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Sample records for 26al exposure ages

  1. In situ 10Be-26Al exposure ages at Meteor Crater, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishiizumi, K.; Kohl, C.P.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Arnold, J.R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of dating the surface exposure of rocks from in situ production of 10Be and 26Al has been applied to determine the age of Meteor Crater, Arizona. A lower bound on the crater age of 49,200 ?? 1,700 years has been obtained by this method. ?? 1991.

  2. Examination of surface exposure age of Antarctic moraines using in situ produced [sup 10]Be and [sup 26]Al

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. ); Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F. ); Kurz, M.D.; Brook, E.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Concentrations of [sup 10]Be (t[sub 1/2] = 1.5 [times] 10[sup 6]y) and [sup 26]Al (t[sub 1/2] = 0.72 [times] 10[sup 6]y) have been determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in a suite of quartz samples taken from sandstone boulders in several moraines in Arena Valley, a dry valley adjacent to the Taylor Glacier in the Quatermain Mountains, Southern Victoria Land, East Antarctica. These isotopes are produced in surficial quartz by cosmic ray spallation of O and Si. The concentrations in these samples ranged from 6.1 [times] 10[sup 5] to 3.0 [times] 10[sup 7] at g[sup [minus]1] for [sup 10]Be and from 9.4 [times] 10[sup 6] to 1.2 [times] 10[sup 8] at g[sup [minus]1] for [sup 26]Al, depending upon the extent of exposure at the surface. Production rates of 17[sub [minus]4][sup +16] at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] for [sup 10]Be and 113[sub [minus]16][sup +54] at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] for [sup 26]Al at 1300 m and 87[degree]S and a [sup 26]Al:[sup 10]Be production ratio of 6.5[sub [minus]1.3][sup +1.3] were calculated from the data. These values correspond to sea-level production rates at high geomagnetic latitude of 6.4 at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] and 41.7 at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] for [sup 10]Be and [sup 26]Al, respectively, consistent with determinations based on [approximately]11 Ky glacially polished surfaces in the Sierra Nevada in California. These production rates imply exposure ages for the various moraines ranging from 50 Ky to 2.5 My, in accordance with other geological evidence. The [sup 10]Be and [sup 26]Al ages of these rocks compare favorably with those found using a similar dating method based on in situ production of [sup 3]He.

  3. Deglaciation of Antarctica since the Last Glacial Maximum - what can we learn from cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure ages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, David

    2015-04-01

    Ice volume changes at the coastal margins of Antarctica during the global LGM are uncertain. The little evidence available suggests that behaviour of the East and West Antarctic Ice Sheets are markedly different and complex. It is hypothesised that during interglacials, thinning of the Ross Ice Shelf, a more open-water environment and increased precipitation, allowed outlet glaciers draining the Transantarctic Mnts and fed by interior Ice Sheets to advance during moist warmer periods, out of phase with colder arid periods. In contrast, glacier dynamics along the vast coastal perimeter of East Antarctica is strongly influenced by Southern Ocean conditions. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al chronologies, although restricted to ice-free oasis and mountains flanking drainage glaciers, has become an invaluable, if not unique, tool to quantify spatial and temporal Pleistocene ice sheet variability over the past 2 Ma. Despite an increasing number of well documented areas, extracting reliable ages from glacial deposits in polar regions is problematic. Recycling of previously exposed/ buried debris and continual post-depositional modification leads to age ambiguities for a coeval glacial landform. More importantly, passage of cold-based ice can leave a landform unmodified resulting in young erratics deposited on ancient bedrock. Advances in delivering in-situ radiocarbon to routine application offer some relief. Exposure ages from different localities throughout East Antarctica (Framnes Mnts, Lutzow-Holm Bay, Vestfold Hills) and West Antarctica (Denton Ranges, Hatherton Glacier, Shackleton Range) highlight some of the new findings. This talk presents results which quantify the magnitude and timing of paleo-ice sheet thickness changes, questions the validity of an Antarctic LGM and discusses the complexities encountered in the often excessive spread in exposure ages.

  4. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure ages of tors and erratics, Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland: Timescales for the development of a classic landscape of selective linear glacial erosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Mottram, R.; Fifield, L.K.; Sugden, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of tors within glaciated regions has been widely cited as evidence for the preservation of relic pre-Quaternary landscapes beneath protective covers of non-erosive dry-based ice. Here, we test for the preservation of pre-Quaternary landscapes with cosmogenic surface exposure dating of tors. Numerous granite tors are present on summit plateaus in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland where they were covered by local ice caps many times during the Pleistocene. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al data together with geomorphic relationships reveal that these landforms are more dynamic and younger than previously suspected. Many Cairngorm tors have been bulldozed and toppled along horizontal joints by ice motion, leaving event surfaces on tor remnants and erratics that can be dated with cosmogenic nuclides. As the surfaces have been subject to episodic burial by ice, an exposure model based upon ice and marine sediment core proxies for local glacial cover is necessary to interpret the cosmogenic nuclide data. Exposure ages and weathering characteristics of tors are closely correlated. Glacially modified tors and boulder erratics with slightly weathered surfaces have 10Be exposure ages of about 15 to 43 ka. Nuclide inheritance is present in many of these surfaces. Correction for inheritance indicates that the eastern Cairngorms were deglaciated at 15.6 ?? 0.9 ka. Glacially modified tors with moderate to advanced weathering features have 10Be exposure ages of 19 to 92 ka. These surfaces were only slightly modified during the last glacial cycle and gained much of their exposure during the interstadial of marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 or earlier. Tors lacking evidence of glacial modification and exhibiting advanced weathering have 10Be exposure ages between 52 and 297 ka. Nuclide concentrations in these surfaces are probably controlled by bedrock erosion rates instead of discrete glacial events. Maximum erosion rates estimated from 10Be range from 2.8 to 12.0 mm/ka, with

  5. Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanjun; Gao, Xing; Gao, Bin; Granger, Darryl E

    2009-03-12

    The age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus, commonly known as 'Peking Man', has long been pursued, but has remained problematic owing to the lack of suitable dating methods. Here we report cosmogenic (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating of quartz sediments and artefacts from the lower strata of Locality 1 in the southwestern suburb of Beijing, China, where early representatives of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus were discovered. This study marks the first radioisotopic dating of any early hominin site in China beyond the range of mass spectrometric U-series dating. The weighted mean of six meaningful age measurements, 0.77 +/- 0.08 million years (Myr, mean +/- s.e.m.), provides the best age estimate for lower cultural layers 7-10. Together with previously reported U-series dating of speleothem calcite and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy, as well as sedimentological considerations, these layers may be further correlated to S6-S7 in Chinese loess stratigraphy or marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-19, in the range of approximately 0.68 to 0.78 Myr ago. These ages are substantially older than previously supposed and may imply early hominin's presence at the site in northern China through a relatively mild glacial period corresponding to MIS 18.

  6. Formation age and geomorphologic history of the Lonar impact crater deduced from in- situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Goto, K.; Komatsu, G.; Kumar, P.; Matsuzaki, H.; Matsui, T.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering is a dominant surface modification process on planetary surfaces. In the inner solar system, the large majority of impacts occur on bodies covered by primitive igneous rocks. However, most of the impacts remaining on Earth surface are on different rock types than that of the inner planet and hence geologic knowledge derived from Earth's surface cannot be translated readily. The Lonar crater is a 1.88-km-diameter crater located on the Deccan basaltic traps in India (ca. 65 Ma), and is one of a few craters on Earth bombarded directly on basaltic lava flows. Thus, the Lonar crater provides a rare opportunity to study impact structures on the basaltic surfaces of other terrestrial planets and the Moon. Since the ages of terrestrial impact structures is a key to understand geomorphological processes after the impact, various dating methods have been applied to the Lonar Crater such as fission track (Storzer and Koeberl, 2004), radiocarbon (Maloof, 2010), thermoluminescence (Sengupta et al., 1997), and 40Ar/39Ar (Jourdan et al., 2011). Yet, a large discrepancy between these methods ranging from ca. 1.79 to 570 ka has been resulted. Here we report surface exposure ages based on in-situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in order to obtain a precise age of the Lonar crater formation as well as to study the geomorphologic evolution. The samples are collected from the topographic highs on the rim of the crater and from the ejecta blanket. Exposure ages together with newly obtained radiocarbon age of pre-impact soil indicate much younger ages than that of obtained from 40Ar/39Ar method. This suggests the potential bias because of inherited 40Ar in impact glass. Systematically young exposure age from the rim samples compared to the samples from the ejecta blanket indicate that the rim of the Lonar crater is being actively eroded. Spatial distributions of geomorphic ages observed from the Lonar creator is not the same as the pattern reported from the well

  7. Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault, from 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating of an offset alluvial fan

    SciTech Connect

    der Woerd, J v; Klinger, Y; Sieh, K; Tapponnier, P; Ryerson, F; M?riaux, A

    2006-01-13

    We determine the long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault in the southeastern Indio Hills using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al isotopes to date an offset alluvial fan surface. Field mapping complemented with topographic data, air photos and satellite images allow to precisely determine piercing points across the fault zone that are used to measure an offset of 565 {+-} 80 m. A total of twenty-six quartz-rich cobbles from three different fan surfaces were collected and dated. The tight cluster of nuclide concentrations from 19 samples out of 20 from the offset fan surface implies a simple exposure history, negligible prior exposure and erosion, and yield an age of 35.5 {+-} 2.5 ka. The long-term slip rate of the San Andreas Fault south of Biskra Palms is thus 15.9 {+-} 3.4 mm/yr. This rate is about 10 mm/yr slower than geological (0-14 ka) and short-term geodetic estimates for this part of the San Andreas Fault implying changes in slip rate or in faulting behavior. This result puts new constraints on the slip rate of the San Jacinto and on the Eastern California Shear Zone for the last 35 ka. Our study shows that more sites along the major faults of southern California need to be targeted to better constrain the slip-rates over different time scales.

  8. Roter Kamm Impact Crater, Namibia: Age Constraints from K-Ar, Rb-Sr, Fission Track, 10Be-26Al Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, C.; Klein, J.; Matsuda, J.; Nagao, K.; Reimold, W. U.; Storzer, D.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. The Roter Kamm impact crater is located in the Namib Desert in Namibia. The impact occurred in Precambrian granitic-granodioritic orthogneisses of the 1200-900-Ma-old Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. The granites are invaded by quartz veins and quartz-feldspar-pegmatites. Gariep metasediments probably overlaid the Namaqualand complex at the time of the impact (Reimold and Miller, 1989). Previous estimates for the crater age are not well constrained: regional geology suggests an age of 5-10 Ma, while the only available ^40Ar-^39Ar age (Hartung et al., 1991) is 3.7 Ma. Fission tracks measured in apatites from granites found on or near the crater rim were not completely reset by the impact and suggest an uplift event around 20 Ma ago (Storzer et al., 1990). We are using several approaches to bracket the age of the crater: we have measured melt breccia and pseudotachylite K-Ar ages, and apatite fission track ages in several rim granites. We are comparing Rb-Sr isotope data for rim granites with known ages of regional resetting events (Allsopp et al., 1979). Finally, we are using ^10Be-^26Al measured by accelerator mass spectrometry to determine surface exposure ages for quartz excavated during the impact event. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The target rock composition and stratigraphy at Roter Kamm is relatively complicated. Melt breccias formed from pegmatites, gneisses, or schists, while pseudotachylites probably formed from gneissic basement or quartz-feldspar-pegmatites (Reimold and Miller, 1989). Whole rock Rb-Sr data for several granites yield 1498 Ma, and mineral separates from sample URK-M indicate an "age" of 466 Ma; these ages are similar to those of country rocks from the general area of the northwestern Cape/southern Namibia (Allsopp et al., 1979) which indicate two widespread regional resetting events at ca. 700 Ma (related to the Pan-African orogenic deformation), and ca. 500 Ma, related to a subsequent metamorphic event. For K-Ar ages, we

  9. Shielding Effects on 10Be and 26Al in Diogenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; van der Borg, K.; Loeken, Th.; Schultz, L.

    1995-09-01

    Due to the attenuation of primary particles and the variations in secondary part fluxes with depth, production rates of cosmogenic nuclides are affected by the s shape of the irradiated object. The effects of shielding conditions on the produduction rates of noble gases can be estimated on the basis of the cosmogenic 22Ne/21Ne r [1]. For the production of cosmogenic radionuclides, shielding studies mainly fo on large meteorites like St. Severin [2], Knyahinya [3], Chico [4] and Jilin [5] estimated preatmospheric radii between 25 and 85 cm. The 10Be and 26Al production were also measured in three smaller meteorites, but the cosmogenic 22Ne/21Ne rat were obscured by large amounts of trapped neon [6]. Therefore we carried out a systematic study on the 10Be and 26Al activities as a function of the 22Ne/21Ne in 7 non-Antarctic and 15 Antarctic diogenite samples. Diogenites show exposure long enough (>10 Ma) to have reached saturation levels for 10Be and 26Al and are similar to ordinary chondrites with respect to the target element composition fo production of 10Be, 26Al and Ne isotopes. The measured 10Be and 26Al activities were normalized to average diogenite compo on the basis of ICP and XRF measurements and the experimental production rate eq of [7] and [8]. For the Antarctic samples with known terrestrial ages [9] correc were made for radioactive decay. In figure 1, the resulting 10Be and 26Al production rates are plotted against the 22Ne/21Ne ratios, which were measured on the same The solid lines represent the results of an exponential fitting procedure, from two samples were excluded: EET83246 because of SCR-produced 26Al and LEW88008 be of an anomalously low 26Al/10Be ratio, which is not yet understood. Figure 1 illustrates that the 10Be and 26Al production rates are similarly affect shielding conditions: both 10Be and 26Al decrease about 30 - 40% when going from objects with low 22Ne/21Ne ratios (<1.10) to small objects with high 22Ne/21Ne r (>1.25). Recently

  10. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.

    PubMed

    Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-05-28

    Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock. PMID:23671077

  11. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.

    PubMed

    Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-05-28

    Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.

  12. 182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    PubMed Central

    Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ∼5 × 10−5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10−6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ∼3 × 10−6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077

  13. First Long-Term slip-Rate Along the San Andreas Fault Based on 10Be-26Al Surface Exposure Dating : The Biskra Palms Site, 23 mm/yr for the last 30,000 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Woerd, J.; Klinger, Y.; Sieh, K.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F.

    2001-12-01

    Slip-rate along the San Andreas fault is known precisely at only two locations : at Wallace Creek, 34 +/- 3 mm/yr for the past 13,500 yrs and at Cajon Creek, 24.5+/- 3 mm/yr for the past 14,500 yrs. When compared to the long-term and far-field plate motion, these rates provide important constraint on how and where strain is accommodated across the plate boundary. Here we present a new determination of the slip-rate along the San Andreas Fault at Biskra Palms, based on 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating. The studied area is located southeast of the San Gorgonio restraining bend, a complex section of the fault which has not produced a large earthquake in historical time. At Biskra Palms, the San Andreas Fault offsets an alluvial fan (T2) about 700 m. Keller et al. (1982) recognized the importance of this site and estimated the age of the offset fan surfaces based on degree of soil development between 20 and 70 kyrs, providing a very loosely constraint slip-rate between 10 and 35 mm/yr. We have analyzed 21 quartz rich cobbles from the surface of the fan, upstream, downstream and within the fault zone. 10Be and 26Al measurements yield consistent results implying simple exposure at the surface. 7 samples collected on the T2 fan surface downstream yield an average exposure age of 30.7 +/- 2.1 kyrs. The tight cluster of these ages indicate no or minor pre-exposition during transport in the small catchment upstream. 7 samples from T2 upstream from the fault yield an average exposure age of 29.5 +/- 2.8 kyrs. One additional sample of this surface (38.4+/-3.6 kyrs) is older than the others and may have been pre-exposed before deposition on the fan. 2 samples from a T2 remnant within the fault zone yield an average age of 29.6 +/- 2.6 kyrs. 4 additional samples were collected from two smaller alluvial surfaces (T3 and T4) remnant found only upstream from the fault zone and yield average ages of 33.3 and 27.3 kyrs that are similar to the age of T2. This suggest that these

  14. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have embarked upon a ^26Al gamma-ray survey of meteorites selected from about 2000 samples recently recovered from the Lewis Cliff Ice Fields (84 degrees 18'S/161 degrees 20'E). Due to its 705-ka half-life ^26Al can be used for estimating terrestrial ages and thus contribute to further characterization of Antarctic meteorites in addition to their classification and thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The ^26Al survey is also useful for identifying meteorites with unusual exposure histories, which merit additional measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides (by AMS) and noble gases. In addition, it provides clues on possible pairings. METHOD: Low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for ^26Al survey work, since bulk meteorite samples can be measured routinely and nondestructively without any previous sample preparation. The required size of the samples (30-500 g) makes the method relatively independent of depth effects and compositional inhomogeneities. The use of a high-resolution GeLi detector also allows the determination of the natural ^40K activity and thus the K content of the samples, which can be used as an additional pairing criterion for ordinary chondrites. Also ^137Cs, a fall-out surface contamination [1], is simultaneously measured; low values may be characteristic for meteorites recently fallen or released from the ablating ice. For the detector an efficiency calibration curve has been made that adequately accounts for differences in size and shape of the meteorite samples. RESULTS and DISCUSSION: TERRESTRIAL AGES: So far, we have measured over 30 Lewis Cliff equilibrated H and L chondrites, collected from widely differing locations. Normalized to L-chondrite composition, the ^26Al contents range from 27 to 110 dpm/kg with peaks around 43 and 53 dpm/kg. This bimodal ^26Al distribution is reminiscent of that observed for Allan Hills ordinary chondrites [2]. Tentative terrestrial ages, calculated on the basis of ^26Al saturation

  15. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have embarked upon a ^26Al gamma-ray survey of meteorites selected from about 2000 samples recently recovered from the Lewis Cliff Ice Fields (84 degrees 18'S/161 degrees 20'E). Due to its 705-ka half-life ^26Al can be used for estimating terrestrial ages and thus contribute to further characterization of Antarctic meteorites in addition to their classification and thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The ^26Al survey is also useful for identifying meteorites with unusual exposure histories, which merit additional measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides (by AMS) and noble gases. In addition, it provides clues on possible pairings. METHOD: Low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for ^26Al survey work, since bulk meteorite samples can be measured routinely and nondestructively without any previous sample preparation. The required size of the samples (30-500 g) makes the method relatively independent of depth effects and compositional inhomogeneities. The use of a high-resolution GeLi detector also allows the determination of the natural ^40K activity and thus the K content of the samples, which can be used as an additional pairing criterion for ordinary chondrites. Also ^137Cs, a fall-out surface contamination [1], is simultaneously measured; low values may be characteristic for meteorites recently fallen or released from the ablating ice. For the detector an efficiency calibration curve has been made that adequately accounts for differences in size and shape of the meteorite samples. RESULTS and DISCUSSION: TERRESTRIAL AGES: So far, we have measured over 30 Lewis Cliff equilibrated H and L chondrites, collected from widely differing locations. Normalized to L-chondrite composition, the ^26Al contents range from 27 to 110 dpm/kg with peaks around 43 and 53 dpm/kg. This bimodal ^26Al distribution is reminiscent of that observed for Allan Hills ordinary chondrites [2]. Tentative terrestrial ages, calculated on the basis of ^26Al saturation

  16. Medical application of 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhausen, C.; Gerisch, P.; Heisinger, B.; Hohl, Ch.; Kislinger, G.; Korschinek, G.; Niedermayer, M.; Nolte, E.; Dumitru, M.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Schneider, M.; Ittel, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three.

  17. Measurement of 26Al in Iron Meteorites by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langellier, C.; Birck, J. L.; Allegre, C. J.

    1992-07-01

    We report here the measurement of ^26Al by thermal ionization mass spectrometry in iron meteorites. Nuclides produced by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with meteoritic bodies are widely used to reconstruct the parental history of meteorites and also to address the problem of constancy of cosmic rays in the past. In iron meteorites the half life of ^26Al is much shorter than the exposure age and saturation is reached. Its concentration is then directly related to the preatmospheric shielding of the analyzed sample. It can be also used together, with other short-lived nuclides, to calculate the terrestrial residence time for found meteorites. Natural contents of ^26Al in iron meteorites are very small (a few dpm per kg) and have been measured earlier by counting techniques and AMS. For thermal ionization the difficulty resides mostly in the measurement of the ^26Al/^27Al ratio. ^27Al may be contained in the sample and also is introduced by the chemical separation. ^27Al beams of 10^-11 A are readily obtained with a few ng of aluminium and are measured on a standard faraday cup. ^26Al was measured on a low background electron multiplier operated in the ion counter mode. ^27Al content was measured by isotope dilution using a ^26Al spike. The ^26Al ion beam can be interfered by traces of ^26Mg. Usually the ^26Mg background could be brought lower than 10^-9 relative to ^27Al. This is sufficient for the present experiment. No organic interference was present at the same level. The abundance sensitivity stemming from the ^27Al beam on mass 26 is 3 10^-9. Results: Samples sizes for this study range from 100 to 300 mg of iron. Ratios are measured with a precision of about 1% thereby leading to a final ^26Al content with an accuracy around 2%. Two meteorites were investigated so far: Grant and Canyon Diablo. Grant is one of the best documented meteorites with regard to spallation effects. The result on Grant is an agreement with literature AMS data (Graf et al., 1987

  18. Cosmogenic in situ production of radionuclides: Exposure ages and erosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisinger, B.; Nolte, E.

    2000-10-01

    Experimental data for the cosmogenic in situ production of radionuclides and its depth dependence are used for two applications, the determination of exposure ages and of erosion rates. Concentrations of the long-lived radionuclides 10Be, 14C and 26Al in quartz are presented as function of exposure age, depth before exposure and erosion rate after exposure. It is shown that the cosmogenic production before exposure can introduce important corrections to the representation without consideration of pre-exposure production. Depth profiles of 10Be, 14C and 26Al in quartz and sulfur, of 36Cl in K 2O, CaCO 3, granite and concrete and of 53Mn in Fe 2O 3 are given as function of erosion rate. Consequences to determinations of neutron fluences in Hiroshima are discussed.

  19. Age at exposure versus years of exposure.

    PubMed

    Seidman, H

    1985-05-01

    The pattern of incidence rates according to age for many forms of cancer has been found to be in reasonable accord with the equation or some modification of it: It = btk, where It is the incidence rate at age t, and b and k are constants. An alternative equation postulates that the risk of cancer is determined not by the age of a person but by the length of time exposed to a carcinogenic agent: It = b(t-w)k, where t-w represents the "effective exposure" between first exposure and clinical evidence of cancer. Mesothelioma rates in asbestos insulation workers were strongly related to time from onset of exposure regardless of age at first exposure. However, the same pattern was not evident for lung cancer mortality in the same workers compared with blue collar worker controls from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study I. Lung cancer mortality by attained rates and by duration of smoking were shown for current smokers of cigarettes only for the Cancer Society study, classified by age at which they started smoking. Lung cancer results were also given for men who never smoked regularly.

  20. SPI measurements of Galactic 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, R.; Knödlseder, J.; Lichti, G. G.; Kretschmer, K.; Schanne, S.; Schönfelder, V.; Strong, A. W.; von Kienlin, A.; Weidenspointner, G.; Winkler, C.; Wunderer, C.

    2003-11-01

    The precision measurement of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from Galactic 26Al is one of the goals of the SPI spectrometer on INTEGRAL with its Ge detector camera. We aim for determination of the detailed shape of this gamma-ray line, and its variation for different source regions along the plane of the Galaxy. Data from the first part of the core program observations of the first mission year have been inspected. A clear detection of the 26Al line at =~ 5-7 sigma significance demonstrates that SPI will deepen 26Al studies. The line intensity is consistent with expectations from previous experiments, and the line appears narrower than the 5.4 keV FWHM reported by GRIS, more consistent with RHESSI's recent value. Only preliminary statements can be made at this time, however, due to the multi-component background underlying the signal at =~ 40 times higher intensity than the signal from Galactic 26Al.

  1. Observable Proxies For 26 Al Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher L; Young, Patrick A; Ellinger, Carola I; Arnett, William D

    2008-01-01

    We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of {sup 26}Al in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors we explore a range of 1D explosions at different energies and an asymmetric 3D explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of {sup 26}Al in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio ({approx} 0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multi wavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.

  2. Evidence that 26Al Did Not Melt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, J. T.

    2016-08-01

    26Al/27Al initial ratios in achondrites are much lower than expected if 26Al was the only heat source responsible for melting the parental materials. Impacts provided a substantial fraction of the heat.

  3. Cosmic-ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.

    2003-12-01

    The classic idea of a cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age for a meteorite is based on a simple but useful picture of meteorite evolution, the one-stage irradiation model. The precursor rock starts out on a parent body, buried under a mantle of material many meters thick that screens out cosmic rays. At a time ti, a collision excavates a precursor rock - a "meteoroid." The newly liberated meteoroid, now fully exposed to cosmic rays, orbits the Sun until a time tf, when it strikes the Earth, where the overlying blanket of air (and possibly of water or ice) again shuts out almost all cosmic rays (cf. Masarik and Reedy, 1995). The quantity tf-ti is called the CRE age, t. To obtain the CRE age of a meteorite, we measure the concentrations in it of one or more cosmogenic nuclides (Table 1), which are nuclides that cosmic rays produce by inducing nuclear reactions. Many shorter-lived radionuclides excluded from Table 1 such as 22Na (t1/2=2.6 yr) and 60Co (t1/2=5.27 yr) can also furnish valuable information, but can be measured only in meteorites that fell within the last few half-lives of those nuclides (see, e.g., Leya et al. (2001) and references therein). Table 1. Cosmogenic nuclides used for calculating exposure ages NuclideHalf-lifea (Myr) Radionuclides 14C0.005730 59Ni0.076 41Ca0.1034 81Kr0.229 36Cl0.301 26Al0.717 10Be1.51 53Mn3.74 129I15.7 Stable nuclides 3He 21Ne 38Ar 83Kr 126Xe a http://www2.bnl.gov/ton. CRE ages have implications for several interrelated questions. From how many different parent bodies do meteorites come? How well do meteorites represent the population of the asteroid belt? How many distinct collisions on each parent body have created the known meteorites of each type? How often do asteroids collide? How big and how energetic were the collisions that produced meteoroids? What factors control the CRE age of a meteorite and how do meteoroid orbits evolve through time? We will touch on these questions below as we examine the data.By 1975, the CRE ages of

  4. Dating offset fans along the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault using cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Schwartz, D.P.; Finkel, R.; Clemmens, S.; Hanks, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in samples collected from exposed boulders (n = 20) and from buried sediment (n = 3) from offset fans along the San Andreas fault near Little Rock, California, yielded ages, ranging from 16 to 413 ka, which increase with distance from their source at the mouth of Little Rock Creek. In order to determine the age of the relatively younger fans, the erosion rate of the boulders and the cosmogenic nuclide inheritance from exposure prior to deposition in the fan were established. Cosmogenic nuclide inheritance values that range between 8.5 ?? 103 and 196 ?? 103 atoms 10Be g-1 quartz were determined by measuring the concentrations and ratios of 10Be and 26Al in boulders (n = 10) and fine sediment (n = 7) at the outlet of the present active stream. Boulder erosion rate, ranging between 17 and 160 mm k.y.-1, was estimated by measuring 10Be and 26Al concentrations in nearby bedrock outcrops (n = 8). Since the boulders on the fans represent the most resistant rocks in this environment, we used the lowest rate for the age calculations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine ages of 16 ?? 5 and 29 ?? 7 ka for the two younger fan surfaces. Older fans (older than 100 ka) were dated by analyzing 10Be and 26Al concentrations in buried sand samples. The ages of the three oldest fans range between 227 ?? 242 and 413 ?? 185 ka. Although fan age determinations are accompanied by large uncertainties, the results of this study show a clear trend of increasing fan ages with increasing distance from the source near Little Rock Creek and provide a long-term slip rate along this section of the San Andreas fault. Slip rate along the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault for the past 413 k.y. can be determined in several ways. The average slip rate calculated from the individual fan ages is 4.2 ?? 0.9 cm yr-1. A linear regression through the data points implies a slip rate of 3.7 ?? 1.0 cm yr-1. A most probable slip rate of 3.0 ?? 1.0 cm yr-1 is

  5. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  6. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system 26Al inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10-1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (26Al→26Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial 26Al abundance [(26Al/27Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) - the so-called canonical value. We have determined the 26Al/27Al of three angrite meteorites, D'Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15) ×10-7, (3.64 ± 0.18) ×10-7, and (5.92 ± 0.59) ×10-7, respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb-Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb-Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial (26Al/27Al)0 of (1.33-0.18+0.21) ×10-5 for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 ×10-5. Based on their similar 54Cr/52Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar 26Al/27Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical 26Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs.

  7. 26Al- 26Mg and 207Pb- 206Pb systematics of Allende CAIs: Canonical solar initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio reinstated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin, Qing-zhu; Moynier, Frederic; Amelin, Yuri; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Palme, Herbert

    2008-07-01

    The precise knowledge of the initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio [( 26Al/ 27Al) 0] is crucial if we are to use the very first solid objects formed in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) as the "time zero" age-anchor and guide future work with other short-lived radio-chronometers in the early Solar System, as well as determining the inventory of heat budgets from radioactivities for early planetary differentiation. New high-precision multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) measurements of 27Al/ 24Mg ratios and Mg-isotopic compositions of nine whole-rock CAIs (six mineralogically characterized fragments and three micro-drilled inclusions) from the CV carbonaceous chondrite, Allende yield a well-defined 26Al- 26Mg fossil isochron with an ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10 - 5 . Internal mineral isochrons obtained for three of these CAIs ( A44A, AJEF, and A43) are consistent with the whole-rock CAI isochron. The mineral isochron of AJEF with ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 = (4.96 ± 0.25) × 10 - 5 , anchored to our precisely determined absolute 207Pb- 206Pb age of 4567.60 ± 0.36 Ma for the same mineral separates, reinstate the "canonical" ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 of 5 × 10 - 5 for the early Solar System. The uncertainty in ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 corresponds to a maximum time span of ± 20 Ka (thousand years), suggesting that the Allende CAI formation events were culminated within this time span. Although all Allende CAIs studied experienced multistage formation history, including melting and evaporation in the solar nebula and post-crystallization alteration likely on the asteroidal parent body, the 26Al- 26Mg and U-Pb-isotopic systematics of the mineral separates and bulk CAIs behaved largely as closed-system since their formation. Our data do not support the "supra-canonical" 26Al/ 27Al ratio of individual minerals or their mixtures in CV CAIs, suggesting that the supra-canonical 26Al/ 27Al ratio in the CV CAIs may have resulted from post

  8. 26Al/10Be dating of an aeolian dust mantle soil in western New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Adrian; Fink, David; Chappell, John; Melville, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Aeolian dust mantle soils are an important element of many landscapes in south-eastern Australia, though the age of these aeolian deposits has not been radiometrically determined. At Fowlers Gap in western New South Wales, surface cobbles of silcrete and quartz overlie a stone-free, aeolian dust mantle soil, which has a thickness of about 1.6 m. The clay-rich aeolian dust deposit in turn lies upon a buried silcrete and quartz stone layer. Modelling in-situ cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be concentrations measured in both the surface quartz stones and in the buried quartz layer of rocks, reveals that each has experienced a complex exposure-burial history. Due to the absence of quartz stones or sand at intermediate depths, our cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be modelling was not able to determine a definitive mechanism of stone pavement formation and stone burial. Various scenarios of stone formation, transport, burial and exhumation were tested that constrain the age of the deposit to range from 0.9 ± 0.2 Ma to 1.8 ± 0.2 Ma, based largely on different assumptions taken for the time-dependency of the net sedimentation rate. This corresponds with the initiation of the Simpson Desert dune fields and the deflation of lakes in central Australia, which probably responded to the shift to longer-wavelength, larger-amplitude Quaternary glacial cycles at around 1 Ma. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify those parameters which better constrained model outputs. Within model errors, which largely are the result of analytical errors in measured 26Al and 10Be concentrations, all three competing theories of colluvial wash, upward displacement of stones, and cumulic pedogenesis are possible mechanisms for the formation of the surface stone pavement.

  9. Measurement of 26Al for atmospheric and climate research and the potential of 26Al/ 10Be ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, M.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Wagenbach, D.; Wallner, A.; Wild, E. M.

    2007-06-01

    The measurement of the paired cosmogenic radionuclides 26Al and 10Be in environmental samples has potential applications in atmospheric and climate research. For this study, we report the first measurements of the 26Al/10Be atomic ratio in tropospheric aerosol samples from sites in Europe and Antarctica performed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). These initial results show that the 26Al/10Be atomic ratio in tropospheric aerosols averages 1.78 × 10-3 and does not vary significantly between the different locations. We also report results of systematic investigations of the ionization and detection efficiency which we performed to improve the measurement precision for 26Al by AMS. Maximum detection efficiencies of up to 9 × 10-4 (in units of 26Al atoms detected/initial) were achieved for chemically pure Al2O3, while for atmospheric samples we reached efficiencies of up to 2.2 × 10-4.

  10. Probing Galactic 26Al with Exotic Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Alan A.

    2006-07-12

    The goal of understanding the production of galactic 26Al brings together progress in nuclear astrophysics from observations, theory, meteoritics, and laboratory experiments. In the case of experimental work, nuclear reactions involving unstable isotopes are being studied to elucidate the production of 26Al in stellar explosive nucleosynthesis. We discuss a direct measurement of the 26Al(p,{gamma})27Si reaction with the DRAGON collaboration at TRIUMF, and a measurement of 25Al+p elastic scattering with the CRIB (CNS-U.Tokyo) collaboration, toward constraining the 25Al(p,{gamma})26Si reaction.

  11. Probing Galactic 26Al with Exotic Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Alan A.

    2006-07-01

    The goal of understanding the production of galactic 26Al brings together progress in nuclear astrophysics from observations, theory, meteoritics, and laboratory experiments. In the case of experimental work, nuclear reactions involving unstable isotopes are being studied to elucidate the production of 26Al in stellar explosive nucleosynthesis. We discuss a direct measurement of the 26Al(p,γ)27Si reaction with the DRAGON collaboration at TRIUMF, and a measurement of 25Al+p elastic scattering with the CRIB (CNS-U.Tokyo) collaboration, toward constraining the 25Al(p,γ)26Si reaction.

  12. The Prediction of the Saturated Activity of 26Al in Non-Antarctic Stony Meteorites from their Chemical Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, J. E.; Heydegger, H. R.

    1992-07-01

    We have assembled from the literature a database of over 300 non-Antarctic stony meteorites, containing information about their chemical composition, date of fall, total mass, and gas exposure age, etc. We have developed an iterative algorithm using weighted linear multivariate regression, which surveys all the independent variables in the database, recommends the best 26 models (combinations of variables) for the prediction of Al activity, and using those models, performs weighted linear multivariate regressions. By requiring that the residuals be normally distributed, under- and super-saturated meteorites are discovered and eliminated. This process is iterated until a stable solution is obtained. As a result, we obtained a set of 128 saturated, 50 unsaturated, and 10 supersaturated meteorites. We find that the expression: ^26Al = (5.28+-0.81) . Al + (2.59+- 0.06) . Si + (1.57+-0.39) . S + (1.52+-0.59) . Ca, Chi^2(sub)nu = 2.59, where the elemental concentration is given in weight 26%, is the best predictor of the saturated ^26Al content of a stony meteorite. We find no evidence of bias or crippling multicollinearity in this expression. About one half of the remaining variability cannot be attributed to uncertainties in the determination of the ^26Al content and thus must be attributed to variations in orbit, shielding, etc. We compare our results (see figure) with those of other workers (1,2,3,4), and examine the probable causes of the disagreements displayed there. We show that saturated ^26Al is distributed among all classes of meteorites in about the same way, with the exception of the carbonaceous chondrites and the eucrites, which both have about the same excess proportion of unsaturation. We examine the question of the convergence of expressions derived from regressions on chemical composition to the predictive expressions derived from integrals of particle fluxes and nuclear reaction cross sections and show that they need not converge. We examine the

  13. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system 26Al inventory

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10–1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (26Al→26Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial 26Al abundance [(26Al/27Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) – the so-called canonical value. We have determined the 26Al/27Al of three angrite meteorites, D’Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15)×10−7, (3.64 ± 0.18)×10−7, and (5.92 ± 0.59)×10−7, respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb–Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb–Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial (26Al/27Al)0 of (1.33−0.18+0.21)×10−5 for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 × 10−5. Based on their similar 54Cr/52Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar 26Al/27Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical 26Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs. PMID:27429474

  14. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2010-12-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70-80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a validated skin aging score. Traffic-related exposure at the place of residence was determined by traffic particle emissions and by estimation of soot in fine dust. Exposure to background particle concentration was determined by measurements of ambient particles at fixed monitoring sites. The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables. Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to wrinkles. An increase in soot (per 0.5 × 10(-5) per m) and particles from traffic (per 475  kg per year and square km) was associated with 20% more pigment spots on forehead and cheeks. Background particle pollution, which was measured in low residential areas of the cities without busy traffic and therefore is not directly attributable to traffic but rather to other sources of particles, was also positively correlated to pigment spots on face. These results indicate that particle pollution might influence skin aging as well.

  15. Exposure ages of carbonaceous chondrites, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Southon, J. R.; Nagai, H.; Honda, M.; Sharma, P.; Imamura, M.; Kobayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The recent exposure histories of carbonaceous chondrites have been investigated using cosmogenic radionuclides. Our results may indicate a clustering of exposure ages of C1 and C2 chondrites into two peaks, 0.2 My and 0.6 My, perhaps implying two collisional events of Earth-crossing parent bodies. Among carbonaceous chondrites are some having short exposure ages which Mazor et al. hypothesized cluster into a small number of families. This hypothesis is based on spallogenic Ne-21 exposure ages, which in some instances are difficult to determine owing to the large amounts of trapped noble gases in carbonaceous chondrites. Also, since Ne-21 is stable, it integrates a sample's entire exposure history, so meteorites with complex exposure histories are difficult to understand using exclusively Ne-21. Cosmogenic radionuclides provide an alternative means of determining the recent cosmic ray exposure duration. To test the hypothesis of Mazor et al. we have begun a systematic investigation of exposure histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites especially C2s.

  16. Cosmic-ray exposure age and preatmospheric size of the Bunburra Rockhole achondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welten, Kees C.; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Caffee, Marc W.; Laubenstein, Matthias; Nishizumi, Kunihiko; Wieler, Rainer; Bland, Phil A.; Towner, Martin C.; Spurný, Pavel

    2012-02-01

    Bunburra Rockhole is the first meteorite fall photographed and recovered by the Desert Fireball Network in Australia. It is classified as an ungrouped achondrite similar in mineralogical and chemical composition to eucrites, but it has a distinct oxygen isotope composition. The question is if achondrites like Bunburra Rockhole originate from the same parent body as the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites or from several separate, differentiated parent bodies. To address this question, we measured cosmogenic radionuclides and noble gases in the Bunburra Rockhole achondrite. The short-lived radionuclides 22Na and 54Mn confirm that Bunburra Rockhole is a recent fall. The concentrations of 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl as well as the 22Ne/21Ne ratio indicate that Bunburra Rockhole was a relatively small object (R approximately 15 cm) in space, consistent with the photographic fireball observations. The cosmogenic 38Ar concentration yields a cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age of 22 ± 3 Myr, whereas 21Ne and 3He yield approximately 30% and approximately 60% lower ages, respectively, due to loss of cosmogenic He and Ne, mainly from plagioclase. With a CRE age of 22 Myr, Bunburra Rockhole is the first anomalous eucrite that overlaps with the main CRE peak of the HED meteorites. The radiogenic K-Ar age of 4.1 Gyr is consistent with the U-Pb age, while the young U,Th-He age of approximately 1.4 Gyr indicates that Bunburra Rockhole lost radiogenic 4He more recently.

  17. FINDING TRACERS FOR SUPERNOVA PRODUCED {sup 26}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Patrick A.; Ellinger, Carola I.; Arnett, David; Fryer, Chris L.; Rockefeller, Gabriel

    2009-07-10

    We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of {sup 26}Al in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors, we explore a range of one-dimensional explosions at different energies and an asymmetric three-dimensional explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of {sup 26}Al in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio ({approx}0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multiwavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.

  18. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Antoine S. G.; Metzler, Knut; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Leya, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    If chondrules were exposed to cosmic rays prior to meteorite compaction, they should retain an excess of cosmogenic noble gases. Beyersdorf-Kuis et al. (2015) showed that such excesses can be detected provided that the chemical composition of each individual chondrule is precisely known. However, their study was limited to a few samples as they had to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor for instrumental neutron activation analysis. We developed a novel analytical protocol that combines the measurements of He and Ne isotopic concentrations with a fast method to correct for differences in chemical composition using micro X-ray computed tomography. Our main idea is to combine noble gas, nuclear track, and petrography data for numerous chondrules to understand the precompaction exposure history of the chondrite parent bodies. Here, we report our results for a total of 77 chondrules and four matrix samples from NWA 8276 (L3.00), NWA 8007 (L3.2), and Bjurböle (L/LL4). All chondrules from the same meteorite have within uncertainty identical 21Ne exposure ages, and all chondrules from Bjurböle have within uncertainty identical 3He exposure ages. However, most chondrules from NWA 8276 and a few from NWA 8007 show small but resolvable differences in 3He exposure age that we attribute to matrix contamination and/or gas loss. The finding that none of the chondrules has noble gas excesses is consistent with the uniform track density found for each meteorite. We conclude that the studied chondrules did not experience a precompaction exposure longer than a few Ma assuming present-day flux of galactic cosmic rays. A majority of chondrules from L and LL chondrites thus rapidly accreted and/or was efficiently shielded from cosmic rays in the solar nebula.

  19. Dating Plio-Pleistocene glacial sediments using the cosmic-ray-produced radionuclides 10Be and 26Al

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balco, G.; Stone, J.O.H.; Jennings, C.

    2005-01-01

    We use the cosmic-ray-produced radionuclides 26Al and 10Be to date Plio-Pleistocene glacial sediment sequences. These two nuclides are produced in quartz at a fixed ratio, but have different decay constants. If a sample is exposed at the surface for a time and then buried by overburden and thus removed from the cosmic-ray flux, the 26Al/10Be ratio is related to the duration of burial. We first attempted to date pre-Wisconsinan tills by measuring 26Al and 10Be in fluvial sediments beneath them and applying the method of "burial dating," which previous authors have used to date river sediment carried into caves. This method, however, requires simplifying assumptions about the 26Al and 10Be concentrations in the sediment at the time of burial. We show that these assumptions are not valid for river sediment in glaciated regions. 26Al and 10Be analyses of such sediment do not provide accurate ages for these tills, although they do yield limiting ages in some cases. We overcome this difficulty by instead measuring 26Al and 10Be in quartz from paleosols that are buried by tills. We use a more general mathematical approach to determine the initial nuclide concentrations in the paleosol at the time it was buried, as well as the duration of burial. This technique provides a widely applicable improvement on other means of dating Plio-Pleistocene terrestrial glacial sediments, as well as a framework for applying cosmogenic-nuclide dating techniques in complicated stratigraphic settings. We apply it to pre-Wisconsinan glacial sediment sequences in southwest Minnesota and eastern South Dakota. Pre-Wisconsinan tills underlying the Minnesota River Valley were deposited 0.5 to 1.5 Ma, and tills beneath the Prairie Coteau in eastern South Dakota and adjacent Minnesota were deposited 1 to 2 Ma.

  20. (26)Al investigations at the AMS-laboratory in Lund.

    PubMed

    Faarinen, M; Magnusson, C E; Hellborg, R; Mattsson, S; Kiisk, M; Persson, P; Schütz, A; Skog, G; Stenström, K

    2001-11-01

    At the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratory in Lund, a facility for (26)Al analysis is under development. The sensitivity is expected to be several orders of magnitude higher than with standard mass spectrometry. The planned biomedical program includes studies of aluminium uptake, distribution and retention in man. The initial work has been concentrated on the construction and testing of a new dedicated injector for the accelerator and on the preparation of biological samples for aluminium analysis. The current quality of the facility is presented and the first experimental results reported. PMID:11709214

  1. Eroding and Inflating the Atacama Desert, Chile: Insights Through Cosmogenic 10-Be, 26-Al and 21-Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimsath, A. M.; Jungers, M. C.; Amundson, R.; Balco, G.; Shuster, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Enigmas of the Atacama Desert are as abundant as the hypotheses formulated to explain them. This fascinating and extreme landscape attracts scientists from disparate disciplines, spawning remarkable insights into the connections between climate, tectonics, biota and landscape evolution. Recent work explores such connections on timescales ranging from millions to thousands of years. Both the timing of the onset of hyperaridity in the Atacama and its relationship to the uplift of the Andes are especially well-debated topics. Similarly enigmatic, but less widely studied, are the connections between the timing of hyperaridity and the surface morphology of the region. Specifically, the extent, nature, and timing of formation for the extensive salars across the Atacama are undeniably linked to the climate history of the region. Adjacent to the extensive salars are landscapes that appear to be shaped by processes more typically associated with temperate landscapes: rilling and gullying, extensive terrace deposition, steep fault scarps, landslide deposits, and extensive fan and paleosurface deposits. Our primary goal in this project is to establish chronologies and rates for the surface processes driving landscape evolution for two field regions in the Atacama. To achieve this goal we are also testing and expanding upon the burial dating methodology (Balco and Shuster, 2009) that couples the stable cosmogenic nuclide, 21Ne, with the radiogenic nuclides, 10Be and 26Al. Here we present new results from remarkably different field settings from the north-central Atacama. The southern region, inland from Antofagasta, is relatively well studied to determine how the onset of hyperaridity impacted water-driven processes. The northern region, north of the Rio Loa and Calama, differs most notably by the enormous basin fills of salt (e.g. Salar de Llamara and Salar Grande) and evidence of more extensive recently active salars. Across both regions we use in 10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne to

  2. Exposure history and terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the Dar al Gani region, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Finkel, R. C.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Franke, L.; Schultz, L.

    2004-03-01

    We measured the concentrations of noble gases in 32 ordinary chondrites from the Dar al Gani (DaG) region, Libya, as well as concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides 14C, 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 41Ca in 18 of these samples. Although the trapped noble gases in five DaG samples show ratios typical of solar or planetary gases, in all other DaG samples, they are dominated by atmospheric contamination, which increases with the degree of weathering. Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of DaG chondrites range from ~1 Myr to 53 Myr. The CRE age distribution of 10 DaG L chondrites shows a cluster around 40 Myr due to four members of a large L6 chondrite shower. The CRE age distribution of 19 DaG H chondrites shows only three ages coinciding with the main H chondrite peak at ~7 Myr, while seven ages are <5 Myr. Two of these H chondrites with short CRE ages (DaG 904 and 908) show evidence of a complex exposure history. Five of the H chondrites show evidence of high shielding conditions, including low 22Ne/21Ne ratios and large contributions of neutron-capture 36Cl and 41Ca. These samples represent fragments of two or more large pre-atmospheric objects, which supports the hypothesis that the high H/L chondrite ratio at DaG is due to one or more large unrecognized showers. The 14C concentrations correspond to terrestrial ages <35 kyr, similar to terrestrial ages of chondrites from other regions in the Sahara but younger than two DaG achondrites. Despite the loss of cosmogenic 36Cl and 41Ca during oxidation of metal and troilite, concentrations of 36Cl and 41Ca in the silicates are also consistent with 14C ages <35 kyr. The only exception is DaG 343 (H4), which has a 41Ca terrestrial age of 150 ± 40 kyr. This old age shows that not only iron meteorites and achondrites but also chondrites can survive the hot desert environment for more than 50 kyr. A possible explanation is that older meteorites were covered by soils during wetter periods and were recently exhumed by removal of

  3. Heterogeneous Distribution of 26Al at the Birth of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Hellebrand, Eric; Gaidos, Eric; Yang, Le

    2011-06-01

    It is believed that 26Al, a short-lived (t 1/2 = 0.73 Ma) and now extinct radionuclide, was uniformly distributed in the nascent solar system (SS) with the initial 26Al/27Al ratio of ~5.2 × 10-5, suggesting an external, stellar origin rather than local, solar source. However, the stellar source of 26Al and the manner in which it was injected into the SS remain controversial: the 26Al could have been produced by an asymptotic giant branch star, a supernova, or a Wolf-Rayet star and injected either into the protosolar molecular cloud, protosolar cloud core, or protoplanetary disk. Corundum (Al2O3) is predicted to be the first condensate from a cooling gas of solar composition. Here we show that micron-sized corundum condensates from 16O-rich (Δ17O ~ -25‰) gas of solar composition recorded heterogeneous distribution of 26Al at the birth of the SS: the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratio ranges from ~6.5×10-5 to <2×10-6 52% of corundum grains measured are 26Al-poor. Abundant 26Al-poor, 16O-rich refractory objects include grossite- and hibonite-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CH (high metal abundance and high iron concentration) chondrites, platy hibonite crystals in CM (Mighei-like) chondrites, and CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects CAIs chondrites. Considering the apparently early and short duration (<0.3 Ma) of condensation of refractory 16O-rich solids in the SS, we infer that 26Al was injected into the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud and later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk. The apparent lack of correlation between 26Al abundance and O-isotope composition of corundum grains constrains the stellar source of 26Al in the SS.

  4. Towards improvement of aluminium assay in quartz for in situ cosmogenic 26Al analysis at ANSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Toshiyuki; Fink, David; Mifsud, Charles

    2015-10-01

    Accuracy and precision in the measurement of natural aluminium abundances in quartz can affect the reliability of 26Al exposure dating and 26Al/10Be burial dating. At ANSTO, aliquots extracted from the HF solutions of dissolved quartz are treated in our laboratory, whereas ICP-OES analysis is performed at a commercial laboratory. The long-term inter-run reproducibility of our in-house standards show a limiting precision in Al measurements of 3-4% (1σ), which is lower than the claimed precision of Al analysis by ICP-OES. This indicates that unaccounted random errors are incorporated during our aliquot preparation. In this study, we performed several controlled tests to investigate effects of possible inconsistencies and variances during our aliquot preparation procedure. The results indicate that our procedure is robust against any subtle change in the preparation procedure, e.g., fuming temperatures, fuming reagents, and drying conditions. We found that the density of the solutions dispatched for ICP analysis is occasionally variable due to the presence of residual fuming reagents in the solution. A comparison of the results between the calibration curve and standard addition methods show that the former results are consistently lower than the latter by up to ∼14%. Similar offsets have been reported by previous studies. The reason for these discrepancies is mostly likely matrix effect, which is not accounted for by the calibration curve method. Further tests by varying matrix with impurities such as HF, HClO4, H2SO4 and Si identified that Si could cause lower offset in Al measurements; however, our ICP solutions are confirmed to be free from Si and the cause of matrix effect remains to be investigated. Hence, care must be taken for the measurement of Al concentrations in quartz by ICP-OES, either by ensuring that matrix effect is fully accounted for or by routinely employing standard additions when required.

  5. Second hand smoke, age of exposure and lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Asomaning, Kofi; Miller, David P.; Liu, Geoffrey; Wain, John C.; Lynch, Thomas J.; Su, Li; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer for three decades. It is also known that the lung continues to grow from birth to adulthood, when lung growth stops. We hypothesize that after adjusting for active cigarette smoking, if SHS exposure took place during the period of growth i.e. in the earlier part of life (0 to 25 years of age) the risk of lung cancer is greater compared to an exposure occurring after age 25. Method Second hand smoke exposure was self-reported for three different activities (leisure, work and at home) for this study population of 1669 cases and 1263 controls. We created variables that captured location of exposure and timing of first exposure with respect to a study participant's age (0 - 25, >25 years of age). Multiple logistic regressions were used to study the association between SHS exposure and lung cancer, adjusting for age, gender and active smoking variables. Result For study participants that were exposed to SHS at both activities (work and leisure) and compared to one or no activity, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for lung cancer was 1.30(1.08-1.57) when exposure occurred between birth and age 25 and 0.66(0.21-1.57) if exposure occurred after age 25 years. Respective results for nonsmokers were: 1.29 (0.82-2.02) and 0.87 (0.22-3.38), and current and ex smokers combined 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 0.66 (0.15-2.85). Conclusion All individuals exposed to SHS have a higher risk of risk of lung cancer. Furthermore, this study suggests that subjects first exposed before age 25 have a higher lung cancer risk compared to those for whom first exposure occurred after age 25 years. PMID:18191495

  6. Production of 26Al by super-AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siess, L.; Arnould, M.

    2008-10-01

    Context: Super AGB (SAGB) stars have initial masses ranging between 7-11 {M_⊙} and develop efficient hydrogen burning at the base of their convective envelope during their AGB evolution, leading to a substantial production of {}26Alg. Aims: We present the first discussion of the contribution of the SAGB stars to the galactic {}26Alg production, and we estimate the main uncertainties that affect the determination of the {}26Alg yields. Methods: The results of full stellar evolution computations are presented, with special emphasis on the {}26Alg yields from SAGB stars. We also use a postprocessing nucleosynthesis code to quantify the uncertainties associated with the nuclear reaction rates and with the treatment of convection that modifies the thermodynamical conditions at the base of the convective envelope. Results: Hot bottom burning leads to individual SAGB {}26Alg yields that are larger than those from intermediate mass stars, amounting to typical values as high as 5 × 10-5 {M_⊙}. The overall SAGB contribution remains modest, however, not exceeding 0.3 {M_⊙} of the estimated galactic content of 2.8 {M_⊙}. On the other hand, the SAGB 26Al/27Al ratios always exceed 0.01, which is commensurable with the values measured in some SiC grains considered to originate in C-rich AGB stars. However, the isotopic composition of some other elements, particularly nitrogen, is clearly at variance with the observations. We find that the {}26Alg yields are not affected by the pollution induced by the third dredge-ups, but that they strongly depend on the evolution of the temperature at the base of the convective envelope, the determination of which remains highly dependent on the specific convection model used in the stellar computations. Modifications of T_env by ± 10% leads to variations in the {}26Alg yields by a factor of 0.2 to 6. In comparison, the nuclear reaction rate uncertainties have less of an impact, altering the yields by less than a factor of 2.

  7. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized 26Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26Al and 27Al equilibration and incorporate the 26Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  8. 26Al/10Be burial dating of Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hua; Shen, Guanjun; Li, Haixu; Xie, Fei; Granger, Darryl E

    2015-01-01

    The Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China for having provided a rich collection of hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts. Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time. However, more recent paleomagnetic analyses assigned a much older age of ∼500 ka (thousand years). This paper reports the application of 26Al/10Be burial dating as an independent check. Two quartz samples from a lower cultural horizon give a weighted mean age of 0.24 ± 0.05 Ma (million years, 1σ). The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results. On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site's lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL) dating at 160-220 ka.

  9. 26Al/10Be Burial Dating of Xujiayao-Houjiayao Site in Nihewan Basin, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hua; Shen, Guanjun; Li, Haixu; Xie, Fei; Granger, Darryl E.

    2015-01-01

    The Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China for having provided a rich collection of hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts. Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time. However, more recent paleomagnetic analyses assigned a much older age of ∼500 ka (thousand years). This paper reports the application of 26Al/10Be burial dating as an independent check. Two quartz samples from a lower cultural horizon give a weighted mean age of 0.24 ± 0.05 Ma (million years, 1σ). The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results. On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site’s lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL) dating at 160–220 ka. PMID:25706272

  10. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. PMID:25709490

  11. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

  12. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  13. HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF {sup 26}Al AT THE BIRTH OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Yang, Le; Hellebrand, Eric; Gaidos, Eric

    2011-06-01

    It is believed that {sup 26}Al, a short-lived (t{sub 1/2} = 0.73 Ma) and now extinct radionuclide, was uniformly distributed in the nascent solar system (SS) with the initial {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5.2 x 10{sup -5}, suggesting an external, stellar origin rather than local, solar source. However, the stellar source of {sup 26}Al and the manner in which it was injected into the SS remain controversial: the {sup 26}Al could have been produced by an asymptotic giant branch star, a supernova, or a Wolf-Rayet star and injected either into the protosolar molecular cloud, protosolar cloud core, or protoplanetary disk. Corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is predicted to be the first condensate from a cooling gas of solar composition. Here we show that micron-sized corundum condensates from {sup 16}O-rich ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -25 per mille ) gas of solar composition recorded heterogeneous distribution of {sup 26}Al at the birth of the SS: the inferred initial {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio ranges from {approx}6.5x10{sup -5} to <2x10{sup -6}; 52% of corundum grains measured are {sup 26}Al-poor. Abundant {sup 26}Al-poor, {sup 16}O-rich refractory objects include grossite- and hibonite-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CH (high metal abundance and high iron concentration) chondrites, platy hibonite crystals in CM (Mighei-like) chondrites, and CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects CAIs chondrites. Considering the apparently early and short duration (<0.3 Ma) of condensation of refractory {sup 16}O-rich solids in the SS, we infer that {sup 26}Al was injected into the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud and later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk. The apparent lack of correlation between {sup 26}Al abundance and O-isotope composition of corundum grains constrains the stellar source of {sup 26}Al in the SS.

  14. {sup 26}Al IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM: NOT SO UNUSUAL AFTER ALL

    SciTech Connect

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Young, E. D. E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-10-01

    Recently acquired evidence shows that extrasolar asteroids exhibit over a factor of 100 variation in the iron to aluminum abundance ratio. This large range likely is a consequence of igneous differentiation that resulted from heating produced by radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al with an abundance comparable to that in the solar system's protoplanetary disk at birth. If so, the conventional view that our solar system began with an unusually high amount of {sup 26}Al should be discarded.

  15. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Benjamin B; Robinson, Meghan E; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2015-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure-one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan-is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a 'dose-response' relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast-exposed group

  16. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Benjamin B; Robinson, Meghan E; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2015-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure-one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan-is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a 'dose-response' relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast-exposed group

  17. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Benjamin B.; Robinson, Meghan E.; Milberg, William P.; McGlinchey, Regina E.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure—one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan—is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a ‘dose-response’ relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast

  18. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of 26Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prialnik, D.; Bar-Nun, A.; Owen, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    We study the effect of radiogenic heating due to 26Al on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites. Our object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial 26Al abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of approximately 10(6) yr (comparable with the lifetime of 26Al). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10(9) yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. Our main conclusion is that the initial 26Al abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, approximately 7 x 10(-7) by mass). We find, for example, that an initial 26Al mass fraction of approximately 4 x 10(-8) is sufficient for melting almost completely icy spheres with radii of 800 km, typical of the larger icy planetary satellites. We also find that for any given 26Al abundance, there is a narrow range of radii below which only marginal melting occurs and above which most of the ice melts (and refreezes later). Since extensive melting may have important consequences, such as differentiation, gas release, and volcanic activity, the effect of 26Al should be included in future studies of satellite interiors.

  19. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of 26Al.

    PubMed

    Prialnik, D; Bar-Nun, A

    1990-05-20

    We study the effect of radiogenic heating due to 26Al on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites. Our object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial 26Al abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of approximately 10(6) yr (comparable with the lifetime of 26Al). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10(9) yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. Our main conclusion is that the initial 26Al abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, approximately 7 x 10(-7) by mass). We find, for example, that an initial 26Al mass fraction of approximately 4 x 10(-8) is sufficient for melting almost completely icy spheres with radii of 800 km, typical of the larger icy planetary satellites. We also find that for any given 26Al abundance, there is a narrow range of radii below which only marginal melting occurs and above which most of the ice melts (and refreezes later). Since extensive melting may have important consequences, such as differentiation, gas release, and volcanic activity, the effect of 26Al should be included in future studies of satellite interiors.

