grade, standardized B = -.128 (95% confidence interval = -.186, -.069) and standardized B = -.093 (95% confidence interval = -.144, -.043), respectively. Compared with their never exposed peers, children exposed to transient and continuous early childhood household smoke showed proportionately less classroom engagement, which reflects task-orientation, following directions, and working well autonomously and with others. This predisposition poses risks for high school dropout, which from a population health perspective is closely linked with at-risk lifestyle habits and unhealthy outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920033556&hterms=grants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgrants','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920033556&hterms=grants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgrants"><span>Ca-41 in iron falls, Grant and Estherville - Production rates and related <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fink, D.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Results are presented of the first phase of a Ca-41 cosmogenic studies program aimed at establishing baseline concentrations and trends in selected meteorites and the use of Ca-41 in estimating <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and preatmospheric meteorite radii. The average Ca-41 saturation activity recorded in four small iron falls is 24 +/-1 dpm/kg. This finding, together with measurements at the center and surface of the large iron Grant, indicates that production of Ca-41 from spallation on iron is weakly dependent on shielding to depths as large as 250 g/sq cm. The (K-41)-Ca-41 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of Grant is estimated at 330 +/-50 My, and an upper limit to its terrestrial <span class="hlt">age</span> of 43 +/-15 ky. A comparison of the Ca-41 contents of stony and metallic material separated from the mesosiderite Estherville identifies low-energy neutron capture on native Ca as a second important channel of production. It is found that the Ca-41 signal in the stone phase from three meteorites correlates with their size, and that the inferred low-energy neutron fluxes vary by a factor of at least 20.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5322167','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5322167"><span>Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to selenium may protect against wheezing in children by the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chastang, Julie; Ibanez, Gladys; Annesi‐Maesano, Isabella</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Introduction It has been suggested that human in utero <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to heavy metals such as selenium can reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma and allergic diseases. However, data on this topic are scarce. The objective of the present study was to assess the putative associations between maternal selenium level during pregnancy and the risk of asthma, wheezing, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in children from the EDEN birth cohort by the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 1 and 3 years. Methods Plasma selenium concentrations were measured in maternal blood during mid‐pregnancy (24–28 weeks of gestation) in 861 mothers. Cohort children were followed up from birth to 3 years using health questionnaires filled out by the parents for asthma, wheezing, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Maternal plasma selenium was related to the childhood outcomes by the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 1 and 3 years. Results Our results showed a significant negative association between a high maternal plasma selenium level during pregnancy and the risk of wheezing in the child by the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 1 and 3 years. However, maternal plasma selenium during pregnancy was not associated with the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the level of fetal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to maternal selenium could have an influence on the risk of wheezing in infancy and potentially on the risk of developing asthma later in life. PMID:28250923</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002907','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002907"><span>Solar Flare Track <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> in Regolith Particles: A Calibration for Transmission Electron Microscope Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mineral grains in lunar and asteroidal regolith samples provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Space weathering effects result from multiple processes including: <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the solar wind, which results in ion damage and implantation effects that are preserved in the rims of grains (typically the outermost 100 nm); cosmic ray and solar flare activity, which result in track formation; and impact processes that result in the accumulation of vapor-deposited elements, impact melts and adhering grains on particle surfaces. Determining the rate at which these effects accumulate in the grains during their space <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is critical to studies of the surface evolution of airless bodies. Solar flare energetic particles (mainly Fe-group nuclei) have a penetration depth of a few millimeters and leave a trail of ionization damage in insulating materials that is readily observable by transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging. The density of solar flare particle tracks is used to infer the length of time an object was at or near the regolith surface (i.e., its <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span>). Track measurements by TEM methods are routine, yet track production rate calibrations have only been determined using chemical etching techniques [e.g., 1, and references therein]. We used focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) sample preparation techniques combined with TEM imaging to determine the track density/<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> relations for lunar rock 64455. The 64455 sample was used earlier by [2] to determine a track production rate by chemical etching of tracks in anorthite. Here, we show that combined FIB/TEM techniques provide a more accurate determination of a track production rate and also allow us to extend the calibration to solar flare tracks in olivine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010049','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010049"><span>Cosmic Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Stony Meteorites: Space Erosion or Yarkovsky?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rubincam, David Parry</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Space erosion from dust impacts may set upper limits on the cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">ages</span> of stony meteorites. A meteoroid orbiting within the asteroid belt is bombarded by both cosmic rays and interplanetary dust particles. Galactic cosmic rays penetrate only the first few meters of the meteoroid; deeper regions are shielded. The dust particle impacts create tiny craters on the meteoroid's surface, wearing it away by space erosion (abrasion) at a particular rate. Hence a particular point inside a meteoroid accumulates cosmic ray products only until that point wears away, limiting CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span>. The results would apply to other regolith-free surfaces in the solar system as well, so that abrasion may set upper CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> limits which depend on the dusty environment. Calculations based on N. Divine's dust populations and on micrometeoroid cratering indicate that stony meteoroids in circular ecliptic orbits at 2 AU will record 21Ne CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of approx.176 x 10(exp 6) years if dust masses are in the range 10(exp -21) - 10(exp -3) kg. This is in broad agreement with the maximum observed CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of approx. 100 x 10(exp 6) years for stones. High erosion rates in the inner solar system may limit the CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) to approx. 120 x 10(exp 6) years. If abrasion should prove to be approx. 6 times quicker than found here, then space erosion may be responsible for many of the measured CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of main belt stony meteorites. In that case the CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> may not measure the drift time to the resonances due to the Yarkovsky effects as in the standard scenario, and that for some reason Yarkovsky is ineffective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667611"><span>The confounded effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history in response to influenza vaccination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mosterín Höpping, Ana; McElhaney, Janet; Fonville, Judith M; Powers, Douglas C; Beyer, Walter E P; Smith, Derek J</p> <p>2016-01-20</p> <p>Numerous studies have explored whether the antibody response to influenza vaccination in elderly adults is as strong as it is in young adults. Results vary, but tend to indicate lower post-vaccination titers (antibody levels) in the elderly, supporting the concept of immunosenescence-the weakening of the immunological response related to <span class="hlt">age</span>. Because the elderly in such studies typically have been vaccinated against influenza before enrollment, a confounding of effects occurs between <span class="hlt">age</span>, and previous <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, as a potential extrinsic reason for immunosenescence. We conducted a four-year study of serial annual immunizations with inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines in 136 young adults (16 to 39 years) and 122 elderly adults (62 to 92 years). Compared to data sets of previously published studies, which were designed to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">age</span>, this detailed longitudinal study with multiple vaccinations allowed us to also study the effect of prior vaccination history on the response to a vaccine. In response to the first vaccination, young adults produced higher post-vaccination titers, accounting for pre-vaccination titers, than elderly adults. However, upon subsequent vaccinations the difference in response to vaccination between the young and elderly <span class="hlt">age</span> groups declined rapidly. Although <span class="hlt">age</span> is an important factor when modeling the outcome of the first vaccination, this term lost its relevance with successive vaccinations. In fact, when we examined the data with the assumption that the elderly group had received (on average) as few as two vaccinations prior to our study, the difference due to <span class="hlt">age</span> disappeared. Our analyses therefore show that the initial difference between the two <span class="hlt">age</span> groups in their response to vaccination may not be uniquely explained by immunosenescence due to <span class="hlt">ageing</span> of the immune system, but could equally be the result of the different pre-study vaccination and infection histories in the elderly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20226811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20226811"><span>The influence of <span class="hlt">age</span> of lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on adult gray matter volume.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brubaker, Christopher J; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Cecil, Kim M</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Childhood lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is associated with decreased cognitive abilities and executive functioning localized within the prefrontal cortex. Several studies have observed stronger associations between blood lead measurements obtained later in life than earlier measures, but there are no imaging studies investigating the developmental trajectory of blood lead levels taken during childhood on adult gray matter volume. In this study, we recruited 157 adults (20.8+/-1.5 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>) from the Cincinnati Lead Study to undergo high resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. Adjusted voxel-wise regression analyses were performed for associations between adult gray matter volume loss and yearly mean blood lead levels from 1 to 6 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> in the entire cohort and by sex. We observed significant inverse associations between gray matter volume loss and annual mean blood lead levels from 3 to 6 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. The extent of prefrontal gray matter associated with yearly mean blood lead levels increased with advancing <span class="hlt">age</span> of the subjects. The inverse associations between gray matter volume loss and yearly mean blood lead measurements were more pronounced in the frontal lobes of men than women. Analysis of women yielded significantly weaker associations between yearly mean blood lead levels and gray matter volume at all <span class="hlt">ages</span> than either men or the combined cohort of men and women together. These results suggest that blood lead concentrations obtained during later childhood demonstrate greater loss in gray matter volume than childhood mean or maximum values. The relationship between childhood blood lead levels and gray matter volume loss was predominantly observed in the frontal lobes of males. This study demonstrates that maximum blood lead levels do not fully account for gray matter changes associated with childhood lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, particularly in the frontal lobes of young men.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4421770','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4421770"><span>Lead <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Tremor among Older Men: The VA Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Power, Melinda C.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Hu, Howard; Louis, Elan D.; Weisskopf, Marc G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Tremor is one of the most common neurological signs, yet its etiology is poorly understood. Case–control studies suggest an association between blood lead and essential tremor, and that this association is modified by polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) gene. Objective: We aimed to examine the relationship between lead and tremor, including modification by ALAD, in a prospective cohort study, using both blood lead and bone lead—a biomarker of cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Methods: We measured tibia (n = 670) and patella (n = 672) bone lead and blood lead (n = 807) among older men (<span class="hlt">age</span> range, 50–98 years) in the VA Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study cohort. A tremor score was created based on an approach using hand-drawing samples. ALAD genotype was dichotomized as ALAD-2 carriers or not. We used linear regression adjusted for <span class="hlt">age</span>, education, smoking, and alcohol intake to estimate the associations between lead biomarkers and tremor score. Results: In unadjusted analyses, there was a marginal association between quintiles of all lead biomarkers and tremor scores (p-values < 0.13), which did not persist in adjusted models. <span class="hlt">Age</span> was the strongest predictor of tremor. Among those younger than the median <span class="hlt">age</span> (68.9 years), tremor increased significantly with blood lead (p = 0.03), but this pattern was not apparent for bone lead. We did not see modification by ALAD or an association between bone lead and change in tremor score over time. Conclusion: Our results do not strongly support an association between lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and tremor, and suggest no association with cumulative lead biomarkers, although there is some suggestion that blood lead may be associated with tremor among the younger men in our cohort. Citation: Ji JS, Power MC, Sparrow D, Spiro A III, Hu H, Louis ED, Weisskopf MG. 2015. Lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and tremor among older men: the VA Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:445–450; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408535</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11419597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11419597"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of the pediatric <span class="hlt">age</span> groups in Cairo City and its suburbs to cadmium pollution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hossny, E; Mokhtar, G; El-Awady, M; Ali, I; Morsy, M; Dawood, A</p> <p>2001-06-12</p> <p>In a trial to assess the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of subjects in the pediatric <span class="hlt">age</span> group to cadmium (Cd) pollution, serum Cd was estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry in 405 subjects, birth-18 years old, from Cairo City and its suburbs. Serum Cd mean concentrations were: 0.92 microg/l in 32 neonates (birth-4 weeks); 1.33 microg/l in 70 infants (4 weeks-2 years); 1.11 microg/l in 100 children in the preschool period (2-6 years); 1.34 microg/l in 103 primary school children (6-12 years); and 1.24 microg/l in 100 adolescents (12-18 years). In neonates, serum Cd was higher in babies with weights and heights that remained below the 5th percentile for <span class="hlt">age</span>. Breast-fed infants had a serum Cd geometric mean level (1.25 microg/l) that was not in accordance to that of their mothers' milk (0.52 microg/l, P < 0.001), suggesting alternative routes of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Environmental tobacco-smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was the most important determinant of Cd status in the school-<span class="hlt">aged</span> children, the geometric mean being 1.42 microg/l in passive smokers vs. 1.2 microg/l in non-exposed children (P < 0.05). Moreover, adolescents who were active smokers had a significantly higher serum Cd level (1.7 microg/l) as compared to non-smokers (1.2 microg/l). Gender did influence the Cd status in adolescents, being higher among males, probably related to smoking, or to the difference in lifestyle of adolescents according to gender in the community. Alpha-1-microglobulinuria was accompanied by a higher serum Cd concentration in the group of adolescents only, suggesting a subclinical renal effect after several years of cumulative <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The residential classification, whether urban or suburban, did not influence the serum Cd status; neither did the present or past history of bronchial asthma. These findings certainly justify further evaluation of the problem of Cd pollution among Cairene individuals, knowing the long-term consequences of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to it. Systematic efforts for the proper disposal of Cd wastes and prevention</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22521807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22521807"><span>Early <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ethanol differentially affects ethanol preference at adult <span class="hlt">age</span> in two inbred mouse strains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Molet, Jenny; Bouaziz, Elodie; Hamon, Michel; Lanfumey, Laurence</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Although the acute effects of ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on brain development have been extensively studied, the long term consequences of juvenile ethanol intake on behavior at adult <span class="hlt">age</span>, regarding especially ethanol consumption, are still poorly known. The aim of this study was to analyze the consequences of ethanol ingestion in juvenile C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice on ethanol intake and neurobiological regulations at adulthood. Mice were given intragastric ethanol at 4 weeks of <span class="hlt">age</span> under different protocols and their spontaneous ethanol consumption was assessed in a free choice paradigm at adulthood. Both serotonin 5-HT(1A) and cannabinoid CB1 receptors were investigated using [(35)S]GTP-γ-S binding assay for the juvenile ethanol regimens which modified adult ethanol consumption. In DBA/2J mice, juvenile ethanol ingestion dose-dependently promoted adult spontaneous ethanol consumption. This early ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> enhanced 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor-mediated [(35)S]GTP-γ-S binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus and reduced CB1 receptor-mediated G protein coupling in both the striatum and the globus pallidus at adult <span class="hlt">age</span>. In contrast, early ethanol ingestion by C57BL/6J mice transiently lowered spontaneous ethanol consumption and increased G protein coupling of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in the hippocampus but had no effect on CB1 receptors at adulthood. These results show that a brief and early <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ethanol can induce strain-dependent long-lasting changes in both behavior toward ethanol and key receptors of central 5-HT and CB systems in mice.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4407M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4407M"><span>Rock Formation and Cosmic Radiation <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> in Gale Crater Mudstones from the Mars Science Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahaffy, Paul; Farley, Ken; Malespin, Charles; Gellert, Ralph; Grotzinger, John</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been utilized to secure abundances of 3He, 21Ne, 36Ar, and 40Ar thermally evolved from the mudstone in the stratified Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale Crater. As reported by Farley et al. [1] these measurements of cosmogenic and radiogenic noble gases together with Cl and K abundances measured by MSL's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer enable a K-Ar rock formation <span class="hlt">age</span> of 4.21+0.35 Ga to be established as well as a surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> to cosmic radiation of 78+30 Ma. Understanding surface <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to cosmic radiation is relevant to the MSL search for organic compounds since even the limited set of studies carried out, to date, indicate that even 10's to 100's of millions of years of near surface (1-3 meter) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> may transform a significant fraction of the organic compounds exposed to this radiation [2,3,4]. Transformation of potential biosignatures and even loss of molecular structural information in compounds that could point to exogenous or endogenous sources suggests a new paradigm in the search for near surface organics that incorporates a search for the most recently exposed outcrops through erosional processes. The K-Ar rock formation <span class="hlt">age</span> determination shows promise for more precise in situ measurements that may help calibrate the martian cratering record that currently relies on extrapolation from the lunar record with its ground truth chronology with returned samples. We will discuss the protocol for the in situ noble gas measurements secured with SAM and ongoing studies to optimize these measurements using the SAM testbed. References: [1] Farley, K.A.M Science Magazine, 342, (2013). [2] G. Kminek et al., Earth Planet Sc Lett 245, 1 (2006). [3] Dartnell, L.R., Biogeosciences 4, 545 (2007). [4] Pavlov, A. A., et al. Geophys Res Lett 39, 13202 (2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26247686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26247686"><span>Perinatal dioxin <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and the neurodevelopment of Vietnamese toddlers at 1 year of <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pham, Tai The; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Van Hoang, Luong; Tran, Anh Hai; Nguyen, Trung Viet; Nishijo, Hisao</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in both the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. This may potentially have adverse health effects, particularly on infant neurodevelopment. We followed 214 infants whose mothers resided in a dioxin-contaminated area in Da Nang, Vietnam, from birth until 1 year of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Perinatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to dioxins was estimated from toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) concentrations in breast milk. In infants, daily dioxin intake (DDI) was used as an index of postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> through breastfeeding. Neurodevelopment of toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). No significant differences in neurodevelopmental scores were exhibited for cognitive, language or motor functions between four <span class="hlt">exposure</span> groups of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ or 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. However, social-emotional scores were decreased in the high PCDDs/Fs-TEQ group and the high 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD group compared with those with mild <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, after adjusting for confounding factors. Cognitive scores in the mild, moderate, and high DDI groups were significantly higher than those in low DDI group, but there were no differences in cognitive scores among the three higher DDI groups. These results suggest that perinatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to dioxins may affect social-emotional development of 1-year-old toddlers, without diminishing global neurodevelopmental function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=251201','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=251201"><span>Interaction between <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation and <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing in the disruption of operant performance using a ground-based model for <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cosmic rays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to HZE particles produces deficits in cognitive performance. While previous research has shown a progressive deterioration in cognitive performance in radiated rats as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span>, the present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation independently of the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029698','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029698"><span>Surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Front Range moraines that may have formed during the Younger Dryas, 8.2 cal ka, and Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Benson, L.; Madole, R.; Kubik, P.; McDonald, R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> (10Be) <span class="hlt">ages</span> have been obtained on boulders from three post-Pinedale end-moraine complexes in the Front Range, Colorado. Boulder rounding appears related to the cirque-to-moraine transport distance at each site with subrounded boulders being typical of the 2-km-long Chicago Lakes Glacier, subangular boulders being typical of the 1-km-long Butler Gulch Glacier, and angular boulders being typical of the few-hundred-m-long Isabelle Glacier. Surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of angular boulders from the Isabelle Glacier moraine, which formed during the Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> (LIA) according to previous lichenometric dating, indicate cosmogenic inheritance values ranging from 0 to ???3.0 10Be ka.11Surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> in this paper are labeled 10Be; radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> are labeled 14C ka, calendar and calibrated radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> are labeled cal ka, and layer-based ice-core <span class="hlt">ages</span> are labeled ka. 14C <span class="hlt">ages</span>, calibrated 14C <span class="hlt">ages</span>, and ice core <span class="hlt">ages</span> are given relative to AD 1950, whereas 10Be <span class="hlt">ages</span> are given relative to the sampling date. Radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> were calibrated using CALIB 5.01 and the INTCAL04 data base Stuiver et al. (2005). <span class="hlt">Ages</span> estimated using CALIB 5.01 are shown in terms of their 1-sigma range. Subangular boulders from the Butler Gulch end moraine yielded surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> ranging from 5 to 10.2 10Be ka. We suggest that this moraine was deposited during the 8.2 cal ka event, which has been associated with outburst floods from Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway, and that the large <span class="hlt">age</span> range associated with the Butler Gulch end moraine is caused by cosmogenic shielding of and(or) spalling from boulders that have <span class="hlt">ages</span> in the younger part of the range and by cosmogenic inheritance in boulders that have <span class="hlt">ages</span> in the older part of the range. The surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of eight of nine subrounded boulders from the Chicago Lakes area fall within the 13.0-11.7 10Be ka <span class="hlt">age</span> range, and appear to have been deposited during the Younger Dryas interval. The general lack of inheritance in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5147859','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5147859"><span>Association of Prenatal Ibuprofen <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> with Birth Weight and Gestational <span class="hlt">Age</span>: A Population-Based Sibling Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nezvalová-Henriksen, Kateřina; Wood, Mollie; Spigset, Olav; Nordeng, Hedvig</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives Three studies so far have investigated the effect of prenatal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on birth weight and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. The aim in this study was to evaluate the association of prenatal ibuprofen with birth weight and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> at birth, using a sibling design in an attempt to adjust for the possibility of familial confounding. Design Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN), we identified 28 597 siblings, of whom 1080 were prenatally exposed to ibuprofen and 26 824 were not exposed to any NSAID. Random and fixed effects models with propensity score adjustment were used to evaluate the effects of ibuprofen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on birth weight and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. Results Ibuprofen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during the first trimester was associated with a decrease in birth weight of 79 grams (95% confidence interval -133 to -25 grams). In contrast, second and/or third trimester <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and duration of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> had no impact on the effect estimates. We found no association between ibuprofen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> at birth. Conclusions Our results suggest that prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ibuprofen during the first trimester is associated with a slight decrease in birth weight. The association does not seem to be attributable to shared genetics and family environment, and could be explained by either <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ibuprofen, or to non-shared confounding between pregnancies. PMID:27936000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252317&keyword=superoxide&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78184672&CFTOKEN=90346390','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252317&keyword=superoxide&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78184672&CFTOKEN=90346390"><span>Effect of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and <span class="hlt">Age</span> on the Signaling Pathway of Ultrafine Particulate Matter <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in Murine Aorta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Epidemiological studies have linked ultrafine particulate matter (PM) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Advanced <span class="hlt">age</span> is one ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.110..190M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.110..190M"><span>Heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> at the birth of the Solar System: Evidence from corundum-bearing refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Hellebrand, Eric; Petaev, Michail I.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>We report on the mineralogy, petrology, and in situ oxygen- and magnesium-isotope measurements using secondary ion mass spectrometry of 10 corundum-bearing calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Adelaide (ungrouped), Murray and Murchison (CM) carbonaceous chondrites. We also measured in situ oxygen-isotope compositions of several isolated corundum grains in the matrices of Murray and Murchison. Most of the corundum-bearing objects studied are uniformly 16O-rich [Δ17O values range from -17‰ to -28‰ (2σ = ±2.5‰) (Δ17Oavr = -23 ± 5‰)], suggesting that they formed in a 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition and largely avoided subsequent thermal processing in an 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. There is a large spread of the initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratio [(<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0] in the corundum-bearing CAIs. Two Adelaide CAIs show no resolvable excess of radiogenic 26Mg (δ26Mg∗): the inferred (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 are (0.6 ± 2.0) × 10-6 and (-0.9 ± 1.2) × 10-6, respectively. Slopes of the model <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg isochrons in five CAIs from Murray and Murchison are (4.4 ± 0.2) × 10-5, (3.3 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (4.1 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (3.9 ± 0.4) × 10-5, and (4.0 ± 2.0) × 10-6, respectively. These values are lower than the canonical (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 ratio of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10-5 inferred from the whole-rock magnesium-isotope measurements of the CV CAIs, but similar to the (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 ratio of (4.1 ± 0.2) × 10-5 in the corundum-bearing CAI F5 from Murray. Five other previously studied corundum-bearing CAIs from Acfer 094 (ungrouped) and CM carbonaceous chondrites showed no resolvable δ26Mg∗. We conclude that the corundum-bearing CAIs, as well as the solar corundum grains from matrices and acid-resistant residues of unequilibrated ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites, recorded heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the Solar System during an epoch of CAI formation. The <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor corundum-bearing CAIs and solar corundum grains represent different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12691787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12691787"><span>Prenatal cocaine and/or nicotine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> produces depression and anxiety in <span class="hlt">aging</span> rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sobrian, Sonya K; Marr, Lara; Ressman, Katherine</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>The adult use of cocaine and nicotine has been linked to depression and/or anxiety. Changes in emotional behavior were assessed using behavioral paradigms developed as animal analogs of psychiatric disorders in 12-14 month old Sprague-Dawley rats exposed daily on gestational days 8-20 to cocaine and nicotine, either alone or in combination. Results from the elevated plus maze (EPM), used to assess anxiety-related behaviors, indicated that offspring prenatally exposed to either high-dose cocaine (40 mg/kg/day) or high-dose nicotine (5.0 mg/kg/day) were less timid/more impulsive. Animals from these two groups spent the most time on the open arms, and had the highest percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM. Combined in utero <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cocaine and nicotine nullified these effects. Cocaine challenge (20 mg/kg) did not interact with prenatal treatment, but increased activity on all arms of the EPM in all groups. Sucrose preference was used as a measure of anhedonia, a cardinal symptom of depressive illness. Reduced sucrose preference was seen only in the group of offspring prenatally exposed to high-dose cocaine (40 mg/kg) plus low-dose nicotine (2.5 mg/kg/day). <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to a water-deprivation stress normalized sucrose preference in this group, without altering preference or intake in the other prenatal treatment groups. Transient hyperactivity was seen in the offspring of dams treated with high-dose nicotine, an effect that was again reversed in combined drug groups. Traditional gender differences in activity levels and sucrose intake, that is, females greater than males, were still evident in this population of <span class="hlt">aging</span> rats. These data indicate that prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cocaine and/or nicotine has long-term effects on emotional behavior. Combined drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> contributed to the development of depressive symptoms, but not anxiety-like behavior, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to high doses of either drug alone reduced cautionary behavior</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170000486','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170000486"><span>The Relationship Between Cosmic-Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> And Mixing Of CM Chondrite Lithologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zolensky, M. E.; Takenouchi, A.; Gregory, T.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, A.; Le, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Carbonaceous (C) chondrites are primitive materials probably deriving from C, P and D asteroids, and as such potentially include samples and analogues of the target asteroids of the Dawn, Hayabusa2 and OSIRIS-Rex missions. Foremost among the C chondrites are the CM chondrites, the most common type, and which have experienced the widest range of early solar system processes including oxidation, hydration, metamorphism, and impact shock deformation, often repeatedly or cyclically [1]. To track the activity of these processes in the early solar system, it is critical to learn how many separate bodies are represented by the CMs. Nishiizumi and Caffee [2] have reported that the CMs are unique in displaying several distinct peaks for cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">age</span> groups, and that excavation from significant depth and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as small entities in space is the best explanation for the observed radionuclide data. There are either 3 or 4 CRE groups for CMs (Fig.1). We decided to systematically characterize the petrography in each of the CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences with these reflecting different parent asteroid geological processing or multiple original bodies. We previously re-ported preliminary results of our work [3], however we have now reexamined these meteorites from the perspective of brecciation, with interesting new results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/159352','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/159352"><span>The importance of <span class="hlt">age</span> and smoking in evaluating adverse cytogenetic effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to environmental agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tucker, J.D.; Moore, D.H. II</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes (``chromosome painting``) is a reliable and efficient method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations. Painting is now being used to quantify chromosome damage in many human populations. In one such study we evaluated 91 unexposed people ranging in <span class="hlt">age</span> from birth (cord bloods) to 79. We established a baseline frequency of stable aberrations that showed a highly significant curvi-linear increase with <span class="hlt">age</span> (p < 0.00001) that accounted for 70% of the variance between donors. The magnitude of this effect illustrates the importance of understanding the cytogenetic changes that occur with <span class="hlt">age</span>, which is particularly important for quantifying the effects of prior adverse environmental, occupational, or accidental <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. In this paper we use the data obtained in our previous study to characterize the distribution of stable aberrations by <span class="hlt">age</span> and pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also provide estimates of the number of cell equivalents that need to be scored to detect a given increase in aberrations above the background level surveyed in this population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.2339S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.2339S"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to radiation accelerates normal brain <span class="hlt">aging</span> and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.</p> <p></p> <p>Previous studies have shown that radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in <span class="hlt">aged</span> animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism; oxidative stress damage to the central nervous system caused by an increased release of reactive oxygen species is likely responsible for the deficits seen in <span class="hlt">aging</span> and following irradiation. Both <span class="hlt">aged</span> and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a "map" provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces <span class="hlt">age</span>-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMB....55.1767C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMB....55.1767C"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span>-dependent tissue-specific <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of cell phone users</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Christopoulou, Maria; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative <span class="hlt">exposure</span> estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent dielectric tissue properties and <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of <span class="hlt">age</span>. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70094758','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70094758"><span>Rates of sediment supply to arroyos from upland erosion determined using in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Clapp, Erik M.; Bierman, Paul R.; Nichols, Kyle K.; Pavich, Milan; Caffee, Marc A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Using 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> measured in sediment and bedrock, we quantify rates of upland erosion and sediment supply to a small basin in northwestern New Mexico. This and many other similar basins in the southwestern United States have been affected by cycles of arroyo incision and backfilling several times in the past few millennia. The sediment generation (275 ± 65 g m−2 yr−1) and bedrock equivalent lowering rates (102 ± 24 m myr−1) we determine are sufficient to support at least three arroyo cycles in the past 3,000 years, consistent with rates calculated from a physical sediment budget within the basin and regional rates determined using other techniques. Nuclide concentrations measured in different sediment sources and reservoirs suggest that the arroyo is a good spatial and temporal integrator of sediment and associated nuclide concentrations from throughout the basin, that the basin is in steady-state, and that nuclide concentration is independent of sediment grain size. Differences between nuclide concentrations measured in sediment sources and reservoirs reflect sediment residence times and indicate that subcolluvial bedrock weathering on hillslopes supplies more sediment to the basin than erosion of exposed bedrock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001QuRes..55..235C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001QuRes..55..235C"><span>Rates of Sediment Supply to Arroyos from Upland Erosion Determined Using in Situ Produced Cosmogenic 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clapp, Erik M.; Bierman, Paul R.; Nichols, Kyle K.; Pavich, Milan; Caffee, Marc</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>Using 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> measured in sediment and bedrock, we quantify rates of upland erosion and sediment supply to a small basin in northwestern New Mexico. This and many other similar basins in the southwestern United States have been affected by cycles of arroyo incision and backfilling several times in the past few millennia. The sediment generation (275 ± 65 g m-2 yr-1) and bedrock equivalent lowering rates (102 ± 24 m myr-1) we determine are sufficient to support at least three arroyo cycles in the past 3,000 years, consistent with rates calculated from a physical sediment budget within the basin and regional rates determined using other techniques. Nuclide concentrations measured in different sediment sources and reservoirs suggest that the arroyo is a good spatial and temporal integrator of sediment and associated nuclide concentrations from throughout the basin, that the basin is in steady-state, and that nuclide concentration is independent of sediment grain size. Differences between nuclide concentrations measured in sediment sources and reservoirs reflect sediment residence times and indicate that subcolluvial bedrock weathering on hillslopes supplies more sediment to the basin than erosion of exposed bedrock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24975924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24975924"><span>Adolescent bisphenol-A <span class="hlt">exposure</span> decreases dendritic spine density: role of sex and <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Khandaker, Hameda; Villafane, Joseph J; Frankfurt, Maya</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Bisphenol-A (BPA), a common environmental endocrine disruptor, modulates estrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic effects throughout the lifespan. We recently showed that low dose BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during adolescence increases anxiety and impairs spatial memory independent of sex. In this study, six week old Sprague Dawley rats (n=24 males, n=24 females) received daily subcutaneous injections (40 µg/kg bodyweight) of BPA or vehicle for one week. Serum corticosterone levels in response to a 1 h restraint stress and spine density were examined at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 (cohort 1) and 11 (cohort 2) weeks. Adolescent BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> did not alter stress dependent corticosterone responses but decreased spine density on apical and basal dendrites of pyramidal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampal CA1 region (CA1). Sex differences in spine density were observed on basal dendrites of the mPFC and CA1 with females having greater spine density than males. This sex difference was further augmented by both <span class="hlt">age</span> and treatment, with results indicating that BPA-dependent decreases in spine density were more pronounced in males than females on mPFC basal dendrites. Importantly, the robust neuronal alterations were observed in animals exposed to BPA levels below the current U.S.E.P.A. recommended safe daily limit. These results are the first demonstrating that BPA given during adolescence leads to enduring effects on neural morphology at adulthood. Given that humans are routinely exposed to low levels of BPA through a variety of sources, the decreased spine density reported in both male and female rats after BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> warrants further investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24950298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24950298"><span>Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in youth football: middle school <span class="hlt">ages</span> 12-14 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Daniel, Ray W; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> experienced by football players at the college and high school levels has been well documented; however, there are limited data regarding youth football despite its dramatically larger population. The objective of this study was to investigate head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in middle school football. Impacts were monitored using a commercially available accelerometer array installed inside the helmets of 17 players <span class="hlt">aged</span> 12-14 years. A total of 4678 impacts were measured, with an average (±standard deviation) of 275 ± 190 impacts per player. The average of impact distributions for each player had a median impact of 22 ± 2 g and 954 ± 122 rad/s², and a 95th percentile impact of 54 ± 9 g and 2525 ± 450 rad/s². Similar to the head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> experienced by high school and collegiate players, these data show that middle school football players experience a greater number of head impacts during games than practices. There were no significant differences between median and 95th percentile head acceleration magnitudes experienced during games and practices; however, a larger number of impacts greater than 80 g occurred during games than during practices. Impacts to the front and back of the helmet were most common. Overall, these data are similar to high school and college data that have been collected using similar methods. These data have applications toward youth football helmet design, the development of strategies designed to limit head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and child-specific brain injury criteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014605','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014605"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> Induced Effects on ESD Characteristics of Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental <span class="hlt">Exposures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons provided by Space Systems/Loral were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined space environment <span class="hlt">exposure</span> tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is performing electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels [ISO-11221]. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of four cells constructed to form two strings. The ESD tests were performed at the beginning-of-life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment <span class="hlt">exposure</span> point until end-of-life (EOL) at 15 years. The space environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> sequence consisted of ultra-violet radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and Xenon ion thruster plume erosion. This paper describes the ESD test setup and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Arc inception voltage results along with ESD test behavior from the BOL condition through the 15th year <span class="hlt">age</span> condition are discussed. In addition, results from a Xenon plasma plume <span class="hlt">exposure</span> test with an EOL coupon under the full ESD test condition will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444396','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444396"><span>SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF ETHANOL: IMPACT OF <span class="hlt">AGE</span>, STRESS AND PRIOR HISTORY OF ETHANOL <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at both <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431835"><span>Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of <span class="hlt">age</span>, stress, and prior history of ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at both <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28070400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28070400"><span>Correlation of objectively measured light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and serum vitamin D in men <span class="hlt">aged</span> over 60 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fields, Alison J; Linnville, Steven E; Hoyt, Robert E</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Diminished vitamin D is common among older individuals. Sunlight contributes more to vitamin D synthesis than diet or supplementation. This study examined associations between objectively measured light <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, vitamin D serum levels, and bone biomarkers in 100 men <span class="hlt">aged</span> over 60 years. Light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was measured in lux via Actigraph monitors for 1 week. Significantly, greater levels of vitamin D were observed in participants with higher light <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Seasonal differences in lux were also noted. Significant differences in bone markers were not found. Objective measurement of light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is an inexpensive, simple, and effective way to address vitamin D deficiency.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001RScI...72..822W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001RScI...72..822W"><span>Study of the 27Al(n,2n)<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> reaction and its potential for ion-temperature measurements (abstract)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wallner, A.; Chuvaev, S. V.; Filatenkov, A. A.; Ikeda, Y.; Kutschera, W.; Vonach, H.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A detailed measurement of the 27Al(n,2n)<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> reaction cross sections was performed in the near-threshold region (Eth=13.54 MeV), and its possible applicability for ion temperature measurements was investigated. The production of the long-lived radionuclide <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> (t1/2=7.2×105 a) is of considerable interest to the fusion reactor program. Particularly long-lived radionuclides may lead to a significant long-term waste-disposal. Al-containing materials and Si carbide are candidate materials for fusion-reactor systems. The Al(n,2n) reaction and the two step process 28Si(n,np+d)27Al(n,2n) are the dominating processes for the formation of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in a fusion reactor.1 The 27Al(n,2n)<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> reaction is expected to vary strongly with neutron energy above threshold. An accurate description of the excitation function is necessary to estimate the production of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in a typical D-T fusion environment. From the existing data on cross sections it was not possible to produce an unambiguous excitation function. We started therefore a project to determine this excitation function more accurately. It has been pointed out by Smither and Greenwood2 that the 27Al(n,2n)<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> reaction can be used as a monitor to determine the ion temperature in a D-T fusion plasma. This method makes use of the neutron energy distribution as a sensitive function of the plasma ion temperature. The temperature sensitivity is most pronounced if the excitation function is strongly nonlinear and if the threshold falls within the energy region of the emitted neutrons: For the 27Al(n,2n)<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> reaction the threshold lies at 13.54 MeV and the (n,2n) reaction is expected to a strongly varying function of the neutron energy near threshold. Al samples were irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons generated via the T(d,n)4He reaction at three different laboratories under different conditions. The produced <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> was measured using the extremely sensitive method of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al isotope ratios as low as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4982163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4982163"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span>-Specific and <span class="hlt">Age</span>-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H.; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by <span class="hlt">age</span> group: 43% for children <2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>; 30% for those 5–14 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>; and >60% for adults >30 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Compared with risk for persons 20–29 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, <span class="hlt">exposure</span>-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5–9 (0.70), 10–14 (0.64), and 15–19 (0.71) years of <span class="hlt">age</span> but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2–4 (0.97) years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Lower risk for 5–19-year-olds, after adjustment for <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26593931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26593931"><span>Mercury <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in Healthy Korean Weaning-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>Low-level mercury (Hg) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for <span class="hlt">age</span>-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> through</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990025095&hterms=history+probability&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhistory%2Bprobability','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990025095&hterms=history+probability&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhistory%2Bprobability"><span>Cosmic-Ray-<span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Diogenites and the Collisional History of the HED Parent Body or Bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; vanderBorg, K.; Loeken, T.; Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Cosmic-ray-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of meteorites provide information on the collisional history of their parent bodies and the delivery mechanism of meteorites to Earth. The <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> distributions of ordinary chondrites show distinct patterns for H, L, and LL types, consistent with their origin on different parent bodies. The <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> distributions of howardites, eucrites. and diogenites (HEDS) show a common pattern with major peaks at 22 Ma and 38 Ma This provides additional evidence for a common origin of the HED meteorites, possibly 4 Vesta, although orbital dynamics calculations showed that the delivery of meteorites from Vesta to Earth is difficult. However, the discovery of several kilometer-sized Vesta-like asteroids in the region between Vesta and the 3:1 resonance suggested that these seem more likely parent bodies of the HEDs than Vesta itself. This implies that the <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> clusters may represent samples of several parent bodies. Therefore, the near-absence of diogenites with <span class="hlt">ages</span> <20 Ma might be of interest for the composition of these kilometer-sized fragments of Vesta. Here we present cosmic-ray-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 20 diogenites, including 9 new meteorites. In addition, we calculate the probability for each peak to occur by chance, assuming a constant production rate of HED fragments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...637314D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...637314D"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">ageing</span> process accelerates the release of Ag from functional textile in various <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, Dahu; Chen, Lulu; Dong, Shaowei; Cai, Hao; Chen, Jifei; Jiang, Canlan; Cai, Tianming</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Natural <span class="hlt">ageing</span> process occurs throughout the life cycle of textile products, which may possess influences on the release behavior of additives such as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). In this study, we assessed the releasability of Ag NPs from a Ag NPs functionalized textile in five different <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenarios (i.e. tap water (TW), pond water (PW), rain water (RW), artificial sweat (AS), and detergent solution (DS) along with deionized water (DW) as reference), which were very likely to occur throughout the life cycle of the textile. For the pristine textile, although the most remarkable release was found in DW (6–15 μg Ag/g textile), the highest release rate was found in RW (around 7 μg Ag/(g textile·h)). After <span class="hlt">ageing</span> treatment, the total released Ag could be increased by 75.7~386.0% in DW, AS and DS. Morphological analysis clearly showed that the Ag NPs were isolated from the surface of the textile fibre due to the <span class="hlt">ageing</span> treatment. This study provides useful information for risk assessment of nano-enhanced textile products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25725388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25725388"><span>Characteristics of H2S emission from <span class="hlt">aged</span> refuse after excavation <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Dong-Sheng; Du, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Li-Fang; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Hydrogen sulfide (H2S(g)) emission from landfills is a widespread problem, especially when <span class="hlt">aged</span> refuse is excavated. H2S(g) emission from <span class="hlt">aged</span> refuse exposed to air was investigated and the results showed that large amounts of H2S(g) can be released, especially in the first few hours after excavation, when H2S(g) concentrations in air near refuse could reach 2.00 mg m(-3). Initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air did not inhibit the emission of H2S(g), as is generally assumed, but actually promoted it. The amounts of H2S(g) emitted in the first 2 d after excavation can be very dangerous, and the risks associated with the emission of H2S(g) could decrease significantly with time. Unlike a large number of sulfide existed under anaerobic conditions, the sulfide in <span class="hlt">aged</span> municipal solid waste can be oxidized chemically to elemental sulfur (but not sulfate) under aerobic conditions, and its conversion rate was higher than 80%. Only microorganisms can oxidize the reduced sulfur species to sulfate, and the conversion rate could reach about 50%. Using appropriate techniques to enhance these chemical and biological transformations could allow the potential health risks caused by H2S(g) after refuse excavation to be largely avoided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5116759','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5116759"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">ageing</span> process accelerates the release of Ag from functional textile in various <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ding, Dahu; Chen, Lulu; Dong, Shaowei; Cai, Hao; Chen, Jifei; Jiang, Canlan; Cai, Tianming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Natural <span class="hlt">ageing</span> process occurs throughout the life cycle of textile products, which may possess influences on the release behavior of additives such as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). In this study, we assessed the releasability of Ag NPs from a Ag NPs functionalized textile in five different <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenarios (i.e. tap water (TW), pond water (PW), rain water (RW), artificial sweat (AS), and detergent solution (DS) along with deionized water (DW) as reference), which were very likely to occur throughout the life cycle of the textile. For the pristine textile, although the most remarkable release was found in DW (6–15 μg Ag/g textile), the highest release rate was found in RW (around 7 μg Ag/(g textile·h)). After <span class="hlt">ageing</span> treatment, the total released Ag could be increased by 75.7~386.0% in DW, AS and DS. Morphological analysis clearly showed that the Ag NPs were isolated from the surface of the textile fibre due to the <span class="hlt">ageing</span> treatment. This study provides useful information for risk assessment of nano-enhanced textile products. PMID:27869136</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869136"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">ageing</span> process accelerates the release of Ag from functional textile in various <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenarios.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ding, Dahu; Chen, Lulu; Dong, Shaowei; Cai, Hao; Chen, Jifei; Jiang, Canlan; Cai, Tianming</p> <p>2016-11-21</p> <p>Natural <span class="hlt">ageing</span> process occurs throughout the life cycle of textile products, which may possess influences on the release behavior of additives such as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). In this study, we assessed the releasability of Ag NPs from a Ag NPs functionalized textile in five different <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenarios (i.e. tap water (TW), pond water (PW), rain water (RW), artificial sweat (AS), and detergent solution (DS) along with deionized water (DW) as reference), which were very likely to occur throughout the life cycle of the textile. For the pristine textile, although the most remarkable release was found in DW (6-15 μg Ag/g textile), the highest release rate was found in RW (around 7 μg Ag/(g textile·h)). After <span class="hlt">ageing</span> treatment, the total released Ag could be increased by 75.7~386.0% in DW, AS and DS. Morphological analysis clearly showed that the Ag NPs were isolated from the surface of the textile fibre due to the <span class="hlt">ageing</span> treatment. This study provides useful information for risk assessment of nano-enhanced textile products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9718N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9718N"><span><span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> - 10Be cosmogenic nuclide isochron burial dating in combination with luminescence dating of two Danube terraces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neuhuber, Stephanie; Braumann, Sandra; Lüthgens, Christopher; Fiebig, Markus; Häuselmann, Philipp; Schäfer, Jörg</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Quaternary sediment record in the Vienna Basin is influenced by two main factors: (1) the tectonic development of a pull apart basin along a sinistral strike slip fault system between the Eastern Alps and the West Carpathians and by (2) strongly varying sediment supply during the Plio- and Pleistocene. From the Late Pannonian (8.8 Ma) onward a large-scale regional uplift (Decker et al., 2005) controls terrace formation in the Vienna Basin. The main sediment supply into the Vienna Basin originates from the Danube, and subordinately from tributaries to the south such as Piesting, Fischa, Leitha and from the north by the river March. Today the Danube forms a large floodplain that is bordered to the north by one large Pleistocene terrace, the Gänserndorf Terrace that is situated 17 m above todays water level. Farther to the east a smaller terrace, the Schlosshof Terrace, reaches 25 m above todays water level. These terrace levels are tilted by movement of underlying blocks (Peresson, 2006). Both, the Schlosshof and Gänserndorf terraces consist of successions of up to 2 m thick gravel beds with intercalated sand layers or -lenses that may locally reach thicknesses up to 0.8 m. At each terrace one gavel pit was selected to calculate the time of terrace deposition by luminescence dating in combination with <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be cosmogenic nuclide isochrone dating (Balco and Rovery, 2008). Five quartz stones from the base of each terrace were physically and chemically processed to obtain Al and Be oxides for Acceleration Mass Spectrometry. Sand samples for luminescence dating were taken above the cosmogenic nuclide samples from the closest suitable sand body. Decker et al., 2005. QSR 24, 307-322 Peresson, 2006 Geologie der österreichischen Bundesländer Niederösterreich 255-258 Balco and Rovey, 2008. AJS 908, 1083-1114 Thanks to FWF P 23138-N19, OMAA 90öu17</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/277041','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/277041"><span>Measurement of proton production cross sections of {sup 10}Be and {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> from elements found in lunar rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sisterson, J.M.; Kim, K.; Englert, P.A.J.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Cosmic rays penetrate the lunar surface and interact with the lunar rocks to produce both radionuclides and stable nuclides. Production depth profiles for long-lived radionuclides produce in lunar rocks are measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). For a particular radionuclide these production depth profiles can be interpreted to give an estimate for the solar proton flux over a time period characterized by the half life of the radionuclide under study. This analysis is possible if and only if all the cross sections for the interactions of all cosmic ray particles with all elements found in lunar rocks are well known. In practice, the most important cross sections needed are the proton production cross sections, because 98% of solar cosmic rays and {similar_to}87% of galactic cosmic rays are protons. The cross sections for the production of long-lived radionuclides were very difficult to measure before the development of AMS and only in recent years has significant progress been made in determining these essential cross sections. Oxygen and silicon are major constituents of lunar rocks. We have reported already {sup 14}C production cross sections from O and Si for proton energies 25-500 MeV, and O(p,x){sup 10}Be from 58 160 MeV[6]. Here we present new measurements for the cross sections O(p,x){sup 10}Be,O(p,x){sup 7}Be, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be,Si(p,x){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and Si(p,x){sup 22}Na from {approximately}30 - 500 MeV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24889798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24889798"><span>Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation after wood smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in a reconstructed Viking <span class="hlt">Age</span> house.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jensen, Annie; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Christensen, Jannie Marie; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Sigsgaard, Torben; Glasius, Marianne; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to particles from combustion of wood is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas there is limited knowledge about systemic effects. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in humans who lived in a reconstructed Viking <span class="hlt">Age</span> house, with indoor combustion of wood for heating and cooking. The subjects were exposed to high indoor concentrations of PM2.5 (700-3,600 µg/m(3)), CO (10.7-15.3 ppm) and NO2 (140-154 µg/m(3)) during a 1-week stay. Nevertheless, there were unaltered levels of genotoxicity, determined as DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 sensitive sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. There were also unaltered expression levels of OGG1, HMOX1, CCL2, IL8, and TNF levels in leukocytes. In serum, there were unaltered levels of C-reactive protein, IL6, IL8, TNF, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins. The wood smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with decreased serum levels of sICAM-1, and a tendency to decreased sVCAM-1 levels. There was a minor increase in the levels of circulating monocytes expressing CD31, whereas there were unaltered expression levels of CD11b, CD49d, and CD62L on monocytes after the stay in the house. In conclusion, even a high inhalation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to wood smoke was associated with limited systemic effects on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation, and monocyte activation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150001916','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150001916"><span>Lithologies Making Up CM Carbonaceous Chondrites and Their Link to Space <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregory, Timothy; Zolensky, Michael E.; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Velbel, Michael A.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chondrite parent bodies are among the first large bodies to have formed in the early Solar System, and have since remained almost chemically unchanged having not grown large enough or quickly enough to undergo differentiation. Their major nonvolatile elements bear a close resemblance to the solar photosphere. Previous work has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct space <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> groups (0.1 Ma, 0.2 Ma, 0.6 Ma and >2.0 Ma), but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002827','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002827"><span>Lithologies Making Up CM Carbonaceous Chondrites and Their Link to Space <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregory, Timothy; Zolensky, Michael E.; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Velbel, Michael A.; Nishiizumi, Kuni</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chondrite parent bodies are among the first large bodies to have formed in the early Solar System, and have since remained almost chemically unchanged having not grown large enough or quickly enough to undergo differentiation. Their major nonvolatile elements bear a close resemblance to the solar photosphere. Previous work has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct space <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> groups (0.1 megaannus, 0.2 megaannus, 0.6 megaannus and 2.0 megaannus), but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11404306','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11404306"><span>Early-<span class="hlt">age</span> heat <span class="hlt">exposure</span> affects skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in chicks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Halevy, O; Krispin, A; Leshem, Y; McMurtry, J P; Yahav, S</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> of young chicks to thermal conditioning (TC; i.e., 37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in significantly improved body and muscle growth at a later <span class="hlt">age</span>. We hypothesized that TC causes an increase in satellite cell proliferation, necessary for further muscle hypertrophy. An immediate increase was observed in satellite cell DNA synthesis in culture and in vivo in response to TC of 3-day-old chicks to levels that were significantly higher than those of control chicks. This was accompanied by a marked induction of insulin-like growth factor-I (IFG-I), but not hepatocyte growth factor in the breast muscle. No significant difference between treatments in plasma IGF-I levels was observed. A marked elevation in muscle regulatory factors on day 5, followed by a decline in cell proliferation on day 6 together with continuous high levels of IGF-I in the TC chick muscle may indicate accelerated cell differentiation. These data suggest a central role for IGF-I in the immediate stimulation of satellite cell myogenic processes in response to heat <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28275902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28275902"><span>PM2.5 <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Suppresses Dendritic Maturation in Subgranular Zone in <span class="hlt">Aged</span> Rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Lewis; Lau, Way K W; Fung, Timothy K H; Lau, Benson W M; Chau, Bolton K H; Liang, Yutong; Wang, Zhe; So, Kwok Fai; Wang, Tao; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Lee, Tatia M C</p> <p>2017-03-08</p> <p>Detrimental effects of long-term inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been widely reported. Recent studies have shown that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PM2.5 also causes adverse neurocognitive effects. This study investigates the effects of inhaled ammonium sulfate, which is a major compound of inorganic air pollutants in PM2.5, on adult neurogenesis in <span class="hlt">aged</span> Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 20 rats were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 10) and control (n = 10) conditions, wherein they were exposed to either ammonium sulfate or sham air for 2 h per day and for 28 consecutive days. It was observed that ammonium sulfate inhibited the maturation process and diminished dendritic complexity of immature neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus significantly, although the number of neural stem cells or the rates of differentiation were comparable between the two groups. Our findings provide clear evidence on the direct relationship between air quality and advantageous neurogenesis. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to PM leads to specific adverse effects on the maturation process during neurogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7659A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7659A"><span>Cosmogenic He-3 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of basalts from Ascension Island - implications for evolution of ocean islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ammon, K.; Dunai, T. J.; Stuart, F. M.; Meriaux, A.-S.; Gayer, E.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Ascension Island is the emergent top of a volcano situated at 7°56'S and 14°22'W in the South Atlantic Ocean, approximately 90 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and 50 km south of the Ascension Fracture Zone [1, 2]. It rises about 860 m above sea level and the base of the volcano covers about 2000 km2 approximately 3200 m beneath sea level [3]. Volcanic activity is associated with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and commenced at 6-7 Ma [2, 4, 5]. The volcanic rocks of Ascension Island are transitional to mildly-alkaline basalt to rhyolite volcanic suite and are distinguished by trace element ratios (e.g. Zr/Nb) [3]. Whereas the <span class="hlt">age</span> of the trachyte intrusions are well constrained (0.6 - 1.0 Ma) [e.g. 3] the younger basalt suites have not been dated reliably and the low K concentration make Ar/Ar dating difficult. In order to reconstruct the volcanic history of Ascension Island we have used cosmogenic He-3 in olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts from uneroded basalt flows to date the three basalt lava suites that appear to span the range of volcanism. <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of co-genetic pyroxene and olivine agree within analytical uncertainties. Implanted radiogenic He-4 tends to lower He-3 derived <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> therefore some olivine samples were etched with HF/HNO3 to remove about 30% of the sample mass. The so etched olivine is systematically older (by less than 10%) than the unetched samples. The three basalt suites have <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 300 to 190 ka. The high and intermediate Zr/Nb basalts seem to have been erupted contemporaneously or at least in overlapping events about 300 ka ago. These suites were previously thought to be separated in time on the basis of K-Ar chronology and stratigraphy [3]. The third suite which seams to be a more local vent is erupted between 260 and 190 ka. Our new data indicate the co-existence of different magma chambers with different geochemical signatures. [1] E. Bourdon, C. Hemond, Mineralogy and Petrology 71(2001) 127-138. [2] D.L. Nielson, B.S. Sibbett</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832761"><span>Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and executive function in school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children <span class="hlt">ages</span> 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2790506','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2790506"><span>Cumulative Lead <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Tooth Loss in Men: The Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Nie, Huiling; Garcia, Raul I.; Hu, Howard</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Individuals previously exposed to lead remain at risk because of endogenous release of lead stored in their skeletal compartments. However, it is not known if long-term cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is a risk factor for tooth loss. Objectives We examined the association of bone lead concentrations with loss of natural teeth. Methods We examined 333 men enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study. We used a validated K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) method to measure lead concentrations in the tibial midshaft and patella. A dentist recorded the number of teeth remaining, and tooth loss was categorized as 0, 1–8 or ≥ 9 missing teeth. We used proportional odds models to estimate the association of bone lead biomarkers with tooth loss, adjusting for <span class="hlt">age</span>, smoking, diabetes, and other putative confounders. Results Participants with ≥ 9 missing teeth had significantly higher bone lead concentrations than those who had not experienced tooth loss. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, men in the highest tertile of tibia lead (> 23 μg/g) and patella lead (> 36 μg/g) had approximately three times the odds of having experienced an elevated degree of tooth loss (≥ 9 vs. 0–8 missing teeth or ≥ 1 vs. 0 missing teeth) as those in the lowest tertile [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.60–5.76 and OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30–4.49, respectively]. Associations between bone lead biomarkers and tooth loss were similar in magnitude to the increased odds observed in participants who were current smokers. Conclusion Long-term cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is associated with increased odds of tooth loss. PMID:20019902</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15869861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15869861"><span>Prenatal marijuana <span class="hlt">exposure</span>: effect on child depressive symptoms at ten years of <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gray, Kimberly A; Day, Nancy L; Leech, Sharon; Richardson, Gale A</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Studies of the consequences of prenatal marijuana use have reported effects predominantly on the behavioral and cognitive development of the children. Research on other aspects of child neurobehavioral development, such as psychiatric symptomatology, has been limited. This study examines the relations between prenatal marijuana <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (PME) and child depressive symptoms at 10 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Data are from the 10-year follow-up of 633 mother-child dyads who participated in the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Maternal prenatal and current substance use, measures of the home environment, demographic status, and psychosocial characteristics were ascertained at prenatal months four and seven, at delivery, and at <span class="hlt">age</span> 10. At <span class="hlt">age</span> 10, the children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) [M. Kovacs. The Children's Depression Inventory, Multi-Health Systems, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, (1992).], a self-report measure of current depressive symptoms. Multivariate regressions were used to test trimester-specific effects of marijuana and their associations with the CDI total score, while controlling for significant prenatal predictors and significant current covariates of childhood depression. PME in the first and third trimesters predicted significantly increased levels of depressive symptoms. This finding remained significant after controlling for all identified covariates from both the prenatal period and the current phase at <span class="hlt">age</span> 10. These findings reflect an association with the level of depressive symptoms rather than a diagnosis of a major depressive disorder. Other significant correlates of depressive symptoms in the children included maternal education, maternal tobacco use (prenatal or current), and the child's composite IQ score. These findings are consistent with recent reports that identify specific areas of the brain and specific brain functions that are associated with PME.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344841','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344841"><span>Secondhand tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different <span class="hlt">ages</span> in developing non-human primates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Bonham, Ann C.</p> <p>2010-01-15</p> <p>Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. Mother/infant pairs continued the <span class="hlt">exposures</span> postnatally to <span class="hlt">age</span> 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human <span class="hlt">age</span>, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at <span class="hlt">age</span> of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on <span class="hlt">age</span>-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with <span class="hlt">age</span>-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can increase the risk, such as SIDS</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4661673','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4661673"><span>Mercury <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in Healthy Korean Weaning-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Low-level mercury (Hg) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg <span class="hlt">exposure</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140004413','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140004413"><span>On the Relationship between Cosmic Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> and Petrography of CM Chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, A.; Lee, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among chondrites because they mostly escaped thermal metamorphism that affected the other chondrite groups. C chondrites are chemically distinguished from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios vary over a wide range, in contrast to those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites which are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many separate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study we defined 4 distinct cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">age</span> groups of CMs and systematically characterized the petrography in each of the 4 CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences with such differences probably reflecting different parent body (asteroid) geological processing, or multiple original bodies. We have reported the results of a preliminary grouping at the NIPR Symp. in 2013 [3], however, we revised the grouping and here report our new results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1204086','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1204086"><span>A laboratory <span class="hlt">exposure</span> system to study the effects of <span class="hlt">aging</span> on super-micron aerosol particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Santarpia, Joshua; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Servantes, Brandon Lee; Hubbard, Joshua Allen</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A laboratory system was constructed that allows the super-micron particles to be <span class="hlt">aged</span> for long periods of time under conditions that can simulate a range of natural environments and conditions, including relative humidity, oxidizing chemicals, organics and simulated solar radiation. Two proof-of-concept experiments using a non-biological simulant for biological particles and a biological simulant demonstrate the utility of these types of <span class="hlt">aging</span> experiments. Green Visolite®, which is often used as a tracer material for model validation experiments, does not degrade with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to simulated solar radiation, the actual biological material does. This would indicate that Visolite® should be a good tracer compound for mapping the extent of a biological release using fluorescence as an indicator, but that it should not be used to simulate the decay of a biological particle when exposed to sunlight. The decay in the fluorescence measured for B. thurengiensis is similar to what has been previously observed in outdoor environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4688224','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4688224"><span>Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span>: The HOME Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5316422','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5316422"><span>Association Between a Single General Anesthesia <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Before <span class="hlt">Age</span> 36 Months and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Later Childhood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Lena S.; Li, Guohua; Miller, Tonya L. K.; Salorio, Cynthia; Byrne, Mary W.; Bellinger, David C.; Ing, Caleb; Park, Raymond; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Hays, Stephen R.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Cooper, Timothy J.; Rauh, Virginia; Maxwell, Lynne G.; Youn, Ahrim; McGowan, Francis X.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>IMPORTANCE <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> of young animals to commonly used anesthetics causes neurotoxicity including impaired neurocognitive function and abnormal behavior. The potential neurocognitive and behavioral effects of anesthesia <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in young children are thus important to understand. OBJECTIVE To examine if a single anesthesia <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in otherwise healthy young children was associated with impaired neurocognitive development and abnormal behavior in later childhood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Sibling-matched cohort study conducted between May 2009 and April 2015 at 4 university-based US pediatric tertiary care hospitals. The study cohort included sibling pairs within 36 months in <span class="hlt">age</span> and currently 8 to 15 years old. The exposed siblings were healthy at surgery/anesthesia. Neurocognitive and behavior outcomes were prospectively assessed with retrospectively documented anesthesia <span class="hlt">exposure</span> data. <span class="hlt">EXPOSURES</span> A single <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to general anesthesia during inguinal hernia surgery in the exposed sibling and no anesthesia <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the unexposed sibling, before <span class="hlt">age</span> 36 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was global cognitive function (IQ). Secondary outcomes included domain-specific neurocognitive functions and behavior. A detailed neuropsychological battery assessed IQ and domain-specific neurocognitive functions. Parents completed validated, standardized reports of behavior. RESULTS Among the 105 sibling pairs, the exposed siblings (mean <span class="hlt">age</span>, 17.3 months at surgery/anesthesia; 9.5% female) and the unexposed siblings (44% female) had IQ testing at mean <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 10.6 and 10.9 years, respectively. All exposed children received inhaled anesthetic agents, and anesthesia duration ranged from 20 to 240 minutes, with a median duration of 80 minutes. Mean IQ scores between exposed siblings (scores: full scale = 111; performance = 108; verbal = 111) and unexposed siblings (scores: full scale = 111; performance = 107; verbal = 111) were not statistically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/538161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/538161"><span>The influence of worm <span class="hlt">age</span>, duration of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity for Neanthes arenaceodentata (Annelida: Polychaeta)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bridges, T.S.; Farrar, J.D.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>The influence of worm <span class="hlt">age</span>, duration of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity were evaluated for Neanthes arenaceodentata. Worms were exposed to contaminated sediment collected from Black Rock Harbor (BRH) near Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA. This sediment was diluted with clean control sediment to result in five experimental treatments: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% BRH. Three <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenarios were employed: (1) a 4-week <span class="hlt">exposure</span> beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-4w), (2) a 7-week <span class="hlt">exposure</span> beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-7w), and (3) a 4-week <span class="hlt">exposure</span> beginning with 3-week-old juveniles (3WO-4w). Six measures of worm size were recorded at the conclusion of each <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to evaluate differences among measurement endpoints. Survival was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level for the EJ-7w scenario and at the 100% BRH level for the EJ-4w and 3WO-4w scenarios. Growth was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level in each <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenario. Estimates based on the calculated minimum detectable difference indicated that considerably lower concentrations of BRH (6--10%) should be distinguishable by measuring effects on Neanthes growth. Worm size measured in terms of projected area, dry weight, and ash-free dry weight provided the most sensitive measures of effects. Increasing the length of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from 4 to 7 weeks and initiating <span class="hlt">exposures</span> with emergent juveniles rather than 3-week-old worms increased the sensitivity of the bioassay. The results of this study demonstrate that N. arenacedentata is sensitive to the presence of sediment-associated contaminants and that test animal <span class="hlt">age</span>, duration of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and choice of endpoint can have a large effect on the magnitude of the toxic response observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863750','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863750"><span>Measurement of {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup g} resonance strengths via accelerator mass spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arazi, A.; Niello, J. O. Fernandez; Faestermann, T.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Poutivtsev, M.; Rugel, G.; Richter, E.; Wallner, A.</p> <p>2006-08-15</p> <p>The strengths of resonances located at center-of-mass energies of E{sub c.m.}=189, 304, 374, and 418 keV for the {sup 25}Mg(p,{gamma}) reaction have been measured for the first time with an off-line method: Mg targets were firstly activated with protons at the resonance energies and the produced {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup g} nuclei were counted by means of highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Thus, the production of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in its ground state is determined independently from the {gamma}-decay branching ratio. While the 304, 374, and 418 keV resonances show fair agreement with previous measurements, the 189 keV resonance yield a significantly less strength. In addition, an experimental upper limit for the E{sub c.m.}=92 keV resonance was determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21963523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21963523"><span>Neurodevelopmental performance among school <span class="hlt">age</span> children in rural Guatemala is associated with prenatal and postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to carbon monoxide, a marker for <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to woodsmoke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dix-Cooper, Linda; Eskenazi, Brenda; Romero, Carolina; Balmes, John; Smith, Kirk R</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We investigated whether early life chronic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to woodsmoke, using personal passive 48-h carbon monoxide (CO) as an indicator, is associated with children's neurodevelopmental and behavioral performance. CO measures were collected every 3 months from 2002 to 2005 among mother-child dyads during the Randomized <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) stove intervention trial in San Marcos, Guatemala. From March to June, 2010, study children of <span class="hlt">age</span> 6-7 years, performed a follow-up non-verbal, culturally adapted neurodevelopmental assessment. We found inverse associations between CO <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of pregnant mothers during their 3rd trimesters (m=3.8ppm ± 3.0ppm; range: 0.6-12.5 ppm) and child neuropsychological performance. Scores on 4 out of 11 neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with mothers' 3rd trimester CO <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, including visuo-spatial integration (p<0.05), short-term memory recall (p<0.05), long-term memory recall (p<0.05), and fine motor performance (p<0.01) measured using the Bender Gestalt-II's Copy, Immediate Recall, and an adapted version of a Delayed Recall Figures drawing, and the Reitan-Indiana's Finger Tapping Tests, respectively. These 4 significant finding persisted with adjustment for child sex, <span class="hlt">age</span>, visual acuity, and household assets (socio-economic status). Summary performance scores were also significantly associated with maternal 3rd trimester CO when adjusted for these covariates. Other variables accounting for variance but were excluded in our final multiple regression models included the following: HOME environment stimulation score, child examiner, WHO height-for-<span class="hlt">age</span> percentile, and <span class="hlt">age</span> that the infant stopped breastfeeding. This seems to be the first study on woodsmoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and neurodevelopment, and the first longitudinal birth cohort study on chronic early life CO <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, determined by high quality measures of mothers' and infants' personal CO <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, and using well</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746838"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to omega-3 fatty acids at early <span class="hlt">age</span> accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young <span class="hlt">age</span> accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21277949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21277949"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span>-dependent effects of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine on serotonin neurons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bang, S J; Commons, K G</p> <p>2011-04-14</p> <p>Adolescence is a critical vulnerable period during which <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine greatly enhances the possibility to develop drug addiction. Growing evidence suggests that serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission may contribute to the initiation and maintenance of addictive behavior. As the dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MnR) nuclei are the primary 5-HT source to the forebrain, the current study tested the hypothesis that there are <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent effects of acute nicotine administration on activation of 5-HT neurons within these regions. Both adolescent (Postnatal day 30) and adult (Postnatal day 70) male Sprague-Dawley rats received subcutaneous injection of either saline or nicotine (0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 mg/kg). Subsequently, the number of 5-HT cells that were double-labeled for Fos and tryptophan hydroxylase was counted in seven subregions within the DR and the entire MnR. The results show that acute nicotine injection induces Fos expression in 5-HT neurons in a region-specific manner. In addition, adolescents show broader regional activations at either a lower (0.2 mg/kg) and a higher (0.8 mg/kg) dose of nicotine, displaying a unique U-shape response curve across doses. In contrast, 5-HT cells with activated Fos expression were restricted to fewer regions in adults, and the patterns of expression were more consistent across doses. The results reveal dose-dependent effects of nicotine during adolescence with apparent sensitization at different ends of the dosage spectrum examined compared to adults. These data indicate that initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine may have unique effects in adolescence on the ascending 5-HT system, with the potential for consequences on the affective-motivational qualities of the drug and the subsequent propensity for repeated use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3883521','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3883521"><span>Early life microbial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children: a prospective birth cohort study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early life microbial <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at school <span class="hlt">age</span>. Methods Endotoxin, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and β(1,3)-D-glucan were measured in living room dust collected at 2–3 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> in homes of participants of three prospective European birth cohorts (LISA, n = 182; PIAMA, n = 244; and INMA, n = 355). Home dampness and pet ownership were periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. FeNO was measured at <span class="hlt">age</span> 8 for PIAMA and at <span class="hlt">age</span> 10/11 for LISA and INMA. Cohort-specific associations between the indoor microbial <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and FeNO were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses. Estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results FeNO at school <span class="hlt">age</span> was lower in children exposed to endotoxin at <span class="hlt">age</span> 2–3 months (β -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10;-0.01) and in children with reported dog ownership during the first two years of life (GM ratio 0.82, CI 0.70-0.96). FeNO was not significantly associated with early life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to EPS, β(1,3)-D-glucan, indoor dampness and cat ownership. Conclusion Early life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to bacterial endotoxin and early life dog ownership are associated with lower FeNO at school <span class="hlt">age</span>. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to unravel the underlying mechanisms and possible clinical relevance of this finding. PMID:24295277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NIMPB.172..767B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NIMPB.172..767B"><span>Dating of prehistoric caves sediments and flints using 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in quartz from Tabun Cave (Israel): Progress report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boaretto, E.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hui, S. K.; Kaufman, A.; Paul, M.; Weiner, S.</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>There is an important need to develop additional dating methods beyond the 14C limit and independent of thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We propose to apply the method of burial dating to prehistoric sites using the decay of in situ produced radioisotopes 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>. The Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel (Israel) has a sedimentary sequence which represents the type section for about the last 800,000 years in the Levant. The sediments in the cave are mainly of aeolian origin and are rich in quartz. Flint tools are also found in the sediments. Sediment samples and flint tools were selected from the same layer. Physical and chemical procedures to extract 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms from the quartz fraction of the sediments and from the flint samples were developed, while measuring the natural Al levels as a monitor of the atmospheric component of the cosmogenic nuclides. AMS measurements were performed at the 14UD Pelletron Koffler Accelerator Laboratory, Weizmann Institute, and sensitivities of the order of 1×10 -14, in isotopic abundances for both 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> respectively (corresponding to ˜5 × 10 5 atoms) were obtained. First, measurements of a number of Tabun Cave sediment samples and flints show that 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> analyses have the potential for dating prehistoric cave sediments, provided problems relating to the presence of relatively large amounts of stable Al can be solved, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the burial history of the flints prior to being brought into the cave.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22439700','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22439700"><span>In utero bisphenol A <span class="hlt">exposure</span> disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with <span class="hlt">age</span> in the mouse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Wei Hafner, Katlyn S. Flaws, Jodi A.</p> <p>2014-04-15</p> <p>Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on early ovarian development and the consequences of such <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the <span class="hlt">age</span> of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with <span class="hlt">age</span>. - Highlights: • In utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> advances first estrus <span class="hlt">age</span> and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> causes various fertility problems in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=anxiety+AND+disorders+AND+women&pg=4&id=EJ950747','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=anxiety+AND+disorders+AND+women&pg=4&id=EJ950747"><span>Media <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> women. A sample of 101 women, <span class="hlt">aged</span> between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, <span class="hlt">aging</span> anxiety, body…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840013387&hterms=chimie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dchimie','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840013387&hterms=chimie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dchimie"><span>Cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of iron meteorites, complex irradiation and the constancy of cosmic ray flux in the past</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Marti, K.; Lavielle, B.; Regnier, S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>While previous calculations of potassium <span class="hlt">ages</span> assumed a constant cosmic ray flux and a single stage (no change in size) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of iron meteorites, present calculations relaxed these constancy assumptions and the results reveal multistage irradiations for some 25% of the meteorites studied, implying multiple breakup in space. The distribution of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> suggests several major collisions (based on chemical composition and structure), although the calibration of <span class="hlt">age</span> scales is not yet complete. It is concluded that shielding-corrected (corrections which depend on size and position of sample) production rates are consistent for the <span class="hlt">age</span> bracket of 300 to 900 years. These production rates differ in a systematic way from those calculated for present day fluxes of cosmic rays (such as obtained for the last few million years).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989847','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989847"><span>Effect of tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during pregnancy and preschool <span class="hlt">age</span> on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during pregnancy and preschool <span class="hlt">age</span> on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool <span class="hlt">age</span>) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-<span class="hlt">age</span> index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool <span class="hlt">age</span>, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school <span class="hlt">age</span>, adjusted for <span class="hlt">age</span> of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-<span class="hlt">age</span> was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for <span class="hlt">age</span>, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool <span class="hlt">age</span>, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool <span class="hlt">age</span> showed persistent lower height-for-<span class="hlt">age</span> since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21424788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21424788"><span>Interaction between <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation and <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing in the disruption of operant performance using a ground-based model for <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cosmic rays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Previous research has shown a progressive deterioration in cognitive performance in rats exposed to (56)Fe particles as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span>. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation independently of the <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing. Male Fischer-344 rats, 2, 7, 12, and 16 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>, were exposed to 25-200 cGy of (56)Fe particles (1,000 MeV/n). Following irradiation, the rats were trained to make an operant response on an ascending fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule. When performance was evaluated as a function of both <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation and testing, the results showed a significant effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> on the dose needed to produce a performance decrement, such that older rats exposed to lower doses of (56)Fe particles showed a performance decrement compared to younger rats. When performance was evaluated as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation with the <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing held constant, the results indicated that <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation was a significant factor influencing operant responding, such that older rats tested at similar <span class="hlt">ages</span> and exposed to similar doses of (56)Fe particles showed similar performance decrements. The results are interpreted as indicating that the performance decrement is not a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> per se, but instead is dependent upon an interaction between the <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation, the <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing, and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles. The nature of these effects and how <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation affects cognitive performance after an interval of 15 to 16 months remains to be established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22525489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22525489"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>: a longitudinal study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shalev, I; Moffitt, T E; Sugden, K; Williams, B; Houts, R M; Danese, A; Mill, J; Arseneault, L; Caspi, A</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>There is increasing interest in discovering mechanisms that mediate the effects of childhood stress on late-life disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested one potential mechanism linking stress to cellular <span class="hlt">aging</span>, disease and mortality in humans: telomere erosion. We examined telomere erosion in relation to children's <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to violence, a salient early-life stressor, which has known long-term consequences for well-being and is a major public-health and social-welfare problem. In the first prospective-longitudinal study with repeated telomere measurements in children while they experienced stress, we tested the hypothesis that childhood violence <span class="hlt">exposure</span> would accelerate telomere erosion from <span class="hlt">age</span> 5 to <span class="hlt">age</span> 10 years. Violence was assessed as <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to maternal domestic violence, frequent bullying victimization and physical maltreatment by an adult. Participants were 236 children (49% females; 42% with one or more violence <span class="hlt">exposures</span>) recruited from the Environmental-Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort. Each child's mean relative telomere length was measured simultaneously in baseline and follow-up DNA samples, using the quantitative PCR method for T/S ratio (the ratio of telomere repeat copy numbers to single-copy gene numbers). Compared with their counterparts, the children who experienced two or more kinds of violence <span class="hlt">exposure</span> showed significantly more telomere erosion between <span class="hlt">age</span>-5 baseline and <span class="hlt">age</span>-10 follow-up measurements, even after adjusting for sex, socioeconomic status and body mass index (B=-0.052, s.e.=0.021, P=0.015). This finding provides support for a mechanism linking cumulative childhood stress to telomere maintenance, observed already at a young <span class="hlt">age</span>, with potential impact for life-long health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16340068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16340068"><span><span class="hlt">Age-at-exposure</span> effects on risk estimates for non-cancer mortality in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wei; Muirhead, Colin R; Hunter, Nezahat</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Statistically significant increases in non-cancer disease mortality with radiation dose have been observed among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The increasing trends arise particularly for diseases of the circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems. Rates for survivors exposed to a dose of 1 Sv are elevated by about 10%, a smaller relative increase than that for cancer. The aetiology of this increased risk is not yet understood. Neither animal nor human studies have found clear evidence for excess non-cancer mortality at the lower range of doses received by A-bomb survivors. In this paper, we examine the <span class="hlt">age</span> and time patterns of excess risks in the A-bomb survivors. The results suggest that the excess relative risk of non-cancer disease mortality might be highest for <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 30-49 years, and that those exposed at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 0-29 years might have a very low excess relative risk compared with those exposed at older <span class="hlt">ages</span>. The differences in excess relative risk for different <span class="hlt">age-at-exposure</span> groups imply that the dose response relationships for non-cancer disease mortality need to be modelled with adjustment for <span class="hlt">age-at-exposure</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18317238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18317238"><span>Modifiable maternal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and offspring blood pressure: a review of epidemiological studies of maternal <span class="hlt">age</span>, diet, and smoking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andy R</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Prenatal programming of adult disease is well established in animals. In humans the impact of common in utero <span class="hlt">exposures</span> on long-term offspring health is less clear. We reviewed epidemiology studies of modifiable maternal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and offspring blood pressure (BP). Three maternal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were identified for review and meta-analyzed where possible: smoking during pregnancy, diet, and <span class="hlt">age</span> at childbirth. Meta-analysis suggested there was a modest association between higher offspring BP and prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to smoke (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.62 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.05, I = 16.4%). However, the level of confounder adjustment varied between studies, which in some studies attenuated the association to the null. There was no strong evidence that any component of maternal diet during pregnancy (maternal protein, energy, calcium, and various other nutrients) influences offspring BP. The results of studies of maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> varied and there was strong evidence of heterogeneity in the pooled analysis. The association with maternal <span class="hlt">age</span>, if present, was modest (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.09 mm Hg/y, 95% confidence interval: -0.03 to 0.21, I = 89.8%). In sum, there is little empirical evidence that the maternal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> reviewed program offspring BP. Other components of offspring health may be more susceptible to effects of programming in utero.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25450661','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25450661"><span>Occupational pesticide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andersen, Helle R; Debes, Fróði; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to pesticides may affect neurodevelopment, while the impact of modern pesticides is unclear. From 1997-2001, women working in greenhouse horticultures were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy. Based on detailed interview of the women and their employers, those categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any <span class="hlt">exposure</span> were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at <span class="hlt">age</span> 6 to 11 years together with 44 newly recruited children of same <span class="hlt">age</span> whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in the children as a whole and with impaired neuropsychological function in girls, while no effect was apparent in boys. In girls, language and motor speed functions were significantly inversely associated with prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and a non-significant tendency toward decreased function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on their children's neurodevelopment, despite the fact that the <span class="hlt">exposures</span> occurred solely during early pregnancy and under well regulated working conditions, where special measures to protect pregnant women were applied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37439','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37439"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> sensitivity of juvenile mussels (Utterbackia imbeciles Say) to copper and cadmium <span class="hlt">exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Warren, L.W.; Klaine, S.J.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>In recent years, there has been increased interest in using early life stages of freshwater bivalves to test the toxicity of dissolved constituents in water. The authors have developed laboratory and in situ assays with artificially cultured Utterbackia imbecillis to examine effects of contaminants and existing conditions in embayments and rivers on mortality and reproductive success of unionid mussels. <span class="hlt">Age</span> sensitivity of U. imbecillis to Cd and Cu was examined using both static acute and 8-day static renewal bioassays. Both aqueous and sediment <span class="hlt">exposures</span> demonstrated greater sensitivity to Cd than Cu. LC{sub 50}`s for two-day old (2d) and 9d mussels were approximately half the LC{sub 50} calculated for 16d mussels in 48-hr bioassays with Cd. Additionally, acute assays were repeated twice to examine variability in response between different mussel cultures to the two metals. The results of this work reinforce the potential of juvenile U. imbecillis as a standard toxicity test organism for water-borne and sediment contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110349"><span>Evolution of phenolic compounds and astringency during <span class="hlt">aging</span> of red wine: effect of oxygen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> before and after bottling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gambuti, Angelita; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Ugliano, Maurizio; Moio, Luigi</p> <p>2013-02-27</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxygen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of red wine, before (micro-oxygenation) and after (nano-oxygenation) bottling, on the phenolic composition and astringency of wine. The astringency was evaluated by sensory analysis and by a method based on the SDS-PAGE of salivary proteins after reaction of saliva with wine (SPI, saliva precipitation index). Micro-oxygenation caused a stabilization of color, but this effect disappeared after long <span class="hlt">aging</span>. For the wine with the lower pH a decrease of wine astringency and SPI was observed 42 months after micro-oxygenation. Oxygen ingress through the closure postbottling was positively correlated with the decrease of SPI. Therefore, the astringency and reactivity of wines toward salivary proteins of a bottled red wine can be modulated by controlled oxygen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during <span class="hlt">aging</span>. For both experiments the effect of oxygen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> depended on wine composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21906617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21906617"><span>Dielectric properties of tissues; variation with <span class="hlt">age</span> and their relevance in <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of children to electromagnetic fields; state of knowledge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peyman, Azadeh</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This paper reviews and summarises the state of knowledge on dielectric properties of tissues; in particular those obtained as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span>. It also examines the impact of variation in dielectric data on the outcome of recent dosimetric studies assessing the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of children to electromagnetic fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24954411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24954411"><span>Infantile postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead (Pb) enhances tau expression in the cerebral cortex of <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice: relevance to AD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bihaqi, Syed Waseem; Bahmani, Azadeh; Adem, Abdu; Zawia, Nasser H</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The sporadic nature in over 90% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases, the differential susceptibility and course of illness, and latent onset of the disease suggest involvement of an environmental component in the etiology of late onset AD (LOAD). Recent reports from our lab have demonstrated that molecular alterations favor abundant tau phosphorylation and immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of <span class="hlt">aged</span> primates with infantile lead (Pb) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (Bihaqi and Zawia, 2013). Here we report that developmental Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> results in elevation of protein and mRNA levels of tau in <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice. Western blot analysis revealed aberrant site-specific tau hyperphosphorylation accompanied by elevated cyclin dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) levels in <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice with prior Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Mice with developmental Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> also displayed altered protein ratio of p35/p25 with more Serine/Threonine phosphatase activity at old <span class="hlt">age</span>. These changes favored increase in tau phosphorylation, thus providing evidence that neurodegenerative diseases may be in part due to environmental influences that occur during development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=171923&keyword=dairy+AND+products&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78732955&CFTOKEN=98161268','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=171923&keyword=dairy+AND+products&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78732955&CFTOKEN=98161268"><span>SUMMARY REPORT OF A PEER INVOLVEMENT WORKSHOP ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> FACTORS HANDBOOK FOR THE <span class="hlt">AGING</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA has released the final workshop report, <i>Summary Report of a Peer Involvement Workshop on the Development of an <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Factors Handbook for the <span class="hlt">Aging</span></i>. This report provides an overview of a meeting held February 14-15, 2007 which was organized to discuss factors affec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256634','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256634"><span>Oxidation and biodegradation of polyethylene films containing pro-oxidantadditives: Synergistic effects of sunlight <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, thermal <span class="hlt">aging</span> and fungal biodegradation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Synergistic effects of sunlight <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, thermal <span class="hlt">aging</span> and fungal biodegradation on the oxidation and biodegradation of linear low density poly (ethylene) PE-LLD films containing pro-oxidant were examined. To achieve oxidation and degradation, films were first exposed to the sunlight for 93 days du...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.270..134W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.270..134W"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> assessment and implications of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland, based on Schmidt-hammer <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> dating (SHD)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Peter; Matthews, John A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Schmidt-hammer <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> dating (SHD) was applied to a variety of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms composed of coarse rock debris on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland. Landform <span class="hlt">ages</span> were determined using a linear high-precision <span class="hlt">age</span>-calibration curve, derived from young and old control surfaces of known <span class="hlt">age</span> on the same rock type. The SHD <span class="hlt">ages</span> represent maximum estimates of the time elapsed since the boulders stabilised and the landforms became inactive. Most <span class="hlt">ages</span> are also minimum estimates for the start of landform development because older boulders are buried beneath the sampled surface boulders. <span class="hlt">Ages</span> and 95% confidence intervals obtained for blockfield, boulder lobes and talus indicate these features were likely active during several of the early Holocene cold events evidenced in Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment records. Activity ceased at different times ~ 9-7 ka BP. These landforms are the first indication of a geomorphological response to early Holocene cooling in the oceanic mountains of Ireland. Late Holocene <span class="hlt">ages</span>, obtained for rock-slope failure run-out debris and debris cone boulders, overlap with shifts to cooler and/or wetter conditions, including the Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span>. Geomorphological impacts associated with these changes in climate have not previously been recorded in the Irish uplands. The SHD results indicate that previously implied timings for the stabilisation of some accumulations of coarse rock debris on mountain slopes are in need of revision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..529R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..529R"><span>New <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for the Last Glacial Cycle in the Sanabria Lake region (northwestern Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María Jose; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Valero-Garcés, Blas</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Sanabria Lake region is located in the Trevinca Massif, a mid-latitude mountain area up to 2128 m asl in the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (42oN 6oW). An ice cap glaciation took place during the Last Glacial Cycle in this massif, with an equilibrium line altitude of 1687 m for the Tera glacial outlet at its local maximum (Cowton et al., 2009). A well preserved glacial sequence occurs on an area of 45 km2 around the present Sanabria Lake (1000 m asl) and is composed by lateral and end moraines in close relationship with glaciolacustrine deposits. This sequence shows the ice snout oscillations of the former Tera glacier during the Last Glacial Cycle and offers a good opportunity to compare radiocarbon and OSL- based chronological models with new cosmogenic isotope dates. The new dataset of 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> presented here for the Sanabria Lake moraines is based on measurements conducted on 23 boulders and is compared with previous radiocarbon and OSL data conducted on ice related deposits (Pérez-Alberti et al., 2011; Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2011). Our results are coherent with the available deglaciation radiocarbon chronology, and support a last deglaciation origin for the whole set of end moraines that are downstream the Sanabria Lake (19.2 - 15.7 10Be ka). Discrepancies between results of the different dating methods concern the timing of the local glacial maximum, with the cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> method always yielding the youngest minimum <span class="hlt">ages</span>. As proposed to explain similar observations made elsewhere (Palacios et al., 2012), reconciling the <span class="hlt">ages</span> from different dating methods would imply the occurrence of two glacial advances close enough in extent to generate an overlapping polygenic moraine. Cowton, T., Hughes, P.D., Gibbard, P.L., 2009. Palaeoglaciation of Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, northwest Spain. Geomorphology 108, 282-291. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L., Jiménez-Sánchez, M., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Rico, M.T., Valero-Garcés, B</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19115965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19115965"><span>Metabolism and <span class="hlt">aging</span>: effects of cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on metabolic rate, body composition, and longevity in mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vaanholt, Lobke M; Daan, Serge; Schubert, Kristin A; Visser, G Henk</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The proposition that increased energy expenditure shortens life has a long history. The rate-of-living theory (Pearl 1928 ) states that life span and average mass-specific metabolic rate are inversely proportional. Originally based on interspecific allometric comparisons between species of mammals, the theory was later rejected on the basis of comparisons between taxa (e.g., birds have higher metabolic rates than mammals of the same size and yet live longer). It has rarely been experimentally tested within species. Here, we investigated the effects of increased energy expenditure, induced by cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, on longevity in mice. Longevity was measured in groups of 60 male mice maintained at either 22 degrees C (WW) or 10 degrees C (CC) throughout adult life. Forty additional mice were maintained at both of these temperatures to determine metabolic rate (by stable isotope turnover, gas exchange, and food intake) as well as the mass of body and organs of subsets of animals at four different <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Because energy expenditure might affect longevity by either accumulating damage or by instantaneously affecting mortality rate, we included a third group of mice exposed to 10 degrees C early in life and to 22 degrees C afterward (CW). <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to cold increased mean daily energy expenditure by ca. 48% (from 47.8 kJ d(-1) in WW to 70.6 kJ d(-1) in CC mice, with CW intermediate at 59.9 kJ d(-1)). However, we observed no significant differences in median life span among the groups (WW, 832 d; CC, 834 d; CW, 751 d). CC mice had reduced body mass (lifetime mean 30.7 g) compared with WW mice (33.8 g), and hence their lifetime energy potential (LEP) per gram whole-body mass had an even larger excess than per individual. Greenberg ( 1999 ) has pointed out that the size of the energetically costly organs, rather than that of the whole body, may be relevant for the rate-of-living idea. We therefore expressed LEP also in terms of energy expenditure per gram dry lean mass or per gram</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485992"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> science in an <span class="hlt">age</span> of rapidly changing climate: challenges and opportunities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S; Overpeck, Jonathan; Breysse, Patrick N; Backer, Lorrie; Richardson, Susan D; Sobus, Jon; Sapkota, Amir; Upperman, Crystal R; Jiang, Chengsheng; Beard, C Ben; Brunkard, J M; Bell, Jesse E; Harris, Ryan; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Peltier, Richard E; Chew, Ginger L; Blount, Benjamin C</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Climate change is anticipated to alter the production, use, release, and fate of environmental chemicals, likely leading to increased uncertainty in <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and human health risk predictions. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> science provides a key connection between changes in climate and associated health outcomes. The theme of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the International Society of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Science-<span class="hlt">Exposures</span> in an Evolving Environment-brought this issue to the fore. By directing attention to questions that may affect society in profound ways, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scientists have an opportunity to conduct "consequential science"-doing science that matters, using our tools for the greater good and to answer key policy questions, and identifying causes leading to implementation of solutions. Understanding the implications of changing <span class="hlt">exposures</span> on public health may be one of the most consequential areas of study in which <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scientists could currently be engaged. In this paper, we use a series of case studies to identify <span class="hlt">exposure</span> data gaps and research paths that will enable us to capture the information necessary for understanding climate change-related human <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and consequent health impacts. We hope that paper will focus attention on under-developed areas of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> science that will likely have broad implications for public health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5071542','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5071542"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> science in an <span class="hlt">age</span> of rapidly changing climate: challenges and opportunities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S; Overpeck, Jonathan; Breysse, Patrick N; Backer, Lorrie; Richardson, Susan D; Sobus, Jon; Sapkota, Amir; Upperman, Crystal R; Jiang, Chengsheng; Beard, C Ben; Brunkard, J M; Bell, Jesse E; Harris, Ryan; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Peltier, Richard E; Chew, Ginger L; Blount, Benjamin C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is anticipated to alter the production, use, release, and fate of environmental chemicals, likely leading to increased uncertainty in <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and human health risk predictions. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> science provides a key connection between changes in climate and associated health outcomes. The theme of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the International Society of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Science—<span class="hlt">Exposures</span> in an Evolving Environment—brought this issue to the fore. By directing attention to questions that may affect society in profound ways, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scientists have an opportunity to conduct “consequential science”—doing science that matters, using our tools for the greater good and to answer key policy questions, and identifying causes leading to implementation of solutions. Understanding the implications of changing <span class="hlt">exposures</span> on public health may be one of the most consequential areas of study in which <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scientists could currently be engaged. In this paper, we use a series of case studies to identify <span class="hlt">exposure</span> data gaps and research paths that will enable us to capture the information necessary for understanding climate change-related human <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and consequent health impacts. We hope that paper will focus attention on under-developed areas of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> science that will likely have broad implications for public health. PMID:27485992</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5134811','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5134811"><span>Cumulative systolic blood pressure <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in relation to cognitive function in middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> and elderly adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Jie; Huang, Yuling; Chen, Guojuan; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zhijun; Cao, Yibin; Li, Haitao; Song, Lu; Li, Chunhui; Zhao, Hualing; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Anxin; Wu, Shouling</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract The association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cognitive function is controversial in elderly adults. In addition, few studies focused on the cumulative effect of SBP. We aimed to investigate the association between cumulative SBP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and cognitive function among middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> and elderly adults. The analysis was based on the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study. The primary predictor was the cumulative SBP calculated by consecutive SBP values measured through baseline (2006–2007) up to the fourth examination (2012–2013). The cognitive function was estimated by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in the fourth examination. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between cumulative SBP and cognitive function. Among 2211 participants (41.4% female, <span class="hlt">aged</span> 40–94 years), 167 (7.55%) were diagnosed with cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24). Higher cumulative <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to SBP (per SD increment) was independently associated with poor cognitive performance after controlling for multiple factors (P < 0.001). We observed nondifferential association between men and women. However, higher cumulative SBP in the adults <span class="hlt">aged</span> ≥60 years had a stronger association with poor cognitive performance compared with that in adults <span class="hlt">aged</span> 40 to 60 years. Greater <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cumulative SBP is associated with worse cognitive performance among middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> and elderly adults. This association is similar between men and women, but stronger in elderly adults. PMID:27902618</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26602183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26602183"><span>Changes in Testicular Interstitial Connective Tissue of Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) During <span class="hlt">Ageing</span> and After <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Short Photoperiod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beltrán-Frutos, E; Seco-Rovira, V; Ferrer, C; Martínez-Hernández, J; Madrid, J F; Sáez, F J; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The testicular interstitium of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was studied during <span class="hlt">ageing</span> and in testicular regression after <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to a short photoperiod, in relation to the interstitial cells and their connective tissue. This tissue was assessed histochemically using Masson's trichrome technique and the expression of Heat Shock Protein 47 (HSP-47) and collagen IV (α5) was assessed in Leydig cells. Finally, an ultrastructural analysis of some cells of the testicular interstitium was made. Leydig cells were positive for HSP-47 and collagen IV (α5). <span class="hlt">Ageing</span> did not change the parameters studied while the short photoperiod altered the synthetic activity of Leydig cells. The positivity index of these cells for HSP-47 was significantly higher in the regressed testis, but was lower for collagen IV (α5). During <span class="hlt">ageing</span> no change were observed. Ultrastructural Leydig cells showed a discontinuous basal lamina that did not change during <span class="hlt">ageing</span>. The basal lamina was not identified in Leydig cells regressed by <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to a short photoperiod. In conclusion; the intertubular connective tissue suffers little change with <span class="hlt">age</span>. By contrast, in the testis regressed after <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to a short photoperiod the studied parameters related to the intertubular connective tissue were altered. These changes are probably related with the low synthetic activity of regressed Leydig cell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498192"><span>Single and repeated <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to the volatile anesthetic isoflurane do not impair operant performance in <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walters, Jennifer L; Chelonis, John J; Fogle, Charles M; Orser, Beverley A; Paule, Merle G</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) is a complication that can occur in the elderly after anesthesia and surgery and is characterized by impairments in information processing, memory, and executive function. Currently, it is unclear whether POCD is due to the effects of surgery, anesthesia, or perhaps some interaction between these or other perioperative variables. Studies in rodents suggest that the development of POCD may be related directly to anesthesia-induced neuroactivity. Volatile anesthetics have been shown to increase cellular inflammation and apoptosis within the hippocampus of <span class="hlt">aged</span> rodents, while producing corresponding impairments in hippocampal-dependent brain functions. However, it is unclear whether volatile anesthetics can affect additional aspects of cognition that do not primarily depend upon the hippocampus. The purpose of this study was to use established operant tests to examine the effects of isoflurane on aspects of behavioral inhibition, learning, and motivation in <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats. Twenty-one adult Sprague-Dawley rats (11 male, 10 female) were trained to perform fixed consecutive number (FCN), incremental repeated acquisition (IRA), and progressive ratio (PR) tasks for a minimum of 15 months prior to receiving anesthesia. At 23 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>, rats were exposed to 1.3% isoflurane or medical grade air for 2h. Initial results revealed that a 2h <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to isoflurane had no effect on IRA, FCN, or PR performance. Thus, rats received 3 additional <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to 1.3% isoflurane or medical grade air: 2, 4 and 6h <span class="hlt">exposures</span> with 2 weeks elapsing before <span class="hlt">exposure</span> two, 3 weeks elapsing between <span class="hlt">exposures</span> two and three, and 2 weeks elapsing between <span class="hlt">exposures</span> three and four. These additional <span class="hlt">exposures</span> had no observable effects on performance of any operant task. These results suggest that single and repeated <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to isoflurane do not impair the performance of <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats in tasks designed to measure behavioral inhibition, learning, and motivation. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...156...16V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...156...16V"><span>Water <span class="hlt">age</span>, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> time, and local flushing time in semi-enclosed, tidal basins with negligible freshwater inflow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viero, Daniele Pietro; Defina, Andrea</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Within the framework of tidally flushed, semi-enclosed basins with negligible freshwater inflow, and under steady periodic flow conditions, three frequently used local transport time scales to quantify the efficiency of water renewal, namely water <span class="hlt">age</span>, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> time, and local flushing time are studied and compared to each other. In these environments, water renewal is strongly controlled by diffusion, and it is significantly affected by the return flow (i.e., the fraction of effluent water that returns into the basin on each flood tide). The definition of water <span class="hlt">age</span> is here modified to account for the return flow, in analogy with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> time and local flushing time. We consider approximate time scales, whose accuracy is analyzed, in order to overcome problems related to the size of the computational domain and to reduce the computational effort. A new approximate procedure is introduced to estimate water <span class="hlt">age</span>, which is based on the water <span class="hlt">aging</span> rate. Also, the concept of local flushing time as a relevant time scale is introduced. Under steady periodic conditions, we demonstrate that the local flushing time quantitatively corresponds to water <span class="hlt">age</span>, and well approximates <span class="hlt">exposure</span> time when the flow is dominated by diffusion. Since the effort required to compute water <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> time is greater than that required to compute the local flushing time, the present results can also have a practical interest in the assessment of water renewal efficiency of semi-enclosed water basins. The results of a modeling study, in which the lagoon of Venice is used as a benchmark, confirm the substantial quantitative equivalence between these three transport time scales in highly diffusive environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://rparticle.web-p.cisti.nrc.ca/rparticle/AbstractTemplateServlet?calyLang=eng&journal=cjz&volume=70&year=0&issue=5&msno=z92-128','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://rparticle.web-p.cisti.nrc.ca/rparticle/AbstractTemplateServlet?calyLang=eng&journal=cjz&volume=70&year=0&issue=5&msno=z92-128"><span>Prevalence of lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex cohorts of Canada geese</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>We examined the prevalence of lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from ingestion of waste lead shot among <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and < 1 % of adults showed evidence of recent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead shot (i.e., concentrations in the blood elevated above the threshold value of 0. 18 ppm lead). However, median background blood lead concentrations (i.e., blood samples with < 0.18 ppm lead) were higher in adults than goslings, indicating that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of adults to lead had occurred during previous seasons. Waste lead shot was available on the migration and wintering grounds, where a larger proportion of the blood samples from immatures (< 1 year old) than adults (> 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25220148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25220148"><span>Brief dark <span class="hlt">exposure</span> restored ocular dominance plasticity in <span class="hlt">aging</span> mice and after a cortical stroke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stodieck, Sophia Katharina; Greifzu, Franziska; Goetze, Bianka; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Löwel, Siegrid</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In the primary visual cortex (V1), monocular deprivation (MD) induces a shift in the ocular dominance (OD) of binocular neurons towards the open eye (Wiesel and Hubel, 1963; Gordon and Stryker, 1996). In V1 of C57Bl/6J mice, this OD-plasticity is maximal in juveniles, declines in adults and is absent beyond postnatal day (PD) 110 (Lehmann and Löwel, 2008) if mice are raised in standard cages. Since it was recently shown that brief dark <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (DE) restored OD-plasticity in young adult rats (PD70-100) (He et al., 2006), we wondered whether DE would restore OD-plasticity also in adult and old mice and after a cortical stroke. To this end, we raised mice in standard cages until adulthood and transferred them to a darkroom for 10-14 days. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging we demonstrate that short-term DE can restore OD-plasticity after MD in both adult (PD138) and old mice (PD535), and that OD-shifts were mediated by an increase of open eye responses in V1. Interestingly, restored OD-plasticity after DE was accompanied by a reduction of both parvalbumin expressing cells and perineuronal nets and was prevented by increasing intracortical inhibition with diazepam. DE also maintained OD-plasticity in adult mice (PD150) after a stroke in the primary somatosensory cortex. In contrast, short-term DE did not affect basic visual parameters as measured by optomotry. In conclusion, short-term DE was able to restore OD-plasticity in both adult and <span class="hlt">aging</span> mice and even preserved plasticity after a cortical stroke, most likely mediated by reducing intracortical inhibition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21818727','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21818727"><span>The effects of prenatal methamphetamine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on childhood growth patterns from birth to 3 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zabaneh, Rachel; Smith, Lynne M; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Lin, Hai; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We examined the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on growth parameters from birth to <span class="hlt">age</span> 3 years. The 412 subjects included (n = 204 exposed) were enrolled at birth in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle study, a longitudinal study assessing the effects of prenatal MA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on childhood outcomes. Individual models were used to examine the effects of prenatal MA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on weight, head circumference, height, and weight-for-length growth trajectories. After adjusting for covariates, height trajectory was lower in the exposed versus the comparison children (p = 0.021) over the first 3 years of life. Both groups increased height on average by 2.27 cm per month by <span class="hlt">age</span> 3 years. In term subjects, MA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was also associated with a lower height trajectory (p = 0.034), with both the exposed and comparison groups gaining 2.25 cm per month by <span class="hlt">age</span> 3 years. There was no difference in weight, head circumference, or weight-for-length growth trajectories between the comparison and the exposed groups. Children exposed prenatally to MA have a modest decrease in height growth trajectory during the first 3 years of life with no observed difference in weight, head circumference, or weight-for-length trajectories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881111"><span>Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in youth football: elementary school <span class="hlt">ages</span> 9-12 years and the effect of practice structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cobb, Bryan R; Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in youth football has not been well-documented, despite children under the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 14 accounting for 70% of all football players in the United States. The objective of this study was to quantify the head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of youth football players, <span class="hlt">age</span> 9-12, for all practices and games over the course of single season. A total of 50 players (<span class="hlt">age</span> = 11.0 ± 1.1 years) on three teams were equipped with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays, which monitored each impact players sustained during practices and games. During the season, 11,978 impacts were recorded for this <span class="hlt">age</span> group. Players averaged 240 ± 147 impacts for the season with linear and rotational 95th percentile magnitudes of 43 ± 7 g and 2034 ± 361 rad/s(2). Overall, practice and game sessions involved similar impact frequencies and magnitudes. One of the three teams however, had substantially fewer impacts per practice and lower 95th percentile magnitudes in practices due to a concerted effort to limit contact in practices. The same team also participated in fewer practices, further reducing the number of impacts each player experienced in practice. Head impact <span class="hlt">exposures</span> in games showed no statistical difference. While the acceleration magnitudes among 9-12 year old players tended to be lower than those reported for older players, some recorded high magnitude impacts were similar to those seen at the high school and college level. Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in youth football may be appreciably reduced by limiting contact in practices. Further research is required to assess whether such a reduction in head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> will result in a reduction in concussion incidence.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23533642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23533642"><span>Impact of low dose prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on glucose homeostasis in Sprague-Dawley rats <span class="hlt">aged</span> up to eight months.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Probyn, Megan E; Parsonson, Kylie R; Gårdebjer, Emelie M; Ward, Leigh C; Wlodek, Mary E; Anderson, Stephen T; Moritz, Karen M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Excessive <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to alcohol prenatally has a myriad of detrimental effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. It is unknown whether chronic low-moderate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of alcohol prenatally has similar and lasting effects on the adult offspring's health. Using our recently developed Sprague-Dawley rat model of 6% chronic prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, this study aimed to determine if this modest level of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> adversely affects glucose homeostasis in male and female offspring <span class="hlt">aged</span> up to eight months. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured in late fetal and postnatal life. The pancreas of 30 day old offspring was analysed for β-cell mass. Glucose handling and insulin action was measured at four months using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin challenge, respectively. Body composition and metabolic gene expression were measured at eight months. Despite normoglycaemia in ethanol consuming dams, ethanol-exposed fetuses were hypoglycaemic at embryonic day 20. Ethanol-exposed offspring were normoglycaemic and normoinsulinaemic under basal fasting conditions and had normal pancreatic β-cell mass at postnatal day 30. However, during a glucose tolerance test, male ethanol-exposed offspring were hyperinsulinaemic with increased first phase insulin secretion. Female ethanol-exposed offspring displayed enhanced glucose clearance during an insulin challenge. Body composition and hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue metabolic gene expression levels at eight months were not altered by prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Low-moderate chronic prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> has subtle, sex specific effects on glucose homeostasis in the young adult rat. As <span class="hlt">aging</span> is associated with glucose dysregulation, further studies will clarify the long lasting effects of prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5072748','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5072748"><span>Prenatal and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and attention and executive function at 9–12 years of <span class="hlt">age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sagiv, Sharon K.; Kogut, Katherine; Gaspar, Fraser; Gunier, Robert; Harley, Kim; Parra, Kimberly; Villaseñor, Diana; Bradman, Asa; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective California children’s <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) are among the highest measured worldwide. We previously reported associations for prenatal and childhood PBDE <span class="hlt">exposures</span> with decrements in attention, processing speed, fine motor coordination, and cognition in children at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 5 and 7 years. Here, we investigate associations of PBDEs with attention and executive function at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 9 to 12 years in the expanded CHAMACOS cohort. Methods We measured PBDEs in prenatal and child <span class="hlt">age</span> 9 year serum samples for families enrolled in the study since pregnancy (“CHAM1”, N=321). In a subsequent cohort for which families were enrolled at child <span class="hlt">age</span> 9 (“CHAM2”, N=301), we measured PBDEs in maternal and child samples collected at child <span class="hlt">age</span> 9, and used predictive modeling to estimate prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels. We examined associations of measured and estimated PBDE concentrations on children’s attention and executive functioning at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 9, 10½, and 12 years. Results Geometric means for prenatal and childhood ΣPBDE levels (sum of PBDE−47,−99,−100,−153) for the expanded CHAMACOS cohort were 26.3 and 63.2 ng/g lipid, respectively, and did not differ significantly between CHAM1 and CHAM2 families. We found consistent associations of prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PBDEs with poorer attention and executive function, measured with parent report and direct neuropsychological testing of the child. For example, using GEE models of repeated outcome measures at <span class="hlt">age</span> 9 and 12, a 10-fold increase in prenatal ΣPBDE was associated with poorer response consistency on the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II (β=2.9; 95% CI: 0.9, 4.8) and poorer working memory on the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (β=2.5; 95% CI: 0.5, 4.4). Child <span class="hlt">age</span> 9 ΣPBDE levels were associated with poorer parent-reported attention and executive function for girls but not boys. Conclusions Our results suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=302423','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=302423"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> on the disruption of cognitive performance by <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to space radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to low doses of heavy particles and protons can cause deficits in cognitive performance when measured within a short time (1-4 months) following irradiation. The long-term effects of such <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and their relationship to the short-term effects remain to be established. The present exp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drugs+AND+effects&pg=5&id=EJ913311','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drugs+AND+effects&pg=5&id=EJ913311"><span>Foetal Antiepileptic Drug <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Verbal versus Non-Verbal Abilities at Three Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We previously reported that foetal valproate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23973560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23973560"><span>Enhanced taupathy and AD-like pathology in <span class="hlt">aged</span> primate brains decades after infantile <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead (Pb).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bihaqi, Syed Waseem; Zawia, Nasser H</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Late Onset Alzheimer Disease (LOAD) constitutes the majority of AD cases (∼90%). Amyloidosis and tau pathology, which are present in AD brains, appear to be sporadic in nature. We have previously shown that infantile lead (Pb) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is associated with a change in the expression and regulation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its beta amyloid (Aβ) products in old <span class="hlt">age</span>. Here we report that infantile Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> elevated the mRNA and protein levels of tau as well as its transcriptional regulators namely specificity protein 1 and 3 (Sp1 and Sp3) in <span class="hlt">aged</span> primates. These changes were also accompanied by an enhancement in site-specific tau phosphorylation as well as an increase in the mRNA and protein levels of cyclin dependent kinase 5 (cdk5). There was also a change in the protein ratio of p35/p25 with more Serine/Threonine phosphatase activity present in <span class="hlt">aged</span> primates exposed to Pb as infants. These molecular alterations favored abundant tau phosphorylation and immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of <span class="hlt">aged</span> primates with prior Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. These findings provide more evidence that neurodegenerative diseases may be products of environmental influences that occur during the development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2018527','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2018527"><span>Elderly and sun-affected skin. Distinguishing between changes caused by <span class="hlt">aging</span> and changes caused by habitual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to sun.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jackson, R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: To review and distinguish between skin changes produced by <span class="hlt">aging</span> and changes produced by habitual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to sun. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The literature was searched from 1969 to 1999 for articles on dermatoheliosis and sun-damaged skin. Surprisingly few were found comparing the difference between elderly skin and sun-damaged skin. A few articles focused on certain small aspects of sun-damaged skin. Many excellent articles described particular changes (e.g., actinic keratosis), but few covered all the changes due to <span class="hlt">aging</span> and to sun. MAIN MESSAGE: Skin changes due to <span class="hlt">aging</span> can be distinguished from those due to sun damage. All changes due to sun <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can be grouped under the term dermatoheliosis; five parts of the skin are involved: epidermis (actinic keratosis), dermis (solar elastosis), blood vessels (telangiectasia), sebaceous glands (solar comedones), and melanocytes (diffuse or mottled brown patches). Habitual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to sun and a white skin are prerequisites for developing these changes. Knowing the difference between changes caused by sun and by <span class="hlt">aging</span> can help physicians predict which patients are most likely to get skin cancers. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of these common skin changes will help physicians diagnose and manage the skin abnormalities of elderly people and of people with dermatoheliosis. PMID:11421052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4651044','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4651044"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> at First <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stamm, Julie M.; Koerte, Inga K.; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P.; Baugh, Christine M.; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J.; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G.; Martin, Brett M.; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D.; Lin, Alexander P.; Cantu, Robert C.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Shenton, Martha E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, <span class="hlt">ages</span> 40–65, were matched by <span class="hlt">age</span> and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 or at <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure. PMID:26200068</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4710546','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4710546"><span>Increased Serum Insulin <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Does Not Affect <span class="hlt">Age</span> or Stage of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chao, David T.; Shah, Nilesh H.; Zeh, Herbert J.; Bahary, Nathan; Whitcomb, David C.; Brand, Randall E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives In considering whether medications that increase insulin levels accelerate pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) development, we hypothesized that PC patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who used exogenous insulin or insulin-stimulating medications should have an earlier <span class="hlt">age</span> of diagnosis or present with more advanced disease. Methods Patients enrolled in our PC registry from 6/1/2003 to 5/31/2012 were stratified according to treatment solely with insulin, insulin-stimulating medications, or insulin-independent medications. <span class="hlt">Age</span> of PC diagnosis, PC stage, and years between DM and PC diagnoses were analyzed among the cohorts. Results Of 122 DM patients (mean <span class="hlt">age</span>: 67.4 ± 10.2 years), the mean <span class="hlt">age</span> of PC diagnosis within the insulin-only (n=40), insulin-stimulating (n=11), insulin-independent (n=71), and non-DM (n=321) cohorts were 68.7 ± 10.5 years, 69.6 ± 10.8 years, 66.3 ± 9.7 years, and 65.5 ± 10.5 years, respectively. No significant difference among the <span class="hlt">age</span> of PC diagnosis was observed based on duration or type of DM treatment. There was no correlation between PC stage and increased insulin <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Conclusions Anti-DM medications that increase <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to insulin do not appear to accelerate PC development using outcomes of mean <span class="hlt">age</span> of PC diagnosis, PC stage, or duration between DM and PC diagnoses. PMID:26418902</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200068"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> at First <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, <span class="hlt">ages</span> 40-65, were matched by <span class="hlt">age</span> and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 or at <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058928"><span>Prenatal methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and language delay at three years of <span class="hlt">age</span> in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the <span class="hlt">Ages</span> and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An <span class="hlt">exposure</span> level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Results indicated an association between high MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Age+AND+Factor+AND+Foreign+AND+Language&pg=3&id=EJ1092714','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Age+AND+Factor+AND+Foreign+AND+Language&pg=3&id=EJ1092714"><span>English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of <span class="hlt">Age</span>, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, and L1 Phonology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of <span class="hlt">age</span>, English vocabulary size, length of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean <span class="hlt">age</span> 5;8 [years;months]) whose <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+age+AND+Media&pg=2&id=EJ972061','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+age+AND+Media&pg=2&id=EJ972061"><span>Infant and Early Childhood <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Adult-Directed and Child-Directed Television Programming: Relations with Cognitive Skills at <span class="hlt">Age</span> Four</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barr, Rachel; Lauricella, Alexis; Zach, Elizabeth; Calvert, Sandra L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study described the relations among the amount of child-directed versus adult-directed television <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 1 and 4 with cognitive outcomes at <span class="hlt">age</span> 4. Sixty parents completed 24-hour television diaries when their children were 1 and 4 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. At <span class="hlt">age</span> 4, their children also completed a series of cognitive measures and parents…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447520','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447520"><span>Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to environmental contaminants and body composition at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7–9 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP41A0795M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP41A0795M"><span>Cosmogenic Ne-21 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of glacial boulders constrained by local bedrock erosion rates in Ong Valley, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, D. J.; Balco, G.; Putkonen, J.; Bibby, T.; Giusti, C.; Ball, A. E.; Hedberg, C. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Ringger, K. C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In order to accurately determine the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of glacial boulders with cosmogenic nuclides, we need to know something about the erosion rate of the rock and any previous <span class="hlt">exposure</span> the boulder may have had. Commonly, the erosion rate is simply assumed, and inheritance is dealt with by both sampling strategy and removing outliers from the data. In this study, we determine the rock erosion rate by measuring the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in granite bedrock samples. This is used to constrain the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of glacial boulders of the same lithology from the same locale. Ong Valley, Antarctica, (157.5 East, 83.25 South) is an ice-free valley in the Miller Range of the Central Transantarctic Mountains. The valley contains three distinct glacial drifts, and the oldest of these is well defined by an end moraine. We collected samples from six boulders on this end moraine, and six additional samples from the surrounding bedrock that is composed of the same lithology, the Hope Granite. The bedrock samples were collected from the ridge bordering the valley, well above the glacial limit. Because the bedrock samples have not been shielded by ice and have been exposed for millions of years, the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in these samples reflects only the erosion rate of the granite. We separated quartz from the granite samples following standard laboratory methods and measured the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in the quartz at the BGC Noble Gas Thermochronometry Lab. The concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in the bedrock samples is interpreted as reflecting only the erosion rate. We can then assume that the erosion rate of the bedrock is equal to the erosion rate of the glacial boulders on the end moraine because they have the same lithology and have been subjected to the same climate conditions during their <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. With this information, we can better constrain the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of the glacial boulders in Ong Valley.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5172513','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5172513"><span>Plasma Efavirenz <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, Sex, and <span class="hlt">Age</span> Predict Virological Response in HIV-Infected African Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bienczak, Andrzej; Denti, Paolo; Cook, Adrian; Wiesner, Lubbe; Mulenga, Veronica; Kityo, Cissy; Kekitiinwa, Addy; Gibb, Diana M.; Burger, David; Walker, A. Sarah</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Owing to insufficient evidence in children, target plasma concentrations of efavirenz are based on studies in adults. Our analysis aimed to evaluate the pediatric therapeutic thresholds and characterize the determinants of virological suppression in African children. Methods: We analyzed data from 128 African children (<span class="hlt">aged</span> 1.7–13.5 years) treated with efavirenz, lamivudine, and one among abacavir, stavudine, or zidovudine, and followed up to 36 months. Individual pharmacokinetic (PK) measures [plasma concentration 12 hours after dose (C12h), plasma concentration 24 hours after dose (C24h), and area under the curve (AUC0-24)] were estimated using population PK modeling. Cox multiple failure regression and multivariable fractional polynomials were used to investigate the risks of unsuppressed viral load associated with efavirenz <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and other factors among 106 initially treatment-naive children, and likelihood profiling was used to identify the most predictive PK thresholds. Results: The risk of viral load >100 copies per milliliter decreased by 42% for every 2-fold increase in efavirenz mid-dose concentration [95% confidence interval (CI): 23% to 57%; P < 0.001]. The most predictive PK thresholds for increased risk of unsuppressed viral load were C12h 1.12 mg/L [hazard ratio (HR): 6.14; 95% CI: 2.64 to 14.27], C24h 0.65 mg/L (HR: 6.57; 95% CI: 2.86 to 15.10), and AUC0-24 28 mg·h/L (HR: 5.77; 95% CI: 2.28 to 14.58). Children older than 8 years had a more than 10-fold increased risk of virological nonsuppression (P = 0.005); among children younger than 8 years, boys had a 5.31 times higher risk than girls (P = 0.007). Central nervous system adverse events were infrequently reported. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that the minimum target C24h and AUC0-24 could be lowered in children. Our findings should be confirmed in a prospective pediatric trial. PMID:27116047</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556609','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556609"><span><span class="hlt">Exposures</span> to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and <span class="hlt">Age</span> of Menarche in Adolescent Girls in NHANES (2003–2008)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sircar, Kanta; Martin, Colleen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background: The observed <span class="hlt">age</span> of menarche has fallen, which may have important adverse social and health consequences. Increased <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationship between EDC <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and the <span class="hlt">age</span> of menarche in adolescent girls. Methods: We used data from female participants 12–16 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> who had completed the reproductive health questionnaire and laboratory examination for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for years 2003–2008 (2005–2008 for analyses of phthalates and parabens). <span class="hlt">Exposures</span> were assessed based on creatinine-corrected natural log urine concentrations of selected environmental chemicals and metabolites found in at least 75% of samples in our study sample. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis in SAS 9.2 survey procedures to estimate associations after accounting for censored data among participants who had not reached menarche. We evaluated body mass index (BMI; kilograms per meter squared), family income-to-poverty ratio, race/ethnicity, mother’s smoking status during pregnancy, and birth weight as potential confounders. Results: The weighted mean <span class="hlt">age</span> of menarche was 12.0 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Among 440 girls with both reproductive health and laboratory data, after accounting for BMI and race/ethnicity, we found that 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) and summed environmental phenols (2,5-DCP and 2,4-DCP) were inversely associated with <span class="hlt">age</span> of menarche [hazard ratios of 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19 and 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19, respectively]. Other <span class="hlt">exposures</span> (total parabens, bisphenol A, triclosan, benzophenone-3, total phthalates, and 2,4-DCP) were not significantly associated with <span class="hlt">age</span> of menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest an association between 2,5-DCP, a potential EDC, and earlier <span class="hlt">age</span> of menarche in the general U</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307758&keyword=wood+AND+protection&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78769556&CFTOKEN=64526724','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307758&keyword=wood+AND+protection&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78769556&CFTOKEN=64526724"><span>Examination of <span class="hlt">age</span>-related epigenetic changes following early-life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to dichloroacetic acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Recent studies have shown that transient early-life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a pyruvate analog and metabolic reprogramming agent, increases liver cancer incidence in older mice. This carcinogenic effect is not associated with direct mutagenicity, persistent cytotoxi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27003124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27003124"><span>Small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to particulate air pollution in the early-life environment of twins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bijnens, Esmée M; Derom, Catherine; Gielen, Marij; Winckelmans, Ellen; Fierens, Frans; Vlietinck, Robert; Zeegers, Maurice P; Nawrot, Tim S</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Several studies in singletons have shown that maternal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ambient air pollutants is associated with restricted fetal growth. About half of twins have low birth weight compared with six percent in singletons. So far, no studies have investigated maternal air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in association with birth weight and small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> in twins. We examined 4760 twins of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Survey (2002-2013), to study the association between in utero <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollution with birth weight and small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. Maternal particulate air pollution (PM10) and nitric dioxide (NO2) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was estimated using a spatial temporal interpolation method over various time windows during pregnancy. In the total group of twins, we observed that higher PM10 and NO2 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during the third trimester was significantly associated with a lower birth weight and higher risk of small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. However, the association was driven by moderate to late preterm twins (32-36 weeks of gestation). In these twins born between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation, birth weight decreased by 40.2g (95% CI: -69.0 to -11.3; p=0.006) and by 27.3g (95% CI: -52.9 to -1.7; p=0.04) in association for each 10µg/m³ increment in PM10 and NO2 concentration during the third trimester. The corresponding odds ratio for small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> were 1.68 (95% CI: 1.27-2.33; p=0.0003) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.18-1.95; p=0.001) for PM10 or NO2, respectively. No associations between air pollution and birth weight or small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> were observed among term born twins. Finally, in all twins, we found that for each 10µg/m³ increase in PM10 during the last month of pregnancy the within-pair birth weight difference increased by 19.6g (95% CI: 3.7-35.4; p=0.02). Assuming causality, an achievement of a 10µg/m³ decrease of particulate air pollution may account for a reduction by 40% in small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>, in twins born moderate to late preterm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=152023&keyword=brain+AND+functions&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=85797424&CFTOKEN=19401665','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=152023&keyword=brain+AND+functions&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=85797424&CFTOKEN=19401665"><span>IMPROVING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF SUSCEPTIBILITY IN THE <span class="hlt">AGING</span> POPULATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL <span class="hlt">EXPOSURES</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A radical demographic shift is taking place in America, with <span class="hlt">aging</span> adults being the fastest-growing segment of the population. Considerable research is underway on the biology of <span class="hlt">aging</span> and on remedies for treating the diseases of <span class="hlt">aging</span>. Remarkably little is known, however, about ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EP%26S...68...11D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EP%26S...68...11D"><span>40Ar/39Ar and cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of plagioclase-rich lithic fragments from Apollo 17 regolith, 78461</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Das, J. P.; Baldwin, S. L.; Delano, J. W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Argon isotopic data is used to assess the potential of low-mass samples collected by sample return missions on planetary objects (e.g., Moon, Mars, asteroids), to reveal planetary surface processes. We report the first 40Ar/39Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> and 38Ar cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">ages</span>, determined for eleven submillimeter-sized (ranging from 0.06 to 1.2 mg) plagioclase-rich lithic fragments from Apollo 17 regolith sample 78461 collected at the base of the Sculptured Hills. Total fusion analysis was used to outgas argon from the lithic fragments. Three different approaches were used to determine 40Ar/39Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> and illustrate the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">age</span> determination to the choice of trapped (40Ar/36Ar)t. 40Ar/39Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> range from ~4.0 to 4.4 Ga with one exception (Plag#10). Surface CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span>, based on 38Ar, range from ~1 to 24 Ma. The relatively young CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> suggest recent re-working of the upper few centimeters of the regolith. The CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> may result from the effect of downslope movement of materials to the base of the Sculptured Hills from higher elevations. The apparent 40Ar/39Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> for Plag#10 is >5 Ga and yielded the oldest CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> (i.e., ~24 Ma). We interpret this data to indicate the presence of parentless 40Ar in Plag#10, originating in the lunar atmosphere and implanted in lunar regolith by solar wind. Based on a chemical mixing model, plagioclase compositions, and 40Ar/39Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span>, we conclude that lithic fragments originated from Mg-suite of highland rocks, and none were derived from the mare region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6968094','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6968094"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead and children's intelligence at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. )</p> <p>1992-10-29</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of two and four years. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the <span class="hlt">age</span> range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20707722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20707722"><span>Environmental enrichment improves <span class="hlt">age</span>-related immune system impairment: long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> since adulthood increases life span in mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arranz, Lorena; De Castro, Nuria M; Baeza, Isabel; Maté, Ianire; Viveros, Maria Paz; De la Fuente, Mónica</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Age</span>-related changes in immunity have been shown to highly influence morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) (8-16 weeks) on several functions and oxidative stress parameters of peritoneal leukocytes, previously described as health and longevity markers, in mice at different <span class="hlt">ages</span>, namely adult (44 +/- 4 weeks), old (69 +/- 4 weeks), and very old (92 +/- 4 weeks). Mortality rates were monitored in control and enriched animals, and effects on survival of long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to EE until natural death were determined. The results showed that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to EE was efficient in improving the function (i.e., macrophage chemotaxis and phagocytosis, lymphocyte chemotaxis and proliferation, natural killer cell activity, interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels) and decreasing the oxidative-inflammatory stress (i.e., lowered oxidized glutathione content, xanthine oxidase activity, expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 on CD4 and CD8 cells, and increased reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) of immune cells. These positive effects of EE were especially remarkable in animals at older <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Importantly, long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to EE from adult <span class="hlt">age</span> and until natural death stands out as a useful strategy to extend longevity. Thus, the present work confirms the importance of maintaining active mental and/or physical activity aiming to improve quality of life in terms of immunity, and demonstrates that this active life must be initiated at early stages of the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process and preserved until death to improve life span.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011M%26PS...46.1397K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011M%26PS...46.1397K"><span>40Ar-39Ar and cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of nakhlites—Nakhla, Lafayette, Governador Valadares—and Chassigny</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korochantseva, Ekaterina V.; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Buikin, Alexei I.; Hopp, Jens; Ott, Ulrich; Trieloff, Mario</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Abstract- We present 40Ar-39Ar dating results of handpicked mineral separates and whole-rock samples of Nakhla, Lafayette, and Chassigny. Our data on Nakhla and Lafayette and recently reported <span class="hlt">ages</span> for some nakhlites and Chassigny (Misawa et al. 2006; Park et al. 2009) point to formation <span class="hlt">ages</span> of approximately 1.4 Ga rather than 1.3 Ga that is consistent with previous suggestions of close-in-time formation of nakhlites and Chassigny. In Lafayette mesostasis, we detected a secondary degassing event at approximately 1.1 Ga, which is not related to iddingsite formation. It may have been caused by a medium-grade thermal event resetting the mesostasis <span class="hlt">age</span> but not influencing the K-Ar system of magmatic inclusions and the original igneous texture of this rock. Cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for these meteorites and for Governador Valadares were calculated from bulk rock concentrations of cosmogenic nuclides 3He, 21Ne, and 38Ar. Individual results are similar to literature data. The considerable scatter of T3, T21, and T38 <span class="hlt">ages</span> is due to systematic uncertainties related to bulk rock and target element chemistry, production rates, and shielding effects. This hampers efforts to better constrain the hypothesis of a single ejection event for all nakhlites and Chassigny from a confined Martian surface terrain (Eugster 2003; Garrison and Bogard 2005). Cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from stepwise release <span class="hlt">age</span> spectra using 38Ar and neutron induced 37Ar from Ca in irradiated samples can eliminate errors induced by bulk chemistry on production rates, although not from shielding conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.184..151K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.184..151K"><span>New constraints on the relationship between <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic variation in the early Solar System from a multielement isotopic study of spinel-hibonite inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, Levke; Nakashima, Daisuke; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.; Tenner, Travis J.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Park, Changkun; Davis, Andrew M.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We report oxygen, calcium, titanium and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg isotope systematics for spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs), a class of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) common in CM chondrites. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses of 33 SHIBs and four SHIB-related objects obtained with high spatial resolution demonstrate that these CAIs have a uniform Δ17O value of approximately -23‰, similar to many other mineralogically pristine CAIs from unmetamorphosed chondrites (e.g., CR, CV, and Acfer 094). Five SHIBs studied for calcium and titanium isotopes have no resolvable anomalies beyond 3σ uncertainties. This suggests that nucleosynthetic anomalies in the refractory elements had been significantly diluted in the environment where SHIBs with uniform Δ17O formed. We established internal <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg isochrons for eight SHIBs and found that seven of these formed with uniformly high levels of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> (a multi-CAI mineral isochron yields an initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratio of ∼4.8 × 10-5), but one SHIB has a smaller initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al of ∼ 2.5 × 10-5, indicating variation in <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios when SHIBs formed. The uniform calcium, titanium and oxygen isotopic characteristics found in SHIBs with both high and low initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios allow for two interpretations. (1) If subcanonical initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios in SHIBs are due to early formation, as suggested by Liu et al. (2012), our data would indicate that the CAI formation region had achieved a high degree of isotopic homogeneity in oxygen and refractory elements before a homogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> was achieved. (2) Alternatively, if subcanonical ratios were the result of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg system resetting, the clustering of SHIBs at a Δ17O value of ∼-23‰ would imply that a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir existed in the nebula until at least ∼0.7 Ma after the formation of the majority of CAIs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036950','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036950"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older <span class="hlt">Age</span>: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>As the population <span class="hlt">ages</span>, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to <span class="hlt">ageing</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span>-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated <span class="hlt">ageing</span>. PMID:27699078</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18585472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18585472"><span>Chronic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 50Hz magnetic fields causes a significant weakening of antioxidant defence systems in <span class="hlt">aged</span> rat brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Falone, Stefano; Mirabilio, Alessandro; Carbone, Maria Cristina; Zimmitti, Vincenzo; Di Loreto, Silvia; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Mancinelli, Rosa; Di Ilio, Carmine; Amicarelli, Fernanda</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Several studies suggest that extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) may enhance the free radical endogenous production. It is also well known that one of the unavoidable consequences of <span class="hlt">ageing</span> is an overall oxidative stress-based decline in several physiological functions and in the general resistance to stressors. On the basis of these assumptions, the aim of this study was to establish whether the <span class="hlt">ageing</span> process can increase susceptibility towards widely present ELF-MF-mediated pro-oxidative challenges. To this end, female Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to a sinusoidal 50 Hz, 0.1 mT magnetic field for 10 days. Treatment-induced changes in the major antioxidant protection systems and in the neurotrophic support were investigated, as a function of the <span class="hlt">age</span> of the subjects. All analyses were performed in brain cortices, due to the high susceptibility of neuronal cells to oxidative injury. Our results indicated that ELF-MF <span class="hlt">exposure</span> significantly affects anti-oxidative capability, both in young and <span class="hlt">aged</span> animals, although in opposite ways. Indeed, exposed young individuals enhanced their neurotrophic signalling and anti-oxidative enzymatic defence against a possible ELF-MF-mediated increase in oxygen radical species. In contrast, <span class="hlt">aged</span> subjects were not capable of increasing their defences in response to ELF-MF treatment but, on the contrary, they underwent a significant decrease in the major antioxidant enzymatic activities. In conclusion, our data seem to suggest that the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ELF-MFs may act as a risk factor for the occurrence of oxidative stress-based nervous system pathologies associated with <span class="hlt">ageing</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307797&keyword=epigenetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90679033&CFTOKEN=20920112','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307797&keyword=epigenetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90679033&CFTOKEN=20920112"><span><span class="hlt">Aging</span>: Characteristics, <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Factors, Epigenetics, and Assessment of Health Risks of Older Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This chapter is organized into three sections. The first part describes the characteristics of the older adult population and the U.S. EPA’s efforts to protect elders form environmental hazards. Section II covers available <span class="hlt">exposure</span> factor data, activity pattern and the pot...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transient+AND+analysis&id=EJ1113686','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transient+AND+analysis&id=EJ1113686"><span>Early Childhood Household Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at <span class="hlt">Age</span> 10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pagani, Linda S.; Fitzpatrick, Caroline</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and later classroom behavior. Using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4112075','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4112075"><span>Prenatal Tobacco <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Response Inhibition in School-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Children: An Event-Related Potential Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Burden, Matthew J.; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Muckle, Gina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Prenatal cigarette smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (PCSE) has been linked to problems in behavioral inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in several epidemiological studies. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of PCSE on neural correlates of inhibitory control of behavior. In a prospective longitudinal study on child development in the Canadian Arctic, we assessed 186 Inuit children (mean <span class="hlt">age</span> = 11.3 years) on a visual Go/No-go response inhibition paradigm. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Potential confounders were documented from a maternal interview, and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to neurotoxic environmental contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. PCSE was not related to behavioral performance on this simple response inhibition task. Nevertheless, this <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with smaller amplitudes of the N2 and P3 components elicited by No-go stimuli, suggesting an impairment in the neural processes underlying response inhibition. Amplitude of the No-go P3 component was also inversely associated with behavioral measures of externalizing problems and hyperactivity/impulsivity in the classroom. This study is the first to report neurophysiological evidence of impaired response inhibition in school-<span class="hlt">aged</span> children exposed to tobacco smoke in utero. Effects were found on ERP components associated with conflict processing and inhibition of a prepotent response, indicating neurophysiological deficits that may play a critical role in the attention and behavior problems observed in children with PCSE. PMID:24946039</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4963856','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4963856"><span>No Association between Mycotoxin <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duringer, Jennifer; Fombonne, Eric; Craig, Morrie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; <span class="hlt">aged</span> 12.4 ± 3.9 years) screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20%) samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for <span class="hlt">age</span> (t-test; p = 0.322), gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456), <span class="hlt">exposure</span> or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367), or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00). While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers) and newborn-toddler years would cover additional <span class="hlt">exposure</span> windows. PMID:27447670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC21A0720L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC21A0720L"><span>Precise Surface <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Dating of Early Holocene and Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> Moraines in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of Southern Peru</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Licciardi, J. M.; Schaefer, J. M.; Lund, D. C.; Taggart, J. R.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We have established precise <span class="hlt">ages</span> of two glacial events in the tropical Andean highlands of southern Peru. The field site is located on the flanks of Nevado Salcantay (6271 m asl; 13°20'S latitude), the highest peak in the Cordillera Vilcabamba. A two-fold sequence of nested lateral and end moraines was mapped in a glacial trough emanating from the south face of Salcantay. Well-defined outer and inner moraines were deposited by valley glaciers that terminated 5 km and 3 km, respectively, from their head on the Salcantay massif. Cosmogenic 10Be surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating of boulders on the outer (n = 7) and inner (n = 7) moraine crests expands upon initial <span class="hlt">age</span> control for these deposits and improves substantially on the precision of earlier 10Be measurements. The new results yield mean <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 9.0 ± 0.3 ka for the outer moraine and 195 ± 24 years for the inner moraine, corresponding to glacial events during the early and latest Holocene. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> are derived using the CRONUS-Earth 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> calculator with Lal-Stone production rate scaling and the default height-pressure relationship. The inner moraine <span class="hlt">age</span> correlates with the timing of the Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> as defined from northern mid- and high latitude records, and indicates considerable expansion of glaciers heading on Nevado Salcantay during this climatic minimum. Recent geomorphic mapping has identified similar sequences of moraines in adjacent drainages on and near Salcantay, suggesting a broader regional signal of two prominent Holocene glacial events in this segment of the southern Peruvian Andes; 10Be dating of these additional moraines is underway. Our new glacier chronologies complement ice core and lacustrine paleoclimate records in the vicinity, thereby increasing spatial and temporal coverage for identifying patterns of climate change in the tropical Andes during the Holocene. Apart from their paleoclimatic significance, the results also demonstrate a newly- developed capability of 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10650','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10650"><span>Status of cross-section data for gas production from vanadium and {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">AL</span> from silicon carbide in a D-T fusion reactor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gomes, I. C.</p> <p>1998-08-11</p> <p>Current designs of fusion-reactor systems seek to use radiation-resistant, low-activation materials that support long service lifetimes and minimize radioactive-waste problems after decommissioning. Reliable assessment of fusion materials performance requires accurate neutron-reaction cross sections and radioactive-decay constants. The problem areas usually involve cross sections since decay parameters tend to be better known. The present study was motivated by two specific questions: (i) Why are the {sup 51}V(n,np){sup 50}Ti cross section values in the ENDF/B-VI library so large (a gas production issue)? (ii) How well known are the cross sections associated with producing 7.4 x 10{sup 5} y {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in silicon carbide by the process {sup 28}Si(n,np+d){sup 27} Al(n,2n){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> (a long-lived radioactivity issue)? The energy range 14-15 MeV of the D-T fusion neutrons is emphasized. Cross-section error bars are needed so that uncertainties in the gas and radioactivity generated over the lifetime of a reactor can be estimated. We address this issue by comparing values obtained from prominent evaluated cross-section libraries. Small differences between independent evaluations indicate that a physical quantity is well known while the opposite signals a problem. Hydrogen from {sup 51}V(n,p){sup 51}Ti and helium from {sup 51}V(n,{alpha}){sup 48}Sc are also important sources of gas in vanadium, so they too were examined. We conclude that {sup 51}V(n,p){sup 51}Ti is adequately known but {sup 51}V(n,np+d){sup 50}Ti is not. The status for helium generation data is quite good. Due to recent experimental work, {sup 27}Al(n,2n){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> seems to be fairly well known. However, the situation for {sup 28}Si(n,np+d){sup 27}Al remains unsatisfactory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043604"><span>Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span>: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span>. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The <span class="hlt">age</span>-adjusted rate of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> from SHS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/risk/guidance-selecting-age-groups-monitoring-and-assessing-childhood-exposures-environmental','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/risk/guidance-selecting-age-groups-monitoring-and-assessing-childhood-exposures-environmental"><span>Guidance on Selecting <span class="hlt">Age</span> Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood <span class="hlt">Exposures</span> to Environmental Contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This document recommends a set of <span class="hlt">age</span> groupings based on current understanding of differences in lifestage behavior and anatomy and physiology that can serve as a starting set for consideration by Agency risk assessors and researchers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6861395','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6861395"><span>Port Pirie Cohort Study: environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead and children's abilities at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of four years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McMichael, A.J.; Baghurst, P.A.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.</p> <p>1988-08-25</p> <p>We studied the effect of environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead on children's abilities at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of four years in a cohort of 537 children born during 1979 to 1982 to women living in a community situated near a lead smelter. Samples for measuring blood lead levels were obtained from the mothers antenatally, at delivery from the mothers and umbilical cords, and at the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 6, 15, and 24 months and then annually from the children. Concurrently, the mothers were interviewed about personal, family, medical, and environmental factors. Maternal intelligence, the home environment, and the children's mental development (as evaluated with use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities) were formally assessed. The mean blood lead concentration varied from 0.44 mumol per liter in midpregnancy to a peak of 1.03 mumol per liter at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of two years. The blood lead concentration at each <span class="hlt">age</span>, particularly at two and three years, and the integrated postnatal average concentration were inversely related to development at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of four. Multivariate analysis incorporating many factors in the children's lives indicated that the subjects with an average postnatal blood lead concentration of 1.50 mumol per liter had a general cognitive score 7.2 points lower (95 percent confidence interval, 0.3 to 13.2; mean score, 107.1) than those with an average concentration of 0.50 mumol per liter. Similar deficits occurred in the perceptual-performance and memory scores. Within the range of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> studied, no threshold dose for an effect of lead was evident. We conclude that postnatal blood lead concentration is inversely related to cognitive development in children, although one must be circumspect in making causal inferences from studies of this relation, because of the difficulties in defining and controlling confounding effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150010432','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150010432"><span>Surface <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Space-Weathered Grains from Asteroid 25143 Itokawa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Christoffersen, R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We use the observed effects of solar wind ion irradiation and the accumulation of solar flare particle tracks recorded in Itokawa grains to constrain the rates of space weathering and yield information about regolith dynamics. The track densities are consistent with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at mm depths for 104-105 years. The solar wind damaged rims form on a much faster timescale, <10(exp 3) years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863964"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span>-dependent dopaminergic dysfunction following fetal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to atrazine in SD rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yanshu; Sun, Yan; Yang, Junwei; Wu, Yanping; Yu, Jia; Li, Baixiang</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The herbicide, atrazine (ATR), is used worldwide and its contamination in the environment has resulted in documented human <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. It has also been shown that ATR results in dopaminergic neurotoxicity, however, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of ATR following in utero <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of ATR <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in Sprague Dawley rats during gestational on the offspring dopaminergic system development. Pregnant dams were treated with oral ATR at 0, 25, 50 mg/kg/day from gestational day 0 to postnatal day 1. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that ATR could cross the placental barrier and have long-term adverse effects on the synthesis, degradation and reuptake of DA in the brain. For this purpose,we examine the concentration of levodopa (L-DA), dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in stratum. The mRNA and protein expression of orphan nuclear hormone (Nurr1), tyrosine hydroxylase(TH), vesicular monoaminetransporter 2 (VMAT2), dopamine transporter (DAT), monoamine (MAO), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) in the midbrain were examined by fluorescence PCR and Western blot when the offspring reached six-month old or one year old .When measured 6 months post-treatment, the level of DA and expression of Nurr1, VMAT2, DAT and TH were reduced in the striatum and Substantia nigra, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455588','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455588"><span>In Utero and Childhood Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether <span class="hlt">Exposures</span> and Body Mass at <span class="hlt">Age</span> 7 Years: The CHAMACOS Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic flame retardants that bioaccumulate in humans. Child serum PBDE concentrations in California are among the highest worldwide. PBDEs may be associated with obesity by disrupting endocrine systems. Objective In this study, we examined whether pre- and postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the components of pentaBDE mixture was associated with childhood obesity in a population of Latino children participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California. Methods We measured PBDEs in serum collected from 224 mothers during pregnancy and their children at 7 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, and examined associations with body mass index (BMI) at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 years. Results Maternal PBDE serum levels during pregnancy were associated with higher BMI z-scores in boys (BMI z-score βadjusted = 0.26; 95% CI: –0.19, 0.72) but lower scores in girls (BMI z-score βadjusted = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.87, –0.05) at 7 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> (pinteraction = 0.04). In addition, child’s serum BDE-153 concentration (log10), but not other pentaBDE congeners, demonstrated inverse associations with BMI at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 years (BMI z-score βadjusted = –1.15; 95% CI: –1.53, –0.77), but there was no interaction by sex. Conclusions We estimated sex-specific associations with maternal PBDE levels during pregnancy and BMI at 7 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, finding positive associations in boys and negative associations in girls. Children’s serum BDE-153 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI at 7 years with no difference by sex. Future studies should examine the longitudinal trends in obesity with PBDE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and changes in hormonal environment as children transition through puberty, as well as evaluate the potential for reverse causality. Citation Erkin-Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. 2015. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and body mass at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 years: the CHAMACOS Study. Environ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24909078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24909078"><span>Biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids in Solanaceae plants: incorporation of 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-<span class="hlt">26</span>-<span class="hlt">al</span> into tomatine with tomato seedlings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Okawa, Akiko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The C-26 amino group of tomatine, a representative Solanaceae steroidal alkaloid, is introduced in an early step of its biosynthesis from cholesterol. We recently proposed a transamination mechanism for the C-26 amination as opposed to the previously proposed mechanism involving a nitrogen nucleophilic displacement. In the present study, a deuterium labeled C-26 aldehyde, (24,24,27,27,27-(2)H5)-3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-<span class="hlt">26</span>-<span class="hlt">al</span>, was synthesized and fed to a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedling. LC-MS analysis of the biosynthesized tomatine indicated that the labeled aldehyde was incorporated into tomatine. The finding strongly supports the intermediacy of the aldehyde and the transamination mechanism during C-26 amination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24769174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24769174"><span>Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span> on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and advancing <span class="hlt">age</span>. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that <span class="hlt">aging</span> enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the <span class="hlt">age</span> ranges that were studied.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3171685','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3171685"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span>- and sun <span class="hlt">exposure</span>-dependent differences in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine in human epidermis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Toyokuni, Shinya; Hirao, Ayaka; Wada, Tamae; Nagai, Ryoji; Date, Akira; Yoshii, Takashi; Akatsuka, Shinya; Yamashita, Yoriko; Kawada, Akira</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aging</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to sunlight are two major factors in the deterioration of skin function. In this study, thirty-six fixed human skin samples from sun-exposed and unexposed areas from young and old individuals were used to evaluate the localization of oxidative stress according to levels and distribution of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine in samples using immunohistochemistry. In the epidermis of the young, negligible amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine were detected in unexposed areas, whereas nuclear 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cytoplasmic Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine were increased in the lower epidermis in sun-exposed areas. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">aged</span> presented prominent nuclear 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and nuclear Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine in the epidermis of unexposed areas, concomitant with dermal increase in Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine. However, the immunostaining of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine revealed a decrease in the epidermis of sun-exposed areas in the <span class="hlt">aged</span>. These results suggest an <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent difference in the adaptation and protective mechanisms of the epidermis against sunlight-associated oxidative stress, thus necessitating distinct standards for evaluation in each <span class="hlt">age</span> group. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21980228</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898868','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898868"><span>Childhood Lead <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> After the Phaseout of Leaded Gasoline: An Ecological Study of School-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Children in Kampala, Uganda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Graber, Lauren K.; Asher, Daniel; Anandaraja, Natasha; Bopp, Richard F.; Merrill, Karen; Cullen, Mark R.; Luboga, Samuel; Trasande, Leonardo</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Tetraethyl lead was phased out of gasoline in Uganda in 2005. Recent mitigation of an important source of lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> suggests examination and re-evaluation of the prevalence of childhood lead poisoning in this country. Ongoing concerns persist about <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from the Kiteezi landfill in Kampala, the country’s capital. Objectives We determined blood lead distributions among Kampala schoolchildren and identified risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs; ≥ 10 μg/dL). Analytical approach Using a stratified, cross-sectional design, we obtained blood samples, questionnaire data, and soil and dust samples from the homes and schools of 163 4- to 8-year-old children representing communities with different risks of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Results The mean blood lead level (BLL) was 7.15 μg/dL; 20.5% of the children were found to have EBLL. Multivariable analysis found participants whose families owned fewer household items, ate canned food, or used the community water supply as their primary water source to have higher BLLs and likelihood of EBLLs. Distance < 0.5 mi from the landfill was the factor most strongly associated with increments in BLL (5.51 μg/dL, p < 0.0001) and likelihood of EBLL (OR = 4.71, p = 0.0093). Dust/soil lead was not significantly predictive of BLL/EBLL. Conclusions Lead poisoning remains highly prevalent among school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children in Kampala. Confirmatory studies are needed, but further efforts are indicated to limit lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from the landfill, whether through water contamination or through another mechanism. Although African nations are to be lauded for the removal of lead from gasoline, this study serves as a reminder that other sources of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to this potent neurotoxicant merit ongoing attention. PMID:20194080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492867','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492867"><span>Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, Antioxidant Levels and Behavioral Development of Children <span class="hlt">Ages</span> 6–9</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Stigter, Laura; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Wang, Shuang; Roen, Emily L.; Majewska, Renata; Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Mroz, Elzbieta; Perera, Frederica P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> has been shown to increase DNA adduct levels and to affect neurodevelopment. Micronutrients may modify the adverse effect of PAH on neurodevelopment. Thus, we examined if micronutrient concentrations modified the association between PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods 151 children from a birth cohort who had micronutrient concentrations measured in cord blood and completed the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL), between the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 6 and 9 years, were evaluated. Prenatal airborne PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was measured by personal air monitoring. The betas and 95% CI for the associations of antioxidant concentrations and PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with each of the outcomes of CBCL raw score and dichotomized standardized T-score (based on clinical cutpoints) were estimated, respectively, by multivariable poisson and logistic models. Results Children below the median for alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentrations, compared to those above, were more likely to have thought problems, aggressive behavior and externalizing problems (p<0.05). Lower carotenoid concentration was associated with more thought problems (MVβ=0.60, p<0.001) and externalizing problems (MVβ=0.13, p<0.05) for the same contrast. No statistically significant associations were observed between retinol concentrations and neurodevelopmental symptoms. Overall, no consistent patterns were observed when we examined the interaction between antioxidants (e.g., alpha-tocopherol) and PAH in relation to CBCL symptoms (e.g., internalizing and externalizing problems, p<0.05). Conclusions Lower alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and carotenoid levels may adversely affect healthy neurodevelopment, even after accounting for PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Future research to confirm these findings are warranted given the importance of identifying modifiable factors for reducing harmful PAH effects. PMID:25863187</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3673196','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3673196"><span>Prenatal <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to the Pesticide DDT and Hypertension Diagnosed in Women before <span class="hlt">Age</span> 50: A Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cirillo, Piera M.; Terry, Mary Beth; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y.; Flom, Julie D.; Cohn, Barbara A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background: Elevated levels of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) have been positively associated with blood pressure and hypertension in studies among adults. Accumulating epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence suggests that hypertension during adulthood may also be affected by earlier life and possibly the prenatal environment. Objectives: We assessed whether prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the pesticide DDT increases risk of adult hypertension. Methods: We examined concentrations of DDT (p,p´- and o,p´-) and its metabolite p,p´-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) in prenatal serum samples from a subset of women (n = 527) who had participated in the prospective Child Health and Development Studies birth cohort in the San Francisco Bay area while they were pregnant between 1959 and 1967. We surveyed daughters 39–47 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> by telephone interview from 2005 to 2008 to obtain information on self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension and use of hypertensive medication. We used multivariable regression analysis of time to hypertension based on the Cox proportional hazards model to estimate relative rates for the association between prenatal DDT <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and hypertension treated with medication in adulthood, with adjustment for potential confounding by maternal, early-life, and adult <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. Results: Prenatal p,p´-DDT <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with hypertension [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.8, 7.2 and aHR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.3 for middle and high tertiles of p,p´-DDT relative to the lowest tertile, respectively]. These associations between p,p´-DDT and hypertension were robust to adjustment for independent hypertension risk factors as well as sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the association between DDT <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and hypertension may have its origins early in development. PMID:23591545</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=238242&keyword=Olive&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78678350&CFTOKEN=92059441','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=238242&keyword=Olive&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78678350&CFTOKEN=92059441"><span>Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in healthy middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> adult human volunteers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced <span class="hlt">age</span> is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARY39012Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARY39012Y"><span>Effect of cell donor <span class="hlt">age</span> on the cellular response to nanoparticle <span class="hlt">exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Fan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Mironava, Tatsiana</p> <p></p> <p>As human <span class="hlt">age</span> there are many significant changes that occur in the skin. Here we investigate how the <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent changes in dermal fibroblast mechanics affect cell response to the AuNPs nanoparticles. To analyze these processes we exposed cells from donors of different <span class="hlt">age</span> groups to AuNPs of two different sizes. Our results indicate that there are significant changes in cell rigidity with <span class="hlt">age</span>, which in turn lead to different penetration rates of AuNPs through cell membrane and overall nanoparticle toxicity. Cell proliferation results revealed that all cell groups exposed to the same concentration of AuNPs had a very similar decrease in cell proliferation and similar impact on cell morphology. However, recovery data demonstrated that the rate of recovery from the damage is much faster for neonatal cells as compared to 30- and 80-years old cell group. Therefore, we conclude that nanoparticle uptake depends on cell membrane mechanics that in turn is a function of cell donor <span class="hlt">age</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4227621','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4227621"><span>Pyrethroid insecticide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in school-<span class="hlt">aged</span> children living in rice and aquacultural farming regions of Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark; Panuwet, Parinya; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fiedler, Nancy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Pyrethroid insecticides (PYR) are commonly used in rice farms and household pest control in Thailand. No investigative study has yet been made regarding factors associated with PYR <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among Thai children. Objective This study aimed to compare the levels of PYR <span class="hlt">exposure</span> between children living in rice farms (high-intensity PYR used) and aquacultural areas (low-intensity PYR used) during the wet and dry seasons in Thailand, during which different amounts of PYR are applied. Environmental conditions and common activities of children were used to identify factors associated with PYR <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Methods A cross-sectional study was done during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. A total of 53 participants <span class="hlt">aged</span> between 6 and 8 years old were recruited from rice farms and aquacultural areas. A parental-structured interview was used to gather information about PYR use, household environments, and participants’ activities. First voided morning urine samples were collected for PYR urinary metabolites (ie, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid [3-PBA] and cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid [DCCA]) measurements. Hand wipe samples were collected during home visits, to measure PYR residues on the hands. Results and discussion The concentrations of urinary PYR metabolites were not significantly different between participants who lived in rice farming and those who lived in aquacultural areas, during both wet and dry seasons. Both participant groups had slightly increased urinary PYR metabolites during the wet season compared with the dry season. The results from linear regression analysis revealed that some environmental conditions and activities or practices may be used to predict trends of PYR <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Frequency of PYR use in farms (β=0.004) and households (β=0.07), proximity to rice farms (β=0.09), playing in rice farms (β=0.11), and oral <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from objects exposed to PYR (β=0.08) were likely to be related to increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20542569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20542569"><span>Impact of non-occupational <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to polybrominated diphenyl ethers on menstruation characteristics of reproductive-<span class="hlt">age</span> females.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chao, How-Ran; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Wang, Shu-Li; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Koh, Teck-Wai; Chen, Fu-An; Chang-Chien, Gou-Ping; Tsou, Tsui-Chun</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have documented effects on thyroid functions and rodent behavior in vivo. Epidemiological studies, however, have revealed only limited information about associations between PBDE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and menstruation characteristics. Our goal was to examine whether high breast milk PBDE levels in reproductive-<span class="hlt">age</span> females lead to interference with menstruation characteristics. We analyzed 15 PBDE congeners in 46 breast milk samples. Fifteen PBDE congeners (BDE-15, 28, 47, 49, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 196, 197, 203, 207, 208, and 209) were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The mean sum of PBDEs (SigmaPBDEs) in breast milk was 3.42 ng/g lipid. Women's <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche was not correlated with breast milk PBDE levels. Increased BDE-208 and 209 levels were significantly associated with the prolonged length of average and the longest menstrual cycle independent of <span class="hlt">age</span>, pre-pregnant BMI, and parity. Higher concentrations of SigmaPBDEs and the higher brominated PBDEs from BDE-183 to 209, except 197, were significantly linked to women whose menstruation periods were still coming irregularly at the sampling time. <span class="hlt">Age</span>-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of BDE-153, 183, 207, 208, and SigmaPBDEs were significantly higher in women with length of average menstrual cycle >32 days, compared to the control. Women whose menstruation periods still came irregularly when they were 18 years old had higher <span class="hlt">age</span>-adjusted ORs of BDE-207, 208, 209, and SigmaPBDEs than those whose periods came regularly at the same <span class="hlt">age</span>. Although SigmaPBDEs and certain higher brominated PBDEs appear to have potential to prolong length of average menstrual cycle and delay the <span class="hlt">age</span> when menstruation periods begin coming regularly, these findings are not conclusive because our sample size is small and more scientific evidence is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=330064','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=330064"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> as a risk factor for the disruption of cognitive performance by <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the types of radiation encounted on exploratory class missions to other planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to the types of radiation encountered in space (particles of high energy and charge [HZE particles]) produces changes in neurocognitive performance similar to those observed in the <span class="hlt">aged</span> organism. As such, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title28-vol2-sec79-24.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title28-vol2-sec79-24.pdf"><span>28 CFR 79.24 - Proof of initial or first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> after <span class="hlt">age</span> 20 for claims under § 79.22(b)(1).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of initial or first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> after <span class="hlt">age</span> 20 for claims under § 79.22(b)(1). 79.24 Section 79.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Certain Specified...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23397644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23397644"><span>Fish consumption patterns and mercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels among women of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span> in Duval County, Florida.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Traynor, Sharleen; Kearney, Greg; Olson, David; Hilliard, Aaron; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Consumption of fish containing methylmercury can pose serious health concerns including neurotoxic effects in adults and toxicity to the fetuses of mothers exposed during pregnancy. In the study described in this article, the authors examined fish consumption patterns and measured hair mercury levels of women of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span> in a coastal county in Florida. Women from the community participated in a risk factor assessment survey (N = 703). Hair samples (n = 698) were collected and analyzed for mercury. The authors identified 74.8% below detection limit; 25.2% had detectable limits of mercury, while 7% exceeded 1 pg/g. Hair mercury levels increased with fish consumption and <span class="hlt">age</span>. Race, income, and education levels were also associated with increased hair mercury levels. Women of Asian/Pacific Islander origin had the highest levels. Although reported fish consumption exceeded the recommendations for women of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span>, the study population had lower mercury levels than other comparative studies in Florida and at national levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53C0334H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53C0334H"><span>Further Investigations of Cosmogenic Ne-21 <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Glacial Boulders Constrained by Local Bedrock Erosion Rates in Ong Valley, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hedberg, C. P.; Morgan, D. J.; Cox, J.; Balco, G.; Putkonen, J.; Bibby, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A history of glaciation can be tracked by determining the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of boulders found in glacial drifts using the concentration of the cosmogenic nuclide Ne-21. In order to calculate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span>, the erosion rate and previous <span class="hlt">exposure</span> must be taken into consideration. In this study, we measured cosmogenic Ne-21 concentrations in quartz from samples of bedrock and samples taken from distinct glacial drifts in Antarctica. We determined the erosion rate using the concentrations of Ne-21 in the bedrock and then used this rate to calculate the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of the samples taken from the glacial drifts. The samples were collected from the Ong Valley, Antarctica (157.5 East, 83.25 South), an ice-free valley in the Miller Range of the Central Transantarctic Mountains that contains three distinct glacial drifts. We analyzed samples from the oldest and the youngest of these drifts, from moraines from a small alpine glacier to the east of the main valley, and from the surrounding bedrock of the valley walls above the glacial limit. The average erosion rate we calculated was 23 cm/Myrs. The six samples from the oldest glacial drift have an average <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of 2.1 Myrs, but have a range of 4.4 Myrs. The <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of samples from the middle of the youngest drift on the valley floor average 90.1 kyrs, with a range of 13.4 kyrs. Samples from a lateral moraine of this youngest drift have an average <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of 145 kyrs, with a range of 134 kyrs. The 7 samples taken from the alpine glacier east of Ong Valley have an average <span class="hlt">age</span> of 1.10 Myrs, but a range of 3.87 Myrs. The high variability in <span class="hlt">ages</span> among samples from the same glacial drift arises from prior <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and postdepositional movement of the rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4123029','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4123029"><span>Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether <span class="hlt">Exposures</span> and Neurodevelopment in U.S. Children through 5 Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span>: The HOME Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yolton, Kimberly; Rauch, Stephen A.; Webster, Glenys M.; Hornung, Richard; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N.; Lanphear, Bruce P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in furniture, carpet padding, car seats, and other consumer products during the past three decades. Objective: We examined whether in utero <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PBDEs is associated with child cognitive function and behavior in a U.S. study sample. Methods: In a prospective birth cohort, we measured maternal serum concentrations of BDE-47 and other PBDE congeners in 309 women at 16 weeks of gestation during 2003–2006 and followed their children in Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured cognitive and motor abilities using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 1, 2, and 3 years; intelligence using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III at <span class="hlt">age</span> 5 years; and children’s behaviors using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 annually at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 2–5 years. We used linear mixed models or generalized estimating equations with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate associations between these outcomes and log10-transformed PBDE concentrations. Results: The geometric mean of BDE-47 in maternal serum (20.1 ng/g lipid) was comparable with U.S. adult national reference values. Prenatal BDE-47 was not significantly associated with Bayley Mental or Psychomotor Development Indices at 1–3 years, but a 10-fold increase in prenatal BDE-47 was associated with a 4.5-point decrease (95% CI: –8.8, –0.1) in Full-Scale IQ and a 3.3-point increase (95% CI: 0.3, 6.3) in the hyperactivity score at <span class="hlt">age</span> 5 years. Conclusions: Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PBDEs was associated with lower IQ and higher hyperactivity scores in children. Citation: Chen A, Yolton K, Rauch SA, Webster GM, Hornung R, Sjödin A, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP. 2014. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and neurodevelopment in U.S. children through 5 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>: the HOME study. Environ Health Perspect 122:856–862; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307562 PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5356965','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5356965"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> and social connection on perceived anxiety over radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Sato, Sei; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: To reveal the effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> and other factors on perceived anxiety over radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Methods: A survey questionnaire was sent to 1505 workers, with questions regarding <span class="hlt">age</span>, presence of a written employment contract, previous residence, radiation passbook ownership, presence of close persons for consultation, knowledge of how to access public assistance, and a four-point scale of radiation-related anxiety (1= "Very much," 2= "Somewhat," 3= "A little bit," and 4= "None" ). The relationships between the degree of anxiety and variables were analyzed using the chi-square test and residual analysis. Results: In all, 512 participants responded to the questionnaire. The mean <span class="hlt">age</span> of participants was 46.2 years (SD: 13.1, range: 18-77). Of them, 50, 233, 168, and 61 workers chose "Very much," "Somewhat," "A little bit," and "None," respectively, on the anxiety scale. Chi-square test showed that participants <span class="hlt">aged</span> 61 years and over had higher degrees of anxiety (p<0.001). Ordinal logistic regression showed that the degree of anxiety increased if they did not have a written contract (p=0.042) or persons to consult (p=0.034) and if they routinely checked the dose rate (p=0.046). Conclusions: Decontamination workers who do not have a written contract or who are in socially isolated situations have greater anxiety over radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Thus, it is important to both create supportive human relationships for consultation and enhance labor management in individual companies. PMID:27010088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25277340','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25277340"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> as a determinant of phosphate flame retardant <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of the Australian population and identification of novel urinary PFR metabolites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van den Eede, Nele; Heffernan, Amy L; Aylward, Lesa L; Hobson, Peter; Neels, Hugo; Mueller, Jochen F; Covaci, Adrian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The demand for alternative flame retardant materials such as phosphate flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) is increasing, although little is known of their possible effects on human health and development. To date, no information on the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of children or general Australian population to PFRs is available. The objectives of this study were to characterize the average levels and <span class="hlt">age</span>-related patterns of PFR metabolites in urine in the general Australian population and to identify novel hydroxylated PFR metabolites in urine. Surplus pathology urine samples from Queensland, Australia were stratified and pooled by <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex (3224 individuals <span class="hlt">aged</span> 0 to 75years into 95 pools) according to two different pooling strategies at two different time periods. Samples were analyzed by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following enzymatic treatment. Nine PFR metabolites were measured in the Australian population, including the first report of a hydroxylated metabolite of TCIPP (BCIPHIPP). Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), BCIPHIPP and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) were detected in >95% of samples. DPHP, a metabolite of aryl-PFRs, was found in several samples at levels which were one order of magnitude higher than previously reported (up to 730ng/mL). Weighted linear regression revealed a significant negative association between log-normalized BDCIPP and DPHP levels and <span class="hlt">age</span> (p<0.001). Significantly greater levels of BDCIPP and DPHP were found in children's urine compared with adults, suggesting higher <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PFRs in young children. BCIPHIPP was identified for inclusion in future PFR biomonitoring studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QSRv...61...62G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QSRv...61...62G"><span>The granite tors of Dartmoor, Southwest England: rapid and recent emergence revealed by Late Pleistocene cosmogenic apparent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunnell, Yanni; Jarman, David; Braucher, Régis; Calvet, Marc; Delmas, Magali; Leanni, Laetitia; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Keddaouche, Karim</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Dartmoor, in SW England, is a classic periglaciated granite upland adorned with a population of over 150 tors. The origin of the tors has been controversial, but their emergence by differentiation after stripping of regolith during Pleistocene cold phases is accepted. However, their actual <span class="hlt">age</span> has been unknown, with possible scenarios ranging from preservation since the early Middle Pleistocene to relatively short-lived landforms in a maritime climate with high denudation rates. The latter is now supported by 32 cosmogenic surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dates from 28 tors across the whole upland. The distribution of apparent 10Be <span class="hlt">ages</span> peaks strongly in the Middle Devensian (36-50 ka), which with corrections for weathering and limited ice shielding could be interpreted as Early Devensian. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> are much younger than those found for three glacially unmodified Cairngorms tors, and somewhat younger even than glacially modified Cairngorms tors. The dates show little spatial variation. Although an ice cap has now been modelled in the heart of northern Dartmoor, tors here are of median <span class="hlt">age</span>, suggesting that ice cover sufficient to shield tors from incoming radiation was of short duration. The few younger tor <span class="hlt">ages</span> support the idea of continuing landform instability across the landscape, with weathering flakes redeveloping soon after inferred loss of top pillows by gelifraction or gravitational toppling. The few older tor <span class="hlt">ages</span> have no systematic explanation, and may indicate inheritance from an earlier cycle of bedrock near-<span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Since most tors are modest in height (typically 2-5 m), volumetrically insignificant, and often in advanced stages of disintegration, the general impression is that they are evanescent features, which emerge and quickly disappear during every Pleistocene climatic downturn. Tor populations may thus flicker across the landscape rather randomly over the Quaternary. The remarkably consistent <span class="hlt">age</span> of the present tor population could be associated with a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26906760','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26906760"><span>Effects of pre-natal alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on hippocampal synaptic plasticity: Sex, <span class="hlt">age</span> and methodological considerations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fontaine, Christine J; Patten, Anna R; Sickmann, Helle M; Helfer, Jennifer L; Christie, Brian R</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The consumption of alcohol during gestation is detrimental to the developing central nervous system (CNS). The severity of structural and functional brain alterations associated with alcohol intake depends on many factors including the timing and duration of alcohol consumption. The hippocampal formation, a brain region implicated in learning and memory, is highly susceptible to the effects of developmental alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Some of the observed effects of alcohol on learning and memory may be due to changes at the synaptic level, as this teratogen has been repeatedly shown to interfere with hippocampal synaptic plasticity. At the molecular level alcohol interferes with receptor proteins and can disrupt hormones that are important for neuronal signaling and synaptic plasticity. In this review we examine the consequences of prenatal and early postnatal alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and highlight the numerous factors that can modulate the effects of alcohol. We also discuss some potential mechanisms responsible for these changes as well as emerging therapeutic avenues that are beginning to be explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7015948','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7015948"><span>Response of different-<span class="hlt">aged</span> black cherry trees to ambient ozone <span class="hlt">exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fredericksen, T.S.; Joyce, B.J.; Kouterick, K.B.; Kolb, T.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. )</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is a valuable commercial timber species which is also highly sensitive to ozone relative to other eastern deciduous tree species. Studies of ozone effects on forest trees have been restricted mostly to experiments using small seedlings under controlled conditions. Yet, mature trees may differ from seedlings in physiology, morphology, and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollutants. An experiment was conducted in 1993 to determine differences in ozone uptake and foliar injury symptoms between open-ground seedlings, forest saplings, and mature forest trees of black cherry in northcentral Pennsylvania. Seedlings grew under the highest ozone concentrations and also had greater seasonal ozone uptake due to higher rates of stomatal conductance. However, because of their indeterminate growth habit, seedlings had lower cumulative ozone uptake per leaf lifespan than saplings or mature trees, both of which had determinate shoot growth. Although greater initially for seedlings, foliar injury was nearly identical between size classes by the end of the growing season. Leaves in the lower crown of larger trees had lower ozone uptake than leaves in the upper crown, but exhibited more foliar injury symptoms. Lower crown leaves received more effective <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ozone because of their thinner leaves and had less available photosynthate for repair or replacement of damaged tissue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Music+AND+impact+AND+disorders&pg=2&id=EJ915581','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Music+AND+impact+AND+disorders&pg=2&id=EJ915581"><span>Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, <span class="hlt">Age</span> and Instrument <span class="hlt">Exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, <span class="hlt">age</span> and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28321937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28321937"><span>Ultrafine particles and black carbon personal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children at school-<span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pañella, Pau; Casas, Maribel; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Robinson, Oliver; Valentín, Antònia; Gulliver, John; Momas, Isabelle; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi</p> <p>2017-03-20</p> <p>Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during childhood is associated with asthma; however, the contribution of the different TRAP pollutants in each microenvironment (home, school, transportation, others) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children is unknown. Daily (24 h) personal black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), and alveolar lung deposited surface area (LDSA) individual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> measurements were obtained from 100 children (29 past and 21 current asthmatics, 50 non-asthmatics) <span class="hlt">aged</span> 9±0.7 years from the INMA-Sabadell cohort (Catalonia, Spain). Time spent in each microenvironment was derived by the geolocation provided by the smartphone and a new spatiotemporal map-matching algorithm. Asthmatics and non-asthmatics spent the same amount of time at home (60% and 61%, respectively), at school (20%, 23%), on transportation (8%, 7%), and in other microenvironments (7%, 5%). The highest concentrations of all TRAPs were attributed to transportation. No differences in TRAP concentrations were found overall or by type of microenvironment between asthmatics and non-asthmatics, nor when considering past and current asthmatics, separately. In conclusion, asthmatic and non-asthmatic children had a similar time activity pattern and similar average <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to BC, UFP and LDSA concentrations. This suggests that interventions should be tailored to general population, rather than to subgroups defined by disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4125457','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4125457"><span>Cholinergic transmission during nicotine withdrawal is influenced by <span class="hlt">age</span> and pre-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine: Implications for teenage smoking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carcoba, Luis M.; Orfila, James E.; Natividad, Luis A.; Torres, Oscar V.; Pipkin, Joseph A.; Ferree, Patrick L.; Castañeda, Eddie; Moss, Donald E.; O’Dell, Laura E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p> the NAcc were increased in a similar manner in adolescent versus adult rats. However, the increase in ACh that was observed in adult rats experiencing nicotine withdrawal was blunted in pre-exposed adults. These neurochemical effects do not appear to be related to nicotine metabolism, as plasma cotinine levels were similar across all groups. The second study revealed that nicotine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> increased AChE activity in the NAcc to a greater extent in adolescent versus adult rats. There was no difference in AChE activity in pre-exposed versus naïve adult rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that nicotine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during adolescence enhances baseline ACh in the NAcc. However, the finding that ACh levels were similar during withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats suggests that the enhanced vulnerability to tobacco use during adolescence is not likely related to <span class="hlt">age</span> differences in withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic transmission. Our results also suggest that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine during adolescence suppresses withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic responses during withdrawal. Taken together, this report illustrates important short- and long-term changes within cholinergic systems that may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility to tobacco use during adolescence. PMID:24854235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854235"><span>Cholinergic transmission during nicotine withdrawal is influenced by <span class="hlt">age</span> and pre-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine: implications for teenage smoking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carcoba, Luis M; Orfila, James E; Natividad, Luis A; Torres, Oscar V; Pipkin, Joseph A; Ferree, Patrick L; Castañeda, Eddie; Moss, Donald E; O'Dell, Laura E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p> nicotine withdrawal, ACh levels in the NAc were increased in a similar manner in adolescent versus adult rats. However, the increase in ACh that was observed in adult rats experiencing nicotine withdrawal was blunted in pre-exposed adults. These neurochemical effects do not appear to be related to nicotine metabolism, as plasma cotinine levels were similar across all groups. The second study revealed that nicotine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> increased AChE activity in the NAc to a greater extent in adolescent versus adult rats. There was no difference in AChE activity in pre-exposed versus naïve adult rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that nicotine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during adolescence enhances baseline ACh in the NAc. However, the finding that ACh levels were similar during withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats suggests that the enhanced vulnerability to tobacco use during adolescence is not related to <span class="hlt">age</span> differences in withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic transmission. Our results also suggest that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine during adolescence suppresses withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic responses during withdrawal. Taken together, this report illustrates important short- and long-term changes within cholinergic systems that may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility to tobacco use during adolescence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1010318','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1010318"><span>The Microstructural Evolution of Inconel Alloy 740 During Solution Treatment, <span class="hlt">Aging</span>, and <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> at 760 °C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cowen, Christopher J.; Danielson, Paul E.; Jablonski, Paul D.