  20. 26Al production: The Allende meteorite (Chihuahua) stellar nucleosynthesis and solar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Escalona, V.; Andrade, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Canto, C.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; de Lucio, O.; Ortiz, M. E.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E.

    2015-07-01

    In 1969 a meteorite fell near the small town of Allende, state of Chihuahua in the north of Mexico. Its study yielded information that changed the current understanding of the solar model. In particular traces of 26Al were found. Abundances of that isotope had been seen in the universe and were related to regions of active heavy nucleosynthesis. Its presence on the solar system was unexpected. It is now understood that cosmic rays induce nuclear reactions on materials to produce 26Al, on Earth this is well known and it is the basis of many environmental studies, so it is not only the product of some high metalicity star collapse. Taking advantage of the recently reinforced laboratory infrastructure of the Instituto de Física, at UNAM in Mexico City, we proposed to measure the cross section for 26Al production via some of the most likely reactions, from the nuclear physics point of view (highest Q-values). In this paper the study of the 28Si(d,α)26 Al nuclear reaction is shown. A target is prepared by a mixture of silicon and aluminum powders. It is irradiated with a deuteron beam (≈1 µA current) at the MV CN-Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory. The number of projectiles is deduced by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The produced 26Al nuclei are then counted at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory.

  1. {sup 26}Al production: The Allende meteorite (Chihuahua) stellar nucleosynthesis and solar models

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Escalona, V.; Andrade, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Canto, C.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; Lucio, O. de; Ortiz, M. E.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E.

    2015-07-23

    In 1969 a meteorite fell near the small town of Allende, state of Chihuahua in the north of Mexico. Its study yielded information that changed the current understanding of the solar model. In particular traces of {sup 26}Al were found. Abundances of that isotope had been seen in the universe and were related to regions of active heavy nucleosynthesis. Its presence on the solar system was unexpected. It is now understood that cosmic rays induce nuclear reactions on materials to produce {sup 26}Al, on Earth this is well known and it is the basis of many environmental studies, so it is not only the product of some high metalicity star collapse. Taking advantage of the recently reinforced laboratory infrastructure of the Instituto de Física, at UNAM in Mexico City, we proposed to measure the cross section for {sup 26}Al production via some of the most likely reactions, from the nuclear physics point of view (highest Q-values). In this paper the study of the {sup 28}Si(d,α){sup 26} Al nuclear reaction is shown. A target is prepared by a mixture of silicon and aluminum powders. It is irradiated with a deuteron beam (≈1 µA current) at the MV CN-Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory. The number of projectiles is deduced by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The produced {sup 26}Al nuclei are then counted at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory.

  2. Constraints on Exposure Ages of Lunar and Asteroidal Regolith Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P

    2014-01-01

    Mineral grains in lunar and asteroidal regolith samples provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Exposure to the solar wind results in implantation effects that are preserved in the rims of grains (typically the outermost 100 nm), while impact processes result in the accumulation of vapor-deposited elements, impact melts and adhering grains on particle surfaces. These processes are collectively referred to as space weathering. A critical element in the study of these processes is to determine the rate at which these effects accumulate in the grains during their space exposure. For small particulate samples, one can use the density of solar flare particle tracks to infer the length of time the particle was at the regolith surface (i.e., its exposure age). We have developed a new technique that enables more accurate determination of solar flare particle track densities in mineral grains <50 micron in size that utilizes focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. We have applied this technique to lunar soil grains from the Apollo 16 site (soil 64501) and most recently to samples from asteroid 25143 Itokawa returned by the Hayabusa mission. Our preliminary results show that the Hayabusa grains have shorter exposure ages compared to typical lunar soil grains. We will use these techniques to re-examine the track density-exposure age calibration from lunar samples reported by Blanford et al. (1975).

  3. Update on terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Welten, K C; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W

    2000-01-14

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites are one of the few parameters that will help us to understand the meteorite concentration mechanism on blue-ice fields. Traditionally, terrestrial ages were determined on the basis of {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase, which has an uncertainty of about 70 ky. For young meteorites (< 40 ky), the terrestrial age is usually and most accurately determined using {sup 14}C in the stone phase. In recent years two methods have been developed which are independent of shielding effects, the {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method and the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 36}Cl method. These methods have reduced the typical uncertainties in terrestrial ages by a factor of 2, to about 30 ky. The {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method is quite dependent on the exposure age, which is unknown for most Antarctic meteorites. The authors therefore also attempt to use the relation between {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl/{sup 26}Al to derive a terrestrial age less dependent on the exposure age. The authors have measured the concentrations of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase of {approximately} 70 Antarctic meteorites, from more than 10 different ice-fields, including many new ones. They then discuss the trends in terrestrial ages of meteorites from different ice-fields.

  4. Heterogeneous distribution of 26Al at the birth of the solar system: Evidence from refractory grains and inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Makide, K.; Nagashima, K.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Ciesla, F. J.; Yang, L.; Hellebrand, E.; Gaidos, E.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-We review recent results on O- and Mg-isotope compositions of refractory grains (corundum, hibonite) and calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from unequilibrated ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. We show that these refractory objects originated in the presence of nebular gas enriched in 16O to varying degrees relative to the standard mean ocean water value: the Δ17OSMOW value ranges from approximately -16‰ to -35‰, and recorded heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in their formation region: the inferred (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 ranges from approximately 6.5 × 10-5 to <2 × 10-6. There is no correlation between O- and Mg-isotope compositions of the refractory objects: <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor refractory objects have similar O-isotope compositions. We suggest that <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> was injected into the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor collapsing protosolar molecular cloud core, possibly by a wind from a neighboring massive star, and was later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk by radial mixing, possibly at the canonical value of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratio (approximately 5 × 10-5). The <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor refractory grains and inclusions represent different generations of refractory objects, which formed prior to and during the injection and homogenization of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>. Thus, the duration of formation of refractory grains and CAIs cannot be inferred from their <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg systematics, and the canonical (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 does not represent the initial abundance of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the solar system; instead, it may or may not represent the average abundance of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the fully formed disk. The latter depends on the formation time of CAIs with the canonical <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratio relative to the timing of complete delivery of stellar <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> to the solar system, and the degree of its subsequent homogenization in the disk. The injection of material containing <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> resulted in no observable changes in O-isotope composition of the solar system. Instead, the variations in O-isotope compositions between individual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPB.259..625H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPB.259..625H"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in Antarctic ice with the MALT-AMS system at the University of Tokyo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horiuchi, Kazuho; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Aoi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Motoyama, Hideaki</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>We have attempted to determine the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> concentration of Antarctic ice sampled from the vicinity of the Dome Fuji Research Station using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at MALT (MicroAnalysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator) of the University of Tokyo. Because the expected concentration of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in ice is very low, our standard procedure for the AMS measurement was re-examined and refined. The observed <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> concentration ranged between 160 and 210 atoms g-1. The averaged value of the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be ratio from two samples was 1.75 ± 0.19 × 10-3, which agrees well with recently reported values for the meteoric <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be ratio from Antarctic ice and air filter residues. This result implies the possibility of future <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be dating of old Antarctic ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11539739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11539739"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiogenic heating of comets by <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and implications for their time of formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prialnik, D; Bar-Nun, A; Podolak, M</p> <p>1987-08-15</p> <p>The effect of radiogenic heating on the thermal evolution of spherical icy bodies with radii 1 km < R < 100 km was investigated. The radioisotopes considered were <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, 40K, 232Th, 235U, and 238U. Except for the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> abundance, which was varied, the other initial abundances were kept fixed, at values derived from those of chondritic meteorites and corresponding to a gas-to-dust ratio of 1. The initial models were homogeneous and isothermal (To = 10 K) amorphous ice spheres, in a circular orbit at 10(4) AU from the Sun. The main object of this study was to examine the conditions under which the transition temperature from amorphous into cubic ice (Ta = 137 K) would be reached. It was shown that the influence of the short-lived radionuclide <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> dominates the effect of other radioactive species for bodies of radii up to approximately 50 km. Consequently, if we require comets to retain their ice in amorphous form, as suggested by observations, an upper limit of approximately 4 x 10(-9) is obtained for the initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> abundance in comets, a factor of 100 lower than that of the inclusions in the Allende meteorite. A lower limit for the formation time of comets may thus be derived. The possibility of a coexistence of molten cometary cores and extended amorphous ice mantles is ruled out. Larger icy spheres (R > 100 km) reached Ta even in the absence of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, due to the decay of the other radionuclides. As a result, a crystalline core formed whose relative size depended on the composition assumed. Thus the outermost icy satellites in the solar system, which might have been formed of ice in the amorphous state, have probably undergone crystallization and may have exhibited eruptive activity when the gas trapped in the amorphous ice was released (e.g., Miranda).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30Q.512G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30Q.512G"><span id="translatedtitle">36Cl-36Ar <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Chondritic Metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graf, Th.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Marti, K.; Nishiizumi, K.; Ponganis, K. V.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Metal separates were prepared to determine ^36Cl-^36Ar <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for six H4 p.m. falls (with reported bulk <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 4 to 10Ma), for ten H5 a.m. falls (T(sub)e = 4-10 Ma) and for the Acapulco meteorite (T(^36Cl-^36Ar)= 5.7 Ma). This dating method uses production rate ratios P(^36Cl)/P(^36Ar) and is independent of the shielding-sensitive absolute production rates. It is also known that for protons the production rate ratio is rather insensitive to changes in the energy spectrum; the dependence of this ratio for secondary neutrons is at present less understood. First results were already reported [1]. The cosmic-ray-produced ^3He/^38Ar ratios show a bimodal distribution with two clusters at about 15 and about 9 (Fig. 1). About half of the ^3He is produced via ^3H which is known to diffuse in metal at relatively low temperatures. Therefore, Fig. 1 provides evidence for a quasi-continuous loss of ^3H from such metals. If this loss mechanism is due to solar heating, perihelia <1 AU are indicated for these meteorites. Losses are prominent for H5 a.m. falls, but not for H4 p.m. falls. The orbital implications are consistent with those already known from the time-of-fall parameter (p.m. falls / total falls) which was used in the selection of the H4,H5 sample sets [2]. The <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> histograms of both H groups show the well known clusters at about 7 Ma. The width of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> peaks differ, however, and the collisional break-up event can be further constrained. Except for Nassirah, all members of the H4 p.m. group fall into the range 7.0 +/- 0.3 Ma. Bulk rock <span class="hlt">ages</span> (8.2-9.3 Ma) [3] as well as the ^36Cl-^36Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> (8.3 Ma) of Nassirah are higher and may indicate that this meteorite does not belong to the collisional event. We observe a small but systematic difference in calculated <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> by the ^36Cl-^36Ar method, when compared with <span class="hlt">ages</span> obtained by conventional noble gas production rates. This shift (about 10%) does not appear to be dependent on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15817736','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15817736"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span>, puberty, and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to intimate partner violence in adolescence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>This paper links sociological and epidemiologic research on violence and the life course to biosocial perspectives on pubertal maturation to examine risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to intimate partner violence in adolescence. While prior research has established early puberty as a risk factor for delinquent behavior, studies to date have not yet investigated whether early puberty is also linked to intimate partner violence in adolescence. Prior epidemiologic research has found that increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> in adolescence is a risk factor for dating violence, but this work has not yet incorporated the element of pubertal maturation. The present study examines the relative effects of chronological <span class="hlt">age</span> and maturational <span class="hlt">age</span> in a biosocial model predicting risk for intimate partner violence among adolescent females, net of established control variables, using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. These findings indicate that early maturation in females is an additional risk factor for <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to intimate partner violence in adolescence. The importance of disentangling types of <span class="hlt">age</span> effects as raised in the developmental literature and as supported by these findings is discussed in relation to the prevention of youth violence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790042425&hterms=Ice+Age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Ice%2BAge%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790042425&hterms=Ice+Age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Ice%2BAge%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and terrestrial <span class="hlt">ages</span> of four Allan Hills Antarctic meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kirsten, T.; Ries, D.; Fireman, E. L.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Terrestrial <span class="hlt">ages</span> of meteorites are based on the amount of cosmic-ray-produced radioactivity in the sample and the number of observed falls that have similar cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> histories. The cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposures</span> are obtained from the stable noble gas isotopes. Noble gas isotopes are measured by high-sensitivity mass spectrometry. In the present study, the noble gas contents were measured in four Allan Hill meteorites (No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, and No. 8), whose C-14, Al-26, and Mn-53 radioactivities are known. These meteorites are of particular interest because they belong to a large assemblage of distinct meteorites that lie exposed on a small (110 sq km) area of ice near the Allan Hills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...99K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...99K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg chronology and oxygen isotope distributions of multiple melting for a Type C CAI from Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawasaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Chizu; Itoh, Shoichi; Wakaki, Shigeyuki; Ito, Motoo; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Disequilibrium oxygen isotopic distributions of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) correspond to multiple melting events in the solar nebula. <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg systematics may be applicable for <span class="hlt">age</span> differences among such melting events. We have carried out a coordinated study of detailed petrographic observations and in-situ oxygen and magnesium isotope measurements for a Type C CAI, EK1-04-2, from the Allende CV3 meteorite to determine the melting events and their <span class="hlt">ages</span>. The CAI consists mainly of spinel, anorthite, olivine, and pyroxene, and has a core and mantle structure. Petrography of the core suggests that the crystallization sequence of the core minerals is from spinel, anorthite, olivine, and to pyroxene. The mantle has the same mineral assemblage as the core, and shows incomplete melting and solidification textures. Oxygen isotopic compositions of the minerals are distributed along the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line (δ18O = -44‰ to +9‰), which indicates to preserve a chemical disequilibrium status in the CAI. Spinel shows a 16O-rich signature (δ18O ∼ -43‰), while anorthite is 16O-poor (δ18O ∼ +8‰). Olivine and pyroxene in the core have the same oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O ∼ -15‰), which indicates their equilibrium. Olivine and pyroxene in the mantle have variable oxygen isotopic compositions and are slightly depleted in 16O (δ18O = -13‰ to -4‰) compared with the same minerals in the core. The <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg systematics is consistent with the disequilibrium status observed according to the petrography and oxygen isotopes. Spinel is plotted on a line of (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 = (3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-5, anorthite is plotted on a line of (-1 ± 5) × 10-7, and olivine and pyroxene in the core are plotted on a line of (-1 ± 7) × 10-6. Plots of olivine and pyroxene in the mantle are scattered below the isochron of these minerals in the core. This study indicates that the EK1-04-2 Type C CAI underwent multiple heating events after the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826...22K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826...22K"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking the Distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 60Fe during the Early Phases of Star and Disk Evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuffmeier, Michael; Frostholm Mogensen, Troels; Haugbølle, Troels; Bizzarro, Martin; Nordlund, Åke</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The short-lived <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 60Fe radionuclides are synthesized and expelled into the interstellar medium by core-collapse supernova events. The solar system’s first solids, calcium-aluminum refractory inclusions (CAIs), contain evidence for the former presence of the <span class="hlt">26</span> <span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclide defining the canonical <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27 Al ratio of ˜ 5× {10}-5. A different class of objects temporally related to canonical CAIs are CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs), which record a low initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al of 10-6. The contrasting level of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> between these objects is often interpreted as reflecting the admixing of the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclides during the early formative phase of the Sun. We use giant molecular cloud scale adaptive mesh-refinement numerical simulations to trace the abundance of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 60Fe in star-forming gas during the early stages of accretion of individual low-mass protostars. We find that the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al and 60Fe/56Fe ratios of accreting gas within a vicinity of 1000 au of the stars follow the predicted decay curves of the initial abundances at the time of star formation without evidence of spatial or temporal heterogeneities for the first 100 kyr of star formation. Therefore, the observed differences in <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios between FUN and canonical CAIs are likely not caused by admixing of supernova material during the early evolution of the proto-Sun. Selective thermal processing of dust grains is a more viable scenario to account for the heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios at the time of solar system formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130650','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130650"><span id="translatedtitle">ABUNDANCE OF {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> AND {sup 60}Fe IN EVOLVING GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vasileiadis, Aristodimos; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-05-20</p> <p>The nucleosynthesis and ejection of radioactive {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.72 Myr) and {sup 60}Fe, (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 2.5 Myr) into the interstellar medium is dominated by the stellar winds of massive stars and supernova type II explosions. Studies of meteorites and their components indicate that the initial abundances of these short-lived radionuclides in the solar protoplanetary disk were higher than the background levels of the galaxy inferred from {gamma}-ray astronomy and models of the galactic chemical evolution. This observation has been used to argue for a late-stage addition of stellar debris to the solar system's parental molecular cloud or, alternatively, the solar protoplanetary disk, thereby requiring a special scenario for the formation of our solar system. Here, we use supercomputers to model-from first principles-the production, transport, and admixing of freshly synthesized {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 60}Fe in star-forming regions within giant molecular clouds. Under typical star formation conditions, the levels of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in most star-forming regions are comparable to that deduced from meteorites, suggesting that the presence of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system is a generic feature of the chemical evolution of giant molecular clouds. The {sup 60}Fe/{sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> yield ratio of Almost-Equal-To 0.2 calculated from our simulations is consistent with the galactic value of 0.15 {+-} 0.06 inferred from {gamma}-ray astronomy but is significantly higher than most current solar system measurements indicate. We suggest that estimates based on differentiated meteorites and some chondritic components may not be representative of the initial {sup 60}Fe abundance of the bulk solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..245..112R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..245..112R"><span id="translatedtitle">Space erosion and cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of stony meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rubincam, David Parry</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Space erosion from dust impacts may set upper limits on the cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">ages</span> of stony meteorites. A meteoroid orbiting within the asteroid belt is bombarded by both cosmic rays and interplanetary dust particles. Galactic cosmic rays penetrate only the first few meters of the meteoroid; deeper regions are shielded. The dust particle impacts create tiny craters on the meteoroid's surface, eroding it away by abrasion at a particular rate. Hence a particular point inside a meteoroid accumulates cosmic ray products only until that point wears away, limiting CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span>. The results would apply to other regolith-free surfaces in the Solar System as well, so that abrasion may set upper CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> limits which depend on the dusty environment. Calculations based on N. Divine's dust populations and on micrometeoroid cratering indicate that large stony meteoroids in circular ecliptic orbits at 2 AU will record 21Ne CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of ∼176 × 106 y if dust masses are in the range 10-21-10-3 kg. This is in broad agreement with the maximum observed CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of ∼100 × 106 y for stones. High erosion rates in the inner Solar System may limit the CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) to ∼120 × 106 y. A characteristic of erosion is that the neon concentrations tend to rise as the surface of the meteorite is approached, rather than drop off as for meteorites with fixed radii. Pristine samples recovered from space may show the rise. If the abrasion rate for stones were a factor of ∼6 larger than found here, then the <span class="hlt">ages</span> would drop into the 30 × 106 y range, so that abrasion alone might be able to explain many CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span>. However, there is no strong evidence for higher abrasion rates, and in any case would probably not be fast enough to explain the youngest <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 0.1-1 × 106 y. Further, space erosion is much too slow to explain the ∼600 × 106 y <span class="hlt">ages</span> of iron meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NIMPB.123..259K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NIMPB.123..259K"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigations of the human aluminium biokinetics with <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and AMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kislinger, G.; Steinhausen, C.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Winklhofer, C.; Ittel, T.-H.; Nolte, E.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>Continuing the investigations on two healthy volunteers and on two patients with renal failure, the aluminium biokinetics in humans was studied by administering oral and intravenous doses of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> to three further healthy volunteers. Blood samples were drawn at times between 20 min and half a year after administration of the doses. The complete daily urine was collected during the first nine days, spot urine samples were taken at later times when blood samples were obtained. Creatinin renal clearances and haematocrit values were also obtained in the time period of the investigations. The <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations of the samples were measured using the Munich Tandem accelerator. An open compartment model was developed to describe the time dependences of the measured <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations in blood and urine and to establish the human Al biokinetics. The model comprises stomach and duodenum for oral administration, a central compartment consisting of blood plasma and interstitial fluid with transferrin and citrate binding and three peripheral compartments which are needed to describe the time dependence for the long observation period of up to three years. Excretion of Al was mainly described from plasma citrate via the kidneys into the urine and to a lesser extent from the plasma transferrin via the liver into the stool. Time constants between the compartments, fractional intestinal absorption factors and aluminium renal clearances were derived. It was found that the sizes of two peripheral compartments of the patients with renal failure were different to those of the healthy volunteers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150021127','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150021127"><span id="translatedtitle">CM Carbonaceous Chondrite Lithologies and Their Space <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zolensky, Michael; Gregory, Timothy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Velbel, Michael; Imae, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Akira</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The CMs are the most commonly falling C chondrites, and therefore may be a major component of C-class asteroids, the targets of several current and future space missions. Previous work [1] has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct cosmic ray space <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">age</span> groups (0.1 million years, 0.2 million years, 0.6 million years and greater than 2.0 million years), an unusually large number, but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios, or something else entirely. The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity of lithologies which make up CM chondrites, in order to determine whether the different <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> correspond to specific, different CM lithologies, which permit us to constrain the history of the CM parent body(ies). We have already reported significant petrographic differences among CM chondrites [2-4]. We report here our new results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.176..295L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.176..295L"><span id="translatedtitle">Accretion timescales and style of asteroidal differentiation in an <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor protoplanetary disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, K. K.; Schiller, M.; Bizzarro, M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The decay of radioactive <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> to 26Mg (half-life of 730,000 years) is postulated to have been the main energy source promoting asteroidal melting and differentiation in the nascent solar system. High-resolution chronological information provided by the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg decay system is, therefore, intrinsically linked to the thermal evolution of early-formed planetesimals. In this paper, we explore the timing and style of asteroidal differentiation by combining high-precision Mg isotope measurements of meteorites with thermal evolution models for planetesimals. In detail, we report Mg isotope data for a suite of olivine-rich [Al/Mg ∼ 0] achondritic meteorites, as well as a few chondrites. Main Group, pyroxene and the Zinder pallasites as well as the lodranite all record deficits in the mass-independent component of μ26Mg (μ26Mg∗) relative to chondrites and Earth. This isotope signal is expected for the retarded ingrowth of radiogenic 26Mg∗ in olivine-rich residues produced through partial silicate melting during <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> decay and consistent with their marginally heavy Mg isotope composition relative to ordinary chondrites, which may reflect the early extraction of isotopically light partial melts from the source rock. We propose that their parent planetesimals started forming within ∼250,000 years of solar system formation from a hot (>∼500 K) inner protoplanetary disk region characterized by a reduced initial (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 abundance (∼1-2 × 10-5) relative to the (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 value in CAIs of 5.25 × 10-5. This effectively reduced the total heat production and allowed for the preservation of solid residues produced through progressive silicate melting with depth within the planetesimals. These 'non-carbonaceous' planetesimals acquired their mass throughout an extended period (>3 Myr) of continuous accretion, thereby generating onion-shell structures of incompletely differentiated zones, consisting of olivine-rich residues, overlaid by metachondrites and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040062431&hterms=earth+age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040062431&hterms=earth+age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bage"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span>, Ar-Ar <span class="hlt">Ages</span>, and the Origin and History of Eucrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wakefield, Kelli; Bogard, Donald; Garrison, Daniel</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>HED meteorites likely formed at different depths on the large asteroid 4-Vesta, but passed through Vesta-derived, km-sized intermediary bodies (Vestoids), before arriving at Earth. Most eucrites and diogenites (and all howardites) are brecciated, and impact heating disturbed or reset the K-Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> (and some Rb-Sr <span class="hlt">ages</span>) of most eucrites in the time period of approx. 3.4 - 4.1 Gyr ago. Some basaltic eucrites and most cumulate eucrites, however, are not brecciated. We recently showed that the Ar-39 - Ar-40 <span class="hlt">ages</span> for several of these eucrites tightly cluster about a value of 4.48 +/- 0.02 Gyr, and we argue that this time likely represents a single large impact event on Vesta, which ejected these objects from depth and quenched their temperatures. A different parent body has been suggested for cumulate eucrites, although the Ar-Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> argue for a common parent. Similarities in the cosmic-ray (space) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for basaltic eucrites and diogenites also have been used to infer a common parent body for some HEDs. Here we present CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of several cumulate and unbrecciated basaltic (UB) eucrites and compare these with CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of other HEDs. This comparison also has some interesting implications for the relative locations of various HED types on Vesta and/or the Vestoids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22623111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22623111"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthworm metabolomic responses after <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to <span class="hlt">aged</span> PCB contaminated soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J; Zeeb, Barbara A; Rutter, Allison</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>(1)H NMR metabolomics was used to measure earthworm sub-lethal responses to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in historically contaminated (>30 years) soils (91-280 mg/kg Aroclor 1254/1260) after two and 14 days of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Although our previous research detected a distinct earthworm metabolic response to PCBs in freshly spiked soil at lower concentrations (0.5-25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254), the results of this study suggest only weak or non-significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles and soil PCB concentrations. This concurs with the expectation that decades of contaminant <span class="hlt">aging</span> have likely decreased PCB bioavailability and toxicity in the field. Instead of being influenced by soil contaminant concentration, earthworm metabolic profiles were more closely correlated to soil properties such as total soil carbon and soil inorganic carbon. Overall, these results suggested that (1)H NMR metabolomics may be capable of detecting both site specific responses and decreased contaminant bioavailability to earthworms after only two days of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, whereas traditional toxicity tests require much more time (e.g. 14 days for acute toxicity and >50 days for reproduction tests). Therefore, there is significant opportunity to develop earthworm metabolomics as a sensitive tool for rapid assessment of the toxicity associated with contaminated field soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4950964','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4950964"><span id="translatedtitle">Accretion timescales and style of asteroidal differentiation in an <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor protoplanetary disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Larsen, K.K.; Schiller, M.; Bizzarro, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The decay of radioactive <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> to 26Mg (half-life of 730,000 years) is postulated to have been the main energy source promoting asteroidal melting and differentiation in the nascent solar system. High-resolution chronological information provided by the 26Al−26Mg decay system is, therefore, intrinsically linked to the thermal evolution of early-formed planetesimals. In this paper, we explore the timing and style of asteroidal differentiation by combining high-precision Mg isotope measurements of meteorites with thermal evolution models for planetesimals. In detail, we report Mg isotope data for a suite of olivine-rich [Al/Mg ~ 0] achondritic meteorites, as well as a few chondrites. Main Group, pyroxene and the Zinder pallasites as well as the lodranite all record deficits in the mass-independent component of μ26Mg (μ26Mg*) relative to chondrites and Earth. This isotope signal is expected for the retarded ingrowth of radiogenic 26Mg* in olivine-rich residues produced through partial silicate melting during <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> decay and consistent with their marginally heavy Mg isotope composition relative to ordinary chondrites, which may reflect the early extraction of isotopically light partial melts from the source rock. We propose that their parent planetesimals started forming within ~250,000 years of solar system formation from a hot (>~500 K) inner protoplanetary disk region characterized by a reduced initial (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 abundance (~1–2 × 10−5) relative to the (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 value in CAIs of 5.25 × 10−5. This effectively reduced the total heat production and allowed for the preservation of solid residues produced through progressive silicate melting with depth within the planetesimals. These ‘non-carbonaceous’ planetesimals acquired their mass throughout an extended period (>3 Myr) of continuous accretion, thereby generating onion-shell structures of incompletely differentiated zones, consisting of olivine-rich residues, overlaid by metachondrites and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613763H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613763H"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleoglaciation of the Tibetan Plateau based on <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and ELA depression estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heyman, Jakob</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Tibetan Plateau holds a major part of all glaciers outside the polar regions and an ample record of past glaciations. The glacial history of the Tibetan Plateau has attracted significant interest, with a large body of research investigating the extent, timing, and climatic implications of past glaciations. Here I present an extensive compilation of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and equilibrium line altitude (ELA) depression estimates from glacial deposits across the Tibetan Plateau to address the timing and degree of past glaciations. I compiled Be-10 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> data for a total of 1877 samples and recalculated <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> using an updated (lower) global Be-10 production rate. All samples were organized in groups of individual glacial deposits where each deposit represents one glacial event enabling evaluation of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> clustering. For each glacial deposit I estimated the ELA depression based on a simple toe to headwall ratio approach using Google Earth. To discriminate good (well-clustered) from poor (scattered) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> groups the glacial deposits were divided into three groups based on <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> clustering. A major part of the glacial deposits have scattered <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> affected by prior or incomplete <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, complicating <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> interpretations. The well-clustered <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> groups are primarily from mountain ranges along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau with a main peak in <span class="hlt">age</span> between 10 and 30 ka, indicating glacial advances during the global last glacial maximum (LGM). A large number of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> older than 30 ka indicates maximum glaciation predating the LGM, but the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> scatter generally prohibits accurate definition of the glacial chronology. The ELA depression estimates scatter significantly, but a major part is remarkably low. Average ELA depressions of 333 ± 191 m for the LGM and 494 ± 280 m for the pre-LGM <span class="hlt">exposure</span> indicate restricted glacier expansion and limited glacial cooling.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.P32A..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.P32A..01C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the Saturnian System - New Interior Models for the Saturnian satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castillo, J. C.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; McCord, T. B.; Sotin, C.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. B.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Recent study of Iapetus' spin rate evolution highlights the need to form this satellite between between 1.0+/- 0.2 to 1.6+/- 0.4 My after the production of Calcium-Aluminum Inclusions (CAIs). We study the implications of this time constraint on the thermal evolution of other "icy" Saturnian satellites, assuming that they formed at the same time as Iapetus and from the same rocky material in proportion to their densities. Heat provided by <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> decay contributes to partial to full melting and thus differentiation of all Saturn's medium-sized satellites, except Tethys. We also consider the effect of silicate hydration on the internal and geological evolution of these satellites. These results are compared with classical models (that do not include short-lived radiogenic species), in the light of the observational constraints available for these satellites. Including <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> decay in the heat budget of the satellites allows to explain the observation of geological activity in silicate-poor satellites such as Tethys. We note that in Enceladus and Titan conditions might have been such that the boiling point of water was reached and water might have been lost very early in the history of these satellites. This opens the door to some explanation for the variations in density within the Saturnian system. Part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8549488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8549488"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span>-specific carcinogenesis: environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and susceptibility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomas, R D</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> in children may occur through many routes, including diet, air, and the ingestion of various nonfood items such as medications and household materials. This article focuses on dietary <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, but it does highlight the importance of considering other routes of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> when assessing <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in children. It presents many of the findings in the two recent reports, Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children and Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)/National Research Council (NRC). Diet is an important source of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> for children to potential carcinogens. The trace quantities of chemicals present on or in foodstuffs are termed residues. In addition, there are substances that children may be exposed to in air and water that should be considered in a total <span class="hlt">exposure</span> analysis. To minimize <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of the general population to chemical residues in food, water, and air, the U.S. government has instituted regulatory controls. These are intended to limit <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to residues while ensuring an abundant and nutritious food supply, and safe drinking water and air. The legislative framework for these controls was established by the Congress through various local and state laws and such federal laws as the Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and the Clean Air Act (CAA). This article summarizes current approaches to assessing <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and susceptibility in children. PMID:8549488</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015A%26A...578A.113K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015A%26A...578A.113K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> kinematics: superbubbles following the spiral arms?. Constraints from the statistics of star clusters and HI supershells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krause, Martin G. H.; Diehl, Roland; Bagetakos, Yiannis; Brinks, Elias; Burkert, Andreas; Gerhard, Ortwin; Greiner, Jochen; Kretschmer, Karsten; Siegert, Thomas</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Context. High-energy resolution spectroscopy of the 1.8 MeV radioactive decay line of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> with the SPI instrument onboard the INTEGRAL satellite has recently revealed that diffuse <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> has higher velocities than other components of the interstellar medium in the Milky Way. <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> shows Galactic rotation in the same sense as the stars and other gas tracers, but reaches excess velocities of up to 300 km s-1. Aims: We investigate whether this result can be understood in the context of superbubbles, taking into account the statistics of young star clusters and HI supershells as well as the association of young star clusters with spiral arms. Methods: We derived energy output and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> mass of star clusters as a function of the cluster mass by population synthesis from stellar evolutionary tracks of massive stars. Using the limiting cases of weakly and strongly dissipative superbubble expansion, we linked this to the size distribution of HI supershells and assessed the properties of possible <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-carrying superbubbles. Results: <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> is produced by star clusters of all masses above ≈200 M⊙, is roughly equally contributed over a logarithmic star cluster mass scale and strongly linked to the injection of feedback energy. The observed superbubble size distribution cannot be related to the star cluster mass function in a straightforward manner. To avoid the added volume of all superbubbles exceeding the volume of the Milky Way, individual superbubbles have to merge frequently. If any two superbubbles merge, or if <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> is injected off-centre into a larger HI supershell, we expect the hot <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-carrying gas to obtain velocities of the order of the typical sound speed in superbubbles, ≈300 km s-1 before decay. For star formation coordinated by the spiral arm pattern which, inside co-rotation, is overtaken by the faster moving stars and gas, outflows from spiral arm star clusters would preferentially flow into the cavities that are inflated by previous star formation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255183-feasibility-isobaric-suppression-via-post-accelerator-foil-stripping-measurement-feasibility-isobaric-suppression-via-post-accelerator-foil-stripping-measurement','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255183-feasibility-isobaric-suppression-via-post-accelerator-foil-stripping-measurement-feasibility-isobaric-suppression-via-post-accelerator-foil-stripping-measurement"><span id="translatedtitle">The feasibility of isobaric suppression of 26Mg via post-accelerator foil stripping for the measurement of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> [The feasibility of isobaric suppression of 26Mg via post-accelerator foil stripping for the measurement of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Tumey, Scott J.; Brown, Thomas A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Rood, Dylan H.</p> <p>2012-09-13</p> <p>Most accelerator mass spectrometry measurements of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> utilize the Al- ion despite lower source currents compared with AlO- since the stable isobar 26Mg does not form elemental negative ions. A gas-filled magnet allows sufficient suppression of 26Mg thus enabling the use of the more intense <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>O- ion. However, most AMS systems do not include a gas-filled magnet. We therefore explored the feasibility of suppressing 26Mg by using a post-accelerator stripping foil. With this approach, combined with the use of alternative cathode matrices, we were able to suppress 26Mg by a factor of twenty. This suppression was insufficient to enable themore » use of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>O-, however further refinement of our system may permit its use in the future.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611562"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to an enriched environment up to middle <span class="hlt">age</span> allows preservation of spatial memory capabilities in old <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fuchs, Fanny; Cosquer, Brigitte; Penazzi, Lorène; Mathis, Chantal; Kelche, Christian; Majchrzak, Monique; Barbelivien, Alexandra</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>In rats, some cognitive capabilities, like spatial learning and memory, are preserved from <span class="hlt">age</span>-related decline by whole adult life enriched environment (EE) <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. However, to which extent late EE contributes to such maintenance remains to be investigated. Here we assessed the impact of late housing condition (e.g., from the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 18 months) on spatial learning and memory of <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats (24 months) previously exposed or unexposed to EE from young adulthood. The results showed that late EE was not required for spatial memory maintenance in <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats previously housed in EE. In contrast, late EE mitigates spatial memory deficit in <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats previously unexposed to EE. These outcomes suggest that EE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> up to middle <span class="hlt">age</span> provides a "reserve"-like advantage which supports an enduring preservation of spatial capabilities in old <span class="hlt">age</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeCoA..77..415B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeCoA..77..415B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>- 26Mg deficit dating ultramafic meteorites and silicate planetesimal differentiation in the early Solar System?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Joel A.; Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>=+0.0015±0.0020‰, which is identical to terrestrial olivine. Model <span class="hlt">ages</span> from these deficits can be calculated by assuming that <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> was homogeneously distributed in the planetesimal-forming regions of the proto-planetary disc at the same level as calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). The absence of 26Mg deficits in aubrites, means these can only be constrained to have formed relatively late >2.9 Myr after CAI formation. Model <span class="hlt">ages</span> calculated from pallasite olivine deficits would suggest that pallasite olivine crystallised and was diffusively isolated on its parent body 1.24-0.28+0.40 Myr after formation of CAIs. Similarly, ureilites would have experienced silicate partial melting and lowering of their bulk Al/Mg ratios 1.9-0.7+2.2 Myr after CAI formation. The model <span class="hlt">ages</span> for silicate differentiation on the main group pallasite parent body are intermediate between those for metal-silicate fractionation for core formation obtained from magmatic iron meteorites and those for asteroidal silicate magmatism obtained from basaltic meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5052479','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5052479"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondhand Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Enhances Cardiac Fibrosis Effects on the <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Rat Hearts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Jia-Ping; Chang-Lee, Shu Nu; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Chung, Li-Chin; Hwang, Jin-Ming; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Examining <span class="hlt">aging</span> rats exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) engenders changes in left ventricular remodeling due to <span class="hlt">age</span>- or disease-dependent alterations. Methods Rats were placed in whole-body <span class="hlt">exposure</span> chambers and exposed to 10 cigarettes. Filtered air was introduced into the chamber at a low rate. Rats were exposed to SHS for 30 min, twice a day, 5 days per week for 1 month. After 4 weeks SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, rats were sacrificed for morphological study with trichome staining and left ventricular remodeling related protein analysis using western blot. Results Characteristic fibrotic morphology in the left ventricle increased significantly with <span class="hlt">aging</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to SHS. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to SHS elevated TGFβ1/p-Smad2/3/CTGF and MMP2/MMP9 protein expression levels (p < 0.05). No significant differences in FGF-2 and UPA protein expression were noted as a result of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. However, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3 and TIMP-4 protein expression were suppressed by SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. We also observed increased TGFβ1/p-Smad2/3/CTGF (p < 0.01), FGF-2/UPA (p < 0.05) and decreased TIMPs protein expression levels. Corresponding MMP2 and MMP9 upregulation occurred with <span class="hlt">aging</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to SHS. TGFβ1/p-Smad2/3/CTGF and FGF-2/UPA protein expression from SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> were higher than that from <span class="hlt">aging</span>. In contrast, MMP2 and MMP9 were increased in <span class="hlt">aging</span> rats compared with SHS exposed rats (p < 0.05); however, TIMP-1 (p < 0.01), TIMP-2 (p < 0.01) and TIMP-3 (p < 0.05) were decreased. TIMP-4 protein expression levels were decreased compared with SHS exposed rats (p < 0.01). Conclusions <span class="hlt">Aging</span> and SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in rats will produce elevated fibrosis. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to SHS will accelerate <span class="hlt">aging</span> and left ventricular fibrosis. PMID:27713609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C51B0694S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C51B0694S"><span id="translatedtitle">Deciphering the Glacial-Interglacial Landscape History in Greenland Based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo Inversion of Existing 10Be-<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strunk, A.; Knudsen, M. F.; Larsen, N. K.; Egholm, D. L.; Jacobsen, B. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating with cosmogenic nuclides is a dating method under continuous development. It is particularly useful for dating ice-sheet fluctuations in glacial environments, which is essential to increase our understanding of past climate fluctuations and glacial dynamics. Constraining the landscape history in previously glaciated terrains may be difficult, however, due to unknown erosion rates and the presence of inherited nuclides. The potential use of cosmogenic nuclides in landscapes with a complex history of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and erosion is therefore often quite limited. In this study, we investigate the landscape history in eastern and western Greenland by applying a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion approach to the existing 10Be-<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> data from these regions. The new MCMC approach allows us to constrain the most likely landscape history based on comparisons between simulated and measured cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. It is a fundamental assumption of the model approach that the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history at the site/location can be divided into two distinct regimes: i) interglacial periods characterized by zero shielding due to overlying ice and a uniform interglacial erosion rate, and ii) glacial periods characterized by 100 % shielding and a uniform glacial erosion rate. We incorporate the <span class="hlt">exposure</span>/burial history in the model framework by applying a threshold value to the global marine benthic d18O record and include the threshold value as a free model parameter, hereby taking into account global changes in climate. The other free parameters include the glacial and interglacial erosion rates as well as the timing of the Holocene deglaciation. The model essentially simulates numerous different landscape scenarios based on these four parameters and zooms in on the most plausible combination of model parameters. Here, we apply the MCMC-model to the concentrations of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> measured in three previous studies of glacial fluctuations in Greenland</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4081836','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4081836"><span id="translatedtitle">Maternal <span class="hlt">Age</span> at Holocaust <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, with the greatest effects associated with increased <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27255804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27255804"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic assessment of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cosmetic products by French children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 0-3 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Very few <span class="hlt">exposure</span> data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cosmetic products used on children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The <span class="hlt">exposure</span> data obtained in this study for children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French <span class="hlt">exposure</span> values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6145B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6145B"><span id="translatedtitle">Lohawat Howardite: Carbonaceous Chondrite Impactors and Re-Equilibrated Components of Various <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> on Vesta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basu Sarbadhikari, A.; Mahajan, R. R.; Misquita, J.; Sisodia, M. S.; Shyam Prasad, M.; Bhandari, N.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Lohawat is a polymict howardite, a mixture of basalt eucritic, cumulate eucritic and diogenitic clasts, and loosely bound regolith materials with variable cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> due to different duration of residence time and depth in regolith.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6356L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6356L"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic-Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Chondrites Collected in Grove Mountains, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, S. J.; Leya, I.; Wang, S. J.; Smith, T.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We reported the cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 11 chondrites which were collected from Grove Mountains, Antarctica. These meteorites are 1 CR chondrite, 3 H ordinary chondrites, 6 L ordinary chondrites, and 1 ungrouped chondrite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title28-vol2-sec79-14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217124&keyword=stress+AND+affects+AND+brain&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78916706&CFTOKEN=33580511','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217124&keyword=stress+AND+affects+AND+brain&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78916706&CFTOKEN=33580511"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AGE</span>-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The influence of <span class="hlt">aging</span> on susceptibility to environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780062907&hterms=gibbon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgibbon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780062907&hterms=gibbon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgibbon"><span id="translatedtitle">Some correlation of rock <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and regolith dynamics. [in lunar samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horz, F.; Gibbons, R. V.; Gault, D. E.; Hartung, J. B.; Brownlee, D. E.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> information on lunar rocks and regolith turnover rates are correlated. If plotted in a cumulative fashion, the distribution of spallogenic noble-gas <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> is remarkably parallel to the rate at which various fractions of the regolith surface are cratered and/or excavated. It appears that the rate at which lunar rocks are excavated from within the regolith is strongly controlled by the impact environment. Some suggestions for future refinement of regolith dynamics are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2759761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2759761"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as a new window into bilingual reading development*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A.; Petitto, Laura-Ann</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>How does <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2–3, <span class="hlt">ages</span> 7–9) in bilingual Spanish–English schools who were either from Spanish-speaking homes (new to English) or English-speaking homes (new to Spanish), as compared with English-speaking children in monolingual English schools. An early <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> had a positive effect on reading, phonological awareness, and language competence in both languages: early bilinguals (<span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> 0–3 years) outperformed other bilingual groups (<span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> 3–6 years). Remarkably, schooling in two languages afforded children from monolingual English homes an advantage in phoneme awareness skills. Early bilingual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is best for dual language reading development, and it may afford such a powerful positive impact on reading and language development that it may possibly ameliorate the negative effect of low SES on literacy. Further, <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> provides a new tool for evaluating whether a young bilingual has a reading problem versus whether he or she is a typically-developing dual-language learner. PMID:19823598</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19471953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19471953"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneity of variation of relative risk by <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Little, Mark P</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained <span class="hlt">age</span>) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) variations of relative risk by cancer type, and statistically significant variations by cancer type in the adjustments for sex (P = 0.010) and <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (P = 0.013) to the relative risk. There is no statistically significant (P > 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained <span class="hlt">age</span>. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (P = 0.060).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19471953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19471953"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneity of variation of relative risk by <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Little, Mark P</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained <span class="hlt">age</span>) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) variations of relative risk by cancer type, and statistically significant variations by cancer type in the adjustments for sex (P = 0.010) and <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (P = 0.013) to the relative risk. There is no statistically significant (P > 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained <span class="hlt">age</span>. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (P = 0.060). PMID:19471953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25819108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25819108"><span id="translatedtitle">Bisphenol A <span class="hlt">exposure</span> accelerated the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Ling; Wang, Shunchang; Wang, Yun; He, Mei; Liu, Dahai</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental estrogenic disruptor that causes adverse effects. Recent studies have found that chronic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to BPA is associated with a high incidence of several <span class="hlt">age</span>-related diseases. <span class="hlt">Aging</span> is characterized by progressive function decline, which affects quality of life. However, the effects of BPA on the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process are largely unknown. In the present study, by using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we investigated the influence of BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process. The decrease in body length, fecundity, and population size and the increased egg laying defection suggested that BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> resulted in fitness loss and reproduction <span class="hlt">aging</span> in this animal. Lifetime <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of worms to BPA shortened the lifespan in a dose-dependant manner. Moreover, prolonged BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> resulted in <span class="hlt">age</span>-related behavior degeneration and the accumulation of lipofuscin and lipid peroxide products. The expression of mitochondria-specific HSP-6 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related HSP-70 exhibited hormetic decrease. The expression of ER-related HSP-4 decreased significantly while HSP-16.2 showed a dose-dependent increase. The decreased expression of GCS-1 and GST-4 implicated the reduced antioxidant ability under BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and the increase in SOD-3 expression might be caused by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Finally, BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> increased the generation of hydrogen peroxide-related ROS and superoxide anions. Our results suggest that BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> resulted in an accelerated <span class="hlt">aging</span> process in C. elegans mediated by the induction of oxidative stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2255K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2255K"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneous Distribution of ^2^6Al at the Birth of the Solar System: Evidence from Corundum-Bearing Refractory Inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, A. N.; Makide, K.; Nagashima, K.; Huss, G. R.; Hellebrand, E.; Petaev, M. I.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Corundum-bearing CAIs recorded heterogeneous distribution of ^2^6Al at the birth of the solar system. We suggest that ^2^6Al was injected into the protosolar molecular cloud core by a wind from a massive star and was later homogenized through the disk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455520','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455520"><span id="translatedtitle">Inequities in Workplace Secondhand Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Among Nonsmoking Women of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Lawson, Christina C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We characterized workplace secondhand smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among nonsmoking women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during pregnancy. Methods. We included nonsmoking women <span class="hlt">aged</span> 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Results. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Prevalence decreased with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span>, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with chemical <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Conclusions. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, including during pregnancy. PMID:25905837</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1072180.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1072180.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Lexical Knowledge in Instructed Language Learning: The Effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> and <span class="hlt">Exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miralpeix, Inmaculada</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to analyse the possible effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> of Onset (AO), Cognitive Maturity (<span class="hlt">Age</span> at Testing--AT) and Amount of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> (AE) on the productive vocabularies of learners of English as a Foreign Language (FL). Three groups of bilingual Catalan/Spanish students were tested towards the end of Secondary Education. The groups…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=problems+AND+language+AND+Spanish&pg=4&id=EJ804606','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=problems+AND+language+AND+Spanish&pg=4&id=EJ804606"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> of First Bilingual Language <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> as a New Window into Bilingual Reading Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A.; Petitto, Laura-Ann</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>How does <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual language <span class="hlt">exposure</span> affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2-3, <span class="hlt">ages</span> 7-9) in "bilingual" Spanish-English schools who were either from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3509383','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3509383"><span id="translatedtitle">Fetal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to propoxur and abnormal child neurodevelopment at 2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ostrea, Enrique M.; Reyes, Alexis; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Pacifico, Rochelle; Benitez, Bernadette; Ramos, Essie; Bernardo, Rommel C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James J.; Ager, Joel W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Patients and Methods Mothers were prospectively recruited during mid-pregnancy in Bulacan, Philippines where multiple pesticides including propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin are used. To detect prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to these pesticides, maternal hair and blood, infant’s hair, cord blood, and meconium were analyzed for the pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Infants were examined at 2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> with 95.1% follow up rate and their neurodevelopment outcome was assessed by the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale (N=754). Results Meconium analysis was the most sensitive method to detect fetal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to pesticides and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was highest for propoxur (21.3%) and the grouped pyrethroids (2.5% - bioallethrin, transfluthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin). Path analysis modeling was performed to determine the effects of fetal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to propoxur and pyrethroids on the child’s neurodevelopment at 24 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> while controlling for confounders. Only singletons and those with complete data for the path analysis were included (N=696). Using a path analysis model, there was a significant negative (β= −0.14, p<0.001) relationship between prenatal pesticide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to propoxur and motor development at 2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> after controlling for confounders, e.g., infant gender, socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, home stimulation (HOME), postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to propoxur and blood lead level at 2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Conclusion At 2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to propoxur was associated with poorer motor development in children. PMID:22155319</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4984835','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4984835"><span id="translatedtitle">Erosion rate study at the Allchar deposit (Macedonia) based on radioactive and stable cosmogenic nuclides (<span class="hlt">26</span> <span class="hlt">Al</span>, 36 Cl, 3 He, and 21 Ne)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cvetković, V.; Niedermann, S.; Pejović, V.; Amthauer, G.; Boev, B.; Bosch, F.; Aničin, I.; Henning, W. F.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract This paper focuses on constraining the erosion rate in the area of the Allchar Sb‐As‐Tl‐Au deposit (Macedonia). It contains the largest known reserves of lorandite (TlAsS2), which is essential for the LORanditeEXperiment (LOREX), aimed at determining the long‐term solar neutrino flux. Because the erosion history of the Allchar area is crucial for the success of LOREX, we applied terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides including both radioactive (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 36Cl) and stable (3He and 21Ne) nuclides in quartz, dolomite/calcite, sanidine, and diopside. The obtained results suggest that there is accordance in the values obtained by applying <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, 36Cl, and 21Ne for around 85% of the entire sample collection, with resulting erosion rates varying from several tens of m/Ma to ∼165 m/Ma. The samples from four locations (L‐8 CD, L1b/R, L1c/R, and L‐4/ADR) give erosion rates between 300 and 400 m/Ma. Although these localities reveal remarkably higher values, which may be explained by burial events that occurred in part of Allchar, the erosion rate estimates mostly in the range between 50 and 100 m/Ma. This range further enables us to estimate the vertical erosion rate values for the two main ore bodies Crven Dol and Centralni Deo. We also estimate that the lower and upper limits of average paleo‐depths for the ore body Centralni Deo from 4.3 Ma to the present are 250–290 and 750–790 m, respectively, whereas the upper limit of paleo‐depth for the ore body Crven Dol over the same geological <span class="hlt">age</span> is 860 m. The estimated paleo‐depth values allow estimating the relative contributions of 205Pb derived from pp‐neutrino and fast cosmic‐ray muons, respectively, which is an important prerequisite for the LOREX experiment. PMID:27587984</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21199603','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21199603"><span id="translatedtitle">Lowest l=0 proton resonance in {sup 26}Si and implications for nucleosynthesis of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peplowski, P. N.; Baby, L. T.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Diffenderfer, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Rojas, A.; Volya, A.; Dekat, S. E.; Gay, D. L.; Grubor-Urosevic, O.; Kaye, R. A.; Keeley, N.</p> <p>2009-03-15</p> <p>Using a beam of the radioactive isotope {sup 25}Al, produced with the new RESOLUT facility, we measured the direct (d,n) proton-transfer reaction leading to low-lying proton resonances in {sup 26}Si. We observed the lowest l=0 proton resonance, identified with the 3{sup +} state at 5.914-MeV excitation energy. This result eliminates the largest uncertainty in astrophysical reaction rates involved in the nucleosynthesis of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26274415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26274415"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of 23Na(α,p)26Mg at Energies Relevant to <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> Production in Massive Stars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tomlinson, J R; Fallis, J; Laird, A M; Fox, S P; Akers, C; Alcorta, M; Bentley, M A; Christian, G; Davids, B; Davinson, T; Fulton, B R; Galinski, N; Rojas, A; Ruiz, C; de Séréville, N; Shen, M; Shotter, A C</p> <p>2015-07-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> is an important radioisotope in astrophysics that provides evidence of ongoing nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. The 23Na(α, p)26Mg reaction has been identified by a sensitivity study as being one of the most important reactions for the production of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the convective C/Ne burning shell of massive stars. Owing to large uncertainties in previous experimental data, model calculations are used for the reaction rate of 23Na(α, p)26Mg in this sensitivity study. Current experimental data suggest a reaction rate a factor of ∼40 higher than model calculations. However, a new measurement of this reaction cross section has been made in inverse kinematics in the energy range E(c.m.)=1.28-3.15  MeV at TRIUMF, and found to be in reasonable agreement with the model calculation. A new reaction rate is calculated and tight constraints on the uncertainty in the production of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, due to this reaction, are determined. PMID:26274415</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26274415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26274415"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of 23Na(α,p)26Mg at Energies Relevant to <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> Production in Massive Stars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tomlinson, J R; Fallis, J; Laird, A M; Fox, S P; Akers, C; Alcorta, M; Bentley, M A; Christian, G; Davids, B; Davinson, T; Fulton, B R; Galinski, N; Rojas, A; Ruiz, C; de Séréville, N; Shen, M; Shotter, A C</p> <p>2015-07-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> is an important radioisotope in astrophysics that provides evidence of ongoing nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. The 23Na(α, p)26Mg reaction has been identified by a sensitivity study as being one of the most important reactions for the production of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the convective C/Ne burning shell of massive stars. Owing to large uncertainties in previous experimental data, model calculations are used for the reaction rate of 23Na(α, p)26Mg in this sensitivity study. Current experimental data suggest a reaction rate a factor of ∼40 higher than model calculations. However, a new measurement of this reaction cross section has been made in inverse kinematics in the energy range E(c.m.)=1.28-3.15  MeV at TRIUMF, and found to be in reasonable agreement with the model calculation. A new reaction rate is calculated and tight constraints on the uncertainty in the production of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, due to this reaction, are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448880"><span id="translatedtitle">{sup 60}Fe AND {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> IN CHONDRULES FROM UNEQUILIBRATED CHONDRITES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.; Rudraswami, N. G.; Tachibana, S.; Huss, G. R.</p> <p>2010-05-10</p> <p>The presence of about a dozen short-lived nuclides in the early solar system, including {sup 60}Fe and {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>, has been established from isotopic studies of meteorite samples. An accurate estimation of solar system initial abundance of {sup 60}Fe, a distinct product of stellar nucleosynthesis, is important to infer the stellar source of this nuclide. Previous studies in this regard suffered from the lack of exact knowledge of the time of formation of the analyzed meteorite samples. We present here results obtained from the first combined study of {sup 60}Fe and {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> records in early solar system objects to remove this ambiguity. Chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites belonging to low petrologic grades were analyzed for their Fe-Ni and Al-Mg isotope systematics. The Al-Mg isotope data provide the time of formation of the analyzed chondrules relative to the first solar system solids, the Ca-Al-rich inclusions. The inferred initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe values of four chondrules, combined with their time of formation based on Al-Mg isotope data, yielded a weighted mean value of (6.3 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -7} for solar system initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe. This argues for a high-mass supernova as the source of {sup 60}Fe along with {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and several other short-lived nuclides present in the early solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Geomo..27...25B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Geomo..27...25B"><span id="translatedtitle">Mid-Pleistocene cosmogenic minimum-<span class="hlt">age</span> limits for pre-Wisconsinan glacial surfaces in southwestern Minnesota and southern Baffin Island: a multiple nuclide approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bierman, Paul R.; Marsella, Kimberly A.; Patterson, Carrie; Davis, P. Thompson; Caffee, Marc</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>Paired 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> analyses ( n=14) indicate that pre-Wisconsinan, glaciated bedrock surfaces near the northern (Baffin Island) and southern (Minnesota) paleo-margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet have long and complex histories of cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, including significant periods of partial or complete shielding from cosmic rays. Using the ratio, <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/ 10Be, we calculate that striated outcrops of Sioux Quartzite in southwestern Minnesota (southern margin) were last overrun by ice at least 500,000 years ago. Weathered bedrock tors on the once-glaciated uplands of Baffin Island (northern margin) are eroding no faster than 1.1 m Myr -1, the equivalent of at least 450,000 years of surface and near-surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Our data demonstrate that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and erosion rates calculated from single nuclides can underestimate surface stability dramatically because any intermittent burial, and the resultant lowering of nuclide production rates and nuclide abundances, will remain undetected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021806','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021806"><span id="translatedtitle">Mid-Pleistocene cosmogenic minimum-<span class="hlt">age</span> limits for pre-Wisconsinan glacial surfaces in southwestern Minnesota and southern Baffin Island: A multiple nuclide approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bierman, P.R.; Marsella, K.A.; Patterson, Chris; Davis, P.T.; Caffee, M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Paired 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> analyses (n = 14) indicate that pre-Wisconsinan, glaciated bedrock surfaces near the northern (Baffin Island) and southern (Minnesota) paleo-margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet have long and complex histories of cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, including significant periods of partial or complete shielding from cosmic rays. Using the ratio, <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be, we calculate that striated outcrops of Sioux Quartzite in southwestern Minnesota (southern margin) were last overrun by ice at least 500,000 years ago. Weathered bedrock tors on the once-glaciated uplands of Baffin Island (northern margin) are eroding no faster than 1.1 m Myr-1, the equivalent of at least 450,000 years of surface and near-surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Our data demonstrate that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and erosion rates calculated from single nuclides can underestimate surface stability dramatically because any intermittent burial, and the resultant lowering of nuclide production rates and nuclide abundances, will remain undetected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010092167&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Body%2Btemperature%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010092167&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Body%2Btemperature%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> on Temperature Responses During <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Hypergravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fung, C.K.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Wang, T. J.; Yuan, F.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Wade, C. E.; Dalfan, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Rats subjected to centrifugation show a marked decrease in body temperature relating to gravity level. Several studies have indicated, that an initial response to centrifugation is followed by acclimation. To test for differences between young (Y; 2 months) and mature (M; 8 months) rats in their response in temperature, both groups were exposed to hypergravity induced by centrifugation. Thirty-six male rats were divided into four groups according to <span class="hlt">age</span> and G-load (control (1.0G-Y and 1.0G-M), 2.0G-Y or 2.0G-M) and were housed in pairs in standard vivarium cages. During the 7-day period of centrifugation, temperature was measured every five minutes by surgically implanted telemeters. Body mass was measured daily. We found that initial body temperature in 2.0G-M was less than that of 2.0G-Y. Both hypergravity groups (2.0G-Y and 2.0G-M) showed a decrease in temperature at the onset of centrifugation, and the change in temperature (Delta = 0.5 C) remained the same between the groups. Significant differences persisted with 2.0G-Y recovering to control values in four days and 2.0G-M recovering in five days. These results indicate that the mature animals have a similar response as the younger animals, but take longer to acclimate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=age&pg=2&id=EJ1046362','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=age&pg=2&id=EJ1046362"><span id="translatedtitle">The Relationship of Korean Students' <span class="hlt">Age</span> and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present cross-<span class="hlt">age</span> study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of <span class="hlt">age</span> and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' <span class="hlt">age</span> and number of years of English <span class="hlt">exposure</span> interact in relation to English-reading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780958','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780958"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span>-related hearing decline in individuals with and without occupational noise <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hederstierna, Christina; Rosenhall, Ulf</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study was conducted to compare the pattern of <span class="hlt">age</span>-related hearing decline in individuals with and without self-reported previous occupational noise <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. This was a prospective, population-based, longitudinal study of individuals <span class="hlt">aged</span> 70-75 years, from an epidemiological investigation, comprising three <span class="hlt">age</span> cohorts. In total there were 1013 subjects (432 men and 581 women). Participants were tested with pure tone audiometry, and they answered a questionnaire to provide information regarding number of years of occupational noise <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. There were no significant differences in hearing decline, at any frequency, for those <span class="hlt">aged</span> 70-75 years between the noise-exposed (N= 62 men, 22 women) and the nonexposed groups (N = 96 men, 158 women). This study supports the additive model of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and <span class="hlt">age</span>-related hearing loss (ARHL). The concept of different patterns of hearing decline between persons exposed and not exposed to noise could not be verified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17781496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17781496"><span id="translatedtitle">Trapped solar wind noble gases, kr81/kr <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and k/ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> in apollo 11 lunar material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eberhardt, P; Geiss, J; Graf, H; Grögler, N; Krähenbühl, U; Schwaller, H; Schwarzmüller, J; Stettler, A</p> <p>1970-01-30</p> <p>Grain size and etching experiments show that the fine lunar material contains large amounts of trapped solar wind particles. Elemental and isotopic compositions of the noble gases in solar material and in the terrestrial atmosphere are significantly different, except for the Ar(36)/ Ar(38) and the Kr isotope ratios. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of two rocks and of the fine material are between 380 and 510 x 10(6) years. Feldspar concentrates give K/Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 3220 and 3300 x 10(6) years, significantly higher than the unseparated rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=67706&keyword=mcnamara&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80669682&CFTOKEN=57811231','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=67706&keyword=mcnamara&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80669682&CFTOKEN=57811231"><span id="translatedtitle">ENTRY, HALF-LIFE, AND DESFERRIOXAMINE-ACCELERATED CLEARANCE OF BRAIN ALUMINUM AFTER A SINGLE (<span class="hlt">26</span>)<span class="hlt">AL</span> <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span>. (R825357)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590758','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590758"><span id="translatedtitle">Manganese <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Rural School-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Children: The Communities Actively Researching <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Study (Ohio, USA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sucharew, Heidi; Kuhnell, Pierce; Alden, Jody; Barnas, Mary; Wright, Robert O.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Praamsma, Meredith L.; Beidler, Caroline; Dietrich, Kim N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Manganese (Mn) plays a vital role in brain growth and development, yet excessive <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can result in neurotoxicity. Marietta, Ohio, is home to the nation’s longest-operating ferromanganese refinery, and community concern about <span class="hlt">exposure</span> led to the development of the research study. Objectives Our overall goal was to address the community’s primary research question: “Does Mn affect cognitive development of children?” We evaluated the relationships between Mn <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as measured by blood and hair Mn, along with other neurotoxicants including blood lead (Pb) and serum cotinine, and child cognition. Methods Children 7–9 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> were enrolled (n = 404) in the Communities Actively Researching <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Study (CARES) from Marietta and Cambridge, Ohio, and their surrounding communities from October 2008 through March 2013. Blood and hair were analyzed for Mn and Pb, and serum was analyzed for cotinine. We used penalized splines to assess potential nonlinear associations between biological measures and IQ subscale scores, followed by multivariable regression models with categorical variables based on quartiles of the distribution for biological measures with nonlinear associations and continuous variables for biological measures with linear associations. Results Geometric mean blood (n = 327) and hair Mn (n = 370) concentrations were 9.67 ± 1.27 μg/L and 416.51 ± 2.44 ng/g, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, both low and high blood and hair Mn concentrations were associated with lower Full Scale IQ and subscale scores, with significant negative associations between the highest quartile and middle two quartiles of blood Mn (β –3.51; 95% CI: –6.64, –0.38) and hair Mn (β –3.66; 95% CI: –6.9, –0.43%) and Full Scale IQ. Conclusions Both low and high Mn concentrations in blood and hair were negatively associated with child IQ scores. Serum cotinine was negatively associated with child cognitive function. Citation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957520','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957520"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term ambient particle <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and blood DNA methylation <span class="hlt">age</span>: findings from the VA normative <span class="hlt">aging</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C.; Colicino, Elena; Trevisi, Letizia; Kloog, Itai; Just, Allan C.; Shen, Jincheng; Brennan, Kasey; Dereix, Alexandra; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Ambient particles have been shown to exacerbate measures of biological <span class="hlt">aging</span>; yet, no studies have examined their relationships with DNA methylation <span class="hlt">age</span> (DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span>), an epigenome-wide DNA methylation based predictor of chronological <span class="hlt">age</span>. Objective We examined the relationship of DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a measure of total inhalable particle mass, and black carbon (BC), a measure of particles from vehicular traffic. Methods We used validated spatiotemporal models to generate 1-year PM2.5 and BC <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels at the addresses of 589 older men participating in the VA Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study with 1–3 visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1032 observations). Blood DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> was calculated using 353 CpG sites from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated associations of PM2.5 and BC with DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> using linear mixed effects models adjusted for <span class="hlt">age</span>, lifestyle/environmental factors, and <span class="hlt">aging</span>-related diseases. Results After adjusting for covariates, a 1-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.75, P<0.0001) was significantly associated with a 0.52-year increase in DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span>. Adjusted BC models showed similar patterns of association (β = 3.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 5.57, P = 0.02). Only PM2.5 (β = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.84, P = 0.0004) remained significantly associated with DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> in two-particle models. Methylation levels from 20 of the 353 CpGs contributing to DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels in our two-particle models. Several of these CpGs mapped to genes implicated in lung pathologies including LZTFL1, PDLIM5, and ATPAF1. Conclusion Our results support an association of long-termambient particle levels with DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> and suggest that DNAm-<span class="hlt">age</span> is a biomarker of particle-related physiological processes. PMID:27453791</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846617"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> differentially affects hippocampal neurogenesis in the adolescent and <span class="hlt">aged</span> brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R</p> <p>2014-07-25</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in <span class="hlt">aged</span> animals following prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young <span class="hlt">age</span>, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=171545&keyword=adults+AND+older&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78782768&CFTOKEN=95681408','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=171545&keyword=adults+AND+older&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78782768&CFTOKEN=95681408"><span id="translatedtitle">TOXICOGENOMIC ANALYSIS OF TOLUENE <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> AT 3 <span class="hlt">AGES</span> IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A major concern in assessing toxicity to environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> is differential<br><br>susceptibility in subsets of the population. <span class="hlt">Aging</span> adults, who comprise the fastest<br><br>growing segment of the population, may possess a greater sensitivity due to changes in<br><br>metabol...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marijuana&pg=2&id=EJ936802','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marijuana&pg=2&id=EJ936802"><span id="translatedtitle">A Case Series of Marijuana <span class="hlt">Exposures</span> in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana <span class="hlt">exposures</span> that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=2&id=EJ1095764','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=2&id=EJ1095764"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> of English <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226564&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68441196&CFTOKEN=17931970','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226564&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68441196&CFTOKEN=17931970"><span id="translatedtitle">TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN <span class="hlt">AGING</span> BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The influence of <span class="hlt">aging</span> on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute <span class="hlt">exposure</span> by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arrhythmia&pg=3&id=EJ858890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arrhythmia&pg=3&id=EJ858890"><span id="translatedtitle">The Association between Prenatal Cocaine <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Physiological Regulation at 13 Months of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D.; Danielewicz, Susan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (PCE) and autonomic regulation at 13 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Methods: Measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were obtained from 156 (79 exposed, and 77 nonexposed) infants during baseline and during tasks designed to elicit positive (PA) and negative affect (NA).…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596675','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596675"><span id="translatedtitle">Precise measurement of the half-life of the Fermi {beta} decay of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup m}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scott, Rebecca J.; Thompson, Maxwell N.; Rassool, Roger P.; O'Keefe, Graeme J.</p> <p>2011-08-15</p> <p>State-of-the-art signal digitization and analysis techniques have been used to measure the half-life of the Fermi {beta} decay of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup m}. The half-life was determined to be 6347.8 {+-} 2.5 ms. This new datum contributes to the experimental testing of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis and the required unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix: two essential components of the standard model. Detailed discussion of the experimental techniques and data analysis and a thorough investigation of the statistical and systematic uncertainties are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324273"><span id="translatedtitle">In situ radiometric and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> dating of the martian surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farley, K A; Malespin, C; Mahaffy, P; Grotzinger, J P; Vasconcelos, P M; Milliken, R E; Malin, M; Edgett, K S; Pavlov, A A; Hurowitz, J A; Grant, J A; Miller, H B; Arvidson, R; Beegle, L; Calef, F; Conrad, P G; Dietrich, W E; Eigenbrode, J; Gellert, R; Gupta, S; Hamilton, V; Hassler, D M; Lewis, K W; McLennan, S M; Ming, D; Navarro-González, R; Schwenzer, S P; Steele, A; Stolper, E M; Sumner, D Y; Vaniman, D; Vasavada, A; Williford, K; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F</p> <p>2014-01-24</p> <p>We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> of 4.21 ± 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced (3)He, (21)Ne, and (36)Ar yield concordant surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 78 ± 30 million years. Surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005733&hterms=age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005733&hterms=age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dage"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Radiometric and <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Age</span> Dating of the Martian Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farley, K. A.; Malespin, C.; Mahaffy, P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Milliken, R. E.; Malin, M.; Edgett, K. S.; Pavlov, A. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Grant, J. A.; Miller, H. B.; Arvidson, R.; Beegle, L.; Calef, F.; Conrad, P. G.; Dietrich, W. E.; Eigenbrode, J.; Gellert, R.; Gupta, S.; Hamilton, V.; Hassler, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; McLennan, S. M.; Ming, D. M.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Steele, A.; Stolper, E. M.; Sumner, D. Y.; Vaniman, D.; Vasavada, A.; Williford, K.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> of 4.21 +/- 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced 3He, 21Ne, and 36Ar yield concordant surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 78 T 30 million years. Surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324273"><span id="translatedtitle">In situ radiometric and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> dating of the martian surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farley, K A; Malespin, C; Mahaffy, P; Grotzinger, J P; Vasconcelos, P M; Milliken, R E; Malin, M; Edgett, K S; Pavlov, A A; Hurowitz, J A; Grant, J A; Miller, H B; Arvidson, R; Beegle, L; Calef, F; Conrad, P G; Dietrich, W E; Eigenbrode, J; Gellert, R; Gupta, S; Hamilton, V; Hassler, D M; Lewis, K W; McLennan, S M; Ming, D; Navarro-González, R; Schwenzer, S P; Steele, A; Stolper, E M; Sumner, D Y; Vaniman, D; Vasavada, A; Williford, K; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F</p> <p>2014-01-24</p> <p>We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> of 4.21 ± 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced (3)He, (21)Ne, and (36)Ar yield concordant surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 78 ± 30 million years. Surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation. PMID:24324273</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022368','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022368"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and erosional history of an upland planation surface in the US Atlantic Piedmont</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The upland planation surface in the Piedmont of central New Jersey consists of summit flats, as much as 130 km2 in area, that truncate bedding and structure in diabase, basalt, sandstone, mudstone and gneiss. These flats define a low-relief regional surface that corresponds in elevation to residual hills in the adjacent Coastal Plain capped by a fluvial gravel of late Miocene <span class="hlt">age</span>. A Pliocene fluvial sand is inset 50 m below the upland features. These associations suggest a late Miocene or early Pliocene <span class="hlt">age</span> for the surface. To assess <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and erosional history, a 4??4 m core of clayey diabase saprolite on a 3 km2 remnant of the surface was sampled at six depths for atmospherically produced cosmogenic 10Be. The measured inventory, assuming a deposition rate of 1??3 x 106 atoms cm-2 a-1, yields a minimum <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of 227 000 years, or, assuming continuous surface erosion, a constant erosion rate of 10 m Ma-1. Because the sample site lies about 60 m above the aggradation surface of the Pliocene fluvial deposit, and itself supports a pre-Pliocene fluvial gravel lag, this erosion rate is too high. Rather, episodic surface erosion and runoff bypassing probably have produced an inventory deficit. Reasonable estimates of surface erosion (up to 10 m) and bypassing (up to 50 per cent of total precipitation) yield <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of as much as 6??4 Ma. These results indicate that (1) the surface is probably of pre-Pleistocene <span class="hlt">age</span> and has been modified by Pleistocene erosion, and (2) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> based on 10Be inventories are highly sensitive to surface erosion and runoff bypassing. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1741043','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1741043"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ionising radiation and cancer mortality among Hanford workers: follow up through 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wing, S; Richardson, D</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Background: Studies of workers at the plutonium production factory in Hanford, WA have led to conflicting conclusions about the role of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as a modifier of associations between ionising radiation and cancer. Aims: To evaluate the influence of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on radiation risk estimates in an updated follow up of Hanford workers. Methods: A cohort of 26 389 workers hired between 1944 and 1978 was followed through 1994 to ascertain vital status and causes of death. External radiation dose estimates were derived from personal dosimeters. Poisson regression was used to estimate associations between mortality and cumulative external radiation dose at all <span class="hlt">ages</span>, and in specific <span class="hlt">age</span> ranges. Results: A total of 8153 deaths were identified, 2265 of which included cancer as an underlying or contributory cause. Estimates of the excess relative risk per Sievert (ERR/Sv) for cumulative radiation doses at all <span class="hlt">ages</span> combined were negative for all cause and leukaemia and positive for all cancer and lung cancer. Cumulative doses accrued at <span class="hlt">ages</span> below 35, 35–44, and 45–54 showed little association with mortality. For cumulative dose accrued at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 55 and above (10 year lag), the estimated ERR/Sv for all cancers was 3.24 (90% CI: 0.80 to 6.17), primarily due to an association with lung cancer (ERR/Sv: 9.05, 90% CI: 2.96 to 17.92). Conclusions: Associations between radiation and cancer mortality in this cohort are primarily a function of doses at older <span class="hlt">ages</span> and deaths from lung cancer. The association of older <span class="hlt">age</span> radiation <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and cancer mortality is similar to observations from several other occupational studies. PMID:15961623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/352651','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/352651"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying denudation rates on inselbergs in the central Namib Desert using in situ-produced cosmogenic {sup 10}Be and {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cockburn, H.A.P.; Summerfield, M.A.; Seidl, M.A.