</p> <p>2010-08-10</p> <p>In this study, the microstructural evolution of Inconel alloy 740 during solution treatment and <span class="hlt">aging</span> was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. During double solution heat treatment, carbon is liberated from the dissolution of MC carbides during the first solution treatment at 1150 °C, and fine MC carbides are precipitated on gamma grain boundaries during the second solution treatment at 1120 °C. Due to the concurrent decrease in carbon solubility and the increase in the contribution of grain boundary diffusion at lower temperatures, the MC carbides on the gamma grain boundaries provide a localized carbon reservoir that aids in M<sub>23</sub>C<sub>6</sub> carbide precipitation on gamma grain boundaries during <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at 760 °C. The γ' phase, which is the key strengthening phase in alloy 740, is incorporated into the alloy microstructure during <span class="hlt">aging</span> at 850 °C. Finally, the main source of microstructural instability observed during <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at 760 °C was the coarsening of the γ' phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.206..107E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.206..107E"><span>10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> chronology of the last glaciation in the Krkonoše Mountains, Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engel, Zbyněk; Braucher, Régis; Traczyk, Andrzej; Laetitia, Léanni; AsterTeam</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A new chronology of the last glaciation is established for the Krkonoše (Giant) Mountains, Central Europe, based on in-situ produced 10Be in moraine boulders. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and Schmidt Hammer rebound values obtained for terminal moraines on the northern and southern flank of the mountains suggest that the oldest preserved moraines represent early phases of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Large moraines at the outlet of the Snowy Cirques (Śnieżne Kotły) and in the middle part of the Úpa (Obří důl) trough were deposited around 21 ka while a series of smaller moraines above the LGM deposits represent readvances that occurred no later than 18.1 ± 0.6 ka, 15.7 ± 0.5 ka, 13.5 ± 0.5 ka and 12.9 ± 0.7 ka. An <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of 13.8 ± 0.4 ka obtained for protalus ramparts at the foot of the Úpská jáma Cirque headwall indicates that glaciers advanced only in north- to east-facing cirques during the Lateglacial. The last glacier fluctuation was synchronous with the Younger Dryas cold event. The timing of local glacier advances during the last glacial episode correlates with the late Weichselian glacier phases in the Alps and in the Bavarian/Bohemian Forest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP51C2295L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP51C2295L"><span>Preliminary Cosmogenic Surface <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> on Laurentide Ice-sheet Retreat and Opening of the Eastern Lake Agassiz Outlets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leydet, D.; Carlson, A. E.; Sinclair, G.; Teller, J. T.; Breckenridge, A. J.; Caffee, M. W.; Barth, A. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The chronology for the eastern outlets of glacial Lake Agassiz holds important consequences for the cause of Younger Dryas cold event during the last deglaciation. Eastward routing of Lake Agassiz runoff was originally hypothesized to have triggered the Younger Dryas. However, currently the chronology of the eastern outlets is only constrained by minimum-limiting radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> that could suggest the eastern outlets were still ice covered at the start of the Younger Dryas at ~12.9 ka BP, requiring a different forcing of this abrupt climate event. Nevertheless, the oldest radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> are still consistent with an ice-free eastern outlet at the start of the Younger Dryas. Here we will present preliminary 10-Be cosmogenic surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from the North Lake, Flat Rock Lake, glacial Lake Kaministiquia, and Lake Nipigon outlets located near Thunder Bay, Ontario. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> will date the timing of the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet in the eastern outlet region of glacial Lake Agassiz. This will provide an important constraint for the hypothesized freshwater forcing of the cause of Younger Dryas cold event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23791930','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23791930"><span>Developmental outcomes at preschool <span class="hlt">age</span> after fetal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to valproic acid and lamotrigine: cognitive, motor, sensory and behavioral function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rihtman, Tanya; Parush, Shula; Ornoy, Asher</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>This prospective, observational study assessed the development of preschool children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 3-6 years, 11 months (n=124) after in-utero anti-epileptic drug (AED) monotherapy <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to valproic acid (VPA) (n=30, mean <span class="hlt">age</span> 52.00[±15.22] months) and lamotrigine (LT) (n=42, mean <span class="hlt">age</span> 50.12[±12.77] months), compared to non-exposed control children (n=52, mean <span class="hlt">age</span> 59.96[±14.51] months). As a combined group, AED-exposed children showed reduced non-verbal IQ scores, and lower scores on motor measures, sensory measures, and parent-report executive function, behavioral and attentional measures. When the VPA- and LT-exposed groups were analyzed separately, no cognitive differences were found, but control-VPA and control-LT differences emerged for most motor and sensory measures as well as control-VPA parent-report behavioral and attentional differences. No differences were noted between the VPA and LT groups. These findings suggest that VPA- and LT-exposed children should be monitored on a wider range of developmental measures than currently used, and at differing developmental stages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17578510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17578510"><span>Ultraviolet radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> accelerates the accumulation of the <span class="hlt">aging</span>-dependent T414G mitochondrial DNA mutation in human skin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Birket, Matthew J; Birch-Machin, Mark A</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>The accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations has been proposed as an underlying cause of the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process. Such mutations are thought to be generated principally through mechanisms involving oxidative stress. Skin is frequently exposed to a potent mutagen in the form of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and mtDNA deletion mutations have previously been shown to accumulate with photoaging. Here we report that the <span class="hlt">age</span>-related T414G point mutation originally identified in skin fibroblasts from donors over 65 years also accumulates with <span class="hlt">age</span> in skin tissue. Moreover, there is a significantly greater incidence of this mutation in skin from sun-exposed sites (chi(2)= 6.8, P < 0.01). Identification and quantification of the T414G mutation in dermal skin tissue from 108 donors ranging from 8 to 97 years demonstrated both increased occurrence with photoaging as well as an increase in the proportion of molecules affected. In addition, we have discovered frequent genetic linkage between a common photoaging-associated mtDNA deletion and the T414G mutation. This linkage indicates that mtDNA mutations such as these are unlikely to be distributed equally across the mtDNA population within the skin tissue, increasing their likelihood of exerting focal effects at the cellular level. Taken together, these data significantly contribute to our understanding of the DNA damaging effects of UV <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and how resultant mutations may ultimately contribute towards premature <span class="hlt">aging</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22016562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22016562"><span>Early life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to endocrine-disrupting chemicals causes lifelong molecular reprogramming of the hypothalamus and premature reproductive <span class="hlt">aging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gore, Andrea C; Walker, Deena M; Zama, Aparna M; Armenti, AnnMarie E; Uzumcu, Mehmet</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Gestational <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor methoxychlor (MXC) disrupts the female reproductive system at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels in adulthood. The current study addressed whether perinatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to endocrine disruptors re-programs expression of a suite of genes expressed in the hypothalamus that control reproductive function and related these molecular changes to premature reproductive <span class="hlt">aging</span>. Fischer rats were exposed daily for 12 consecutive days to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), estradiol benzoate (EB) (1 mg/kg), and MXC (low dose, 20 μg/kg or high dose, 100 mg/kg), beginning on embryonic d 19 through postnatal d 7. The perinatally exposed females were <span class="hlt">aged</span> to 16-17 months and monitored for reproductive senescence. After euthanasia, hypothalamic regions [preoptic area (POA) and medial basal hypothalamus] were dissected for real-time PCR of gene expression or pyrosequencing to assess DNA methylation of the Esr1 gene. Using a 48-gene PCR platform, two genes (Kiss1 and Esr1) were significantly different in the POA of endocrine-disrupting chemical-exposed rats compared with vehicle-exposed rats after Bonferroni correction. Fifteen POA genes were up-regulated by at least 50% in EB or high-dose MXC compared with vehicle. To understand the epigenetic basis of the increased Esr1 gene expression, we performed bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of the Esr1 promoter. EB-treated rats had significantly higher percentage of methylation at three CpG sites in the Esr1 promoter compared with control rats. Together with these molecular effects, perinatal MXC and EB altered estrous cyclicity and advanced reproductive senescence. Thus, early life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to endocrine disruptors has lifelong effects on neuroendocrine gene expression and DNA methylation, together with causing the advancement of reproductive senescence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4523435','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4523435"><span>Cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is associated with reduced olfactory recognition performance in elderly men: the Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grashow, Rachel; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Olfactory dysfunction has been identified as an early warning sign for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia and more. A few occupational and environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> have also been associated with reduced olfactory function, although the effects of long term environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead on olfactory dysfunction have not been explored. Here we performed olfactory recognition testing in elderly men in a community-dwelling cohort and examined the association with cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, as assessed by lead in tibial and patellar bone. Methods Olfactory recognition was measured in 165 men from the Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study (NAS) who had previously taken part in bone lead measurements using K-X-Ray fluorescence (KXRF). Olfactory recognition was measured using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Associations between olfactory recognition, global cognition and cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> were estimated using linear regression, with additional adjustment for <span class="hlt">age</span>, smoking, and functional polymorphism status for hemochromatosis (HFE), transferrin (TfC2), glutathione-s-transferase Pi1 (GSTP1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Sensitivity analyses explored olfactory recognition in men with high global cognitive function as measured using the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE). Results The average <span class="hlt">age</span> of the NAS participants at the time of olfactory recognition testing was 80.3 (standard deviation or SD = 5.7) years. Mean tibia lead was 16.3 (SD = 12.0) μg/g bone, mean patella lead was 22.4 (SD = 14.4) μg/g bone, and mean UPSIT score was 26.9 out of 40 (SD = 7.0). Consistent with previous findings, <span class="hlt">age</span> at olfaction testing was negatively associated with UPSIT score. Tibia (but not patella) bone lead was negatively associated with olfaction recognition (per 15 μg/g tibia lead: β = −1.57; 95% CI: −2.93, −0.22; p = 0.02) in models adjusted for smoking and <span class="hlt">age</span>. Additional adjustment for education did not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261969','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261969"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational <span class="hlt">Age</span>, and Preterm Delivery in Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F.; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background: Evidence associating <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. Objective: We assessed <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Methods: Mother–child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000–2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Results: Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was –0.45 g (95% confidence interval: –1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (–1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Conclusions: Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive <span class="hlt">exposure</span> assessment, results suggest that residential THM <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain. PMID:21810554</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033649','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033649"><span>Extent of the last ice sheet in northern Scotland tested with cosmogenic 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.K.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.; Freeman, S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The extent of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) in northern Scotland is disputed. A restricted ice sheet model holds that at the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 23-19 ka) the BIIS terminated on land in northern Scotland, leaving Buchan, Caithness and the Orkney Islands ice-free. An alternative model implies that these three areas were ice-covered at the LGM, with the BIIS extending offshore onto the adjacent shelves. We test the two models using cosmogenic 10Be surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating of erratic boulders and glacially eroded bedrock from the three areas. Our results indicate that the last BIIS covered all of northern Scotland during the LGM, but that widespread deglaciation of Caithness and Orkney occurred prior to rapid warming at ca. 14.5 ka. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860018551','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860018551"><span>SCR and GCR <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of plagioclase grains from lunar soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Etique, P.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The concentrations of solar wind implanted Ar-36 in mineral grains extracted from lunar soils show that they were exposed to the solar wind on the lunar surface for an integrated time of 10E4 to 10E5 years. From the bulk soil 61501 plagioclase separates of 8 grain size ranges was prepared. The depletion of the implanted gases was achieved by etching aliquot samples of 4 grain sizes to various degrees. The experimental results pertinent to the present discussion are: The spallogenic Ne is, as in most plagioclases from lunar soils, affected by diffusive losses and of no use. The Ar-36 of solar wind origin amounts to (2030 + or - 100) x 10E-8 ccSTP/g in the 150 to 200 mm size fraction and shows that these grains were exposed to the solar wind for at least 10,000 years. The Ne-21/Ne-22 ratio of the spallogenic Ne is 0.75 + or - 0.01 and in very good agreement with the value of this ratio in a plagioclase separate from rock 76535. This rock has had a simple <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history and its plagioclases have a chemical composition quite similar to those studied. In addition to the noble gases, the heavy particle tracks in an aliquot of the 150 to 200 mm plagioclase separate were investigated and found 92% of the grains to contain more than 10E8 tracks/sq cm. This corresponds to a mean track density of (5 + or - 1) x 10E8 tracks/sq cm. The exploration of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history of the plagioclase separates from the soil 61501 do not contradict the model for the regolith dynamics but also fail to prove it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863727','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863727"><span>Measurements of the {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 12}C){sup 24}Na and {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 10}Be){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> proton transfer reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Benjamim, E. A.; Lima, G. F.; Moro, A. M.</p> <p>2006-08-15</p> <p>Angular distributions for the {sup 11}B+{sup 25}Mg elastic scattering, {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 12}C){sup 24}Na proton pickup, and {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 10}Be){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> stripping reactions have been measured at E{sub {sup 11}B}=35 MeV. The angular distributions have been analyzed by the distorted-waves Born approximation calculations using the code fresco. The spectroscopic factors for the overlaps <{sup 25}Mg|{sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>>,<{sup 25}Mg|{sup 24}Na> for the ground state and excited states of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 24}Na have been obtained and compared to previous measurements and shell-model calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20301008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20301008"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to community violence, Hurricane Katrina, and Hurricane Gustav on posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms among school <span class="hlt">age</span> children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salloum, Alison; Carter, Paulette; Burch, Berre; Garfinkel, Abbe; Overstreet, Stacy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the relationship between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Hurricane Gustav and distress among 122 children (<span class="hlt">ages</span> 7-12) to determine whether that relationship was moderated by prior experiences with Hurricane Katrina and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to community violence (ECV). Measures of hurricane experiences, ECV, posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and depression were administered. Assessments occurred after the third anniversary of Katrina, which coincided with the landfall of Gustav. Results indicated that the relation between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Gustav and PTS was moderated by prior experiences. There was a positive association between Gustav <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and PTS for children who experienced high Katrina <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and low ECV, with a similar trend for children with high ECV and low Katrina <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. There was no relationship between Gustav <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and PTS for children with low Katrina and low ECV or for children with high Katrina and high ECV. The relationship between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Gustav and depression was not moderated by children's prior experience. However, there was a relationship between Katrina <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and depression for children with high ECV. Results suggest that prior trauma may amplify the relationship between hurricane <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and distress, but children with high cumulative trauma may remain highly symptomatic regardless of disaster <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39.1087S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39.1087S"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to 56Fe irradiation accelerates normal brain <span class="hlt">aging</span> and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Casadesus, Gemma; Carey, Amanda N.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Joseph, James A.</p> <p></p> <p>Previous studies have shown that radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) such as 56Fe, produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in <span class="hlt">aged</span> animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism. For example, an increased release of reactive oxygen species, and the subsequent oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused to the central nervous system, is likely responsible for the deficits seen in <span class="hlt">aging</span> and following irradiation. Therefore, dietary antioxidants, such as those found in fruits and vegetables, could be used as countermeasures to prevent the behavioral changes seen in these conditions. Both <span class="hlt">aged</span> and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment, and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a “map” provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with 56Fe high-energy particles produces <span class="hlt">age</span>-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts, particularly middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> ones, to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032165','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032165"><span>Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Licciardi, J.M.; Pierce, K.L.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be <span class="hlt">ages</span> from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean <span class="hlt">age</span> of 136??13 10Be ka and oldest <span class="hlt">ages</span> of ???151-157 10Be ka. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in <span class="hlt">age</span> from 18.8??0.9 to 16.5??1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6??0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ???4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 14.6??0.7 and 13.5??1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their <span class="hlt">age</span> indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244286"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">age</span>, sex and calendar year on lifetime accumulated red bone marrow dose from diagnostic radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Meiboom, Merle Friederike; Weitmann, Kerstin; Terschüren, Claudia; von Boetticher, Heiner</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Our aim is to evaluate the relevance of different factors influencing lifetime accumulated red bone marrow dose, such as calendar year, <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex. The lifetime dose was estimated for controls interviewed in person (N = 2811, 37.5% women) of the population-based representative Northern Germany Leukemia and Lymphoma Study. Data were assessed in standardized computer-assisted personal interviews. The calculation of doses is based on a comprehensive quantification model including calendar year, sex, kind of examination, and technical development. In multivariate regression models the annual red bone marrow dose was analyzed depending on <span class="hlt">age</span>, sex and calendar year to consider simultaneously temporal changes in radiologic practice and individual risk factors. While the number of examinations continuously rises over time, the dose shows two peaks around 1950 and after 1980. Men are exposed to higher doses than woman. Until 1970 traditional examinations like conventional and mass screening examinations caused the main dose. They were then replaced by technically advanced examinations mainly computed tomography and cardiac catheter. The distribution of the red bone marrow dose over lifetime depends highly on the technical standards and radiation protection survey. To a lesser extent it is influenced by <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex of the subjects. Thus epidemiological studies concerning the assessment of radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> should consider the calendar year in which the examination was conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19227002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19227002"><span>Death anxiety in a national sample of United States funeral directors and its relationship with death <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, <span class="hlt">age</span>, and sex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harrawood, Laura K; White, Lyle J; Benshoff, John J</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the level of death anxiety among a national sample of United States funeral directors with varying levels of death <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, <span class="hlt">age</span>, and sex. Utilizing the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS), the results showed a significant, but weak negative relationship between levels of death anxiety and the participants' reported number of funerals attended per year. The correlation between death anxiety scores and the number of reported embalming cases performed yearly was, however, not significant. We found a significant negative correlation between death anxiety and <span class="hlt">age</span> in both men and women funeral directors. The difference in the death anxiety scores between men (n=166) and women (n=38) funeral directors was not significant. There was a significant negative correlation with <span class="hlt">age</span> in both men and women in several fears of death including fear of the dying process, fear for significant others, and fear of premature death. The significant negative correlations were stronger for women than men across all three subscales. Results, direction for further research, and implications of the findings for mental health workers are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25711107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25711107"><span>[<span class="hlt">Age</span>, gender and individually-typological characteristics of reaction to acute hypoxic <span class="hlt">exposure</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krivoshchekov, S G; Balioz, N V; Nekipelova, N V; Kapilevich, L V</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Individual pequliarities of hypoxic resistance, assessed by the response of cardiorespiratory system to acute normobaric hypoxia (10% O2), were studied in healthy subjects. <span class="hlt">Age</span> changes in dynamics of blood oxygen saturation after the acute hypoxia are shown at level of separate sites curve SpO2 (phases of a delay, decrease and lifting). It is established, that at children sensitivity to acute hypoxia above, than at teenagers, and at teenagers above, than at adults. Higher lability of mental processes, sympathetic activity, and personal anxiety are associated with choleric temperament. Cholerics are characterized by slower restoration of blood oxygen saturation after the acute hypoxia compared with sanguine persons that we consider an indication of less hypoxic tolerance of the first group. We have developed the complex algorithm, dynamics describing dependence oxygen saturation in various phases of the hypoxic test, which can be used as a universal method of an estimation hypoxic stability at different groups of the population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22062241','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22062241"><span>A novel facility for <span class="hlt">ageing</span> materials with narrow-band ultraviolet radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaerhae, Petri; Ruokolainen, Kimmo; Heikkilae, Anu</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>A facility for exploring wavelength dependencies in ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced degradation in materials has been designed and constructed. The device is essentially a spectrograph separating light from a lamp to spectrally resolved UV radiation. It is based on a 1 kW xenon lamp and a flat-field concave holographic grating 10 cm in diameter. Radiation at the wavelength range 250-500 nm is dispersed onto the sample plane of 1.5 cm in height and 21 cm in width. The optical performance of the device has been characterized by radiometric measurements. Using the facility, test samples prepared of regular newspaper have been irradiated from 1 to 8 h. Color changes on the different locations of the <span class="hlt">aged</span> samples have been quantified by color measurements. Yellowness indices computed from the color measurements demonstrate the capability of the facility in revealing wavelength dependencies of the material property changes in reasonable time frames.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA140257','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA140257"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> and <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> on the Health Status of U.S. Navy Divers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>rates for diving-related disorders bI <span class="hlt">age</span> and esposure level. XI than 17-22 year-olds for diabetes mellitus and no recorded hospital admissions for...11.2 7.0 0 Psychoses 3.1 5.8 0 _b 0 Ulcers 3.4 3.1 8.6 10.4 - Diabetes Mellitus 0.9 1.3 - - 21.3’ Diseases of the Respiratory System 27.8 46.9 30.9 26.1...Neuroses 11.2 3.8" 3.2* Psychoses 5.8 1.5 _b Ulcers 4.5 6.4 3.2 Diabetes Mellitus 1.6 1.9 - Diseases of the Respiratory System 34.8 36.3 31.0 Diseases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16804032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16804032"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span>-dependent effects of in vitro radiofrequency <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (mobile phone) on CD95+ T helper human lymphocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Capri, Miriam; Salvioli, Stefano; Altilia, Serena; Sevini, Federica; Remondini, Daniel; Mesirca, Pietro; Bersani, Ferdinando; Monti, Daniela; Franceschi, Claudio</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Recent studies on "nonthermal" effects of mobile phone radiofrequency (RF) suggest that RF can interact with cellular functions and molecular pathways. To study the possible RF effects on human lymphocyte activation, we analyzed CD25, CD95, CD28 molecules in unstimulated and stimulated CD4+ e CD8+ T cells in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from young and elderly donors were exposed or sham-exposed to RF (1,800 MHz, Specific Absorption Rate 2 W/kg) with or without mitogenic stimulation. No significant changes in the percentage of these cell subsets were found between exposed and sham-exposed lymphocytes in both young and elderly donors. Nevertheless, after RF <span class="hlt">exposure</span> we observed a slight, but significant, downregulation of CD95 expression in stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes from elderly, but not from young donors. This <span class="hlt">age</span>-related result is noteworthy given the importance of a such molecule in regulation of the immune response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089881&hterms=rabbit&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drabbit','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089881&hterms=rabbit&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drabbit"><span>Damage to the photoreceptor cells of the rabbit retina from 56Fe ions: effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, G. R.; Lett, J. T.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Optic and proximate tissues of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits at <span class="hlt">ages</span> (approximately 3.5 years) near the middle of their median lifespan (5-7 years) were given 0.5-3.5 Gy of 465 MeV u-1 56Fe ions in the Bragg plateau region of energy deposition at a linear energy transfer (LET infinity) of 220 +/- 31 keV micrometer-1. Dose-dependent losses of retinal photoreceptor cells (rods) occurred until 1-2 years after irradiation, the period of this interim report. Similar cumulative losses of photoreceptor cells were seen during the period 1-2 years post-irradiation for rabbits given comparable <span class="hlt">exposures</span> when young (6-9 weeks old). Since losses of photoreceptor cells at early times had not been determined previously, the current experiment, which was designed to simulate the responses of mature astronauts, redressed that deficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28169419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28169419"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> of Bilingual <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Is Related to the Contribution of Phonological and Semantic Knowledge to Successful Reading Development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jasińska, Kaja K; Petitto, Laura-Ann</p> <p>2017-02-07</p> <p>Bilingual children's reading as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (AoE) was examined. Bilingual (varied AoE) and monolingual children (N = 421) were compared in their English language and reading abilities (6-10 years) using phonological awareness, semantic knowledge, and reading tasks. Structural equation modeling was applied to determine how bilingual AoE predicts reading outcomes. Early exposed bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on phonological awareness and word reading. Phonology and semantic (vocabulary) knowledge differentially predicted reading depending on the bilingual experience and AoE. Understanding how bilingual experiences impact phonological awareness and semantic knowledge, and in turn, impact reading outcomes is relevant for our understanding of what language and reading skills are best to focus on, and when, to promote optimal reading success.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4847033','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4847033"><span>Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span>: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span>. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The <span class="hlt">age</span>-adjusted rate of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> from SHS. PMID:27043604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4658467','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4658467"><span>Association of habitual dietary resveratrol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with the development of frailty in older <span class="hlt">age</span>: the Invecchiare in Chianti study12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rabassa, Montserrat; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Cherubini, Antonio</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Resveratrol may play a protective role against the frailty syndrome (FS) because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: We prospectively evaluated the association between habitual dietary resveratrol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and the development of FS after 3-, 6-, and 9-y follow-up periods in a community-dwelling older population. Design: We conducted a longitudinal analysis with the use of data from 769 participants <span class="hlt">aged</span> ≥65 y from the Invecchiare in Chianti (<span class="hlt">Aging</span> in Chianti) study. Total dietary resveratrol (TDR) intake was estimated at baseline with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire, which was developed to assess participants’ usual food intakes over the previous year, and an ad hoc resveratrol database. Total urinary resveratrol (TUR) was analyzed with the use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry with a previous solid-phase extraction at baseline. The combination of both measures [total dietary resveratrol plus total urinary resveratrol (TDR+TUR)] was computed with the use of the Howe’s method. FS was assessed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 9-y of follow-up and was defined as the presence of ≥3 of the following 5 criteria: shrinking, exhaustion, sedentariness, slowness, and weakness. Results: TDR+TUR concentrations were inversely associated with FS risk over 3-y of follow-up (OR for comparison of extreme tertiles: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.45; P-trend = 0.002) but not after 6- and 9-y of follow-up in multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for baseline frailty status and potential confounders. These results did not differ when analyses were further adjusted for inflammatory markers. Conclusion: Higher habitual dietary resveratrol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with lower risk of older community dwellers developing FS during the first 3 y of follow-up but not after longer follow-up periods. PMID:26490492</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPB.259..351F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPB.259..351F"><span>Chemical procedure for extracting 129I, 60Fe and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> from marine sediments: Prospects for detection of a ˜2.8 My old supernova</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fitoussi, Caroline; Raisbeck, Grant M.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>For the past three years, we have been developing a procedure to measure carrier-free 129I/I in gram size quantities of marine sediments containing microgram quantities of iodine. Potential applications involve dating of old (>10 My) sediments and the detection of 129I (t1/2 = 15.7 My) from a purported supernova (SN) explosion ˜2.8 million years ago, that has been inferred from a 60Fe (t1/2 = 1.5 My) signal in a deep-sea ferromanganese crust [K. Knie, G. Korschinek, T. Faestermann, E.A. Dorfi, G. Rugel, A. Wallner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 171103]. The procedure consists in washing the sediment with a NH2OH · HCl HOAc mixture, extraction of iodine from the organic phase with TMAH, separation and purification using anion-exchange chromatography, and coprecipitation as AgI Ag2O. We realized the washing step, which extracts authigenic iron and aluminum, could also be used to measure 60Fe/56Fe and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al in this phase of the same sediment sample. We outline here the chemical procedures developed, and briefly comment on their possible application to the supernova problem. We also point out a large discrepancy between the theoretically calculated 129I/127I ratio in pre-anthropogenic marine sediments, and that derived from experimental measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5201038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5201038"><span>Correlates of low-level lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in urban children at 2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Rabinowitz, M.; Needleman, H.; Waternaux, C.</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>The blood lead levels of a large number of US preschool children approach the value regarded as the upper limit of normal. To reduce the number of children whose levels increase into the range thought to be toxic, the antecedents and correlates of levels in the 0- to 25-micrograms/dL range must be identified. In a large longitudinal study of middle and upper-middle class children living in metropolitan Boston, we evaluated how well five sets of variables predicted children's blood lead levels at 2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>: environmental lead sources, mouthing activity, home environment/care giving, prior developmental status, and sociodemographic characteristics. A series of bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that only environmental lead sources and, to a lesser extent, mouthing activity accounted for significant portions of the variance in blood lead levels. Environmental lead sources were not significantly related to the home environment/care-giving variables or to sociodemographic characteristics. The most promising approach for achieving community-wide reductions in children's blood lead levels is reduction in the amount of lead in the proximate environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7111C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7111C"><span>Extracting tectonic information from cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> along bedrock scarps using synthetic and natural data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cowie, Patience; Walker, Matthew; Roberts, Gerald; Phillips, Richard; Dunai, Tibor; Zijerveld, Leo; McCaffrey, Ken</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Cosmogenic surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating is a powerful tool for reconstructing long term slip histories on active faults and extracting earthquake recurrence intervals (e.g. Benedetti et al., GRL, v.29, 2002). Extensional faults are particularly amenable to this type of study because they commonly produce a striated bedrock scarp, exhumed by faulting, that can be directly dated. Bedrock scarps in limestone can be sampled to obtain the concentration of cosmogenic 36Cl, produced primarily through interactions of cosmic ray secondary neutrons and muons with Ca within the scarp limestone. To first order the production rate decreases exponentially with depth beneath the ground surface. Because each normal-faulting earthquake uplifts a new portion of the scarp above the surface, the 36Cl concentration along the scarp is the sum of that 36Cl produced below the surface prior to the earthquake and that accumulated above the surface after the earthquake. For a scarp being seismically exhumed, the characteristic profile is therefore a series of exponentials with discontinuities marking the timing of each earthquake. The number of events, their timing and the magnitude of the associated slip strongly influence the shape of 36Cl profile. Existing methods for extracting paleo-earthquakes from these data are based on a forward modelling approach and have shown that slip events ≥0.5m (≥ Magnitude 6.0) are well resolved by fully sampling the height of the exposed bedrock scarp. A forward model for 36Cl accumulation generates 36Cl concentration versus fault height for different potential fault slip histories, which is then compared with the measured 36Cl concentrations. The best fit scenario(s) are then ranked using the Aikake Information Criterion (AIC), which is sensitive to the goodness of fit as well as the number of parameters included in the model. A key feature of published results using this approach is that slip events of several meters have, in several cases, been inferred</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22483306','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22483306"><span>Metals <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and risk of small-for-gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, Shari; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Fisher, Mandy; Fraser, William D.; Ettinger, Adrienne; King, Will</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal <span class="hlt">age</span>, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077765','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077765"><span>Drinking water arsenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and blood pressure in healthy women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> in Inner Mongolia, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kwok, Richard K. Mendola, Pauline; Liu Zhiyi; Savitz, David A.; Heiss, Gerardo; Ling Heling; Xia Yajuan; Lobdell, Danelle; Zeng Donglin; Thorp, John M.; Creason, John P.; Mumford, Judy L.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>The extremely high <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8790 women who had recently been pregnant in an area of Inner Mongolia, China known to have a gradient of drinking water arsenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. This study observed increased systolic blood pressure levels with increasing drinking water arsenic, at lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels than previously reported in the literature. As compared to the referent category (below limit of detection to 20 {mu}g of As/L), the overall population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.29 mm Hg (95% CI 0.82, 1.75), 1.28 mm Hg (95% CI 0.49, 2.07), and 2.22 mm Hg (95% CI 1.46, 2.97) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased from 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 {mu}g of As/L, respectively. Controlling for <span class="hlt">age</span> and body weight (n = 3260), the population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.88 mm Hg (95% CI 1.03, 2.73), 3.90 mm Hg (95% CI 2.52, 5.29), and 6.83 mm Hg (95% CI 5.39, 8.27) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased, respectively. For diastolic blood pressure effect, while statistically significant, was not as pronounced as systolic blood pressure. Mean diastolic blood pressure rose 0.78 mm Hg (95% CI 0.39, 1.16), 1.57 mm Hg (95% CI 0.91, 2.22) and 1.32 mm Hg (95% CI 0.70, 1.95), respectively, for the overall population and rose 2.11 mm Hg (95% CI 1.38, 2.84), 2.74 mm Hg (95% CI 1.55, 3.93), and 3.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84, 4.31), respectively, for the adjusted population (n = 3260) at drinking water arsenic concentrations of 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 {mu}g of As/L. If our study results are confirmed in other populations, the potential burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to drinking water arsenic is significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535321','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535321"><span>Bisphenol A <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and the Development of Wheeze and Lung Function in Children through <span class="hlt">Age</span> Five Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Spanier, Adam J.; Kahn, Robert S.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Schaefer, Eric W.; Hornung, Richard; Xu, Yingying; Calafat, Antonia M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Importance Bisphenol A (BPA), a prevalent endocrine disrupting chemical, has been associated with wheezing in children, but few studies have examined its impact on lung function or wheeze in older children. Objective The objectives of this study were to test whether BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with lung function, with wheeze, and with pattern of wheeze in children over the first five years. Design A birth cohort study, enrolled during early pregnancy. Setting Greater Cincinnati, Ohio area. Participants 398 mother-infant dyads,. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> We collected maternal urine during pregnancy (16 and 28 weeks) and child urine annually to assess gestational and child BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Main Outcome Measures We assessed parent-reported wheeze every 6 months for 5 years and measured child forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at <span class="hlt">age</span> 4 and 5 years. We evaluated associations of BPA with respiratory outcomes: FEV1, child wheeze, and wheeze phenotype. Results Urinary BPA concentrations and FEV1 data were available for 208 children, and urinary BPA and parent-reported wheeze data were available for 360 children. Mean maternal urinary BPA ranged from 0.5 to 316 μg/g of creatinine. In multivariable analysis, every 10-fold increase in mean maternal urinary BPA was associated with 14.2% decrease in %FEV1 at 4 years (95% CI −24.5, −3.9) but no association was found at 5 years. In multivariable analysis, every 10-fold increase in mean maternal urinary BPA concentration was marginally associated with a 55% increase in the odds of wheezing (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.91, 2.63). While mean maternal urinary BPA concentration was not associated with wheeze phenotypes, a 10-fold increase in 16 week maternal BPA was associated with a 4.3 fold increase in odds of persistent wheeze (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.4, 13.3). Child BPA concentrations were not associated with FEV1 or wheeze. Conclusions and Relevance These results provide evidence that suggest that prenatal, but not postnatal, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to BPA is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361..685S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361..685S"><span>Measurements of production cross sections of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> by 120 GeV and 392 MeV proton bombardment of 89Y, 159Tb, and natCu targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sekimoto, S.; Okumura, S.; Yashima, H.; Matsushi, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Matsumura, H.; Toyoda, A.; Oishi, K.; Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Boehnlein, D.; Coleman, R.; Lauten, G.; Leveling, A.; Mokhov, N.; Ramberg, E.; Soha, A.; Vaziri, K.; Ninomiya, K.; Omoto, T.; Shima, T.; Takahashi, N.; Shinohara, A.; Caffee, M. W.; Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Shibata, S.; Ohtsuki, T.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The production cross sections of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry using 89Y, 159Tb, and natCu targets bombarded by protons with energies Ep of 120 GeV and 392 MeV. The production cross sections obtained for 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> were compared with those previously reported using Ep = 50 MeV-24 GeV and various targets. It was found that the production cross sections of 10Be monotonically increased with increasing target mass number when the proton energy was greater than a few GeV. On the other hand, it was also found that the production cross sections of 10Be decreased as the target mass number increased from that of carbon to those near the mass numbers of nickel and zinc when the proton energy was below approximately 1 GeV. They also increased as the target mass number increased from near those of nickel and zinc to that of bismuth, in the same proton energy range. Similar results were observed in the production cross sections of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, though the absolute values were quite different between 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>. The difference between these production cross sections may depend on the impact parameter (nuclear radius) and/or the target nucleus stiffness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1235049-measurements-production-cross-sections-gev-mev-proton-bombardment-natcu-targets','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1235049-measurements-production-cross-sections-gev-mev-proton-bombardment-natcu-targets"><span>Measurements of production cross sections of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> by 120 GeV and 392 MeV proton bombardment of 89Y, 159Tb, and natCu targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Sekimoto, S.; Okumura, S.; Yashima, H.; ...</p> <p>2015-08-12</p> <p>The production cross sections of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry using 89Y, 159Tb, and natCu targets bombarded by protons with energies Ep of 120 GeV and 392 MeV. The production cross sections obtained for 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> were compared with those previously reported using Ep = 50 MeV–24 GeV and various targets. It was found that the production cross sections of 10Be monotonically increased with increasing target mass number when the proton energy was greater than a few GeV. On the other hand, it was also found that the production cross sections of 10Be decreased asmore » the target mass number increased from that of carbon to those near the mass numbers of nickel and zinc when the proton energy was below approximately 1 GeV. They also increased as the target mass number increased from near those of nickel and zinc to that of bismuth, in the same proton energy range. Similar results were observed in the production cross sections of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, though the absolute values were quite different between 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>. As a result, the difference between these production cross sections may depend on the impact parameter (nuclear radius) and/or the target nucleus stiffness.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EM%26P..117...65M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EM%26P..117...65M"><span>Santa Lucia (2008) (L6) Chondrite, a Recent Fall: Composition, Noble Gases, Nitrogen and Cosmic Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahajan, Ramakant R.; Varela, Maria Eugenia; Joron, Jean Louis</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Santa Lucia (2008)—one the most recent Argentine meteorite fall, fell in San Juan province, Argentina, on 23 January 2008. Several masses (total ~6 kg) were recovered. Most are totally covered by fusion crust. The exposed interior is of light-grey colour. Chemical data [olivine (Fa24.4) and low-Ca pyroxene (En77.8 Fs20.7 Wo1.6)] indicate that Santa Luica (2008) is a member of the low iron L chondrite group, corresponding to the equilibrated petrologic type 6. The meteorite name was approved by the Nomenclature Committee (NomCom) of the Meteoritical Society (Meteoritic Bulletin, no. 97). We report about the chemical composition of the major mineral phases, its bulk trace element abundance, its noble gas and nitrogen data. The cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> based on cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne, and 38Ar around 20 Ma is comparable to one peak of L chondrites. The radiogenic K-Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> of 2.96 Ga, while the young U, Th-He are of 1.2 Ga indicates that Santa Lucia (2008) lost radiogenic 4He more recently. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Ne)c and absence of solar wind noble gases are consistent with irradiation in a large body. Heavy noble gases (Ar/Kr/Xe) indicated trapped gases similar to ordinary chondrites. Krypton and neon indicates irradiation in large body, implying large pre-atmospheric meteoroid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810447B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810447B"><span>Rate and style of ice stream retreat constrained by new surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>: The Minch, NW Scotland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bradwell, Tom; Small, David; Fabel, Derek; Dove, Dayton; Cofaigh, Colm O.; Clark, Chris; Consortium, Britice-Chrono</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Chronologically constrained studies of former ice-sheet extents and dynamics are important for understanding past cryospheric responses and modelling future ice-sheet and sea-level change. As part of the BRITICE-CHRONO project, we present new geomorphological and chronological data from a marine-terminating ice stream system in NW Europe that operated during the Late Weichselian Glaciation. A suite of 51 cosmogenic-nuclide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from ice sheet moraines and glacially transported boulders constrain the maximum extent of the ice sheet on the continental shelf (~28 ka BP) and its subsequent retreat, between ~27 and 16 ka BP, into a large marine embayment (ca. 7000 km2; the Minch, NW Scotland). Recently acquired swath bathymetry and acoustic sub-bottom profiler data reveal several large transverse grounding-zone wedges up to 40 m thick and 5 km wide with diagnostic acoustic-facies architecture. These seabed sediment wedges mark former quasi-stable positions of grounded marine-terminating ice-stream fronts; their size and thickness suggest long-lived stillstands of the order of centuries. Statistically significant clusters of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from glacial deposits on islands and intervening headlands shed important new light on the <span class="hlt">age</span> of these marine grounding-zone wedges and, by inference, the rate and timing of Minch palaeo-ice stream retreat. We find strong evidence for episodic ice stream retreat on the continental shelf between ~28-24 ka BP, in the outer Minch between ~24-22 ka BP, and in the central Minch between 22-18.5 ka BP. In contrast, final ice stream deglaciation (<18 ka) across the deepest parts of the inner Minch embayment, was probably rapid and uninterrupted - with the ice sheet margin at or close to the present-day coastline in NW Scotland by 16.1 ka BP. It is hoped that these results will form the empirical basis for future ice-sheet modelling of this dynamically sensitive sector of the British-Irish Ice Sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.278...60C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.278...60C"><span>Cirques have growth spurts during deglacial and interglacial periods: Evidence from 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclide inventories in the central and eastern Pyrenees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crest, Y.; Delmas, M.; Braucher, R.; Gunnell, Y.; Calvet, M.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Cirques are emblematic landforms of alpine landscapes. The statistical distribution of cirque-floor elevations is used to infer glacial equilibrium-line altitude, and the <span class="hlt">age</span> of their frontal moraines for reconstructing glacial chronologies. Very few studies, however, have sought to measure cirque-floor and supraglacial ridgetop bedrock downwearing rates in order to confront these denudation estimates with theoretical models of Quaternary mountain landscape evolution. Here we use 10Be nuclide samples (n = 36) from moraines, bedrock steps, and supraglacial ridgetops among a population of cirques in the east-central Pyrenees in order to quantify denudation in the landscape and detect whether the mountain topography bears any relevance to the glacial buzzsaw hypothesis. Minimum <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> (MEAs) obtained for a succession of moraines spanning the Oldest Dryas to the Holocene produced a deglaciation chronology for three different Pyrenean ranges: Maladeta, Bassiès, and Carlit. Based on a series of corrections, calibrations, and chronostratigraphic tuning procedures, MEAs on ice-polished bedrock <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were further used to model denudation depths at nested timescales during the Würm, the Younger Dryas, and the Holocene. Results show that subglacial cirque-floor denudation was lower during glacial periods (Würm: 10 mm/ka) than during deglacial and interglacial periods (tens to hundreds of mm/ka). The relative inefficiency of glacial denudation in the cirque zone during the Würm would have resulted from (i) cold-based and/or (ii) low-gradient glaciers situated in the upper reaches of the icefield; and/or from (iii) glacier-load starvation because of arrested clast supply from supraglacial rockslopes situated in the permafrost zone. Denudation peaked during the Younger Dryas and Holocene glacial advances, a time when cirque glaciers became steeper, warmer-based, and when frost cracking weakened supraglacial ridgetops, thus enhancing subglacial erosion by providing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3936540','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3936540"><span><span class="hlt">Aging</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Dong Choon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aging</span> is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. <span class="hlt">Aging</span> induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological <span class="hlt">aging</span>. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">aging</span> are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent <span class="hlt">aging</span> and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854523"><span>Psychological Distress Among School-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Children with and Without Intrauterine Cocaine <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>: Perinatal Versus Contextual Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Richardson, Mark A.; Grant-Knight, Wanda; Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Chen, Clara A.; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Cabral, Howard J.; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Frank, Deborah A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Whether intrauterine cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (IUCE) explains unique variance in psychiatric functioning among school <span class="hlt">age</span> children, even after controlling for other biological and social risk factors, has not been fully delineated. As part of a longitudinal birth cohort study of children with and without IUCE, we conducted and analyzed data based on structured clinical interviews with 105 children (57 % male) and their caregivers when the child was approximately 8.5 years old; 47 % of the children had experienced IUCE. Interviews included past and current major psychological disorders and sub-threshold mental health symptoms. Potential covariates were ascertained by interviews of birth mothers and other caregivers from shortly after the child’s birth until the 8.5-year visit. More than one-third of children met DSM-IV criteria for one or more mood, anxiety, attention deficit, or disruptive behavior disorders. IUCE was not significantly associated with children’s history of psychological distress, in either bivariate or multiple logistic regressions. In contrast, birth mothers’ acknowledgement of greater psychiatric distress at baseline and higher levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and at 8.5 years caregivers’ reports of their own psychological distress, and children’s lower IQ were predictors of higher rates of psychological morbidity. Findings are consistent with prior reports suggesting that, regardless of IUCE status, children from low-income, urban backgrounds are at heightened risk for psychological distress. Results underscore the need for closer monitoring of the mental health of children living in low-income households, with or without intrauterine substance <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, to facilitate access to appropriate services. PMID:26194603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP41A1615P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP41A1615P"><span>LGM Snow-Line Elevations In The Western Tropical Pacific- <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> On Moraines From Mt. Giluwe, Papua New Guinea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prentice, M. L.; Kurz, M. D.; Hope, G.; Barrows, T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Snow-line elevations of former glaciers around the tropical Pacific Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) provide critical constraints on the state of the lower tropical troposphere. We present new moraine chronological information that pins down LGM snow-line elevations adjacent to the western Pacific warm-pool. We mapped several major sequences of glacier moraines on Mt. Giluwe, an extinct massive stratovolcano in central Papua New Guinea that rises to 4368 m above sea level (asl). We sampled large basalt boulders on the moraine crests and measured cosmogenic 3He in well-preserved olivine phenocrysts from these boulders. Based on fourteen 3He <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>, the outermost and lowest moraine sequences date to Marine Isotope Stage 6, rather than the LGM. Five boulders on moraine sequences at relatively high elevations have 3He <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> corresponding to the LGM, consistent with radiocarbon dates from the base of tarns and mires at several nearby locations. Contrasting moraine morphologies indicate that glacier regimes varied considerably. We estimate that the altitude of the equilibrium line (ELA) on the Giluwe ice cap during the LGM was 3550 to 3650 m asl. The estimate is based on both the highest elevation of the pertinent moraines and the Area-Altitude-Balance Ratio method. This is marginally higher than estimated by Loffler in 1972. To estimate climate change between the LGM and the present, we used the ELA for Papua, Indonesia, glaciers in 1972, 4650 m asl, as representative of the modern ELA above Mt. Giluwe. Additionally, the ELA during the LGM is considered relative to sea-level during that interval, which puts it at 3700 m asl. Accordingly, our analysis indicates that the ELA at Mt. Giluwe was 950 m lower during the LGM than it is today. To drive that ELA lowering, we estimate that the lower tropical troposphere in the warm-pool region was 4 to 5oC cooler during the LGM than it is today. This estimate is based on an atmospheric lapse rate of 0</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5132628','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5132628"><span>Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Body Mass Index in Children Up To 8 Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vuong, Ann M.; Braun, Joseph M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Chen, Aimin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to endocrine disruptors has been associated with increased risk of childhood obesity. However, epidemiologic studies on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are limited despite animal studies indicating PBDEs’ potential role as an obesogen. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal concentrations of BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and ΣPBDEs during pregnancy were associated with anthropometric measures in children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 1–8 years. Methods: We examined 318 mother–child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a birth cohort enrolled from 2003 through 2006 (Cincinnati, OH). Serum PBDEs were measured at 16 ± 3 weeks gestation. We measured child height (1–8 years), weight (1–8 years), body mass index (BMI) (2–8 years), waist circumference (4–8 years), and body fat (8 years). To account for repeated measures, we used linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between maternal PBDEs and child anthropometric measures. Results: We found no statistically significant associations between prenatal PBDEs and height or weight z-score. A 10-fold increase in maternal serum BDE-153 was associated with lower BMI z-score (β = –0.36; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.13) at 2–8 years, smaller waist circumference (β = –1.81 cm; 95% CI: –3.13, –0.50) at 4–8 years, and lower percent body fat (β = –2.37%; 95% CI: –4.21, –0.53) at 8 years. A decrease in waist circumference at 4–8 years was observed with a 10-fold increase in BDE-100 (β = –1.50 cm; 95% CI: –2.93, –0.08) and ΣPBDEs (β = –1.57 cm; 95% CI: –3.11, –0.02). Conclusions: Reverse causality may have resulted in prenatal PBDEs, particularly BDE-153, and decreased BMI, waist circumference, and body fat. Citation: Vuong AM, Braun JM, Sjödin A, Webster GM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Chen A. 2016. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and body mass index in children up to 8 years of <span class="hlt">age</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740018175','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740018175"><span>Lunar surface dynamics: Some general conclusions and new results from Apollo 16 and 17. [<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> determination of lunar rocks, boulders, and craters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crozaz, G.; Drozd, R.; Hohenberg, C.; Morgan, C.; Ralston, C.; Walker, R.; Yuhas, D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Apollo 17 rocks as measured by tracks and the Kr-Kr rare gas method are reported. Concordant <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 22 - or + 1 million year (my) are obtained for the station 6 boulder sample 76315. This value is interpreted as the time when the station 6 boulder was emplaced in its present position. Reasonable agreement is also obtained by the two methods for another station 6 boulder, sample 76015. Discordant <span class="hlt">ages</span> (respectively 5 and 28 my by the track and rare gas methods) are obtained for the station 7 boulder sample, 77135, indicating that the boulder was emplaced at least 5 my ago. The 72 my <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of 75035, in general agreement with previous measurements of approximately 85 my for another Camelot boulder, may well date the formation of Camelot. Rock 76015 was split and one surface exposed to the sky through a very small solid angle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=165075&keyword=women+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89384152&CFTOKEN=54577075','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=165075&keyword=women+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89384152&CFTOKEN=54577075"><span>DRINKING WATER ARSENIC <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN HEALTHY WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE <span class="hlt">AGE</span> IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The extremely high <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=239428&keyword=superoxide&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78184672&CFTOKEN=90346390','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=239428&keyword=superoxide&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78184672&CFTOKEN=90346390"><span>Ultrafine particulate matter <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in vitro impairs vasorelaxant response in superoxide dismutase 2 deficient and <span class="hlt">aged</span> murine aortic rings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Epidemiological studies positively associate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to inhaled ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607596"><span>Indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to particulate matter and <span class="hlt">age</span> at first acute lower respiratory infection in a low-income urban community in Bangladesh.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Homaira, Nusrat; Ram, Pavani K; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Bresee, Joseph; Moss, William J; Luby, Stephen P; Breysse, Patrick; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo</p> <p>2014-04-15</p> <p>The timing of a child's first acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is important, because the younger a child is when he or she experiences ALRI, the greater the risk of death. Indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has been associated with increased frequency of ALRI, but little is known about how it may affect the timing of a child's first ALRI. In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between a child's <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI and indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PM2.5 in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We followed 257 children from birth through <span class="hlt">age</span> 2 years to record their <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI. Between May 2009 and April 2010, we also measured indoor concentrations of PM2.5 in children's homes. We used generalized gamma distribution models to estimate the relative <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI associated with the mean number of hours in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m(3). Each hour in which PM2.5 levels exceeded 100 µg/m(3) was independently associated with a 12% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2, 21; P = 0.021) in <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI. Interventions to reduce indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PM2.5 could increase the <span class="hlt">ages</span> at which children experience their first ALRI in this urban community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859046"><span>Urinary perchlorate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and risk in women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> in a fireworks production area of China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Fei-fei; Chen, Shi-wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-mei</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater <span class="hlt">exposure</span> doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=270923&keyword=week&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78754596&CFTOKEN=42176518','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=270923&keyword=week&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78754596&CFTOKEN=42176518"><span>Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Metformin Pre-treatment on <span class="hlt">Aged</span> Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SOT2014 Abstract for presentation: March 23-27, 2014; Phoenix, AZ Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Metformin Pre-treatment on <span class="hlt">Aged</span> Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats. V. Bass, D. Andrews, J. Richards, M. Schladweiler, A. Ledb...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=3&id=EJ1105929','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=3&id=EJ1105929"><span>Influence of Current Input-Output and <span class="hlt">Age</span> of First <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> on Phonological Acquisition in Early Bilingual Spanish-English-Speaking Kindergarteners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. Aims: To investigate the influence of <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to English and the amount of current…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=.34&pg=3&id=EJ1087940','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=.34&pg=3&id=EJ1087940"><span>"One Glove Does Not Fit All" in Bilingual Reading Acquisition: Using the <span class="hlt">Age</span> of First Bilingual Language <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Understand Optimal Contexts for Reading Success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kovelman, Ioulia; Salah-Ud-Din, Maha; Berens, Melody S.; Petitto, Laura-Ann</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In teaching reading, educators strive to find the balance between a code-emphasis approach and a meaning-oriented literacy approach. However, little is known about how different approaches to literacy can benefit bilingual children's early reading acquisition. To investigate the novel hypothesis that children's <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urine&pg=3&id=EJ1034422','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urine&pg=3&id=EJ1034422"><span>Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children <span class="hlt">Aged</span> 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> at Home in Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995466"><span>Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) impairs measures of sustained attention and increases <span class="hlt">age</span>-related morbidity in the Long-Evans rat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller-Rhodes, Patrick; Popescu, Maria; Goeke, Calla; Tirabassi, Toni; Johnson, Lauren; Markowski, Vincent P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant that is widely-used in foam building materials and to a lesser extent, furniture and electronic equipment. After decades of use, HBCD and its metabolites have become globally-distributed environmental contaminants that can be measured in the atmosphere, water bodies, wildlife, food staples and human breastmilk. Emerging evidence suggests that HBCD can affect early brain development and produce behavioral consequences for exposed organisms. The current study examined some of the developmental and lifelong neurobehavioral effects of prenatal HBCD <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in a rat model. Pregnant rats were gavaged with 0, 3, 10, or 30mg/kg HBCD from gestation day 1 to parturition. A functional observation battery was used to assess sensorimotor behaviors in neonates. Locomotor and operant responding under random ratio and Go/no-go schedules of food reinforcement were examined in cohorts of young adult and <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats. HBCD <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with increased reactivity to a tailpinch in neonates, decreased forelimb grip strength in juveniles, and impaired sustained attention indicated by Go/no-go responding in <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats. In addition, HBCD <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with a significant increase in morbidity in the <span class="hlt">aged</span> cohort. One health complication, a progressive loss of hindleg function, was observed only in the <span class="hlt">aged</span>, 3mg/kg HBCD animals. These effects suggest that HBCD is a developmental neurotoxicant that can produce long-term behavioral impairments that emerge at different points in the lifespan following prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28135125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28135125"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">Age</span> at <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> on the Incidence of Lung and Mammary Cancer after Thoracic X-Ray Irradiation in Wistar Rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamada, Yutaka; Iwata, Ken-Ichi; Blyth, Benjamin J; Doi, Kazutaka; Morioka, Takamitsu; Daino, Kazuhiro; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Epidemiology studies have shown that children are at greater overall risk of radiation-induced cancer, but the modifying effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in different tissues is heterogeneous. Early epidemiology findings of increased lung cancer risk with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> at the time of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> have been dismissed, with suggestions that the trend is an artefact from a failure to adequately correct for the effects of tobacco smoking. Yet, differing models used in subsequent analyses have shown that the increased susceptibility with <span class="hlt">age</span>, counter to the overall solid tumor trend, can either be confirmed or discounted depending on the model parameters used. In this study, we analyzed the induction of tumors in female Wistar rats exposed to increasing thoracic doses of X-ray as neonates, juveniles or young adults, to allow the effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in this early period to be observed in the absence of any interactions with smoking. Histology was used to compare tumor subtypes among groups, and genomic DNA copy number alterations in a number of tumors arising after irradiation at different <span class="hlt">ages</span> were examined. Induction of lung cancers increased with radiation dose, with the frequency of early occurring lung adenomas greater in rats irradiated at older <span class="hlt">ages</span>. At the highest dose, the rats irradiated at 5 or 15 weeks of <span class="hlt">age</span> showed increased <span class="hlt">age</span>-specific rates of lung adenocarcinomas in later life compared to those irradiated at 1 week of <span class="hlt">age</span>. However, thoracic mammary gland tumors induced by the highest dose at the later <span class="hlt">ages</span> significantly decreased the lifespan in these groups, reducing the number of rats at risk of radiation-induced lung adenocarcinoma. There was no induction of mammary tumors outside of the irradiated field. Lung adenocarcinomas showed widespread DNA copy number aberrations at the chromosome level, but the only recurrent lesions were intragenic Fhit deletions and losses on chromosome 4. The results presented here suggest that the risk of radiation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...89....5R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...89....5R"><span>10Be surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> on the late-Pleistocene and Holocene history of Linnébreen on Svalbard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reusche, Melissa; Winsor, Kelsey; Carlson, Anders E.; Marcott, Shaun A.; Rood, Dylan H.; Novak, Anthony; Roof, Steven; Retelle, Michael; Werner, Alan; Caffee, Marc; Clark, Peter U.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Arctic glaciers were sensitive to past changes in high-latitude winter precipitation and summer temperature. Here we develop a late-Pleistocene to Holocene history for Linnébreen (Linné Glacier) in western Svalbard using 10Be surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> on isolated erratic and moraine boulders. We show that Linnébreen had separated from the larger ice sheet over Svalbard and was retreating up valley around the start of the Younger Dryas cold period. We attribute this retreat during a cold period on Svalbard to moisture starvation of Linnébreen from advanced sea ice and/or elevated shortwave boreal summer insolation that overwhelmed any reduction in sensible heat. After an ice-free period during the early to middle Holocene, Linnébreen reformed sometime after 4.6 ± 0.2 ka, and was at a position roughly equivalent to its Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> (LIA) maximum extent before it began to retreat at 1.6 ± 0.2 ka. Comparison with calibrated 14C dates from three other glaciers could suggest that this period of ice retreat at ˜1.6 ka could be regional in extent. Linnébreen occupied the pre-LIA moraine when there was an increased ratio of cold Arctic-sourced relative to warm Atlantic-sourced waters around Svalbard and advanced sea ice. The retreat of Linnébreen at ˜1.6 ka was concurrent with the increased presence of warm Atlantic waters around Svalbard and attendant sea-ice retreat. These coincident changes in ocean temperatures, sea-ice extent, and Linnébreen moraine <span class="hlt">age</span> could imply a climatic forcing of the pre-LIA advance and retreat of Linnébreen. Summer temperatures, rather than changes in precipitation, would then be dominant in driving ice retreat, although the possibility of stochastic glacier-margin variability cannot be excluded. Our data therefore suggest that Linnébreen may have responded differently to past changes in sea-ice extent that could depend on the background climate state (deglacial climate vs. late-Holocene climate), which highlights the complexity in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3986595','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3986595"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Plasmodium falciparum on antibody responses to malaria in children: a randomized, controlled trial in Mozambique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The impact of the <span class="hlt">age</span> of first Plasmodium falciparum infection on the rate of acquisition of immunity to malaria and on the immune correlates of protection has proven difficult to elucidate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using monthly chemoprophylaxis with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate was conducted to modify the <span class="hlt">age</span> of first P. falciparum erythrocytic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in infancy and assess antibodies and malaria risk over two years. Methods Participants (n = 349) were enrolled at birth to one of three groups: late <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, early <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and control group, and were followed up for malaria morbidity and immunological analyses at birth, 2.5, 5.5, 10.5, 15 and 24 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Total IgG, IgG subclasses and IgM responses to MSP-119, AMA-1, and EBA-175 were measured by ELISA, and IgG against variant antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes by flow cytometry. Factors affecting antibody responses in relation to chemoprophylaxis and malaria incidence were evaluated. Results Generally, antibody responses did not vary significantly between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> groups except for levels of IgM to EBA-175, and seropositivity of IgG1 and IgG3 to MSP-119. Previous and current malaria infections were strongly associated with increased IgG against MSP-119, EBA-175 and AMA-1 (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, only higher levels of anti-EBA-175 IgG were significantly associated with reduced clinical malaria incidence (IRR 0.67, p = 0.0178). Conclusions Overall, the <span class="hlt">age</span> of first P. falciparum infection did not influence the magnitude and breadth of IgG responses, but previous <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was critical for antibody acquisition. IgG responses to EBA-175 were the strongest correlate of protection against clinical malaria. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00231452. PMID:24674654</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/757462','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/757462"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> History of Separated Phases from the Kapoeta Meteorite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caffee, M W; Nishiizumi, K; Mazarik, J</p> <p>2000-01-14</p> <p>The cosmogenic radionuclides, {sup 10}Be (1.5 Ma), {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> (0.705 Ma), {sup 36}Cl (0.301 Ma), and {sup 53}Mn (3.7 Ma) were measured in selected clasts and matrix samples from the howardite Kapoeta. This work is an extension of that based on {sup 10}Be and {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> [1]. Recent work based on measurements of cosmogenic {sup 21}Ne suggest the possibility of a complex recent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history for Kapoeta. The measurement of these radionuclides, in conjunction with production rates based on Monte Carlo calculations, can constrain <span class="hlt">exposure</span> conditions and durations. Taken together, the radionuclide data are entirely consistent with a single stage 4{pi} <span class="hlt">exposure</span> lasting {approximately} 3 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27902618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27902618"><span>Cumulative systolic blood pressure <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in relation to cognitive function in middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> and elderly adults: A prospective, population-based study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Jie; Huang, Yuling; Chen, Guojuan; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zhijun; Cao, Yibin; Li, Haitao; Song, Lu; Li, Chunhui; Zhao, Hualing; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Anxin; Wu, Shouling</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cognitive function is controversial in elderly adults. In addition, few studies focused on the cumulative effect of SBP. We aimed to investigate the association between cumulative SBP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and cognitive function among middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> and elderly adults.The analysis was based on the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study. The primary predictor was the cumulative SBP calculated by consecutive SBP values measured through baseline (2006-2007) up to the fourth examination (2012-2013). The cognitive function was estimated by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in the fourth examination. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between cumulative SBP and cognitive function.Among 2211 participants (41.4% female, <span class="hlt">aged</span> 40-94 years), 167 (7.55%) were diagnosed with cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24). Higher cumulative <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to SBP (per SD increment) was independently associated with poor cognitive performance after controlling for multiple factors (P < 0.001). We observed nondifferential association between men and women. However, higher cumulative SBP in the adults <span class="hlt">aged</span> ≥60 years had a stronger association with poor cognitive performance compared with that in adults <span class="hlt">aged</span> 40 to 60 years.Greater <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cumulative SBP is associated with worse cognitive performance among middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> and elderly adults. This association is similar between men and women, but stronger in elderly adults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17958503','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17958503"><span>Use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of methylmercury to estimate <span class="hlt">exposures</span> in US women of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allen, Bruce C; Hack, C Eric; Clewell, Harvey J</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>A Bayesian approach, implemented using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis, was applied with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of methylmercury (MeHg) to evaluate the variability of MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in women of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span> in the U.S. population. The analysis made use of the newly available National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) blood and hair mercury concentration data for women of <span class="hlt">age</span> 16-49 years (sample size, 1,582). Bayesian analysis was performed to estimate the population variability in MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (daily ingestion rate) implied by the variation in blood and hair concentrations of mercury in the NHANES database. The measured variability in the NHANES blood and hair data represents the result of a process that includes interindividual variation in <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to MeHg and interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics (distribution, clearance) of MeHg. The PBPK model includes a number of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., tissue volumes, partition coefficients, rate constants for metabolism and elimination) that can vary from individual to individual within the subpopulation of interest. Using MCMC analysis, it was possible to combine prior distributions of the PBPK model parameters with the NHANES blood and hair data, as well as with kinetic data from controlled human <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to MeHg, to derive posterior distributions that refine the estimates of both the population <span class="hlt">exposure</span> distribution and the pharmacokinetic parameters. In general, based on the populations surveyed by NHANES, the results of the MCMC analysis indicate that a small fraction, less than 1%, of the U.S. population of women of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span> may have mercury <span class="hlt">exposures</span> greater than the EPA RfD for MeHg of 0.1 microg/kg/day, and that there are few, if any, <span class="hlt">exposures</span> greater than the ATSDR MRL of 0.3 microg/kg/day. The analysis also indicates that typical <span class="hlt">exposures</span> may be greater than previously estimated from food consumption surveys, but that the variability</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4331339','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4331339"><span>Air pollutant <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and preterm and term small-for-gestational-<span class="hlt">age</span> births in Detroit, Michigan: Long-term trends and associations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Le, Hien Q.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Wirth, Julia J.; Wahl, Robert L.; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Sadeghnejad, Alireza; Hultin, Mary Lee; Depa, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Studies in a number of countries have reported associations between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ambient air pollutants and adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB) and, less commonly, small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> (SGA). Despite their growing number, the available studies have significant limitations, e.g., incomplete control of temporal trends in <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, modest sample sizes, and a lack of information regarding individual risk factors such as smoking. No study has yet examined large numbers of susceptible individuals. We investigated the association between ambient air pollutant concentrations and term SGA and PTB outcomes among 164,905 singleton births in Detroit, Michigan occurring between 1990 and 2001. SO2, CO, NO2, O3 and PM10 <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were used in single and multiple pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes, adjusted for the infant’s sex and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>, the mother’s race, <span class="hlt">age</span> group, education level, smoking status and prenatal care, birth season, site of residence, and long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> trends. Term SGA was associated with CO levels exceeding 0.75 ppm (OR=1.14, 95% confidence interval=1.02–1.27) and NO2 exceeding 6.8 ppb (1.11, 1.03–1.21) <span class="hlt">exposures</span> in the first month, and with PM10 exceeding 35 μg/m3 (1.22, 1.03–1.46) and O3 (1.11, 1.02–1.20) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the third trimester. PTB was associated with SO2 (1.07, 1.01–1.14) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the last month, and with (hourly) O3 exceeding 92 ppb (1.08, 1.02–1.14) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the first month. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to several air pollutants at modest concentrations was associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study, which included a large Black population, suggests the importance of the early period of pregnancy for associations between term SGA with CO and NO2, and between O3 with PTB; and the late pregnancy period for associations between term SGA and O3 and PM10, and between SO2 with PTB. It also highlights the importance of accounting for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T34B..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T34B..02H"><span>Recent Contractile Deformation in the Forearc of Southern Peru: A Geomorphologic Analysis And 10Be Surface <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, S.; Farber, D. L.; Audin, L.; Finkel, R.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>. Cosmogenic 10Be surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from a set of three distinct abandoned terraces in the Pampa Cabeza de Vaca region yield <span class="hlt">ages</span> ranging from ~35-550ky and incision rates of ~0.04-0.09mm/yr. Thus, the contractile deformation within this region has been active for at least the last 500ky and is plausibly presently active. The documentation of recent contractile deformation within the forearc of southern Peru stylistically contrasts with previously held view active deformation in this region is dominated by extensional topographic collapse. Moreover, active shortening within the Peruvian forearc bears on our models of how the Altiplano plateau is currently being maintained along the western margin. Indeed, by identifying and quantifying active deformation within the Peruvian forearc, we can begin to address the potential links between surface processes related to climate and active tectonics, and the dynamics of the lithosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T34B..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T34B..02H"><span>Recent Contractile Deformation in the Forearc of Southern Peru: A Geomorphologic Analysis And 10Be Surface <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, S.; Farber, D. L.; Audin, L.; Finkel, R.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>. Cosmogenic 10Be surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from a set of three distinct abandoned terraces in the Pampa Cabeza de Vaca region yield <span class="hlt">ages</span> ranging from ~35-550ky and incision rates of ~0.04-0.09mm/yr. Thus, the contractile deformation within this region has been active for at least the last 500ky and is plausibly presently active. The documentation of recent contractile deformation within the forearc of southern Peru stylistically contrasts with previously held view active deformation in this region is dominated by extensional topographic collapse. Moreover, active shortening within the Peruvian forearc bears on our models of how the Altiplano plateau is currently being maintained along the western margin. Indeed, by identifying and quantifying active deformation within the Peruvian forearc, we can begin to address the potential links between surface processes related to climate and active tectonics, and the dynamics of the lithosphere.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5009616','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5009616"><span>Acute <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Adulthood Causes Adverse Reproductive Outcomes Later in Life and Accelerates Reproductive <span class="hlt">Aging</span> in Female Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hannon, Patrick R.; Niermann, Sarah; Flaws, Jodi A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Humans are ubiquitously exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is an environmental toxicant incorporated in consumer products. Studies have shown that DEHP targets the ovary to disrupt essential processes required for reproductive and nonreproductive health. Specifically, 10-day <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to DEHP accelerates primordial follicle recruitment and disrupts estrous cyclicity in adult mice. However, it is unknown if these effects on folliculogenesis and cyclicity following acute DEHP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can have permanent effects on reproductive outcomes. Further, the premature depletion of primordial follicles can cause early reproductive senescence, and it is unknown if acute DEHP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> accelerates reproductive <span class="hlt">aging</span>. This study tested the hypothesis that acute DEHP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> causes infertility, disrupts estrous cyclicity, alters hormone levels, and depletes follicle numbers by inducing atresia later in life, leading to accelerated reproductive <span class="hlt">aging</span>. Adult CD-1 mice were orally dosed with vehicle or DEHP (20 μg/kg/day–500 mg/kg/day) daily for 10 days, and reproductive outcomes were assessed at 6 and 9 months postdosing. Acute DEHP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> significantly altered estrous cyclicity compared to controls at 6 and 9 months postdosing by increasing the percentage of days the mice were in estrus and metestrus/diestrus, respectively. DEHP also significantly decreased inhibin B levels compared to controls at 9 months postdosing. Further, DEHP significantly increased the BAX/BCL2 ratio in primordial follicles leading to a significant decrease in primordial and total follicle numbers compared to controls at 9 months postdosing. Collectively, the adverse effects present following acute DEHP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> persist later in life and are consistent with accelerated reproductive <span class="hlt">aging</span>. PMID:26678702</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28115035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28115035"><span><span class="hlt">Age</span> at menarche in relation to prenatal rainy season <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and altitude of residence: results from a nationally representative survey in a tropical country.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jansen, E C; Herrán, O F; Fleischer, N L; Mondul, A M; Villamor, E</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Intrauterine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the rainy season in the tropics may be accompanied by high rates of infection and nutritional deficiencies. It is unknown whether this <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is related to the extrauterine timing of development. Our aim was to evaluate the relations of prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the rainy season and altitude of residence with <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche. The study included 15,370 girls 10 to <18 years old who participated in Colombia's 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Primary <span class="hlt">exposures</span> included the number of days exposed to the rainy season during the 40 weeks preceding birth, and altitude of residence at the time of the survey. We estimated median menarcheal <span class="hlt">ages</span> and hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) according to <span class="hlt">exposure</span> categories using Kaplan-Meier cumulative probabilities and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. All tests incorporated the complex survey design. Girls in the highest quintile of gestation days exposed to the rainy season had an earlier <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche compared with those in the lowest (adjusted hazard ratios (HR)=1.08; 95% CI 1.00-1.18, P-trend=0.03). Girls living at altitudes ⩾2000 m had a later <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche compared with those living <1000 m (adjusted HR=0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.94, P-trend <0.001). The inverse association between gestation days during the rainy season and menarche was most apparent among girls living at altitudes ⩾2000 m (P, interaction=0.04). Gestation days exposed to the rainy season and altitude of residence were associated with the timing of sexual maturation among Colombian girls independent of socioeconomic status and ethnicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23397056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23397056"><span>An investigation into UV light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as an experimental model for artificial <span class="hlt">aging</span> on tensile strength and force delivery of elastomeric chain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wahab, Siti Waznah; Bister, Dirk; Sherriff, Martyn</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of ultraviolet type A light (UVA) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the tensile properties of elastomeric chain. UVA light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was used as model for artificial <span class="hlt">aging</span>, simulating prolonged storage of elastomeric chain. Tensile strength (n = 60) was measured after exposing Ormco, Forestadent and 3M chains to UVA light for 0, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Force decay was measured (n = 60) using chain exposed for 5, 10, and 14 days. The chains were subsequently stretched at a constant distance and the resulting forces measured at 0, 1, 24 hours and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. This test simulated a clinical scenario of pre-stretching and subsequent shortening of elastomeric chain. Tensile strength had statistically significant difference and was directly related to the duration of ultraviolet (UV) light <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Forestadent chain, which had the second highest value for the 'as received' product, showed the most consistent values over time with the lowest degradation. Ormco showed the lowest values for 'as received' as well as after UV <span class="hlt">exposure</span>; 3M chain had the highest loss of tensile strength. Force decay was also significantly different. UV light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of 10 days or more appears to mark a 'watershed' between products: 3M had most survivors, Forestadent chain had some survivors, depending on the time the chain was stretched for. None of the Ormco product survived UV light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> for more than 5 days. UVA light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> may be used as a model for artificial <span class="hlt">aging</span> as it reduces force delivery and tensile strength of exposed chains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27031943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27031943"><span>Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span> with Possible Zika Virus <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>--United States, 2016.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Ellington, Sascha R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Cohn, Amanda; Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Powers, Ann M; Bertolli, Jeanne; Brooks, John T; Kissin, Dmitry; Villanueva, Julie; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kuehnert, Matthew; Olson, Christine K; Honein, Margaret A; Rivera, Maria; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> with possible Zika virus <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to include recommendations on counseling women and men with possible Zika virus <span class="hlt">exposure</span> who are interested in conceiving. This guidance is based on limited available data on persistence of Zika virus RNA in blood and semen. Women who have Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after symptom onset to attempt conception, and men with Zika virus disease should wait at least 6 months after symptom onset to attempt conception. Women and men with possible <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Zika virus but without clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to attempt conception. Possible <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Zika virus is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html), or sex (vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who traveled to or resided in an area of active transmission. Women and men who reside in areas of active Zika virus transmission should talk with their health care provider about attempting conception. This guidance also provides updated recommendations on testing of pregnant women with possible Zika virus <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K"><span>A link between oxygen, calcium and titanium isotopes in <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor hibonite-rich CAIs from Murchison and implications for the heterogeneity of dust reservoirs in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Park, Changkun; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Tenner, Travis J.; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>PLACs (platy hibonite crystals) and related hibonite-rich calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs; hereafter collectively referred to as PLAC-like CAIs) have the largest nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of all materials believed to have formed in the solar system. Most PLAC-like CAIs have low inferred initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios and could have formed prior to injection or widespread distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the solar nebula. In this study, we report <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg systematics combined with oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions for a large number of newly separated PLAC-like CAIs from the Murchison CM2 chondrite (32 CAIs studied for oxygen, 26 of these also for <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg, calcium and titanium). Our results confirm (1) the large range of nucleosynthetic anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca (our data range from -70‰ to +170‰ and -60‰ to +80‰, respectively), (2) the substantial range of Δ17O values (-28‰ to -17‰, with Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O), and (3) general <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-depletion in PLAC-like CAIs. The multielement approach reveals a relationship between Δ17O and the degree of variability in 50Ti and 48Ca: PLAC-like CAIs with the highest Δ17O (∼-17‰) show large positive and negative 50Ti and 48Ca anomalies, while those with the lowest Δ17O (∼-28‰) have small to no anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca. These observations could suggest a physical link between anomalous 48Ca and 50Ti carriers and an 16O-poor reservoir. We suggest that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous shortly after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud, and that the primordial dust reservoir, in which anomalous carrier phases were heterogeneously distributed, was 16O-poor (Δ17O ⩾ -17‰) relative to the primordial gaseous (CO + H2O) reservoir (Δ17O < -35‰). However, other models such as CO self-shielding in the protoplanetary disk are also considered to explain the link between oxygen and calcium and titanium isotopes in PLAC-like CAIs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201....6P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201....6P"><span>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs): II. Heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the early Solar System inferred from in situ high-precision magnesium-isotope measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with isotopic mass fractionation effects and unidentified nuclear isotopic anomalies (FUN CAIs) have been studied for more than 40 years, but their origins remain enigmatic. Here we report in situ high precision measurements of aluminum-magnesium isotope systematics of FUN CAIs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Individual minerals were analyzed in six FUN CAIs from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Axtell (compact Type A CAI Axtell 2271) and Allende (Type B CAIs C1 and EK1-4-1, and forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs BG82DH8, CG-14, and TE). Most of these CAIs show evidence for excess 26Mg due to the decay of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>. The inferred initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios [(<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0] and the initial magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg0) calculated using an exponential law with an exponent β of 0.5128 are (3.1 ± 1.6) × 10-6 and 0.60 ± 0.10‰ (Axtell 2271), (3.7 ± 1.5) × 10-6 and -0.20 ± 0.05‰ (BG82DH8), (2.2 ± 1.1) × 10-6 and -0.18 ± 0.05‰ (C1), (2.3 ± 2.4) × 10-5 and -2.23 ± 0.37‰ (EK1-4-1), (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10-5 and -0.42 ± 0.08‰ (CG-14), and (5.3 ± 0.9) × 10-5 and -0.05 ± 0.08‰ (TE) with 2σ uncertainties. We infer that FUN CAIs recorded heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the CAI-forming region(s). Comparison of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg systematics, stable isotope (oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium) and trace element studies of FUN and non-FUN igneous CAIs indicates that there is a continuum among these CAI types. Based on these observations and evaporation experiments on CAI-like melts, we propose a generic scenario for the origin of igneous (FUN and non-FUN) CAIs: (i) condensation of isotopically normal solids in an 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition; (ii) formation of CAI precursors by aggregation of these solids together with variable abundances of isotopically anomalous grains-possible carriers of unidentified nuclear (UN) effects; and (iii) melt evaporation of these precursors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241460','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241460"><span>Presence of asthma risk factors and environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> related to upper respiratory infection-triggered wheezing in middle school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sotir, Mark; Yeatts, Karin; Shy, Carl</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Viral respiratory infections and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to environmental constituents such as tobacco smoke are known or suspected to trigger wheezing/asthma exacerbations in children. However, few population-based data exist that examine the relationship between wheezing triggered by viral respiratory infections and environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. In this investigation we used population-based data to evaluate differences in <span class="hlt">exposures</span> between symptomatic middle school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children who did and did not report wheezing triggered by viral respiratory infections. As part of the North Carolina School Asthma Survey (NCSAS), a 66-question data instrument was used to collect information from children enrolled in North Carolina public middle schools during the 1999-2000 school year. Associations between <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and upper respiratory infection-triggered wheezing (URI-TW) among symptomatic children were examined using adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs). Video methods developed for the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were used to assess wheezing. Among the 33,534 NCSAS symptomatic participants, positive associations were observed between most <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and URI-TW. Reported presence of all allergy variables (PORs ranging from 2.11 to 2.45) was more strongly associated with URI-TW than either smoking or other <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. Presence of URI-TW was higher at increasing levels of tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, but no apparent dose-response effect was observed for other indoor air pollutants. URI-TW in middle school children is most associated with reported allergen sensitivity, relative to other asthma risk factors and environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. Data from this investigation may be useful in developing assessment, screening, and targeting strategies to improve asthma and wheezing management in children. PMID:12676631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22900817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22900817"><span>Oxygen consumption and development of volatile sulfur compounds during bottle <span class="hlt">aging</span> of two Shiraz wines. Influence of pre- and postbottling controlled oxygen <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ugliano, Maurizio; Dieval, Jean-Baptiste; Siebert, Tracey E; Kwiatkowski, Mariola; Aagaard, Olav; Vidal, Stéphane; Waters, Elizabeth J</p> <p>2012-09-05</p> <p>The evolution of different volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) during bottle maturation of two Shiraz wines submitted to controlled oxygen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to bottling (through micro-oxygenation, MOX) and postbottling (through the closure) was investigated. H(2)S, methyl mercaptan (MeSH), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were found to increase during <span class="hlt">aging</span>. Lower postbottling oxygen <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, as obtained by different degrees of oxygen ingress through the closure, resulted in increased H(2)S and methyl mercaptan. In one wine MOX increased the concentration of H(2)S and methyl mercaptan during maturation. Dimethyl disulfide and DMS were not affected by any form of oxygen <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Overall, postbottling oxygen had a stronger influence than MOX on the evolution of VSCs. Data suggest that dimethyl disulfide was not a precursor to methyl mercaptan during bottle maturation. For the two wines studied, a consumption of oxygen of 5 mg/L over 12 months was the most effective oxygen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> regimen to decrease accumulation of MeSH and H(2)S during bottle <span class="hlt">aging</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.1898C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.1898C"><span>To play or to pray?-The influences of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and environment on perception of Mandarin speakers of English on devoiced liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Sally; Fon, Janice</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>The devoicing rule of liquids after voiceless aspirated stops presents difficulty for L2 English learners. This study investigates Mandarin speakers' perception of the rule with regards to initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and environment. Three initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> were included in this study: kindergarten, elementary, and junior high school. Except for the last group, each group was further divided into two <span class="hlt">exposure</span> environments: Taiwan and the U.S. As a result, five groups of people were included in total, resulting in 25 subjects. Stimuli were pseudo-words in an SLV structure, recorded by one native English speaker and one non-native English speaker. Half of the stimuli began with a voiceless stop, and the other half began with a voiced stop. The native speakers pronounced the voiceless liquids accordingly while the non-native speaker only had voiced liquids. Preliminary results showed that, in general, L2 learners took longer time in perceiving devoiced liquids. Listeners who had earlier <span class="hlt">exposure</span> were more likely to respond faster to native speech while late learners responded better to non-native speech.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.C21B1159L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.C21B1159L"><span>New Cosmogenic Beryllium-10 <span class="hlt">Exposure-Age</span> Limits on Terminal Moraines of the Last Glaciation in the Bear River Drainage, Uinta Mountains, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laabs, B. J.; Munroe, J. S.; Rosenbaum, J. G.; Refsnider, K. A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Uinta Mountains were occupied by numerous glaciers during marine oxygen-isotope stage 2 (MIS 2). Reconstructions for the last glaciation reveal that central and eastern valleys in the Uintas contained discrete valley glaciers, many of which advanced beyond the mountain front. Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> limits on two moraines in the south-central part of the range indicate that glaciers retreated from their maximum extents at 16.8 ± 0.7 ka (Munroe et al., 2006), up to 2000 years later than glaciers elsewhere in the Middle and Southern Rockies. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> suggest that deglaciation of the Uintas was approximately synchronous with the hydrologic fall of Lake Bonneville (at ~16 cal. ka), which implies that glaciers and the lake responded to the same regional climatic forcing. Glacial reconstructions further indicate that glaciers in the western Uintas, nearest to the lake, had equilibrium-line altitudes as much as 600 m lower than glaciers farther east. This evidence suggests that Lake Bonneville may have amplified moisture in the western Uinta Mountains by providing lake-effect precipitation to valleys located immediately downwind. To further investigate this hypothesis, we acquired cosmogenic 10Be surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from a terminal moraine in the Bear River drainage in the northwestern Uinta Mountains. This valley was occupied by outlet glaciers of the Provo Ice Field (of Refsnider, 2006), which covered an area of about 685 km2 and drained via several valleys in the Uintas. Cosmogenic-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of moraine boulders range from 24.5 ± 2.5 ka to 19.0 ± 3.5 ka (± 2σ) with an error-weighted mean of 21.5 ± 1.4 ka (n = 7), which we interpret to represent a minimum <span class="hlt">age</span> of deglaciation in the Bear River drainage. Radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> of glacial flour in sediment from Bear Lake, a large lake downstream of the glaciated area, are generally consistent with cosmogenic-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and indicate that deglaciation began at about 24 cal. ka (Rosenbaum et al., 2005). When</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5127494','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5127494"><span>Effects of Chronologic <span class="hlt">Age</span> and Young Child <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease among US Preterm Infants Born at 32 to 35 Weeks Gestation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Simões, Eric A. F.; Anderson, Evan J.; Wu, Xionghua; Ambrose, Christopher S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective To estimate the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease as a function of chronologic <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to young children in US preterm infants. Methods In the RSV Respiratory Events among Preterm Infants Outcomes and Risk Tracking (REPORT) study, preterm infants born at 32–35 weeks gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> (wGA) were enrolled from 188 US clinics and followed September-May of 2009–2010 or 2010–2011. Infants with medically-attended acute respiratory illness had nasal/pharyngeal swabs collected for viral testing. Results of RSV tests conducted during routine clinical care were also collected. Event rates during November-March were modeled as a function of chronologic <span class="hlt">age</span> and birth month using Poisson regression and adjusting for other covariates. Rates were calculated overall and for infants with and without <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to young siblings or daycare attendance. Of 3317 infants screened, 1646 were enrolled as a consecutive sample. Infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity, hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease, life expectancy <6 months, or receiving or being considered for RSV immunoprophylaxis were excluded. 84% of patients completed the study. Demographics of the enrolled cohort were generally similar to those of US infants born at 32–35 wGA; infants 32–34 wGA, Hispanic infants, and infants of less-educated mothers were under-represented. Results Among 1642 evaluable infants, outpatient RSV lower respiratory illness incidence was highest at older <span class="hlt">ages</span>, whereas RSV hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were highest at younger <span class="hlt">ages</span>. In all instances, young child <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with higher RSV incidence. The highest RSV hospitalization and ICU rates occurred among February-born infants with young child <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, at 19.0 (95% CI, 13.5–27.0) and 6.5 (95% CI, 5.6–7.6) per 100 infant-seasons, respectively. Conclusions Preterm infants have a substantially elevated risk of RSV disease. Young <span class="hlt">age</span> and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1740211','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1740211"><span>Influence of solvent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">aging</span> on cognitive functioning: an 18 year follow up of formerly exposed floor layers and their controls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nilson, L; Sallsten, G; Hagberg, S; Backman, L; Barregard, L</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: To extend our knowledge of how <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to neurotoxic substances during working life affects cognitive functioning in the long term. Does long term occupational <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to organic solvents lead to aggravated cognitive impairment later in life? Methods: A follow up was conducted of floor layers exposed to solvents and their unexposed referents (carpenters) 18 years after the baseline assessment. The pattern of cognitive changes in the two groups was compared, with the same 10 neuropsychological tests from the test battery for investigating functional disorders (TUFF) that were used at baseline. The study included 41 floor layers and 40 carpenters. A medical examination focused on health at the present and during the past 18 years. An extensive <span class="hlt">exposure</span> assessment made in the initial study included questionnaires, interviews, and measurements. Additional <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during the follow up period was minor, as explored in interviews at follow up. Results: The entire group of floor layers did not deteriorate significantly more over time than did the carpenters. However, among the oldest subjects (>60 years), only floor layers showed decline in visual memory. Moreover, the most highly exposed floor layers deteriorated significantly more than their referents in visual memory and perceptual speed, and they tended to display larger decrements in motor speed. Significant dose effect relations were found; higher cumulative <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with decrements in visual episodic memory, perceptual speed and attention, and visuospatial skill. Conclusions: The hypothesis that floor layers would deteriorate more in cognitive performance than their unexposed referents over a period of 18 years was partly supported by the results of this study. The results are consistent with the view that the negative effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to solvents may interact with the normal <span class="hlt">aging</span> process, primarily at heavy <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. PMID:11836469</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11A2214M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11A2214M"><span>A Method for Constraining Glacial Boulder <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> with Bedrock Erosion Rates Utilizing Cosmogenic Ne-21 from the Central Transantarctic Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, D. J.; Sams, S.; Liu, J.; Edwards, K. L.; Hedberg, C. P.; Ringger, K.; Stocky, M.; Ball, A.; Diamond, M. S.; Cox, J.; Orland, E.; Lyles, F.; Bibby, T.; Giusti, C.; Hoeft, E.; Putkonen, J.; Balco, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> dating with cosmogenic nuclides can be an underdetermined problem because the measured concentration depends on three unknowns: the nuclides accumulated during previous <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, the erosion rate, and the time period of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Frequently, assumptions have to be made about inherited nuclide concentrations and erosion rates, which can limit the interpretation of results. For example, if erosion is assumed to be zero, then the measured concentration must be interpreted as a minimum <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> because an erosion rate greater than zero would require more time to pass to accumulate the measured nuclide concentration. Rock erosion rates are rarely measured, so erosion rates have to be assumed from other sources of data. Here we present a method for determining the rock erosion rate from bedrock of the same lithology as boulders that we want to <span class="hlt">exposure</span> date. We use cosmogenic Ne-21 concentrations in quartz to determine the bedrock erosion rate, and then apply the measured bedrock erosion rate to constrain the cosmogenic Ne-21 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of glacially transported boulders. Because the glacially transported boulders are the same lithology as the bedrock, and they are from the same general locale and have experienced the same climate conditions during <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, the boulder erosion rates should be consistent with the measured bedrock erosion rates. We collected samples from two sites within the Central Transantarctic Mountains: Ong Valley (157.5°E, 83.25°S), where the bedrock consists of Hope Granite and the Argo Gneiss, and Moraine Canyon (157.55°W, 86.1°S), where the bedrock is a silicic porphyry of the Wyatt Formation. At both sites, we collected bedrock samples above the glacial limit and boulders from the glacial drifts on the valley floor. Preliminary results are that the bedrock is eroding at rates of 17 - 41 cm/Myrs, averaging 23 cm/yr. The range of erosion rates is used to constrain the <span class="hlt">age</span> of glacial drifts in these valleys, which vary from 10</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27208629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27208629"><span>The effects of amphetamine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on juvenile rats on the neuronal morphology of the limbic system at prepubertal, pubertal and postpubertal <span class="hlt">ages</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tendilla-Beltrán, Hiram; Arroyo-García, Luis Enrique; Diaz, Alfonso; Camacho-Abrego, Israel; de la Cruz, Fidel; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio; Flores, Gonzalo</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Amphetamines (AMPH) are psychostimulants widely used for therapy as well as for recreational purposes. Previous results of our group showed that AMPH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in pregnant rats induces physiological and behavioral changes in the offspring at prepubertal and postpubertal <span class="hlt">ages</span>. In addition, several reports have shown that AMPH are capable of modifying the morphology of neurons in some regions of the limbic system. These modifications can cause some psychiatric conditions. However, it is still unclear if there are changes to behavioral and morphological levels when low doses of AMPH are administered at a juvenile <span class="hlt">age</span>. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of AMPH administration (1mg/kg) in Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal day, PD21-PD35) on locomotor activity in a novel environment and compare the neuronal morphology of limbic system areas at three different <span class="hlt">ages</span>: prepubertal (PD 36), pubertal (PD50) and postpubertal (PD 62). We found that AMPH altered locomotor activity in the prepubertal group, but did not have an effect on the other two <span class="hlt">age</span> groups. The Golgi-Cox staining method was used to describe the neural morphology of five limbic regions: (Layers 3 and 5) the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala, showing that AMPH induced changes at pubertal <span class="hlt">ages</span> in arborization and spine density of these neurons, but interestingly these changes did not persist at postpubertal <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Our findings suggest that even early-life AMPH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> does not induce long-term behavioral and morphological changes, however it causes alterations at pubertal <span class="hlt">ages</span> in the limbic system networks, a stage of life strongly associated with the development of substance abuse behaviors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5226701','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5226701"><span>Telomere Length, Long-Term Black Carbon <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, and Cognitive Function in a Cohort of Older Men: The VA Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Colicino, Elena; Wilson, Ander; Frisardi, Maria Chiara; Prada, Diddier; Power, Melinda C.; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Long-term air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span> has been associated with <span class="hlt">age</span>-related cognitive impairment, possibly because of enhanced inflammation. Leukocytes with longer telomere length (TL) are more responsive to inflammatory stimuli, yet TL has not been evaluated in relation to air pollution and cognition. Objectives: We assessed whether TL modifies the association of 1-year <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, with cognitive function in older men, and we examined whether this modification is independent of <span class="hlt">age</span> and of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation. Methods: Between 1999 and 2007, we conducted 1–3 cognitive examinations of 428 older men in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study. We used covariate-adjusted repeated-measure logistic regression to estimate associations of 1-year BC <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with relative odds of being a low scorer (≤ 25) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which is a proxy of poor cognition. Confounders included <span class="hlt">age</span>, CRP, and lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. Results: Each doubling in BC level was associated with 1.57 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.05) times higher odds of low MMSE scores. The BC-MMSE association was greater only among individuals with longer blood TL (5th quintile) (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.37, 7.59; p = 0.04 for BC-by-TL-interaction). TL and CRP were associated neither with each other nor with MMSE. However, CRP modified the BC-MMSE relationship, with stronger associations only at higher CRP (5th quintile) and reference TL level (1st quintile) (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.06, 6.79; p = 0.04 for BC-by-CRP-interaction). Conclusions: TL and CRP levels may help predict the impact of BC <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on cognitive function in older men. Citation: Colicino E, Wilson A, Frisardi MC, Prada D, Power MC, Hoxha M, Dioni L, Spiro A III, Vokonas PS, Weisskopf MG, Schwartz JD, Baccarelli AA. 2017. Telomere length, long-term black carbon <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and cognitive function in a cohort of older</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149774','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149774"><span>A Reanalysis of Curvature in the Dose Response for Cancer and Modifications by <span class="hlt">Age</span> at <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Following Radiation Therapy for Benign Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Little, Mark P.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Purpose: To assess the shape of the dose response for various cancer endpoints and modifiers by <span class="hlt">age</span> and time. Methods and Materials: Reanalysis of the US peptic ulcer data testing for heterogeneity of radiogenic risk by cancer endpoint (stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia, all other). Results: There are statistically significant (P<.05) excess risks for all cancer and for lung cancer and borderline statistically significant risks for stomach cancer (P=.07), and leukemia (P=.06), with excess relative risks Gy{sup -1} of 0.024 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.011, 0.039), 0.559 (95% CI 0.221, 1.021), 0.042 (95% CI -0.002, 0.119), and 1.087 (95% CI -0.018, 4.925), respectively. There is statistically significant (P=.007) excess risk of pancreatic cancer when adjusted for dose-response curvature. General downward curvature is apparent in the dose response, statistically significant (P<.05) for all cancers, pancreatic cancer, and all other cancers (ie, other than stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia). There are indications of reduction in relative risk with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (for all cancers, pancreatic cancer), but no evidence for quadratic variations in relative risk with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. If a linear-exponential dose response is used, there is no significant heterogeneity in the dose response among the 5 endpoints considered or in the speed of variation of relative risk with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The risks are generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers. Conclusions: There are excess risks for various malignancies in this data set. Generally there is a marked downward curvature in the dose response and significant reduction in relative risk with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The consistency of risks with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers implies that there may be little sparing effect of fractionation of dose or low-dose-rate <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3440544','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3440544"><span>A reanalysis of curvature in the dose response for cancer and modifications by <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> following radiotherapy for benign disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Little, Mark P.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To assess the shape of the dose response for various cancer endpoints, and modifiers by <span class="hlt">age</span> and time. Methods and Materials Re-analysis of the US peptic ulcer data testing for heterogeneity of radiogenic risk by cancer endpoint (stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia, all other). Results There are statistically significant (p<0.05) excess risks for all cancer, and lung cancer, and borderline statistically significant risks for stomach cancer (p=0.07), and leukemia (p=0.06), with excess relative risks Gy−1 of 0.024 (95% CI 0.011, 0.039), 0.559 (95% CI 0.221, 1.021), 0.042 (95% CI −0.002, 0.119), and 1.087 (95% CI −0.018, 4.925), respectively. There is statistically significant (p=0.007) excess risk of pancreatic cancer when adjusted for dose-response curvature. General downward curvature is apparent in the dose response, statistically significant (p<0.05) for all cancers, pancreatic cancer and all other cancers (than stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia). There are indications of reduction in risk with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (for all cancers, pancreatic cancer), but no evidence for quadratic variations in relative risk with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. If a linear-exponential dose response is used there is no significant heterogeneity in the dose response between the five endpoints considered, or in the speed of variation of relative risk with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The risks are generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers. Conclusions There are excess risks for various malignancies in this dataset. Generally there is marked downward curvature in the dose response, and significant reduction in relative risk with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The consistency of risks with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, and in groups of nuclear workers, implies that there may be little sparing effect of fractionation of dose or low dose rate <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. PMID:22682810</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49.1365O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49.1365O"><span>Cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and pre-atmospheric size of the Gebel Kamil iron meteorite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ott, U.; Merchel, S.; Herrmann, S.; Pavetich, S.; Rugel, G.; Faestermann, T.; Fimiani, L.; Gomez-Guzman, J. M.; Hain, K.; Korschinek, G.; Ludwig, P.; D'Orazio, M.; Folco, L.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Cosmogenic He, Ne, and Ar as well as the radionuclides 10Be, <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn, and 60Fe have been determined on samples from the Gebel Kamil ungrouped Ni-rich iron meteorite by noble gas mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively. The meteorite is associated with the Kamil crater in southern Egypt, which is about 45 m in diameter. Samples originate from an individual large fragment ("Individual") as well as from shrapnel. Concentrations of all cosmogenic nuclides—stable and radioactive—are lower by a factor 3-4 in the shrapnel samples than in the Individual. Assuming negligible 36Cl decay during terrestrial residence (indicated by the young crater <span class="hlt">age</span> <5000 years; Folco et al.), data are consistent with a simple <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history and a 36Cl-36Ar cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> (CRE) of approximately (366 ± 18) Ma (systematic errors not included). Both noble gases and radionuclides point to a pre-atmospheric radius >85 cm, i.e., a pre-atmospheric mass >20 tons, with a preferred radius of 115-120 cm (50-60 tons). The analyzed samples came from a depth of approximately 20 cm (Individual) and approximately 50-80 cm (shrapnel). The size of the Gebel Kamil meteoroid determined in this work is close to estimates based on impact cratering models combined with expectations for ablation during passage through the atmosphere (Folco et al).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23053646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23053646"><span><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners measured shortly after giving birth and subsequent risk of maternal breast cancer before <span class="hlt">age</span> 50.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohn, Barbara A; Terry, Mary Beth; Plumb, Marj; Cirillo, Piera M</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Discrete windows of susceptibility to toxicants have been identified for the breast, including in utero, puberty, pregnancy, and postpartum. We tested the hypothesis that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured during the early postpartum predict increased risk of maternal breast cancer diagnosed before <span class="hlt">age</span> 50. We analyzed archived early postpartum serum samples collected from 1959 to 1967, an average of 17 years before diagnosis (mean diagnosis <span class="hlt">age</span> 43 years) for 16 PCB congeners in a nested case-control study in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort (N = 112 cases matched to controls on birth year). We used conditional logistic regression to adjust for lipids, race, year, lactation, and body mass. We observed strong breast cancer associations with three congeners. PCB 167 was associated with a lower risk (odds ratio (OR), 75th vs. 25th percentile = 0.2, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.1, 0.8) as was PCB 187 (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1, 1.1). In contrast, PCB 203 was associated with a sixfold increased risk (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 6.3, 95 % CI 1.9, 21.7). The net association of PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, estimated by a post-hoc score, was nearly a threefold increase in risk (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1, 7.1) among women with a higher proportion of PCB 203 in relation to the sum of PCBs 167 and 187. Postpartum PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> likely also represents pregnancy <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and may predict increased risk for early breast cancer depending on the mixture that represents internal dose. It remains unclear whether individual differences in <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, response to <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, or both explain risk patterns observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049580"><span>Perinatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals reduces female rat follicle reserves and accelerates reproductive <span class="hlt">aging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Hass, Ulla; Svingen, Terje; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Isling, Louise Krag; Axelstad, Marta; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during development can have negative consequences later in life. In this study we investigated the effect of perinatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to mixtures of human relevant EDCs on the female reproductive system. Rat dams were exposed to a mixture of phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, butylparaben, as well as paracetamol. The compounds were tested together (Totalmix) or in subgroups with anti-androgenic (AAmix) or estrogenic (Emix) potentials. Paracetamol was tested separately. In pre-pubertal rats, a significant reduction in primordial follicle numbers was seen in AAmix and PM groups, and reduced plasma levels of prolactin was seen in AAmix. In one-year-old animals, the incidence of irregular estrous cycles was higher after Totalmix-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> and reduced ovary weights were seen in Totalmix, AAmix, and PM groups. These findings resemble premature ovarian insufficiency in humans, and raises concern regarding potential effects of mixtures of EDCs on female reproductive function.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26851548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26851548"><span>Noise <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of immature rats can induce different <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent extra-auditory alterations that can be partially restored by rearing animals in an enriched environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Molina, S J; Capani, F; Guelman, L R</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>It has been previously shown that different extra-auditory alterations can be induced in animals exposed to noise at 15 days. However, data regarding <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of younger animals, that do not have a functional auditory system, have not been obtained yet. Besides, the possibility to find a helpful strategy to restore these changes has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aims of the present work were to test <span class="hlt">age</span>-related differences in diverse hippocampal-dependent behavioral measurements that might be affected in noise-exposed rats, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of a potential neuroprotective strategy, the enriched environment (EE), on noise-induced behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats of 7 and 15 days were exposed to moderate levels of noise for two hours. At weaning, animals were separated and reared either in standard or in EE cages for one week. At 28 days of <span class="hlt">age</span>, different hippocampal-dependent behavioral assessments were performed. Results show that rats exposed to noise at 7 and 15 days were differentially affected. Moreover, EE was effective in restoring all altered variables when animals were exposed at 7 days, while a few were restored in rats exposed at 15 days. The present findings suggest that noise <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was capable to trigger significant hippocampal-related behavioral alterations that were differentially affected, depending on the <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. In addition, it could be proposed that hearing structures did not seem to be necessarily involved in the generation of noise-induced hippocampal-related behaviors, as they were observed even in animals with an immature auditory pathway. Finally, it could be hypothesized that the differential restoration achieved by EE rearing might also depend on the degree of maturation at the time of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and the variable evaluated, being younger animals more susceptible to environmental manipulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27612000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27612000"><span>Probabilistic modelling to assess <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to three artificial sweeteners of young Irish patients <span class="hlt">aged</span> 1-3 years with PKU and CMPA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Sullivan, Aaron J; Pigat, Sandrine; O'Mahony, Cian; Gibney, Michael J; McKevitt, Aideen I</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The choice of suitable normal foods is limited for individuals with particular medical conditions, e.g., inborn errors of metabolism (phenylketonuria - PKU) or severe cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Patients may have dietary restrictions and exclusive or partial replacement of specific food groups with specially formulated products to meet particular nutrition requirements. Artificial sweeteners are used to improve the appearance and palatability of such food products to avoid food refusal and ensure dietary adherence. Young children have a higher risk of exceeding acceptable daily intakes for additives than adults due to higher food intakes kg(-1) body weight. The Budget Method and EFSA's Food Additives Intake Model (FAIM) are not equipped to assess partial dietary replacement with special formulations as they are built on data from dietary surveys of consumers without special medical requirements impacting the diet. The aim of this study was to explore dietary <span class="hlt">exposure</span> modelling as a means of estimating the intake of artificial sweeteners by young PKU and CMPA patients <span class="hlt">aged</span> 1-3 years. An adapted validated probabilistic model (FACET) was used to assess patients' <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to artificial sweeteners. Food consumption data were derived from the food consumption survey data of healthy young children in Ireland from the National Preschool and Nutrition Survey (NPNS, 2010-11). Specially formulated foods for special medical purposes were included in the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> model to replace restricted foods. Inclusion was based on recommendations for adequate protein intake and dietary adherence data. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> assessment results indicated that young children with PKU and CMPA have higher relative average intakes of artificial sweeteners than healthy young children. The reliability and robustness of the model in the estimation of patient additive <span class="hlt">exposures</span> was further investigated and provides the first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> estimates for these special populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209043"><span>Hearing and loud music <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in a group of adolescents at the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 14-15 and retested at 17-18.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biassoni, Ester C; Serra, Mario R; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Young people expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds while leisure activities and noise induced hearing loss is diagnosed in increasing number of adolescents. Hearing and music <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in a group of adolescents of a technical high school was assessed at the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of: 14-15 (test) and 17-18 (retest). The aims of the current study were: (1) To compare the auditory function between test and retest; (2) to compare the musical <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels during recreational activities in test and retest; (3) to compare the auditory function with the musical <span class="hlt">exposure</span> along time in a subgroup of adolescents. The participants in the test were 172 male; in the retest, this number was reduced to 59. At the test and retest the conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and recreational habits questionnaire were performed. In the test, hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: Normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3); the Musical General <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> (MGE), categorized in: Low, moderate, high, and very high <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The results revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) between test and retest in the HTL and global amplitude of TEOAEs in Group 1, showing an increase of the HTL and a decrease TEOAEs amplitude. A subgroup of adolescents, with normal hearing and low <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to music in the test, showed an increase of the HTL according with the categories of MGE in the retest. To implement educational programs for assessing hearing function, ear vulnerability and to promote hearing health, would be advisable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24769562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24769562"><span>Associations between prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollution, small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>, and term low birthweight in a state-wide birth cohort.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa C; Davis, J Allen; Meyer, Robert E; Messer, Lynne C; Luben, Thomas J</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>A range of health effects, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, have been associated with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3). The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and O3 during pregnancy is associated with the risk of term low birthweight and small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> infants in both single and co-pollutant models. Term low birthweight and small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> were determined