</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>In situ-produced cosmogenic isotope concentrations in bedrock surfaces provide valuable estimates of site-specific, long-term rates of denudation and provide constraints for numerical landscape-evolution models. Measurements of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be and {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> from graphite inselbergs in the arid to hyperarid central Namib Desert, Namibia, indicate a mean rate of summit lowering of 5.07 {+-} 1.1 m/m.y. over the past {ge} 10{sup 5} yr. The persistence of an arid climate in the region suggests that a similar rate may have prevailed for the past {approximately} 10 m.y. and possibly throughout much of the Cenozoic. Some samples have complex <span class="hlt">exposure</span> histories that can be explained by the mode of inselberg weathering and mass wasting. The denudation rates estimated here are an order of magnitude higher than those reported for inselbergs in a significantly more humid environment in South Australia. This difference may largely be due to active salt weathering in the central Namib as a result of high levels of coastal fog precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.1827S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.1827S"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction Between <span class="hlt">Age</span> and <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to 56Fe Particles on Behavior and Neurochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.</p> <p></p> <p>Previous research has shown that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles and protons which will be encountered on long-term space missions can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks This outcome has implications for an astronaut s ability to successfully complete requirements associated with these missions It has also been found that irradiation can lead to increases in oxidative stress similar to that seen in the <span class="hlt">aging</span> brain Given that astronauts are often middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> or older it is important to determine if their <span class="hlt">age</span> puts them at higher risk for the potentially hazardous effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles Therefore we exposed young and old rats to either 1 or 2Gy of 56 Fe irradiation and evaluated performance in a spatial learning and memory task in addition to examining levels of dopamine DA release from superfused striatal slices Results indicated that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 56 Fe particles can produce alterations in behavior and signaling and that these alterations may be more apparent in older organisms which suggests that the <span class="hlt">aging</span> brain may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of irradiation on performance Therefore <span class="hlt">age</span> may be a factor for consideration in planning long-term missions into space Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39..987C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39..987C"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction between <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 56Fe particles on behavior and neurochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carey, Amanda N.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Rabin, Bernard M.; Joseph, James A.</p> <p></p> <p>Previous research has shown that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles, which will be encountered on long-term space missions, can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks. This outcome has implications for an astronaut’s ability to successfully complete requirements associated with these missions. It has also been found that irradiation can lead to increases in oxidative stress, similar to that seen in the <span class="hlt">aging</span> brain. Given that astronauts are often middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> or older it is important to determine if their <span class="hlt">age</span> puts them at higher risk for the potentially hazardous effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles. Therefore, we exposed young and old rats to either 1 or 2 Gy of 56Fe irradiation and evaluated performance in a spatial learning and memory task, in addition to examining levels of dopamine (DA) release from superfused striatal slices. Results indicated that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 56Fe particles can produce alterations in behavior and neuronal signaling and that these alterations may be more apparent in older organisms, a finding which suggests that the <span class="hlt">aging</span> brain may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of irradiation on performance. Therefore, <span class="hlt">age</span> may be a factor for consideration in planning long-term missions into space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1949051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1949051"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on lead-induced testicular toxicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sokol, R Z; Berman, N</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The present study was designed to assess the significance of <span class="hlt">age</span> of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the expression of lead toxicity on the male gonad. Male Wistar rats, <span class="hlt">age</span> 42 days, 52 days and 70 days were treated with lead acetate in their water for 30 days prior to sacrifice. The lead treated groups in all cases had blood lead values significantly greater than control animals. Blood lead levels in control animal groups were less than 7 micrograms/dl. Serum testosterone and sperm concentration and production rate were significantly suppressed in those animals that were exposed to lead acetate starting at <span class="hlt">age</span> 52 days and 70 days, but not 42 days. These data indicate that prepubertal rats may be less sensitive to the toxic effects of lead than are rats whose <span class="hlt">exposure</span> begins after puberty has been initiated. PMID:1949051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8354579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8354579"><span id="translatedtitle">Elbow joint disorders in relation to vibration <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span> in stone quarry workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakakibara, H; Suzuki, H; Momoi, Y; Yamada, S</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Elbow joint disorders were studied in relation to vibration <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span> in 74 male stone quarry workers who operated mainly chipping hammers and sometimes rock drills. They were examined for range of active motion in elbow extension and flexion, and by means of radiographs of the elbow joint. Effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> and vibratory tool operation on the elbow joint were statistically estimated using multiple regression analysis. In the analysis of all subjects, including those <span class="hlt">aged</span> over 60 years, <span class="hlt">age</span> was significantly related to the range of motion in extension and to radiographic changes in both elbows, and the duration of vibratory tool operation was associated with the range of right elbow flexion. Among subjects under the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 60 years, duration of vibratory tool operation showed a significant dose-effect relationship to the range of flexion and radiographic changes in the right elbow, but there was no significant relationship with <span class="hlt">age</span>. The present results suggest that the operation of chipping hammers and rock drills contributes to elbow joint disorders or osteoarthrosis, even when the effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> is taken into account. Besides vibration <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, it may be necessary to consider various loads on the elbow joint such as firmly grasping and pressing the tool against stones with the arm bent at about 90 degrees, and carrying stones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27481695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27481695"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aging</span>, motor function, and sensitivity to calcium channel blockers: An investigation using chronic methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Andrew Nathanael; Cummings, Craig; Hoffman, Daniel; Pope, Derek; Arnold, Megan; Newland, M Christopher</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p>Methylmercury (MeHg) neurotoxicity is thought to be mediated, in part, by dysregulation of calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis, a mechanism that may also slowly and progressively degrade neuronal function during normal <span class="hlt">aging</span>. Longitudinal studies of MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> provide a powerful approach to studying neural and behavioral mechanisms by which both MeHg toxicity and <span class="hlt">aging</span> affect motor function. Wheel-running and rotarod performance were assessed in two <span class="hlt">age</span> groups of BALB/c mice chronically exposed to 0 or 1.2mg/kg/day MeHg and 0 or 20mg/kg/day nimodipine, a 1,4-dihyrdopyridine L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), for approximately 8.5 months. Adults began <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on postnatal day (PND) 72 and retired breeders on PND 296. A log-survivor bout analysis partitioned wheel-running into bouts that identified motor (within-bout rates) and motivational (bout-initiation rates) influences. Retired breeders ran farther, because of a higher bout-initiation rates, but performed more poorly on the rotarod than younger adults, a difference unaffected by nimodipine. MeHg produced relatively <span class="hlt">age</span>-independent deficits in wheel-running and rotarod performance, whereas nimodipine afforded greater protection to adult mice than to retired breeders. Rotarod performance and within-bout response rate were more sensitive to and more reliable predictors of MeHg toxicity than bout-initiation rate, which was least affected by MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Thus the motivation to run was unimpaired as the ability to do so declined. While chronic MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> produced functionally similar behavior deficits between <span class="hlt">age</span> groups, the <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent neuroprotection by nimodipine supports the notion that underlying neurobiological systems mediated by Ca(2+) signaling, are differentially affected in older adults. PMID:27481695</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..119R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..119R"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to heavy particles on a behavioral measure of anxiety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carrihill-Knoll, K. L.; Carey, A.; Foster, B. C.</p> <p></p> <p>On forthcoming exploratory class missions astronauts will be expected to function in novel and possibly dangerous environments This requirement may produce anticipatory fear or anxiety Previous research has shown that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles such as those experienced on missions beyond the protection provided by the magnetic shield of the earth can affect the performance of the organism on a variety of tasks In addition research has shown that there is an interaction between <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to heavy particles on a variety of behavioral tasks such that older organisms are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of irradiation Because there are changes in exploration-induced anxiety as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> it is possible that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles will also affect a middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> astronaut s ability to respond appropriately in anxiety producing situations The present experiment utilized the elevated plus-maze to evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particle radiation on anxiety Fischer-344 rats 2 7 12 and 16 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> at the time of irradiation were exposed to 56 Fe particles 1 GeV n 0 25-2 00 Gy in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory Control rats at each <span class="hlt">age</span> were not irradiated At the time of testing the rats were 3- 11- 13- and 20-months old respectively Anxiety was studied using an elevated plus-maze The maze is composed of four arms in the shape of a sign placed 90 cm above the floor Two of the arms are enclosed and two of the arms are open The amount of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2864932','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2864932"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Child IQ at <span class="hlt">Age</span> 5 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Perera, Frederica P.; Li, Zhigang; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Wang, Shuang; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and child intelligence. METHODS Children of nonsmoking black or Dominican-American women residing in New York City were monitored from in utero to 5 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, with determination of prenatal PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> through personal air monitoring for the mothers during pregnancy. At 5 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, intelligence was assessed for 249 children by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate and to test the associations between prenatal PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and IQ. RESULTS After adjustment for maternal intelligence, quality of the home caretaking environment, environmental tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and other potentially confounding factors, high PAH levels (above the median of 2.26 ng/m3) were inversely associated with full-scale IQ (P = .007) and verbal IQ (P = .003) scores. Children in the high-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> group had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively, than those of less-exposed children (≤2.26 ng/m3). The associations between logarithmically transformed, continuous, PAH levels and these IQ measures also were significant (full-scale IQ: β = −3.00; P = .009; verbal IQ: β = −3.53; P = .002). CONCLUSION These results provide evidence that environmental PAHs at levels encountered in New York City air can affect children’s IQ adversely. PMID:19620194</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007548&hterms=Noble+gases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DNoble%2Bgases','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007548&hterms=Noble+gases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DNoble%2Bgases"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersion of the ratios of cosmogenic isotopes of noble gases in chondrites of different cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Alexeev, V. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The dispersion of ratios of (He-3/Ne-21)c and (Ne-22/Ne-21)c depending on the cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of meteorites is analyzed. The dispersion is increased as <span class="hlt">age</span> decreases. This effect may be stipulated by presence of a more significant portion of meteorites of small preatmospheric sizes among meteorites of small radiation <span class="hlt">ages</span> in comparison to meteorites of higher <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=19697','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=19697"><span id="translatedtitle">Phosphatidylserine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and red cell viability in red cell <span class="hlt">aging</span> and in hemolytic anemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boas, Franz Edward; Forman, Linda; Beutler, Ernest</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Phosphatidylserine (PS) normally localizes to the inner leaflet of cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cells, signaling macrophages to ingest them. Along similar lines, it seemed possible that the removal of red cells from circulation because of normal <span class="hlt">aging</span> or in hemolytic anemias might be triggered by PS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. To investigate the role of PS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in normal red cell <span class="hlt">aging</span>, we used N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin to tag rabbit red cells in vivo, then used phycoerythrin-streptavidin to label the biotinylated cells, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to detect the exposed PS. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells drawn at 10-day intervals up to 70 days after biotinylation indicated that older, biotinylated cells expose more PS. Furthermore, our data match a simple model of red cell senescence that assumes both an <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent destruction of senescent red cells preceded by several hours of PS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and a random destruction of red cells without PS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. By using this model, we demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of PS parallels the rate at which biotinylated red cells are removed from circulation. On the other hand, using an annexin V-FITC label and flow cytometry demonstrates that exposed PS does not cause the reduced red cell life span of patients with hemolytic anemia, with the possible exception of those with unstable hemoglobins or sickle cell anemia. Thus, in some cases PS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the cell surface may signal the removal of red cells from circulation, but in other cases some other signal must trigger the sequestration of cells. PMID:9501218</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16407086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16407086"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of <span class="hlt">exposures</span> at school among children <span class="hlt">age</span> 6-19 years reported to Texas poison centers, 1998-2002.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Forrester, Mathias B</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Although children and adolescents spend a large amount of time in school, there is little information on the factors involved in school <span class="hlt">exposures</span> that are reported to poison centers. This study used data involving <span class="hlt">exposures</span> among children <span class="hlt">age</span> 6-19 yr reported to 6 Texas poison centers during 1998-2002. The distribution of school and nonschool <span class="hlt">exposures</span> was determined for various demographic and other factors, and comparisons were made between the two types of <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. The lowest proportion of reported school <span class="hlt">exposures</span> occurred in June-August and the next lowest proportion occurred in December-January; nonschool <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were more constant throughout the year. Males accounted for 58% of school <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and 49% of nonschool <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. The <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was unintentional in 74% of school and 67% of nonschool <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. Ingestion was the most frequently reported <span class="hlt">exposure</span> route for school (64%) and nonschool (76%) <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. Among those cases with known medical outcome, the most frequently reported medical outcome involved minor effects for both school <span class="hlt">exposures</span> (58%) and nonschool <span class="hlt">exposures</span> (46%). Nonpharmaceuticals were involved in 75% of school <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and 48% of nonschool <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. The most frequently reported substances involved in school <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were arts, crafts, and office supplies (18%), while the most frequently reported substances involved in nonschool <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were analgesics (17%). This information may allow school administrators and health care providers to implement prevention strategies. PMID:16407086</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2225950','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2225950"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ageing</span> and the Regulation of Cell Activities during <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Cold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Finch, Caleb E.; Foster, Jeffrey R.; Mirsky, Alfred E.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>The inability to maintain body temperature and a selective pattern of changes in the regulation of cell activities were revealed by briefly exposing <span class="hlt">ageing</span> C57B1/6J male mice to cold (10°C). The induction of liver tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) during <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cold (a gene-dependent process) was markedly delayed in senescent mice (26 months old) as compared with younger mice (3–16 months old); after the delay, the rate of increase of TAT was similar to that prevailing in younger mice. Direct challenge of the liver with injections of corticosterone or insulin elicited the induction of TAT on an identical time course in young and senescent mice. These experiments provide an example of an <span class="hlt">age</span> change in a gene-dependent cell process (the delayed induction of TAT in senescent mice during <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cold) which is not due to a change in the potential of the genome for responding when exogenous stimulae are supplied (injection of hormones). In contrast to the <span class="hlt">age</span>-related change in liver cell activities, no significant changes were found in the secretion of corticosterone during <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cold. Although the seat of these selective <span class="hlt">age</span>-related changes in the regulation of cell activities remains unclear, it is argued that generalized damage to the genome of cells throughout the body is not involved. The results of this and other studies showing the selective effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> on cell activities are considered in terms of the concept that many cellular <span class="hlt">age</span> changes represent the response of cells to primary <span class="hlt">age</span>-related changes in humoral factors in the internal environment of the body. PMID:4391050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4371403','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4371403"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to football and later-life cognitive impairment in former NFL players</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stamm, Julie M.; Bourlas, Alexandra P.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Martin, Brett M.; McClean, Michael D.; Tripodis, Yorghos</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To determine the relationship between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to repeated head impacts through tackle football prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 12, during a key period of brain development, and later-life executive function, memory, and estimated verbal IQ. Methods: Forty-two former National Football League (NFL) players <span class="hlt">ages</span> 40–69 from the Diagnosing and Evaluating Traumatic Encephalopathy using Clinical Tests (DETECT) study were matched by <span class="hlt">age</span> and divided into 2 groups based on their <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (AFE) to tackle football: AFE <12 and AFE ≥12. Participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List Learning test (NAB-LL), and Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4) Reading subtest as part of a larger neuropsychological testing battery. Results: Former NFL players in the AFE <12 group performed significantly worse than the AFE ≥12 group on all measures of the WCST, NAB-LL, and WRAT-4 Reading tests after controlling for total number of years of football played and <span class="hlt">age</span> at the time of evaluation, indicating executive dysfunction, memory impairment, and lower estimated verbal IQ. Conclusions: There is an association between participation in tackle football prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 and greater later-life cognitive impairment measured using objective neuropsychological tests. These findings suggest that incurring repeated head impacts during a critical neurodevelopmental period may increase the risk of later-life cognitive impairment. If replicated with larger samples and longitudinal designs, these findings may have implications for safety recommendations for youth sports. PMID:25632088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5211193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5211193"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating dose rates to organs as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> following internal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Cristy, M.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Williams, L.R.</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>The AGEDOS methodology allows estimates of dose rates, as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span>, to radiosensitive organs and tissues in the human body at arbitrary times during or after internal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to radioactive material. Presently there are few, if any, radionuclides for which sufficient metabolic information is available to allow full use of all features of the methodology. The intention has been to construct the methodology so that optimal information can be gained from a mixture of the limited amount of <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent, nuclide-specific data and the generally plentiful <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent physiological data now available. Moreover, an effort has been made to design the methodology so that constantly accumulating metabolic information can be incorporated with minimal alterations in the AGEDOS computer code. Some preliminary analyses performed by the authors, using the AGEDOS code in conjunction with <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent risk factors developed from the A-bomb survivor data and other studies, has indicated that the doses and subsequent risks of eventually experiencing radiogenic cancers may vary substantially with <span class="hlt">age</span> for some <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenarios and may be relatively invariant with <span class="hlt">age</span> for other scenarios. We believe that the AGEDOS methodology provides a convenient and efficient means for performing the internal dosimetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750061688&hterms=babies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dbabies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750061688&hterms=babies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dbabies"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of features and events at the Apollo landing sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arvidson, R.; Crozaz, G.; Drozd, R. J.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Morgan, C. J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of lunar samples have been used to date surface features related to impact cratering and downslope movement of material. Only when multiple samples related to a feature have the same rare-gas <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> or when a single sample has the same Kr-81 -Kr and track-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> can a feature be considered as reliably dated. Based on these criteria, there are only five well-dated lunar features: Cone Crater (Apollo 14), 26 m.y,; North Ray Crater (Apollo 16), 50 m.y.; South Ray Crater (Apollo 16), 2 m.y.; the emplacement of the Station 6 boulders (Apollo 17), 22 m.y.; and the emplacement of the Station 7 boulder (Apollo 17), 28 m.y. Other features are tentatively dated or have limits set on their <span class="hlt">ages</span>: Bench Crater (Apollo 12), upper limit of 99 m.y.; Baby Ray Crater (Apollo 16), upper limit of 2 m.y.; Shorty Crater (Apollo 17), approximately 30 m.y.; Camelot Crater (Apollo 17) upper limit of 140 m.y.; the emplacement of the Station 2 boulder 1 (Apollo 17), 45 to 55 m.y.; and the slide which generated the light mantle (Apollo 17), lower limit of 50 m.y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1522058','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1522058"><span id="translatedtitle">Aggression at <span class="hlt">Age</span> 5 as a Function of Prenatal <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Cocaine, Gender, and Environmental Risk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bendersky, Margaret; Bennett, David; Lewis, Michael</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Objective To examine childhood aggression at <span class="hlt">age</span> 5 in a multiple risk model that includes cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, environmental risk, and gender as predictors. Methods Aggression was assessed in 206 children by using multiple methods including teacher report, parent report, child’s response to hypothetical provocations, and child’s observed behavior. Also examined was a composite score that reflected high aggression across contexts. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that a significant amount of variance in each of the aggression measures and the composite was explained by the predictors. The variables that were independently related differed depending on the outcome. Cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, gender, and environmental risk were all related to the composite aggression score. Conclusions Cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, being male, and a high-risk environment were all predictive of aggressive behavior at 5 years. It is this group of exposed boys at high environmental risk that is most likely to show continued aggression over time. PMID:15827351</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123519"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of subclinical prion disease in <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice following <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Karen L; Mabbott, Neil A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The occurrence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) disease in humans was almost certainly the result of consumption of food contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions. Despite probable widespread <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of the UK population to BSE-contaminated food in the 1980s, vCJD has been identified predominantly in young individuals, and there have been fewer cases of clinical disease than anticipated. The reasons for this are uncertain. Following peripheral <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, many prions replicate within the lymphoid tissues before infecting the central nervous system. We have shown that the effects of host <span class="hlt">age</span> on the microarchitecture of the spleen significantly impair susceptibility to mouse-adapted prions after peripheral <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The transmission of prions between different mammalian species is considered to be limited by the 'species barrier', which is dependent on several factors, including an intact immune system. Thus, cross-species prion transmission may be much less efficient in <span class="hlt">aged</span> individuals. To test this hypothesis, we compared prion pathogenesis in groups of young (6-8 weeks old) and <span class="hlt">aged</span> (600 days old) mice injected with primary BSE brain homogenate. We showed that prion pathogenesis was impaired dramatically in <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice when compared with young animals. Whereas most young mice succumbed to clinical prion disease, all <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice failed to develop clinical disease during their lifespans. However, the demonstration that prion accumulation was detected in the lymphoid tissues of some <span class="hlt">aged</span> mice after injection with primary BSE brain homogenate, in the absence of clinical signs of prion disease, has important implications for human health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542102"><span id="translatedtitle">A meta-analysis provides evidence that prenatal smoking <span class="hlt">exposure</span> decreases <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yermachenko, Anna; Dvornyk, Volodymyr</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Since studies of association between prenatal tobacco <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche have reported inconsistent results so far, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine this association. In total 36 relevant articles (1995-2014) were identified, 17 of which satisfied the inclusion criteria and were used in the analysis. Nearly one month decrease (-0.092 [95%CI:-0.160, -0.024] year) in <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche was found in women who were exposed to tobacco in utero. The meta-regression analysis showed that average year of birth in the cohorts might significantly influence association between maternal smoking and daughter's <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche. Based on results obtained from 5 studies where <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche was treated as a categorical variable, maternal smoking status during pregnancy increased a risk for daughters to have menarche earlier than at 11 years old by 15%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17137417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17137417"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> differences in how consumers behave following <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to DTC advertising.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>DeLorme, Denise E; Huh, Jisu; Reid, Leonard N</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This study was conducted to provide additional evidence on how consumers behave following direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and to determine if there are differences in ad-prompted acts (drug inquiry and drug requests) between different <span class="hlt">age</span> groups (i.e., older, mature, and younger adults). The results suggest that younger, mature, and older consumers are all moved to act by DTC drug ads, but that each <span class="hlt">age</span> group behaves in different ways. Somewhat surprisingly, <span class="hlt">age</span> was not predictive of ad-prompted behavior. DTC advertising was no more effective at moving older consumers to behave than their younger counterparts. These results suggest that <span class="hlt">age</span> does not matter that much when it comes to the "moving power" of prescription drug advertising, even though research indicates that older consumers are more vulnerable to the persuasive effects of communication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=L&pg=7&id=EJ1023331','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=L&pg=7&id=EJ1023331"><span id="translatedtitle">Wh-Questions in Child L2 French: Derivational Complexity and Its Interactions with L1 Properties, Length of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, <span class="hlt">Age</span> of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, and the Input</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Prévost, Philippe; Strik, Nelleke; Tuller, Laurie</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates how derivational complexity interacts with first language (L1) properties, second language (L2) input, <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the target language, and length of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in child L2 acquisition. We compared elicited production of "wh"-questions in French in two groups of 15 participants each, one with L1 English…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3941005','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3941005"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of prenatal cocaine/polydrug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on substance use by <span class="hlt">age</span> 15</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Minnes, Sonia; Singer, Lynn; Min, Meeyoung O.; Wu, Miaoping; Lang, Adelaide; Yoon, Susan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Examined effects of prenatal cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (PCE) on tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine use by <span class="hlt">age</span> 15. Methods Adolescent (n = 358; 183 PCE, 175 non-prenatally cocaine exposed; NCE) drug use was assessed using urine, hair, and/or blood spot samples and self-report (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System; YRBSS) at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 12 and 15. Logistic regression assessed effects of PCE on drug use controlling for other drug <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, environment and blood lead levels (BLL). Results Adjusted percentages of drug use (PCE vs. NCE) were: tobacco 35% vs. 26% (p < .04), marijuana 33% vs. 23% (p < .04), alcohol 40% vs. 35% (p < .01), and any drugs 59% vs. 50% (p < .005). PCE adolescents were twice as likely to use tobacco (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.05–3.90, p < .04), 2.2 times more likely to use alcohol (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.21–3.87, p < .01) and 1.8 times more likely to use marijuana (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.02–3.22, p < .04) than NCE adolescents. A race-by-cocaine-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> interaction (p < .01) indicated PCE non-African American adolescents had greater probability of tobacco use (65%) than NCE non-African American youth (21%). PCE was associated with any drug use (OR = 2.16, CI = 1.26–3.69, p < .005), while higher BLL predicted alcohol use (p < .001). Violence <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was a predictor of tobacco (p < .002), marijuana (p < .0007) and any drug (p < .04). Conclusions PCE and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to violence increased the likelihood of tobacco, marijuana or any drug use by <span class="hlt">age</span> 15, while PCE and higher early BLL predicted alcohol use. Prevention efforts should target high risk groups prior to substance use initiation. PMID:24176200</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14698926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14698926"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship of serum TCDD concentrations and <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of female residents of Seveso, Italy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo; Warner, Marcella; Needham, Larry; Patterson, Donald G; Samuels, Steven; Turner, Wayman; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Brambilla, Paolo</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In 1976, a chemical plant explosion near Seveso, Italy, resulted in the highest known <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in residential populations. In 1996, we initiated the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a historical cohort study of females who were 40 years old at the time of explosion and residents of the most heavily contaminated areas, zones A and B. Serum samples collected near the time of the explosion were analyzed for TCDD. We also analyzed pooled serum samples collected in 1976 from females who resided in zone non-ABR, the "unexposed" zone, to assess concurrent background <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to other dioxins, furans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The median lipid-adjusted TCDD level for residents of zones A and B combined was 56 ppt (range = 2.5-56,000 ppt). Zone A residents had 5-fold higher TCDD levels (n = 67, median = 272 ppt) than did zone B residents (n = 814, median = 47 ppt). The youngest children had the highest TCDD levels, which decreased with <span class="hlt">age</span> at explosion until approximately 13 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> and were constant thereafter. Therefore, children living in zones A and B received a disproportionately higher <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to TCDD as a result of the explosion. Zone of residence and <span class="hlt">age</span> were the strongest predictors of TCDD level. Chloracne, nearby animal mortality, location (outdoors vs. indoors) at the time of explosion, and consumption of homegrown food were also related to serum TCDD levels. The serum pools from zone non-ABR residents had an average TCDD concentration of 20.2 ppt, and average total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration of 100.4 ppt. Therefore, background <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to dioxins, furans, and PCBs unrelated to the explosion may have been substantial. As a consequence, previous SWHS studies that considered only TCDD <span class="hlt">exposure</span> may have underestimated health effects due to total TEQ concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730035001&hterms=third+age&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dthird%2Bage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730035001&hterms=third+age&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dthird%2Bage"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and neutron capture record in lunar samples from Fra Mauro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Apollo 14 rocks and rock fragments obtained by the Kr81-Kr83 method range from 27 to 700 m.y. Rock 14321, collected near the Cone crater rim, is one of the many approximately 27 m.y. old ejecta which were reported at the Third Lunar Science Conference. All the other rocks have considerably higher <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Isotopic anomalies from neutron capture in gadolinium, bromine, and barium are used to obtain information on the lunar neutron spectrum at various depths below the lunar surface. The flux ratio of resonance and slow (less than 0.3 eV) neutrons is found to be nearly constant in the topmost approximately 100 g/sq cm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4421805','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4421805"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908601"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2015-04-24</p> <p>The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1734i0003W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1734i0003W"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlating outdoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with accelerated <span class="hlt">aging</span> tests for aluminum solar reflectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wette, Johannes; Sutter, Florian; Fernández-García, Aránzazu</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Guaranteeing the durability of concentrated solar power (CSP) components is crucial for the success of the technology. The reflectors of the solar field are a key component of CSP plants, requiring reliable methods for service lifetime prediction. So far, no proven correlations exist to relate accelerated <span class="hlt">aging</span> test results in climate chambers with relevant CSP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> sites. In this work, correlations have been derived for selected testing conditions that excite the same degradation mechanisms as for outdoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those testing conditions have been identified by performing an extensive microscopic comparison of the appearing degradation mechanisms on reference samples that have been weathered outdoors with samples that underwent a high variety of accelerated <span class="hlt">aging</span> experiments. The herein developed methodology is derived for aluminum reflectors and future work will study its applicability to silvered-glass mirrors.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887008','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887008"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Famine at a Young <span class="hlt">Age</span> and Unhealthy Lifestyle Behavior Later in Life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fransen, Heidi P.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; de Wit, G. Ardine; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Elias, Sjoerd G.; May, Anne M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background A healthy diet is important for normal growth and development. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to undernutrition during important developmental periods such as childhood and adolescence can have effects later in life. Inhabitants of the west of the Netherlands were exposed to severe undernutrition during the famine in the last winter of the second World War (1944–1945). Objective We investigated if <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of women to the Dutch famine during childhood and adolescence was associated with an unhealthy lifestyle later in life. Design We studied 7,525 women from the Prospect-EPIC cohort, recruited in 1993–97 and <span class="hlt">aged</span> 0–18 years during the Dutch famine. An individual famine score was calculated based on self-reported information about experience of hunger and weight loss. We investigated the association between famine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in early life and four lifestyle factors in adulthood: smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity level and a Mediterranean-style diet. Results Of the 7,525 included women, 46% were unexposed, 38% moderately exposed and 16% severely exposed to the Dutch famine. Moderately and severely exposed women were more often former or current smokers compared to women that did not suffer from the famine: adjusted prevalence ratio 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05; 1.14) and 1.18 (1.12; 1.25), respectively. They also smoked more pack years than unexposed women. Severely exposed women were more often physically inactive than unexposed women, adjusted prevalence ratio 1.32 (1.06; 1.64). Results did not differ between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> categories (0–9 and 10–17 years). We found no associations of famine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with alcohol consumption and no dose-dependent relations with diet. Conclusions <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to famine early in female life may be associated with higher prevalence of smoking and physical inactivity later in life, but not with unhealthy diet and alcohol consumption. PMID:27244088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711644L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711644L"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating of Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> ice cap advances on Disko Island, West Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lane, Timothy; Jomelli, Vincent; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Swingedouw, Didier; Favier, Vincent; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> (LIA: 1200-1920 AD) glacier advances in Greenland often form the most extensive positions of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) ice cap and margins since the Early Holocene. Across Greenland these advances are commonly represented by un-vegetated moraines, usually within 1-5 km of the present ice margin. However, chronological constraints on glacier advances during this period are sparse, meaning that GrIS and ice cap behavior and advance/retreat chronology remains poorly understood during this period. At present the majority of <span class="hlt">ages</span> are based on historical accounts, ice core data, and radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> from proglacial threshold lakes. However, developments in the accuracy and precision of surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> methods allow dating of LIA moraine boulders, permitting an opportunity to better understand of ice dynamics during this period. Geomorphological mapping and surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating (36Cl) were used to interpret moraine deposits from the Lyngmarksbræen on Disko Island, West Greenland. A Positive Degree Day (PDD) model was used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) and mass balance changes for two distinct paleo-glacial extents. Three moraines (M1, M2, and M3) were mapped in the field, and sampled for 36Cl surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating. The outermost moraine (M1) was of clearly different morphology to the inner moraines, and present only in small fragments. M2 and M3 were distinct arcuate termino-lateral moraines within 50 m of one another, 1.5 km from the present ice margin. The weighted average of four 36Cl <span class="hlt">ages</span> from M1 returned an early Holocene <span class="hlt">age</span> of 8.4 ± 0.6 ka. M2 (four samples) returned an <span class="hlt">age</span> of 0.57 ± 0.04 ka (1441 AD) and M3 (four samples) returned an <span class="hlt">age</span> of 0.28 ± 0.02 ka (1732 AD). These surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> represent the first robustly dated Greenlandic ice cap moraine sequence from the LIA. The two periods of ice cap advance and marginal stabilisation are similar to recorded periods of LIA GrIS advance in west Greenland, constrained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21409557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21409557"><span id="translatedtitle">Embryonic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to maternal testosterone influences <span class="hlt">age</span>-specific mortality patterns in a captive passerine bird.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwabl, Hubert; Holmes, Donna; Strasser, Rosemary; Scheuerlein, Alex</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Hormones are potent mediators of developmental programming and maternal epigenetic effects. In vertebrates, developmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to maternal androgen hormones has been shown to impact multiple behavioral and physiological traits of progeny, but the possible consequences of this early <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in terms of <span class="hlt">aging</span>-related changes in mortality and fitness remain largely unexplored. Avian eggs naturally contain variable doses of maternal hormones-in particular, androgens-which have documented effects on embryo growth and differentiation as well as adult behavior and physiology. Here, we report that injections of a physiological dose of testosterone (T) into yolks of freshly laid eggs of a small, seasonally breeding songbird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), increased survivorship in a semi-natural aviary environment. In addition, survival effects of developmental T <span class="hlt">exposure</span> were sex-dependent, with males generally having a higher risk of death. Separate analyses for young birds in their first year of life (from hatching up to the first reproductive period the following calendar year) and in adulthood (after the first breeding season) showed similar effects. For first-year birds, mortality risk was higher during the winter than during the period after fledging; for adults, mortality risk was higher during the reproductive than the non-reproductive phase (post-breeding molt and winter). T treatment did not affect nestling body mass, but resulted in higher body mass at 3-4 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>; T and body mass at this <span class="hlt">age</span> interacted to influence mortality risk. Embryonic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to maternal testosterone may result in lower adult mortality by modifying intrinsic physiological processes involved in health or <span class="hlt">aging</span> over the lifespan of adult birds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3352943','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3352943"><span id="translatedtitle">Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at <span class="hlt">age</span> 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school <span class="hlt">age</span> than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008cosp...37.2537R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008cosp...37.2537R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to heavy particles and <span class="hlt">aging</span> on object recognition memory in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Shannahan, Ryan; Hering, Kathleen</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to HZE particles produces changes in neurocognitive performance. These changes, including deficits in spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory and operant responding, are also observed in the <span class="hlt">aged</span> organism. As such, it has been proposed that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to heavy particles produces "accelerated <span class="hlt">aging</span>". Because <span class="hlt">aging</span> is an ongoing process, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and the effects of <span class="hlt">aging</span>, such that doses of HZE particles that do not affect the performance of younger organisms will affect the performance of organisms as they <span class="hlt">age</span>. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that young rats that had been exposed to HZE particles would show a progressive deterioration in object recognition memory as a function of the <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing. Rats were exposed to 12 C, 28 S or 48 Ti particles at the N.A.S.A. Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. HZE particle-induced changes in object recognition memory were tested using a standard procedure: rats were placed in an open field and allowed to interact with two identical objects for up to 30 sec; twenty-four hrs later the rats were again placed in the open field, this time containing one familiar and one novel object. Non-irradiated control animals spent significantly more time with the novel object than with the familiar object. In contrast, the rats that been exposed to heavy particles spent equal amounts of time with both the novel and familiar object. The lowest dose of HZE particles which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was determined three months and eleven months following <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The threshold dose needed to disrupt object recognition memory three months following irradiation varied as a function of the specific particle and energy. When tested eleven months following irradiation, doses of HZE particles that did</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3057525','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3057525"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Sound <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">Aging</span> on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and TrkB Receptors Levels in Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus 80 Days Following Sound <span class="hlt">Exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Hongning; Brozoski, Thomas J.; Ling, Lynne; Hughes, Larry F.; Caspary, Donald M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies suggested that acute sound <span class="hlt">exposure</span> resulting in a temporary threshold shift in young adult animals within a series of maladaptive plasticity changes in central auditory structures. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is involved in post-trauma peripheral hair cell and spiral ganglion cell survival and has been shown to modulate synaptic strength in cochlear nucleus following sound <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The present study evaluated levels of BDNF and its receptor (tyrosine kinase B, [TrkB]) in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) following a unilateral moderate sound <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in young (7–8 months) and <span class="hlt">aged</span> (28–29 months) Fischer Brown Norway (FBN) rats. Eighty days post-<span class="hlt">exposure</span>, ABR thresholds for young exposed rats approached control values while <span class="hlt">aged</span> exposed rats showed residual permanent threshold shifts relative to <span class="hlt">aged</span> controls. BDNF protein levels were significantly up-regulated by 9% in young exposed fusiform cells ipsilateral to the <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. BDNF levels in <span class="hlt">aged</span> sound-exposed fusiform cells increased 31% ipsilateral to the <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Protein levels of the BDNF receptor, TrkB, were also significantly increased in <span class="hlt">aged</span> but not in young sound-exposed DCN fusiform cells. The present findings suggest a relationship between the up-regulation of BDNF/TrkB and the increase in spontaneous and driven activity previously observed for <span class="hlt">aged</span> and sound-exposed fusiform cells. This might be due to a selective maladaptive compensatory down-regulation of glycinergic inhibition in DCN fusiform cells. PMID:21034795</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760051483&hterms=Stone+Age&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Stone%2BAge%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760051483&hterms=Stone+Age&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Stone%2BAge%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">On the calculation of cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of stone meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cressy, P. J., Jr.; Bogard, D. D.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Abundances of cosmic ray-produced noble gases and Al-26, including some new measurements, have been compiled for some 23 stone meteorites with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> less than 3,000,000 yr. Concentrations of cosmogenic He, Ne, and Ar in these meteorites have been corrected for differences in target element abundances by normalization to L-chondrite chemistry. Combined noble gas measurements in depth samples of the Keyes and St. Severin chondrites are utilized to derive equations for normalizing the production rates of cosmogenic He-3, Ne-21, and Ar-38 in chondrites to an adopted 'average' shielding. The measured unsaturated AL-26 concentrations and the calculated equilibrium Al-26 for these meteorites are combined to estimate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>. These <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> are statistically compared with chemistry- and shielding-corrected concentrations of cosmogenic He, Ne, and Ar to derive absolute production rates for these nuclides, which are found to be roughly 25% higher than production rates used in the past. From these production rates and relative chemical correction factors, production rates for other classes of stone meteorites are derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26875182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26875182"><span id="translatedtitle">Arsenic <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Immunotoxicity: a Review Including the Possible Influence of <span class="hlt">Age</span> and Sex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferrario, Daniele; Gribaldo, Laura; Hartung, Thomas</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Increasing evidence suggests that inorganic arsenic, a major environmental pollutant, exerts immunosuppressive effects in epidemiological, in vitro, and animal models. The mechanisms, however, remain unclear, and little is known about variation in susceptibilities due to <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex. We performed a review of the experimental and epidemiologic evidence on the association of arsenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and immune diseases. The majority of the studies described arsenic as a potent immunosuppressive compound, though others have reported an increase in allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting that arsenic may also act as an immune system stimulator, depending on the dose or timing of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Limited information, due to either the high concentrations of arsenic used in in vitro studies or the use of non-human data for predicting human risks, is available from experimental studies. Moreover, although there is emerging evidence that health effects of arsenic manifest differently between men and women, we found limited information on sex differences on the immunotoxic effects of arsenic. In conclusion, preliminary data show that chronic early-life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to arsenic might impair immune responses, potentially leading to increased risk of infections and inflammatory-like diseases during childhood and in adulthood. Further investigation to evaluate effects of arsenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the developing immune system of both sexes, particularly in human cells and using concentrations relevant to human <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, should be a research priority.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731065','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731065"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpersonal Trauma <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Cognitive Development in Children to <span class="hlt">Age</span> 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Childhood trauma <span class="hlt">exposure</span> has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Methods Children (N = 206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient scores (IQ) were assessed at 24, 64, and 96 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. Results IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first two years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared to children not exposed to IPT in the first two years, exposed children scored one-half standard deviation lower across cognitive assessments. Conclusion IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first two years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood. PMID:22493459</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11A2204M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11A2204M"><span id="translatedtitle">The CREp program, a fully parameterizable program to compute <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> (3He, 10Be)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, L.; Blard, P. H.; Lave, J.; Delunel, R.; Balco, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Over the last decades, cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating permitted major advances in Earth surface sciences, and particularly in paleoclimatology. Yet, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> calculation is a dense procedure. It requires numerous choices of parameterization and the use of an appropriate production rate. Nowadays, Earth surface scientists may either calculate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> on their own or use the available programs. However, these programs do not offer the possibility to include all the most recent advances in Cosmic Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> (CRE) dating. Notably, they do not propose the most recent production rate datasets and they only offer few possibilities to test the impact of the atmosphere model and the geomagnetic model on the computed <span class="hlt">ages</span>. We present the CREp program, a Matlab © code that computes CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> for 3He and 10Be over the last 2 million years. The CREp program includes the scaling models of Lal-Stone in the "Lal modified" version (Balco et al., 2008; Lal, 1991; Stone, 2000) and the LSD model (Lifton et al., 2014). For any of these models, CREP allows choosing between the ERA-40 atmosphere model (Uppala et al., 2005) and the standard atmosphere (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1976). Regarding the geomagnetic database, users can opt for one of the three proposed datasets: Muscheler et al. 2005, GLOPIS-75 (Laj et al. 2004) and the geomagnetic framework proposed in the LSD model (Lifton et al., 2014). They may also import their own geomagnetic database. Importantly, the reference production rate can be chosen among a large variety of possibilities. We made an effort to propose a wide and homogenous calibration database in order to promote the use of local calibration rates: CREp includes all the calibration data published until July 2015 and will be able to access an updated online database including all the newly published production rates. This is crucial for improving the <span class="hlt">ages</span> accuracy. Users may also choose a global production rate or use their own data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4338416','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4338416"><span id="translatedtitle">Behavioural early-life <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and body composition at <span class="hlt">age</span> 15 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural <span class="hlt">exposures</span> occurring from conception up to 5 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, <span class="hlt">age</span> at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at <span class="hlt">age</span> 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at <span class="hlt">age</span> 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at <span class="hlt">age</span> 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167129"><span id="translatedtitle">IMPACT OF A REVISED {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> REACTION RATE ON THE OPERATION OF THE Mg-Al CYCLE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Straniero, O.; Cristallo, S.; Imbriani, G.; DiLeva, A.; Limata, B.; Strieder, F.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Lemut, A.; Formicola, A.; Gustavino, C.; Junker, M.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; and others</p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>Proton captures on Mg isotopes play an important role in the Mg-Al cycle active in stellar H-burning regions. In particular, low-energy nuclear resonances in the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> reaction affect the production of radioactive {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup gs} as well as the resulting Mg/Al abundance ratio. Reliable estimations of these quantities require precise measurements of the strengths of low-energy resonances. Based on a new experimental study performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics, we provide revised rates of the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup gs} and the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> {sup m} reactions with corresponding uncertainties. In the temperature range 50-150 MK, the new recommended rate of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> {sup m} production is up to five times higher than previously assumed. In addition, at T = 100 MK, the revised total reaction rate is a factor of two higher. Note that this is the range of temperature at which the Mg-Al cycle operates in a H-burning zone. The effects of this revision are discussed. Due to the significantly larger {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> {sup m} rate, the estimated production of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup gs} in H-burning regions is less efficient than previously obtained. As a result, the new rates should imply a smaller contribution from Wolf-Rayet stars to the galactic {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> budget. Similarly, we show that the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) extra-mixing scenario does not appear able to explain the most extreme values of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}Al, i.e., >10{sup -2}, found in some O-rich presolar grains. Finally, the substantial increase of the total reaction rate makes the hypothesis of self-pollution by massive AGBs a more robust explanation for the Mg-Al anticorrelation observed in globular-cluster stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615879"><span id="translatedtitle">Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in mice: Effect of <span class="hlt">age</span>, frailty and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> type.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kane, Alice E; Mitchell, Sarah J; Mach, John; Huizer-Pajkos, Aniko; McKenzie, Catriona; Jones, Brett; Cogger, Victoria; Le Couteur, David G; de Cabo, Rafael; Hilmer, Sarah N</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Acetaminophen is a commonly used analgesic that can cause severe hepatotoxicity in overdose. Despite old <span class="hlt">age</span> and frailty being associated with extensive and long-term utilization of acetaminophen and a high prevalence of adverse drug reactions, there is limited information on the risks of toxicity from acetaminophen in old <span class="hlt">age</span> and frailty. This study aimed to assess changes in the risk and mechanisms of hepatotoxicity from acute, chronic and sub-acute acetaminophen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with old <span class="hlt">age</span> and frailty in mice. Young and old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either acute (300 mg/kg via oral gavage), chronic (100 mg/kg/day in diet for six weeks) or sub-acute (250 mg/kg, t.i.d., for three days) acetaminophen, or saline control. Pre-dosing mice were scored for the mouse clinical frailty index, and after dosing serum and liver tissue were collected for assessment of toxicity and mechanisms. There were no differences with old <span class="hlt">age</span> or frailty in the degree of hepatotoxicity induced by acute, chronic or subacute acetaminophen <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as assessed by serum liver enzymes and histology. <span class="hlt">Age</span>-related changes in the acetaminophen toxicity pathways included increased liver GSH concentrations, increased NQO1 activity and an increased pro- and anti-inflammatory response to acetaminophen in old <span class="hlt">age</span>. Frailty-related changes included a negative correlation between frailty index and serum protein, albumin and ALP concentrations for some mouse groups. In conclusion, although there were changes in some pathways that would be expected to influence susceptibility to acetaminophen toxicity, there was no overall increase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity with old <span class="hlt">age</span> or frailty in mice. PMID:26615879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPB.259..600F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPB.259..600F"><span id="translatedtitle">An inter-comparison of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> AMS reference standards and the 10Be half-life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fink, David; Smith, Andrew</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>We have completed a survey and inter-comparison of several 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> standard reference materials (SRMs) that are in routine use at various AMS laboratories to assess their relative values and the accuracy of their quoted nominal ratios. The accelerator measurement cycle, analysis procedure and setup used at the ANTARES AMS facility for this survey are described. We focused on a new set of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> serial dilutions of standard reference materials (SRMs) prepared by Kuni Nishiizumii at the University of California, Berkeley, and found excellent systematic reproducibility and internal consistency. For other standard materials, minor deviations are evident even when the results have been recalibrated to a common half-life. In particular, we confirm that the NIST 10Be SRM-4325 has a 14% greater 10Be/Be ratio than that certified by NIST when it is calibrated against other SRMs whose ratios have been normalized to a common 1.5 Ma 10Be half-life. In order to investigate this apparent discrepancy, we report on the results of an absolute, normalization independent, measure of the NIST-4325 10Be/Be ratio. Within the constraints of this type of measurement and its systematic errors, we determine an absolute value for the 10Be/Be SRM-4325 ratio in the range 26,050 to 24,800 × 10-15 in support of the certified value of 26,800 × 10-15 given by NIST. We hesitate to directly infer as a consequence that the 10Be half-life is 1.34 Ma because such an inference is contingent on a direct and accurate specific activity in the parent solution, which at present is not available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3713136','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3713136"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to light at night accelerates <span class="hlt">aging</span> and spontaneous uterine carcinogenesis in female 129/Sv mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Panchenko, Andrei V.; Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Tyndyk, Maragriata L.; Yurova, Maria N.; Anisimov, Vladimir N.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The effect of the constant illumination on the development of spontaneous tumors in female 129/Sv mice was investigated. Forty-six female 129/Sv mice starting from the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 2 mo were kept under standard light/dark regimen [12 h light (70 lx):12hr dark; LD, control group], and 46 of 129/Sv mice were kept under constant illumination (24 h a day, 2,500 lx, LL) from the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 5 mo until to natural death. The <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the LL regimen significantly accelerated body weight gain, increased body temperature as well as acceleration of <span class="hlt">age</span>-related disturbances in estrous function, followed by significant acceleration of the development of the spontaneous uterine tumors in female 129/Sv mice. Total tumor incidence as well as a total number of total or malignant tumors was similar in LL and LD group (p > 0.05). The mice from the LL groups survived less than those from the LD group (χ2 = 8.5; p = 0.00351, log-rank test). According to the estimated parameters of the Cox’s regression model, constant light regimen increased the relative risk of death in female mice compared with the control (LD) group (p = 0.0041). The data demonstrate in the first time that the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to constant illumination was followed by the acceleration of <span class="hlt">aging</span> and spontaneous uterine tumorigenesis in female 129/Sv mice. PMID:23656779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361..599S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361..599S"><span id="translatedtitle">Glaciation history of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) - New <span class="hlt">exposure</span> data from nunataks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strub, E.; Wiesel, H.; Delisle, G.; Binnie, S. A.; Liermann, A.; Dunai, T. J.; Herpers, U.; Dewald, A.; Heinze, S.; Christl, M.; Coenen, H. H.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for the Wohlthat Massif (Antarctica), have previously been determined. This was done with 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the AMS facility at the ETH Zurich. In order to determine the extent to which the results from the Wohlthat Massif are of regional significance, additional samples were collected during the 2007 BGR-expedition "Queenmet". Two of the Steingarden Nunataks (isolated mountain peaks) were chosen as sampling locations, approximately 100 km south-east of the Wohlthat Massif/Queen Maud Land, at the edge of the Polar Plateau. Quartz rich samples were collected at different elevations on the nunataks to reconstruct an elevation-dependent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history. The in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in these samples were measured by AMS. During sample processing the quartz separates were prepared by two different methods (Kohl and Nishiizumi, 1992, Altmaier, 2000) and measurements were performed at two different facilities (CologneAMS und Zurich AMS) to confirm the reproducibility of the results. The new results of rock surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> reveal that the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of the lower nunatak to cosmic radiation started between 0.65 and 1.1 Ma ago, while the more elevated regions of the second nunatak were apparently above the ice 3-4 Ma ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814508R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814508R"><span id="translatedtitle">Potentials and pitfalls of depth profile (10Be), burial isochron (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be) and palaeomagnetic techniques for dating Early Pleistocene terrace deposits of the Moselle valley (Germany)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rixhon, Gilles; Cordier, Stéphane; May, Simon Matthias; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Szemkus, Nina; Keulertz, Rebecca; Dunai, Tibor; Binnie, Steven; Hambach, Ulrich; Scheidt, Stephanie; Brueckner, Helmut</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Throughout the river network of the Rhenish Massif the so-called main terraces complex (MTC) forms the morphological transition between a wide upper palaeovalley and a deeply incised lower valley. The youngest level of this complex (YMT), directly located at the edge of the incised valley, represents a dominant geomorphic feature; it is often used as a reference level to identify the beginning of the main middle Pleistocene incision episode (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). Although the main terraces are particularly well preserved in the lower Moselle valley, a questionable <span class="hlt">age</span> of ca. 800 ka is assumed for the YMT, mainly based on the uncertain extrapolation of controversially interpreted palaeomagnetic data obtained in the Rhine valley. In this study, we applied terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating (10Be/<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>) and palaeomagnetic dating to Moselle fluvial sediments of the MTC. To unravel the spatio-temporal characteristics of the Pleistocene evolution of the valley, several sites along the lower Moselle were sampled following two distinct TCN dating strategies: depth profiles where the original terrace (palaeo-) surface is well preserved and did not experience a major post-depositional burial (e.g., loess cover); and the isochron technique, where the sediment thickness exceeds 4.5-5 m. One terrace deposit was sampled for both approaches (reference site). In addition, palaeomagnetic sampling was systematically performed in each terrace sampled for TCN measurements. The TCN dating techniques show contrasting results for our reference site. Three main issues are observed for the depth profile method: (i) an inability of the modeled profile to constrain the 10Be concentration of the uppermost sample; (ii) an overestimated density value as model output; and (iii) a probable concentration steady state of the terrace deposits. By contrast, the isochron method yields a burial <span class="hlt">age</span> estimate of 1.26 +0.29/-0.25 Ma, although one sample showed a depleted <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be ratio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53C0318C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53C0318C"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraining the Timing of Neoglaciation: Moraine <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> from Baffin Island, Arctic Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crump, S. E.; Miller, G. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A long-term Neoglacial cooling trend, beginning ~6 ka, is well documented across the Arctic and correlates with a monotonic decline in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. However, paleoclimate proxy records point to decadal- to millennial-scale variability superimposed on overall cooling. This climate variability is reflected in the fluctuations of Arctic glaciers over the course of several millennia. The most recent Neoglacial advance, the Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> (LIA; ~1275-1850 AD), was generally more extensive than pre-LIA advances and thus destroyed most evidence of previous advances. As such, the timing and extent of earlier Neoglacial advances are not well constrained. However, several extant glaciers on Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, are fronted by nested ice-cored moraine sequences in which multiple pre-LIA moraines are preserved. We have generated absolute <span class="hlt">ages</span> on moraine sequences for Snow Creek and Throne Glaciers using 10Be in moraine boulders. Nine 10Be <span class="hlt">ages</span> from the two most distal moraine crests at Snow Creek Glacier range from ~1.8 ka to ~5.7 ka, and twelve <span class="hlt">ages</span> from the two most distal moraine crests at Throne Glacier range from ~1.1 ka to ~4.6 ka. The wide spread of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> in these settings is likely due to the degradation of moraine ice cores and the disturbance of older moraines by younger readvances. Because these processes result in the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of new clasts on the moraine post-emplacement, the oldest <span class="hlt">ages</span> in these datasets likely provide the best estimates for the earliest Neoglacial advances. These data also indicate that in some settings, early Neoglacial alpine glacier advances reached similar extents as their LIA maxima, possibly due to large ice-cored moraines impeding LIA advances. Glacier modeling efforts and complementary lacustrine sediment records will help to unravel the complex Neoglacial history in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26862123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26862123"><span id="translatedtitle">Perinatal air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and development of asthma from birth to <span class="hlt">age</span> 10 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span> affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school <span class="hlt">age</span>" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65,254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until <span class="hlt">age</span> 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and <span class="hlt">age</span>-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school <span class="hlt">age</span> (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school <span class="hlt">age</span> periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9152R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9152R"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing seismic hazard models with Be-10 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for precariously balanced rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rood, D. H.; Anooshehpoor, R.; Balco, G.; Brune, J.; Brune, R.; Ludwig, L. Grant; Kendrick, K.; Purvance, M.; Saleeby, I.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Currently, the only empirical tool available to test maximum earthquake ground motions spanning timescales of 10 ky-1 My is the use of fragile geologic features, including precariously balanced rocks (PBRs). The <span class="hlt">ages</span> of PBRs together with their areal distribution and mechanical stability ("fragility") constrain probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) over long timescales; pertinent applications include the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM) and tests for ground motion models (e.g., Cybershake). Until recently, <span class="hlt">age</span> constraints for PBRs were limited to varnish microlamination (VML) dating techniques and sparse cosmogenic nuclide data; however, VML methods yield minimum limiting <span class="hlt">ages</span> for individual rock surfaces, and the interpretations of cosmogenic nuclide data were ambiguous because they did not account for the exhumation history of the PBRs or the complex shielding of cosmic rays. We have recently published a robust method for the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating of PBRs combining Be-10 profiles, a numerical model, and a three-dimensional model for each PBR constructed using photogrammetry (Balco et al., 2011, Quaternary Geochronology). Here, we use this method to calculate new <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and fragilities for 6 PBRs in southern California (USA) near the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Elsinore faults at the Lovejoy Buttes, Round Top, Pacifico, Beaumont South, Perris, and Benton Road sites (in addition to the recently published <span class="hlt">age</span> of 18.7 +/- 2.8 ka for a PBR at the Grass Valley site). We combine our <span class="hlt">ages</span> and fragilities for each PBR, and use these data to test the USGS 2008 NSHM PGA with 2% in 50 year probability, USGS 2008 PSHA deaggregations, and basic hazard curves from USGS 2002 NSHM data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13D2632R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13D2632R"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing seismic hazard models with Be-10 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for precariously balanced rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rood, D. H.; Anooshehpoor, R.; Balco, G.; Biasi, G. P.; Brune, J. N.; Brune, R.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Kendrick, K. J.; Purvance, M.; Saleeby, I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Currently, the only empirical tool available to test maximum earthquake ground motions spanning timescales of 10 ky-1 My is the use of fragile geologic features, including precariously balanced rocks (PBRs). The <span class="hlt">ages</span> of PBRs together with their areal distribution and mechanical stability ("fragility") constrain probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) over long timescales; pertinent applications include the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM) and tests for ground motion models (e.g., Cybershake). Until recently, <span class="hlt">age</span> constraints for PBRs were limited to varnish microlamination (VML) dating techniques and sparse cosmogenic nuclide data; however, VML methods yield minimum limiting <span class="hlt">ages</span> for individual rock surfaces, and the interpretations of cosmogenic nuclide data were ambiguous because they did not account for the exhumation history of the PBRs or the complex shielding of cosmic rays. We have recently published a robust method for the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating of PBRs combining Be-10 profiles, a numerical model, and a three-dimensional shape model for each PBR constructed using photogrammetry (Balco et al., 2011, Quaternary Geochronology). Here, we use our published method to calculate new <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for PBRs at 6 sites in southern California near the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Elsinore faults, including: Lovejoy Buttes (9 +/- 1 ka), Round Top (35 +/- 1 ka), Pacifico (19 +/- 1 ka, but with a poor fit to data), Beaumont South (17 +/- 2 ka), Perris (24 +/- 2 ka), and Benton Road (40 +/- 1 ka), in addition to the recently published <span class="hlt">age</span> of 18.5 +/- 2.0 ka for a PBR at the Grass Valley site. We combine our <span class="hlt">ages</span> and fragilities for each PBR, and use these data to test the USGS 2008 NSHM PGA with 2% in 50 year probability, USGS 2008 PSHA deaggregations, and basic hazard curves from USGS 2002 NSHM data. Precariously balanced rock in southern California</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25437143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25437143"><span id="translatedtitle">Cellular changes in the hamster testicular interstitium with <span class="hlt">ageing</span> and after <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to short photoperiod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beltrán-Frutos, E; Seco-Rovira, V; Ferrer, C; Madrid, J F; Sáez, F J; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular changes that occur in the hamster testicular interstitium in two very different physiological situations involving testicular involution: <span class="hlt">ageing</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to a short photoperiod. The animals were divided into an '<span class="hlt">age</span> group' with three subgroups - young, adult and old animals - and a 'regressed group' with animals subjected to a short photoperiod. The testicular interstitium was characterised by light and electron microscopy. Interstitial cells were studied histochemically with regard to their proliferation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling (TUNEL+) and testosterone synthetic activity. We identified two types of Leydig cell: Type A cells showed a normal morphology, while Type B cells appeared necrotic. With <span class="hlt">ageing</span>, pericyte proliferation decreased but there was no variation in the index of TUNEL-positive Leydig cells. In the regressed group, pericyte proliferation was greater and TUNEL-positive cells were not observed in the interstitium. The testicular interstitium suffered few ultrastructural changes during <span class="hlt">ageing</span> and necrotic Leydig cells were observed. In contrast, an ultrastructural involution of Leydig cells with no necrosis was observed in the regressed group. In conclusion, the testicular interstitium of Mesocricetus auratus showed different cellular changes in the two groups (<span class="hlt">age</span> and regressed), probably due to the irreversible nature of <span class="hlt">ageing</span> and the reversible character of changes induced by short photoperiod. PMID:25437143</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27398303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27398303"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span>-dependent transcriptional and epigenomic responses to light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the honey bee brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Becker, Nils; Kucharski, Robert; Rössler, Wolfgang; Maleszka, Ryszard</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Light is a powerful environmental stimulus of special importance in social honey bees that undergo a behavioral transition from in-hive to outdoor foraging duties. Our previous work has shown that light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> induces structural neuronal plasticity in the mushroom bodies (MBs), a brain center implicated in processing inputs from sensory modalities. Here, we extended these analyses to the molecular level to unravel light-induced transcriptomic and epigenomic changes in the honey bee brain. We have compared gene expression in brain compartments of 1- and 7-day-old light-exposed honey bees with <span class="hlt">age</span>-matched dark-kept individuals. We have found a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), both novel and conserved, including several genes with reported roles in neuronal plasticity. Most of the DEGs show <span class="hlt">age</span>-related changes in the amplitude of light-induced expression and are likely to be both developmentally and environmentally regulated. Some of the DEGs are either known to be methylated or are implicated in epigenetic processes suggesting that responses to light <span class="hlt">exposure</span> are at least partly regulated at the epigenome level. Consistent with this idea light alters the DNA methylation pattern of bgm, one of the DEGs affected by light <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and the expression of microRNA miR-932. This confirms the usefulness of our approach to identify candidate genes for neuronal plasticity and provides evidence for the role of epigenetic processes in driving the molecular responses to visual stimulation. PMID:27398303</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3710780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3710780"><span id="translatedtitle">A graphical method for forecasting radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from multi-<span class="hlt">aged</span> fallout from nuclear weapons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haaland, C M</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>After a nuclear attack it may be necessary for emergency workers, such as firemen, utility workers and medical personnel, to perform urgent tasks in areas highly contaminated by radioactive fallout. To assist the control of radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of these workers, it will be useful to provide means to forecast radiation <span class="hlt">exposures</span> both inside and outside the fallout shelter. The method described in this paper is intended for use during the first few days to weeks after the attack, after which time more sophisticated methods may become available. This method requires only a radiation-rate meter, special graph paper, and a timepiece. Communications with Emergency Operating Centers or other sources of information are not necessary. The method permits the determination of the <span class="hlt">age</span> of fallout and future <span class="hlt">exposure</span> rates for a location that might be subjected to a number of different fallout clouds, without requiring knowledge of the weapon yields or times of detonation. This method will provide results with less accuracy if different-<span class="hlt">aged</span> fallout clouds arrive simultaneously. The method is self-correcting so that if the actual decay rate is different than that which is assumed, the forecasted rates will have less error than results obtained by previous methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24789525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24789525"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring mercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in reproductive <span class="hlt">aged</span> women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Among Amazonian communities, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of reproductive <span class="hlt">aged</span> women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to mercury decreased among women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span>, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227302"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing dietary <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: <span class="hlt">age</span> and gender aspects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ngo, Duc Minh; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Le, Thi Thuy; Nyberg, Ylva; Le, Bach Mai; Nguyen, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Manh Khai; Oborn, Ingrid</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>This study estimates the dietary <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n=132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n=130). Individual-level <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level <span class="hlt">exposure</span> estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working <span class="hlt">age</span> adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p<0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461±162g/d, followed by water spinach (103±51kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ>3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ>1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447522','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447522"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to <span class="hlt">age</span> four</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva; and others</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from birth to the <span class="hlt">age</span> four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at <span class="hlt">age</span> four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal <span class="hlt">age</span>, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and <span class="hlt">age</span> four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156247','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156247"><span id="translatedtitle">Gender and <span class="hlt">age</span> differences in mixed metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and urinary excretion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berglund, Marika; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Grander, Margaretha; Loennerdal, Bo; Vahter, Marie</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>Background: Little is known about the variation in <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to toxic metals by <span class="hlt">age</span> and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated <span class="hlt">age</span> and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three <span class="hlt">age</span> groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, living in an area with no point sources of metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, <span class="hlt">age</span>, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all <span class="hlt">age</span> groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all <span class="hlt">age</span> groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26568445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26568445"><span id="translatedtitle">Early Childhood Household Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at <span class="hlt">Age</span> 10.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and later classroom behavior. Using a longitudinal birth cohort, we examined the unique contribution of household tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to children's subsequent classroom engagement at <span class="hlt">age</span> 10. From child <span class="hlt">ages</span> 1.5 to 7 years, parents of 2,055 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development reported on household smoking by themselves and other home occupants. At <span class="hlt">age</span> 10, fourth-grade teachers reported on the child's classroom engagement. In terms of prevalence, 58% of parents reported that their children were never exposed to smoke in the home, while 34% and 8% of children were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, respectively. Compared with never exposed children, those who were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke scored 13% and 9% of a standard deviation lower on classroom engagement in fourth grade, standardized B = -.128 (95% confidence interval = -.186, -.069) and standardized B = -.093 (95% confidence interval = -.144, -.043), respectively. Compared with their never exposed peers, children exposed to transient and continuous early childhood household smoke showed proportionately less classroom engagement, which reflects task-orientation, following directions, and working well autonomously and with others. This predisposition poses risks for high school dropout, which from a population health perspective is closely linked with at-risk lifestyle habits and unhealthy outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920033556&hterms=Stone+Age&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Stone%2BAge%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920033556&hterms=Stone+Age&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Stone%2BAge%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Ca-41 in iron falls, Grant and Estherville - Production rates and related <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fink, D.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Results are presented of the first phase of a Ca-41 cosmogenic studies program aimed at establishing baseline concentrations and trends in selected meteorites and the use of Ca-41 in estimating <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and preatmospheric meteorite radii. The average Ca-41 saturation activity recorded in four small iron falls is 24 +/-1 dpm/kg. This finding, together with measurements at the center and surface of the large iron Grant, indicates that production of Ca-41 from spallation on iron is weakly dependent on shielding to depths as large as 250 g/sq cm. The (K-41)-Ca-41 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of Grant is estimated at 330 +/-50 My, and an upper limit to its terrestrial <span class="hlt">age</span> of 43 +/-15 ky. A comparison of the Ca-41 contents of stony and metallic material separated from the mesosiderite Estherville identifies low-energy neutron capture on native Ca as a second important channel of production. It is found that the Ca-41 signal in the stone phase from three meteorites correlates with their size, and that the inferred low-energy neutron fluxes vary by a factor of at least 20.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010049','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010049"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Stony Meteorites: Space Erosion or Yarkovsky?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rubincam, David Parry</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Space erosion from dust impacts may set upper limits on the cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">ages</span> of stony meteorites. A meteoroid orbiting within the asteroid belt is bombarded by both cosmic rays and interplanetary dust particles. Galactic cosmic rays penetrate only the first few meters of the meteoroid; deeper regions are shielded. The dust particle impacts create tiny craters on the meteoroid's surface, wearing it away by space erosion (abrasion) at a particular rate. Hence a particular point inside a meteoroid accumulates cosmic ray products only until that point wears away, limiting CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span>. The results would apply to other regolith-free surfaces in the solar system as well, so that abrasion may set upper CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> limits which depend on the dusty environment. Calculations based on N. Divine's dust populations and on micrometeoroid cratering indicate that stony meteoroids in circular ecliptic orbits at 2 AU will record 21Ne CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of approx.176 x 10(exp 6) years if dust masses are in the range 10(exp -21) - 10(exp -3) kg. This is in broad agreement with the maximum observed CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of approx. 100 x 10(exp 6) years for stones. High erosion rates in the inner solar system may limit the CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) to approx. 120 x 10(exp 6) years. If abrasion should prove to be approx. 6 times quicker than found here, then space erosion may be responsible for many of the measured CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> of main belt stony meteorites. In that case the CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> may not measure the drift time to the resonances due to the Yarkovsky effects as in the standard scenario, and that for some reason Yarkovsky is ineffective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/460041','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/460041"><span id="translatedtitle">Quaternary downcutting rate of the new river, Virginia, measured from differential decay of cosmogenic {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 10}Be in cave-deposited alluvium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Granger, D.E.; Kirchner, J.W.; Finkel, R.C.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>The concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 10}Be in quartz can be used to date sediment burial. Here we use {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>} <span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 10}Be in cave-deposited river sediment to infer the time of sediment emplacement. Sediment burial dates from a vertical sequence of caves along the New River constrain its Quaternary downcutting rate to 27.3{+-}4.5 m/m.y. and may provide evidence of regional tectonic tilt. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20079371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20079371"><span id="translatedtitle">Dietary selenium protects against selected signs of <span class="hlt">aging</span> and methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heath, John C; Banna, Kelly M; Reed, Miranda N; Pesek, Erin F; Cole, Nathan; Li, Jun; Newland, M Christopher</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Acute or short-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to high doses of methylmercury (MeHg) causes a well-characterized syndrome that includes sensory and motor deficits. The environmental threat from MeHg, however, comes from chronic, low-level <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, the consequences of which are poorly understood. Selenium (Se), an essential nutrient, both increases deposition of mercury (Hg) in neurons and mitigates some of MeHg's neurotoxicity in the short term, but it is unclear whether this deposition produces long-term adverse consequences. To investigate these issues, adult Long-Evans rats were fed a diet containing 0.06 or 0.6 ppm of Se as sodium selenite. After 100 days on these diets, the subjects began consuming 0.0, 0.5, 5.0, or 15 ppm of Hg as methylmercuric chloride in their drinking water for 16 months. Somatosensory sensitivity, grip strength, hindlimb cross (clasping reflex), flexion, and voluntary wheel-running in overnight sessions were among the measures examined. MeHg caused a dose- and time-dependent impairment in all measures. No effects appeared in rats consuming 0 or 0.5 ppm of Hg. Somatosensory function, grip strength, and flexion were among the earliest signs of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Selenium significantly delayed or blunted MeHg's effects. Selenium also increased running in unexposed animals as they <span class="hlt">aged</span>, a novel finding that may have important clinical implications. Nerve pathology studies revealed axonal atrophy or mild degeneration in peripheral nerve fibers, which is consistent with abnormal sensorimotor function in chronic MeHg neurotoxicity. Lidocaine challenge reproduced the somatosensory deficits but not hindlimb cross or flexion. Together, these results quantify the neurotoxicity of long-term MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, support the safety and efficacy of Se in ameliorating MeHg's neurotoxicity, and demonstrate the potential benefits of Se during <span class="hlt">aging</span>. PMID:20079371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002907','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002907"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Flare Track <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> in Regolith Particles: A Calibration for Transmission Electron Microscope Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mineral grains in lunar and asteroidal regolith samples provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Space weathering effects result from multiple processes including: <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the solar wind, which results in ion damage and implantation effects that are preserved in the rims of grains (typically the outermost 100 nm); cosmic ray and solar flare activity, which result in track formation; and impact processes that result in the accumulation of vapor-deposited elements, impact melts and adhering grains on particle surfaces. Determining the rate at which these effects accumulate in the grains during their space <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is critical to studies of the surface evolution of airless bodies. Solar flare energetic particles (mainly Fe-group nuclei) have a penetration depth of a few millimeters and leave a trail of ionization damage in insulating materials that is readily observable by transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging. The density of solar flare particle tracks is used to infer the length of time an object was at or near the regolith surface (i.e., its <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span>). Track measurements by TEM methods are routine, yet track production rate calibrations have only been determined using chemical etching techniques [e.g., 1, and references therein]. We used focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) sample preparation techniques combined with TEM imaging to determine the track density/<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> relations for lunar rock 64455. The 64455 sample was used earlier by [2] to determine a track production rate by chemical etching of tracks in anorthite. Here, we show that combined FIB/TEM techniques provide a more accurate determination of a track production rate and also allow us to extend the calibration to solar flare tracks in olivine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8340471','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8340471"><span id="translatedtitle">In-office survey of children's hazard <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the Chicago area: <span class="hlt">age</span>-specific <span class="hlt">exposure</span> information and methodological lessons. Pediatric Practice Research Group.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Senturia, Y D; Binns, H J; Christoffel, K K; Tanz, R R</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Anticipatory guidance on injury prevention should reflect the risks children face, yet hazard <span class="hlt">exposure</span> information is generally unavailable. The objectives of this study were (1) to obtain information on <span class="hlt">age</span>-specific <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of Chicago-area children to amusement park rides, sleds, snow discs, bunkbeds, skateboards, fireworks, toboggans, and air guns and (2) to assess methodological issues in gathering <span class="hlt">exposure</span> information by parental survey in pediatric practices. Questionnaires were received from 679 families, including 1469 children. The proportion of families with at least one exposed child varied: amusement park rides (94%), sleds (67%), snow discs (25%), bunkbeds (24%), skateboards (22%), fireworks (17%), toboggans (15%), and air guns and rifles (6%). Use of skateboards, air guns and rifles, and bunkbeds was highest in males. Use of skateboards, air guns and rifles, and snow discs peaked among young adolescents (<span class="hlt">ages</span> 10 to 14), whereas use of sleds, toboggans and amusement park rides peaked among young children (<span class="hlt">ages</span> 5 to 9) and young adolescents. Use of bunkbeds peaked among young children. Log linear analyses found: the likelihood of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to sleds and snow discs was highest in rural communities and for families owning their own home; toboggan <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was highest among home owners; air gun and rifle <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was highest in rural areas; fireworks <span class="hlt">exposure</span> decreased with increased paternal education; <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to skateboards was highest in single family dwellings and suburban home owners. This study generates the only available current estimates for use of these products, and demonstrates that in-office parental surveys concerning <span class="hlt">exposure</span> are feasible. The findings can help guide future hazard <span class="hlt">exposure</span> research and may affect anticipatory guidance in some settings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001M%26PS...36..301W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001M%26PS...36..301W"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history of two Frontier Mountain H-chondrite showers from spallation and neutron-capture products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Masarik, J.; Caffee, M. W.; Jull, A. J. T.; Klandrud, S. E.; Wieler, R.</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>We measured the concentrations of 10Be, <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, 36Cl, 41Ca and 14C in the metal and/or stone fractions of 27 Antarctic chondrites from Frontier Mountain (FRO), including two large H-chondrite showers. To estimate the pre-atmospheric size of the two showers, we determined the contribution of neutron-capture produced 36Cl (half-life = 3.01 ´ 105 years) and 41Ca (1.04 ´ 105 years) in the stone fraction. The measured activities of neutron-capture 36Cl and 41Ca, as well as spallation produced 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, were compared with Monte Carlo-based model calculations. The largest shower, FRO 90174, includes eight fragments with an average terrestrial <span class="hlt">age</span> of (100 ~ 30) ´ 103 years; the neutron-capture saturation activities extend to 27 dpm/kg stone for 36Cl and 19 dpm/kg stone for 41Ca. The concentrations of spallation produced 10Be, <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 36Cl constrain the radius (R) to 80-100 cm, while the neutron-capture 41Ca activities indicate that the samples originated from the outer 25 cm. With a pre-atmospheric radius of 80-100 cm, FRO 90174 is among the largest of the Antarctic stony meteorites. The large pre-atmospheric size supports our hypothesis that at least 50 of the ~150 classified H5/H6-chondrites from the Frontier Mountain stranding area belong to this single fall; this hypothesis does not entirely account for the high H/L ratio at Frontier Mountain. The smaller shower, FRO 90001, includes four fragments with an average terrestrial <span class="hlt">age</span> of (40 ~ 10) ´ 103 years; they contain small contributions of neutron-capture 36Cl, but no excess of 41Ca. FRO 90001 experienced a complex <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history with high shielding conditions in the first stage (150 < R < 300 cm) and much lower shielding in the second stage (R < 30 cm), the latter starting ~1.0 million years (Ma) ago. Based on the measured 10Be/21Ne and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/21Ne ratios, the cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of the two showers are 7.2 ~ 0.5 Ma for FRO 90174 and 8 ~ 1 Ma for FRO 90001. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> coincide with the well-established H</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4407M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4407M"><span id="translatedtitle">Rock Formation and Cosmic Radiation <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> in Gale Crater Mudstones from the Mars Science Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahaffy, Paul; Farley, Ken; Malespin, Charles; Gellert, Ralph; Grotzinger, John</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been utilized to secure abundances of 3He, 21Ne, 36Ar, and 40Ar thermally evolved from the mudstone in the stratified Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale Crater. As reported by Farley et al. [1] these measurements of cosmogenic and radiogenic noble gases together with Cl and K abundances measured by MSL's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer enable a K-Ar rock formation <span class="hlt">age</span> of 4.21+0.35 Ga to be established as well as a surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> to cosmic radiation of 78+30 Ma. Understanding surface <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to cosmic radiation is relevant to the MSL search for organic compounds since even the limited set of studies carried out, to date, indicate that even 10's to 100's of millions of years of near surface (1-3 meter) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> may transform a significant fraction of the organic compounds exposed to this radiation [2,3,4]. Transformation of potential biosignatures and even loss of molecular structural information in compounds that could point to exogenous or endogenous sources suggests a new paradigm in the search for near surface organics that incorporates a search for the most recently exposed outcrops through erosional processes. The K-Ar rock formation <span class="hlt">age</span> determination shows promise for more precise in situ measurements that may help calibrate the martian cratering record that currently relies on extrapolation from the lunar record with its ground truth chronology with returned samples. We will discuss the protocol for the in situ noble gas measurements secured with SAM and ongoing studies to optimize these measurements using the SAM testbed. References: [1] Farley, K.A.M Science Magazine, 342, (2013). [2] G. Kminek et al., Earth Planet Sc Lett 245, 1 (2006). [3] Dartnell, L.R., Biogeosciences 4, 545 (2007). [4] Pavlov, A. A., et al. Geophys Res Lett 39, 13202 (2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081234&hterms=Noble+gases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNoble%2Bgases','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081234&hterms=Noble+gases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNoble%2Bgases"><span id="translatedtitle">Noble Gases in the Monahans Chondrite and Halite: Ar-39 - Ar-40 <span class="hlt">Age</span>, Space <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Age</span>, Trapped Solar Gases, and Neutron Fluence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garrison, Daniel H.; Bogard, Donald D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>For the Monahans chondrite and halite, we determined Ar-39 - Ar-40 <span class="hlt">ages</span> of silicate = 4.53 Ga, halite > 4.3 Ga; a space <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of approx. 5 Ma; a regolith pre-irradiation; solar gas concentrations in the dark phase; and a regolith thermal neutron fluence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029698','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029698"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Front Range moraines that may have formed during the Younger Dryas, 8.2 cal ka, and Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Benson, L.; Madole, R.; Kubik, P.; McDonald, R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> (10Be) <span class="hlt">ages</span> have been obtained on boulders from three post-Pinedale end-moraine complexes in the Front Range, Colorado. Boulder rounding appears related to the cirque-to-moraine transport distance at each site with subrounded boulders being typical of the 2-km-long Chicago Lakes Glacier, subangular boulders being typical of the 1-km-long Butler Gulch Glacier, and angular boulders being typical of the few-hundred-m-long Isabelle Glacier. Surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of angular boulders from the Isabelle Glacier moraine, which formed during the Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span> (LIA) according to previous lichenometric dating, indicate cosmogenic inheritance values ranging from 0 to ???3.0 10Be ka.11Surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> in this paper are labeled 10Be; radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> are labeled 14C ka, calendar and calibrated radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> are labeled cal ka, and layer-based ice-core <span class="hlt">ages</span> are labeled ka. 14C <span class="hlt">ages</span>, calibrated 14C <span class="hlt">ages</span>, and ice core <span class="hlt">ages</span> are given relative to AD 1950, whereas 10Be <span class="hlt">ages</span> are given relative to the sampling date. Radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> were calibrated using CALIB 5.01 and the INTCAL04 data base Stuiver et al. (2005). <span class="hlt">Ages</span> estimated using CALIB 5.01 are shown in terms of their 1-sigma range. Subangular boulders from the Butler Gulch end moraine yielded surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> ranging from 5 to 10.2 10Be ka. We suggest that this moraine was deposited during the 8.2 cal ka event, which has been associated with outburst floods from Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway, and that the large <span class="hlt">age</span> range associated with the Butler Gulch end moraine is caused by cosmogenic shielding of and(or) spalling from boulders that have <span class="hlt">ages</span> in the younger part of the range and by cosmogenic inheritance in boulders that have <span class="hlt">ages</span> in the older part of the range. The surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of eight of nine subrounded boulders from the Chicago Lakes area fall within the 13.0-11.7 10Be ka <span class="hlt">age</span> range, and appear to have been deposited during the Younger Dryas interval. The general lack of inheritance in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21224309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21224309"><span id="translatedtitle">Foetal antiepileptic drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and verbal versus non-verbal abilities at three years of <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>We previously reported that foetal valproate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled pregnant females with epilepsy on monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate). This report compares verbal versus non-verbal cognitive outcomes in 216 children who completed testing at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of three years. Verbal and non-verbal index scores were calculated from the Differential Ability Scales, Preschool Language Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Verbal abilities were lower than non-verbal in children exposed in utero to each drug. Preconceptional folate use was associated with higher verbal outcomes. Valproate was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. Performance was negatively associated with valproate dose for both verbal and non-verbal domains and negatively associated with carbamazepine dose for verbal performance. No dose effects were seen for lamotrigine and phenytoin. Since foetal antiepileptic drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is associated with lower verbal than non-verbal abilities, language may be particularly susceptible to foetal <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. We hypothesize that foetal drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> may alter normal cerebral lateralization. Further, a dose-dependent relationship is present for both lower verbal and non-verbal abilities with valproate and for lower verbal abilities with carbamazepine. Preconceptional folate may improve cognitive outcomes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, extend the study to other drugs, define the risks associated with drug treatment for seizures in the neonates, and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3030767','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3030767"><span id="translatedtitle">Foetal antiepileptic drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and verbal versus non-verbal abilities at three years of <span class="hlt">age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We previously reported that foetal valproate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled pregnant females with epilepsy on monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate). This report compares verbal versus non-verbal cognitive outcomes in 216 children who completed testing at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of three years. Verbal and non-verbal index scores were calculated from the Differential Ability Scales, Preschool Language Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Verbal abilities were lower than non-verbal in children exposed in utero to each drug. Preconceptional folate use was associated with higher verbal outcomes. Valproate was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. Performance was negatively associated with valproate dose for both verbal and non-verbal domains and negatively associated with carbamazepine dose for verbal performance. No dose effects were seen for lamotrigine and phenytoin. Since foetal antiepileptic drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is associated with lower verbal than non-verbal abilities, language may be particularly susceptible to foetal <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. We hypothesize that foetal drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> may alter normal cerebral lateralization. Further, a dose-dependent relationship is present for both lower verbal and non-verbal abilities with valproate and for lower verbal abilities with carbamazepine. Preconceptional folate may improve cognitive outcomes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, extend the study to other drugs, define the risks associated with drug treatment for seizures in the neonates, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4529012','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4529012"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Antinuclear Antibodies among Females of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span> in the United States: NHANES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ganser, Martha A.; Warren, Jeffrey S.; Basu, Niladri; Wang, Lu; Zick, Suzanna M.; Park, Sung Kyun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Immune dysregulation associated with mercury has been suggested, although data in the general population are lacking. Chronic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to low levels of methylmercury (organic) and inorganic mercury is common, such as through fish consumption and dental amalgams. Objective We examined associations between mercury biomarkers and antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity and titer strength. Methods Among females 16–49 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> (n = 1,352) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004, we examined cross-sectional associations between mercury and ANAs (indirect immunofluorescence; cutoff ≥ 1:80). Three biomarkers of mercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> were used: hair (available 1999–2000) and total blood (1999–2004) predominantly represented methylmercury, and urine (1999–2002) represented inorganic mercury. Survey statistics were used. Multivariable modeling adjusted for several covariates, including <span class="hlt">age</span> and omega-3 fatty acids. Results Sixteen percent of females were ANA positive; 96% of ANA positives had a nuclear speckled staining pattern. Geometric mean (geometric SD) mercury concentrations were 0.22 (0.03) ppm in hair, 0.92 (0.05) μg/L blood, and 0.62 (0.04) μg/L urine. Hair and blood, but not urinary, mercury were associated with ANA positivity (sample sizes 452, 1,352, and 804, respectively), after adjusting for confounders: for hair, odds ratio (OR) = 4.10 (95% CI: 1.66, 10.13); for blood, OR = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.03) comparing highest versus lowest quantiles. Magnitudes of association were strongest for high-titer (≥ 1:1,280) ANA: hair, OR = 11.41 (95% CI: 1.60, 81.23); blood, OR = 5.93 (95% CI: 1.57, 22.47). Conclusions Methylmercury, at low levels generally considered safe, was associated with subclinical autoimmunity among reproductive-<span class="hlt">age</span> females. Autoantibodies may predate clinical disease by years; thus, methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> may be relevant to future autoimmune disease risk. Citation Somers EC, Ganser MA, Warren</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.8081R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.8081R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Unraveling the Quaternary river incision in the Moselle valley (Rhenish Massif, Germany): new insights from cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be/<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>) of the Main Terrace complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rixhon, Gilles; Cordier, Stéphane; Harmand, Dominique; May, Simon Matthias; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Dunai, Tibor; Binnie, Steven; Brückner, Helmut</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Throughout the whole river network of the Rhenish Massif, the terrace complex of the so-called Main Terrace forms the morphological transition between a wide upper palaeovalley (plateau valley) and a deeply incised lower valley. The youngest level of this Main Terrace complex (YMT), directly located at the edge of the incised valley, represents a dominant geomorphic feature in the terrace flight; it is often used as a reference level to identify the start of the main middle Pleistocene incision episode (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). The latter probably reflects the major tectonic pulse that affected the whole Massif and was related to an acceleration of the uplift rates (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). The Main terraces are particularly well preserved in the lower Moselle valley and are characterized by a constant absolute elevation of their base along a 150 km-long reach. Despite that various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this horizontality (updoming, faulting...), all studies assumed an <span class="hlt">age</span> of ca. 800 ka for the YMT, mainly based on the questionable extrapolation of palaeomagnetic data obtained in the Rhine valley. Therefore, a reliable chronological framework is still required to unravel the spatio-temporal characteristics of the Pleistocene evolution of the Moselle valley. In this study, we apply cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be/<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>) to fluvial sediments pertaining to the Main Terrace complex or to the upper Middle Terraces. Several sites along the lower Moselle were sampled following two distinct sampling strategies: (i) depth profiles where the original terrace (palaeo-)surface is well preserved and did not experience much postdepositional burial (e.g., loess cover); and (ii) the isochron technique where the sediment thickness exceeds 3 m. Cosmogenic nuclide <span class="hlt">ages</span> recently obtained for three rivers in the Meuse catchment in the western Rhenish Massif demonstrated that the Main Terraces were younger than expected and their abandonment was diachronic along the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.110..190M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.110..190M"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> at the birth of the Solar System: Evidence from corundum-bearing refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Hellebrand, Eric; Petaev, Michail I.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>We report on the mineralogy, petrology, and in situ oxygen- and magnesium-isotope measurements using secondary ion mass spectrometry of 10 corundum-bearing calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Adelaide (ungrouped), Murray and Murchison (CM) carbonaceous chondrites. We also measured in situ oxygen-isotope compositions of several isolated corundum grains in the matrices of Murray and Murchison. Most of the corundum-bearing objects studied are uniformly 16O-rich [Δ17O values range from -17‰ to -28‰ (2σ = ±2.5‰) (Δ17Oavr = -23 ± 5‰)], suggesting that they formed in a 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition and largely avoided subsequent thermal processing in an 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. There is a large spread of the initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratio [(<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0] in the corundum-bearing CAIs. Two Adelaide CAIs show no resolvable excess of radiogenic 26Mg (δ26Mg∗): the inferred (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 are (0.6 ± 2.0) × 10-6 and (-0.9 ± 1.2) × 10-6, respectively. Slopes of the model <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg isochrons in five CAIs from Murray and Murchison are (4.4 ± 0.2) × 10-5, (3.3 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (4.1 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (3.9 ± 0.4) × 10-5, and (4.0 ± 2.0) × 10-6, respectively. These values are lower than the canonical (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 ratio of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10-5 inferred from the whole-rock magnesium-isotope measurements of the CV CAIs, but similar to the (<span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al)0 ratio of (4.1 ± 0.2) × 10-5 in the corundum-bearing CAI F5 from Murray. Five other previously studied corundum-bearing CAIs from Acfer 094 (ungrouped) and CM carbonaceous chondrites showed no resolvable δ26Mg∗. We conclude that the corundum-bearing CAIs, as well as the solar corundum grains from matrices and acid-resistant residues of unequilibrated ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites, recorded heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the Solar System during an epoch of CAI formation. The <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor corundum-bearing CAIs and solar corundum grains represent different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252317&keyword=old+AND+age&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78951615&CFTOKEN=74196941','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252317&keyword=old+AND+age&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78951615&CFTOKEN=74196941"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and <span class="hlt">Age</span> on the Signaling Pathway of Ultrafine Particulate Matter <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in Murine Aorta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Epidemiological studies have linked ultrafine particulate matter (PM) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Advanced <span class="hlt">age</span> is one ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18598709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18598709"><span id="translatedtitle">Noise <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at young <span class="hlt">age</span> impairs the auditory object exploration behavior of rats in adulthood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jiping; Chen, Liang; Gao, Fei; Pu, Qing; Sun, Xinde</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Environment noise is ubiquitous in our daily life. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to moderate-level noise on the auditory object exploration behavior of adult rats by comparing the ability of three groups of rats to locate a sound source in a water maze. Two groups of rats, either in the critical period of hearing development or in adulthood, were exposed to 80 dB SPL interrupted white noise for 8 h per day for two weeks. The control group of rats was not exposed to the noise. The ability of the rats to locate a hidden platform that was situated near a sound source in a water maze was tested starting on postnatal day 77. A continuous improvement in the performance of control rats and rats exposed to noise in adulthood was observed during training, whereas rats exposed to noise at a young <span class="hlt">age</span> exhibited a significantly worse performance. These findings indicated that long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of young rats to moderate-level noise caused significant impairment of their auditory object exploration behavior compared to <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of adult animals to the same moderate-level noise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMB....55.1767C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMB....55.1767C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span>-dependent tissue-specific <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of cell phone users</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Christopoulou, Maria; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative <span class="hlt">exposure</span> estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent dielectric tissue properties and <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of <span class="hlt">age</span>. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.2339S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.2339S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to radiation accelerates normal brain <span class="hlt">aging</span> and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.</p> <p></p> <p>Previous studies have shown that radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in <span class="hlt">aged</span> animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism; oxidative stress damage to the central nervous system caused by an increased release of reactive oxygen species is likely responsible for the deficits seen in <span class="hlt">aging</span> and following irradiation. Both <span class="hlt">aged</span> and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a "map" provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces <span class="hlt">age</span>-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/159352','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/159352"><span id="translatedtitle">The importance of <span class="hlt">age</span> and smoking in evaluating adverse cytogenetic effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to environmental agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tucker, J.D.; Moore, D.H. II</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes (``chromosome painting``) is a reliable and efficient method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations. Painting is now being used to quantify chromosome damage in many human populations. In one such study we evaluated 91 unexposed people ranging in <span class="hlt">age</span> from birth (cord bloods) to 79. We established a baseline frequency of stable aberrations that showed a highly significant curvi-linear increase with <span class="hlt">age</span> (p < 0.00001) that accounted for 70% of the variance between donors. The magnitude of this effect illustrates the importance of understanding the cytogenetic changes that occur with <span class="hlt">age</span>, which is particularly important for quantifying the effects of prior adverse environmental, occupational, or accidental <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. In this paper we use the data obtained in our previous study to characterize the distribution of stable aberrations by <span class="hlt">age</span> and pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also provide estimates of the number of cell equivalents that need to be scored to detect a given increase in aberrations above the background level surveyed in this population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12691787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12691787"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal cocaine and/or nicotine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> produces depression and anxiety in <span class="hlt">aging</span> rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sobrian, Sonya K; Marr, Lara; Ressman, Katherine</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>The adult use of cocaine and nicotine has been linked to depression and/or anxiety. Changes in emotional behavior were assessed using behavioral paradigms developed as animal analogs of psychiatric disorders in 12-14 month old Sprague-Dawley rats exposed daily on gestational days 8-20 to cocaine and nicotine, either alone or in combination. Results from the elevated plus maze (EPM), used to assess anxiety-related behaviors, indicated that offspring prenatally exposed to either high-dose cocaine (40 mg/kg/day) or high-dose nicotine (5.0 mg/kg/day) were less timid/more impulsive. Animals from these two groups spent the most time on the open arms, and had the highest percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM. Combined in utero <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cocaine and nicotine nullified these effects. Cocaine challenge (20 mg/kg) did not interact with prenatal treatment, but increased activity on all arms of the EPM in all groups. Sucrose preference was used as a measure of anhedonia, a cardinal symptom of depressive illness. Reduced sucrose preference was seen only in the group of offspring prenatally exposed to high-dose cocaine (40 mg/kg) plus low-dose nicotine (2.5 mg/kg/day). <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to a water-deprivation stress normalized sucrose preference in this group, without altering preference or intake in the other prenatal treatment groups. Transient hyperactivity was seen in the offspring of dams treated with high-dose nicotine, an effect that was again reversed in combined drug groups. Traditional gender differences in activity levels and sucrose intake, that is, females greater than males, were still evident in this population of <span class="hlt">aging</span> rats. These data indicate that prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cocaine and/or nicotine has long-term effects on emotional behavior. Combined drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> contributed to the development of depressive symptoms, but not anxiety-like behavior, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to high doses of either drug alone reduced cautionary behavior</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70094758','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70094758"><span id="translatedtitle">Rates of sediment supply to arroyos from upland erosion determined using in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Clapp, Erik M.; Bierman, Paul R.; Nichols, Kyle K.; Pavich, Milan; Caffee, Marc A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Using 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> measured in sediment and bedrock, we quantify rates of upland erosion and sediment supply to a small basin in northwestern New Mexico. This and many other similar basins in the southwestern United States have been affected by cycles of arroyo incision and backfilling several times in the past few millennia. The sediment generation (275 ± 65 g m−2 yr−1) and bedrock equivalent lowering rates (102 ± 24 m myr−1) we determine are sufficient to support at least three arroyo cycles in the past 3,000 years, consistent with rates calculated from a physical sediment budget within the basin and regional rates determined using other techniques. Nuclide concentrations measured in different sediment sources and reservoirs suggest that the arroyo is a good spatial and temporal integrator of sediment and associated nuclide concentrations from throughout the basin, that the basin is in steady-state, and that nuclide concentration is independent of sediment grain size. Differences between nuclide concentrations measured in sediment sources and reservoirs reflect sediment residence times and indicate that subcolluvial bedrock weathering on hillslopes supplies more sediment to the basin than erosion of exposed bedrock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhG...39j5201D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhG...39j5201D"><span id="translatedtitle">44Ti, <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 53Mn samples for nuclear astrophysics: the needs, the possibilities and the sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dressler, R.; Ayranov, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Bunka, M.; Dai, Y.; Lederer, C.; Fallis, J.; StJ Murphy, A.; Pignatari, M.; Schumann, D.; Stora, T.; Stowasser, T.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Woods, P. J.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Exploration of the physics involved in the production of cosmogenic radionuclides requires experiments using the same rare, radioactive nuclei in sufficient quantities. For this work, such exotic radionuclides have been extracted from previously proton-irradiated stainless steel samples using wet chemistry separation techniques. The irradiated construction material has arisen from an extended material research programme at the Paul Scherrer Institute, called STIP (SINQ Target Irradiation Program), where several thousand samples of different materials were irradiated with protons and neutrons of energies up to 570 MeV. In total, 8 × 1017 atoms of 44Ti, ˜1016 atoms of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and ˜1019 atoms of 53Mn are available from selected samples. These materials may now be used to produce targets or radioactive beams for nuclear reaction studies with protons, neutrons and α-particles. The work is part of the ERAWAST initiative (Exotic Radionuclides from Accelerator Waste for Science and Technology), aimed at facilitating new collaborations between the isotope producers and users from different scientific fields including nuclear astrophysics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.170..157S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.170..157S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and climate controls on weathering in deglaciated watersheds of western Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scribner, C. A.; Martin, E. E.; Martin, J. B.; Deuerling, K. M.; Collazo, D. F.; Marshall, A. T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Fine-grained sediments deposited by retreating glaciers weather faster than the global average and this weathering can impact the global carbon cycle and oceanic fluxes of nutrients and radiogenic isotopes. Much work has focused on subglacial and proglacial weathering of continental ice sheets, but little is known about weathering and resulting fluxes from deglacial watersheds, which are disconnected from the ice sheets and discharge only annual precipitation and permafrost melt. We investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and precipitation on weathering intensity in four deglacial watersheds on Greenland that form a transect from the coast near Sisimiut toward the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) near Kangerlussuaq based on evaluations of major ion compositions, Sr isotope ratios, and mineral saturation states of waters and sediments. The transect is underlain by Archean orthogneiss and is characterized by gradients in moraine <span class="hlt">ages</span> (∼7.5-8.0 ky inland to ∼10 ky at the coast) and water balance (-150 mm/yr inland to +150 mm/yr at the coast). Anion compositions are generally dominated by HCO3, but SO4 becomes increasingly important toward the coast, reflecting a switch from trace carbonate dissolution to sulfide mineral oxidation. Coastal watersheds have a higher proportion of dissolved silica, higher Na/Cl, Si/Ca, and lower Ca/Sr ratios than inland watersheds, indicating an increase in the relative proportion of silicate weathering and an increase in the extent of weathering toward the coast. More extensive weathering near the coast is also apparent in differences in the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of stream water and bedload (Δ87Sr/86Sr), which decreases from 0.017 inland to 0.005 at the coast, and in increased saturation states relative to amorphous SiO2 and quartz. The steep weathering gradient from inland to coastal watersheds reflects enhanced weathering compared to that expected from the 2 to 3 ky difference in <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> caused by elevated coastal precipitation. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014605','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014605"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> Induced Effects on ESD Characteristics of Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental <span class="hlt">Exposures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons provided by Space Systems/Loral were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined space environment <span class="hlt">exposure</span> tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is performing electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels [ISO-11221]. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of four cells constructed to form two strings. The ESD tests were performed at the beginning-of-life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment <span class="hlt">exposure</span> point until end-of-life (EOL) at 15 years. The space environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> sequence consisted of ultra-violet radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and Xenon ion thruster plume erosion. This paper describes the ESD test setup and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Arc inception voltage results along with ESD test behavior from the BOL condition through the 15th year <span class="hlt">age</span> condition are discussed. In addition, results from a Xenon plasma plume <span class="hlt">exposure</span> test with an EOL coupon under the full ESD test condition will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24950298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24950298"><span id="translatedtitle">Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in youth football: middle school <span class="hlt">ages</span> 12-14 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Daniel, Ray W; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> experienced by football players at the college and high school levels has been well documented; however, there are limited data regarding youth football despite its dramatically larger population. The objective of this study was to investigate head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in middle school football. Impacts were monitored using a commercially available accelerometer array installed inside the helmets of 17 players <span class="hlt">aged</span> 12-14 years. A total of 4678 impacts were measured, with an average (±standard deviation) of 275 ± 190 impacts per player. The average of impact distributions for each player had a median impact of 22 ± 2 g and 954 ± 122 rad/s², and a 95th percentile impact of 54 ± 9 g and 2525 ± 450 rad/s². Similar to the head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> experienced by high school and collegiate players, these data show that middle school football players experience a greater number of head impacts during games than practices. There were no significant differences between median and 95th percentile head acceleration magnitudes experienced during games and practices; however, a larger number of impacts greater than 80 g occurred during games than during practices. Impacts to the front and back of the helmet were most common. Overall, these data are similar to high school and college data that have been collected using similar methods. These data have applications toward youth football helmet design, the development of strategies designed to limit head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and child-specific brain injury criteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444396','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444396"><span id="translatedtitle">SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF ETHANOL: IMPACT OF <span class="hlt">AGE</span>, STRESS AND PRIOR HISTORY OF ETHANOL <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at both <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431835"><span id="translatedtitle">Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of <span class="hlt">age</span>, stress, and prior history of ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at both <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4982163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4982163"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span>-Specific and <span class="hlt">Age</span>-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H.; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by <span class="hlt">age</span> group: 43% for children <2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>; 30% for those 5–14 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>; and >60% for adults >30 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Compared with risk for persons 20–29 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, <span class="hlt">exposure</span>-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5–9 (0.70), 10–14 (0.64), and 15–19 (0.71) years of <span class="hlt">age</span> but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2–4 (0.97) years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Lower risk for 5–19-year-olds, after adjustment for <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144428"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span>-Specific and <span class="hlt">Age</span>-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco; Glynn, Judith R</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by <span class="hlt">age</span> group: 43% for children <2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>; 30% for those 5-14 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>; and >60% for adults >30 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Compared with risk for persons 20-29 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, <span class="hlt">exposure</span>-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5-9 (0.70), 10-14 (0.64), and 15-19 (0.71) years of <span class="hlt">age</span> but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2-4 (0.97) years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Lower risk for 5-19-year-olds, after adjustment for <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26593931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26593931"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in Healthy Korean Weaning-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Low-level mercury (Hg) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for <span class="hlt">age</span>-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> through</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24509071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24509071"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to solar ultraviolet radiation is associated with a decreased folate status in women of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borradale, D; Isenring, E; Hacker, E; Kimlin, M G</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>In vitro studies indicate that folate in collected human blood is vulnerable to degradation after <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This has raised concerns about folate depletion in individuals with high sun <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Here, we investigate the association between personal solar UV radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and serum folate concentration, using a three-week prospective study that was undertaken in females <span class="hlt">aged</span> 18-47years in Brisbane, Australia (153 E, 27 S). Following two weeks of supplementation with 500μg of folic acid daily, the change in serum folate status was assessed over a 7-day period of measured personal sun <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Compared to participants with personal UV <span class="hlt">exposures</span> of <200 Joules per day, participants with personal UV <span class="hlt">exposures</span> of 200-599 and >600 Joules per day had significantly higher depletion of serum folate (p=0.015). Multivariable analysis revealed personal UV <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as the strongest predictor accounting for 20% of the overall change in serum folate (Standardised B=-0.49; t=-3.75; p=<0.01). These data show that increasing solar UV radiation <span class="hlt">exposures</span> reduces the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation. The consequences of this association may be most pronounced for vulnerable individuals, such as women who are pregnant or of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span> with high sun <span class="hlt">exposures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25725388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25725388"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of H2S emission from <span class="hlt">aged</span> refuse after excavation <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Dong-Sheng; Du, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Li-Fang; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Hydrogen sulfide (H2S(g)) emission from landfills is a widespread problem, especially when <span class="hlt">aged</span> refuse is excavated. H2S(g) emission from <span class="hlt">aged</span> refuse exposed to air was investigated and the results showed that large amounts of H2S(g) can be released, especially in the first few hours after excavation, when H2S(g) concentrations in air near refuse could reach 2.00 mg m(-3). Initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air did not inhibit the emission of H2S(g), as is generally assumed, but actually promoted it. The amounts of H2S(g) emitted in the first 2 d after excavation can be very dangerous, and the risks associated with the emission of H2S(g) could decrease significantly with time. Unlike a large number of sulfide existed under anaerobic conditions, the sulfide in <span class="hlt">aged</span> municipal solid waste can be oxidized chemically to elemental sulfur (but not sulfate) under aerobic conditions, and its conversion rate was higher than 80%. Only microorganisms can oxidize the reduced sulfur species to sulfate, and the conversion rate could reach about 50%. Using appropriate techniques to enhance these chemical and biological transformations could allow the potential health risks caused by H2S(g) after refuse excavation to be largely avoided. PMID:25725388</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25725388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25725388"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of H2S emission from <span class="hlt">aged</span> refuse after excavation <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Dong-Sheng; Du, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Li-Fang; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Hydrogen sulfide (H2S(g)) emission from landfills is a widespread problem, especially when <span class="hlt">aged</span> refuse is excavated. H2S(g) emission from <span class="hlt">aged</span> refuse exposed to air was investigated and the results showed that large amounts of H2S(g) can be released, especially in the first few hours after excavation, when H2S(g) concentrations in air near refuse could reach 2.00 mg m(-3). Initial <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air did not inhibit the emission of H2S(g), as is generally assumed, but actually promoted it. The amounts of H2S(g) emitted in the first 2 d after excavation can be very dangerous, and the risks associated with the emission of H2S(g) could decrease significantly with time. Unlike a large number of sulfide existed under anaerobic conditions, the sulfide in <span class="hlt">aged</span> municipal solid waste can be oxidized chemically to elemental sulfur (but not sulfate) under aerobic conditions, and its conversion rate was higher than 80%. Only microorganisms can oxidize the reduced sulfur species to sulfate, and the conversion rate could reach about 50%. Using appropriate techniques to enhance these chemical and biological transformations could allow the potential health risks caused by H2S(g) after refuse excavation to be largely avoided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21669211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21669211"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aging</span> and photo-<span class="hlt">aging</span> DNA repair phenotype of skin cells-evidence toward an effect of chronic sun-<span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prunier, Chloé; Masson-Genteuil, Gwénaëlle; Ugolin, Nicolas; Sarrazy, Fanny; Sauvaigo, Sylvie</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Several studies have demonstrated the deleterious effect of <span class="hlt">aging</span> on the capacity of cells to repair their DNA. However, current existing assays aimed at measuring DNA repair address only a specific repair step dedicated to the correction of a specific DNA lesion type. Consequently they provide no information regarding the repair pathways that handle other types of lesions. In addition to <span class="hlt">aging</span>, consequences of photo-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> on these repair processes remain elusive. In this study we evaluated the consequence of <span class="hlt">aging</span> and of chronic and/or acute photo-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> on DNA repair in human skin fibroblasts using a multiplexed approach, which provided detailed information on several repair pathways at the same time. The resulting data were analyzed with adapted statistics/bioinformatics tools. We showed that, irrespective of the repair pathway considered, excision/synthesis was less efficient in non-exposed cells from elderly compared to cells from young adults and that photo-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> disrupted this very clear pattern. Moreover, it was evidenced that chronic sun-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> induced changes in DNA repair properties. Finally, the identification of a specific signature at the level of the NER pathway in cells repeatedly exposed to sun revealed a cumulative effect of UVB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and chronic sun irradiation. The uses of bioinformatics tools in this study was essential to fully take advantage of the large sum of data obtained with our multiplexed DNA repair assay and unravel the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on DNA repair pathways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990025095&hterms=earth+age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990025095&hterms=earth+age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bage"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic-Ray-<span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Diogenites and the Collisional History of the HED Parent Body or Bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; vanderBorg, K.; Loeken, T.; Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Cosmic-ray-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of meteorites provide information on the collisional history of their parent bodies and the delivery mechanism of meteorites to Earth. The <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> distributions of ordinary chondrites show distinct patterns for H, L, and LL types, consistent with their origin on different parent bodies. The <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> distributions of howardites, eucrites. and diogenites (HEDS) show a common pattern with major peaks at 22 Ma and 38 Ma This provides additional evidence for a common origin of the HED meteorites, possibly 4 Vesta, although orbital dynamics calculations showed that the delivery of meteorites from Vesta to Earth is difficult. However, the discovery of several kilometer-sized Vesta-like asteroids in the region between Vesta and the 3:1 resonance suggested that these seem more likely parent bodies of the HEDs than Vesta itself. This implies that the <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> clusters may represent samples of several parent bodies. Therefore, the near-absence of diogenites with <span class="hlt">ages</span> <20 Ma might be of interest for the composition of these kilometer-sized fragments of Vesta. Here we present cosmic-ray-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 20 diogenites, including 9 new meteorites. In addition, we calculate the probability for each peak to occur by chance, assuming a constant production rate of HED fragments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6551F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6551F"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on ice volume changes of the WAIS and Ross Ice Shelf since the LGM based on cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> in the Darwin-Hatherton glacial system of the Transantarctic Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fink, David; Storey, Bryan; Hood, David; Joy, Kurt; Shulmeister, James</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p> glacially transported debris. Our glacial geomorphic survey from ice sheet contact edge (~850 masl) to mountain peak at 1600 masl together with a suite of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>, documents a pre-LGM ice volume at least 800 meters thicker than current ice levels which was established at least 2 million years ago. However a complex history of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and re-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> of the ice free regions in this area is seen in accordance with advance and retreat of the ice sheets that feeds into the Darwin -Hatherton system. A cluster of mid-altitude boulders, located below a prominent moraine feature mapped previously as demarcating the LGM ice advance limits, have <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> ranging from 30 to 40 ka. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for boulders just above the ice contact range from 1to 19 ka and allow an estimate of inheritance. Hence, we conclude that LGM ice volume was not as large as previously estimated and actually little different from what is observed today. These results raise rather serious questions about the implications of a reduced WAIS at the LGM, its effect on the development of the Ross Ice Shelf, and how the Antarctic ice sheets respond to global warming. J. O. Stone et al., Science v299, 99 (2003). A. Mackintosh, D. White, D. Fink, D. Gore et al, Geology, v 35; 551-554 (2007).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/277041','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/277041"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of proton production cross sections of {sup 10}Be and {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> from elements found in lunar rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sisterson, J.M.; Kim, K.; Englert, P.A.J.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Cosmic rays penetrate the lunar surface and interact with the lunar rocks to produce both radionuclides and stable nuclides. Production depth profiles for long-lived radionuclides produce in lunar rocks are measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). For a particular radionuclide these production depth profiles can be interpreted to give an estimate for the solar proton flux over a time period characterized by the half life of the radionuclide under study. This analysis is possible if and only if all the cross sections for the interactions of all cosmic ray particles with all elements found in lunar rocks are well known. In practice, the most important cross sections needed are the proton production cross sections, because 98% of solar cosmic rays and {similar_to}87% of galactic cosmic rays are protons. The cross sections for the production of long-lived radionuclides were very difficult to measure before the development of AMS and only in recent years has significant progress been made in determining these essential cross sections. Oxygen and silicon are major constituents of lunar rocks. We have reported already {sup 14}C production cross sections from O and Si for proton energies 25-500 MeV, and O(p,x){sup 10}Be from 58 160 MeV[6]. Here we present new measurements for the cross sections O(p,x){sup 10}Be,O(p,x){sup 7}Be, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be,Si(p,x){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and Si(p,x){sup 22}Na from {approximately}30 - 500 MeV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9718N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9718N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> - 10Be cosmogenic nuclide isochron burial dating in combination with luminescence dating of two Danube terraces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neuhuber, Stephanie; Braumann, Sandra; Lüthgens, Christopher; Fiebig, Markus; Häuselmann, Philipp; Schäfer, Jörg</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Quaternary sediment record in the Vienna Basin is influenced by two main factors: (1) the tectonic development of a pull apart basin along a sinistral strike slip fault system between the Eastern Alps and the West Carpathians and by (2) strongly varying sediment supply during the Plio- and Pleistocene. From the Late Pannonian (8.8 Ma) onward a large-scale regional uplift (Decker et al., 2005) controls terrace formation in the Vienna Basin. The main sediment supply into the Vienna Basin originates from the Danube, and subordinately from tributaries to the south such as Piesting, Fischa, Leitha and from the north by the river March. Today the Danube forms a large floodplain that is bordered to the north by one large Pleistocene terrace, the Gänserndorf Terrace that is situated 17 m above todays water level. Farther to the east a smaller terrace, the Schlosshof Terrace, reaches 25 m above todays water level. These terrace levels are tilted by movement of underlying blocks (Peresson, 2006). Both, the Schlosshof and Gänserndorf terraces consist of successions of up to 2 m thick gravel beds with intercalated sand layers or -lenses that may locally reach thicknesses up to 0.8 m. At each terrace one gavel pit was selected to calculate the time of terrace deposition by luminescence dating in combination with <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/10Be cosmogenic nuclide isochrone dating (Balco and Rovery, 2008). Five quartz stones from the base of each terrace were physically and chemically processed to obtain Al and Be oxides for Acceleration Mass Spectrometry. Sand samples for luminescence dating were taken above the cosmogenic nuclide samples from the closest suitable sand body. Decker et al., 2005. QSR 24, 307-322 Peresson, 2006 Geologie der österreichischen Bundesländer Niederösterreich 255-258 Balco and Rovey, 2008. AJS 908, 1083-1114 Thanks to FWF P 23138-N19, OMAA 90öu17</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26916066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26916066"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> of English <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, Current Input/Output, and grade on bilingual language performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Griffin, Zenzi M; Hixon, J Gregory</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the effects of <span class="hlt">Age</span> of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information about English and Spanish language use. Short tests of semantic and morphosyntactic development in Spanish and English were used to quantify children's knowledge of each language. There were significant interactions between AoEE and Current Input/Output for children at third grade in English and in both grades for Spanish. In English, the relationship between AoEE and language scores were linear for first- and third-graders. In Spanish a nonlinear relationship was observed. We discuss how much of the variance was accounted for by AoEE and Current Input/Output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002827','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002827"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithologies Making Up CM Carbonaceous Chondrites and Their Link to Space <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregory, Timothy; Zolensky, Michael E.; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Velbel, Michael A.; Nishiizumi, Kuni</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chondrite parent bodies are among the first large bodies to have formed in the early Solar System, and have since remained almost chemically unchanged having not grown large enough or quickly enough to undergo differentiation. Their major nonvolatile elements bear a close resemblance to the solar photosphere. Previous work has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct space <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> groups (0.1 megaannus, 0.2 megaannus, 0.6 megaannus and 2.0 megaannus), but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150001916','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150001916"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithologies Making Up CM Carbonaceous Chondrites and Their Link to Space <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregory, Timothy; Zolensky, Michael E.; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Velbel, Michael A.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chondrite parent bodies are among the first large bodies to have formed in the early Solar System, and have since remained almost chemically unchanged having not grown large enough or quickly enough to undergo differentiation. Their major nonvolatile elements bear a close resemblance to the solar photosphere. Previous work has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct space <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> groups (0.1 Ma, 0.2 Ma, 0.6 Ma and >2.0 Ma), but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26654094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26654094"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> of Preschool-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Greek Children (RHEA Cohort) to Bisphenol A, Parabens, Phthalates, and Organophosphates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Myridakis, Antonis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Fotou, Marianna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda; Stephanou, Euripides G</p> <p>2016-01-19</p> <p>Phthalate esters (PEs), bisphenol A (BPA), and parabens (PBs), which are used in numerous consumer products, are known for their endocrine disrupting properties. Organophosphate chemicals (OPs), which form the basis of the majority of pesticides, are known for their neurotoxic activity in humans. All of these chemicals are associated with health problems to which children are more susceptible. Once they enter the human body, PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs are metabolized and/or conjugated and finally excreted via urine. Hence, human <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to these substances is examined through a determination of the urinary concentrations of their metabolites. This study assessed the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of Greek preschool-<span class="hlt">age</span> children to PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs by investigating the urinary levels of seven PEs metabolites, six PBs, BPA, and six dialkyl phosphate metabolites in five-hundred samples collected from 4-year-old children, subjects of the "RHEA" mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece. Daily intake of endocrine disruptors, calculated for 4 year old children, was lower than the corresponding daily intake for 2.5 year old children, which were determined in an earlier study of the same cohort. In some cases the daily intake levels exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values and the EFSA Reference Doses (RfD) (e.g., for di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate, 3.6% and 1% of the children exceeded RfD and TDi, respectively). <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> was linked to three main sources: PEs-BPA to plastic, PBs-diethyl phthalate to personal hygiene products, and OPs to food. PMID:26654094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26654094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26654094"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> of Preschool-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Greek Children (RHEA Cohort) to Bisphenol A, Parabens, Phthalates, and Organophosphates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Myridakis, Antonis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Fotou, Marianna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda; Stephanou, Euripides G</p> <p>2016-01-19</p> <p>Phthalate esters (PEs), bisphenol A (BPA), and parabens (PBs), which are used in numerous consumer products, are known for their endocrine disrupting properties. Organophosphate chemicals (OPs), which form the basis of the majority of pesticides, are known for their neurotoxic activity in humans. All of these chemicals are associated with health problems to which children are more susceptible. Once they enter the human body, PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs are metabolized and/or conjugated and finally excreted via urine. Hence, human <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to these substances is examined through a determination of the urinary concentrations of their metabolites. This study assessed the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of Greek preschool-<span class="hlt">age</span> children to PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs by investigating the urinary levels of seven PEs metabolites, six PBs, BPA, and six dialkyl phosphate metabolites in five-hundred samples collected from 4-year-old children, subjects of the "RHEA" mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece. Daily intake of endocrine disruptors, calculated for 4 year old children, was lower than the corresponding daily intake for 2.5 year old children, which were determined in an earlier study of the same cohort. In some cases the daily intake levels exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values and the EFSA Reference Doses (RfD) (e.g., for di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate, 3.6% and 1% of the children exceeded RfD and TDi, respectively). <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> was linked to three main sources: PEs-BPA to plastic, PBs-diethyl phthalate to personal hygiene products, and OPs to food.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7659A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7659A"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmogenic He-3 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of basalts from Ascension Island - implications for evolution of ocean islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ammon, K.; Dunai, T. J.; Stuart, F. M.; Meriaux, A.-S.; Gayer, E.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Ascension Island is the emergent top of a volcano situated at 7°56'S and 14°22'W in the South Atlantic Ocean, approximately 90 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and 50 km south of the Ascension Fracture Zone [1, 2]. It rises about 860 m above sea level and the base of the volcano covers about 2000 km2 approximately 3200 m beneath sea level [3]. Volcanic activity is associated with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and commenced at 6-7 Ma [2, 4, 5]. The volcanic rocks of Ascension Island are transitional to mildly-alkaline basalt to rhyolite volcanic suite and are distinguished by trace element ratios (e.g. Zr/Nb) [3]. Whereas the <span class="hlt">age</span> of the trachyte intrusions are well constrained (0.6 - 1.0 Ma) [e.g. 3] the younger basalt suites have not been dated reliably and the low K concentration make Ar/Ar dating difficult. In order to reconstruct the volcanic history of Ascension Island we have used cosmogenic He-3 in olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts from uneroded basalt flows to date the three basalt lava suites that appear to span the range of volcanism. <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of co-genetic pyroxene and olivine agree within analytical uncertainties. Implanted radiogenic He-4 tends to lower He-3 derived <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> therefore some olivine samples were etched with HF/HNO3 to remove about 30% of the sample mass. The so etched olivine is systematically older (by less than 10%) than the unetched samples. The three basalt suites have <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 300 to 190 ka. The high and intermediate Zr/Nb basalts seem to have been erupted contemporaneously or at least in overlapping events about 300 ka ago. These suites were previously thought to be separated in time on the basis of K-Ar chronology and stratigraphy [3]. The third suite which seams to be a more local vent is erupted between 260 and 190 ka. Our new data indicate the co-existence of different magma chambers with different geochemical signatures. [1] E. Bourdon, C. Hemond, Mineralogy and Petrology 71(2001) 127-138. [2] D.L. Nielson, B.S. Sibbett</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24189189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24189189"><span id="translatedtitle">Prolonged <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to low levels of aluminum leads to changes associated with brain <span class="hlt">aging</span> and neurodegeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bondy, Stephen C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aluminum is one of the most common metal elements in the earth's crust. It is not an essential element for life and has commonly been thought of as a rather inert and insoluble mineral. Therefore, it has often been regarded as not posing a significant health hazard. In consequence, aluminum-containing agents been used in many food processing steps and also in removal by flocculation of particulate organic matter from water. In recent years, acid rain has tended to mobilize aluminum-containing minerals into a more soluble form, ionic Al(3+), which has found their way into many reservoirs that constitute residential drinking water resources. As a result, the human body burden of aluminum has increased. Epidemiological studies suggest that aluminum may not be as innocuous as was previously thought and that aluminum may actively promote the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological data is strengthened by experimental evidence of aluminum <span class="hlt">exposure</span> leading to excess inflammatory activity within the brain. Such apparently irrelevant immune activity unprovoked by an exogenous infectious agent characterizes the <span class="hlt">aging</span> brain and is even more pronounced in several neurodegenerative diseases. The causation of most of these <span class="hlt">age</span>-related neurological disorders is not understood but since they are generally not genetic, one must assume that their development is underlain by unknown environmental factors. There is an increasing and coherent body of evidence that implicates aluminum as being one such significant factor. Evidence is outlined supporting the concept of aluminum's involvement in hastening brain <span class="hlt">aging</span>. This acceleration would then inevitably lead to increased incidence of specific <span class="hlt">age</span>-related neurological diseases. PMID:24189189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24189189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24189189"><span id="translatedtitle">Prolonged <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to low levels of aluminum leads to changes associated with brain <span class="hlt">aging</span> and neurodegeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bondy, Stephen C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aluminum is one of the most common metal elements in the earth's crust. It is not an essential element for life and has commonly been thought of as a rather inert and insoluble mineral. Therefore, it has often been regarded as not posing a significant health hazard. In consequence, aluminum-containing agents been used in many food processing steps and also in removal by flocculation of particulate organic matter from water. In recent years, acid rain has tended to mobilize aluminum-containing minerals into a more soluble form, ionic Al(3+), which has found their way into many reservoirs that constitute residential drinking water resources. As a result, the human body burden of aluminum has increased. Epidemiological studies suggest that aluminum may not be as innocuous as was previously thought and that aluminum may actively promote the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological data is strengthened by experimental evidence of aluminum <span class="hlt">exposure</span> leading to excess inflammatory activity within the brain. Such apparently irrelevant immune activity unprovoked by an exogenous infectious agent characterizes the <span class="hlt">aging</span> brain and is even more pronounced in several neurodegenerative diseases. The causation of most of these <span class="hlt">age</span>-related neurological disorders is not understood but since they are generally not genetic, one must assume that their development is underlain by unknown environmental factors. There is an increasing and coherent body of evidence that implicates aluminum as being one such significant factor. Evidence is outlined supporting the concept of aluminum's involvement in hastening brain <span class="hlt">aging</span>. This acceleration would then inevitably lead to increased incidence of specific <span class="hlt">age</span>-related neurological diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26436836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26436836"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> Impacts Pulmonary Inflammation and Systemic Bone Response to Inhaled Organic Dust <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poole, Jill A; Romberger, Debra J; Wyatt, Todd A; Staab, Elizabeth; VanDeGraaff, Joel; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Dusad, Anand; Klassen, Lynell W; Duryee, Michael J; Mikuls, Ted R; West, William W; Wang, Dong; Bailey, Kristina L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Agricultural workers have high rates of airway and skeletal health disease. Studies recently demonstrated that inhaled agricultural organic dust extract (ODE)-induced airway injury is associated with bone deterioration in an animal model. However, the effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> in governing these responses to organic dusts is unclear, but might be important in future approaches. Young (7-9 wk) and older (12-14,o) male C57BL/6 mice received intranasal (i.n.) inhalation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ODE from swine confinement facilities once or daily for 3 wk. Acute ODE-induced neutrophil influx and cytokine and chemokine (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant [CXCL1], macrophage inflammatory protein-2 [CXCL2]) airway production were reduced in older compared to young mice. Repetitive ODE treatment, however, increased lymphocyte recruitment and alveolar compartment histopathologic inflammatory changes in older mice. Whole lung cell infiltrate analysis revealed that young, but not older, mice repetitively treated with ODE demonstrated an elevated CD4:CD8 lymphocyte response. Acute inhalant ODE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> resulted in a 4-fold and 1.5-fold rise in blood neutrophils in young and older mice, respectively. Serum IL-6 and CXCL1 levels were elevated in young and older mice i.n. exposed once to ODE, with increased CXCL1 levels in younger compared to older mice. Although older mice displayed reduced bone measurements compared to younger mice, younger rodents demonstrated ODE-induced decrease in bone mineral density, bone volume, and bone microarchitecture quality as determined by computed tomography (CT) analysis. Collectively, <span class="hlt">age</span> impacts the airway injury and systemic inflammatory and bone loss response to inhalant ODE, suggesting an altered and enhanced immunologic response in younger as compared to older counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832761"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and executive function in school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children <span class="hlt">ages</span> 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832761"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and executive function in school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children <span class="hlt">ages</span> 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children. PMID:26832761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001M%26PS...36.1479L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001M%26PS...36.1479L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> History of the St-Robert (H5) Fall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leya, I.; Wieler, R.; Aggrey, K.; Herzog, G. F.; Schnabel, C.; Metzler, K.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Bouchard, M.; Jull, A. J. T.; Andrews, H. R.; Wang, M.-S.; Ferko, T. E.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Wacker, J. F.; Neumann, S.; Michel, R.</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>The compositionally typical H5 chondrite St-Robert has an <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span>, 7.8 Ma, indistinguishable from that of the main cluster of H-chondrites. Small values of the cosmogenic 22Ne/21Ne ratio in interior samples imply a preatmospheric radius on the order of 40 cm. Sample depths based on tracks and the production rates of Bhattacharya et al. (1973) range from 6 to ~40 cm and are generally larger than depths estimated from published 60Co activities, perhaps because the track production rates adopted are too high. Depth profiles of the production rates of 14C, 36Cl, <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, 10Be, and 21Ne in stony material show increases with depth and reach levels 5% to 15% higher than expected from modeling calculations. The maximum concentrations in St-Robert are, however, generally comparable to those measured for the L5 chondrite, Knyahinya, whose preatmospheric radius of ~45 cm is thought to lead to the maximum possible production rates in chondrites. We infer that the pre-atmospheric radius of St-Robert was within 5 cm of the value that supports maximum production rates, i.e., 45+/-5 cm. With the measured density of 3.4+/-0.05 g/cm3 we obtain a pre-atmospheric mass of (1.3+/-0.4) ( 103 kg. The agreement of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for St-Robert obtained in several different ways and the similarity of the depth profiles for 14C, <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, 10Be, and 21Ne argue against a lengthy pre-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> of St-Robert on the parent body and against a two-stage <span class="hlt">exposure</span> after launch from the parent body. Following Morbidelli and Gladman (1998), we suggest that St-Robert was chipped from deep in its parent body, spent the next 7-8 Ma without undergoing a major collision, was nudged gradually into an orbital resonance with Jupiter, and then traveled quickly to Earth.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344841','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344841"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondhand tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different <span class="hlt">ages</span> in developing non-human primates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Bonham, Ann C.</p> <p>2010-01-15</p> <p>Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. Mother/infant pairs continued the <span class="hlt">exposures</span> postnatally to <span class="hlt">age</span> 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human <span class="hlt">age</span>, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at <span class="hlt">age</span> of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on <span class="hlt">age</span>-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with <span class="hlt">age</span>-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can increase the risk, such as SIDS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19850058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19850058"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondhand tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different <span class="hlt">ages</span> in developing non-human primates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sekizawa, Shin-Ichi; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Bonham, Ann C</p> <p>2010-01-15</p> <p>Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. Mother/infant pairs continued the <span class="hlt">exposures</span> postnatally to <span class="hlt">age</span> 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human <span class="hlt">age</span>, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at <span class="hlt">age</span> of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on <span class="hlt">age</span>-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with <span class="hlt">age</span>-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can increase the risk, such as SIDS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23114255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23114255"><span id="translatedtitle">Current tobacco use and secondhand smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span>--14 countries, 2008-2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in reproductive-<span class="hlt">aged</span> women can cause adverse reproductive health outcomes, such as pregnancy complications, fetal growth restriction, preterm delivery, stillbirths, and infant death. Data on tobacco use and SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among reproductive-<span class="hlt">aged</span> women in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. To examine current tobacco use and SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in women <span class="hlt">aged</span> 15-49 years, data were analyzed from the 2008-2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 14 low- and middle-income countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam. The results of this analysis indicated that, among reproductive-<span class="hlt">aged</span> women, current tobacco smoking ranged from 0.4% in Egypt to 30.8% in Russia, current smokeless tobacco use was <1% in most countries, but common in Bangladesh (20.1%) and India (14.9%), and SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at home was common in all countries, ranging from 17.8% in Mexico to 72.3% in Vietnam. High tobacco smoking prevalence in some countries suggests that strategies promoting cessation should be a priority, whereas low prevalence in other countries suggests that strategies should focus on preventing smoking initiation. Promoting cessation and preventing initiation among both men and women would help to reduce the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of reproductive-<span class="hlt">aged</span> women to SHS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4661673','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4661673"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in Healthy Korean Weaning-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Low-level mercury (Hg) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg <span class="hlt">exposure</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26955917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26955917"><span id="translatedtitle">Childhood <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and neurodevelopment at six years of <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chevrier, Cécile; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Dardier, Virginie; Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Gaudreau, Eric; Mercier, Fabien; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Muckle, Gina; Le Bot, Barbara; Cordier, Sylvaine</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are present in indoor environments. Studies of the developmental effects of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to these chemicals in large prospective mother-child cohorts are required, with data on prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and long-term follow-up of the children. We aimed to investigate the relationship between prenatal and childhood <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PBDEs and neurodevelopment at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of six years. We determined the levels of PBDEs and other neurotoxicants in cord blood and dust collected from the homes of children for 246 families included in the PELAGIE mother-child cohort in France. We assessed two cognitive domains of the six-year-old children using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. Verbal comprehension scores were lower in children from homes with higher concentrations of BDE99 (βDetects<median_vs_NonDetects=-1.6; 95% CI: -6.1, 2.9; βDetects≥median_vs_NonDetects=-5.4; -9.9, -1.0; p trend=0.02) and of BDE209 (β2nd_vs_1st_tertile=-1.8; 95% CI: -6.1, 2.5; β3rd_vs_1st_tertile=-3.2; -7.5, 1.2; p trend=0.15) in dust, particularly for boys (p trend=0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Working memory scores seemed to be lower in children with higher BDE99 concentrations in dust (p trend=0.10). No association was observed with cord blood levels of BDE209. Our findings are in agreement with those of four previous studies suggesting adverse cognitive outcomes among children associated with early-life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to penta-BDE mixtures, and provide new evidence for the potential neurotoxicity of BDE209. Several countries are in the process of banning the use of PBDE mixtures as flame-retardants. However, these compounds are likely to remain present in the environment for a long time to come. PMID:26955917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1204086','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1204086"><span id="translatedtitle">A laboratory <span class="hlt">exposure</span> system to study the effects of <span class="hlt">aging</span> on super-micron aerosol particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Santarpia, Joshua; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Servantes, Brandon Lee; Hubbard, Joshua Allen</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A laboratory system was constructed that allows the super-micron particles to be <span class="hlt">aged</span> for long periods of time under conditions that can simulate a range of natural environments and conditions, including relative humidity, oxidizing chemicals, organics and simulated solar radiation. Two proof-of-concept experiments using a non-biological simulant for biological particles and a biological simulant demonstrate the utility of these types of <span class="hlt">aging</span> experiments. Green Visolite®, which is often used as a tracer material for model validation experiments, does not degrade with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to simulated solar radiation, the actual biological material does. This would indicate that Visolite® should be a good tracer compound for mapping the extent of a biological release using fluorescence as an indicator, but that it should not be used to simulate the decay of a biological particle when exposed to sunlight. The decay in the fluorescence measured for B. thurengiensis is similar to what has been previously observed in outdoor environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140004413','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140004413"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Relationship between Cosmic Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> and Petrography of CM Chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, A.; Lee, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among chondrites because they mostly escaped thermal metamorphism that affected the other chondrite groups. C chondrites are chemically distinguished from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios vary over a wide range, in contrast to those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites which are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many separate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study we defined 4 distinct cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">age</span> groups of CMs and systematically characterized the petrography in each of the 4 CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences with such differences probably reflecting different parent body (asteroid) geological processing, or multiple original bodies. We have reported the results of a preliminary grouping at the NIPR Symp. in 2013 [3], however, we revised the grouping and here report our new results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4688224','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4688224"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span>: The HOME Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4506068','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4506068"><span id="translatedtitle">Childhood Passive Smoking <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">Age</span> at Menarche in Chinese Women Who Had Never Smoked: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>He, Yao; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Cheng, Kar Keung; Zhang, Weisen; Lam, Tai Hing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective We examined the associations between childhood passive smoking <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche in women who had never smoked in southern China. Methods Among 30,518 participants in Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) from 2003-2008, 20,061 women who had never smoked and had complete outcome data were included. Childhood passive smoking <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was defined as living with 1 or more smokers in the same household during childhood. Data on the number of smokers in the household and frequency of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (density and frequency) were also obtained. <span class="hlt">Age</span> at menarche was measured as a continuous variable. Results 11,379 (56.7%) participants were exposed to passive smoking during childhood. Compared to those with no passive smoking <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during childhood, those with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> ≥5 days/week had menarche 0.19 year (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.25) earlier on average. Those exposed to more than two smokers had menarche 0.38 year earlier (95% CI: 0.29-0.47). Childhood <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with early <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche (≤13 vs. >13 years), with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.21-1.48) for high density, and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.09-1.26) for high frequency of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Conclusion Childhood passive smoking <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with earlier <span class="hlt">age</span> at menarche, with a dose-response relationship in Chinese women who had never smoked. If causal, the results support the promotion of smoking cessation in families with children, particularly young girls. PMID:26186646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20074621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20074621"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lipopolysaccharide results in cognitive deficits in <span class="hlt">age</span>-increasing offspring rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hao, L Y; Hao, X Q; Li, S H; Li, X H</p> <p>2010-03-31</p> <p>Studies have suggested that maternal infection/inflammation maybe a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental brain damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to a low level of inflammatory stimulation lipopolysaccharide (LPS) repeatedly on spatial learning and memory performances in rat offspring's lifetime. Sixteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in the LPS group were treated i.p. with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) at gestation day 8, 10 and 12; meanwhile the rats in the control group were treated with saline. After delivery, the rat offspring at 3- (young), 10- (adult) and 20-mon-old (<span class="hlt">aged</span>) were allocated. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze. The structure of hippocampal CA1 region was observed by light microscopy. The expression of synaptophysin (SYP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in hippocampal CA1 region were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the rat offspring of LPS group needed longer escape latency and path-length in the Morris water maze and presented a significant neuron loss, decreased expression of SYP, increased expression of GFAP in CA1 region in histological studies. All these changes were more significant with the <span class="hlt">age</span> increasing. These findings support the hypothesis that maternal systemic inflammation may alter the state of astrocytes in rat offspring for a long time, the alteration may affect neurons and synapse development in neural system, increase the neurons' vulnerability to environment especially as the <span class="hlt">age</span> increasing, at last result in distinct learning and memory impairment. PMID:20074621</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5029477','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5029477"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of parents occupational <span class="hlt">exposures</span> on risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-<span class="hlt">age</span> in infants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C. )</p> <p>1989-06-01</p> <p>Epidemiologic research on the effects of parental occupational <span class="hlt">exposures</span> on fetal development has been limited. The National Natality and Fetal Mortality surveys obtained applicable data of probability samples of live births and fetal deaths which occurred in the US in 1980 among married women. Analyses were conducted for case groups of stillbirths (2,096 mothers, 3,170 fathers), preterm deliveries (<37 weeks completed gestation) (363 mothers, 552 fathers), and small-for gestational-<span class="hlt">age</span> infants (218 mothers, 371 fathers) compared with controls. Occupational <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were defined by industry of employment and by imputed <span class="hlt">exposures</span> based on a job-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> linkage system. For stillbirth, maternal work in the rubber, plastics, and synthetics industry and lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and paternal employment in the textile industry had the largest odds ratios. Preterm birth was most strongly associated with maternal lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, corroborating previous findings. Twofold increased risk of preterm delivery was found with paternal employment in the glass, clay, and stone; textile; and mining industries. Paternal <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to x-rays and polyvinyl alcohol were associated with 1.5-fold increase in risk. The occupation of the mother was not associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-<span class="hlt">age</span> infant, in contrast to paternal employment in the art and textile industries. Several toxic agents were associated with risk elevation of 1.3 or greater for fathers, most notably benzene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/538161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/538161"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of worm <span class="hlt">age</span>, duration of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity for Neanthes arenaceodentata (Annelida: Polychaeta)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bridges, T.S.; Farrar, J.D.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>The influence of worm <span class="hlt">age</span>, duration of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity were evaluated for Neanthes arenaceodentata. Worms were exposed to contaminated sediment collected from Black Rock Harbor (BRH) near Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA. This sediment was diluted with clean control sediment to result in five experimental treatments: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% BRH. Three <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenarios were employed: (1) a 4-week <span class="hlt">exposure</span> beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-4w), (2) a 7-week <span class="hlt">exposure</span> beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-7w), and (3) a 4-week <span class="hlt">exposure</span> beginning with 3-week-old juveniles (3WO-4w). Six measures of worm size were recorded at the conclusion of each <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to evaluate differences among measurement endpoints. Survival was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level for the EJ-7w scenario and at the 100% BRH level for the EJ-4w and 3WO-4w scenarios. Growth was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level in each <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scenario. Estimates based on the calculated minimum detectable difference indicated that considerably lower concentrations of BRH (6--10%) should be distinguishable by measuring effects on Neanthes growth. Worm size measured in terms of projected area, dry weight, and ash-free dry weight provided the most sensitive measures of effects. Increasing the length of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from 4 to 7 weeks and initiating <span class="hlt">exposures</span> with emergent juveniles rather than 3-week-old worms increased the sensitivity of the bioassay. The results of this study demonstrate that N. arenacedentata is sensitive to the presence of sediment-associated contaminants and that test animal <span class="hlt">age</span>, duration of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and choice of endpoint can have a large effect on the magnitude of the toxic response observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23026027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23026027"><span id="translatedtitle">Protective role of vitamins E and C against oxidative stress caused by intermittent cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in <span class="hlt">aging</span> rat's frontoparietal cortex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asha Devi, S; Manjula, K R; Subramanyam, M V V</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>This study examined the role of vitamins E and C in combating oxidative stress (OS) caused by intermittent cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (ICE) in the frontoparietal cortex (FPC) of adult (3 months), late-adult (12 months), middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> (18 months) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats. Each <span class="hlt">age</span> group was divided into sub-groups, control (CON), cold-exposed at 5°C (C5), control supplementees (CON+S) and cold-exposed supplementees (C5+S). The supplement was a daily dose of 400mg vitamin C and 50I.U.of vitamin E/kg body weight. Cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span> lasted 2h/day for 4 weeks. All <span class="hlt">age</span> groups except the old showed an increase in the final body mass in the cold-exposed. The feeding efficiency was higher in the cold-exposed irrespective of <span class="hlt">age</span>. OS as reflected in <span class="hlt">age</span>-related increased levels of hydrogen peroxide, protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde showed further increase with ICE in the FPC. However, vitamins E and C supplementation attenuated the ICE-induced OS. ICE depleted the levels of tissue vitamins E and C while supplementation resulted in increased levels. Further <span class="hlt">age</span> emerged as a significant factor in ICE-induced stress and also the response to vitamins E and C supplementation. Behavioral studies are underway to examine the findings on ICE-induced oxidative injury in the FPC, and the prospects for using vitamins E and C in cold <span class="hlt">exposures</span> in the <span class="hlt">aged</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746838"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to omega-3 fatty acids at early <span class="hlt">age</span> accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young <span class="hlt">age</span> accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3902100','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3902100"><span id="translatedtitle">Fetal antiepileptic drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span>: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at <span class="hlt">age</span> 6 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cohen, Morris J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED <span class="hlt">exposure</span> effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System—Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840013387&hterms=chimie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dchimie','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840013387&hterms=chimie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dchimie"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of iron meteorites, complex irradiation and the constancy of cosmic ray flux in the past</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Marti, K.; Lavielle, B.; Regnier, S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>While previous calculations of potassium <span class="hlt">ages</span> assumed a constant cosmic ray flux and a single stage (no change in size) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of iron meteorites, present calculations relaxed these constancy assumptions and the results reveal multistage irradiations for some 25% of the meteorites studied, implying multiple breakup in space. The distribution of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> suggests several major collisions (based on chemical composition and structure), although the calibration of <span class="hlt">age</span> scales is not yet complete. It is concluded that shielding-corrected (corrections which depend on size and position of sample) production rates are consistent for the <span class="hlt">age</span> bracket of 300 to 900 years. These production rates differ in a systematic way from those calculated for present day fluxes of cosmic rays (such as obtained for the last few million years).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eating+AND+psychology&pg=4&id=EJ950747','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eating+AND+psychology&pg=4&id=EJ950747"><span id="translatedtitle">Media <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> women. A sample of 101 women, <span class="hlt">aged</span> between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, <span class="hlt">aging</span> anxiety, body…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22439700','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22439700"><span id="translatedtitle">In utero bisphenol A <span class="hlt">exposure</span> disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with <span class="hlt">age</span> in the mouse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Wei Hafner, Katlyn S. Flaws, Jodi A.</p> <p>2014-04-15</p> <p>Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on early ovarian development and the consequences of such <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the <span class="hlt">age</span> of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with <span class="hlt">age</span>. - Highlights: • In utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> advances first estrus <span class="hlt">age</span> and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> causes various fertility problems in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3672910','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3672910"><span id="translatedtitle">Traffic-Related Air Pollution <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Lockey, James E.; Villareal, Manuel; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim N.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. Objective: We explored the association between early-life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at 7 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Methods: From the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort we collected data on <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ECAT during infancy and behavioral scores at 7 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Children enrolled in CCAAPS had at least one atopic parent and a birth residence either < 400 m or > 1,500 m from a major highway. Children were followed from infancy through 7 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. ECAT <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during the first year of life was estimated based on measurements from 27 air sampling sites and land use regression modeling. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition, when the child was 7 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. ADHD-related symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Atypicality subscales. Results: <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to the highest tertile of ECAT during the child’s first year of life was significantly associated with Hyperactivity T-scores in the “at risk” range at 7 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, after adjustment [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7]. Stratification by maternal education revealed a stronger association in children whose mothers had higher education (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Conclusions: ECAT <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during infancy was associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high school education. PMID:23694812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989847','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989847"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during pregnancy and preschool <span class="hlt">age</span> on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during pregnancy and preschool <span class="hlt">age</span> on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool <span class="hlt">age</span>) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-<span class="hlt">age</span> index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool <span class="hlt">age</span>, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school <span class="hlt">age</span>, adjusted for <span class="hlt">age</span> of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-<span class="hlt">age</span> was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for <span class="hlt">age</span>, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool <span class="hlt">age</span>, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool <span class="hlt">age</span> showed persistent lower height-for-<span class="hlt">age</span> since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21424788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21424788"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction between <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation and <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing in the disruption of operant performance using a ground-based model for <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to cosmic rays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Previous research has shown a progressive deterioration in cognitive performance in rats exposed to (56)Fe particles as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span>. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation independently of the <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing. Male Fischer-344 rats, 2, 7, 12, and 16 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>, were exposed to 25-200 cGy of (56)Fe particles (1,000 MeV/n). Following irradiation, the rats were trained to make an operant response on an ascending fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule. When performance was evaluated as a function of both <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation and testing, the results showed a significant effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> on the dose needed to produce a performance decrement, such that older rats exposed to lower doses of (56)Fe particles showed a performance decrement compared to younger rats. When performance was evaluated as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation with the <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing held constant, the results indicated that <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation was a significant factor influencing operant responding, such that older rats tested at similar <span class="hlt">ages</span> and exposed to similar doses of (56)Fe particles showed similar performance decrements. The results are interpreted as indicating that the performance decrement is not a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> per se, but instead is dependent upon an interaction between the <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation, the <span class="hlt">age</span> of testing, and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles. The nature of these effects and how <span class="hlt">age</span> of irradiation affects cognitive performance after an interval of 15 to 16 months remains to be established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37439','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37439"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> sensitivity of juvenile mussels (Utterbackia imbeciles Say) to copper and cadmium <span class="hlt">exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Warren, L.W.; Klaine, S.J.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>In recent years, there has been increased interest in using early life stages of freshwater bivalves to test the toxicity of dissolved constituents in water. The authors have developed laboratory and in situ assays with artificially cultured Utterbackia imbecillis to examine effects of contaminants and existing conditions in embayments and rivers on mortality and reproductive success of unionid mussels. <span class="hlt">Age</span> sensitivity of U. imbecillis to Cd and Cu was examined using both static acute and 8-day static renewal bioassays. Both aqueous and sediment <span class="hlt">exposures</span> demonstrated greater sensitivity to Cd than Cu. LC{sub 50}`s for two-day old (2d) and 9d mussels were approximately half the LC{sub 50} calculated for 16d mussels in 48-hr bioassays with Cd. Additionally, acute assays were repeated twice to examine variability in response between different mussel cultures to the two metals. The results of this work reinforce the potential of juvenile U. imbecillis as a standard toxicity test organism for water-borne and sediment contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.270..134W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.270..134W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> assessment and implications of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland, based on Schmidt-hammer <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> dating (SHD)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Peter; Matthews, John A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Schmidt-hammer <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> dating (SHD) was applied to a variety of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms composed of coarse rock debris on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland. Landform <span class="hlt">ages</span> were determined using a linear high-precision <span class="hlt">age</span>-calibration curve, derived from young and old control surfaces of known <span class="hlt">age</span> on the same rock type. The SHD <span class="hlt">ages</span> represent maximum estimates of the time elapsed since the boulders stabilised and the landforms became inactive. Most <span class="hlt">ages</span> are also minimum estimates for the start of landform development because older boulders are buried beneath the sampled surface boulders. <span class="hlt">Ages</span> and 95% confidence intervals obtained for blockfield, boulder lobes and talus indicate these features were likely active during several of the early Holocene cold events evidenced in Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment records. Activity ceased at different times ~ 9-7 ka BP. These landforms are the first indication of a geomorphological response to early Holocene cooling in the oceanic mountains of Ireland. Late Holocene <span class="hlt">ages</span>, obtained for rock-slope failure run-out debris and debris cone boulders, overlap with shifts to cooler and/or wetter conditions, including the Little Ice <span class="hlt">Age</span>. Geomorphological impacts associated with these changes in climate have not previously been recorded in the Irish uplands. The SHD results indicate that previously implied timings for the stabilisation of some accumulations of coarse rock debris on mountain slopes are in need of revision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2634602','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2634602"><span id="translatedtitle">Severity of Prenatal Cocaine <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Child Language Functioning Through <span class="hlt">Age</span> Seven Years: A Longitudinal Latent Growth Curve Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bandstra, Emmalee S.; Vogel, April L.; Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The current study estimates the longitudinal effects of severity of prenatal cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on language functioning in an urban sample of full-term African-American children (200 cocaine-exposed, 176 noncocaine-exposed) through <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 years. The Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study sample was enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of prenatal drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> status through maternal interview and toxicology assays of maternal and infant urine and infant meconium. Language functioning was measured at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 3 and 5 years using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals–Preschool (CELF-P) and at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 years using the Core Language Domain of the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to examine two components of language functioning, a more stable aptitude for language performance and a time-varying trajectory of language development, across the three time points and their relationship to varying levels of prenatal cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Severity of prenatal cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was characterized using a latent construct combining maternal self-report of cocaine use during pregnancy by trimesters and maternal and infant bioassays, allowing all available information to be taken into account. The association between severity of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and language functioning was examined within a model including factors for fetal growth, gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>, and IQ as intercorrelated response variables and child’s <span class="hlt">age</span>, gender, and prenatal alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana <span class="hlt">exposure</span> as covariates. Results indicated that greater severity of prenatal cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with greater deficits within the more stable aptitude for language performance (D = −0.071, 95% CI = −0.133, −0.009; p = 0.026). There was no relationship between severity of prenatal cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and the time-varying trajectory of language development. The observed cocaine-associated deficit was independent of multiple alternative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=171923&keyword=dairy+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80414430&CFTOKEN=79892129','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=171923&keyword=dairy+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80414430&CFTOKEN=79892129"><span id="translatedtitle">SUMMARY REPORT OF A PEER INVOLVEMENT WORKSHOP ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> FACTORS HANDBOOK FOR THE <span class="hlt">AGING</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA has released the final workshop report, <i>Summary Report of a Peer Involvement Workshop on the Development of an <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Factors Handbook for the <span class="hlt">Aging</span></i>. This report provides an overview of a meeting held February 14-15, 2007 which was organized to discuss factors affec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256634','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256634"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidation and biodegradation of polyethylene films containing pro-oxidantadditives: Synergistic effects of sunlight <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, thermal <span class="hlt">aging</span> and fungal biodegradation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Synergistic effects of sunlight <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, thermal <span class="hlt">aging</span> and fungal biodegradation on the oxidation and biodegradation of linear low density poly (ethylene) PE-LLD films containing pro-oxidant were examined. To achieve oxidation and degradation, films were first exposed to the sunlight for 93 days du...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18361654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18361654"><span id="translatedtitle">Reported <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and emotional reactivity to daily stressors: the roles of adult <span class="hlt">age</span> and global perceived stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and reactivity to daily stressors. The present study examined how <span class="hlt">age</span> differences and global perceptions of stress relate to <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (M <span class="hlt">age</span> = 20) and 116 older (M <span class="hlt">age</span> = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14-day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to daily stressors is reduced in old <span class="hlt">age</span> but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between younger and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to daily stressors in older adults and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..529R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..529R"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> for the Last Glacial Cycle in the Sanabria Lake region (northwestern Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María Jose; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Valero-Garcés, Blas</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Sanabria Lake region is located in the Trevinca Massif, a mid-latitude mountain area up to 2128 m asl in the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (42oN 6oW). An ice cap glaciation took place during the Last Glacial Cycle in this massif, with an equilibrium line altitude of 1687 m for the Tera glacial outlet at its local maximum (Cowton et al., 2009). A well preserved glacial sequence occurs on an area of 45 km2 around the present Sanabria Lake (1000 m asl) and is composed by lateral and end moraines in close relationship with glaciolacustrine deposits. This sequence shows the ice snout oscillations of the former Tera glacier during the Last Glacial Cycle and offers a good opportunity to compare radiocarbon and OSL- based chronological models with new cosmogenic isotope dates. The new dataset of 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> presented here for the Sanabria Lake moraines is based on measurements conducted on 23 boulders and is compared with previous radiocarbon and OSL data conducted on ice related deposits (Pérez-Alberti et al., 2011; Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2011). Our results are coherent with the available deglaciation radiocarbon chronology, and support a last deglaciation origin for the whole set of end moraines that are downstream the Sanabria Lake (19.2 - 15.7 10Be ka). Discrepancies between results of the different dating methods concern the timing of the local glacial maximum, with the cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> method always yielding the youngest minimum <span class="hlt">ages</span>. As proposed to explain similar observations made elsewhere (Palacios et al., 2012), reconciling the <span class="hlt">ages</span> from different dating methods would imply the occurrence of two glacial advances close enough in extent to generate an overlapping polygenic moraine. Cowton, T., Hughes, P.D., Gibbard, P.L., 2009. Palaeoglaciation of Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, northwest Spain. Geomorphology 108, 282-291. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L., Jiménez-Sánchez, M., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Rico, M.T., Valero-Garcés, B</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4545741','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4545741"><span id="translatedtitle">Bisphenol A <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Behavioral Problems among Inner City Children at 7-9 Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roen, Emily L.; Wang, Ya; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wang, Shuang; Margolis, Amy; Herbstman, Julie; Hoepner, Lori A.; Rauh, Virginia; Perera, Frederica P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous endocrine disrupting compound. Several experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that gestational BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can lead to neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems in early-life, but results have been inconsistent. We previously reported that prenatal BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> may affect child behavior and differently among boys and girls at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 3-5 years. Objectives We investigated the association of prenatal and early childhood BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with behavioral outcomes in 7-9 year old minority children and hypothesized that we would observe the same sex-specific pattern observed at earlier <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Methods African-American and Dominican women enrolled in an inner-city prospective cohort study and their children were followed from mother’s pregnancy through children’s <span class="hlt">age</span> 7-9 years. Women during the third trimester of pregnancy and children at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 3 and 5 years provided spot urine samples. BPA <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was categorized by tertiles of BPA urinary concentrations. The Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) was administered at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 7 and 9 to assess multiple child behavior domains. Associations between behavior and prenatal (maternal) BPA concentrations and behavior and postnatal (child) BPA concentration were assessed via Poisson regression in models stratified by sex. These models accounted for potential confounders including prenatal or postnatal urinary BPA concentrations, child <span class="hlt">age</span> at CBCL assessment, ethnicity, gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>, maternal intelligence, maternal education and demoralization, quality of child’s home environment, prenatal environmental tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and prenatal mono-n-butyl phthalate concentration. Results The direction of the associations differed between boys and girls. Among boys (n=115), high prenatal BPA concentration (upper tertile vs. lower two tertiles) was associated with increased internalizing (β=0.41, p<0.0001) and externalizing composite scores (β=0.40, p<0.0001) and with their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23185565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23185565"><span id="translatedtitle">Isoflurane <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during mid-adulthood attenuates <span class="hlt">age</span>-related spatial memory impairment in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Su, Diansan; Zhao, Yanxing; Xu, Huan; Wang, Beilei; Chen, Xuemei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xiangrui</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Many in vitro findings suggest that isoflurane <span class="hlt">exposure</span> might accelerate the process of Alzheimer Disease (AD); however, no behavioral evidence exists to support this theory. In the present study, we hypothesized that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of APP/PS1 transgenic mice to isoflurane during mid-adulthood, which is the pre-symptomatic phase of amyloid beta (Abeta) deposition, would alter the progression of AD. Seven-month-old Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/J transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates were exposed to 1.1% isoflurane for 2 hours per day for 5 days. Learning and memory ability was tested 48 hours and 5 months following isoflurane <span class="hlt">exposure</span> using the Morris Water Maze and Y maze, respectively. Abeta deposition and oligomers in the hippocampus were measured by immunohistochemistry or Elisa 5 months following isoflurane <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. We found that the performance of both the transgenic and wild-type mice in the Morris Water Maze significantly improved 48 hours following isoflurane <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The transgenic mice made significantly fewer discrimination errors in the Y maze following isoflurane <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and no differences were found between wild-type littermates 5 months following isoflurane <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. For the transgenic mice, the Abeta plaque and oligomers in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in the 5 months following isoflurane <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. In summary, repeated isoflurane <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during the pre-symptomatic phase not only improved spatial memory in both the APP/PS1 transgenic and wild-type mice shortly after the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> but also prevented <span class="hlt">age</span>-related decline in learning and memory and attenuated the Abeta plaque and oligomers in the hippocampus of transgenic mice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087183"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Tobacco Advertising and Promotion among School Children <span class="hlt">Aged</span> 13-15 in Vietnam - an Overview from GYTS 2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Huong, Le Thi Thanh</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Evidence shows that tobacco advertising and promotion activities may increase tobacco consumption and usage, especially in youth. Despite the regulation on prohibiting advertisement of any tobacco product, tobacco advertisement and promotion activities are still common in Vietnam. This article presents current <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to tobacco advertising and promotion (TAP) among school children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and potential influencing factors. Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2014 in Vietnam covering 3,430 school <span class="hlt">aged</span> children were used. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were carried out with Stata 13 statistical software. Binary logistic regression was applied to explain the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to TAP among youth and examine relationships with individual factors. A significance level of p<0.05 and sampling weights were used in all of the computations. In the past 30 days, 48.6% of the students experienced <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to at least 1 type of tobacco advertising or promotion. Wearing or otherwise using products related to tobacco was the most <span class="hlt">exposure</span> TAP type reported by students (22.3%). The internet (22.1), points of sales (19.2) and social events (11.5) were three places that students <span class="hlt">aged</span> 13-15 frequently were exposed to TAP. Binary logistic results showed that gender (female vs male) (OR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.52 - 0.71), susceptibility to smoking (OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.53 - 2.92), closest friends' smoked (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.2 - 1.7) and parents smoking status (OR = 2.83, 95%CI: 1.6 - 5.01) were significantly associated with TAP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among school-<span class="hlt">aged</span> children. The research findings should contribute to effective implementation of measures for preventing and controlling tobacco use among students <span class="hlt">aged</span> 13-15 in Viet Nam. PMID:27087183</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19115965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19115965"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolism and <span class="hlt">aging</span>: effects of cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on metabolic rate, body composition, and longevity in mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vaanholt, Lobke M; Daan, Serge; Schubert, Kristin A; Visser, G Henk</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The proposition that increased energy expenditure shortens life has a long history. The rate-of-living theory (Pearl 1928 ) states that life span and average mass-specific metabolic rate are inversely proportional. Originally based on interspecific allometric comparisons between species of mammals, the theory was later rejected on the basis of comparisons between taxa (e.g., birds have higher metabolic rates than mammals of the same size and yet live longer). It has rarely been experimentally tested within species. Here, we investigated the effects of increased energy expenditure, induced by cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, on longevity in mice. Longevity was measured in groups of 60 male mice maintained at either 22 degrees C (WW) or 10 degrees C (CC) throughout adult life. Forty additional mice were maintained at both of these temperatures to determine metabolic rate (by stable isotope turnover, gas exchange, and food intake) as well as the mass of body and organs of subsets of animals at four different <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Because energy expenditure might affect longevity by either accumulating damage or by instantaneously affecting mortality rate, we included a third group of mice exposed to 10 degrees C early in life and to 22 degrees C afterward (CW). <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to cold increased mean daily energy expenditure by ca. 48% (from 47.8 kJ d(-1) in WW to 70.6 kJ d(-1) in CC mice, with CW intermediate at 59.9 kJ d(-1)). However, we observed no significant differences in median life span among the groups (WW, 832 d; CC, 834 d; CW, 751 d). CC mice had reduced body mass (lifetime mean 30.7 g) compared with WW mice (33.8 g), and hence their lifetime energy potential (LEP) per gram whole-body mass had an even larger excess than per individual. Greenberg ( 1999 ) has pointed out that the size of the energetically costly organs, rather than that of the whole body, may be relevant for the rate-of-living idea. We therefore expressed LEP also in terms of energy expenditure per gram dry lean mass or per gram</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18615111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18615111"><span id="translatedtitle">Overseas sun <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, nevus counts, and premature skin <span class="hlt">aging</span> in young English women: a population-based survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Higgins, Craig D; Abramsky, Tanya; Swanwick, Maureen A; Frazer, Jacqueline; Whitaker, Linda M; Blanshard, Margaret E; Bradshaw, John; Apps, John M; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Swerdlow, Anthony J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A large number of melanocytic nevi is the strongest known risk factor for melanoma in whites, but its relationship to sun <span class="hlt">exposure</span> overseas among young white women living in temperate climates is unclear. A total of 754 white English women <span class="hlt">aged</span> 18-46 years were recruited into a cross-sectional study in 1997-2000 to investigate the effect of ultraviolet <span class="hlt">exposures</span> on numbers of nevi and atypical nevi, and on skin <span class="hlt">aging</span> as measured by microtopography. Having ever holidayed in hotter countries was associated with a greater <span class="hlt">age</span>- and phenotype-adjusted mean number of whole-body nevi (percent increase=74; 95% confidence interval: 24, 144; P=0.001), particularly for holidays taken at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 18-29 years and for counts of the trunk and lower limbs. Having ever lived overseas was not associated with nevus counts, but was inversely associated with number of atypical nevi (P=0.02). Skin <span class="hlt">aging</span> was not associated with residence or holidays abroad. The association of holidays overseas with an increased nevus count in young white women, which was stronger in the anatomical sites intermittently exposed to sunlight, supports the hypothesis that intermittent sun <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is of relevance in the etiology of nevi and, hence, melanoma. The findings are of public health relevance given the growing popularity of foreign holidays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5071542','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5071542"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> science in an <span class="hlt">age</span> of rapidly changing climate: challenges and opportunities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S; Overpeck, Jonathan; Breysse, Patrick N; Backer, Lorrie; Richardson, Susan D; Sobus, Jon; Sapkota, Amir; Upperman, Crystal R; Jiang, Chengsheng; Beard, C Ben; Brunkard, J M; Bell, Jesse E; Harris, Ryan; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Peltier, Richard E; Chew, Ginger L; Blount, Benjamin C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is anticipated to alter the production, use, release, and fate of environmental chemicals, likely leading to increased uncertainty in <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and human health risk predictions. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> science provides a key connection between changes in climate and associated health outcomes. The theme of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the International Society of <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Science—<span class="hlt">Exposures</span> in an Evolving Environment—brought this issue to the fore. By directing attention to questions that may affect society in profound ways, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scientists have an opportunity to conduct “consequential science”—doing science that matters, using our tools for the greater good and to answer key policy questions, and identifying causes leading to implementation of solutions. Understanding the implications of changing <span class="hlt">exposures</span> on public health may be one of the most consequential areas of study in which <span class="hlt">exposure</span> scientists could currently be engaged. In this paper, we use a series of case studies to identify <span class="hlt">exposure</span> data gaps and research paths that will enable us to capture the information necessary for understanding climate change-related human <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and consequent health impacts. We hope that paper will focus attention on under-developed areas of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> science that will likely have broad implications for public health. PMID:27485992</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...156...16V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...156...16V"><span id="translatedtitle">Water <span class="hlt">age</span>, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> time, and local flushing time in semi-enclosed, tidal basins with negligible freshwater inflow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viero, Daniele Pietro; Defina, Andrea</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Within the framework of tidally flushed, semi-enclosed basins with negligible freshwater inflow, and under steady periodic flow conditions, three frequently used local transport time scales to quantify the efficiency of water renewal, namely water <span class="hlt">age</span>, <span class="hlt">exposure</span> time, and local flushing time are studied and compared to each other. In these environments, water renewal is strongly controlled by diffusion, and it is significantly affected by the return flow (i.e., the fraction of effluent water that returns into the basin on each flood tide). The definition of water <span class="hlt">age</span> is here modified to account for the return flow, in analogy with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> time and local flushing time. We consider approximate time scales, whose accuracy is analyzed, in order to overcome problems related to the size of the computational domain and to reduce the computational effort. A new approximate procedure is introduced to estimate water <span class="hlt">age</span>, which is based on the water <span class="hlt">aging</span> rate. Also, the concept of local flushing time as a relevant time scale is introduced. Under steady periodic conditions, we demonstrate that the local flushing time quantitatively corresponds to water <span class="hlt">age</span>, and well approximates <span class="hlt">exposure</span> time when the flow is dominated by diffusion. Since the effort required to compute water <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> time is greater than that required to compute the local flushing time, the present results can also have a practical interest in the assessment of water renewal efficiency of semi-enclosed water basins. The results of a modeling study, in which the lagoon of Venice is used as a benchmark, confirm the substantial quantitative equivalence between these three transport time scales in highly diffusive environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://rparticle.web-p.cisti.nrc.ca/rparticle/AbstractTemplateServlet?calyLang=eng&journal=cjz&volume=70&year=0&issue=5&msno=z92-128','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://rparticle.web-p.cisti.nrc.ca/rparticle/AbstractTemplateServlet?calyLang=eng&journal=cjz&volume=70&year=0&issue=5&msno=z92-128"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex cohorts of Canada geese</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>We examined the prevalence of lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from ingestion of waste lead shot among <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and < 1 % of adults showed evidence of recent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead shot (i.e., concentrations in the blood elevated above the threshold value of 0. 18 ppm lead). However, median background blood lead concentrations (i.e., blood samples with < 0.18 ppm lead) were higher in adults than goslings, indicating that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of adults to lead had occurred during previous seasons. Waste lead shot was available on the migration and wintering grounds, where a larger proportion of the blood samples from immatures (< 1 year old) than adults (> 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25220148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25220148"><span id="translatedtitle">Brief dark <span class="hlt">exposure</span> restored ocular dominance plasticity in <span class="hlt">aging</span> mice and after a cortical stroke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stodieck, Sophia Katharina; Greifzu, Franziska; Goetze, Bianka; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Löwel, Siegrid</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In the primary visual cortex (V1), monocular deprivation (MD) induces a shift in the ocular dominance (OD) of binocular neurons towards the open eye (Wiesel and Hubel, 1963; Gordon and Stryker, 1996). In V1 of C57Bl/6J mice, this OD-plasticity is maximal in juveniles, declines in adults and is absent beyond postnatal day (PD) 110 (Lehmann and Löwel, 2008) if mice are raised in standard cages. Since it was recently shown that brief dark <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (DE) restored OD-plasticity in young adult rats (PD70-100) (He et al., 2006), we wondered whether DE would restore OD-plasticity also in adult and old mice and after a cortical stroke. To this end, we raised mice in standard cages until adulthood and transferred them to a darkroom for 10-14 days. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging we demonstrate that short-term DE can restore OD-plasticity after MD in both adult (PD138) and old mice (PD535), and that OD-shifts were mediated by an increase of open eye responses in V1. Interestingly, restored OD-plasticity after DE was accompanied by a reduction of both parvalbumin expressing cells and perineuronal nets and was prevented by increasing intracortical inhibition with diazepam. DE also maintained OD-plasticity in adult mice (PD150) after a stroke in the primary somatosensory cortex. In contrast, short-term DE did not affect basic visual parameters as measured by optomotry. In conclusion, short-term DE was able to restore OD-plasticity in both adult and <span class="hlt">aging</span> mice and even preserved plasticity after a cortical stroke, most likely mediated by reducing intracortical inhibition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4076304','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4076304"><span id="translatedtitle">Low Dose Prenatal Alcohol <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory in Two Tests in Adult and <span class="hlt">Aged</span> Rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cullen, Carlie L.; Burne, Thomas H. J.; Lavidis, Nickolas A.; Moritz, Karen M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol) ethanol (EtOH) or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult) or 15 months (<span class="hlt">Aged</span>) of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance. PMID:24978807</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22683800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22683800"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of environmental contaminant <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on visual brain development: a prospective electrophysiological study in school-<span class="hlt">aged</span> children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ethier, Audrey-Anne; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Arfken, Cynthia; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Saint-Amour, Dave</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The Inuit from Nunavik (Northern Québec) are one of the most highly exposed populations to environmental contaminants in North America mainly due to the bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and marine mammals that constitute an important part of their diet. This follow-up study aimed to assess the impact of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to contaminants on visual brain development in school-<span class="hlt">age</span> Inuit children (mean <span class="hlt">age</span>=10.9 years). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in umbilical cord blood and again in blood samples at the time of testing, reflecting pre- and current <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, respectively. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were scalp-recorded at the occipital cortex. Visual stimulation consisted of achromatic gratings presented at four visual contrast levels: 95%, 30%, 12% and 4%. The relation between environmental contaminant body burdens and VEPs was examined by regression analysis controlling for confounding variables, including fish nutrients and other toxicants. No significant association was found for PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> after statistical adjustments. Cord blood mercury level was associated with a reduction of the N75 amplitude at the highest contrast level and with a delay of the N75 latency at the 12% contrast level. Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead was associated with a delay of the N150 latency at most contrast levels. This study suggests that heavy metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, in particular during the gestational period, can impair the development of visual processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20015457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20015457"><span id="translatedtitle">Early postnatal parathion <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in rats causes sex-selective cognitive impairment and neurotransmitter defects which emerge in <span class="hlt">aging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levin, Edward D; Timofeeva, Olga A; Yang, Liwei; Petro, Ann; Ryde, Ian T; Wrench, Nicola; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Developmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of rats to the organophosphate (OP) pesticides leads to altered neurobehavioral function in juvenile and young adult stages. The current study was conducted to determine whether effects of neonatal parathion <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on cognitive performance persist in older adult and <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats, and the relationship of behavioral changes to underlying cholinergic and serotonergic mechanisms. We administered parathion to rat pups on postnatal days 1-4, at doses spanning the threshold for the initial signs of systemic toxicity and for barely detectable cholinesterase inhibition (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg/day). Beginning at 14 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> and continuing until 19 months, the rats were trained in the 16-arm radial maze. Controls showed the normal sex difference in this spatial learning and memory task, with the males committing significantly fewer working memory errors than females. Neonatal parathion <span class="hlt">exposure</span> eliminated the sex difference primarily by causing impairment in males. In association with the effects on cognitive performance, neonatal parathion <span class="hlt">exposure</span> elicited widespread abnormalities in indices of serotonergic (5HT) and cholinergic synaptic function, characterized by upregulation of 5HT(2) receptors and the 5HT transporter, deficits in choline acetyltransferase activity and nicotinic cholinergic receptors, and increases in hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter. Within-animal correlations between behavior and neurochemistry indicated a specific correlation between working memory performance and hippocampal hemicholinium-3 binding; parathion <span class="hlt">exposure</span> eliminated this relationship. Like the behavioral effects, males showed greater effects of parathion on neurochemical parameters. This study demonstrates the sex-selective, long-term behavioral alterations caused by otherwise nontoxic neonatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to parathion, with effects increasingly expressed with <span class="hlt">aging</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20015457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20015457"><span id="translatedtitle">Early postnatal parathion <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in rats causes sex-selective cognitive impairment and neurotransmitter defects which emerge in <span class="hlt">aging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levin, Edward D; Timofeeva, Olga A; Yang, Liwei; Petro, Ann; Ryde, Ian T; Wrench, Nicola; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Developmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of rats to the organophosphate (OP) pesticides leads to altered neurobehavioral function in juvenile and young adult stages. The current study was conducted to determine whether effects of neonatal parathion <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on cognitive performance persist in older adult and <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats, and the relationship of behavioral changes to underlying cholinergic and serotonergic mechanisms. We administered parathion to rat pups on postnatal days 1-4, at doses spanning the threshold for the initial signs of systemic toxicity and for barely detectable cholinesterase inhibition (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg/day). Beginning at 14 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> and continuing until 19 months, the rats were trained in the 16-arm radial maze. Controls showed the normal sex difference in this spatial learning and memory task, with the males committing significantly fewer working memory errors than females. Neonatal parathion <span class="hlt">exposure</span> eliminated the sex difference primarily by causing impairment in males. In association with the effects on cognitive performance, neonatal parathion <span class="hlt">exposure</span> elicited widespread abnormalities in indices of serotonergic (5HT) and cholinergic synaptic function, characterized by upregulation of 5HT(2) receptors and the 5HT transporter, deficits in choline acetyltransferase activity and nicotinic cholinergic receptors, and increases in hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter. Within-animal correlations between behavior and neurochemistry indicated a specific correlation between working memory performance and hippocampal hemicholinium-3 binding; parathion <span class="hlt">exposure</span> eliminated this relationship. Like the behavioral effects, males showed greater effects of parathion on neurochemical parameters. This study demonstrates the sex-selective, long-term behavioral alterations caused by otherwise nontoxic neonatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to parathion, with effects increasingly expressed with <span class="hlt">aging</span>. PMID:20015457</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3697011','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3697011"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through <span class="hlt">age</span> 9 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (≥ 2 drinks/day or ≥ 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at <span class="hlt">age</span> 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at <span class="hlt">age</span> 9 than at other <span class="hlt">age</span> points. Although heavy alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through <span class="hlt">age</span> 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881111"><span id="translatedtitle">Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in youth football: elementary school <span class="hlt">ages</span> 9-12 years and the effect of practice structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cobb, Bryan R; Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in youth football has not been well-documented, despite children under the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 14 accounting for 70% of all football players in the United States. The objective of this study was to quantify the head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of youth football players, <span class="hlt">age</span> 9-12, for all practices and games over the course of single season. A total of 50 players (<span class="hlt">age</span> = 11.0 ± 1.1 years) on three teams were equipped with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays, which monitored each impact players sustained during practices and games. During the season, 11,978 impacts were recorded for this <span class="hlt">age</span> group. Players averaged 240 ± 147 impacts for the season with linear and rotational 95th percentile magnitudes of 43 ± 7 g and 2034 ± 361 rad/s(2). Overall, practice and game sessions involved similar impact frequencies and magnitudes. One of the three teams however, had substantially fewer impacts per practice and lower 95th percentile magnitudes in practices due to a concerted effort to limit contact in practices. The same team also participated in fewer practices, further reducing the number of impacts each player experienced in practice. Head impact <span class="hlt">exposures</span> in games showed no statistical difference. While the acceleration magnitudes among 9-12 year old players tended to be lower than those reported for older players, some recorded high magnitude impacts were similar to those seen at the high school and college level. Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in youth football may be appreciably reduced by limiting contact in practices. Further research is required to assess whether such a reduction in head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> will result in a reduction in concussion incidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200068"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> at First <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, <span class="hlt">ages</span> 40-65, were matched by <span class="hlt">age</span> and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 or at <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure. PMID:26200068</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200068"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> at First <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, <span class="hlt">ages</span> 40-65, were matched by <span class="hlt">age</span> and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 or at <span class="hlt">age</span> 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036950','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036950"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older <span class="hlt">Age</span>: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>As the population <span class="hlt">ages</span>, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to <span class="hlt">ageing</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span>-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated <span class="hlt">ageing</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2018527','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2018527"><span id="translatedtitle">Elderly and sun-affected skin. Distinguishing between changes caused by <span class="hlt">aging</span> and changes caused by habitual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to sun.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jackson, R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: To review and distinguish between skin changes produced by <span class="hlt">aging</span> and changes produced by habitual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to sun. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The literature was searched from 1969 to 1999 for articles on dermatoheliosis and sun-damaged skin. Surprisingly few were found comparing the difference between elderly skin and sun-damaged skin. A few articles focused on certain small aspects of sun-damaged skin. Many excellent articles described particular changes (e.g., actinic keratosis), but few covered all the changes due to <span class="hlt">aging</span> and to sun. MAIN MESSAGE: Skin changes due to <span class="hlt">aging</span> can be distinguished from those due to sun damage. All changes due to sun <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can be grouped under the term dermatoheliosis; five parts of the skin are involved: epidermis (actinic keratosis), dermis (solar elastosis), blood vessels (telangiectasia), sebaceous glands (solar comedones), and melanocytes (diffuse or mottled brown patches). Habitual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to sun and a white skin are prerequisites for developing these changes. Knowing the difference between changes caused by sun and by <span class="hlt">aging</span> can help physicians predict which patients are most likely to get skin cancers. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of these common skin changes will help physicians diagnose and manage the skin abnormalities of elderly people and of people with dermatoheliosis. PMID:11421052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drug+AND+brain&pg=4&id=EJ913311','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drug+AND+brain&pg=4&id=EJ913311"><span id="translatedtitle">Foetal Antiepileptic Drug <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Verbal versus Non-Verbal Abilities at Three Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We previously reported that foetal valproate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=302423','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=302423"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> on the disruption of cognitive performance by <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to space radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to low doses of heavy particles and protons can cause deficits in cognitive performance when measured within a short time (1-4 months) following irradiation. The long-term effects of such <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and their relationship to the short-term effects remain to be established. The present exp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=259746&keyword=smoking+AND+health&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80465542&CFTOKEN=64977974','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=259746&keyword=smoking+AND+health&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80465542&CFTOKEN=64977974"><span id="translatedtitle">Cumulative <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>PURPOSE: Maternal stress and <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to lead (Pb) and methyl mercury (MeHg) affect human neurodevelopment and reproductive health. Here, we characterized cumulative <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to stress and multiple developmental neurotoxicants (NDTs) including Pb and MeHg and identify potentia...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058928"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and language delay at three years of <span class="hlt">age</span> in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the <span class="hlt">Ages</span> and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An <span class="hlt">exposure</span> level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Results indicated an association between high MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population. PMID:27058928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=media+AND+relations&pg=7&id=EJ972061','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=media+AND+relations&pg=7&id=EJ972061"><span id="translatedtitle">Infant and Early Childhood <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Adult-Directed and Child-Directed Television Programming: Relations with Cognitive Skills at <span class="hlt">Age</span> Four</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barr, Rachel; Lauricella, Alexis; Zach, Elizabeth; Calvert, Sandra L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study described the relations among the amount of child-directed versus adult-directed television <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at <span class="hlt">ages</span> 1 and 4 with cognitive outcomes at <span class="hlt">age</span> 4. Sixty parents completed 24-hour television diaries when their children were 1 and 4 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. At <span class="hlt">age</span> 4, their children also completed a series of cognitive measures and parents…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7055489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7055489"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of altitude <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on induction of streptococcal endocarditis in young and middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altland, P D</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Young (<span class="hlt">age</span> 2 months) and middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> (<span class="hlt">age</span> 10 month) rats were injected once with a culture of Streptococcus sanguis and exposed for 24 h to 7620 m altitude. At 6 d 54% of the exposed and 30% of the unexposed middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> rats had bacterial endocarditis. Myocarditis developed in 63% of the injected exposed rats of both <span class="hlt">ages</span>, in 11% of the injected unexposed middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> rats, and in none of the unexposed young adults. Interstitial nephritis was found in 46-66% of the injected, unexposed young and middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> rats and in 70-86% of the injected, exposed young and middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> rats, respectively. About 95% of all injected rats survived 6 d. No evidence of hemoconcentration was found. The increase in cardiac disease induced by altitude was probably due to deleterious effects of hypoxia on the myocardium, and cellular defenses, and to physiological and possible immunological changes associated with <span class="hlt">aging</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=English+AND+foreign+AND+language+AND+children&pg=5&id=EJ1092714','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=English+AND+foreign+AND+language+AND+children&pg=5&id=EJ1092714"><span id="translatedtitle">English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of <span class="hlt">Age</span>, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, and L1 Phonology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of <span class="hlt">age</span>, English vocabulary size, length of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean <span class="hlt">age</span> 5;8 [years;months]) whose <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447520','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447520"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to environmental contaminants and body composition at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7–9 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812672','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812672"><span id="translatedtitle">Associations Between Prenatal Cigarette Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Externalized Behaviors at School <span class="hlt">Age</span> Among Inuit Children Exposed to Environmental Contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet, prenatal cigarette smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school <span class="hlt">age</span> in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Methods Participants were 271 children (mean <span class="hlt">age</span> = 11.3 years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child’s classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. Results After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. Interpretation This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-<span class="hlt">aged</span> children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. PMID:23916943</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=152023&keyword=brain+AND+functions&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=70165828&CFTOKEN=47360221','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=152023&keyword=brain+AND+functions&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=70165828&CFTOKEN=47360221"><span id="translatedtitle">IMPROVING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF SUSCEPTIBILITY IN THE <span class="hlt">AGING</span> POPULATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL <span class="hlt">EXPOSURES</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A radical demographic shift is taking place in America, with <span class="hlt">aging</span> adults being the fastest-growing segment of the population. Considerable research is underway on the biology of <span class="hlt">aging</span> and on remedies for treating the diseases of <span class="hlt">aging</span>. Remarkably little is known, however, about ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307758&keyword=cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68473911&CFTOKEN=44601125','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307758&keyword=cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68473911&CFTOKEN=44601125"><span id="translatedtitle">Examination of <span class="hlt">age</span>-related epigenetic changes following early-life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to dichloroacetic acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Recent studies have shown that transient early-life <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a pyruvate analog and metabolic reprogramming agent, increases liver cancer incidence in older mice. This carcinogenic effect is not associated with direct mutagenicity, persistent cytotoxi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27003124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27003124"><span id="translatedtitle">Small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to particulate air pollution in the early-life environment of twins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bijnens, Esmée M; Derom, Catherine; Gielen, Marij; Winckelmans, Ellen; Fierens, Frans; Vlietinck, Robert; Zeegers, Maurice P; Nawrot, Tim S</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Several studies in singletons have shown that maternal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ambient air pollutants is associated with restricted fetal growth. About half of twins have low birth weight compared with six percent in singletons. So far, no studies have investigated maternal air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in association with birth weight and small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> in twins. We examined 4760 twins of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Survey (2002-2013), to study the association between in utero <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollution with birth weight and small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. Maternal particulate air pollution (PM10) and nitric dioxide (NO2) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was estimated using a spatial temporal interpolation method over various time windows during pregnancy. In the total group of twins, we observed that higher PM10 and NO2 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during the third trimester was significantly associated with a lower birth weight and higher risk of small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. However, the association was driven by moderate to late preterm twins (32-36 weeks of gestation). In these twins born between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation, birth weight decreased by 40.2g (95% CI: -69.0 to -11.3; p=0.006) and by 27.3g (95% CI: -52.9 to -1.7; p=0.04) in association for each 10µg/m³ increment in PM10 and NO2 concentration during the third trimester. The corresponding odds ratio for small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> were 1.68 (95% CI: 1.27-2.33; p=0.0003) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.18-1.95; p=0.001) for PM10 or NO2, respectively. No associations between air pollution and birth weight or small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> were observed among term born twins. Finally, in all twins, we found that for each 10µg/m³ increase in PM10 during the last month of pregnancy the within-pair birth weight difference increased by 19.6g (95% CI: 3.7-35.4; p=0.02). Assuming causality, an achievement of a 10µg/m³ decrease of particulate air pollution may account for a reduction by 40% in small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>, in twins born moderate to late preterm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26907314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26907314"><span id="translatedtitle">Sex and <span class="hlt">Age</span> Differences in <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo</p> <p>2016-02-19</p> <p>The authors assessed sex and <span class="hlt">age</span> differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers <span class="hlt">aged</span> 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless <span class="hlt">age</span>. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26907314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26907314"><span id="translatedtitle">Sex and <span class="hlt">Age</span> Differences in <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The authors assessed sex and <span class="hlt">age</span> differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers <span class="hlt">aged</span> 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless <span class="hlt">age</span>. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EP%26S...68...11D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EP%26S...68...11D"><span id="translatedtitle">40Ar/39Ar and cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of plagioclase-rich lithic fragments from Apollo 17 regolith, 78461</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Das, J. P.; Baldwin, S. L.; Delano, J. W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Argon isotopic data is used to assess the potential of low-mass samples collected by sample return missions on planetary objects (e.g., Moon, Mars, asteroids), to reveal planetary surface processes. We report the first 40Ar/39Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> and 38Ar cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (CRE) <span class="hlt">ages</span>, determined for eleven submillimeter-sized (ranging from 0.06 to 1.2 mg) plagioclase-rich lithic fragments from Apollo 17 regolith sample 78461 collected at the base of the Sculptured Hills. Total fusion analysis was used to outgas argon from the lithic fragments. Three different approaches were used to determine 40Ar/39Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> and illustrate the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">age</span> determination to the choice of trapped (40Ar/36Ar)t. 40Ar/39Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span> range from ~4.0 to 4.4 Ga with one exception (Plag#10). Surface CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span>, based on 38Ar, range from ~1 to 24 Ma. The relatively young CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> suggest recent re-working of the upper few centimeters of the regolith. The CRE <span class="hlt">ages</span> may result from the effect of downslope movement of materials to the base of the Sculptured Hills from higher elevations. The apparent 40Ar/39Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> for Plag#10 is >5 Ga and yielded the oldest CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> (i.e., ~24 Ma). We interpret this data to indicate the presence of parentless 40Ar in Plag#10, originating in the lunar atmosphere and implanted in lunar regolith by solar wind. Based on a chemical mixing model, plagioclase compositions, and 40Ar/39Ar <span class="hlt">ages</span>, we conclude that lithic fragments originated from Mg-suite of highland rocks, and none were derived from the mare region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20707722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20707722"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental enrichment improves <span class="hlt">age</span>-related immune system impairment: long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> since adulthood increases life span in mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arranz, Lorena; De Castro, Nuria M; Baeza, Isabel; Maté, Ianire; Viveros, Maria Paz; De la Fuente, Mónica</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Age</span>-related changes in immunity have been shown to highly influence morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) (8-16 weeks) on several functions and oxidative stress parameters of peritoneal leukocytes, previously described as health and longevity markers, in mice at different <span class="hlt">ages</span>, namely adult (44 +/- 4 weeks), old (69 +/- 4 weeks), and very old (92 +/- 4 weeks). Mortality rates were monitored in control and enriched animals, and effects on survival of long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to EE until natural death were determined. The results showed that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to EE was efficient in improving the function (i.e., macrophage chemotaxis and phagocytosis, lymphocyte chemotaxis and proliferation, natural killer cell activity, interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels) and decreasing the oxidative-inflammatory stress (i.e., lowered oxidized glutathione content, xanthine oxidase activity, expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 on CD4 and CD8 cells, and increased reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) of immune cells. These positive effects of EE were especially remarkable in animals at older <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Importantly, long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to EE from adult <span class="hlt">age</span> and until natural death stands out as a useful strategy to extend longevity. Thus, the present work confirms the importance of maintaining active mental and/or physical activity aiming to improve quality of life in terms of immunity, and demonstrates that this active life must be initiated at early stages of the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process and preserved until death to improve life span.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2799465','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2799465"><span id="translatedtitle">Behavioral Changes in <span class="hlt">Aging</span> but Not Young Mice after Neonatal <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to the Polybrominated Flame Retardant DecaBDE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rice, Deborah C.; Thompson, W. Douglas; Reeve, Elizabeth A.; Onos, Kristen D.; Assadollahzadeh, Mina; Markowski, Vincent P.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background After several decades of commercial use, the flame-retardant chemicals polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their metabolites are pervasive environmental contaminants and are detected in the human body. Decabrominated diphenyl ether (decaBDE) is currently the only PBDE in production in the United States. Objectives Little is known about the health effects of decaBDE. In the present study we examined the effects of neonatal decaBDE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on behavior in mice at two <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Methods Neonatal male and female C57BL6/J mice were exposed to a daily oral dose of 0, 6, or 20 mg/kg decaBDE from postnatal days 2 through 15. Two <span class="hlt">age</span> groups were examined: a cohort that began training during young adulthood and an <span class="hlt">aging</span> cohort of littermates that began training at 16 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Both cohorts were tested on a series of operant procedures that included a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement, a fixed-interval (FI) 2-min schedule, and a light–dark visual discrimination. Results We observed minimal effects on the light–dark discrimination in the young cohort, with no effects on the other tasks. The performance of the <span class="hlt">aging</span> cohort was significantly affected by decaBDE. On the FI schedule, decaBDE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> increased the overall response rate. On the light–dark discrimination, older treated mice learned the task more slowly, made fewer errors on the first-response choice of a trial but more perseverative errors after an initial error, and had lower latencies to respond compared with controls. Effects were observed in both dose groups and sexes on various measures. Conclusions These findings suggest that neonatal decaBDE <span class="hlt">exposure</span> produces effects on behavioral tasks in older but not younger animals. The behavioral mechanisms responsible for the pattern of observed effects may include increased impulsivity, although further research is required. PMID:20049210</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6968094','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6968094"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead and children's intelligence at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. )</p> <p>1992-10-29</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of two and four years. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the <span class="hlt">age</span> of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal <span class="hlt">age</span> at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the <span class="hlt">age</span> range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23470777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23470777"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of bisphenol A on emotional behavior depend upon the timing of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, <span class="hlt">age</span> and gender in mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gioiosa, Laura; Parmigiani, Stefano; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Palanza, Paola</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Experimental evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can permanently disrupt the development of sexually dimorphic behaviors and the structure of sexually dimorphic areas of the brain. EDC <span class="hlt">exposure</span> has different effects depending on diverse factors, such as the timing and dose of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, the maternal environment and the individual's <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex. Among EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most studied because of its extensive use, which ranges from dentistry to food/drink packaging. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the behavioral effects of developmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to a low dose of BPA with respect to the timing of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, maternal environment, sex and <span class="hlt">age</span> at testing. Starting from the last week of pregnancy to the first postpartum week, dams spontaneously drank either corn oil (control group) or a solution containing BPA (10 μg/kg bw/day). At birth, the litters were cross-fostered to different dams to differentiate among the effects of pre- and postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Pre- and postnatally exposed offspring underwent three diverse experimental paradigms for anxiety-related behaviors: as juveniles, a novelty test and at adulthood, both the free exploratory open field and elevated plus maze tests. At both testing <span class="hlt">ages</span>, pre- and postnatally exposed females showed evidence of increased anxiety and were less prone to explore a novel environment relative to the control females, showing a behavioral profile more similar to control males than females. In this study, the direction of the behavioral changes was affected similarly by the pre- and postnatal <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, resulting in a disruption of these sexually dimorphic behaviors, although with a greater effect associated with postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> primarily in females. Our findings indicate that non-reproductive, sexually dimorphic behaviors are sensitive to endocrine disruption during critical developmental periods-particularly the highly critical early neonatal stage. Combined with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.184..151K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.184..151K"><span id="translatedtitle">New constraints on the relationship between <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic variation in the early Solar System from a multielement isotopic study of spinel-hibonite inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, Levke; Nakashima, Daisuke; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.; Tenner, Travis J.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Park, Changkun; Davis, Andrew M.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We report oxygen, calcium, titanium and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg isotope systematics for spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs), a class of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) common in CM chondrites. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses of 33 SHIBs and four SHIB-related objects obtained with high spatial resolution demonstrate that these CAIs have a uniform Δ17O value of approximately -23‰, similar to many other mineralogically pristine CAIs from unmetamorphosed chondrites (e.g., CR, CV, and Acfer 094). Five SHIBs studied for calcium and titanium isotopes have no resolvable anomalies beyond 3σ uncertainties. This suggests that nucleosynthetic anomalies in the refractory elements had been significantly diluted in the environment where SHIBs with uniform Δ17O formed. We established internal <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg isochrons for eight SHIBs and found that seven of these formed with uniformly high levels of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> (a multi-CAI mineral isochron yields an initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratio of ∼4.8 × 10-5), but one SHIB has a smaller initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al of ∼ 2.5 × 10-5, indicating variation in <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios when SHIBs formed. The uniform calcium, titanium and oxygen isotopic characteristics found in SHIBs with both high and low initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios allow for two interpretations. (1) If subcanonical initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios in SHIBs are due to early formation, as suggested by Liu et al. (2012), our data would indicate that the CAI formation region had achieved a high degree of isotopic homogeneity in oxygen and refractory elements before a homogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> was achieved. (2) Alternatively, if subcanonical ratios were the result of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg system resetting, the clustering of SHIBs at a Δ17O value of ∼-23‰ would imply that a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir existed in the nebula until at least ∼0.7 Ma after the formation of the majority of CAIs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000111085&hterms=Noble+gases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNoble%2Bgases','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000111085&hterms=Noble+gases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNoble%2Bgases"><span id="translatedtitle">Noble Gases in the Monahans Chondrite and Halite: Ar-39 - Ar-40 <span class="hlt">Age</span>, Space <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Age</span>, Trapped Solar Gases, and Neutron Fluence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>In the Monahans H5 chondrite, Zolensky et al. report the first occurrence of grains of halite (NaCl), which contain minor sylvite (KCl) and tiny inclusions of liquid water. Here we report Ar-39 - Ar-40 <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Monahans light (4.53 Ga) and dark phases and of the halite (>4.33 Ga). We report the presence of trapped solar gases in the dark phase, demonstrating that it represents a prior regolith on the Monahans parent body, We also report the cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of Monahans and the neutron fluence experienced by the regolith component. Because the halite grains are apparently located only in the regolith phase, they may have formed by early hydrous activity within the Monahans parent body regolith, or they may have been introduced from outside.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007610&hterms=Noble+gases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DNoble%2Bgases','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007610&hterms=Noble+gases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DNoble%2Bgases"><span id="translatedtitle">Noble gases in LEW88516 shergottite: Evidence for <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> pairing with ALH77005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>LEW88516 contains excess amounts of radiogenic Ar-40 and Xe-129 that are slightly greater than those observed in ALH77005, but in the same relative proportion as much larger excesses observed in EET79001. Cosmogenic He-3 and Ne-21 abundances in LEW88516 are very similar to those for ALH77005 and are consistent with a common initiation of cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> -2.8 Myr ago for four of the five shergottites. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> of these four shergottites could have been under different shielding in a common meteoroid, or in several objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036950','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036950"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older <span class="hlt">Age</span>: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>As the population <span class="hlt">ages</span>, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to <span class="hlt">ageing</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span>-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated <span class="hlt">ageing</span>. PMID:27699078</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..358K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..358K"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Space-Weathered Grains from Asteroid 25143 Itokawa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L.; Berger, E.; Christoffersen, R.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We use the observed effects of solar wind ion irradiation and the accumulation of solar flare particle tracks recorded in Itokawa grains to constrain the rates of space weathering and yield information about regolith dynamics. The track densities are consistent with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at mm depths for 104-105 years. The solar wind damaged rims form on a much faster timescale, <103 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307797&keyword=gilbert&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68458070&CFTOKEN=16768373','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307797&keyword=gilbert&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68458070&CFTOKEN=16768373"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aging</span>: Characteristics, <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Factors, Epigenetics, and Assessment of Health Risks of Older Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This chapter is organized into three sections. The first part describes the characteristics of the older adult population and the U.S. EPA’s efforts to protect elders form environmental hazards. Section II covers available <span class="hlt">exposure</span> factor data, activity pattern and the pot...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=205805','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=205805"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction between <span class="hlt">age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 56Fe particles on behavior and neurochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Previous research has shown that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to HZE particles, which will be encountered on long-term space missions, can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks. This outcome has implications for an astronaut's ability to successfully complete requirements associ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=consequences+AND+smoking&pg=2&id=EJ828346','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=consequences+AND+smoking&pg=2&id=EJ828346"><span id="translatedtitle">Neurobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Smoking at 6 to 8 Months of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Between 400,000 and 800,000 infants are born in the United States each year to women who smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy. Whereas the physical health consequences to infants of prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to smoking are well established, the early neurobehavioral consequences are less well understood. This study investigated the neurobehavioral…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychology+AND+bias&pg=7&id=ED514450','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychology+AND+bias&pg=7&id=ED514450"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to <span class="hlt">Aging</span> in Clinical and Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Olthoff, Jacqueline K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In 1992 an APA inter-divisional task force identified three levels of competency for professional practice with older adults: <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, Experience, and Expertise. It was recommended that all generalist programs provide their students with at least the first level of competency. However, most enter the field with little-to-no academic or clinical…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=task+AND+engagement&pg=7&id=EJ1113686','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=task+AND+engagement&pg=7&id=EJ1113686"><span id="translatedtitle">Early Childhood Household Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at <span class="hlt">Age</span> 10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pagani, Linda S.; Fitzpatrick, Caroline</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and later classroom behavior. Using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25632050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25632050"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal famine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and adult mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes through <span class="hlt">age</span> 63 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ekamper, Peter; van Poppel, Frans; Stein, Aryeh D; Bijwaard, Govert E; Lumey, L H</p> <p>2015-02-15</p> <p>Nutritional conditions in early life may affect adult health, but prior studies of mortality have been limited to small samples. We evaluated the relationship between pre-/perinatal famine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944-1945 and mortality through <span class="hlt">age</span> 63 years among 41,096 men born in 1944-1947 and examined at <span class="hlt">age</span> 18 years for universal military service in the Netherlands. Of these men, 22,952 had been born around the time of the Dutch famine in 6 affected cities; the remainder served as unexposed controls. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for death from cancer, heart disease, other natural causes, and external causes. After 1,853,023 person-years of follow-up, we recorded 1,938 deaths from cancer, 1,040 from heart disease, 1,418 from other natural causes, and 523 from external causes. We found no increase in mortality from cancer or cardiovascular disease after prenatal famine <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. However, there were increases in mortality from other natural causes (hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.49) and external causes (hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.97) after famine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the first trimester of gestation. Further follow-up of the cohort is needed to provide more accurate risk estimates of mortality from specific causes of death after nutritional disturbances during gestation and very early life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4963856','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4963856"><span id="translatedtitle">No Association between Mycotoxin <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duringer, Jennifer; Fombonne, Eric; Craig, Morrie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; <span class="hlt">aged</span> 12.4 ± 3.9 years) screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20%) samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for <span class="hlt">age</span> (t-test; p = 0.322), gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456), <span class="hlt">exposure</span> or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367), or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00). While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers) and newborn-toddler years would cover additional <span class="hlt">exposure</span> windows. PMID:27447670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4112075','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4112075"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal Tobacco <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Response Inhibition in School-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Children: An Event-Related Potential Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Burden, Matthew J.; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Muckle, Gina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Prenatal cigarette smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (PCSE) has been linked to problems in behavioral inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in several epidemiological studies. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of PCSE on neural correlates of inhibitory control of behavior. In a prospective longitudinal study on child development in the Canadian Arctic, we assessed 186 Inuit children (mean <span class="hlt">age</span> = 11.3 years) on a visual Go/No-go response inhibition paradigm. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Potential confounders were documented from a maternal interview, and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to neurotoxic environmental contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. PCSE was not related to behavioral performance on this simple response inhibition task. Nevertheless, this <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was associated with smaller amplitudes of the N2 and P3 components elicited by No-go stimuli, suggesting an impairment in the neural processes underlying response inhibition. Amplitude of the No-go P3 component was also inversely associated with behavioral measures of externalizing problems and hyperactivity/impulsivity in the classroom. This study is the first to report neurophysiological evidence of impaired response inhibition in school-<span class="hlt">aged</span> children exposed to tobacco smoke in utero. Effects were found on ERP components associated with conflict processing and inhibition of a prepotent response, indicating neurophysiological deficits that may play a critical role in the attention and behavior problems observed in children with PCSE. PMID:24946039</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447670"><span id="translatedtitle">No Association between Mycotoxin <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duringer, Jennifer; Fombonne, Eric; Craig, Morrie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; <span class="hlt">aged</span> 12.4 ± 3.9 years) screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20%) samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for <span class="hlt">age</span> (t-test; p = 0.322), gender (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.456), <span class="hlt">exposure</span> or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.367), or to other medications (Fisher's exact test; p = 1.00). While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers) and newborn-toddler years would cover additional <span class="hlt">exposure</span> windows. PMID:27447670</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6866926','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6866926"><span id="translatedtitle">Life span of C57 mice as influenced by radiation dose, dose rate, and <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Spalding, J.F.; Thomas, R.G.; Tietjen, G.L.</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>This study was designed to measure the life shortening of C57BL/6J male mice as a result of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to five external doses from /sup 60/Co gamma radiation delivered at six different dose rates. Total doses ranged from 20 to 1620 rad at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> rates ranging from 0.7 to 36,000 R/day. The <span class="hlt">ages</span> of the mice at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> were newborn, 2, 6, or 15 months. Two replications were completed. Although death was the primary endpoint, we did perform gross necropsies. The life span findings are variable, but we found no consistent shortening compared to control life spans. Therefore, we cannot logically extrapolate life shortening to lower doses, from the data we have obtained. In general, the younger the animals were at the beginning of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, the longer their life spans were compared to those of controls. This relationship weakened at the higher doses and dose rates, as mice in these categories tended not to have significantly different life spans from controls. Using life span as a criterion, we find this study suggests that some threshold dosage may exist beyond which effects of external irradiation may be manifested. Up to this threshold, there is no shortening effect on life span compared to that of control mice. Our results are in general agreement with the results of other researchers investigating human and other animal life span effects on irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043604"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span>: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span>. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The <span class="hlt">age</span>-adjusted rate of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> from SHS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043604"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span>: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span>. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The <span class="hlt">age</span>-adjusted rate of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> from SHS. PMID:27043604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684942','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684942"><span id="translatedtitle">Fetal antiepileptic drug <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and cognitive outcomes at <span class="hlt">age</span> 6 years (NEAD study): a prospective observational study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J; Bromley, Rebecca L; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary Background Many women of childbearing potential take antiepileptic drugs, but the cognitive effects of fetal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> are uncertain. We aimed to assess effects of commonly used antiepileptic drugs on cognitive outcomes in children up to 6 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Methods In this prospective, observational, assessor-masked, multicentre study, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug monotherapy (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) between October, 1999, and February, 2004, at 25 epilepsy centres in the UK and the USA. Our primary outcome was intelligence quotient (IQ) at 6 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> (<span class="hlt">age</span>-6 IQ) in all children, assessed with linear regression adjusted for maternal IQ, antiepileptic drug type, standardised dose, gestational birth <span class="hlt">age</span>, and use of periconceptional folate. We also assessed multiple cognitive domains and compared findings with outcomes at younger <span class="hlt">ages</span>. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00021866. Findings We included 305 mothers and 311 children (six twin pairs) in the primary analysis. 224 children completed 6 years of follow-up (6-year-completer sample). Multivariate analysis of all children showed that <span class="hlt">age</span>-6 IQ was lower after <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to valproate (mean 97, 95% CI 94–101) than to carbamazepine (105, 102–108; p=0·0015), lamotrigine (108, 105–110; p=0·0003), or phenytoin (108, 104–112; p=0·0006). Children exposed to valproate did poorly on measures of verbal and memory abilities compared with those exposed to the other antiepileptic drugs and on non-verbal and executive functions compared with lamotrigine (but not carbamazepine or phenytoin). High doses of valproate were negatively associated with IQ (r=−0·56, p<0·0001), verbal ability (r=−0·40, p=0·0045), non-verbal ability (r=−0·42, p=0·0028), memory (r=−0·30, p=0·0434), and executive function (r=−0·42, p=0·0004), but other antiepileptic drugs were not. <span class="hlt">Age</span>-6 IQ correlated with IQs at younger <span class="hlt">ages</span>, and IQ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5115089','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5115089"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of natural <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to high levels of zinc and cadmium in the immature pony as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kowalczyk, D.F.; Gunson, D.E.; Shoop, C.R.; Ramberg, C.F. Jr.</p> <p>1986-08-01</p> <p>To study the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to zinc and cadmium in immature foals, five pregnant ponies were raised within 2.9 km of the New Jersey Zinc Smelter in Palmerton, Pennsylvania. The mares and their foals were kept outdoors on timothy hay and orchard grass. The foals were examined daily for signs of illness and blood samples were taken monthly for estimation of serum zinc, copper, and ceruloplasmin levels. The foals were sacrificed at 2.5, 4.5, 8.5, 13.5, and 18.5 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Necropsy revealed generalized osteochondrosis in joints of the limbs and cervical vertebrae, lymphoid hyperplasia, and eosinophilia. Two of the foals had developed mild lameness. The concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, lead, magnesium, and calcium were determined in liver, kidney cortex, and pancreas. The concentration of cadmium and zinc were the only elements that were greatly elevated in all three tissues as compared to control animals. The concentration of cadmium was directly correlated with <span class="hlt">age</span> in the three tissues (e.g., 23.9 to 212.7 micrograms/g wet wt in kidney cortex), whereas zinc was significantly increased (range 132 to 954 micrograms/g wet wt in liver) but there was no correlation with <span class="hlt">age</span>. It was concluded that the development of osteochondrosis is associated with increased <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to zinc and possibly cadmium. The classical signs of cadmium toxicosis, such as renal damage and osteomalacia, were not observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17242944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17242944"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ageing</span> and thermal responses during passive heat <span class="hlt">exposure</span>: sweating and sensory aspects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dufour, Andre; Candas, Victor</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The present study investigated the causes of decreases in sweating capacities with <span class="hlt">age</span>. The hypothesis was that the decrease in local sweat rate in older individuals was associated with deterioration in thermal cutaneous receptor responses leading to weaker signals to the thermoregulatory center (i.e. the hypothalamus). Fifteen older (>60 years), 15 middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> (40-50 years) and 15 young (20-30 years) men were exposed for 90 min to a 40 degrees C, 14 degrees C dew point environment. The thermal detection threshold was measured at 9 different cutaneous locations. The results showed a reduced sweat output with <span class="hlt">age</span>, and that older and middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> subjects had higher core and skin temperatures than young subjects. In addition, there was a sensory thermal sensitivity decrease and a correlation between thermal sensitivity and local sweat rate in older and middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> subjects, but not in young subjects. The data suggest that the <span class="hlt">age</span>-related effects on thermoregulatory mechanisms reflect local skin changes rather than central alterations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21524797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21524797"><span id="translatedtitle">Phthalates <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of Chinese reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> couples and its effect on male semen quality, a primary study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Liangpo; Bao, Huaqiong; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Jie; Shen, Heqing</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Phthalates are suspected of having adverse effects on androgen-regulated reproductive development in animals and may be toxic for human sperm. The purposes of our study were to investigate the general <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of a Chinese reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> cohort to these ubiquitous pollutants and to assess their potential effect on semen quality. Six phthalate metabolites, monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP) were measured in spot urines of 150 individuals recruited from a Chongqing, China, reproductive institute. The questionnaire and clinical data were evaluated, and the correlations of phthalate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and semen qualities like semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and sperm motion parameters, were determined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The creatinine adjusted average concentrations for MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP, MEHP and MEOHP were 41.3, 300, 41.0, 0.78, 2.99 and 3.90 μg/g, respectively. After adjustment for <span class="hlt">age</span>, body mass index (BMI), abstinence, smoking, drinking, and education, there was a borderline-significant dose-response relationship between MBP and sperm concentration, with odd ratios (ORs) 1.0, 6.8 and 12.0 for increasing <span class="hlt">exposure</span> tertiles (p=0.05). Although the dose-response relationships for MMP and MEP versus sperm concentration were not significant, a significant positive correlation between MEP and straight-line velocity of sperm motion was observed. The present data may imply some effects of phthalate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on semen. However, due to the small sample size, our finding needs to be confirmed on a larger population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241045','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241045"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of perinatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PCBs and dioxins on play behavior in Dutch children at school <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vreugdenhil, Hestien J I; Slijper, Froukje M E; Mulder, Paul G H; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are known as neurotoxic compounds that may modulate sex steroid hormones. Steroid hormones play a mediating role in brain development and may influence behaviors that show sex differences, such as childhood play behavior. In this study we evaluated the effects of perinatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins on childhood play behavior and whether the effects showed sex differences. As part of the follow-up to the Dutch PCB/dioxin study at school <span class="hlt">age</span>, we used the Pre-School Activity Inventory (PSAI) to assess play behavior in the Rotterdam cohort (n = 207). The PSAI assesses masculine or feminine play behavior scored on three subscales: masculine, feminine, and composite. Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PCBs was defined as the sum of PCB 118, 138, 153, and 180 in maternal and cord plasma and breast milk. For breast milk we measured additional PCBs as well as 17 dioxins. Respondents returned 160 questionnaires (<span class="hlt">age</span> 7.5 years +/- 0.4). Effects of prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PCBs, measured in maternal and cord plasma, on the masculine and composite scales were different for boys and girls (p <.05). In boys, higher prenatal PCB levels were related with less masculinized play, assessed by the masculine scale (p(maternal) =.042; p(cord) =.001) and composite scale (p(cord) =.011), whereas in girls higher PCB levels were associated with more masculinized play, assessed by the composite scale (p(PCBmilk) =.028). Higher prenatal dioxin levels were associated with more feminized play in boys as well as girls, assessed by the feminine scale (p =.048). These effects suggest prenatal steroid hormone imbalances caused by prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to environmental levels of PCBs, dioxins, and other related organochlorine compounds. PMID:12361940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150010432','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150010432"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> of Space-Weathered Grains from Asteroid 25143 Itokawa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Christoffersen, R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We use the observed effects of solar wind ion irradiation and the accumulation of solar flare particle tracks recorded in Itokawa grains to constrain the rates of space weathering and yield information about regolith dynamics. The track densities are consistent with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at mm depths for 104-105 years. The solar wind damaged rims form on a much faster timescale, <10(exp 3) years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17258805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17258805"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> duration as a factor influencing Cu and Zn toxicity toward Daphnia magna.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muyssen, B T A; Janssen, C R</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Standardized toxicity tests are generally performed with juvenile test organisms, e.g., in Daphnia magna assays neonates<24 h old are used. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of a delayed <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Cu and Zn on population parameters and toxicity values derived from these endpoints. Juveniles (<24 h; T0) and 7-d old daphnids (T7) were exposed for 21 and 14 d, respectively. For Cu, juveniles were significantly more sensitive than 7d old organisms following acute (48 h) as well as chronic (14 d) <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. After 14 d of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 130 microg/L Cu, mortality was 80% and 10% in T0 and T7, respectively. Juveniles per surviving female at this concentration decreased by 78% and 14% compared to the control. 14 d-NOEC and LOEC values (based on juveniles per surviving female) were 75 and 90 microg/L Cu for T0 and both>130 microg/L for T7. For Zn, survival in T0 and T7 was similar. Although T7 organisms produced significantly more offspring, 14 d-NOEC and LOEC values were equal to those of T0, i.e., 80 and 115 microg/L, respectively. For Cu as well as for Zn effect concentrations based on 14 and 21 d <span class="hlt">exposure</span> were similar (results from T0). It can be concluded that acute and chronic toxicity data obtained from juvenile D. magna are more sensitive or equally sensitive than obtained from 7d old organisms. As differences are observed between the two metals extrapolations of these conclusions to other toxicants and other aquatic species cannot be made without further investigation. PMID:17258805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24909078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24909078"><span id="translatedtitle">Biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids in Solanaceae plants: incorporation of 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-<span class="hlt">26</span>-<span class="hlt">al</span> into tomatine with tomato seedlings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Okawa, Akiko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The C-26 amino group of tomatine, a representative Solanaceae steroidal alkaloid, is introduced in an early step of its biosynthesis from cholesterol. We recently proposed a transamination mechanism for the C-26 amination as opposed to the previously proposed mechanism involving a nitrogen nucleophilic displacement. In the present study, a deuterium labeled C-26 aldehyde, (24,24,27,27,27-(2)H5)-3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-<span class="hlt">26</span>-<span class="hlt">al</span>, was synthesized and fed to a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedling. LC-MS analysis of the biosynthesized tomatine indicated that the labeled aldehyde was incorporated into tomatine. The finding strongly supports the intermediacy of the aldehyde and the transamination mechanism during C-26 amination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C"><span id="translatedtitle">B and Mg isotopic variations in Leoville mrs-06 type B1 cai:origin of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaussidon, M.; Robert, F.; Russel, S. S.; Gounelle, M.; Ash, R. D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The finding [1-3] in Ca-Al-rich refractory inclusions (CAI) of primitive chondrites of traces of the in situ decay of radioactive 10Be (half-life 1.5Myr) indicates that irradiation of the protosolar nebula by the young Sun in its T-Tauri phase has produced significant amounts of the Li-Be-B elements. This irradiation may have produced also some or all of the short-lived <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> (half-life 0.7Myr) and 41Ca (half-life 0.1Myr) previously detected in CAIs. To constrain the origin of 10Be and 10Al it is important to look for coupled variations in the 10Be/9Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios in CAIs and to understand the processes responsible for these variations (e.g. variations in the fluences of irradiation, secondary perturbations of the CAIs, ...) We have thus studied the Li and B isotopic compositions and the Be/Li and Be/B concentration ratios in one CAI (MRS-06) from the Leoville CV3 chondrite in which large variations of the Mg isotopic compositions showing both the in situ decay of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and the secondary redistribution of Mg isotopes have been observed [4]. The results show large variations for the Li and B isotopic compositions (^7Li/^6Li ranging from 11.02±0.21 to 11.82±0.07, and 10B/11B ratios ranging from 0.2457±0.0053 to 0.2980±0.0085). The ^7Li/^6Li ratio tend to decrease towards the rim of the inclusion. The 10B/11B ratios are positively correlated with the ^9Be/11B ratios indicating the in situ decay of 10Be. However perturbations of the 10Be/B system are observed. They would correspond to an event which occurred approximately 2Myr after the formation of the CAI and the irradiation of the CAI precursors which is responsible for the 10Be observed in the core of the CAI. These perturbations seem compatible with those observed for the <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/Mg system but they might be due to an irradiation of the already-formed, isolated CAI which would have resulted in increased 10Be/^9Be ratios and low ^7Li/^6Li ratios in the margin of the CAI. [1] McKeegan K. D. et al. (2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24020814','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24020814"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> and heat <span class="hlt">exposure</span>-dependent changes in antioxidant enzymes activities in rat's liver and brain mitochondria: role of alpha-tocopherol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stojkovski, V; Hadzi-Petrushev, N; Ilieski, V; Sopi, R; Gjorgoski, I; Mitrov, D; Jankulovski, N; Mladenov, M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the role of mitochondrial antioxidant capacity during increased susceptibility to heat accompanied by the <span class="hlt">aging</span>, young and <span class="hlt">aged</span> Wistar rats were exposed on heat for 60 min. After heat <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, hepatic and brain mitochondria were isolated. Our results revealed changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in liver and brain mitochondria from young and to a greater extent in <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats. Our measurements of MnSOD, GPx and GR activity indicate greater reactive oxygen species production from the mitochondria of <span class="hlt">aged</span> heat exposed in comparison to young heat exposed rats. Also in the <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats, the effect of alpha-tocopherol treatment in the prevention of oxidative stress occurred as a result of heat <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, is less pronounced. Taken together, our data suggest that mitochondria in <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats are more vulnerable and less able to prevent oxidative changes that occur in response to acute heat <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3764069','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3764069"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Black Carbon and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: The Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mittleman, Murray A.; Coull, Brent A.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Bots, Michiel L.; Schwartz, Joel; Sparrow, David</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background: Evidence suggests that air pollution is associated with atherosclerosis and that traffic-related particles are a particularly important contributor to the association. Objectives: We investigated the association between long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to black carbon, a correlate of traffic particles, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT) in elderly men residing in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area. Methods: We estimated 1-year average <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to black carbon at the home addresses of Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study participants before their first CIMT measurement. The association between estimated black carbon levels and CIMT was estimated using mixed effects models to account for repeated outcome measures. In secondary analyses, we examined whether living close to a major road or average daily traffic within 100 m of residence was associated with CIMT. Results: There were 380 participants (97% self-reported white race) with an initial visit between 2004 and 2008. Two or three follow-up CIMT measurements 1.5 years apart were available for 340 (89%) and 260 (68%) men, respectively. At first examination, the average ± SD <span class="hlt">age</span> was 76 ± 6.4 years and the mean ± SD CIMT was 0.99 ± 0.18 mm. A one-interquartile range increase in 1-year average black carbon (0.26 µg/m3) was associated with a 1.1% higher CIMT (95% CI: 0.4, 1.7%) based on a fully adjusted model. Conclusions: Annual mean black carbon concentration based on spatially resolved <span class="hlt">exposure</span> estimates was associated with CIMT in a population of elderly men. These findings support an association between long-term air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and atherosclerosis. Citation: Wilker EH, Mittleman MA, Coull BA, Gryparis A, Bots ML, Schwartz J, Sparrow D. 2013. Long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to black carbon and carotid intima-media thickness: the Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1061–1067; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104845 [Online 2 July 2013] PMID:23820848</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590760','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590760"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals during Pregnancy and Weight at 7 Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span>: A Multi-pollutant Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Agay-Shay, Keren; Martinez, David; Valvi, Damaskini; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Robinson, Oliver; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may induce weight gain and obesity in children, but the obesogenic effects of mixtures have not been studied. Objective We evaluated the associations between pre- and perinatal biomarker concentrations of 27 EDCs and child weight status at 7 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Methods In pregnant women enrolled in a Spanish birth cohort study between 2004 and 2006, we measured the concentrations of 10 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, cadmium, arsenic, and lead in two maternal pregnancy urine samples; 6 organochlorine compounds in maternal pregnancy serum; mercury in cord blood; and 6 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in colostrum. Among 470 children at 7 years, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated, and overweight was defined as BMI > 85th percentile. We estimated associations with EDCs in single-pollutant models and applied principal-component analysis (PCA) on the 27 pollutant concentrations. Results In single-pollutant models, HCB (hexachlorobenzene), βHCH (β-hexachlorocyclohexane), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138 and 180 were associated with increased child BMI z-scores; and HCB, βHCH, PCB-138, and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) with overweight risk. PCA generated four factors that accounted for 43.4% of the total variance. The organochlorine factor was positively associated with BMI z-scores and with overweight (adjusted RR, tertile 3 vs. 1: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.19, 5.63), and these associations were robust to adjustment for other EDCs. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in the second tertile of the phthalate factor was inversely associated with overweight. Conclusions Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to organochlorines was positively associated with overweight at <span class="hlt">age</span> 7 years in our study population. Other EDCs <span class="hlt">exposures</span> did not confound this association. Citation Agay-Shay K, Martinez D, Valvi D, Garcia-Esteban R, Basagaña X, Robinson O, Casas M, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2015. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to endocrine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24769174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24769174"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">age</span> on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and advancing <span class="hlt">age</span>. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that <span class="hlt">aging</span> enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the <span class="hlt">age</span> ranges that were studied. PMID:24769174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2276212','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2276212"><span id="translatedtitle">A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in children: Parental self reports versus <span class="hlt">age</span> dependent biomarkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puig, Carme; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Monleon, Toni; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Sunyer, Jordi; Figueroa, Cecilia; Pichini, Simona; Vall, Oriol</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background Awareness of the negative effects of smoking on children's health prompted a decrease in the self-reporting of parental tobacco use in periodic surveys from most industrialized countries. Our aim is to assess changes between ETS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at the end of pregnancy and at 4 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> determined by the parents' self-report and measurement of cotinine in <span class="hlt">age</span> related biological matrices. Methods The prospective birth cohort included 487 infants from Barcelona city (Spain). Mothers were asked about maternal and household smoking habit. Cord serum and children's urinary cotinine were analyzed in duplicate using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results At 4 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, the median urinary cotinine level in children increased 1.4 or 3.5 times when father or mother smoked, respectively. Cotinine levels in children's urine statistically differentiated children from smoking mothers (Geometric Mean (GM) 19.7 ng/ml; 95% CI 16.83–23.01) and exposed homes (GM 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI 5.61–8.99) compared with non-exposed homes (GM 4.5 ng/ml; 95% CI 3.71–5.48). Maternal self-reported ETS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in homes declined in the four year span between the two time periods from 42.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, most of the children considered non-exposed by their mothers had detectable levels of cotinine above 1 ng/mL in their urine. Conclusion We concluded that cotinine levels determined in cord blood and urine, respectively, were useful for categorizing the children exposed to smoking and showed that a certain increase in ETS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during the 4-year follow-up period occurred. PMID:18254964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898868','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898868"><span id="translatedtitle">Childhood Lead <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> After the Phaseout of Leaded Gasoline: An Ecological Study of School-<span class="hlt">Age</span> Children in Kampala, Uganda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Graber, Lauren K.; Asher, Daniel; Anandaraja, Natasha; Bopp, Richard F.; Merrill, Karen; Cullen, Mark R.; Luboga, Samuel; Trasande, Leonardo</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Tetraethyl lead was phased out of gasoline in Uganda in 2005. Recent mitigation of an important source of lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> suggests examination and re-evaluation of the prevalence of childhood lead poisoning in this country. Ongoing concerns persist about <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from the Kiteezi landfill in Kampala, the country’s capital. Objectives We determined blood lead distributions among Kampala schoolchildren and identified risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs; ≥ 10 μg/dL). Analytical approach Using a stratified, cross-sectional design, we obtained blood samples, questionnaire data, and soil and dust samples from the homes and schools of 163 4- to 8-year-old children representing communities with different risks of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Results The mean blood lead level (BLL) was 7.15 μg/dL; 20.5% of the children were found to have EBLL. Multivariable analysis found participants whose families owned fewer household items, ate canned food, or used the community water supply as their primary water source to have higher BLLs and likelihood of EBLLs. Distance < 0.5 mi from the landfill was the factor most strongly associated with increments in BLL (5.51 μg/dL, p < 0.0001) and likelihood of EBLL (OR = 4.71, p = 0.0093). Dust/soil lead was not significantly predictive of BLL/EBLL. Conclusions Lead poisoning remains highly prevalent among school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children in Kampala. Confirmatory studies are needed, but further efforts are indicated to limit lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> from the landfill, whether through water contamination or through another mechanism. Although African nations are to be lauded for the removal of lead from gasoline, this study serves as a reminder that other sources of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to this potent neurotoxicant merit ongoing attention. PMID:20194080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492867','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492867"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, Antioxidant Levels and Behavioral Development of Children <span class="hlt">Ages</span> 6–9</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Stigter, Laura; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Wang, Shuang; Roen, Emily L.; Majewska, Renata; Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Mroz, Elzbieta; Perera, Frederica P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> has been shown to increase DNA adduct levels and to affect neurodevelopment. Micronutrients may modify the adverse effect of PAH on neurodevelopment. Thus, we examined if micronutrient concentrations modified the association between PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods 151 children from a birth cohort who had micronutrient concentrations measured in cord blood and completed the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL), between the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 6 and 9 years, were evaluated. Prenatal airborne PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was measured by personal air monitoring. The betas and 95% CI for the associations of antioxidant concentrations and PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with each of the outcomes of CBCL raw score and dichotomized standardized T-score (based on clinical cutpoints) were estimated, respectively, by multivariable poisson and logistic models. Results Children below the median for alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentrations, compared to those above, were more likely to have thought problems, aggressive behavior and externalizing problems (p<0.05). Lower carotenoid concentration was associated with more thought problems (MVβ=0.60, p<0.001) and externalizing problems (MVβ=0.13, p<0.05) for the same contrast. No statistically significant associations were observed between retinol concentrations and neurodevelopmental symptoms. Overall, no consistent patterns were observed when we examined the interaction between antioxidants (e.g., alpha-tocopherol) and PAH in relation to CBCL symptoms (e.g., internalizing and externalizing problems, p<0.05). Conclusions Lower alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and carotenoid levels may adversely affect healthy neurodevelopment, even after accounting for PAH <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Future research to confirm these findings are warranted given the importance of identifying modifiable factors for reducing harmful PAH effects. PMID:25863187</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616155S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616155S"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">ages</span> of river terraces and basin wide denudation rates in Pamir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sulaymonova, Vasila A.; Fuchs, Margret C.; Gloaguen, Richard; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Pamir is located at the western edge of the Indian indenter and results from the India-Asia collision. The Pamir also lies at the transition between zones dominated either by the Westerlies or the Indian Summer Monsoon. The ongoing tectonic deformation together with the climatic gradients from the two prevailing atmospheric circulation systems provide a natural laboratory to study surface processes and their rates. To determine and quantify the interaction between tectonics and the drainage system in the Tajik Pamir we use cosmogenic nuclide based techniques. We measured 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations of modern fluvial sediments sampled from drainage system of Pamirs. Depth profiles enable to determine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of fluvial terraces, while the modern river sediments reveal basin-wide erosion rates. However, accurate measurement results depend on the quality of the sample preparation. The samples from Pamir contain a high amount of various feldspars that are very difficult to separate from quartz using standard procedures such as magnetic or density separation. Unclean samples cause uncertainties in chemical procedures, especially in the case of combined 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> analysis. We developed a feldspar flotation in addition to our sample preparation procedure that allowed an almost complete separation of the quartz, up to 95%. Several depth profiles were analyzed to determine the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of fluvial terraces. The first results of one terrace along the southern Panj River east of Langar, and one along the Shakhdara River are promising. The AMS results demonstrated that the depth profiles are consistent, with 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations decreasing with depth. The results of both fluvial terraces show similar denudation rates 0.5mm/yr., while <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> analysis yields 3.5 ka for the Langar and 19 ka Shakhdara terrace. Further analyses are ongoing. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> are validated by OSL dates at or nearby the same sites. 10Be denudation rates on modern river</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARY39012Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARY39012Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of cell donor <span class="hlt">age</span> on the cellular response to nanoparticle <span class="hlt">exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Fan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Mironava, Tatsiana</p> <p></p> <p>As human <span class="hlt">age</span> there are many significant changes that occur in the skin. Here we investigate how the <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent changes in dermal fibroblast mechanics affect cell response to the AuNPs nanoparticles. To analyze these processes we exposed cells from donors of different <span class="hlt">age</span> groups to AuNPs of two different sizes. Our results indicate that there are significant changes in cell rigidity with <span class="hlt">age</span>, which in turn lead to different penetration rates of AuNPs through cell membrane and overall nanoparticle toxicity. Cell proliferation results revealed that all cell groups exposed to the same concentration of AuNPs had a very similar decrease in cell proliferation and similar impact on cell morphology. However, recovery data demonstrated that the rate of recovery from the damage is much faster for neonatal cells as compared to 30- and 80-years old cell group. Therefore, we conclude that nanoparticle uptake depends on cell membrane mechanics that in turn is a function of cell donor <span class="hlt">age</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=238242&keyword=coagulation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68457137&CFTOKEN=50823008','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=238242&keyword=coagulation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68457137&CFTOKEN=50823008"><span id="translatedtitle">Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in healthy middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> adult human volunteers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced <span class="hlt">age</span> is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2989602','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2989602"><span id="translatedtitle">Perinatal <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Hazardous Air Pollutants and Autism Spectrum Disorders at <span class="hlt">Age</span> 8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Daniels, Julie L.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Poole, Charles; Emch, Michael; Morrissey, Joseph</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Hazardous air pollutants are plausible candidate <span class="hlt">exposures</span> for autism spectrum disorders. They have been explored in recent studies for their role in the development of these disorders. Methods We used a prevalent case-control design to screen perinatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 35 hazardous air pollutants for further investigation in autism etiology. We included 383 children with autism spectrum disorders and, as controls, 2829 children with speech and language impairment. All participants were identified from the records-based surveillance of 8-year-old children conducted by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network in North Carolina (for children born in 1994 and 1996) and West Virginia (born in 1992 and 1994). <span class="hlt">Exposures</span> to ambient concentrations of metal, particulate, and volatile organic air pollutants in the census tract of the child’s birth residence were assigned from the 1996 National Air Toxics Assessment annual-average model. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for autism spectrum disorders and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), comparing across the 20th and 80th percentiles of log-transformed hazardous air pollutant concentration among the selected controls, using semi-Bayes logistic models and adjusting for sampling variables (surveillance year and state), a priori demographic confounders from the birth certificate and census, and covarying air pollutants. Results We estimated many near-null ORs, including those for metals, established human neurodevelopmental toxicants, and several pollutants that were elevated in a similar study in California. Hazardous air pollutants with more precise and elevated OR estimates included methylene chloride, 1.4 (95% CI = 0.7–2.5), quinoline, 1.4 (1.0–2.2), and styrene, 1.8 (1.0–3.1). Conclusions Our screening design was limited by <span class="hlt">exposure</span> misclassification of air pollutants and the use of an alternate developmental disorder as the control group, both of which may have biased results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22musical+instruments%22&pg=7&id=EJ915581','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22musical+instruments%22&pg=7&id=EJ915581"><span id="translatedtitle">Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, <span class="hlt">Age</span> and Instrument <span class="hlt">Exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, <span class="hlt">age</span> and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bowden&pg=5&id=EJ880796','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bowden&pg=5&id=EJ880796"><span id="translatedtitle">An Experimental Study of Early L3 Development: <span class="hlt">Age</span>, Bilingualism and Classroom <span class="hlt">Exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stafford, Catherine A.; Sanz, Cristina; Bowden, Harriet Wood</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This research investigated Spanish-English bilingual adults' initial learning of a third language (L3), Latin, comparing the learning processes and outcomes of early- and late-onset bilinguals. Thirty-three participants were classified as Early or Late Bilinguals according to their <span class="hlt">age</span> of arrival to the USA, and they were introduced to Latin by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7015948','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7015948"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of different-<span class="hlt">aged</span> black cherry trees to ambient ozone <span class="hlt">exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fredericksen, T.S.; Joyce, B.J.; Kouterick, K.B.; Kolb, T.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. )</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is a valuable commercial timber species which is also highly sensitive to ozone relative to other eastern deciduous tree species. Studies of ozone effects on forest trees have been restricted mostly to experiments using small seedlings under controlled conditions. Yet, mature trees may differ from seedlings in physiology, morphology, and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollutants. An experiment was conducted in 1993 to determine differences in ozone uptake and foliar injury symptoms between open-ground seedlings, forest saplings, and mature forest trees of black cherry in northcentral Pennsylvania. Seedlings grew under the highest ozone concentrations and also had greater seasonal ozone uptake due to higher rates of stomatal conductance. However, because of their indeterminate growth habit, seedlings had lower cumulative ozone uptake per leaf lifespan than saplings or mature trees, both of which had determinate shoot growth. Although greater initially for seedlings, foliar injury was nearly identical between size classes by the end of the growing season. Leaves in the lower crown of larger trees had lower ozone uptake than leaves in the upper crown, but exhibited more foliar injury symptoms. Lower crown leaves received more effective <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ozone because of their thinner leaves and had less available photosynthate for repair or replacement of damaged tissue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26906760','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26906760"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of pre-natal alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on hippocampal synaptic plasticity: Sex, <span class="hlt">age</span> and methodological considerations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fontaine, Christine J; Patten, Anna R; Sickmann, Helle M; Helfer, Jennifer L; Christie, Brian R</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The consumption of alcohol during gestation is detrimental to the developing central nervous system (CNS). The severity of structural and functional brain alterations associated with alcohol intake depends on many factors including the timing and duration of alcohol consumption. The hippocampal formation, a brain region implicated in learning and memory, is highly susceptible to the effects of developmental alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Some of the observed effects of alcohol on learning and memory may be due to changes at the synaptic level, as this teratogen has been repeatedly shown to interfere with hippocampal synaptic plasticity. At the molecular level alcohol interferes with receptor proteins and can disrupt hormones that are important for neuronal signaling and synaptic plasticity. In this review we examine the consequences of prenatal and early postnatal alcohol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and highlight the numerous factors that can modulate the effects of alcohol. We also discuss some potential mechanisms responsible for these changes as well as emerging therapeutic avenues that are beginning to be explored. PMID:26906760</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012QSRv...47..116M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012QSRv...47..116M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmogenic nuclide <span class="hlt">age</span> constraints on Middle Stone <span class="hlt">Age</span> lithics from Niassa, Mozambique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mercader, Julio; Gosse, John C.; Bennett, Tim; Hidy, Alan J.; Rood, Dylan H.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The late phases of the Middle Stone <span class="hlt">Age</span> (MSA) in the East African Rift System (EARS) are known for their evolutionary shifts and association with bottlenecks, transcontinental expansion, and climatic fluctuations. The chronology of MSA sites contemporaneous with these eco-demographic upheavals is uncertain because of the scarcity of datable sites and the poor understanding of their depositional and erosional histories. We apply terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating in a stratigraphic section with a complex <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history to the study of the Luchamange Beds, a widespread sedimentological unit underlying MSA sites from the shores of Lake Niassa (Mozambican EARS). We use an innovative approach, which may be applicable elsewhere, to calculate their <span class="hlt">age</span> using a Monte Carlo-based Bayesian model that links depth profiles of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> and 10Be, and uses other geomorphic and cosmogenic nuclide <span class="hlt">age</span> constraints on episodic erosion and burial. The <span class="hlt">age</span> of the basal Luchamange Beds is 42 + 77/-15 ka, and the MSA occupation on top is 29 + 3/-11 ka. These dates suggest temporal overlap between MSA and the earliest Later Stone <span class="hlt">Age</span> and diversity in cultural manifestations at the end of the MSA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP51C2295L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP51C2295L"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Cosmogenic Surface <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span> on Laurentide Ice-sheet Retreat and Opening of the Eastern Lake Agassiz Outlets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leydet, D.; Carlson, A. E.; Sinclair, G.; Teller, J. T.; Breckenridge, A. J.; Caffee, M. W.; Barth, A. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The chronology for the eastern outlets of glacial Lake Agassiz holds important consequences for the cause of Younger Dryas cold event during the last deglaciation. Eastward routing of Lake Agassiz runoff was originally hypothesized to have triggered the Younger Dryas. However, currently the chronology of the eastern outlets is only constrained by minimum-limiting radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> that could suggest the eastern outlets were still ice covered at the start of the Younger Dryas at ~12.9 ka BP, requiring a different forcing of this abrupt climate event. Nevertheless, the oldest radiocarbon <span class="hlt">ages</span> are still consistent with an ice-free eastern outlet at the start of the Younger Dryas. Here we will present preliminary 10-Be cosmogenic surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from the North Lake, Flat Rock Lake, glacial Lake Kaministiquia, and Lake Nipigon outlets located near Thunder Bay, Ontario. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> will date the timing of the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet in the eastern outlet region of glacial Lake Agassiz. This will provide an important constraint for the hypothesized freshwater forcing of the cause of Younger Dryas cold event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521773"><span id="translatedtitle">Perception and production of English vowels by Mandarin speakers: <span class="hlt">age</span>-related differences vary with amount of L2 <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jia, Gisela; Strange, Winifred; Collado, Julissa; Guan, Qi</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>In this study we assessed <span class="hlt">age</span>-related differences in the perception and production of American English (AE) vowels by native Mandarin speakers as a function of the amount of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to the target language. Participants included three groups of native Mandarin speakers: 87 children, adolescents and young adults living in China, 77 recent arrivals who had lived in the U.S. for two years or less, and 54 past arrivals who had lived in the U.S. between three and five years. The latter two groups arrived in the U.S. between the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 7 and 44 years. Discrimination of six AE vowel pairs /i-i/, /i-e(I)/, /e-ae/, /ae-a/, /a-(symbol see text)/, and /u-a/ was assessed with a categorial AXB task. Production of the eight vowels /i, i, e(I), e, ae, (symbol see text), a, u/ was assessed with an immediate imitation task. <span class="hlt">Age</span>-related differences in performance accuracy changed from an older-learner advantage among participants in China, to no <span class="hlt">age</span> differences among recent arrivals, and to a younger-learner advantage among past arrivals. Performance on individual vowels and vowel contrasts indicated the influence of the Mandarin phonetic/phonological system. These findings support a combined environmental and L1 interference/transfer theory as an explanation of the long-term younger-learner advantage in mastering L2 phonology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863727','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863727"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of the {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 12}C){sup 24}Na and {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 10}Be){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> proton transfer reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Benjamim, E. A.; Lima, G. F.; Moro, A. M.</p> <p>2006-08-15</p> <p>Angular distributions for the {sup 11}B+{sup 25}Mg elastic scattering, {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 12}C){sup 24}Na proton pickup, and {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 10}Be){sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> stripping reactions have been measured at E{sub {sup 11}B}=35 MeV. The angular distributions have been analyzed by the distorted-waves Born approximation calculations using the code fresco. The spectroscopic factors for the overlaps <{sup 25}Mg|{sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span>>,<{sup 25}Mg|{sup 24}Na> for the ground state and excited states of {sup <span class="hlt">26</span>}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 24}Na have been obtained and compared to previous measurements and shell-model calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.206..107E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.206..107E"><span id="translatedtitle">10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> chronology of the last glaciation in the Krkonoše Mountains, Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engel, Zbyněk; Braucher, Régis; Traczyk, Andrzej; Laetitia, Léanni; AsterTeam</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A new chronology of the last glaciation is established for the Krkonoše (Giant) Mountains, Central Europe, based on in-situ produced 10Be in moraine boulders. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> and Schmidt Hammer rebound values obtained for terminal moraines on the northern and southern flank of the mountains suggest that the oldest preserved moraines represent early phases of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Large moraines at the outlet of the Snowy Cirques (Śnieżne Kotły) and in the middle part of the Úpa (Obří důl) trough were deposited around 21 ka while a series of smaller moraines above the LGM deposits represent readvances that occurred no later than 18.1 ± 0.6 ka, 15.7 ± 0.5 ka, 13.5 ± 0.5 ka and 12.9 ± 0.7 ka. An <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of 13.8 ± 0.4 ka obtained for protalus ramparts at the foot of the Úpská jáma Cirque headwall indicates that glaciers advanced only in north- to east-facing cirques during the Lateglacial. The last glacier fluctuation was synchronous with the Younger Dryas cold event. The timing of local glacier advances during the last glacial episode correlates with the late Weichselian glacier phases in the Alps and in the Bavarian/Bohemian Forest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24340580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24340580"><span id="translatedtitle">[On the problem of permissible levels of emergency and subsequent occupational radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span> for people of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ermalitskiĭ, A P; Liaginskaia, A M; Osipov, V A; Kuptsov, V V</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The results of studies of indices of reproductive function in 3 groups of males examined accordingly to an unified method: Group 1 - The staff of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP), who worked for liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) in 1986-87 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), group 2 - the staff of the KNPP and the SNPP who did not work for LCA in ChNPP and the group 3 - the liquidators of the accident at ChNPP who were not included in the staff but are registered in the register of LPA participants in the Ryazan region are presented. The occurrence of congenital malformations (CM) and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in infants, indices of unfavourable outcomes of pregnancy (UOP) in the families of males, describing the possible radiation-induced genetic effects in male germ cells was evaluated It was made a conclusion that the given in NRB-99/2009 constraints for emergency and subsequent occupational radiation <span class="hlt">exposures</span> of males fail to provide protection from genetic effects in the offspring. The necessity to increase the duration of the protected reproductive period in males, on which there are extended restrictions for occupational and emergency radiation <span class="hlt">exposures</span> from 30 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>, as it is now accepted to the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 35 years is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1010318','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1010318"><span id="translatedtitle">The Microstructural Evolution of Inconel Alloy 740 During Solution Treatment, <span class="hlt">Aging</span>, and <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> at 760 °C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cowen, Christopher J.; Danielson, Paul E.; Jablonski, Paul D.</p> <p>2010-08-10</p> <p>In this study, the microstructural evolution of Inconel alloy 740 during solution treatment and <span class="hlt">aging</span> was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. During double solution heat treatment, carbon is liberated from the dissolution of MC carbides during the first solution treatment at 1150 °C, and fine MC carbides are precipitated on gamma grain boundaries during the second solution treatment at 1120 °C. Due to the concurrent decrease in carbon solubility and the increase in the contribution of grain boundary diffusion at lower temperatures, the MC carbides on the gamma grain boundaries provide a localized carbon reservoir that aids in M<sub>23</sub>C<sub>6</sub> carbide precipitation on gamma grain boundaries during <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at 760 °C. The γ' phase, which is the key strengthening phase in alloy 740, is incorporated into the alloy microstructure during <span class="hlt">aging</span> at 850 °C. Finally, the main source of microstructural instability observed during <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at 760 °C was the coarsening of the γ' phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854235"><span id="translatedtitle">Cholinergic transmission during nicotine withdrawal is influenced by <span class="hlt">age</span> and pre-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine: implications for teenage smoking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carcoba, Luis M; Orfila, James E; Natividad, Luis A; Torres, Oscar V; Pipkin, Joseph A; Ferree, Patrick L; Castañeda, Eddie; Moss, Donald E; O'Dell, Laura E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p> nicotine withdrawal, ACh levels in the NAc were increased in a similar manner in adolescent versus adult rats. However, the increase in ACh that was observed in adult rats experiencing nicotine withdrawal was blunted in pre-exposed adults. These neurochemical effects do not appear to be related to nicotine metabolism, as plasma cotinine levels were similar across all groups. The second study revealed that nicotine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> increased AChE activity in the NAc to a greater extent in adolescent versus adult rats. There was no difference in AChE activity in pre-exposed versus naïve adult rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that nicotine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during adolescence enhances baseline ACh in the NAc. However, the finding that ACh levels were similar during withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats suggests that the enhanced vulnerability to tobacco use during adolescence is not related to <span class="hlt">age</span> differences in withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic transmission. Our results also suggest that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine during adolescence suppresses withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic responses during withdrawal. Taken together, this report illustrates important short- and long-term changes within cholinergic systems that may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility to tobacco use during adolescence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854235"><span id="translatedtitle">Cholinergic transmission during nicotine withdrawal is influenced by <span class="hlt">age</span> and pre-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine: implications for teenage smoking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carcoba, Luis M; Orfila, James E; Natividad, Luis A; Torres, Oscar V; Pipkin, Joseph A; Ferree, Patrick L; Castañeda, Eddie; Moss, Donald E; O'Dell, Laura E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p> nicotine withdrawal, ACh levels in the NAc were increased in a similar manner in adolescent versus adult rats. However, the increase in ACh that was observed in adult rats experiencing nicotine withdrawal was blunted in pre-exposed adults. These neurochemical effects do not appear to be related to nicotine metabolism, as plasma cotinine levels were similar across all groups. The second study revealed that nicotine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> increased AChE activity in the NAc to a greater extent in adolescent versus adult rats. There was no difference in AChE activity in pre-exposed versus naïve adult rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that nicotine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during adolescence enhances baseline ACh in the NAc. However, the finding that ACh levels were similar during withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats suggests that the enhanced vulnerability to tobacco use during adolescence is not related to <span class="hlt">age</span> differences in withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic transmission. Our results also suggest that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to nicotine during adolescence suppresses withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic responses during withdrawal. Taken together, this report illustrates important short- and long-term changes within cholinergic systems that may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility to tobacco use during adolescence. PMID:24854235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4523435','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4523435"><span id="translatedtitle">Cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is associated with reduced olfactory recognition performance in elderly men: the Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grashow, Rachel; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Olfactory dysfunction has been identified as an early warning sign for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia and more. A few occupational and environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> have also been associated with reduced olfactory function, although the effects of long term environmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead on olfactory dysfunction have not been explored. Here we performed olfactory recognition testing in elderly men in a community-dwelling cohort and examined the association with cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, as assessed by lead in tibial and patellar bone. Methods Olfactory recognition was measured in 165 men from the Normative <span class="hlt">Aging</span> Study (NAS) who had previously taken part in bone lead measurements using K-X-Ray fluorescence (KXRF). Olfactory recognition was measured using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Associations between olfactory recognition, global cognition and cumulative lead <span class="hlt">exposure</span> were estimated using linear regression, with additional adjustment for <span class="hlt">age</span>, smoking, and functional polymorphism status for hemochromatosis (HFE), transferrin (TfC2), glutathione-s-transferase Pi1 (GSTP1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Sensitivity analyses explored olfactory recognition in men with high global cognitive function as measured using the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE). Results The average <span class="hlt">age</span> of the NAS participants at the time of olfactory recognition testing was 80.3 (standard deviation or SD = 5.7) years. Mean tibia lead was 16.3 (SD = 12.0) μg/g bone, mean patella lead was 22.4 (SD = 14.4) μg/g bone, and mean UPSIT score was 26.9 out of 40 (SD = 7.0). Consistent with previous findings, <span class="hlt">age</span> at olfaction testing was negatively associated with UPSIT score. Tibia (but not patella) bone lead was negatively associated with olfaction recognition (per 15 μg/g tibia lead: β = −1.57; 95% CI: −2.93, −0.22; p = 0.02) in models adjusted for smoking and <span class="hlt">age</span>. Additional adjustment for education did not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23842602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23842602"><span id="translatedtitle">Impulse noise <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in early adulthood accelerates <span class="hlt">age</span>-related hearing loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiong, Min; Yang, Chuanhong; Lai, Huangwen; Wang, Jian</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of impulse noise on <span class="hlt">age</span>-related hearing loss. The study consisted of two groups. Each group contained 109 men. Group I comprised veterans with normal hearing at the end of 1979 sino-vietnamese war. All these veterans were randomly selected from Guangzhou Military Command. Group II were men with no military experience randomly chosen from the health examination center of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command. Pure-tone thresholds of these two groups were measured and compared. The pure-tone thresholds of Group I were poorer than those of Group II at the frequencies of 4, 6 and 8 kHz. Thus, impulse noise accelerates <span class="hlt">age</span>-related hearing loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20963847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20963847"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> at trauma <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and PTSD risk in young adult women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCutcheon, Vivia V; Sartor, Carolyn E; Pommer, Nicole E; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent and early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by <span class="hlt">age</span> remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk, but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3121097','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3121097"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Age</span> at Trauma <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and PTSD Risk in a Young Adult Female Sample</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent/early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by <span class="hlt">age</span> remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence. PMID:20963847</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19637046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19637046"><span id="translatedtitle">Daily rhythms of core temperature and locomotor activity indicate different adaptive strategies to cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in adult and <span class="hlt">aged</span> mouse lemurs acclimated to a summer-like photoperiod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Terrien, Jeremy; Zizzari, Philippe; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Daily variations in core temperature (Tc) within the normothermic range imply thermoregulatory processes that are essential for optimal function and survival. Higher susceptibility towards cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in older animals suggests that these processes are disturbed with <span class="hlt">age</span>. In the mouse lemur, a long-day breeder, we tested whether <span class="hlt">aging</span> affected circadian rhythmicity of Tc, locomotor activity (LA), and energy balance under long-day conditions when exposed to cold. Adult (N = 7) and <span class="hlt">aged</span> (N = 5) mouse lemurs acclimated to LD14/10 were exposed to 10-day periods at 25 and 12 degrees C. Tc and LA rhythms were recorded by telemetry, and caloric intake (CI), body mass changes, and plasma IGF-1 were measured. During <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 25 degrees C, both adult and <span class="hlt">aged</span> mouse lemurs exhibited strong daily variations in Tc. <span class="hlt">Aged</span> animals exhibited lower levels of nocturnal LA and nocturnal and diurnal Tc levels in comparison to adults. Body mass and IGF-1 levels remained unchanged with <span class="hlt">aging</span>. Under cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, torpor bout occurrence was never observed whatever the <span class="hlt">age</span> category. Adult and <span class="hlt">aged</span> mouse lemurs maintained their Tc in the normothermic range and a positive energy balance. All animals exhibited increase in CI and decrease in IGF-1 in response to cold. The decrease in IGF-1 was delayed in <span class="hlt">aged</span> mouse lemurs compared to adults. Moreover, both adult and <span class="hlt">aged</span> animals responded to cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span> by increasing their diurnal LA compared to those under Ta = 25 degrees C. However, <span class="hlt">aged</span> animals exhibited a strong decrease in nocturnal LA and Tc, whereas cold effects were only slight in adults. The temporal organization and amplitude of the daily phase of low Tc were particularly well preserved under cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in both <span class="hlt">age</span> groups. Sexually active mouse lemurs exposed to cold thus seemed to prevent torpor exhibition and temporal disorganization of daily rhythms of Tc, even during <span class="hlt">aging</span>. However, although energy balance was not impaired with <span class="hlt">age</span> in mouse lemurs after cold <span class="hlt">exposure</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25121973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25121973"><span id="translatedtitle">Pregnancy, maternal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sérgio</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Childhood leukemia etiology, and mainly the interactions of genetic and environmental risk factors, remains largely unexplored. This national hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Brazil among children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 0-23 months who were recruited at cancer and general hospitals in 13 states. Maternal medicine intake during pregnancy, including analgesic intake, was assessed by face-to-face interviews with the mothers of 231 leukemia patients and 411 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to ascertain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal analgesic use during pregnancy and early <span class="hlt">age</span> leukemia. Acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy showed an OR=0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.93) for acute lymphocytic leukemia and an OR=0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.88) for use in the second trimester. For acute myeloid leukemia, an OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.97) was found following acetaminophen use in the second trimester. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, the exclusive use of dipyrone during preconception showed an OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.06-2.53) and dipyrone intake during lactation showed an OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.18-3.39). These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early <span class="hlt">age</span> leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033649','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033649"><span id="translatedtitle">Extent of the last ice sheet in northern Scotland tested with cosmogenic 10Be <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.K.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.; Freeman, S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The extent of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) in northern Scotland is disputed. A restricted ice sheet model holds that at the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 23-19 ka) the BIIS terminated on land in northern Scotland, leaving Buchan, Caithness and the Orkney Islands ice-free. An alternative model implies that these three areas were ice-covered at the LGM, with the BIIS extending offshore onto the adjacent shelves. We test the two models using cosmogenic 10Be surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating of erratic boulders and glacially eroded bedrock from the three areas. Our results indicate that the last BIIS covered all of northern Scotland during the LGM, but that widespread deglaciation of Caithness and Orkney occurred prior to rapid warming at ca. 14.5 ka. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261969','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261969"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational <span class="hlt">Age</span>, and Preterm Delivery in Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F.; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background: Evidence associating <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. Objective: We assessed <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Methods: Mother–child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000–2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Results: Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was –0.45 g (95% confidence interval: –1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (–1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Conclusions: Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive <span class="hlt">exposure</span> assessment, results suggest that residential THM <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain. PMID:21810554</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860018551','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860018551"><span id="translatedtitle">SCR and GCR <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of plagioclase grains from lunar soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Etique, P.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The concentrations of solar wind implanted Ar-36 in mineral grains extracted from lunar soils show that they were exposed to the solar wind on the lunar surface for an integrated time of 10E4 to 10E5 years. From the bulk soil 61501 plagioclase separates of 8 grain size ranges was prepared. The depletion of the implanted gases was achieved by etching aliquot samples of 4 grain sizes to various degrees. The experimental results pertinent to the present discussion are: The spallogenic Ne is, as in most plagioclases from lunar soils, affected by diffusive losses and of no use. The Ar-36 of solar wind origin amounts to (2030 + or - 100) x 10E-8 ccSTP/g in the 150 to 200 mm size fraction and shows that these grains were exposed to the solar wind for at least 10,000 years. The Ne-21/Ne-22 ratio of the spallogenic Ne is 0.75 + or - 0.01 and in very good agreement with the value of this ratio in a plagioclase separate from rock 76535. This rock has had a simple <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history and its plagioclases have a chemical composition quite similar to those studied. In addition to the noble gases, the heavy particle tracks in an aliquot of the 150 to 200 mm plagioclase separate were investigated and found 92% of the grains to contain more than 10E8 tracks/sq cm. This corresponds to a mean track density of (5 + or - 1) x 10E8 tracks/sq cm. The exploration of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history of the plagioclase separates from the soil 61501 do not contradict the model for the regolith dynamics but also fail to prove it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733589"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and neurodevelopment: a follow-up from 12 to 30 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Cebrián, Mariano E; Hernández, María del Carmen; Valencia, Erika Osorio; García Hernández, Rosa María; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>In order to evaluate the persistency of the association between DDE and infant neurodevelopment we assessed mental and psychomotor development between 12 and 30 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> in an ongoing cohort in Mexico. A total of 270 singleton children without perinatal asphyxia diagnosis, with a birth weight > or =2 kg, mothers>15 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> with organochlorine maternal serum levels measured at least in one trimester of pregnancy, and who were evaluated at least in two of the four visits at 12, 18, 24 and 30 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>, were included in this report. The Spanish version of Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID_II; Bayley, 1993) was administered to the children and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) were calculated. Information about stimulation at home was measured using the Home Observation of Measurement of the Environment (HOME) at 6 months, and breastfeeding history was obtained through direct interviews with the mothers. Maternal serum DDE levels were determined during pregnancy by means of electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. The association between DDE prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and neurodevelopment was estimated using separate generalized mixed effects models. Our results suggest that the association between prenatal DDE and infant neurodevelopment does not persist beyond 12 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> even after adjusting for known risk factors for neurodevelopment. In addition, we observed an interaction between early home stimulation and mental improvement at 24 and 30 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> (p<0.001). The association of DDE with infant neurodevelopment seems to be reversible. However, we cannot rule out that other DDT metabolites may play a role in neurodevelopment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39.1087S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39.1087S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to 56Fe irradiation accelerates normal brain <span class="hlt">aging</span> and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Casadesus, Gemma; Carey, Amanda N.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Joseph, James A.</p> <p></p> <p>Previous studies have shown that radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) such as 56Fe, produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in <span class="hlt">aged</span> animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism. For example, an increased release of reactive oxygen species, and the subsequent oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused to the central nervous system, is likely responsible for the deficits seen in <span class="hlt">aging</span> and following irradiation. Therefore, dietary antioxidants, such as those found in fruits and vegetables, could be used as countermeasures to prevent the behavioral changes seen in these conditions. Both <span class="hlt">aged</span> and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment, and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a “map” provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with 56Fe high-energy particles produces <span class="hlt">age</span>-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts, particularly middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> ones, to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032165','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032165"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">exposure-age</span> chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Licciardi, J.M.; Pierce, K.L.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be <span class="hlt">ages</span> from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean <span class="hlt">age</span> of 136??13 10Be ka and oldest <span class="hlt">ages</span> of ???151-157 10Be ka. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in <span class="hlt">age</span> from 18.8??0.9 to 16.5??1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6??0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ???4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 14.6??0.7 and 13.5??1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their <span class="hlt">age</span> indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20301008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20301008"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to community violence, Hurricane Katrina, and Hurricane Gustav on posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms among school <span class="hlt">age</span> children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salloum, Alison; Carter, Paulette; Burch, Berre; Garfinkel, Abbe; Overstreet, Stacy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the relationship between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Hurricane Gustav and distress among 122 children (<span class="hlt">ages</span> 7-12) to determine whether that relationship was moderated by prior experiences with Hurricane Katrina and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to community violence (ECV). Measures of hurricane experiences, ECV, posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and depression were administered. Assessments occurred after the third anniversary of Katrina, which coincided with the landfall of Gustav. Results indicated that the relation between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Gustav and PTS was moderated by prior experiences. There was a positive association between Gustav <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and PTS for children who experienced high Katrina <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and low ECV, with a similar trend for children with high ECV and low Katrina <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. There was no relationship between Gustav <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and PTS for children with low Katrina and low ECV or for children with high Katrina and high ECV. The relationship between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Gustav and depression was not moderated by children's prior experience. However, there was a relationship between Katrina <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and depression for children with high ECV. Results suggest that prior trauma may amplify the relationship between hurricane <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and distress, but children with high cumulative trauma may remain highly symptomatic regardless of disaster <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209690"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to binge pattern of alcohol consumption: mental health and learning outcomes at <span class="hlt">age</span> 11.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Draper, Elizabeth; Alati, Rosa; Lewis, Sarah J; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Davey Smith, George; Gray, Ron</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The objective of the study is to investigate whether episodic binge pattern of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is independently associated with child mental health and academic outcomes. Using data from the prospective, population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the associations between binge patterns of alcohol consumption during pregnancy (≥4 drinks per day) and child mental health [as rated by both parent (n = 4,610) and teacher (n = 4,274)] and academic outcomes [based on examination results (n = 6,939)] at <span class="hlt">age</span> 11 years. After adjusting for prenatal and postnatal risk factors, binge pattern of alcohol consumption (≥4 drinks in a day on at least one occasion) during pregnancy was associated with higher levels of mental health problems (especially hyperactivity/inattention) in girls at <span class="hlt">age</span> 11 years, according to parental report. After disentangling binge-pattern and daily drinking, binge-pattern drinking was independently associated with teacher-rated hyperactivity/inattention and lower academic scores in both genders. Episodic drinking involving ≥4 drinks per day during pregnancy may increase risk for child mental health problems and lower academic attainment even if daily average levels of alcohol consumption are low. Episodic binge pattern of drinking appears to be a risk factor for these outcomes, especially hyperactivity and inattention problems, in the absence of daily drinking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11521825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11521825"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of coastal river otters to mercury: relation to <span class="hlt">age</span>, diet, and survival.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ben-David, M; Duffy, L K; Blundell, G M; Bowyer, R T</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>We evaluated effects of location (i.e., Jackpot Bay, a naturally contaminated site, and Herring Bay, reference site), diet as determined by stable isotopes, and <span class="hlt">age</span> on mercury concentrations in individual river otters (Lontra canadensis) from Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. We also investigated the effects of mercury accumulation on survival of river otters from these two locations. Our results indicated that mercury concentrations in fishes from Jackpot Bay were significantly higher than those in fishes from Herring Bay and those in pelagic fishes. In addition, a predominant intertidal fish diet in both areas influenced the accumulation of mercury concentrations in otters. Concentrations of mercury in fur of river otters from Jackpot Bay were significantly higher than those of animals from Herring Bay. Nonetheless, we did not detect significant differences in survival between otters inhabiting the two areas, suggesting that this natural contamination was not high enough to impair survival. Our ability to investigate the effects of various factors such as location, diet composition, and <span class="hlt">age</span> on mercury accumulation and subsequent survival of individuals offers an example for a link between individual-based captive studies and population-level field investigations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005JSG....27.1563S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005JSG....27.1563S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Neocrystallization, fabrics and <span class="hlt">age</span> of clay minerals from an <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of the Moab Fault, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solum, John G.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.; Peacor, Donald R.</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Pronounced changes in clay mineral assemblages are preserved along the Moab Fault (Utah). Gouge is enriched up to ˜40% in 1M d illite relative to protolith, whereas altered protolith in the damage zone is enriched ˜40% in illite-smectite relative to gouge and up to ˜50% relative to protolith. These mineralogical changes indicate that clay gouge is formed not solely through mechanical incorporation of protolith, but also through fault-related authigenesis. The timing of mineralization is determined using 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of size fractions of fault rocks with varying detrital and authigenic clay content. We applied Ar dating of illite-smectite samples, as well as a newer approach that uses illite polytypes. Our analysis yields overlapping, early Paleocene <span class="hlt">ages</span> for neoformed (1M d) gouge illite (63±2 Ma) and illite-smectite in the damage zone (60±2 Ma), which are compatible with results elsewhere. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> represent the latest period of major fault motion, and demonstrate that the fault fabrics are not the result of recent alteration. The clay fabrics in fault rocks are poorly developed, indicating that fluids were not confined to the fault zone by preferentially oriented clays; rather we propose that fluids in the illite-rich gouge were isolated by adjacent lower permeability, illite-smectite-bearing rocks in the damage zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027964','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027964"><span id="translatedtitle">Neocrystallization, fabrics and <span class="hlt">age</span> of clay minerals from an <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of the Moab Fault, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Solum, J.G.; van der Pluijm, B.A.; Peacor, D.R.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Pronounced changes in clay mineral assemblages are preserved along the Moab Fault (Utah). Gouge is enriched up to ???40% in 1Md illite relative to protolith, whereas altered protolith in the damage zone is enriched ???40% in illite-smectite relative to gouge and up to ???50% relative to protolith. These mineralogical changes indicate that clay gouge is formed not solely through mechanical incorporation of protolith, but also through fault-related authigenesis. The timing of mineralization is determined using 40Ar/39Ar dating of size fractions of fault rocks with varying detrital and authigenic clay content. We applied Ar dating of illite-smectite samples, as well as a newer approach that uses illite polytypes. Our analysis yields overlapping, early Paleocene <span class="hlt">ages</span> for neoformed (1Md) gouge illite (63??2 Ma) and illite-smectite in the damage zone (60??2 Ma), which are compatible with results elsewhere. These <span class="hlt">ages</span> represent the latest period of major fault motion, and demonstrate that the fault fabrics are not the result of recent alteration. The clay fabrics in fault rocks are poorly developed, indicating that fluids were not confined to the fault zone by preferentially oriented clays; rather we propose that fluids in the illite-rich gouge were isolated by adjacent lower permeability, illite-smectite-bearing rocks in the damage zone. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3185405','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3185405"><span id="translatedtitle">XRCC1 haploinsufficiency in mice has little effect on <span class="hlt">aging</span>, but adversely modifies <span class="hlt">exposure</span>-dependent susceptibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McNeill, Daniel R.; Lin, Ping-Chang; Miller, Marshall G.; Pistell, Paul J.; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C.; Fishbein, Kenneth W.; Spencer, Richard G.; Liu, Yie; Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Ladiges, Warren C.; Wilson, David M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Oxidative DNA damage plays a role in disease development and the <span class="hlt">aging</span> process. A prominent participant in orchestrating the repair of oxidative DNA damage, particularly single-strand breaks, is the scaffold protein XRCC1. A series of chronological and biological <span class="hlt">aging</span> parameters in XRCC1 heterozygous (HZ) mice were examined. HZ and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice exhibit a similar median lifespan of ~26 months and a nearly identical maximal life expectancy of ~37 months. However, a number of HZ animals (7 of 92) showed a propensity for abdominal organ rupture, which may stem from developmental abnormalities given the prominent role of XRCC1 in endoderm and mesoderm formation. For other end-points evaluated—weight, fat composition, blood chemistries, condition of major organs, tissues and relevant cell types, behavior, brain volume and function, and chromosome and telomere integrity—HZ mice exhibited by-and-large a normal phenotype. Treatment of animals with the alkylating agent azoxymethane resulted in both liver toxicity and an increased incidence of precancerous lesions in the colon of HZ mice. Our study indicates that XRCC1 haploinsufficiency in mammals has little effect on chronological longevity and many key biological markers of <span class="hlt">aging</span> in the absence of environmental challenges, but may adversely affect normal animal development or increase disease susceptibility to a relevant genotoxic <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. PMID:21737425</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22062241','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22062241"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel facility for <span class="hlt">ageing</span> materials with narrow-band ultraviolet radiation <span class="hlt">exposure</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaerhae, Petri; Ruokolainen, Kimmo; Heikkilae, Anu</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>A facility for exploring wavelength dependencies in ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced degradation in materials has been designed and constructed. The device is essentially a spectrograph separating light from a lamp to spectrally resolved UV radiation. It is based on a 1 kW xenon lamp and a flat-field concave holographic grating 10 cm in diameter. Radiation at the wavelength range 250-500 nm is dispersed onto the sample plane of 1.5 cm in height and 21 cm in width. The optical performance of the device has been characterized by radiometric measurements. Using the facility, test samples prepared of regular newspaper have been irradiated from 1 to 8 h. Color changes on the different locations of the <span class="hlt">aged</span> samples have been quantified by color measurements. Yellowness indices computed from the color measurements demonstrate the capability of the facility in revealing wavelength dependencies of the material property changes in reasonable time frames.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089881&hterms=lifespan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dlifespan','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089881&hterms=lifespan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dlifespan"><span id="translatedtitle">Damage to the photoreceptor cells of the rabbit retina from 56Fe ions: effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, G. R.; Lett, J. T.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Optic and proximate tissues of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits at <span class="hlt">ages</span> (approximately 3.5 years) near the middle of their median lifespan (5-7 years) were given 0.5-3.5 Gy of 465 MeV u-1 56Fe ions in the Bragg plateau region of energy deposition at a linear energy transfer (LET infinity) of 220 +/- 31 keV micrometer-1. Dose-dependent losses of retinal photoreceptor cells (rods) occurred until 1-2 years after irradiation, the period of this interim report. Similar cumulative losses of photoreceptor cells were seen during the period 1-2 years post-irradiation for rabbits given comparable <span class="hlt">exposures</span> when young (6-9 weeks old). Since losses of photoreceptor cells at early times had not been determined previously, the current experiment, which was designed to simulate the responses of mature astronauts, redressed that deficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11538988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11538988"><span id="translatedtitle">Damage to the photoreceptor cells of the rabbit retina from 56Fe ions: effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, G R; Lett, J T</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Optic and proximate tissues of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits at <span class="hlt">ages</span> (approximately 3.5 years) near the middle of their median lifespan (5-7 years) were given 0.5-3.5 Gy of 465 MeV u-1 56Fe ions in the Bragg plateau region of energy deposition at a linear energy transfer (LET infinity) of 220 +/- 31 keV micrometer-1. Dose-dependent losses of retinal photoreceptor cells (rods) occurred until 1-2 years after irradiation, the period of this interim report. Similar cumulative losses of photoreceptor cells were seen during the period 1-2 years post-irradiation for rabbits given comparable <span class="hlt">exposures</span> when young (6-9 weeks old). Since losses of photoreceptor cells at early times had not been determined previously, the current experiment, which was designed to simulate the responses of mature astronauts, redressed that deficiency. PMID:11538988</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39..981R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39..981R"><span id="translatedtitle">Elevated plus-maze performance of Fischer-344 rats as a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> and of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 56Fe particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L.; Carey, Amanda N.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">aging</span> process is characterized by a series of changes in neurochemical functioning and in motor and cognitive performance. In addition to changes in cognitive/behavioral performance, <span class="hlt">aged</span> rats also show an increase in baseline anxiety measured using the elevated plus-maze. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to 56Fe particles, a component of cosmic rays, produces neurochemical and behavioral changes in young animals which are characteristic of <span class="hlt">aged</span> organisms. The present study was designed to determine the relationships between <span class="hlt">aging</span> and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to 56Fe particles on anxiety. Fischer-344 (F-344), which were 2, 7, 12, and 16 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> at the time of irradiation, were exposed to 56Fe particles (50 200 cGy). Concordant with previous results, the oldest rats spent less time exploring the open arms of the maze. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to 56Fe particles also produced decreased exploration of the open arms of the plus-maze. The dose needed to produce increased levels of anxiety was a function of <span class="hlt">age</span> at the time of irradiation. The dose of 56Fe particles needed to produce a decrease in open arm exploration was significantly lower in the rats that were irradiated at 7 and 12 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> than in the rats irradiated at 2 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. These results suggest the possibility that exposing middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> astronauts to cosmic rays during exploratory class missions outside the magnetosphere, and the resultant effects on exploration-induced anxiety, may affect their ability to successfully complete mission requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3965653','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3965653"><span id="translatedtitle">Thyroid hormones are associated with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to persistent organic pollutants in <span class="hlt">aging</span> residents of upper Hudson River communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bloom, Michael S.; Jansing, Robert L.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and thyroid hormones in an <span class="hlt">aging</span> population. Forty-eight women and 66 men, <span class="hlt">aged</span> 55 to 74 years and living in upper Hudson River communities completed a questionnaire and provided blood specimens. Serum was analyzed for thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free (fT4) and total thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and for POPs. POPs included 39 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD), and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determined by high-resolution gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry detection (HRGC-HRMS). Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between thyroid hormones and sums of POPs, adjusted for covariates and stratified by sex. Effects were expressed as differences in thyroid hormone levels associated with a doubling in the level of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Among women, DDT+DDE increased T4 by 0.34 μg/dL (P=0.04) and T3 by 2.78 ng/dL (P=0.05). Also in women, sums of PCBs in conjunction with PBDEs elicited increases of 24.39-80.85 ng/dL T3 (P<0.05), and sums of PCBs in conjunction with DDT+DDE elicited increases of 0.18-0.31 μg/dL T4 (P<0.05). For men estrogenic PCBs were associated with a 19.82 ng/dL T3 decrease (P=0.003), and the sum of estrogenic PCBs in conjunction with DDT+DDE elicited an 18.02 ng/dL T3 decrease (P=0.04). Given <span class="hlt">age</span>-related declines in physiologic reserve, the influence of POPs on thyroid hormones in <span class="hlt">aging</span> populations may have clinical implications and merits further investigation. PMID:24138783</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4847033','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4847033"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span>: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span>. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The <span class="hlt">age</span>-adjusted rate of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> from SHS. PMID:27043604</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22571173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22571173"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of acute ethanol <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and <span class="hlt">ageing</span> on rat brain glutathione metabolism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sommavilla, Michela; Sánchez-Villarejo, M Victoria; Almansa, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Vallejo, Violeta; Barcia, Jorge M; Romero, Francisco Javier; Miranda, María</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Binge alcohol consumption in adolescents is increasing, and it has been proposed that immature brain deals poorly with oxidative stress. The aim of our work was to study the effect of an acute dose of ethanol on glutathione (GSH) metabolism in frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum of juvenile and adult rats. We have observed no change in levels of glutathione produced by acute alcohol in the three brain areas studied of juvenile and adult rats. Only in the frontal cortex the ratio of GSH/GSSG was increased in the ethanol-treated adult rats. GSH levels in the hippocampus and striatum were significantly higher in adult animals compared to young ones. Higher glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in adult rats was observed in frontal cortex and in striatum. Our data show an increased GSH concentration and GPx activity in different cerebral regions of the adult rat, compared to the young ones, suggesting that <span class="hlt">age</span>-related variations of total antioxidant defences in brain may predispose young brain structures to ethanol-induced, oxidative stress-mediated tissue damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1235049-measurements-production-cross-sections-gev-mev-proton-bombardment-natcu-targets','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1235049-measurements-production-cross-sections-gev-mev-proton-bombardment-natcu-targets"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of production cross sections of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> by 120 GeV and 392 MeV proton bombardment of 89Y, 159Tb, and natCu targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Sekimoto, S.; Okumura, S.; Yashima, H.; Matsushi, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Matsumura, H.; Toyoda, A.; Oishi, K.; Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y.; et al</p> <p>2015-08-12</p> <p>The production cross sections of 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry using 89Y, 159Tb, and natCu targets bombarded by protons with energies Ep of 120 GeV and 392 MeV. The production cross sections obtained for 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> were compared with those previously reported using Ep = 50 MeV–24 GeV and various targets. It was found that the production cross sections of 10Be monotonically increased with increasing target mass number when the proton energy was greater than a few GeV. On the other hand, it was also found that the production cross sections of 10Be decreased asmore » the target mass number increased from that of carbon to those near the mass numbers of nickel and zinc when the proton energy was below approximately 1 GeV. They also increased as the target mass number increased from near those of nickel and zinc to that of bismuth, in the same proton energy range. Similar results were observed in the production cross sections of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>, though the absolute values were quite different between 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>. As a result, the difference between these production cross sections may depend on the impact parameter (nuclear radius) and/or the target nucleus stiffness.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21963411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21963411"><span id="translatedtitle">RFID system for newborn identity reconfirmation in hospital: <span class="hlt">exposure</span> assessment of a realistic newborn model and effects of the change of the dielectric properties with <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This paper addresses the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> assessment of RFID devices for newborn identity reconfirmation. To that purpose, a realistic newborn model ("Baby") is used to evaluate by a computational approach the levels of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> due to these devices. Considering the average technical specifications currently in use, the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> matrix in Baby shows that the systems comply with the ICNIRP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> guidelines. As second aim, the effects of the change of the tissue dielectric properties with <span class="hlt">age</span> on the so called "<span class="hlt">exposure</span> matrix" (set of induced magnetic and electric field together with the derived values of SAR) is addressed. Specifically, three different approaches proposed in literature for the <span class="hlt">age</span> variation of the dielectric properties at 13.56 MHz (the working frequency of the RFID systems for these applications) have been implemented using the Baby geometrical model. The related <span class="hlt">exposure</span> matrices were then compared with the results obtained using the adult properties. No clear trend can be identified on the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> matrices obtained varying the dielectric properties at 13.56 MHz, although the results could suggest a trend toward the underestimation of the <span class="hlt">exposure</span> using adult properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22483306','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22483306"><span id="translatedtitle">Metals <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and risk of small-for-gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, Shari; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Fisher, Mandy; Fraser, William D.; Ettinger, Adrienne; King, Will</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal <span class="hlt">age</span>, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077765','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077765"><span id="translatedtitle">Drinking water arsenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and blood pressure in healthy women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> in Inner Mongolia, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kwok, Richard K. Mendola, Pauline; Liu Zhiyi; Savitz, David A.; Heiss, Gerardo; Ling Heling; Xia Yajuan; Lobdell, Danelle; Zeng Donglin; Thorp, John M.; Creason, John P.; Mumford, Judy L.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>The extremely high <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8790 women who had recently been pregnant in an area of Inner Mongolia, China known to have a gradient of drinking water arsenic <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. This study observed increased systolic blood pressure levels with increasing drinking water arsenic, at lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels than previously reported in the literature. As compared to the referent category (below limit of detection to 20 {mu}g of As/L), the overall population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.29 mm Hg (95% CI 0.82, 1.75), 1.28 mm Hg (95% CI 0.49, 2.07), and 2.22 mm Hg (95% CI 1.46, 2.97) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased from 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 {mu}g of As/L, respectively. Controlling for <span class="hlt">age</span> and body weight (n = 3260), the population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.88 mm Hg (95% CI 1.03, 2.73), 3.90 mm Hg (95% CI 2.52, 5.29), and 6.83 mm Hg (95% CI 5.39, 8.27) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased, respectively. For diastolic blood pressure effect, while statistically significant, was not as pronounced as systolic blood pressure. Mean diastolic blood pressure rose 0.78 mm Hg (95% CI 0.39, 1.16), 1.57 mm Hg (95% CI 0.91, 2.22) and 1.32 mm Hg (95% CI 0.70, 1.95), respectively, for the overall population and rose 2.11 mm Hg (95% CI 1.38, 2.84), 2.74 mm Hg (95% CI 1.55, 3.93), and 3.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84, 4.31), respectively, for the adjusted population (n = 3260) at drinking water arsenic concentrations of 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 {mu}g of As/L. If our study results are confirmed in other populations, the potential burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to drinking water arsenic is significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446104"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondhand smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span>-induced nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB1 in a rat premature skin <span class="hlt">aging</span> model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chaichalotornkul, Sirintip; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat; Narkpinit, Somphong; Dararat, Pornpen; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Tancharoen, Salunya</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Secondhand cigarette smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (SSE) has been linked to carcinogenic, oxidative, and inflammatory reactions. Herein, we investigated whether premature skin <span class="hlt">aging</span> could be induced by SSE in a rat model, and assessed the cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and collagen loss in skin tissues. Animals were divided into two groups: SSE and controls. Whole body SSE was carried out for 12 weeks. Dorsal skin tissue specimens were harvested for HMGB1 and Mallory's azan staining. Correlations between serum HMGB1 and collagen levels were determined. Rat skin exposed to secondhand smoke lost collagen bundles in the papillary dermis and collagen decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with control rats. In epidermal keratinocytes, cytoplasmic HMGB1 staining was more diffuse and there were more HMGB1-positive cells after four weeks in SSE compared to control rats. A negative correlation between HMGB1 serum and collagen levels (r=-0.631, p=0.28) was also observed. Therefore, cytoplasmic HMGB1 expression in skin tissues might be associated with skin collagen loss upon the initiation of SSE. Additionally, long-term SSE might affect the appearance of the skin, or could accelerate the skin <span class="hlt">aging</span> process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EM%26P..117...65M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EM%26P..117...65M"><span id="translatedtitle">Santa Lucia (2008) (L6) Chondrite, a Recent Fall: Composition, Noble Gases, Nitrogen and Cosmic Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahajan, Ramakant R.; Varela, Maria Eugenia; Joron, Jean Louis</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Santa Lucia (2008)—one the most recent Argentine meteorite fall, fell in San Juan province, Argentina, on 23 January 2008. Several masses (total ~6 kg) were recovered. Most are totally covered by fusion crust. The exposed interior is of light-grey colour. Chemical data [olivine (Fa24.4) and low-Ca pyroxene (En77.8 Fs20.7 Wo1.6)] indicate that Santa Luica (2008) is a member of the low iron L chondrite group, corresponding to the equilibrated petrologic type 6. The meteorite name was approved by the Nomenclature Committee (NomCom) of the Meteoritical Society (Meteoritic Bulletin, no. 97). We report about the chemical composition of the major mineral phases, its bulk trace element abundance, its noble gas and nitrogen data. The cosmic ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> based on cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne, and 38Ar around 20 Ma is comparable to one peak of L chondrites. The radiogenic K-Ar <span class="hlt">age</span> of 2.96 Ga, while the young U, Th-He are of 1.2 Ga indicates that Santa Lucia (2008) lost radiogenic 4He more recently. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Ne)c and absence of solar wind noble gases are consistent with irradiation in a large body. Heavy noble gases (Ar/Kr/Xe) indicated trapped gases similar to ordinary chondrites. Krypton and neon indicates irradiation in large body, implying large pre-atmospheric meteoroid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810447B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810447B"><span id="translatedtitle">Rate and style of ice stream retreat constrained by new surface-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span>: The Minch, NW Scotland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bradwell, Tom; Small, David; Fabel, Derek; Dove, Dayton; Cofaigh, Colm O.; Clark, Chris; Consortium, Britice-Chrono</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Chronologically constrained studies of former ice-sheet extents and dynamics are important for understanding past cryospheric responses and modelling future ice-sheet and sea-level change. As part of the BRITICE-CHRONO project, we present new geomorphological and chronological data from a marine-terminating ice stream system in NW Europe that operated during the Late Weichselian Glaciation. A suite of 51 cosmogenic-nuclide <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from ice sheet moraines and glacially transported boulders constrain the maximum extent of the ice sheet on the continental shelf (~28 ka BP) and its subsequent retreat, between ~27 and 16 ka BP, into a large marine embayment (ca. 7000 km2; the Minch, NW Scotland). Recently acquired swath bathymetry and acoustic sub-bottom profiler data reveal several large transverse grounding-zone wedges up to 40 m thick and 5 km wide with diagnostic acoustic-facies architecture. These seabed sediment wedges mark former quasi-stable positions of grounded marine-terminating ice-stream fronts; their size and thickness suggest long-lived stillstands of the order of centuries. Statistically significant clusters of <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from glacial deposits on islands and intervening headlands shed important new light on the <span class="hlt">age</span> of these marine grounding-zone wedges and, by inference, the rate and timing of Minch palaeo-ice stream retreat. We find strong evidence for episodic ice stream retreat on the continental shelf between ~28-24 ka BP, in the outer Minch between ~24-22 ka BP, and in the central Minch between 22-18.5 ka BP. In contrast, final ice stream deglaciation (<18 ka) across the deepest parts of the inner Minch embayment, was probably rapid and uninterrupted - with the ice sheet margin at or close to the present-day coastline in NW Scotland by 16.1 ka BP. It is hoped that these results will form the empirical basis for future ice-sheet modelling of this dynamically sensitive sector of the British-Irish Ice Sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937852','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937852"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomolecular Markers within the Core Axis of <span class="hlt">Aging</span> and Particulate Air Pollution <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pieters, Nicky; Janssen, Bram G.; Dewitte, Harrie; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Lefebvre, Wouter; Smeets, Karen; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Plusquin, Michelle; Nawrot, Tim S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content are markers of <span class="hlt">aging</span> and <span class="hlt">aging</span>-related diseases. There is inconclusive evidence concerning the mechanistic effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on biomolecular markers of <span class="hlt">aging</span>. Objective: The present study examines the association between short- and long-term PM <span class="hlt">exposure</span> with telomere length and mtDNA content in the elderly and investigates to what extent this association is mediated by expression of genes playing a role in the telomere–mitochondrial axis of <span class="hlt">aging</span>. Methods: Among 166 nonsmoking elderly participants, we used qPCR to measure telomere length and mtDNA content in leukocytes and RNA from whole blood to measure expression of SIRT1, TP53, PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, NRF1, and NFE2L2. Associations between PM <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and markers of <span class="hlt">aging</span> were estimated using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for sex, <span class="hlt">age</span>, BMI, socioeconomic status, statin use, past smoking status, white blood cell count, and percentage of neutrophils. Mediation analysis was performed to explore the role of <span class="hlt">age</span>-related markers between the association of PM <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and outcome. Annual PM2.5 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was calculated for each participant’s home address using a high-resolution spatial–temporal interpolation model. Results: Annual PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 15 to 23 μg/m3. A 5-μg/m3 increment in annual PM2.5 concentration was associated with a relative decrease of 16.8% (95% CI: –26.0%, –7.4%, p = 0.0005) in telomere length and a relative decrease of 25.7% (95% CI: –35.2%, –16.2%, p < 0.0001) in mtDNA content. Assuming causality, results of the mediation analysis indicated that SIRT1 mediated 19.5% and 22.5% of the estimated effect of PM2.5 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on telomere length and mtDNA content, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the estimated effects of PM2.5 <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on the telomere–mitochondrial axis of <span class="hlt">aging</span> may play an important role in chronic health effects of PM2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4237679','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4237679"><span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of <span class="hlt">Age</span> of Onset and Acute Anabolic Steroid <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> on Cognitive Performance, Impulsivity, and Aggression in Men</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hildebrandt, Tom; Langenbucher, James W.; Flores, Adrianne; Harty, Seth; Berlin, Heather A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A growing translational literature suggests that adolescent <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) leads to increased aggression and impulsivity. However, little is known about the cognitive effects of AASs among AAS users or the differences between adolescent and adult onset users. This study provides a test of the effects of acute naturalistic AAS use and <span class="hlt">age</span> of onset (adolescent vs. adult) on measures of inhibitory control, planning and attention, and decision making. Seventy one active adult male AAS uses completed self-report measures of impulsivity and aggress and a subsample (11 adolescent onset vs. 11 adult onset) matched on current <span class="hlt">age</span> were administered four computerized test from the CANTAB battery and the Iowa Gambling Task. Multiple regression analyses and a series of 2 (Adolescent vs. Adult) X 2 (On-cycle vs. Off-cycle) analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to examine the differential effects of <span class="hlt">age</span> of onset and acute drug use on cognition and behavior. Regression analyses revealed larger on-cycle effects for adolescent users than adult users. Subsample analyses indicated that on-cycle users performed less well on cognitive measures of inhibitory control and attention, but not on tests of planning or decision making. Adolescent onset was associated with a greater impulsivity and a greater acute sensitivity to AAS effects on attention. These preliminary findings suggest the possibility that acute AAS use is associated with some differences in inhibitory control and impulsivity and to a lesser degree aggression. These effects may be more potent for those initiating AAS use in adolescence. PMID:24841181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4569283','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4569283"><span id="translatedtitle">Chronic Lead <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Mixed Factors of Gender×<span class="hlt">Age</span>×Brain Regions Interactions on Dendrite Growth, Spine Maturity and NDR Kinase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xue, Weizhen; Yang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Yi; Wang, Hui-Li</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>NDR1/2 kinase is essential in dendrite morphology and spine formation, which is regulated by cellular Ca2+. Lead (Pb) is a potent blocker of L-type calcium channel and our recent work showed Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> impairs dendritic spine outgrowth in hippocampal neurons in rats. But the sensitivity of Pb-induced spine maturity with mixed factors (gender×<span class="hlt">age</span>×brain regions) remains unknown. This study aimed to systematically investigate the effect of Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> on spine maturity in rat brain with three factors (gender×<span class="hlt">age</span>×brain regions), as well as the NDR1/2 kinase expression. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to Pb from parturition to postnatal day 30, 60, 90, respectively. Golgi-Cox staining was used to examine spine maturity. Western blot assay was applied to measure protein expression and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was used to examine mRNA levels. The results showed chronic Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> significantly decreased dendritic length and impaired spine maturity in both rat hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The impairment of dendritic length induced by Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> tended to adolescence > adulthood, hippocampus > medial prefrontal cortex and female > male. Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> induced significant damage in spine maturity during adolescence and early adult while little damage during adult in male rat brain and female medial prefrontal cortex. Besides, there was sustained impairment from adolescence to adulthood in female hippocampus. Interestingly, impairment of spine maturity followed by Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was correlated with NDR1/2 kinase. The reduction of NDR1/2 kinase protein expression after Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was similar to the result of spine maturity. In addition, NDR2 and their substrate Rabin3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in developmental rat brain. Taken together, Pb <span class="hlt">exposure</span> impaired dendrite growth and maturity which was subject to gender×<span class="hlt">age</span>×brain regions effects and related to NDR1/2 signal expression. PMID:26368815</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854523"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychological Distress Among School-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Children with and Without Intrauterine Cocaine <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>: Perinatal Versus Contextual Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Richardson, Mark A.; Grant-Knight, Wanda; Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Chen, Clara A.; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Cabral, Howard J.; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Frank, Deborah A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Whether intrauterine cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (IUCE) explains unique variance in psychiatric functioning among school <span class="hlt">age</span> children, even after controlling for other biological and social risk factors, has not been fully delineated. As part of a longitudinal birth cohort study of children with and without IUCE, we conducted and analyzed data based on structured clinical interviews with 105 children (57 % male) and their caregivers when the child was approximately 8.5 years old; 47 % of the children had experienced IUCE. Interviews included past and current major psychological disorders and sub-threshold mental health symptoms. Potential covariates were ascertained by interviews of birth mothers and other caregivers from shortly after the child’s birth until the 8.5-year visit. More than one-third of children met DSM-IV criteria for one or more mood, anxiety, attention deficit, or disruptive behavior disorders. IUCE was not significantly associated with children’s history of psychological distress, in either bivariate or multiple logistic regressions. In contrast, birth mothers’ acknowledgement of greater psychiatric distress at baseline and higher levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and at 8.5 years caregivers’ reports of their own psychological distress, and children’s lower IQ were predictors of higher rates of psychological morbidity. Findings are consistent with prior reports suggesting that, regardless of IUCE status, children from low-income, urban backgrounds are at heightened risk for psychological distress. Results underscore the need for closer monitoring of the mental health of children living in low-income households, with or without intrauterine substance <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, to facilitate access to appropriate services. PMID:26194603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26194603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26194603"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychological Distress Among School-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Children with and Without Intrauterine Cocaine <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>: Perinatal Versus Contextual Effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richardson, Mark A; Grant-Knight, Wanda; Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Chen, Clara A; Appugliese, Danielle P; Cabral, Howard J; Liebschutz, Jane M; Frank, Deborah A</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Whether intrauterine cocaine <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (IUCE) explains unique variance in psychiatric functioning among school <span class="hlt">age</span> children, even after controlling for other biological and social risk factors, has not been fully delineated. As part of a longitudinal birth cohort study of children with and without IUCE, we conducted and analyzed data based on structured clinical interviews with 105 children (57% male) and their caregivers when the child was approximately 8.5 years old; 47% of the children had experienced IUCE. Interviews included past and current major psychological disorders and sub-threshold mental health symptoms. Potential covariates were ascertained by interviews of birth mothers and other caregivers from shortly after the child's birth until the 8.5-year visit. More than one-third of children met DSM-IV criteria for one or more mood, anxiety, attention deficit, or disruptive behavior disorders. IUCE was not significantly associated with children's history of psychological distress, in either bivariate or multiple logistic regressions. In contrast, birth mothers' acknowledgement of greater psychiatric distress at baseline and higher levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and at 8.5 years caregivers' reports of their own psychological distress, and children's lower IQ were predictors of higher rates of psychological morbidity. Findings are consistent with prior reports suggesting that, regardless of IUCE status, children from low-income, urban backgrounds are at heightened risk for psychological distress. Results underscore the need for closer monitoring of the mental health of children living in low-income households, with or without intrauterine substance <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, to facilitate access to appropriate services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Geomo..45...89C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Geomo..45...89C"><span id="translatedtitle">Using 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> to determine sediment generation rates and identify sediment source areas in an arid region drainage basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clapp, Erik M.; Bierman, Paul R.; Caffee, Marc</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>We measured 10Be and <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in 64 sediment and bedrock samples collected throughout the arid, 187 km 2 Yuma Wash drainage basin, southwestern Arizona. From the measurements, we determine long-term, time-integrated rates of upland sediment generation (81±5 g m -2 year -1) and bedrock equivalent lowering (30±2 m Ma -1) consistent with other estimates for regions of similar climate, lithology, and topography. In a small (˜8 km 2), upland sub-basin, differences in nuclide concentrations between bedrock outcrops and hillslope colluvium suggest weathering of bedrock beneath a colluvial cover is a more significant source of sediment (40×10 4 kg year -1) than weathering of exposed bedrock surfaces (10×10 4 kg year -1). Mixing models constructed from nuclide concentrations of sediment reservoirs identify important sediment source areas. Hillslope colluvium is the dominant sediment source to the upper reaches of the sub-basin channel; channel cutting of alluvial terraces is the dominant source in the lower reaches. Similarities in nuclide concentrations of various sediment reservoirs indicate short sediment storage times (<10 3 years). Nuclide concentrations, measured in channel sediment from tributaries of Yuma Wash and in samples collected along the length of the Wash, were used to construct mixing models and determine sediment sources to the main stem channel. We find an exponential decrease in the channel nuclide concentrations with distance downstream, suggesting that as much as 40% of sediment discharged from Yuma Wash has been recycled from storage within basin fill alluvium. Sediment generation and denudation rates determined from the main stem are greater (25%) than rates determined from upland sub-basins suggesting that, currently, sediment may be exported from the basin more quickly than it is being generated in the uplands. Independence of nuclide concentration and sediment grain size indicates that channels transport sediment in discrete pulses before rapidly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740018175','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740018175"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar surface dynamics: Some general conclusions and new results from Apollo 16 and 17. [<span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> determination of lunar rocks, boulders, and craters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crozaz, G.; Drozd, R.; Hohenberg, C.; Morgan, C.; Ralston, C.; Walker, R.; Yuhas, D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> of Apollo 17 rocks as measured by tracks and the Kr-Kr rare gas method are reported. Concordant <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 22 - or + 1 million year (my) are obtained for the station 6 boulder sample 76315. This value is interpreted as the time when the station 6 boulder was emplaced in its present position. Reasonable agreement is also obtained by the two methods for another station 6 boulder, sample 76015. Discordant <span class="hlt">ages</span> (respectively 5 and 28 my by the track and rare gas methods) are obtained for the station 7 boulder sample, 77135, indicating that the boulder was emplaced at least 5 my ago. The 72 my <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of 75035, in general agreement with previous measurements of approximately 85 my for another Camelot boulder, may well date the formation of Camelot. Rock 76015 was split and one surface exposed to the sky through a very small solid angle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4244417','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4244417"><span id="translatedtitle">A systematic review of associations between environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and development of asthma in children <span class="hlt">aged</span> up to 9 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dick, S; Friend, A; Dynes, K; AlKandari, F; Doust, E; Cowie, H; Ayres, J G; Turner, S W</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives Childhood asthma is a complex condition where many environmental factors are implicated in causation. The aim of this study was to complete a systematic review of the literature describing associations between environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and the development of asthma in young children. Setting A systematic review of the literature up to November 2013 was conducted using key words agreed by the research team. Abstracts were screened and potentially eligible papers reviewed. Papers describing associations between <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and exacerbation of pre-existing asthma were not included. Papers were placed into the following predefined categories: secondhand smoke (SHS), inhaled chemicals, damp housing/mould, inhaled allergens, air pollution, domestic combustion, dietary <span class="hlt">exposures</span>, respiratory virus infection and medications. Participants Children <span class="hlt">aged</span> up to 9 years. Primary outcomes Diagnosed asthma and wheeze. Results 14 691 abstracts were identified, 207 papers reviewed and 135 included in the present review of which 15 were systematic reviews, 6 were meta-analyses and 14 were intervention studies. There was consistent evidence linking <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to SHS, inhaled chemicals, mould, ambient air pollutants, some deficiencies in maternal diet and respiratory viruses to an increased risk for asthma (OR typically increased by 1.5–2.0). There was less consistent evidence linking <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to pets, breast feeding and infant dietary <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to asthma risk, and although there were consistent associations between <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to antibiotics and paracetamol in early life, these associations might reflect reverse causation. There was good evidence that <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to house dust mites (in isolation) was not associated with asthma risk. Evidence from observational and intervention studies suggest that interactions between <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were important to asthma causation, where the effect size was typically 1.5–3.0. Conclusions There are many publications reporting associations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011M%26PS...46..556B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011M%26PS...46..556B"><span id="translatedtitle">81Kr-Kr <span class="hlt">age</span> and multiple cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">exposure</span> history of the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bajo, Ken-Ichi; Nagao, Keisuke</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Noble gas isotopic compositions were measured for a eucritic pebble and bulk material of a silicate-metal mixture from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite as well as pyroxene and plagioclase separated from the eucritic pebble by total melting and stepwise heating methods. Trapped noble gases were degassed completely by a high-temperature thermal event, probably at the formation of the Vaca Muerta parent body (VMPB). The presence of fissiogenic Xe isotopes from extinct 244Pu in the bulk samples might be a result of rapid cooling from an early high-temperature metamorphism. High concentrations of cosmogenic noble gases enabled us to determine precise isotopic ratios of cosmogenic Kr and Xe. Spallogenic Ne from Na and unique Ar isotopic compositions were observed. The 81Kr-Kr <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> of 168 ± 8 Myr for the silicate pebble is distinctly longer than the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 139 ± 8 Myr for the bulk samples. The precursor of the pebble had been irradiated on the surface of the VMPB for more than 60 Myr (first stage irradiation), with subsequent incorporation into bulk materials approximately 4 Gyr ago. The Vaca Muerta meteorite was excavated from the VMPB 140 Myr ago (second stage irradiation). Relative diffusion rates among the cosmogenic Ar, Kr, and Xe based on data obtained by stepwise heating indicate that Kr and Xe can be partially retained in pyroxene and plagioclase under the condition that resets the K-Ar system. This result supports the presence of fission Xe and of excess concentration of cosmogenic Kr, which could have survived the thermal event approximately 3.8 Gyr ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=165075&keyword=women+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79233917&CFTOKEN=58621391','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=165075&keyword=women+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79233917&CFTOKEN=58621391"><span id="translatedtitle">DRINKING WATER ARSENIC <span class="hlt">EXPOSURE</span> AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN HEALTHY WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE <span class="hlt">AGE</span> IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The extremely high <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=239428&keyword=cardiovascular+AND+system&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79436669&CFTOKEN=12534621','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=239428&keyword=cardiovascular+AND+system&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79436669&CFTOKEN=12534621"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrafine particulate matter <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in vitro impairs vasorelaxant response in superoxide dismutase 2 deficient and <span class="hlt">aged</span> murine aortic rings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Epidemiological studies positively associate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to inhaled ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution <span class="hlt">exposure</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23999552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23999552"><span id="translatedtitle">Long term effects of murine postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on learning and memory are dependent upon APOE polymorphism and <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reverte, Ingrid; Klein, Anders B; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of chemicals widely used as flame retardants; the lower brominated forms (1-5 bromine atoms) are highly neurotoxic and are presently not in commercial use. The highest brominated, the decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) remains in use and its adverse and persistent effects are subject to debate. Of special concern are developmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> that can disrupt later-in-life adult health or <span class="hlt">aging</span>. In this study, we investigated the effects of postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to BDE-209 in combination with apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype, a genetic factor that is associated with varied vulnerability for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. On postnatal day 10, transgenic mice of both sexes carrying apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 were orally exposed to 0, 10 or 30mg/kg of BDE-209. Spatial reference memory was assessed in a Morris Water Maze (MWM) task at 4 and 12months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. The levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined in hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice at 5months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Mice carrying different apoE polymorphisms showed differences in the acquisition and retention of the spatial navigation task both at 4 and 12months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Postnatal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to BDE-209 induced long term effects in spatial learning, which were dependent upon <span class="hlt">age</span>, sex and apoE genotype; these effects were more evident in apoE3 mice. BDNF levels were lower in the frontal cortex of apoE4 mice and higher in the hippocampus of exposed mice, independent of the genotype. The results of the present study provide evidence of long-lasting effects in spatial learning and memory after early <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to BDE-209. Developmental <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to this neurotoxicant may contribute to cognitive decline and abnormal <span class="hlt">aging</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3578119','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3578119"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple environmental chemical <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls among childbearing-<span class="hlt">aged</span> women (NHANES 1999–2004): Body burden and risk factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thompson, Marcella Remer; Boekelheide, Kim</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are neurotoxicants with intergenerational health consequences from maternal body burden and gestational <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. Little is known about multiple chemical <span class="hlt">exposures</span> among childbearing-<span class="hlt">aged</span> women. Objectives To determine the percentage of women <span class="hlt">aged</span> 16–49 of diverse races and ethnicities whose body burdens for all three xenobiotics were at or above the median; to identify mixed <span class="hlt">exposures</span>; and to describe those women disproportionately burdened by two or more of these chemicals based on susceptibility- and <span class="hlt">exposure</span>-related attributes, socioeconomic factors and race-ethnicity. Methods Secondary data analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Results The best-fit logistic regression model without interactions contained 12 variables. Four risk factors associated with body burden were notable (P ≤ 0.05). An exponential relationship was demonstrated with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span>. Any fish consumption in past 30 days more than doubled the odds. Heavy alcohol consumption increased the relative risk. History of breastfeeding reduced this risk. These women were more likely to have two xenobiotics at or above the median than one. More than one-fifth of these childbearing-<span class="hlt">aged</span> women had three xenobiotic levels at or above the median. Conclusions These findings are among the first description of US childbearing-<span class="hlt">aged</span> women’s body burden and risk factors for multiple chemical <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. This study supports increasing <span class="hlt">age</span>, any fish consumption and heavy alcohol consumption as significant risk factors for body burden. History of breastfeeding lowered the body burden. Limited evidence was found of increased risk among minority women independent of other risk factors. PMID:23158727</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3966716','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3966716"><span id="translatedtitle">Indoor <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Particulate Matter and <span class="hlt">Age</span> at First Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in a Low-Income Urban Community in Bangladesh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gurley, Emily S.; Salje, Henrik; Homaira, Nusrat; Ram, Pavani K.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.; Bresee, Joseph; Moss, William J.; Luby, Stephen P.; Breysse, Patrick; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The timing of a child's first acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is important, because the younger a child is when he or she experiences ALRI, the greater the risk of death. Indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has been associated with increased frequency of ALRI, but little is known about how it may affect the timing of a child's first ALRI. In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between a child's <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI and indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PM2.5 in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We followed 257 children from birth through <span class="hlt">age</span> 2 years to record their <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI. Between May 2009 and April 2010, we also measured indoor concentrations of PM2.5 in children's homes. We used generalized gamma distribution models to estimate the relative <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI associated with the mean number of hours in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m3. Each hour in which PM2.5 levels exceeded 100 µg/m3 was independently associated with a 12% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2, 21; P = 0.021) in <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI. Interventions to reduce indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PM2.5 could increase the <span class="hlt">ages</span> at which children experience their first ALRI in this urban community. PMID:24607596</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607596"><span id="translatedtitle">Indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to particulate matter and <span class="hlt">age</span> at first acute lower respiratory infection in a low-income urban community in Bangladesh.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Homaira, Nusrat; Ram, Pavani K; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Bresee, Joseph; Moss, William J; Luby, Stephen P; Breysse, Patrick; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo</p> <p>2014-04-15</p> <p>The timing of a child's first acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is important, because the younger a child is when he or she experiences ALRI, the greater the risk of death. Indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has been associated with increased frequency of ALRI, but little is known about how it may affect the timing of a child's first ALRI. In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between a child's <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI and indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PM2.5 in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We followed 257 children from birth through <span class="hlt">age</span> 2 years to record their <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI. Between May 2009 and April 2010, we also measured indoor concentrations of PM2.5 in children's homes. We used generalized gamma distribution models to estimate the relative <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI associated with the mean number of hours in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m(3). Each hour in which PM2.5 levels exceeded 100 µg/m(3) was independently associated with a 12% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2, 21; P = 0.021) in <span class="hlt">age</span> at first ALRI. Interventions to reduce indoor <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to PM2.5 could increase the <span class="hlt">ages</span> at which children experience their first ALRI in this urban community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859046"><span id="translatedtitle">Urinary perchlorate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and risk in women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> in a fireworks production area of China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Fei-fei; Chen, Shi-wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-mei</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater <span class="hlt">exposure</span> doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859046"><span id="translatedtitle">Urinary perchlorate <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and risk in women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> in a fireworks production area of China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Fei-fei; Chen, Shi-wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-mei</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater <span class="hlt">exposure</span> doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination. PMID:24859046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4621954','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4621954"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategies for reducing <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to indoor air pollution from household burning of solid fuels: effects on acute lower respiratory infections in children under the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 15 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Havens, Deborah; Jary, Hannah R; Patel, Latifa B; Chiume, Msandeni E; Mortimer, Kevin J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: This study aims to assess the effects of intervention strategies that reduce <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to household air pollution from burning solid fuels on episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children under the <span class="hlt">age</span> of 15 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=PARENTS+AND+MOTHERS&id=EJ1034422','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=PARENTS+AND+MOTHERS&id=EJ1034422"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children <span class="hlt">Aged</span> 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> at Home in Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=3&id=EJ1105929','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=3&id=EJ1105929"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Current Input-Output and <span class="hlt">Age</span> of First <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> on Phonological Acquisition in Early Bilingual Spanish-English-Speaking Kindergarteners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. Aims: To investigate the influence of <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to English and the amount of current…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language+AND+testing+AND+young+AND+learners&pg=2&id=EJ1087940','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language+AND+testing+AND+young+AND+learners&pg=2&id=EJ1087940"><span id="translatedtitle">"One Glove Does Not Fit All" in Bilingual Reading Acquisition: Using the <span class="hlt">Age</span> of First Bilingual Language <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Understand Optimal Contexts for Reading Success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kovelman, Ioulia; Salah-Ud-Din, Maha; Berens, Melody S.; Petitto, Laura-Ann</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In teaching reading, educators strive to find the balance between a code-emphasis approach and a meaning-oriented literacy approach. However, little is known about how different approaches to literacy can benefit bilingual children's early reading acquisition. To investigate the novel hypothesis that children's <span class="hlt">age</span> of first bilingual <span class="hlt">exposure</span> can…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658669"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, risk of crash and fatality to explain <span class="hlt">age</span>- and sex-related differences in traffic-related cyclist mortality rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This study was designed to quantify the percent contribution of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, risk of collision and fatality rate to the association of <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex with the mortality rates among cyclists in Spain, and to track the changes in these contributions with time. Data were analyzed for 50,042 cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain from 1993 to 2011, and also for a subset of 13,119 non-infractor cyclists involved in collisions with a vehicle whose driver committed an infraction (used as a proxy sample of all cyclists on the road). We used decomposition and quasi-induced <span class="hlt">exposure</span> methods to obtain the percent contributions of these three components to the mortality rate ratios for each <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex group compared to males <span class="hlt">aged</span> 25-34 years. Death rates increased with <span class="hlt">age</span>, and the main component of this increase was fatality (around 70%). Among younger cyclists, however, the main component of increased death rates was risk of a collision. Males had higher death rates than females in every <span class="hlt">age</span> group: this rate increased from 6.4 in the 5-14 year old group to 18.8 in the 65-79 year old group. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>, the main component of this increase, ranged between 70% and 90% in all <span class="hlt">age</span> categories, although the fatality component also contributed to this increase. The contributions of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, risk of crash and fatality to cyclist death rates were strongly associated with <span class="hlt">age</span> and sex. Young male cyclists were a high-risk group because all three components tended to increase their mortality rate. PMID:25658669</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3986595','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3986595"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Plasmodium falciparum on antibody responses to malaria in children: a randomized, controlled trial in Mozambique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The impact of the <span class="hlt">age</span> of first Plasmodium falciparum infection on the rate of acquisition of immunity to malaria and on the immune correlates of protection has proven difficult to elucidate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using monthly chemoprophylaxis with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate was conducted to modify the <span class="hlt">age</span> of first P. falciparum erythrocytic <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in infancy and assess antibodies and malaria risk over two years. Methods Participants (n = 349) were enrolled at birth to one of three groups: late <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, early <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and control group, and were followed up for malaria morbidity and immunological analyses at birth, 2.5, 5.5, 10.5, 15 and 24 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Total IgG, IgG subclasses and IgM responses to MSP-119, AMA-1, and EBA-175 were measured by ELISA, and IgG against variant antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes by flow cytometry. Factors affecting antibody responses in relation to chemoprophylaxis and malaria incidence were evaluated. Results Generally, antibody responses did not vary significantly between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> groups except for levels of IgM to EBA-175, and seropositivity of IgG1 and IgG3 to MSP-119. Previous and current malaria infections were strongly associated with increased IgG against MSP-119, EBA-175 and AMA-1 (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, only higher levels of anti-EBA-175 IgG were significantly associated with reduced clinical malaria incidence (IRR 0.67, p = 0.0178). Conclusions Overall, the <span class="hlt">age</span> of first P. falciparum infection did not influence the magnitude and breadth of IgG responses, but previous <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was critical for antibody acquisition. IgG responses to EBA-175 were the strongest correlate of protection against clinical malaria. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00231452. PMID:24674654</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17958503','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17958503"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of methylmercury to estimate <span class="hlt">exposures</span> in US women of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allen, Bruce C; Hack, C Eric; Clewell, Harvey J</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>A Bayesian approach, implemented using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis, was applied with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of methylmercury (MeHg) to evaluate the variability of MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in women of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span> in the U.S. population. The analysis made use of the newly available National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) blood and hair mercury concentration data for women of <span class="hlt">age</span> 16-49 years (sample size, 1,582). Bayesian analysis was performed to estimate the population variability in MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (daily ingestion rate) implied by the variation in blood and hair concentrations of mercury in the NHANES database. The measured variability in the NHANES blood and hair data represents the result of a process that includes interindividual variation in <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to MeHg and interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics (distribution, clearance) of MeHg. The PBPK model includes a number of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., tissue volumes, partition coefficients, rate constants for metabolism and elimination) that can vary from individual to individual within the subpopulation of interest. Using MCMC analysis, it was possible to combine prior distributions of the PBPK model parameters with the NHANES blood and hair data, as well as with kinetic data from controlled human <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to MeHg, to derive posterior distributions that refine the estimates of both the population <span class="hlt">exposure</span> distribution and the pharmacokinetic parameters. In general, based on the populations surveyed by NHANES, the results of the MCMC analysis indicate that a small fraction, less than 1%, of the U.S. population of women of childbearing <span class="hlt">age</span> may have mercury <span class="hlt">exposures</span> greater than the EPA RfD for MeHg of 0.1 microg/kg/day, and that there are few, if any, <span class="hlt">exposures</span> greater than the ATSDR MRL of 0.3 microg/kg/day. The analysis also indicates that typical <span class="hlt">exposures</span> may be greater than previously estimated from food consumption surveys, but that the variability</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030111542&hterms=Noble+gases&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DNoble%2Bgases','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030111542&hterms=Noble+gases&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DNoble%2Bgases"><span id="translatedtitle">Production Rates of Noble Gases in the Near-Surface Layers of Europa by Energetic Charged Particles and the Potential for Determining <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Ages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swindle, T. D.; Reedy, R. C.; Masarik, J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The surface of Europa is expected to be extremely active, undergoing tectonic and/or tidal geological activity and sputtering/ deposition, as well as impact cratering. Determination of the actual <span class="hlt">age</span> of the surface at one or more places would greatly simplify trying to sort out what processes are occurring, and at what rate. If there is K present, as the spectral and compositional modeling discussed predict, it should be possible, in principle, to determine K-Ar crystallization <span class="hlt">ages</span>. Whether or not there is K present, a consideration of the environment suggests we can determine an energetic particle <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> if we can make in situ measurements of the abundances of major elements and of noble gas isotopes. This requires instrumentation that is within reach of current technology. In this paper, we calculate production rates for noble-gas isotopes in a simplified Europan surface, to quantify the amount of light noble gases produced by <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to energetic particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4331339','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4331339"><span id="translatedtitle">Air pollutant <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and preterm and term small-for-gestational-<span class="hlt">age</span> births in Detroit, Michigan: Long-term trends and associations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Le, Hien Q.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Wirth, Julia J.; Wahl, Robert L.; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Sadeghnejad, Alireza; Hultin, Mary Lee; Depa, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Studies in a number of countries have reported associations between <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ambient air pollutants and adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB) and, less commonly, small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> (SGA). Despite their growing number, the available studies have significant limitations, e.g., incomplete control of temporal trends in <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, modest sample sizes, and a lack of information regarding individual risk factors such as smoking. No study has yet examined large numbers of susceptible individuals. We investigated the association between ambient air pollutant concentrations and term SGA and PTB outcomes among 164,905 singleton births in Detroit, Michigan occurring between 1990 and 2001. SO2, CO, NO2, O3 and PM10 <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were used in single and multiple pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes, adjusted for the infant’s sex and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>, the mother’s race, <span class="hlt">age</span> group, education level, smoking status and prenatal care, birth season, site of residence, and long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> trends. Term SGA was associated with CO levels exceeding 0.75 ppm (OR=1.14, 95% confidence interval=1.02–1.27) and NO2 exceeding 6.8 ppb (1.11, 1.03–1.21) <span class="hlt">exposures</span> in the first month, and with PM10 exceeding 35 μg/m3 (1.22, 1.03–1.46) and O3 (1.11, 1.02–1.20) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the third trimester. PTB was associated with SO2 (1.07, 1.01–1.14) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the last month, and with (hourly) O3 exceeding 92 ppb (1.08, 1.02–1.14) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the first month. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to several air pollutants at modest concentrations was associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study, which included a large Black population, suggests the importance of the early period of pregnancy for associations between term SGA with CO and NO2, and between O3 with PTB; and the late pregnancy period for associations between term SGA and O3 and PM10, and between SO2 with PTB. It also highlights the importance of accounting for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K"><span id="translatedtitle">A link between oxygen, calcium and titanium isotopes in <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor hibonite-rich CAIs from Murchison and implications for the heterogeneity of dust reservoirs in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Park, Changkun; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Tenner, Travis J.; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>PLACs (platy hibonite crystals) and related hibonite-rich calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs; hereafter collectively referred to as PLAC-like CAIs) have the largest nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of all materials believed to have formed in the solar system. Most PLAC-like CAIs have low inferred initial <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>/27Al ratios and could have formed prior to injection or widespread distribution of <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span> in the solar nebula. In this study, we report <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg systematics combined with oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions for a large number of newly separated PLAC-like CAIs from the Murchison CM2 chondrite (32 CAIs studied for oxygen, 26 of these also for <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg, calcium and titanium). Our results confirm (1) the large range of nucleosynthetic anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca (our data range from -70‰ to +170‰ and -60‰ to +80‰, respectively), (2) the substantial range of Δ17O values (-28‰ to -17‰, with Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O), and (3) general <span class="hlt">26</span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-depletion in PLAC-like CAIs. The multielement approach reveals a relationship between Δ17O and the degree of variability in 50Ti and 48Ca: PLAC-like CAIs with the highest Δ17O (∼-17‰) show large positive and negative 50Ti and 48Ca anomalies, while those with the lowest Δ17O (∼-28‰) have small to no anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca. These observations could suggest a physical link between anomalous 48Ca and 50Ti carriers and an 16O-poor reservoir. We suggest that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous shortly after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud, and that the primordial dust reservoir, in which anomalous carrier phases were heterogeneously distributed, was 16O-poor (Δ17O ⩾ -17‰) relative to the primordial gaseous (CO + H2O) reservoir (Δ17O < -35‰). However, other models such as CO self-shielding in the protoplanetary disk are also considered to explain the link between oxygen and calcium and titanium isotopes in PLAC-like CAIs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386333"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, in combination with physical activity and <span class="hlt">aging</span>, is related with oxidative stress in Japanese women from a rural agricultural community.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Xiaoyi; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Mise, Nathan; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Takako; Ogawa, Masanori; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between oxidative stress and heavy metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (lead [Pb] and cadmium [Cd]), as well as co-factors such as physical activity and <span class="hlt">age</span>, in Japanese women. This study was conducted with female subjects from a rural agricultural community in Japan. Subjects were asked to complete lifestyle-related questionnaires and undergo a group health examination. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and other demographic information were collected. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry; blood samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. <span class="hlt">Age</span>, physical activity, and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations were included in structural equation modeling analysis. Two latent factors for heavy metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and physical activity were produced to predict the total influence of the variables. The final model was good: CMIN/DF = 0.775, CFI = 1.000, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.000. 8-OHdG levels were positively associated with heavy metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, physical activity, and <span class="hlt">age</span> (standard β of path analysis: 0.33, 0.38, and 0.20, respectively). Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with both, environmental and lifestyle factors, in combination with <span class="hlt">aging</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GGG....11.AA10H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GGG....11.AA10H"><span id="translatedtitle">A geologically constrained Monte Carlo approach to modeling <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">ages</span> from profiles of cosmogenic nuclides: An example from Lees Ferry, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hidy, Alan J.; Gosse, John C.; Pederson, Joel L.; Mattern, Jann Paul; Finkel, Robert C.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We present a user-friendly and versatile Monte Carlo simulator for modeling profiles of in situ terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCNs). Our program (available online at http://geochronology.earthsciences.dal.ca/downloads-models.html) permits the incorporation of site-specific geologic knowledge to calculate most probable values for <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span>, erosion rate, and inherited nuclide concentration while providing a rigorous treatment of their uncertainties. The simulator is demonstrated with 10Be data from a fluvial terrace at Lees Ferry, Arizona. Interpreted constraints on erosion, based on local soil properties and terrace morphology, yield a most probable <span class="hlt">exposure</span> <span class="hlt">age</span> and inheritance of 83.9-14.1+19.1 ka, and 9.49-2.52+1.21 × 104 atoms g-1, respectively (2σ). Without the ability to apply some constraint to either erosion rate or <span class="hlt">age</span>, shallow depth profiles of any cosmogenic nuclide (except for nuclides produced via thermal and epithermal neutron capture, e.g., 36Cl) cannot be optimized to resolve either parameter. Contrasting simulations of 10Be data from both sand- and pebble-sized clasts within the same deposit indicate grain size can significantly affect the ability to model <span class="hlt">ages</span> with TCN depth profiles and, when possible, sand—not pebbles—should be used for depth profile <span class="hlt">exposure</span> dating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386333"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, in combination with physical activity and <span class="hlt">aging</span>, is related with oxidative stress in Japanese women from a rural agricultural community.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Xiaoyi; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Mise, Nathan; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Takako; Ogawa, Masanori; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between oxidative stress and heavy metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (lead [Pb] and cadmium [Cd]), as well as co-factors such as physical activity and <span class="hlt">age</span>, in Japanese women. This study was conducted with female subjects from a rural agricultural community in Japan. Subjects were asked to complete lifestyle-related questionnaires and undergo a group health examination. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and other demographic information were collected. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry; blood samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. <span class="hlt">Age</span>, physical activity, and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations were included in structural equation modeling analysis. Two latent factors for heavy metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and physical activity were produced to predict the total influence of the variables. The final model was good: CMIN/DF = 0.775, CFI = 1.000, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.000. 8-OHdG levels were positively associated with heavy metal <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, physical activity, and <span class="hlt">age</span> (standard β of path analysis: 0.33, 0.38, and 0.20, respectively). Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with both, environmental and lifestyle factors, in combination with <span class="hlt">aging</span>. PMID:27386333</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27031943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27031943"><span id="translatedtitle">Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span> with Possible Zika Virus <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>--United States, 2016.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Ellington, Sascha R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Cohn, Amanda; Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Powers, Ann M; Bertolli, Jeanne; Brooks, John T; Kissin, Dmitry; Villanueva, Julie; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kuehnert, Matthew; Olson, Christine K; Honein, Margaret A; Rivera, Maria; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> with possible Zika virus <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to include recommendations on counseling women and men with possible Zika virus <span class="hlt">exposure</span> who are interested in conceiving. This guidance is based on limited available data on persistence of Zika virus RNA in blood and semen. Women who have Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after symptom onset to attempt conception, and men with Zika virus disease should wait at least 6 months after symptom onset to attempt conception. Women and men with possible <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Zika virus but without clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to attempt conception. Possible <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Zika virus is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html), or sex (vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who traveled to or resided in an area of active transmission. Women and men who reside in areas of active Zika virus transmission should talk with their health care provider about attempting conception. This guidance also provides updated recommendations on testing of pregnant women with possible Zika virus <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27031943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27031943"><span id="translatedtitle">Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive <span class="hlt">Age</span> with Possible Zika Virus <span class="hlt">Exposure</span>--United States, 2016.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Ellington, Sascha R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Cohn, Amanda; Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Powers, Ann M; Bertolli, Jeanne; Brooks, John T; Kissin, Dmitry; Villanueva, Julie; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kuehnert, Matthew; Olson, Christine K; Honein, Margaret A; Rivera, Maria; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for women of reproductive <span class="hlt">age</span> with possible Zika virus <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to include recommendations on counseling women and men with possible Zika virus <span class="hlt">exposure</span> who are interested in conceiving. This guidance is based on limited available data on persistence of Zika virus RNA in blood and semen. Women who have Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after symptom onset to attempt conception, and men with Zika virus disease should wait at least 6 months after symptom onset to attempt conception. Women and men with possible <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Zika virus but without clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to attempt conception. Possible <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Zika virus is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html), or sex (vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who traveled to or resided in an area of active transmission. Women and men who reside in areas of active Zika virus transmission should talk with their health care provider about attempting conception. This guidance also provides updated recommendations on testing of pregnant women with possible Zika virus <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available. PMID:27031943</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4132658','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4132658"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Prenatal Substance <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> and Early Adversity on Parasympathetic Functioning from 3 to 6 Years of <span class="hlt">Age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Seifer, Ronald; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada-Ellzey, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hinckley, Matt; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We employed latent growth curve analysis to examine trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from 3 to 6 years among children with varying levels of prenatal substance <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and early adversity. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance <span class="hlt">exposure</span> that included 1,121 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Overall, there were significant individual differences in the trajectories of RSA reactivity, but not baseline RSA, across development. Greater levels of prenatal substance <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, and less <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to early adversity, were associated with increased RSA reactivity at 3 years, but by 6 years, both were associated with greater RSA reactivity. Prenatal substance <span class="hlt">exposure</span> had an indirect influence through early adversity on growth in RSA reactivity. Results are in support of and contribute to the framework of allostatic load. PMID:24002807</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241460','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241460"><span id="translatedtitle">Presence of asthma risk factors and environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span> related to upper respiratory infection-triggered wheezing in middle school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sotir, Mark; Yeatts, Karin; Shy, Carl</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Viral respiratory infections and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to environmental constituents such as tobacco smoke are known or suspected to trigger wheezing/asthma exacerbations in children. However, few population-based data exist that examine the relationship between wheezing triggered by viral respiratory infections and environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. In this investigation we used population-based data to evaluate differences in <span class="hlt">exposures</span> between symptomatic middle school-<span class="hlt">age</span> children who did and did not report wheezing triggered by viral respiratory infections. As part of the North Carolina School Asthma Survey (NCSAS), a 66-question data instrument was used to collect information from children enrolled in North Carolina public middle schools during the 1999-2000 school year. Associations between <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and upper respiratory infection-triggered wheezing (URI-TW) among symptomatic children were examined using adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs). Video methods developed for the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were used to assess wheezing. Among the 33,534 NCSAS symptomatic participants, positive associations were observed between most <span class="hlt">exposures</span> and URI-TW. Reported presence of all allergy variables (PORs ranging from 2.11 to 2.45) was more strongly associated with URI-TW than either smoking or other <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. Presence of URI-TW was higher at increasing levels of tobacco smoke <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, but no apparent dose-response effect was observed for other indoor air pollutants. URI-TW in middle school children is most associated with reported allergen sensitivity, relative to other asthma risk factors and environmental <span class="hlt">exposures</span>. Data from this investigation may be useful in developing assessment, screening, and targeting strategies to improve asthma and wheezing management in children. PMID:12676631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23014496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23014496"><span id="translatedtitle">Maternal PUFA status but not prenatal methylmercury <span class="hlt">exposure</span> is associated with children's language functions at <span class="hlt">age</span> five years in the Seychelles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M W; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Janciuras, Joanne; Wong, Rosa; Clarkson, Thomas W; Myers, Gary J</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and developmental outcomes at 5 y of <span class="hlt">age</span> in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were measured in serum collected at 28 wk gestation and delivery. Prenatal MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was determined in maternal hair collected at delivery. At 5 y of <span class="hlt">age</span>, the children completed a comprehensive range of sensitive developmental assessments. Complete data from 225 mothers and their children were available for analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed Preschool Language Scale scores of the children improved with increasing maternal serum DHA [22:6(n-3)] concentrations and decreased with increasing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] concentrations, albeit verbal intelligence improved with increasing (n-6) PUFA concentrations in maternal serum. There were no adverse associations between MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and developmental outcomes. These findings suggest that higher fish consumption, resulting in higher maternal (n-3) PUFA status, during pregnancy is associated with beneficial developmental effects rather than detrimental effects resulting from the higher concomitant <span class="hlt">exposures</span> of the fetus to MeHg. The association of maternal (n-3) PUFA status with improved child language development may partially explain the authors' previous finding of improving language scores, as prenatal MeHg <span class="hlt">exposure</span> increased in an earlier mother-child cohort in the Seychelles where maternal PUFA status was not measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087182"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children <span class="hlt">Aged</span> 13-15 and Associated Factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at home among school children <span class="hlt">aged</span> 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS <span class="hlt">exposure</span> at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8). PMID:27087182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4829983','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4829983"><span id="translatedtitle">Blood Biomarkers of Late Pregnancy <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and Fetal Growth Measures and Gestational <span class="hlt">Age</span> in a Chinese Cohort</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zeng, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Chen, Hai-Xia; Miao, Dong-Yue; Li, Li; Cheng, Ying-Hui; Li, Min; Wang, Fan; You, Ling; Wang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Pan; Lu, Wen-Qing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Previous studies have suggested that elevated <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water during gestation may result in adverse birth outcomes. However, the findings of these studies remain inconclusive. Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine the association between blood biomarkers of late pregnancy <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and fetal growth and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span>. Methods: We recruited 1,184 pregnant women between 2011 and 2013 in Wuhan and Xiaogan City, Hubei, China. Maternal blood THM concentrations, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM), were measured as <span class="hlt">exposure</span> biomarkers during late pregnancy. We estimated associations with gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> and fetal growth indicators [birth weight, birth length, and small for gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> (SGA)]. Results: Total THMs (TTHMs; sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) were associated with lower mean birth weight (–60.9 g; 95% CI: –116.2, –5.6 for the highest vs. lowest tertile; p for trend = 0.03), and BDCM and DBCM <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were associated with smaller birth length (e.g., –0.20 cm; 95% CI: –0.37, –0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of DBCM; p for trend = 0.02). SGA was increased in association with the second and third tertiles of TTHMs (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.32, 6.42 and OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.01, 5.03; p for trend = 0.08). Conclusions: Our results suggested that elevated maternal THM <span class="hlt">exposure</span> may adversely affect fetal growth. Citation: Cao WC, Zeng Q, Luo Y, Chen HX, Miao DY, Li L, Cheng YH, Li M, Wang F, You L, Wang YX, Yang P, Lu WQ. 2016. Blood biomarkers of late pregnancy <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to trihalomethanes in drinking water and fetal growth measures and gestational <span class="hlt">age</span> in a Chinese cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:536–541; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409234 PMID:26340795</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4529007','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4529007"><span id="translatedtitle">Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Long-Term <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Middle-<span class="hlt">Aged</span> Residents of Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Su, Ta-Chen; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Shen, Yu-Cheng</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Associations between long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to air pollution and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) have inconsistent findings. Objectives In this study we aimed to evaluate association between 1-year average <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to traffic-related air pollution and CIMT in middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> adults in Asia. Methods CIMT was measured in Taipei, Taiwan, between 2009 and 2011 in 689 volunteers 35–65 years of <span class="hlt">age</span> who were recruited as the control subjects of an acute coronary heart disease cohort study. We applied land-use regression models developed by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) to estimate each subject’s 1-year average <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to traffic-related air pollutants with particulate matter diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and the absorbance levels of PM2.5 (PM2.5abs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the urban environment. Results One-year average air pollution <span class="hlt">exposures</span> were 44.21 ± 4.19 μg/m3 for PM10, 27.34 ± 5.12 μg/m3 for PM2.5, and (1.97 ± 0.36) × 10–5/m for PM2.5abs. Multivariate regression analyses showed average percentage increases in maximum left CIMT of 4.23% (95% CI: 0.32, 8.13) per 1.0 × 10–5/m increase in PM2.5abs; 3.72% (95% CI: 0.32, 7.11) per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM10; 2.81% (95% CI: 0.32, 5.31) per 20-μg/m3 increase in NO2; and 0.74% (95% CI: 0.08, 1.41) per 10-μg/m3 increase in NOx. The associations were not evident for right CIMT, and PM2.5 mass concentration was not associated with the outcomes. Conclusions Long-term <span class="hlt">exposures</span> to traffic-related air pollution of PM2.5abs, PM10, NO2, and NOx were positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> adults. Citation Su TC, Hwang JJ, Shen YC, Chan CC. 2015. Carotid intima–media thickness and long-term <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to traffic-related air pollution in middle-<span class="hlt">aged</span> residents of Taiwan: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect 123:773–778; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408553 PMID:25793433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149774','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149774"><span id="translatedtitle">A Reanalysis of Curvature in the Dose Response for Cancer and Modifications by <span class="hlt">Age</span> at <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> Following Radiation Therapy for Benign Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Little, Mark P.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Purpose: To assess the shape of the dose response for various cancer endpoints and modifiers by <span class="hlt">age</span> and time. Methods and Materials: Reanalysis of the US peptic ulcer data testing for heterogeneity of radiogenic risk by cancer endpoint (stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia, all other). Results: There are statistically significant (P<.05) excess risks for all cancer and for lung cancer and borderline statistically significant risks for stomach cancer (P=.07), and leukemia (P=.06), with excess relative risks Gy{sup -1} of 0.024 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.011, 0.039), 0.559 (95% CI 0.221, 1.021), 0.042 (95% CI -0.002, 0.119), and 1.087 (95% CI -0.018, 4.925), respectively. There is statistically significant (P=.007) excess risk of pancreatic cancer when adjusted for dose-response curvature. General downward curvature is apparent in the dose response, statistically significant (P<.05) for all cancers, pancreatic cancer, and all other cancers (ie, other than stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia). There are indications of reduction in relative risk with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span> (for all cancers, pancreatic cancer), but no evidence for quadratic variations in relative risk with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. If a linear-exponential dose response is used, there is no significant heterogeneity in the dose response among the 5 endpoints considered or in the speed of variation of relative risk with <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The risks are generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers. Conclusions: There are excess risks for various malignancies in this data set. Generally there is a marked downward curvature in the dose response and significant reduction in relative risk with increasing <span class="hlt">age</span> at <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The consistency of risks with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers implies that there may be little sparing effect of fractionation of dose or low-dose-rate <span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27521950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27521950"><span id="translatedtitle">Removal of carbofuran is not affected by co-application of chlorpyrifos in a coconut fiber/compost based biomixture after <span class="hlt">aging</span> or pre-<span class="hlt">exposure</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chin-Pampillo, Juan Salvador; Masís-Mora, Mario; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Karla; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Biomixtures constitute the biologically active part of biopurification systems (BPS), which are used to treat pesticide-containing wastewater. The aim of this work was to determine whether co-application of chlorpyrifos (CLP) affects the removal of carbofuran (CFN) (both insecticide/nematicides) in a coconut fiber-compost-soil biomixture (FCS biomixture), after <span class="hlt">aging</span> or previous <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to CFN. Removal of CFN and two of its transformation products (3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran) was enhanced in pre-exposed biomixtures in comparison to <span class="hlt">aged</span> biomixtures. The co-application of CLP did not affect CFN removal, which suggests that CLP does not inhibit microbial populations in charge of CFN transformation. Contrary to the removal behavior, mineralization of radiolabeled (14)C-pesticides showed higher mineralization rates of CFN in <span class="hlt">aged</span> biomixtures (with respect to freshly prepared or pre-exposed biomixtures). In the case of CLP, mineralization was favored in freshly prepared biomixtures, which could be ascribed to high sorption during <span class="hlt">aging</span> and microbial inhibition by CFN in pre-<span class="hlt">exposure</span>. Regardless of removal and mineralization results, toxicological assays revealed a steep decrease in the acute toxicity of the matrix on the microcrustacean Daphnia magna (over 97%) after 8days of treatment of individual pesticides or the mixture CFN/CLP. Results suggest that FCS biomixtures are suitable to be used in BPS for the treatment of wastewater in fields where both pesticides are employed. PMID:27521950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2895985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2895985"><span id="translatedtitle">Tardive dyskinesia in bipolar affective disorder: <span class="hlt">aging</span>, cognitive dysfunction, course of illness, and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to neuroleptics and lithium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waddington, J L; Youssef, H A</p> <p>1988-05-01</p> <p>Cognitive function, course of illness, and medication history were assessed in 42 bipolar patients evaluated for the presence of involuntary movements. Among the 25 patients 55 years old or older, the 16 with involuntary movements were not distinguished from the nine without involuntary movements by past or current <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to neuroleptics, anticholinergics, or carbamazepine, but they showed poorer cognitive function, had fewer major depressive episodes, and had received briefer <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to lithium. The association between involuntary movements and cognitive dysfunction parallels that found in schizophrenia, suggesting that similar neurological processes may contribute to vulnerability to involuntary movements in the major functional psychoses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5029976','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5029976"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">age</span>-related changes in in vivo and in vitro measures of testicular steroidogenesis after acute cadmium <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the sprague-dawley rat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phelps, P.V.; Laskey, J.W. )</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Previous reports have demonstrated that cadmium- (Cd-) induced testicular necrosis is an <span class="hlt">age</span>-dependent process. However, little information exists on <span class="hlt">age</span>-related intestitial cell (IC) damage in the rat after acute <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to Cd. In this study in vitro and in vivo measures of testicular damage were utilized to compare the sensitivity of these measures and to further investigate <span class="hlt">age</span>-related Cd-induced testicular damage. Testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicle weights, serum testosterone (sT), hCG-stimulated sT, and basal and stimulated IC testosterone (T) production were production were compared in rats 21 d following an injection of 2 mg Cd/kg at 9, 37, 67, and 97 d of <span class="hlt">age</span>. The only Cd-related change noted for immature rats was an 84% reduction in sT. In rats injected when 37 d old, hCG-stimulated sT and epididymides and seminal vesicle weights, although depressed, were not significantly altered. However, all other measurements were significantly depressed. All measures of testicular damage were significantly depressed in rats injected at 67 and 97 d of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Overall, in vitro measures were more sensitive indicators of Cd-induced testicular damage than in vivo measures. However, sT and hCG-stimulated sT appeared to be useful indicators of Cd effects on the pituitary-gonadal axis. ICs from immature rats (9 d old) were unaffected by Cd <span class="hlt">exposure</span>, while stimulated T reproduction in ICs from 37-, 67-, and 97-d-old animals was reduced at least 50%. The severity of Cd-induced testicular damage increases with <span class="hlt">age</span> for all variables measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6438W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6438W"><span id="translatedtitle">The Short Cosmic-Ray <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> <span class="hlt">Age</span> of the LaPaz Icefield 10018/10060 Howardites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Cosmogenic radionuclides indicate a CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> of ~1.3 Myr for the LAP 10018/10060 howardites. This short CRE <span class="hlt">age</span> is best explained by ejection of the two howardites from one of the vestoids that is near a resonance zone or in an Earth-crossing orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973973"><span id="translatedtitle">Aberrant Expression of Connexin Isoforms in the Corpus Epididymis of the Adult Rat by <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Estradiol Benzoate or Flutamide at the Weaning <span class="hlt">Age</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Ki-Ho</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A proper development of the epididymis during the early postnatal development is required for successful fertility in the adult male. Direct cell-cell communication via connexin (Cx) molecules is a common way of cellular interactions to achieve normal development of a given tissue consisting of different cell types. The present research was attempted to determine the effect of exogenous <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to estrogenic agonist or antiandrogen at the weaning <span class="hlt">age</span> on expression of Cx isoforms in the adult corpus epididymis. Male rats were subcutaneously administrated with estradiol benzoate (EB) or flutamide (Flu) at the weaning <span class="hlt">age</span>. The tissue was collected at 4 months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Expressional levels of Cx isoforms were determined by a quantitative real-time PCR. Statistical comparison showed significant increases of Cxs31, 32, 37, 40, and 43 transcript amounts by a treatment of 0.015 mg of EB /kg body weight (BW). A treatment of 1.5 μg of EB /kg BW caused a significant decrease of Cx43 gene expression but increases of Cxs26, 31, 32, 37, and 40 transcript levels. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to 500 mg of Flu/kg BW induced an increase of Cx37 expression but significant decreases of Cxs43 and 45 mRNA levels. Expression of Cx37 was increased by a treatment of 5 mg of Flu/kg BW, while transcript levels of Cxs26, 30.3, 31, 31.1, 32, and 43 were significantly decreased by same treatment. These results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to steroidal compounds at the early developmental <span class="hlt">age</span> alters expression of Cx isoforms in the adult corpus epididymis. PMID:26973973</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209043"><span id="translatedtitle">Hearing and loud music <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in a group of adolescents at the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of 14-15 and retested at 17-18.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biassoni, Ester C; Serra, Mario R; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Young people expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds while leisure activities and noise induced hearing loss is diagnosed in increasing number of adolescents. Hearing and music <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in a group of adolescents of a technical high school was assessed at the <span class="hlt">ages</span> of: 14-15 (test) and 17-18 (retest). The aims of the current study were: (1) To compare the auditory function between test and retest; (2) to compare the musical <span class="hlt">exposure</span> levels during recreational activities in test and retest; (3) to compare the auditory function with the musical <span class="hlt">exposure</span> along time in a subgroup of adolescents. The participants in the test were 172 male; in the retest, this number was reduced to 59. At the test and retest the conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and recreational habits questionnaire were performed. In the test, hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: Normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3); the Musical General <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> (MGE), categorized in: Low, moderate, high, and very high <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The results revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) between test and retest in the HTL and global amplitude of TEOAEs in Group 1, showing an increase of the HTL and a decrease TEOAEs amplitude. A subgroup of adolescents, with normal hearing and low <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to music in the test, showed an increase of the HTL according with the categories of MGE in the retest. To implement educational programs for assessing hearing function, ear vulnerability and to promote hearing health, would be advisable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3296698','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3296698"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of <span class="hlt">Age</span> and <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Plasmodium falciparum in the Rate of Acquisition of Naturally Acquired Immunity: A Randomized Controlled Trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guinovart, Caterina; Dobaño, Carlota; Bassat, Quique; Nhabomba, Augusto; Quintó, Llorenç; Manaca, Maria Nélia; Aguilar, Ruth; Rodríguez, Mauricio H.; Barbosa, Arnoldo; Aponte, John J.; Mayor, Alfredo G.; Renom, Montse; Moraleda, Cinta; Roberts, David J.; Schwarzer, Evelin; Le Souëf, Peter N.; Schofield, Louis; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Doolan, Denise L.; Alonso, Pedro L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background The rate of acquisition of naturally acquired immunity (NAI) against malaria predominantly depends on transmission intensity and <span class="hlt">age</span>, although disentangling the effects of these is difficult. We used chemoprophylaxis to selectively control <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to P. falciparum during different periods in infancy and explore the effect of <span class="hlt">age</span> in the build-up of NAI, measured as risk of clinical malaria. Methods and Findings A three-arm double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 349 infants born to Mozambican HIV-negative women. The late <span class="hlt">exposure</span> group (LEG) received monthly Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) plus Artesunate (AS) from 2.5–4.5 months of <span class="hlt">age</span> and monthly placebo from 5.5–9.5 months; the early <span class="hlt">exposure</span> group (EEG) received placebo from 2.5–4.5 months and SP+AS from 5.5–9.5 months; and the control group (CG) received placebo from 2.5–9.5 months. Active and passive case detection (PCD) were conducted from birth to 10.5 and 24 months respectively. The primary endpoint was time to first or only episode of malaria in the second year detected by PCD. The incidence of malaria during the second year was of 0.50, 0.51 and 0.35 episodes/PYAR in the LEG, EEG and CG respectively (p = 0.379 for the adjusted comparison of the 3 groups). The hazard ratio of the adjusted comparison between the LEG and the CG was 1.38 (0.83–2.28, p = 0.642) and that between the EEG and the CG was 1.35 (0.81–2.24, p = 0.743). Conclusions After considerably interfering with <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during the first year of life, there was a trend towards a higher risk of malaria in the second year in children who had received chemoprophylaxis, but there was no significant rebound. No evidence was found that the <span class="hlt">age</span> of first <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to malaria affects the rate of acquisition of NAI. Thus, the timing of administration of antimalarial interventions like malaria vaccines during infancy does not appear to be a critical determinant. Trial Registration Clinical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=216882&keyword=ecg&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68431908&CFTOKEN=55469689','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=216882&keyword=ecg&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68431908&CFTOKEN=55469689"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, and biochemical responses to acute particulate matter (PM) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in <span class="hlt">aged</span> heart failure-prone rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Human <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to ambient PM from fossil-fuel emissions is linked to cardiovascular disease and death. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiac disease-especially heart failure (HF). The mechanisms explaining PM-induced exacerbation ofHF are unclear. Some o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149217','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149217"><span id="translatedtitle">A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of <span class="hlt">age</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva</p> <p>2010-05-15</p> <p>Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of <span class="hlt">age</span>. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB <span class="hlt">exposure</span> and specific antibody responses at 6-months of <span class="hlt">age</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27246249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27246249"><span id="translatedtitle">Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent <span class="hlt">age</span> prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-<span class="hlt">exposures</span> after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arp, J Marit; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm J</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated (i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day 2 to 9 - affects conditioned fear in adult mice and (ii) whether these effects can be prevented by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) at adolescent <span class="hlt">age</span>. In adult male and female mice, ELS did not affect freezing behavior to the first tone 24h after training in an auditory fear-conditioning paradigm. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to repeated tones 24h after training also resulted in comparable freezing behavior in ELS and control mice, both in males and females. However, male (but not female) ELS compared to control mice showed significantly more freezing behavior between the tone-<span class="hlt">exposures</span>, i.e. during the cue-off periods. Intraperitoneal administration of the GR antagonist RU38486 during adolescence (on postnatal days 28-30) fully prevented enhanced freezing behavior during the cue-off period in adult ELS males. Western blot analysis revealed no effects of ELS on hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptors, neither at postnatal day 28 nor at adult <span class="hlt">age</span>, when mice were behaviorally tested. We conclude that ELS enhances freezing behavior in adult mice in a potentially safe context after cue-<span class="hlt">exposure</span>, which can be normalized by brief blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during the critical developmental window of adolescence. PMID:27246249</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4944757','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4944757"><span id="translatedtitle">Early caregiving stress <span class="hlt">exposure</span> moderates the relation between respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity at 1 month and biobehavioral outcomes at <span class="hlt">age</span> 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>CONRADT, ELISABETH; BEAUCHAINE, THEODORE; ABAR, BEAU; LAGASSE, LINDA; SHANKARAN, SEETHA; BADA, HENRIETTA; BAUER, CHARLES; WHITAKER, TONI; HAMMOND, JANE; LESTER, BARRY</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There is a growing scientific interest in the psychophysiological functioning of children living in low-socioeconomic status (SES) contexts, though this research is complicated by knowledge that physiology–behavior relations often operate differently in these environments among adults. Importantly, such research is made more difficult because SES may be a proxy for a wide range of risk factors including poor caregiving and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> to parental substance use. We used factor analysis to organize risk-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> data collected from 827 children—many of whom were raised in low-SES contexts and exposed to substances prenatally—into dissociable components including economic stress, caregiving stress (e.g., stress the caregiver may experience, including parental psychopathology), and postnatal substance <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. These factors, along with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity at <span class="hlt">age</span> 1 month, were used to predict behavior dysregulation and resting RSA at <span class="hlt">age</span> 3 years. A significant RSA Reactivity × Caregiving Stress interaction indicated that infants who exhibited high RSA reactivity at 1 month experienced the greatest behavior dysregulation at 3 years, but only when they were exposed to high levels of caregiving stress. Among African Americans, the highest resting RSA at 3 years was found in infants with less RSA reactivity, but only if they also experienced less caregiving stress. Our work is consistent with biological sensitivity to context, adaptive calibration, and allostatic load models, and highlights the importance of studying Physiology × Environment interactions in low-SES contexts for predicting behavior and resting RSA. PMID:26681620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4714925','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4714925"><span id="translatedtitle">Head Impact <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> in Youth Football: High School <span class="hlt">Ages</span> 14 to 18 Years and Cumulative Impact Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Urban, Jillian E.; Davenport, Elizabeth M.; Golman, Adam J.; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Powers, Alexander K.; Stitzel, Joel D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Sports-related concussion is the most common athletic head injury with football having the highest rate among high school athletes. Traditionally, research on the biomechanics of football-related head impact has been focused at the collegiate level. Less research has been performed at the high school level, despite the incidence of concussion among high school football players. The objective of this study is to twofold: to quantify the head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in high school football, and to develop a cumulative impact analysis method. Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was measured by instrumenting the helmets of 40 high school football players with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays to measure linear and rotational acceleration. A total of 16,502 head impacts were collected over the course of the season. Biomechanical data were analyzed by team and by player. The median impact for each player ranged from 15.2 to 27.0 g with an average value of 21.7 (±2.4) g. The 95th percentile impact for each player ranged from 38.8 to 72.9 g with an average value of 56.4 (±10.5) g. Next, an impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> metric utilizing concussion injury risk curves was created to quantify cumulative <span class="hlt">exposure</span> for each participating player over the course of the season. Impacts were weighted according to the associated risk due to linear acceleration and rotational acceleration alone, as well as the combined probability (CP) of injury associated with both. These risks were summed over the course of a season to generate risk weighted cumulative <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The impact frequency was found to be greater during games compared to practices with an average number of impacts per session of 15.5 and 9.4, respectively. However, the median cumulative risk weighted <span class="hlt">exposure</span> based on combined probability was found to be greater for practices vs. games. These data will provide a metric that may be used to better understand the cumulative effects of repetitive head impacts, injury mechanisms, and head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23864337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23864337"><span id="translatedtitle">Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in youth football: high school <span class="hlt">ages</span> 14 to 18 years and cumulative impact analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Golman, Adam J; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Sports-related concussion is the most common athletic head injury with football having the highest rate among high school athletes. Traditionally, research on the biomechanics of football-related head impact has been focused at the collegiate level. Less research has been performed at the high school level, despite the incidence of concussion among high school football players. The objective of this study is to twofold: to quantify the head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in high school football, and to develop a cumulative impact analysis method. Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was measured by instrumenting the helmets of 40 high school football players with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays to measure linear and rotational acceleration. A total of 16,502 head impacts were collected over the course of the season. Biomechanical data were analyzed by team and by player. The median impact for each player ranged from 15.2 to 27.0 g with an average value of 21.7 (±2.4) g. The 95th percentile impact for each player ranged from 38.8 to 72.9 g with an average value of 56.4 (±10.5) g. Next, an impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> metric utilizing concussion injury risk curves was created to quantify cumulative <span class="hlt">exposure</span> for each participating player over the course of the season. Impacts were weighted according to the associated risk due to linear acceleration and rotational acceleration alone, as well as the combined probability (CP) of injury associated with both. These risks were summed over the course of a season to generate risk weighted cumulative <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The impact frequency was found to be greater during games compared to practices with an average number of impacts per session of 15.5 and 9.4, respectively. However, the median cumulative risk weighted <span class="hlt">exposure</span> based on combined probability was found to be greater for practices vs. games. These data will provide a metric that may be used to better understand the cumulative effects of repetitive head impacts, injury mechanisms, and head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23864337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23864337"><span id="translatedtitle">Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in youth football: high school <span class="hlt">ages</span> 14 to 18 years and cumulative impact analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Golman, Adam J; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Sports-related concussion is the most common athletic head injury with football having the highest rate among high school athletes. Traditionally, research on the biomechanics of football-related head impact has been focused at the collegiate level. Less research has been performed at the high school level, despite the incidence of concussion among high school football players. The objective of this study is to twofold: to quantify the head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in high school football, and to develop a cumulative impact analysis method. Head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> was measured by instrumenting the helmets of 40 high school football players with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays to measure linear and rotational acceleration. A total of 16,502 head impacts were collected over the course of the season. Biomechanical data were analyzed by team and by player. The median impact for each player ranged from 15.2 to 27.0 g with an average value of 21.7 (±2.4) g. The 95th percentile impact for each player ranged from 38.8 to 72.9 g with an average value of 56.4 (±10.5) g. Next, an impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> metric utilizing concussion injury risk curves was created to quantify cumulative <span class="hlt">exposure</span> for each participating player over the course of the season. Impacts were weighted according to the associated risk due to linear acceleration and rotational acceleration alone, as well as the combined probability (CP) of injury associated with both. These risks were summed over the course of a season to generate risk weighted cumulative <span class="hlt">exposure</span>. The impact frequency was found to be greater during games compared to practices with an average number of impacts per session of 15.5 and 9.4, respectively. However, the median cumulative risk weighted <span class="hlt">exposure</span> based on combined probability was found to be greater for practices vs. games. These data will provide a metric that may be used to better understand the cumulative effects of repetitive head impacts, injury mechanisms, and head impact <span class="hlt">exposure</span> of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4559953','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4559953"><span id="translatedtitle">Perinatal <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Atopy at 1 Year of <span class="hlt">Age</span> in a Multi-Center Canadian Birth Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Allen, Ryan W.; Becker, Allan; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Mandhane, Piush; Scott, James A.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Subbarao, Padmaja; Takaro, Tim K.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Brauer, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background The role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) <span class="hlt">exposure</span> in the development of allergic sensitization in children is unclear, and few birth cohort studies have incorporated spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">exposure</span> assessment. Objectives We aimed to examine the association between TRAP and atopy in 1-year-old children from an ongoing national birth cohort study in four Canadian cities. Methods We identified 2,477 children of approximately 1 year of <span class="hlt">age</span> with assessment of atopy for inhalant (Alternaria, Der p, Der f, cat, dog, cockroach) and food-related (milk, eggs, peanuts, soy) allergens. <span class="hlt">Exposure</span> to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated from city-specific land use regression models accounting for residential mobility and temporal variability in ambient concentrations. We used mixed models to examine associations between atopy and <span class="hlt">exposure</span> during pregnancy and the first year of life, including adjustment for covariates (maternal atopy, socioeconomic status, pets, mold, nutrition). We also conducted analyses stratified by time-location patterns, daycare attendance, and modeled home ventilation. Results Following spatiotemporal adjustment, TRAP <span class="hlt">exposure</span> after birth increased the risk for development of atopy to any allergens [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10 μg/m3 NO2 = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41], but not during pregnancy (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.22). This association was stronger among children not attending daycare (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.01) compared with daycare attendees (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.28). Trends to increased risk were also found for food (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47) and inhalant allergens (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76). Conclusion Using refined <span class="hlt">exposure</span> estimates that incorporated temporal variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy. Citation Sbihi H, Allen RW, Becker A, Brook JR, Mandhane P, Scott JA, Sears MR, Subbarao P, Takaro TK, Turvey SE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25889546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25889546"><span id="translatedtitle">Co-<span class="hlt">exposure</span> to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and toluene and their dose-effects on oxidative stress damage in kindergarten-<span class="hlt">aged</span> children in Guangzhou, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi