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Sample records for 26s proteasome inhibitor

  1. Structure characterization of the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Min; Yu, Yadong; Cheng, Yifan

    2010-01-01

    In all eukaryotic cells, 26S proteasome plays an essential role in the process of ATP-dependent protein degradation. In this review, we focus on structure characterization of the 26S proteasome. Although the progress towards a high-resolution structure of the 26S proteasome has been slow, the recently solved structures of various proteasomal subcomplexes have greatly enhanced our understanding of this large machinery. In addition to having an ATP-dependent proteolytic function, the 26S proteasome is also involved in many non-proteolytic cellular activities, which are often mediated by subunits in its 19S regulatory complex. Thus, we include a detailed discussion of the structures of 19S subunits, including proteasomal ATPases, ubiquitin receptors, deubiquitinating enzymes and subunits that contain PCI domain. PMID:20800708

  2. Proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Beverly A; Tomaszewski, Joseph E

    2015-07-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have a 20 year history in cancer therapy. The first proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), a break-through multiple myeloma treatment, moved rapidly through development from bench in 1994 to first approval in 2003. Bortezomib is a reversible boronic acid inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome. Next generation proteasome inhibitors include carfilzomib and oprozomib which are irreversible epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors; and ixazomib and delanzomib which are reversible boronic acid proteasome inhibitors. Two proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib are FDA approved drugs and ixazomib and oprozomib are in late stage clinical trials. All of the agents are potent cytotoxics. The disease focus for all the proteasome inhibitors is multiple myeloma. This focus arose from clinical observations made in bortezomib early clinical trials. Later preclinical studies confirmed that multiple myeloma cells were indeed more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than other tumor cell types. The discovery and development of the proteasome inhibitor class of anticancer agents has progressed through a classic route of serendipity and scientific investigation. These agents are continuing to have a major impact in their treatment of hematologic malignancies and are beginning to be explored as potential treatment agent for non-cancer indications. PMID:25935605

  3. 26S Proteasome: Hunter and Prey in Auxin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangpei; Zhang, Liangran; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-07-01

    Auxin binds to TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 and AUXIN SIGNALLING F-BOX proteins (TIR1/AFBs) and promotes the degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. The proteasome regulator PROTEASOME REGULATOR1 (PTRE1) has now been shown to be required for auxin-mediated repression of 26S proteasome activity, thus providing new insights into the fine-tuning of the homoeostasis of Aux/IAA proteins and auxin signaling. PMID:27246455

  4. The 26S Proteasome Complex: An Attractive Target for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Frankland-Searby, Sarah; Bhaumik, Sukesh R.

    2011-01-01

    The 26S proteasome complex engages in an ATP-dependent proteolytic degradation of a variety of oncoproteins, transcription factors, cell cycle specific cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, ornithine decarboxylase, and other key regulatory cellular proteins. Thus, the proteasome regulates either directly or indirectly many important cellular processes. Altered regulation of these cellular events is linked to the development of cancer. Therefore, the proteasome has become an attractive target for the treatment of numerous cancers. Several proteasome inhibitors that target the proteolytic active sites of the 26S proteasome complex have been developed and tested for anti-tumor activities. These proteasome inhibitors have displayed impressive anti-tumor functions by inducing apoptosis in different tumor types. Further, the proteasome inhibitors have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest, and inhibit angiogenesis, cell-cell adhesion, cell migration, immune and inflammatory responses, and DNA repair response. A number of proteasome inhibitors are now in clinical trials to treat multiple myeloma and solid tumors. Many other proteasome inhibitors with different efficiencies are being developed and tested for anti-tumor activities. Several proteasome inhibitors currently in clinical trials have shown significantly improved anti-tumor activities when combined with other drugs such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, Akt (protein kinase B) inhibitors, DNA damaging agents, Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) inhibitors, and lenalidomide. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is now in the clinic to treat multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Here, we discuss the 26S proteasome complex in carcinogenesis and different proteasome inhibitors with their potential therapeutic applications in treatment of numerous cancers. PMID:22037302

  5. Characterization of the 26S proteasome network in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihui; Delahunty, Claire; Fritz-Wolf, Karin; Rahlfs, Stefan; Helena Prieto, Judith; Yates, John R.; Becker, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome system as a key regulator of protein quality control is an excellent drug target. We therefore aimed to analyze the 26S proteasome complex in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which still threatens almost half of the world’s population. First, we established an affinity purification protocol allowing for the isolation of functional 26S proteasome complexes from the parasite. Subunit composition of the proteasome and component stoichiometry were studied and physiologic interacting partners were identified via in situ protein crosslinking. Furthermore, intrinsic ubiquitin receptors of the plasmodial proteasome were determined and their roles in proteasomal substrate recognition were analyzed. Notably, PfUSP14 was characterized as a proteasome-associated deubiquitinase resulting in the concept that targeting proteasomal deubiquitinating activity in P. falciparum may represent a promising antimalarial strategy. The data provide insights into a profound network orchestrated by the plasmodial proteasome and identified novel drug target candidates in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:26639022

  6. Phosphorylation of ATPase subunits of the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Mason, G G; Murray, R Z; Pappin, D; Rivett, A J

    1998-07-01

    The 26S proteasome complex plays a major role in the non-lysosomal degradation of intracellular proteins. Purified 26S proteasomes give a pattern of more than 40 spots on 2D-PAGE gels. The positions of subunits have been identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides and by immunoblotting with subunit-specific antipeptide antibodies. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteasomes immunoprecipitated from [32P]phosphate-labelled human embryo lung L-132 cells revealed the presence of at least three major phosphorylated polypeptides among the regulatory subunits as well as the C8 and C9 components of the core 20S proteasome. Comparison with the positions of the regulatory polypeptides revealed a minor phosphorylated form to be S7 (MSS1). Antibodies against S4, S6 (TBP7) and S12 (MOV34) all cross-reacted at the position of major phosphorylated polypeptides suggesting that several of the ATPase subunits may be phosphorylated. The phosphorylation of S4 was confirmed by double immunoprecipitation experiments in which 26S proteasomes were immunoprecipitated as above and dissociated and then S4 was immunoprecipitated with subunit-specific antibodies. Antibodies against the non-ATPase subunit S10, which has been suggested by others to be phosphorylated, did not coincide with the position of a phosphorylated polypeptide. Some differences were observed in the 2D-PAGE pattern of proteasomes immunoprecipitated from cultured cells compared to purified rat liver 26S proteasomes suggesting possible differences in subunit compositions of 26S proteasomes.

  7. Assembly, Structure and Function of the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Lynn; Paine, Simon; Sheppard, Paul W.; Mayer, R. John; Roelofs, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a large multi-protein complex involved in the regulated degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in the cell. The 26S proteasome has been shown to control an increasing number of essential biochemical mechanisms of the cellular lifecycle including DNA synthesis, repair, transcription, translation and cell signal transduction. Concurrently, it is increasingly seen that malfunction of the ubiquitin proteasome system contributes to the pathogenesis of disease. The recent identification of four molecular chaperones, in addition to five previously identified chaperones, have provided mechanistic insight into how this cellular megastructure is assembled in the cell. These data, together with new insights into the structure and function of the proteasome, provide a much better understanding of this complex protease. PMID:20427185

  8. Structural analysis of the 26S proteasome by cryoelectron tomography.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Stephan; Mihalache, Oana; Beck, Florian; Hegerl, Reiner; Korinek, Andreas; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2007-02-01

    The 26S proteasome is the key enzyme of intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. It is a multisubunit complex of 2.5 MDa confining the proteolytic action to an inner compartment with tightly controlled access. Structural studies of this intriguing molecular machine have been hampered by its intrinsic instability and its dynamics. Here we have used an unconventional approach to obtain a three-dimensional structure of the holocomplex uncompromised by preparation-induced alterations and unbiased by any starting model. We have performed a tomographic reconstruction, followed by averaging over approx. 150 individual reconstructions, of Drosophila 26S proteasomes suspended in a thin layer of amorphous ice.

  9. Purification and characterization of 26S proteasomes from human and mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Tipler, C P; Hutchon, S P; Hendil, K; Tanaka, K; Fishel, S; Mayer, R J

    1997-12-01

    We purified by fractionation on 10-40% glycerol gradients, 26S proteasomes from normal human spermatozoa. These proteasomes, which participate in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, share a similar sedimentation coefficient to those purified from other human tissues. Fluorogenic peptide assays reveal they have chymotrypsin, trypsin and peptidyl-glutamyl-like peptide hydrolysing activities; the chymotrypsin activity is ablated by the specific 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132. Confirmation that these large proteases are 26S proteasomes is provided by detection of the 20S proteasome subunits HC2, XAPC7, RN3 and Z and regulatory ATPases MSS1, TBP1, SUG1 and SUG2 by Western analyses with monoclonal antisera. These antigens are found only in the gradient fractions enriched in proteolytic activities. We have also shown that, although mature spermatozoa from mice have considerably reduced amounts of a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) and ubiquitin-protein conjugates in comparison with less mature germ cells, they retain relatively high values of 26S proteasome activity. This suggests that proteasomes may have further roles to play in normal sperm physiology.

  10. Dss1 Is a 26S Proteasome Ubiquitin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos; Kriegenburg, Franziska; Tatham, Michael H.; Rösner, Heike I.; Medina, Bethan; Larsen, Ida B.; Brandstrup, Rikke; Hardwick, Kevin G.; Hay, Ronald T.; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major pathway for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Proteins to be degraded are conjugated to ubiquitin chains that act as recognition signals for the 26S proteasome. The proteasome subunits Rpn10 and Rpn13 are known to bind ubiquitin, but genetic and biochemical data suggest the existence of at least one other substrate receptor. Here, we show that the phylogenetically conserved proteasome subunit Dss1 (Sem1) binds ubiquitin chains linked by K63 and K48. Atomic resolution data show that Dss1 is disordered and binds ubiquitin by binding sites characterized by acidic and hydrophobic residues. The complementary binding region in ubiquitin is composed of a hydrophobic patch formed by I13, I44, and L69 flanked by two basic regions. Mutations in the ubiquitin-binding site of Dss1 cause growth defects and accumulation of ubiquitylated proteins. PMID:25306921

  11. Toward an integrated structural model of the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    The 26S proteasome is the end point of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and degrades ubiquitylated substrates. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP), where degradation occurs, and the 19S regulatory particle (RP), which ensures substrate specificity of degradation. Whereas the CP is resolved to atomic resolution, the architecture of the RP is largely unknown. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the current structural knowledge on the RP, including structures of the RP subunits, physical protein-protein interactions, and cryoelectron microscopy data. These data allowed us to compute an atomic model for the CP-AAA-ATPase subcomplex. In addition to this atomic model, further subunits can be mapped approximately, which lets us hypothesize on the substrate path during its degradation.

  12. Toward an Integrated Structural Model of the 26S Proteasome*

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is the end point of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and degrades ubiquitylated substrates. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP), where degradation occurs, and the 19S regulatory particle (RP), which ensures substrate specificity of degradation. Whereas the CP is resolved to atomic resolution, the architecture of the RP is largely unknown. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the current structural knowledge on the RP, including structures of the RP subunits, physical protein-protein interactions, and cryoelectron microscopy data. These data allowed us to compute an atomic model for the CP-AAA-ATPase subcomplex. In addition to this atomic model, further subunits can be mapped approximately, which lets us hypothesize on the substrate path during its degradation. PMID:20467039

  13. An atomic structure of the human 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiuliang; Luan, Bai; Wu, Jianping; Shi, Yigong

    2016-09-01

    We report the cryo-EM structure of the human 26S proteasome at an average resolution of 3.5 Å, allowing atomic modeling of 28 subunits in the core particle (CP) and 18 subunits in the regulatory particle (RP). The C-terminal residues of Rpt3 and Rpt5 subunits in the RP can be seen inserted into surface pockets formed between adjacent α subunits in the CP. Each of the six Rpt subunits contains a bound nucleotide, and the central gate of the CP α-ring is closed despite RP association. The six pore 1 loops in the Rpt ring are arranged similarly to a spiral staircase along the axial channel of substrate transport, which is constricted by the pore 2 loops. We also determined the cryo-EM structure of the human proteasome bound to the deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 at 4.35-Å resolution. Together, our structures provide a framework for mechanistic understanding of eukaryotic proteasome function.

  14. Insights into the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Stephan; Beck, Florian; Scheres, Sjors H W; Korinek, Andreas; Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Mihalache, Oana; Sun, Na; Nagy, István; Sali, Andrej; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Carazo, Jose-Maria; Mann, Matthias; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-07-21

    Cryo-electron microscopy in conjunction with advanced image analysis was used to analyze the structure of the 26S proteasome and to elucidate its variable features. We have been able to outline the boundaries of the ATPase module in the "base" part of the regulatory complex that can vary in its position and orientation relative to the 20S core particle. This variation is consistent with the "wobbling" model that was previously proposed to explain the role of the regulatory complex in opening the gate in the alpha-rings of the core particle. In addition, a variable mass near the mouth of the ATPase ring has been identified as Rpn10, a multiubiquitin receptor, by correlating the electron microscopy data with quantitative mass spectrometry.

  15. Insights into the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, Stephan; Beck, Florian; Scheres, Sjors H. W.; Korinek, Andreas; Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Mihalache, Oana; Sun, Na; Nagy, István; Sali, Andrej; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Carazo, Jose-Maria; Mann, Matthias; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy in conjunction with advanced image analysis was used to analyze the structure of the 26S proteasome and to elucidate its variable features. We have been able to outline the boundaries of the ATPase module in the “base” part of the regulatory complex that can vary in its position and orientation relative to the 20S core particle. This variation is consistent with the “wobbling” model that was previously proposed to explain the role of the regulatory complex in opening the gate in the α-rings of the core particle. In addition, a variable mass near the mouth of the ATPase ring has been identified as Rpn10, a multiubiquitin receptor, by correlating the electron microscopy data with quantitative mass spectrometry. PMID:19581588

  16. Viruses and the 26S proteasome: hacking into destruction.

    PubMed

    Banks, Lawrence; Pim, David; Thomas, Miranda

    2003-08-01

    The discovery that the human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein could direct the ubiquitination and degradation of the p53 tumour suppressor at the 26S proteasome was the beginning of a new view on virus-host interactions. A decade later, a plethora of viral proteins have been shown to direct host-cell proteins for proteolytic degradation. These activities are required for various aspects of the virus life-cycle from entry, through replication and enhanced cell survival, to viral release. As with oncogenes and cell-cycle control, the study of apparently simple viruses has provided a wealth of information on the function of a whole class of cellular proteins whose function is arguably as important as that of the kinases: the ubiquitin-protein ligases.

  17. Inherent Asymmetry in the 26S Proteasome Is Defined by the Ubiquitin Receptor RPN13*

    PubMed Central

    Berko, Dikla; Herkon, Ora; Braunstein, Ilana; Isakov, Elada; David, Yael; Ziv, Tamar; Navon, Ami; Stanhill, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The 26S double-capped proteasome is assembled in a hierarchic event that is orchestrated by dedicated set of chaperons. To date, all stoichiometric subunits are considered to be present in equal ratios, thus providing symmetry to the double-capped complex. Here, we show that although the vast majority (if not all) of the double-capped 26S proteasomes, both 19S complexes, contain the ubiquitin receptor Rpn10/S5a, only one of these 19S particles contains the additional ubiquitin receptor Rpn13, thereby defining asymmetry in the 26S proteasome. These results were validated in yeast and mammals, utilizing biochemical and unbiased AQUA-MS methodologies. Thus, the double-capped 26S proteasomes are asymmetric in their polyubiquitin binding capacity. Our data point to a potential new role for ubiquitin receptors as directionality factors that may participate in the prevention of simultaneous substrates translocation into the 20S from both 19S caps. PMID:24429290

  18. Characterization of the Brain 26S Proteasome and its Interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Hwan-Ching; Besche, Henrike; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Schuman, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Proteasome-mediated proteolysis is important for synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, protein quality control, and many other processes in neurons. To define proteasome composition in brain, we affinity purified 26S proteasomes from cytosolic and synaptic compartments of the rat cortex. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we identified the standard 26S subunits and a set of 28 proteasome-interacting proteins that associated substoichiometrically and may serve as regulators or cofactors. This set differed from those in other tissues and we also found several proteins that associated only with either the cytosolic or the synaptic proteasome. The latter included the ubiquitin-binding factor TAX1BP1 and synaptic vesicle protein SNAP-25. Native gel electrophoresis revealed a higher proportion of doubly-capped 26S proteasome (19S-20S-19S) in the cortex than in the liver or kidney. To investigate the interplay between proteasome regulation and synaptic plasticity, we exposed cultured neurons to glutamate receptor agonist NMDA. Within 4 h, this agent caused a prolonged decrease in the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system as shown by disassembly of 26S proteasomes, decrease in ubiquitin-protein conjugates, and dissociation of the ubiquitin ligases UBE3A (E6-AP) and HUWE1 from the proteasome. Surprisingly, the regulatory 19S particles were rapidly degraded by proteasomal, not lysosomal degradation, and the dissociated E3 enzymes also degraded. Thus the content of proteasomes and their set of associated proteins can be altered by neuronal activity, in a manner likely to influence synaptic plasticity and learning. PMID:20717473

  19. Mouse homologue of yeast Prp19 interacts with mouse SUG1, the regulatory subunit of 26S proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Cho, Si Young; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Sang Hoon . E-mail: shkim@khu.ac.kr

    2007-04-27

    Yeast Prp19 has been shown to involve in pre-mRNA splicing and DNA repair as well as being an ubiquitin ligase. Mammalian homologue of yeast Prp19 also plays on similar functional activities in cells. In the present study, we isolated mouse SUG1 (mSUG1) as binding partner of mouse Prp19 (mPrp19) by the yeast two-hybrid system. We confirmed the interaction of mPrp9 with mSUG1 by GST pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay. The N-terminus of mPrp19 including U-box domain was associated with the C-terminus of mSUG1. Although, mSUG1 is a regulatory subunit of 26S proteasome, mPrp19 was not degraded in the proteasome-dependent pathway. Interestingly, GFP-mPrp19 fusion protein was co-localized with mSUG1 protein in cytoplasm as the formation of the speckle-like structures in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, the activity of proteasome was increased in cells transfected with mPrp19. Taken together, these results suggest that mPrp19 involves the regulation of protein turnover and may transport its substrates to 26S proteasome through mSUG1 protein.

  20. DNA damage modulates interactions between microRNAs and the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Tsimokha, Anna S; Kulichkova, Valentina A.; Karpova, Elena V.; Zaykova, Julia J.; Aksenov, Nikolai D; Vasilishina, Anastasia A.; Kropotov, Andrei V.; Antonov, Alexey; Barlev, Nikolai A.

    2014-01-01

    26S proteasomes are known as major non-lysosomal cellular machines for coordinated and specific destruction of ubiquitinylated proteins. The proteolytic activities of proteasomes are controlled by various post-translational modifications in response to environmental cues, including DNA damage. Besides proteolysis, proteasomes also associate with RNA hydrolysis and splicing. Here, we extend the functional diversity of proteasomes by showing that they also dynamically associate with microRNAs (miRNAs) both in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells. Moreover, DNA damage induced by an anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin, alters the repertoire of proteasome-associated miRNAs, enriching the population of miRNAs that target cell cycle checkpoint regulators and DNA repair proteins. Collectively, these data uncover yet another potential mode of action for proteasomes in the cell via their dynamic association with microRNAs. PMID:25004448

  1. [Proteasome inhibitors in cancer therapy].

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, Wioletta; Ołdziej, Agnieszka Ewa; Zińczuk, Justyna; Kłoczko, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are multisubunit enzyme complexes. They contain three enzymatic active sites which are termed chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like. The elementary function of the proteasomes is degradation of damaged proteins. Proteasome inhibition leads to accumulation of damaged protein, which leads to caspase activation and cell death. This relationship is used in cancer therapy. Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Carfilzomib belongs to the second generation of drugs, which was approved by the US FDA in 2012. Currently in the study phase there are four new inhibitors: ixazomib (MLN9780/MLN2238), delanzomib (CEP-18770), oprozomib (ONX0912/PR-047) and marizomib (NPI-0052). PMID:27259216

  2. PiZ Mouse Liver Accumulates Polyubiquitin Conjugates That Associate with Catalytically Active 26S Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher J.; Blomenkamp, Keith; Gautam, Madhav; James, Jared; Mielcarska, Joanna; Gogol, Edward; Teckman, Jeffrey; Skowyra, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregation-prone human alpha 1 antitrypsin mutant Z (AT-Z) protein in PiZ mouse liver stimulates features of liver injury typical of human alpha 1 antitrypsin type ZZ deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the 26S proteasome counteracts AT-Z accumulation and plays other roles that, when inhibited, could exacerbate the injury. However, it is unknown how the conditions of AT-Z mediated liver injury affect the 26S proteasome. To address this question, we developed a rapid extraction strategy that preserves polyubiquitin conjugates in the presence of catalytically active 26S proteasomes and allows their separation from deposits of insoluble AT-Z. Compared to WT, PiZ extracts had about 4-fold more polyubiquitin conjugates with no apparent change in the levels of the 26S and 20S proteasomes, and unassembled subunits. The polyubiquitin conjugates had similar affinities to ubiquitin-binding domain of Psmd4 and co-purified with similar amounts of catalytically active 26S complexes. These data show that polyubiquitin conjugates were accumulating despite normal recruitment to catalytically active 26S proteasomes that were available in excess, and suggest that a defect at the 26S proteasome other than compromised binding to polyubiquitin chain or peptidase activity played a role in the accumulation. In support of this idea, PiZ extracts were characterized by high molecular weight, reduction-sensitive forms of selected subunits, including ATPase subunits that unfold substrates and regulate access to proteolytic core. Older WT mice acquired similar alterations, implying that they result from common aspects of oxidative stress. The changes were most pronounced on unassembled subunits, but some subunits were altered even in the 26S proteasomes co-purified with polyubiquitin conjugates. Thus, AT-Z protein aggregates indirectly impair degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins at the level of the 26S proteasome

  3. PiZ mouse liver accumulates polyubiquitin conjugates that associate with catalytically active 26S proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Christopher J; Blomenkamp, Keith; Gautam, Madhav; James, Jared; Mielcarska, Joanna; Gogol, Edward; Teckman, Jeffrey; Skowyra, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregation-prone human alpha 1 antitrypsin mutant Z (AT-Z) protein in PiZ mouse liver stimulates features of liver injury typical of human alpha 1 antitrypsin type ZZ deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the 26S proteasome counteracts AT-Z accumulation and plays other roles that, when inhibited, could exacerbate the injury. However, it is unknown how the conditions of AT-Z mediated liver injury affect the 26S proteasome. To address this question, we developed a rapid extraction strategy that preserves polyubiquitin conjugates in the presence of catalytically active 26S proteasomes and allows their separation from deposits of insoluble AT-Z. Compared to WT, PiZ extracts had about 4-fold more polyubiquitin conjugates with no apparent change in the levels of the 26S and 20S proteasomes, and unassembled subunits. The polyubiquitin conjugates had similar affinities to ubiquitin-binding domain of Psmd4 and co-purified with similar amounts of catalytically active 26S complexes. These data show that polyubiquitin conjugates were accumulating despite normal recruitment to catalytically active 26S proteasomes that were available in excess, and suggest that a defect at the 26S proteasome other than compromised binding to polyubiquitin chain or peptidase activity played a role in the accumulation. In support of this idea, PiZ extracts were characterized by high molecular weight, reduction-sensitive forms of selected subunits, including ATPase subunits that unfold substrates and regulate access to proteolytic core. Older WT mice acquired similar alterations, implying that they result from common aspects of oxidative stress. The changes were most pronounced on unassembled subunits, but some subunits were altered even in the 26S proteasomes co-purified with polyubiquitin conjugates. Thus, AT-Z protein aggregates indirectly impair degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins at the level of the 26S proteasome

  4. The 26S proteasome is a multifaceted target for anti-cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    Grigoreva, Tatyana A; Tribulovich, Vyacheslav G.; Garabadzhiu, Alexander V.; Melino, Gerry; Barlev, Nickolai A.

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes play a critical role in the fate of proteins that are involved in major cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene expression, cell cycle, replication, differentiation, immune response, cellular response to stress, etc. In contrast to non-specific degradation by lysosomes, proteasomes are highly selective and destroy only the proteins that are covalently labelled with small proteins, called ubiquitins. Importantly, many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers, are intimately connected to the activity of proteasomes making them an important pharmacological target. Currently, the vast majority of inhibitors are aimed at blunting the proteolytic activities of proteasomes. However, recent achievements in solving structures of proteasomes at very high resolution provided opportunities to design new classes of small molecules that target other physiologically-important enzymatic activities of proteasomes, including the de-ubiquitinating one. This review attempts to catalog the information available to date about novel classes of proteasome inhibitors that may have important pharmacological ramifications. PMID:26295307

  5. Structure of the human 26S proteasome at a resolution of 3.9 Å

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Andreas; Aufderheide, Antje; Rudack, Till; Beck, Florian; Pfeifer, Günter; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Sakata, Eri; Schulten, Klaus; Förster, Friedrich; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is performed by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). The 26S proteasome holocomplex consists of a core particle (CP) that proteolytically degrades polyubiquitylated proteins, and a regulatory particle (RP) containing the AAA-ATPase module. This module controls access to the proteolytic chamber inside the CP and is surrounded by non-ATPase subunits (Rpns) that recognize substrates and deubiquitylate them before unfolding and degradation. The architecture of the 26S holocomplex is highly conserved between yeast and humans. The structure of the human 26S holocomplex described here reveals previously unidentified features of the AAA-ATPase heterohexamer. One subunit, Rpt6, has ADP bound, whereas the other five have ATP in their binding pockets. Rpt6 is structurally distinct from the other five Rpt subunits, most notably in its pore loop region. For Rpns, the map reveals two main, previously undetected, features: the C terminus of Rpn3 protrudes into the mouth of the ATPase ring; and Rpn1 and Rpn2, the largest proteasome subunits, are linked by an extended connection. The structural features of the 26S proteasome observed in this study are likely to be important for coordinating the proteasomal subunits during substrate processing. PMID:27342858

  6. Localization of the regulatory particle subunit Sem1 in the 26S proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Stefan; Sakata, Eri; Beck, Florian; Pathare, Ganesh R.; Schnitger, Jérôme; Nágy, Istvan; Baumeister, Wolfgang Förster, Friedrich

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •26S proteasome subunit Sem1 was mapped using cryo-EM and cross-linking data. •C-terminal helix of Sem1 located near winged helix motif of Rpn7. •N-terminal part of Sem1 tethers Rpn7, Rpn3 and lid helical bundle. •Sem1 binds differently to PCI-domains of proteasome subunit Rpn7 and TREX-2 subunit Thp1. -- Abstract: The ubiquitin–proteasome system is responsible for regulated protein degradation in the cell with the 26S proteasome acting as its executive arm. The molecular architecture of this 2.5 MDa complex has been established recently, with the notable exception of the small acidic subunit Sem1. Here, we localize the C-terminal helix of Sem1 binding to the PCI domain of the subunit Rpn7 using cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstruction of proteasomes purified from yeast cells with sem1 deletion. The approximate position of the N-terminal region of Sem1 bridging the cleft between Rpn7 and Rpn3 was inferred based on site-specific cross-linking data of the 26S proteasome. Our structural studies indicate that Sem1 can assume different conformations in different contexts, which supports the idea that Sem1 functions as a molecular glue stabilizing the Rpn3/Rpn7 heterodimer.

  7. Comparative resistance of the 20S and 26S proteasome to oxidative stress.

    PubMed Central

    Reinheckel, T; Sitte, N; Ullrich, O; Kuckelkorn, U; Davies, K J; Grune, T

    1998-01-01

    Oxidatively modified ferritin is selectively recognized and degraded by the 20S proteasome. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) higher than 10 micromol/mg of protein are able to prevent proteolytic degradation. Exposure of the protease to high amounts of oxidants (H2O2, peroxynitrite and hypochlorite) inhibits the enzymic activity of the 20S proteasome towards the fluorogenic peptide succinyl-leucine-leucine-valine-tyrosine-methylcoumarylamide (Suc-LLVY-MCA), as well as the proteolytic degradation of normal and oxidant-treated ferritin. Fifty per cent inhibition of the degradation of the protein substrates was achieved using 40 micromol of H2O2/mg of proteasome. No change in the composition of the enzyme was revealed by electrophoretic analysis up to concentrations of 120 micromol of H2O2/mg of proteasome. In further experiments, it was found that the 26S proteasome, the ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent form of the proteasomal system, is much more susceptible to oxidative stress. Whereas degradation of the fluorogenic peptide, Suc-LLVY-MCA, by the 20S proteasome was inhibited by 50% with 12 micromol of H2O2/mg, 3 micromol of H2O2/mg was enough to inhibit ATP-stimulated degradation by the 26S proteasome by 50%. This loss in activity could be followed by the loss of band intensity in the non-denaturing gel. Therefore we concluded that the 20S proteasome was more resistant to oxidative stress than the ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasome. Furthermore, we investigated the activity of both proteases in K562 cells after H2O2 treatment. Lysates from K562 cells are able to degrade oxidized ferritin at a higher rate than non-oxidized ferritin, in an ATP-independent manner. This effect could be followed even after treatment of the cells with H2O2 up to a concentration of 2mM. The lactacystin-sensitive ATP-stimulated degradation of the fluorogenic peptide Suc-LLVY-MCA declined, after treatment of the cells with 1mM H2O2, to the same level as that obtained without

  8. Uncommon functional properties of the first piscine 26S proteasome from the Antarctic notothenioid Trematomus bernacchii.

    PubMed

    Gogliettino, Marta; Balestrieri, Marco; Riccio, Alessia; Facchiano, Angelo; Fusco, Carmela; Palazzo, Vincenzo Cecere; Rossi, Mosè; Cocca, Ennio; Palmieri, Gianna

    2016-01-01

    Protein homoeostasis is a fundamental process allowing the preservation of functional proteins and it has a great impact on the life of the Antarctic organisms. However, the effect of low temperatures on protein turnover is poorly understood and the cold-adaptation of the degradation machinery remains an unresolved issue. As the 26S proteasome represents the main proteolytic system devoted to the controlled degradation of intracellular proteins, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the functions of this complex in the notothenioid Trematomus bernacchii, in order to better understand its role in the physiology of Antarctic fish. To this aim, we purified and characterized the 26S proteasome from T. bernacchii and isolated the cDNAs codifying seven of the 14 subunits belonging to the proteasome 20S core particle. Results provided evidences of the high resistance of the piscine 26S proteasome to oxidative agents and of its 'uncommon' ability to efficiently hydrolyse oxidized bovine serum albumin (BSA), suggesting that this enzymatic complex could play a key role in the antioxidant defense systems in fish inhabiting permanently cold marine environments. These unique properties were also reflected by the 3D model analysis, which revealed a higher structural stability of the piscine complex respect to the murine template. Finally, a comparative analysis, performed in a variety of tissues collected from T. bernacchii and the temperate fish Dicentrarchus labrax, showed a lower protein retention in the cold-adapted fish, possibly due to a better efficiency of its degradation machinery.

  9. The effects of anti-DNA topoisomerase II drugs, etoposide and ellipticine, are modified in root meristem cells of Allium cepa by MG132, an inhibitor of 26S proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), a highly specialized nuclear enzyme, resolves various entanglement problems concerning DNA that arise during chromatin remodeling, transcription, S-phase replication, meiotic recombination, chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. The genotoxic effects of two Topo II inhibitors known as potent anti-cancer drugs, etoposide (ETO) and ellipticine (EPC), were assayed in root apical meristem cells of Allium cepa. Despite various types of molecular interactions between these drugs and DNA-Topo II complexes at the chromatin level, which have a profound negative impact on the genome integrity (production of double-strand breaks, chromosomal bridges and constrictions, lagging fragments of chromosomes and their uneven segregation to daughter cell nuclei), most of the elicited changes were apparently similar, regarding both their intensity and time characteristics. No essential changes between ETO- and EPC-treated onion roots were noticed in the frequency of G1-, S-, G2-and M-phase cells, nuclear morphology, chromosome structures, tubulin-microtubule systems, extended distribution of mitosis-specific phosphorylation sites of histone H3, and the induction of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD). However, the important difference between the effects induced by the ETO and EPC concerns their catalytic activities in the presence of MG132 (proteasome inhibitor engaged in Topo II-mediated formation of cleavage complexes) and relates to the time-variable changes in chromosomal aberrations and AL-PCD rates. This result implies that proteasome-dependent mechanisms may contribute to the course of physiological effects generated by DNA lesions under conditions that affect the ability of plant cells to resolve topological problems that associated with the nuclear metabolic activities. PMID:26233708

  10. Degradation of oxidized proteins by the proteasome: Distinguishing between the 20S, 26S, and immunoproteasome proteolytic pathways.

    PubMed

    Raynes, Rachel; Pomatto, Laura C D; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2016-08-01

    The proteasome is a ubiquitous and highly plastic multi-subunit protease with multi-catalytic activity that is conserved in all eukaryotes. The most widely known function of the proteasome is protein degradation through the 26S ubiquitin-proteasome system, responsible for the vast majority of protein degradation during homeostasis. However, the proteasome also plays an important role in adaptive immune responses and adaptation to oxidative stress. The unbound 20S proteasome, the core common to all proteasome conformations, is the main protease responsible for degrading oxidized proteins. During periods of acute stress, the 19S regulatory cap of the 26S proteasome disassociates from the proteolytic core, allowing for immediate ATP/ubiquitin-independent protein degradation by the 20S proteasome. Despite the abundance of unbound 20S proteasome compared to other proteasomal conformations, many publications fail to distinguish between the two proteolytic systems and often regard the 26S proteasome as the dominant protease. Further confounding the issue are the differential roles these two proteolytic systems have in adaptation and aging. In this review, we will summarize the increasing evidence that the 20S core proteasome constitutes the major conformation of the proteasome system and that it is far from a latent protease requiring activation by binding regulators.

  11. cAMP-induced phosphorylation of 26S proteasomes on Rpn6/PSMD11 enhances their activity and the degradation of misfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; Kukushkin, Nikolay Vadimovich; Goldberg, Alfred Lewis

    2015-12-29

    Although rates of protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPS) are determined by their rates of ubiquitination, we show here that the proteasome's capacity to degrade ubiquitinated proteins is also tightly regulated. We studied the effects of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on proteolysis by the UPS in several mammalian cell lines. Various agents that raise intracellular cAMP and activate PKA (activators of adenylate cyclase or inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 4) promoted degradation of short-lived (but not long-lived) cell proteins generally, model UPS substrates having different degrons, and aggregation-prone proteins associated with major neurodegenerative diseases, including mutant FUS (Fused in sarcoma), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1), TDP43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43), and tau. 26S proteasomes purified from these treated cells or from control cells and treated with PKA degraded ubiquitinated proteins, small peptides, and ATP more rapidly than controls, but not when treated with protein phosphatase. Raising cAMP levels also increased amounts of doubly capped 26S proteasomes. Activated PKA phosphorylates the 19S subunit, Rpn6/PSMD11 (regulatory particle non-ATPase 6/proteasome subunit D11) at Ser14. Overexpression of a phosphomimetic Rpn6 mutant activated proteasomes similarly, whereas a nonphosphorylatable mutant decreased activity. Thus, proteasome function and protein degradation are regulated by cAMP through PKA and Rpn6, and activation of proteasomes by this mechanism may be useful in treating proteotoxic diseases.

  12. Structure of the 26S proteasome from Schizosaccharomyces pombe at subnanometer resolution

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Stefan; Beck, Florian; Sakata, Eri; Walzthoeni, Thomas; Beck, Martin; Aebersold, Ruedi; Förster, Friedrich; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Nickell, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the 26S proteasome from Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been determined to a resolution of 9.1 Å by cryoelectron microscopy and single particle analysis. In addition, chemical cross-linking in conjunction with mass spectrometry has been used to identify numerous residue pairs in close proximity to each other, providing an array of spatial restraints. Taken together these data clarify the topology of the AAA-ATPase module in the 19S regulatory particle and its spatial relationship to the α-ring of the 20S core particle. Image classification and variance analysis reveal a belt of high “activity” surrounding the AAA-ATPase module which is tentatively assigned to the reversible association of proteasome interacting proteins and the conformational heterogeneity among the particles. An integrated model is presented which sheds light on the early steps of protein degradation by the 26S complex. PMID:21098295

  13. Automated cryoelectron microscopy of "single particles" applied to the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Stephan; Beck, Florian; Korinek, Andreas; Mihalache, Oana; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2007-06-19

    The 26S proteasome is a large molecular machine with a central role in intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes. The 2.5 MDa complex, which is built from two copies each of more than 30 different subunits, is labile and prone to dissociation into subcomplexes. Hence it is difficult if not impossible, to obtain structurally homogeneous preparations and, as a consequence, it is very cumbersome to obtain large numbers of images of the holocomplex. In this communication, we describe an automated procedure for the acquisition of large data sets of cryoelectron micrographs. The application of this procedure to the 26S proteasome from Drosophila has allowed us to determine the three-dimensional structure of the complex to a resolution of 2.9 nm and the prospects for further improvements are good.

  14. Structure of the 26S proteasome from Schizosaccharomyces pombe at subnanometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Stefan; Beck, Florian; Sakata, Eri; Walzthoeni, Thomas; Beck, Martin; Aebersold, Ruedi; Förster, Friedrich; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Nickell, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    The structure of the 26S proteasome from Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been determined to a resolution of 9.1 Å by cryoelectron microscopy and single particle analysis. In addition, chemical cross-linking in conjunction with mass spectrometry has been used to identify numerous residue pairs in close proximity to each other, providing an array of spatial restraints. Taken together these data clarify the topology of the AAA-ATPase module in the 19S regulatory particle and its spatial relationship to the α-ring of the 20S core particle. Image classification and variance analysis reveal a belt of high "activity" surrounding the AAA-ATPase module which is tentatively assigned to the reversible association of proteasome interacting proteins and the conformational heterogeneity among the particles. An integrated model is presented which sheds light on the early steps of protein degradation by the 26S complex.

  15. Molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome holocomplex determined by an integrative approach

    PubMed Central

    Lasker, Keren; Förster, Friedrich; Bohn, Stefan; Walzthoeni, Thomas; Villa, Elizabeth; Unverdorben, Pia; Beck, Florian; Aebersold, Ruedi; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is at the executive end of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for the controlled degradation of intracellular proteins. While the structure of its 20S core particle (CP) has been determined by X-ray crystallography, the structure of the 19S regulatory particle (RP), which recruits substrates, unfolds them, and translocates them to the CP for degradation, has remained elusive. Here, we describe the molecular architecture of the 26S holocomplex determined by an integrative approach based on data from cryoelectron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, residue-specific chemical cross-linking, and several proteomics techniques. The “lid” of the RP (consisting of Rpn3/5/6/7/8/9/11/12) is organized in a modular fashion. Rpn3/5/6/7/9/12 form a horseshoe-shaped heterohexamer, which connects to the CP and roofs the AAA-ATPase module, positioning the Rpn8/Rpn11 heterodimer close to its mouth. Rpn2 is rigid, supporting the lid, while Rpn1 is conformationally variable, positioned at the periphery of the ATPase ring. The ubiquitin receptors Rpn10 and Rpn13 are located in the distal part of the RP, indicating that they were recruited to the complex late in its evolution. The modular structure of the 26S proteasome provides insights into the sequence of events prior to the degradation of ubiquitylated substrates. PMID:22307589

  16. Atomic structure of the 26S proteasome lid reveals the mechanism of deubiquitinase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Dambacher, Corey M; Worden, Evan J; Herzik, Mark A; Martin, Andreas; Lander, Gabriel C

    2016-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is responsible for the selective, ATP-dependent degradation of polyubiquitinated cellular proteins. Removal of ubiquitin chains from targeted substrates at the proteasome is a prerequisite for substrate processing and is accomplished by Rpn11, a deubiquitinase within the ‘lid’ sub-complex. Prior to the lid’s incorporation into the proteasome, Rpn11 deubiquitinase activity is inhibited to prevent unwarranted deubiquitination of polyubiquitinated proteins. Here we present the atomic model of the isolated lid sub-complex, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 3.5 Å resolution, revealing how Rpn11 is inhibited through its interaction with a neighboring lid subunit, Rpn5. Through mutagenesis of specific residues, we describe the network of interactions that are required to stabilize this inhibited state. These results provide significant insight into the intricate mechanisms of proteasome assembly, outlining the substantial conformational rearrangements that occur during incorporation of the lid into the 26S holoenzyme, which ultimately activates the deubiquitinase for substrate degradation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13027.001 PMID:26744777

  17. Tyrosine Nitration of PA700 Activates the 26S Proteasome to Induce Endothelial Dysfunction in Mice With Angiotensin II–Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Wang, Shuangxi; Wu, Yong; Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system has been implicated in oxidative stress–induced endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanism by which oxidative stress alters the ubiquitin-proteasome system is poorly defined. The present study was conducted to determine whether oxidative modifications of PA700, a 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)–induced endothelial dysfunction. Exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to low concentrations of Ang II, but not vehicle, for 6 hours significantly decreased the levels of tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor of endothelial NO synthase, which was accompanied by a decrease in GTP cyclohydrolase I, the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo BH4 synthesis. In addition, Ang II increased both tyrosine nitration of PA700 and the 26S proteasome activity, which were paralleled by increased coimmunoprecipitation of PA700 and the 20S proteasome. Genetic inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase or administration of uric acid (a peroxynitrite scavenger) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (nonselective NO synthase inhibitor) significantly attenuated Ang II–induced PA700 nitration, 26S proteasome activation, and reduction of GTP cyclohydrolase I and BH4. Finally, Ang II infusion in mice decreased the levels of both BH4 and GTP cyclohydrolase I and impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation in isolated aortas, and all of these effects were prevented by the administration of MG132, a potent inhibitor for 26S proteasome. We conclude that Ang II increases tyrosine nitration of PA700 resulting in accelerated GTP cyclohydrolase I degradation, BH4 deficiency, and consequent endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. PMID:19597039

  18. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Jayhyuk; Kim, Kyung Bo

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has emerged as a central player in the regulation of several diverse cellular processes. Here, we describe the important components of this complex biochemical machinery as well as several important cellular substrates targeted by this pathway and examples of human diseases resulting from defects in various components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, this review covers the chemistry of synthetic and natural proteasome inhibitors, emphasizing their mode of actions toward the 20S proteasome. Given the importance of proteasome-mediated protein degradation in various intracellular processes, inhibitors of this pathway will continue to serve as both molecular probes of major cellular networks as well as potential therapeutic agents for various human diseases. PMID:11410931

  19. Uncommon functional properties of the first piscine 26S proteasome from the Antarctic notothenioid Trematomus bernacchii

    PubMed Central

    Gogliettino, Marta; Balestrieri, Marco; Riccio, Alessia; Facchiano, Angelo; Fusco, Carmela; Palazzo, Vincenzo Cecere; Rossi, Mosè; Cocca, Ennio; Palmieri, Gianna

    2016-01-01

    Protein homoeostasis is a fundamental process allowing the preservation of functional proteins and it has a great impact on the life of the Antarctic organisms. However, the effect of low temperatures on protein turnover is poorly understood and the cold-adaptation of the degradation machinery remains an unresolved issue. As the 26S proteasome represents the main proteolytic system devoted to the controlled degradation of intracellular proteins, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the functions of this complex in the notothenioid Trematomus bernacchii, in order to better understand its role in the physiology of Antarctic fish. To this aim, we purified and characterized the 26S proteasome from T. bernacchii and isolated the cDNAs codifying seven of the 14 subunits belonging to the proteasome 20S core particle. Results provided evidences of the high resistance of the piscine 26S proteasome to oxidative agents and of its ‘uncommon’ ability to efficiently hydrolyse oxidized bovine serum albumin (BSA), suggesting that this enzymatic complex could play a key role in the antioxidant defense systems in fish inhabiting permanently cold marine environments. These unique properties were also reflected by the 3D model analysis, which revealed a higher structural stability of the piscine complex respect to the murine template. Finally, a comparative analysis, performed in a variety of tissues collected from T. bernacchii and the temperate fish Dicentrarchus labrax, showed a lower protein retention in the cold-adapted fish, possibly due to a better efficiency of its degradation machinery. PMID:26933238

  20. Downregulation of 26S proteasome catalytic activity promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    van Baarsel, Eric D.; Metz, Patrick J.; Fisch, Kathleen; Widjaja, Christella E.; Kim, Stephanie H.; Lopez, Justine; Chang, Aaron N.; Geurink, Paul P.; Florea, Bogdan I.; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Ovaa, Huib; Bui, Jack D.; Yang, Jing; Chang, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) endows carcinoma cells with phenotypic plasticity that can facilitate the formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and contribute to the metastatic cascade. While there is substantial support for the role of EMT in driving cancer cell dissemination, less is known about the intracellular molecular mechanisms that govern formation of CSCs via EMT. Here we show that β2 and β5 proteasome subunit activity is downregulated during EMT in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, selective proteasome inhibition enabled mammary epithelial cells to acquire certain morphologic and functional characteristics reminiscent of cancer stem cells, including CD44 expression, self-renewal, and tumor formation. Transcriptomic analyses suggested that proteasome-inhibited cells share gene expression signatures with cells that have undergone EMT, in part, through modulation of the TGF-β signaling pathway. These findings suggest that selective downregulation of proteasome activity in mammary epithelial cells can initiate the EMT program and acquisition of a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. As proteasome inhibitors become increasingly used in cancer treatment, our findings highlight a potential risk of these therapeutic strategies and suggest a possible mechanism by which carcinoma cells may escape from proteasome inhibitor-based therapy. PMID:26930717

  1. Near-atomic resolution structural model of the yeast 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Florian; Unverdorben, Pia; Bohn, Stefan; Schweitzer, Andreas; Pfeifer, Günter; Sakata, Eri; Nickell, Stephan; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Villa, Elizabeth; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Förster, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    The 26S proteasome operates at the executive end of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 26S proteasome at a resolution of 7.4 Å or 6.7 Å (Fourier-Shell Correlation of 0.5 or 0.3, respectively). We used this map in conjunction with molecular dynamics-based flexible fitting to build a near-atomic resolution model of the holocomplex. The quality of the map allowed us to assign α-helices, the predominant secondary structure element of the regulatory particle subunits, throughout the entire map. We were able to determine the architecture of the Rpn8/Rpn11 heterodimer, which had hitherto remained elusive. The MPN domain of Rpn11 is positioned directly above the AAA-ATPase N-ring suggesting that Rpn11 deubiquitylates substrates immediately following commitment and prior to their unfolding by the AAA-ATPase module. The MPN domain of Rpn11 dimerizes with that of Rpn8 and the C-termini of both subunits form long helices, which are integral parts of a coiled-coil module. Together with the C-terminal helices of the six PCI-domain subunits they form a very large coiled-coil bundle, which appears to serve as a flexible anchoring device for all the lid subunits. PMID:22927375

  2. Near-atomic resolution structural model of the yeast 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Beck, Florian; Unverdorben, Pia; Bohn, Stefan; Schweitzer, Andreas; Pfeifer, Günter; Sakata, Eri; Nickell, Stephan; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Villa, Elizabeth; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Förster, Friedrich

    2012-09-11

    The 26S proteasome operates at the executive end of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 26S proteasome at a resolution of 7.4 Å or 6.7 Å (Fourier-Shell Correlation of 0.5 or 0.3, respectively). We used this map in conjunction with molecular dynamics-based flexible fitting to build a near-atomic resolution model of the holocomplex. The quality of the map allowed us to assign α-helices, the predominant secondary structure element of the regulatory particle subunits, throughout the entire map. We were able to determine the architecture of the Rpn8/Rpn11 heterodimer, which had hitherto remained elusive. The MPN domain of Rpn11 is positioned directly above the AAA-ATPase N-ring suggesting that Rpn11 deubiquitylates substrates immediately following commitment and prior to their unfolding by the AAA-ATPase module. The MPN domain of Rpn11 dimerizes with that of Rpn8 and the C-termini of both subunits form long helices, which are integral parts of a coiled-coil module. Together with the C-terminal helices of the six PCI-domain subunits they form a very large coiled-coil bundle, which appears to serve as a flexible anchoring device for all the lid subunits.

  3. The RPT2 Subunit of the 26S Proteasome Directs Complex Assembly, Histone Dynamics, and Gametophyte and Sporophyte Development in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Minami, Atsushi; Marshall, Richard S.; Book, Adam J.; Farmer, Lisa M.; Walker, Joseph M.; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory particle (RP) of the 26S proteasome contains a heterohexameric ring of AAA-ATPases (RPT1-6) that unfolds and inserts substrates into the core protease (CP) for degradation. Through genetic analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana gene pair encoding RPT2, we show that this subunit plays a critical role in 26S proteasome assembly, histone dynamics, and plant development. rpt2a rpt2b double null mutants are blocked in both male and female gamete transmission, demonstrating that the subunit is essential. Whereas rpt2b mutants are phenotypically normal, rpt2a mutants display a range of defects, including impaired leaf, root, trichome, and pollen development, delayed flowering, stem fasciation, hypersensitivity to mitomycin C and amino acid analogs, hyposensitivity to the proteasome inhibitor MG132, and decreased 26S complex stability. The rpt2a phenotype can be rescued by both RPT2a and RPT2b, indicative of functional redundancy, but not by RPT2a mutants altered in ATP binding/hydrolysis or missing the C-terminal hydrophobic sequence that docks the RPT ring onto the CP. Many rpt2a phenotypes are shared with mutants lacking the chromatin assembly factor complex CAF1. Like caf1 mutants, plants missing RPT2a or reduced in other RP subunits contain less histones, thus implicating RPT2 specifically, and the 26S proteasome generally, in plant nucleosome assembly. PMID:22158466

  4. The RPT2 subunit of the 26S proteasome directs complex assembly, histone dynamics, and gametophyte and sporophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Minami, Atsushi; Marshall, Richard S; Book, Adam J; Farmer, Lisa M; Walker, Joseph M; Vierstra, Richard D

    2011-12-01

    The regulatory particle (RP) of the 26S proteasome contains a heterohexameric ring of AAA-ATPases (RPT1-6) that unfolds and inserts substrates into the core protease (CP) for degradation. Through genetic analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana gene pair encoding RPT2, we show that this subunit plays a critical role in 26S proteasome assembly, histone dynamics, and plant development. rpt2a rpt2b double null mutants are blocked in both male and female gamete transmission, demonstrating that the subunit is essential. Whereas rpt2b mutants are phenotypically normal, rpt2a mutants display a range of defects, including impaired leaf, root, trichome, and pollen development, delayed flowering, stem fasciation, hypersensitivity to mitomycin C and amino acid analogs, hyposensitivity to the proteasome inhibitor MG132, and decreased 26S complex stability. The rpt2a phenotype can be rescued by both RPT2a and RPT2b, indicative of functional redundancy, but not by RPT2a mutants altered in ATP binding/hydrolysis or missing the C-terminal hydrophobic sequence that docks the RPT ring onto the CP. Many rpt2a phenotypes are shared with mutants lacking the chromatin assembly factor complex CAF1. Like caf1 mutants, plants missing RPT2a or reduced in other RP subunits contain less histones, thus implicating RPT2 specifically, and the 26S proteasome generally, in plant nucleosome assembly.

  5. Dietary apigenin potentiates the inhibitory effect of interferon-α on cancer cell viability through inhibition of 26S proteasome-mediated interferon receptor degradation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Yang, Li-juan; Wang, Ping; He, Yu-jiao; Huang, Jun-mei; Liu, Han-wei; Shen, Xiao-fei; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) have broad and potent immunoregulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, it is still known whether the dietary flavonoids exhibit their antiviral and anticancer properties by modulating the function of type I IFNs. Objective This study aimed at determining the role of apigenin, a dietary plant flavonoid abundant in common fruits and vegetables, on the type I IFN-mediated inhibition of cancer cell viability. Design Inhibitory effect of apigenin on human 26S proteasome, a known negative regulator of type I IFN signaling, was evaluated in vitro. Molecular docking was conducted to know the interaction between apigenin and subunits of 26S proteasome. Effects of apigenin on JAK/STAT pathway, 26S proteasome-mediated interferon receptor stability, and cancer cells viability were also investigated. Results Apigenin was identified to be a potent inhibitor of human 26S proteasome in a cell-based assay. Apigenin inhibited the chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like activities of the human 26S proteasome and increased the ubiquitination of endogenous proteins in cells. Results from computational modeling of the potential interactions of apigenin with the chymotrypsin site (β5 subunit), caspase site (β1 subunit), and trypsin site (β2 subunit) of the proteasome were consistent with the observed proteasome inhibitory activity. Apigenin enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STAT1 and STAT2) and promoted the endogenous IFN-α-regulated gene expression. Apigenin inhibited the IFN-α-stimulated ubiquitination and degradation of type I interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1). Apigenin also sensitized the inhibitory effect of IFN-α on viability of cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Conclusion These results suggest that apigenin potentiates the inhibitory effect of IFN-α on cancer cell viability by activating JAK/STAT signaling pathway through inhibition of 26S proteasome

  6. Proteomics of the 26S proteasome in Spodoptera frugiperda cells infected with the nucleopolyhedrovirus, AcMNPV.

    PubMed

    Lyupina, Yulia V; Zatsepina, Olga G; Serebryakova, Marina V; Erokhov, Pavel A; Abaturova, Svetlana B; Kravchuk, Oksana I; Orlova, Olga V; Beljelarskaya, Svetlana N; Lavrov, Andrey I; Sokolova, Olga S; Mikhailov, Victor S

    2016-06-01

    Baculoviruses are large DNA viruses that infect insect species such as Lepidoptera and are used in biotechnology for protein production and in agriculture as insecticides against crop pests. Baculoviruses require activity of host proteasomes for efficient reproduction, but how they control the cellular proteome and interact with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) of infected cells remains unknown. In this report, we analyzed possible changes in the subunit composition of 26S proteasomes of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9), cells in the course of infection with the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). 26S proteasomes were purified from Sf9 cells by an immune affinity method and subjected to 2D gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and Mascot search in bioinformatics databases. A total of 34 homologues of 26S proteasome subunits of eukaryotic species were identified including 14 subunits of the 20S core particle (7 α and 7 β subunits) and 20 subunits of the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP contained homologues of 11 of RPN-type and 6 of RPT-type subunits, 2 deubiquitinating enzymes (UCH-14/UBP6 and UCH-L5/UCH37), and thioredoxin. Similar 2D-gel maps of 26S proteasomes purified from uninfected and AcMNPV-infected cells at 48hpi confirmed the structural integrity of the 26S proteasome in insect cells during baculovirus infection. However, subtle changes in minor forms of some proteasome subunits were detected. A portion of the α5(zeta) cellular pool that presumably was not associated with the proteasome underwent partial proteolysis at a late stage in infection.

  7. DBC2 resistance is achieved by enhancing 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Collado, Denise; Yoshihara, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Masaaki

    2007-08-31

    Tumor suppressor gene DBC2 stops growth of tumor cells through regulation of CCND1. Interference of CCND1 down-regulation prevented growth arrest caused by DBC2 [T. Yoshihara, D. Collado, M. Hamaguchi, Cyclin D1 down-regulation is essential for DBC2's tumor suppressor function, Biochemical and biophysical research communications 358 (2007) 1076-1079]. It was also noted that DBC2 resistant cells eventually arose after repeated induction of DBC2 with muristerone A treatment [M. Hamaguchi, J.L. Meth, C. Von Klitzing, W. Wei, D. Esposito, L. Rodgers, T. Walsh, P. Welcsh, M.C. King, M.H. Wigler, DBC2, a candidate for a tumor suppressor gene involved in breast cancer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 13647-13652]. In order to elucidate the mechanism of resistance acquisition, we analyzed DBC2 sensitive and resistant cells derived from the same progenitor cells (T-47D). We discovered that DBC2 protein was abundantly expressed in the sensitive cells when DBC2 was induced. In contrast, it was undetectable by western blot analysis in the resistant cells. We confirmed that the inducible gene expression system was responsive in both cells by detecting induced GFP. Additionally, inhibition of 26S proteasome by MG132 revealed production of DBC2 protein in the resistant cells. These findings indicate that the resistant T-47D cells survive DBC2 induction by rapid destruction of DBC2 through 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation.

  8. Molecular interaction of the proteasome (multicatalytic proteinase). Evidence that the proteasome is not a constituent of the '26 S' multienzyme complex.

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, A; Kloetzel, P M; Kuehn, L; Dahlmann, B

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of recent reports that suggested that proteasomes, via an ATP-dependent process, become integral components of a '26 S' complex possessing 3-carboxypropionyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr 4-methylcoumarin-7-ylamide-hydrolysing activity, we have investigated the molecular interaction of proteasomes in ATP-stabilized fraction II (proteins absorbed on DEAE-matrix and eluted with 0.5 M-KCl) of rabbit reticulocytes and mouse liver. Analysis of the various extracts by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, velocity-gradient centrifugation, non-denaturing PAGE and SDS/PAGE and immunoblotting with proteasome-specific antisera failed to identify the proteasome as part of a higher-molecular-mass '26 S' multienzyme complex. In all instances proteasomes are identified in their 'free' 650 kDa '20 S' form. In addition to the proteasome and independent of the presence of MgATP, we isolated a high-molecular-mass proteinase whose electrophoretic migration behaviour and sedimentation rate correspond to that of the previously described '26 S' proteinase. This '26 S' proteinase possesses a strong 3-carboxypropionyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr 4-methylcoumarin-7-ylamide-hydrolysing activity and is composed of several non-identical polypeptides in the molecular-mass range 20-150 kDa. Despite its similarity to proteasomal enzyme activity, protein analysis and immunoblotting experiments demonstrate that neither the intact proteasome nor subunits thereof are components of the '26 S' proteinase complex. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1741750

  9. Basic leucine zipper protein Cnc-C is a substrate and transcriptional regulator of the Drosophila 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Kristian Björk; Beskow, Anne; Lundin, Daniel; Davis, Monica M; Young, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    While the 26S proteasome is a key proteolytic complex, little is known about how proteasome levels are maintained in higher eukaryotic cells. Here we describe an RNA interference (RNAi) screen of Drosophila melanogaster that was used to identify transcription factors that may play a role in maintaining levels of the 26S proteasome. We used an RNAi library against 993 Drosophila transcription factor genes to identify genes whose suppression in Schneider 2 cells stabilized a ubiquitin-green fluorescent protein reporter protein. This screen identified Cnc (cap 'n' collar [CNC]; basic region leucine zipper) as a candidate transcriptional regulator of proteasome component expression. In fact, 20S proteasome activity was reduced in cells depleted of cnc. Immunoblot assays against proteasome components revealed a general decline in both 19S regulatory complex and 20S proteasome subunits after RNAi depletion of this transcription factor. Transcript-specific silencing revealed that the longest of the seven transcripts for the cnc gene, cnc-C, was needed for proteasome and p97 ATPase production. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR confirmed the role of Cnc-C in activation of transcription of genes encoding proteasome components. Expression of a V5-His-tagged form of Cnc-C revealed that the transcription factor is itself a proteasome substrate that is stabilized when the proteasome is inhibited. We propose that this single cnc gene in Drosophila resembles the ancestral gene family of mammalian nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related transcription factors, which are essential in regulating oxidative stress and proteolysis.

  10. Inhibitors Selective for Mycobacterial Versus Human Proteasomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.; Li, D; Sorio de Carvalho, L; Deng, H; Tao, H; Vogt, G; Wu, K; Schneider, J; Chidawanyika, T; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Many anti-infectives inhibit the synthesis of bacterial proteins, but none selectively inhibits their degradation. Most anti-infectives kill replicating pathogens, but few preferentially kill pathogens that have been forced into a non-replicating state by conditions in the host. To explore these alternative approaches we sought selective inhibitors of the proteasome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Given that the proteasome structure is extensively conserved, it is not surprising that inhibitors of all chemical classes tested have blocked both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteasomes, and no inhibitor has proved substantially more potent on proteasomes of pathogens than of their hosts. Here we show that certain oxathiazol-2-one compounds kill non-replicating M.?tuberculosis and act as selective suicide-substrate inhibitors of the M.?tuberculosis proteasome by cyclocarbonylating its active site threonine. Major conformational changes protect the inhibitor-enzyme intermediate from hydrolysis, allowing formation of an oxazolidin-2-one and preventing regeneration of active protease. Residues outside the active site whose hydrogen bonds stabilize the critical loop before and after it moves are extensively non-conserved. This may account for the ability of oxathiazol-2-one compounds to inhibit the mycobacterial proteasome potently and irreversibly while largely sparing the human homologue.

  11. The life cycle of the 26S proteasome: from birth, through regulation and function, and onto its death

    PubMed Central

    Livneh, Ido; Cohen-Kaplan, Victoria; Cohen-Rosenzweig, Chen; Avni, Noa; Ciechanover, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a large, ∼2.5 MDa, multi-catalytic ATP-dependent protease complex that serves as the degrading arm of the ubiquitin system, which is the major pathway for regulated degradation of cytosolic, nuclear and membrane proteins in all eukaryotic organisms. PMID:27444871

  12. Serendipity in discovery of proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Derek; Iqbal, Mohamed; Husten, Jean; Ator, Mark A; Chatterjee, Sankar

    2012-05-15

    Among its various catalytic activities, the 'chymotrypsin-like' activity of the proteasome, a large multicatalytic proteinase complex has emerged as the focus of drug discovery efforts in cancer therapy. Herein, a series of first generation (2S, 3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid derived proteasome inhibitors that were discovered serendipitously en route to original goal of generating a series of sterically constrained oxazoline derivatives has been reported. PMID:22503349

  13. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners. PMID:19653995

  14. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.

  15. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.

  16. Convergence of the 26S proteasome and the REVOLUTA pathways in regulating inflorescence and floral meristem functions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Hua; Luo, Dexian; Zeng, Minhuan; Huang, Hai; Cui, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a large multisubunit proteolytic complex, regulating growth and development in eukaryotes by selective removal of short-lived regulatory proteins. Here, it is shown that the 26S proteasome and the transcription factor gene REVOLUTA (REV) act together in maintaining inflorescence and floral meristem (IM and FM) functions. The characterization of a newly identified Arabidopsis mutant, designated ae4 (asymmetric leaves1/2 enhancer4), which carries a mutation in the gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit, RPN2a, is reported. ae4 and rev have minor defects in phyllotaxy structure and meristem initiation, respectively, whereas ae4 rev demonstrated strong developmental defects. Compared with the rev single mutant, an increased percentage of ae4 rev plants exhibited abnormal vegetative shoot apical and axillary meristems. After flowering, ae4 rev first gave rise to a few normal-looking flowers, and then flowers with reduced numbers of all types of floral organs. In late reproductive development, instead of flowers, the ae4 rev IM produced numerous filamentous structures, which contained cells seen only in the floral organs, and then carpelloid organs. In situ hybridization revealed that expression of the WUSCHEL and CLAVATA3 genes was severely down-regulated or absent in the late appearing ae4 rev primordia, but the genes were strongly expressed in top-layer cells of inflorescence tips. Double mutant plants combining rev with other 26S proteasome subunit mutants, rpn1a and rpn9a, resembled ae4 rev, suggesting that the 26S proteasome might act as a whole in regulating IM and FM functions.

  17. Proteasome Inhibitors Block Development of Plasmodium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, Soren M.; Myung, Joon Mo; Briones, Marcelo R. S.; Li, Wei Dong; Corey, E. J.; Omura, Satoshi; Nussenzweig, Victor; Sinnis, Photini

    1998-01-01

    Proteasomes degrade most of the proteins inside eukaryotic cells, including transcription factors and regulators of cell cycle progression. Here we show that nanomolar concentrations of lactacystin, a specific irreversible inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, inhibit development of the exoerythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite. Although lactacystin-treated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites are still invasive, their development into exoerythrocytic forms (EEF) is inhibited in vitro and in vivo. Erythrocytic schizogony of P. falciparum in vitro is also profoundly inhibited when drug treatment of the synchronized parasites is prior, but not subsequent, to the initiation of DNA synthesis, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of lactacystin is cell cycle specific. Lactacystin reduces P. berghei parasitemia in rats, but the therapeutic index is very low. Along with other studies showing that lactacystin inhibits stage-specific transformation in Trypanosoma and Entamoeba spp., these findings highlight the potential of proteasome inhibitors as drugs for the treatment of diseases caused by protozoan parasites. PMID:9756786

  18. Trial Watch: Proteasomal inhibitors for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Obrist, Florine; Manic, Gwenola; Kroemer, Guido; Vitale, Ilio; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called “ubiquitin-proteasome system” (UPS) is a multicomponent molecular apparatus that catalyzes the covalent attachment of several copies of the small protein ubiquitin to other proteins that are generally (but not always) destined to proteasomal degradation. This enzymatic cascade is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis (both in physiological conditions and in the course of adaptive stress responses), and regulates a wide array of signaling pathways. In line with this notion, defects in the UPS have been associated with aging as well as with several pathological conditions including cardiac, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic disorders. As transformed cells often experience a constant state of stress (as a result of the hyperactivation of oncogenic signaling pathways and/or adverse microenvironmental conditions), their survival and proliferation are highly dependent on the integrity of the UPS. This rationale has driven an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation culminating in 2003 with the approval of the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in multiple myeloma patients. Another proteasomal inhibitor, carfilzomib, is now licensed by international regulatory agencies for use in multiple myeloma patients, and the approved indications for bortezomib have been extended to mantle cell lymphoma. This said, the clinical activity of bortezomib and carfilzomib is often limited by off-target effects, innate/acquired resistance, and the absence of validated predictive biomarkers. Moreover, the antineoplastic activity of proteasome inhibitors against solid tumors is poor. In this Trial Watch we discuss the contribution of the UPS to oncogenesis and tumor progression and summarize the design and/or results of recent clinical studies evaluating the therapeutic profile of proteasome inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308423

  19. Differential roles of the COOH termini of AAA subunits of PA700 (19 S regulator) in asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Thomas G; Kumar, Brajesh; Thompson, David; Slaughter, Clive A; DeMartino, George N

    2008-11-14

    The 26 S proteasome is an energy-dependent protease that degrades proteins modified with polyubiquitin chains. It is assembled from two multi-protein subcomplexes: a protease (20 S proteasome) and an ATPase regulatory complex (PA700 or 19 S regulatory particle) that contains six different AAA family subunits (Rpt1 to -6). Here we show that binding of PA700 to the 20 S proteasome is mediated by the COOH termini of two (Rpt2 and Rpt5) of the six Rpt subunits that constitute the interaction surface between the subcomplexes. COOH-terminal peptides of either Rpt2 or Rpt5 bind to the 20 S proteasome and activate hydrolysis of short peptide substrates. Simultaneous binding of both COOH-terminal peptides had additive effects on peptide substrate hydrolysis, suggesting that they bind to distinct sites on the proteasome. In contrast, only the Rpt5 peptide activated hydrolysis of protein substrates. Nevertheless, the COOH-terminal peptide of Rpt2 greatly enhanced this effect, suggesting that proteasome activation is a multistate process. Rpt2 and Rpt5 COOH-terminal peptides cross-linked to different but specific subunits of the 20 S proteasome. These results reveal critical roles of COOH termini of Rpt subunits of PA700 in the assembly and activation of eukaryotic 26 S proteasome. Moreover, they support a model in which Rpt subunits bind to dedicated sites on the proteasome and play specific, nonequivalent roles in the asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome.

  20. Proteasome structure, function, and lessons learned from beta-lactone inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Groll, Michael; Potts, Barbara C

    2011-12-01

    The 26S proteasome is the enzymatic core engine of the ubiquitin and proteasome dependent proteolytic system (UPS), the major eukaryotic pathway for regulated protein degradation. The UPS plays a pivotal role in cellular protein turnover, protein quality control, antigen processing, signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation and apoptosis, inspiring in-depth studies of proteasome structure and function and the search for selective inhibitors. Structural studies revealed that the 26S proteasome comprises up to two 19S regulatory caps flanking a cylindrical 20S core particle, which houses the proteolytic subunits and is present in all kingdoms of life. This review highlights current understanding of 20S architecture, maturation and assembly, the mechanism for selective degradation of protein substrates targeted for destruction, and relationships to other proteases. This knowledge base has benefited from structurally diverse proteasome inhibitors discovered from unique sources, including terrestrial and marine actinomycetes that produce the β-lactone-γ- lactam superfamily of inhibitors, including omuralide, salinosporamide A (marizomib; NPI-0052) and the cinnabaramides. These "minimalist inhibitors" utilize dense functionality to maximum efficiency for potent and selective proteasome inhibition and have advanced from biochemical tools to potential agrochemicals and anticancer agents. In this review, lessons learned from the β-lactone-γ-lactam superfamily are presented, with an emphasis on their unique binding mechanisms elucidated through structural biology in concert with medicinal chemistry. Distinctions between slowly reversible and irreversible inhibitors are discussed, together with the relationship of irreversible binding at the molecular level to prolonged duration proteasome inhibition in tumor cells, and in vitro and in vivo efficacy.

  1. Proteasome inhibitors induce auditory hair cell death through peroxisome dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon No; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil

    2015-01-01

    Even though bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a powerful chemotherapeutic agent used to treat multiple myeloma (MM) and other lymphoma cells, recent clinical reports suggest that the proteasome inhibitor therapy may be associated with severe bilateral hearing loss. We herein investigated the adverse effect of proteasome inhibitor on auditory hair cells. Treatment of a proteasome inhibitor destroys stereocilia bundles of hair cells resulting in the disarray of stereocilia in the organ of Corti explants. Since proteasome activity may be potentially important for biogenesis and function of the peroxisome, we tested whether proteasome activity is necessary for maintaining functional peroxisomes. Our results showed that treatment of a proteasome inhibitor significantly decreases both the number of peroxisomes and expression of peroxisomal proteins such as PMP70 and Catalase. In addition, we also found that proteasome inhibitor impairs the import pathway of PTS1-peroxisome matrix proteins. Taken together, our findings support recent clinical reports of hearing loss associated with proteasome inhibition. Mechanistically, peroxisome dysfunction may contribute to hair cell damage and hearing loss in response to the treatment of a proteasome inhibitor.

  2. Structural Determinants Involved in the Regulation of CXCL14/BRAK Expression by the 26S Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Francis C.; Thorpe, Jeffery A.; Harder, Adam; Volkman, Brian F.; Schwarze, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL14/BRAK participates in immune surveillance by recruiting dendritic cells. CXCL14 gene expression is altered in a number of cancers, but protein expression levels have not been investigated. Here we report that CXCL14 protein can be expressed in primary epithelial cells, however in several immortalized and cancer cell lines this protein is targeted for polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. We determined the NMR structure of CXCL14 to identify motifs controlling its expression. CXCL14 adopts the canonical chemokine tertiary fold but contains a unique five amino acid insertion (41VSRYR45) relative to other CXC chemokines. Deletion or substitution of key residues within this insertion prevented proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we defined a 15 amino acid fragment of CXCL14 that is sufficient to induce proteasomal degradation. This study elucidates a post-translational mechanism for the loss of CXCL14 in cancer and a novel mode of chemokine regulation. PMID:16987528

  3. Suppression of BRCA1 sensitizes cells to proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Y; Bouwman, P; Greco, D; Saarela, J; Yadav, B; Jonkers, J; Kuznetsov, S G

    2014-01-01

    BRCA1 is a multifunctional protein best known for its role in DNA repair and association with breast and ovarian cancers. To uncover novel biologically significant molecular functions of BRCA1, we tested a panel of 198 approved and experimental drugs to inhibit growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells depleted for BRCA1 by siRNA. 26S proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib emerged as a new class of selective BRCA1-targeting agents. The effect was confirmed in HeLa and U2OS cancer cell lines using two independent siRNAs, and in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with inducible deletion of Brca1. Bortezomib treatment did not cause any increase in nuclear foci containing phosphorylated histone H2AX, and knockdown of BRCA2 did not entail sensitivity to bortezomib, suggesting that the DNA repair function of BRCA1 may not be directly involved. We found that a toxic effect of bortezomib on BRCA1-depleted cells is mostly due to deregulated cell cycle checkpoints mediated by RB1-E2F pathway and 53BP1. Similar to BRCA1, depletion of RB1 also conferred sensitivity to bortezomib, whereas suppression of E2F1 or 53BP1 together with BRCA1 reduced induction of apoptosis after bortezomib treatment. A gene expression microarray study identified additional genes activated by bortezomib treatment only in the context of inactivation of BRCA1 including a critical involvement of the ERN1-mediated unfolded protein response. Our data indicate that BRCA1 has a novel molecular function affecting cell cycle checkpoints in a manner dependent on the 26S proteasome activity. PMID:25522274

  4. Proteasome inhibitors suppress the protein expression of mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Halasi, Marianna; Pandit, Bulbul; Gartel, Andrei L

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in cancer, with almost 50% of all types of cancer expressing a mutant form of p53. p53 transactivates the expression of its primary negative regulator, HDM2. HDM2 is a ubiquitin ligase, which initiates the proteasomal degradation of p53 following ubiquitination. Proteasome inhibitors, by targeting the ubiquitin proteasome pathway inhibit the degradation of the majority of cellular proteins including wild-type p53. In contrast, in this study we found that the protein expression of mutant p53 was suppressed following treatment with established or novel proteasome inhibitors. Furthermore, for the first time we demonstrated that Arsenic trioxide, which was previously shown to suppress mutant p53 protein level, exhibits proteasome inhibitory activity. Proteasome inhibitor-mediated suppression of mutant p53 was partially rescued by the knockdown of HDM2, suggesting that the stabilization of HDM2 by proteasome inhibitors might be responsible for mutant p53 suppression to some extent. This study suggests that suppression of mutant p53 is a general property of proteasome inhibitors and it provides additional rationale to use proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of tumors with mutant p53.

  5. Proteasome inhibitors suppress the protein expression of mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Halasi, Marianna; Pandit, Bulbul; Gartel, Andrei L

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in cancer, with almost 50% of all types of cancer expressing a mutant form of p53. p53 transactivates the expression of its primary negative regulator, HDM2. HDM2 is a ubiquitin ligase, which initiates the proteasomal degradation of p53 following ubiquitination. Proteasome inhibitors, by targeting the ubiquitin proteasome pathway inhibit the degradation of the majority of cellular proteins including wild-type p53. In contrast, in this study we found that the protein expression of mutant p53 was suppressed following treatment with established or novel proteasome inhibitors. Furthermore, for the first time we demonstrated that Arsenic trioxide, which was previously shown to suppress mutant p53 protein level, exhibits proteasome inhibitory activity. Proteasome inhibitor-mediated suppression of mutant p53 was partially rescued by the knockdown of HDM2, suggesting that the stabilization of HDM2 by proteasome inhibitors might be responsible for mutant p53 suppression to some extent. This study suggests that suppression of mutant p53 is a general property of proteasome inhibitors and it provides additional rationale to use proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of tumors with mutant p53. PMID:25485499

  6. Degradation of the encephalomyocarditis virus and hepatitis A virus 3C proteases by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Schlax, Peter E.; Zhang Jin; Lewis, Elizabeth; Planchart, Antonio; Lawson, T. Glen . E-mail: tlawson@bates.edu

    2007-04-10

    We have isolated stably transfected mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines that inducibly express either the mature encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) or hepatitis A virus (HAV) 3C protease and have used these cells to demonstrate that both proteins are subject to degradation in vivo by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system. The detection of 3C protease expression in these cells requires inducing conditions and the presence of one of several proteasome inhibitors. Both 3C proteases are incorporated into conjugates with ubiquitin in vivo. HAV 3C protease expression has deleterious effects on cell viability, as determined by observation and counting of cells cultured in the absence or presence of inducing conditions. The EMCV 3C protease was found to be preferentially localized to the nucleus of induced cells, while the HAV 3C protease remains in the cytoplasm. The absence of polyubiquitinated EMCV 3C protease conjugates in nuclear fraction preparations suggests that localization to the nucleus can protect this protein from ubiquitination.

  7. Degradation of the encephalomyocarditis virus and hepatitis A virus 3C proteases by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schlax, Peter E; Zhang, Jin; Lewis, Elizabeth; Planchart, Antonio; Lawson, T Glen

    2007-04-10

    We have isolated stably transfected mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines that inducibly express either the mature encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) or hepatitis A virus (HAV) 3C protease and have used these cells to demonstrate that both proteins are subject to degradation in vivo by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system. The detection of 3C protease expression in these cells requires inducing conditions and the presence of one of several proteasome inhibitors. Both 3C proteases are incorporated into conjugates with ubiquitin in vivo. HAV 3C protease expression has deleterious effects on cell viability, as determined by observation and counting of cells cultured in the absence or presence of inducing conditions. The EMCV 3C protease was found to be preferentially localized to the nucleus of induced cells, while the HAV 3C protease remains in the cytoplasm. The absence of polyubiquitinated EMCV 3C protease conjugates in nuclear fraction preparations suggests that localization to the nucleus can protect this protein from ubiquitination. PMID:17150238

  8. Tomato 26S Proteasome subunit RPT4a regulates ToLCNDV transcription and activates hypersensitive response in tomato.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Sharma, Namisha; Puranik, Swati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of 26S proteasomal subunits in plant pathogen-interactions, and the roles of each subunit in independently modulating the activity of many intra- and inter-cellular regulators controlling physiological and defense responses of a plant were well reported. In this regard, we aimed to functionally characterize a Solanum lycopersicum 26S proteasomal subunit RPT4a (SlRPT4) gene, which was differentially expressed after Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) infection in tolerant cultivar H-88-78-1. Molecular analysis revealed that SlRPT4 protein has an active ATPase activity. SlRPT4 could specifically bind to the stem-loop structure of intergenic region (IR), present in both DNA-A and DNA-B molecule of the bipartite viral genome. Lack of secondary structure in replication-associated gene fragment prevented formation of DNA-protein complex suggesting that binding of SlRPT4 with DNA is secondary structure specific. Interestingly, binding of SlRPT4 to IR inhibited the function of RNA Pol-II and subsequently reduced the bi-directional transcription of ToLCNDV genome. Virus-induced gene silencing of SlRPT4 gene incited conversion of tolerant attributes of cultivar H-88-78-1 into susceptibility. Furthermore, transient overexpression of SlRPT4 resulted in activation of programmed cell death and antioxidant enzymes system. Overall, present study highlights non-proteolytic function of SlRPT4 and their participation in defense pathway against virus infection in tomato. PMID:27252084

  9. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, Susan E.; Chen, Billy; Koch, Stephen R.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew; Davidson, Jeffrey M.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  10. Tomato 26S Proteasome subunit RPT4a regulates ToLCNDV transcription and activates hypersensitive response in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Sharma, Namisha; Puranik, Swati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of 26S proteasomal subunits in plant pathogen-interactions, and the roles of each subunit in independently modulating the activity of many intra- and inter-cellular regulators controlling physiological and defense responses of a plant were well reported. In this regard, we aimed to functionally characterize a Solanum lycopersicum 26S proteasomal subunit RPT4a (SlRPT4) gene, which was differentially expressed after Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) infection in tolerant cultivar H-88-78-1. Molecular analysis revealed that SlRPT4 protein has an active ATPase activity. SlRPT4 could specifically bind to the stem-loop structure of intergenic region (IR), present in both DNA-A and DNA-B molecule of the bipartite viral genome. Lack of secondary structure in replication-associated gene fragment prevented formation of DNA-protein complex suggesting that binding of SlRPT4 with DNA is secondary structure specific. Interestingly, binding of SlRPT4 to IR inhibited the function of RNA Pol-II and subsequently reduced the bi-directional transcription of ToLCNDV genome. Virus-induced gene silencing of SlRPT4 gene incited conversion of tolerant attributes of cultivar H-88-78-1 into susceptibility. Furthermore, transient overexpression of SlRPT4 resulted in activation of programmed cell death and antioxidant enzymes system. Overall, present study highlights non-proteolytic function of SlRPT4 and their participation in defense pathway against virus infection in tomato. PMID:27252084

  11. ATP-DEPENDENT STEPS IN THE BINDING OF UBIQUITIN CONJUGATES TO THE 26S PROTEASOME THAT COMMIT TO DEGRADATION

    PubMed Central

    Peth, Andreas; Uchiki, Tomoaki; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells target proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome by attaching a ubiquitin chain. Using a rapid assay, we analyzed the initial binding of ubiquitinated proteins to purified 26S particles as an isolated process at 4°C. Subunits Rpn10 and Rpn13 contribute equally to the high affinity binding of ubiquitin chains, but in their absence ubiquitin conjugates bind to another site with 4-fold lower affinity. Conjugate binding is stimulated 2-4 fold by binding of ATP or the nonhydrolyzable analog, ATPγS (but not ADP) to the 19S ATPases. Following this initial, reversible association, ubiquitin conjugates at 37°C become more tightly bound through a step that requires ATP hydrolysis and a loosely folded domain on the protein, but appears independent of ubiquitin. Unfolded or loosely folded polypeptides can inhibit this tighter binding. This commitment step precedes substrate deubiquitination and allows for selection of ubiquitinated proteins capable of being unfolded and efficiently degraded. PMID:21095592

  12. Development of novel proteasome inhibitors based on phthalazinone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingfei; Wang, Wei; Sun, Qi; Xu, Fengrong; Niu, Yan; Wang, Chao; Liang, Lei; Xu, Ping

    2016-06-15

    In this study we designed a series of proteasome inhibitors using pyridazinone as initial scaffold, and extended the structure with rational design by computer aided drug design (CADD). Two different synthetic routes were explored and the biological evaluation of the phthalazinone derivatives was investigated. Most importantly, electron positive triphenylphosphine group was first introduced in the structure of proteasome inhibitors and potent inhibition was achieved. As 6c was the most potent inhibitor of proteasome, we examined the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of 6c analogs. PMID:27158142

  13. Overview of Proteasome Inhibitor-Based Anti-cancer Therapies: Perspective on Bortezomib and Second Generation Proteasome Inhibitors versus Future Generation Inhibitors of Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Q. Ping; Zonder, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, proteasome inhibition has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating multiple myeloma (MM) and some lymphomas. In 2003, Bortezomib (BTZ) became the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). BTZ-based therapies have become a staple for the treatment of MM at all stages of the disease. The survival rate of MM patients has improved significantly since clinical introduction of BTZ and other immunomodulatory drugs. However, BTZ has several limitations. Not all patients respond to BTZ-based therapies and relapse occurs in many patients who initially responded. Solid tumors, in particular, are often resistant to BTZ. Furthermore, BTZ can induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy (PN). The second generation proteasome inhibitor Carfizomib (CFZ; U.S. FDA approved in August 2012) induces responses in a minority of MM patients relapsed from or refractory to BTZ. There is less PN compared to BTZ. Four other second-generation proteasome inhibitors (Ixazomib, Delanzomib, Oprozomib and Marizomib) with different pharmacologic properties and broader anticancer activities, have also shown some clinical activity in bortezomib-resistant cancers. While the mechanism of resistance to bortezomib in human cancers still remains to be fully understood, targeting the immunoproteasome, ubiquitin E3 ligases, the 19S proteasome and deubiquitinases in pre-clinical studies represents possible directions for future generation inhibitors of ubiquitin-proteasome system in the treatment of MM and other cancers. PMID:25092212

  14. Functional study of hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 induced by Tobacco mosaic virus from nuclear proteome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Kwon, Sun Jae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Ohkmae K.; Paek, Kyung-Hee . E-mail: khpaek95@korea.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied for the screening of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-induced hot pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Bugang) nuclear proteins. From differentially expressed protein spots, we acquired the matched peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) data, analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, from the non-redundant hot pepper EST protein FASTA database using the VEMS 2.0 software. Among six identified nuclear proteins, the hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 (CaRPN7) was subjected to further study. The level of CaRPN7 mRNA was specifically increased during incompatible TMV-P{sub 0} interaction, but not during compatible TMV-P{sub 1.2} interaction. When CaRPN7::GFP fusion protein was targeted in onion cells, the nuclei had been broken into pieces. In the hot pepper leaves, cell death was exacerbated and genomic DNA laddering was induced by Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaPRN7. Thus, this report presents that the TMV-induced CaRPN7 may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in the hot pepper plant.

  15. Salt stress-induced disassembly of Arabidopsis cortical microtubule arrays involves 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of SPIRAL1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songhu; Kurepa, Jasmina; Hashimoto, Takashi; Smalle, Jan A

    2011-09-01

    The dynamic instability of cortical microtubules (MTs) (i.e., their ability to rapidly alternate between phases of growth and shrinkage) plays an essential role in plant growth and development. In addition, recent studies have revealed a pivotal role for dynamic instability in the response to salt stress conditions. The salt stress response includes a rapid depolymerization of MTs followed by the formation of a new MT network that is believed to be better suited for surviving high salinity. Although this initial depolymerization response is essential for the adaptation to salt stress, the underlying molecular mechanism has remained largely unknown. Here, we show that the MT-associated protein SPIRAL1 (SPR1) plays a key role in salt stress-induced MT disassembly. SPR1, a microtubule stabilizing protein, is degraded by the 26S proteasome, and its degradation rate is accelerated in response to high salinity. We show that accelerated SPR1 degradation is required for a fast MT disassembly response to salt stress and for salt stress tolerance.

  16. From Bortezomib to other Inhibitors of the Proteasome and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Buac, Daniela; Shen, Min; Schmitt, Sara; Kona, Fathima Rani; Deshmukh, Rahul; Zhang, Zhen; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Mitra, Bharati; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    The cancer drug discovery field has placed much emphasis on the identification of novel and cancer-specific molecular targets. A rich source of such targets for the design of novel anti-tumor agents is the ubiqutin-proteasome system (UP-S), a tightly regulated, highly specific pathway responsible for the vast majority of protein turnover within the cell. Because of its critical role in almost all cell processes that ensure normal cellular function, its inhibition at one point in time was deemed non-specific and therefore not worth further investigation as a molecular drug target. However, today the proteasome is one of the most promising anti-cancer drug targets of the century. The discovery that tumor cells are in fact more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than normal cells indeed paved the way for the design of its inhibitors. Such efforts have led to bortezomib, the first FDA approved proteasome inhibitor now used as a frontline treatment for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM), relapsed/refractory MM and mantle cell lymphoma. Though successful in improving clinical outcomes for patients with hematological malignancies, relapse often occurs in those who initially responded to bortezomib. Therefore, the acquisition of bortezomib resistance is a major issue with its therapy. Furthermore, some neuro-toxicities have been associated with bortezomib treatment and its efficacy in solid tumors is lacking. These observations have encouraged researchers to pursue the next generation of proteasome inhibitors, which would ideally overcome bortezomib resistance, have reduced toxicities and a broader range of anti-cancer activity. This review summarizes the success and limitations of bortezomib, and describes recent advances in the field, including, and most notably, the most recent FDA approval of carfilzomib in July, 2012, a second generation proteasome inhibitor. Other proteasome inhibitors currently in clinical trials and those that are currently experimental grade

  17. Rational Design of Proteasome Inhibitors as Antimalarial Drugs.

    PubMed

    Le Chapelain, Camille; Groll, Michael

    2016-05-23

    One life, two strategies: Crucial structural differences between the human and the Plasmodium falciparum proteasomes were recently identified. A combination of cryo-EM and functional characterization enabled the design of a selective antimalarial proteasome inhibitor that shows low toxicity in the host. When used with artemisinin, this ligand offers a new approach for the efficient treatment of malaria at all stages of the parasite lifecycle.

  18. CDNA cloning of p112, the largest regulatory subunit of the human 26s proteasome, and functional analysis of its yeast homologue, sen3p.

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, K; Kagawa, S; Shimizu, Y; Akioka, H; Tsurumi, C; Noda, C; Fujimuro, M; Yokosawa, H; Fujiwara, T; Takahashi, E; Ohba, M; Yamasaki, M; DeMartino, G N; Slaughter, C A; Toh-e, A; Tanaka, K

    1996-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a large multisubunit protease complex, the largest regulatory subunit of which is a component named p112. Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding human p112 revealed a polypeptide predicted to have 953 amino acid residues and a molecular mass of 105,865. The human p112 gene was mapped to the q37.1-q37.2 region of chromosome 2. Computer analysis showed that p112 has strong similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sen3p, which has been listed in a gene bank as a factor affecting tRNA splicing endonuclease. The SEN3 also was identified in a synthetic lethal screen with the nin1-1 mutant, a temperature-sensitive mutant of NIN1. NIN1 encodes p31, another regulatory subunit of the 26S proteasome, which is necessary for activation of Cdc28p kinase. Disruption of the SEN3 did not affect cell viability, but led to temperature-sensitive growth. The human p112 cDNA suppressed the growth defect at high temperature in a SEN3 disruptant, indicating that p112 is a functional homologue of the yeast Sen3p. Maintenance of SEN3 disruptant cells at the restrictive temperature resulted in a variety of cellular dysfunctions, including defects in proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin pathway, in the N-end rule system, in the stress response upon cadmium exposure, and in nuclear protein transportation. The functional abnormality induced by SEN3 disruption differs considerably from various phenotypes shown by the nin1-1 mutation, suggesting that these two regulatory subunits of the 26S proteasome play distinct roles in the various processes mediated by the 26S proteasome. Images PMID:8816993

  19. The pleiotropic role of the 26S proteasome subunit RPN10 in Arabidopsis growth and development supports a substrate-specific function in abscisic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Smalle, Jan; Kurepa, Jasmina; Yang, Peizhen; Emborg, Thomas J; Babiychuk, Elena; Kushnir, Sergei; Vierstra, Richard D

    2003-04-01

    The 26S proteasome is an essential protease complex responsible for removing most short-lived intracellular proteins, especially those modified with polyubiquitin chains. We show here that an Arabidopsis mutant expressing an altered RPN10 subunit exhibited a pleiotropic phenotype consistent with specific changes in 26S proteasome function. rpn10-1 plants displayed reduced seed germination, growth rate, stamen number, genetic transmission through the male gamete, and hormone-induced cell division, which can be explained partially by a constitutive downregulation of the key cell cycle gene CDKA;1. rpn10-1 also was more sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA), salt, and sucrose stress and to DNA-damaging agents and had decreased sensitivity to cytokinin and auxin. Most of the phenotypes can be explained by a hypersensitivity to ABA, which is reflected at the molecular level by the selective stabilization of the short-lived ABA-signaling protein ABI5. Collectively, these results indicate that RPN10 affects a number of regulatory processes in Arabidopsis likely by directing specific proteins to the 26S proteasome for degradation. A particularly important role may be in regulating the responses to signals promulgated by ABA.

  20. Proteasome Inhibitors in the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jatin J.; Orlowski, Robert Z.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting intracellular protein turnover by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as a strategy for cancer therapy is a new addition to our chemotherapeutic armamentarium, and has seen its greatest successes against multiple myeloma. The first-in-class proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was initially approved for treatment of patients in the relapsed/refractory setting as a single agent, and was recently shown to induce even greater benefits as part of rationally-designed combinations that overcome chemoresistance. Modulation of proteasome function is also a rational approach to achieve chemosensitization to other anti-myeloma agents, and bortezomib has now been incorporated into the front-line setting. Bortezomib-based induction regimens are able to achieve higher overall response rates and response qualities than was the case with prior standards of care, and unlike these older approaches, maintain efficacy in patients with clinically- and molecularly-defined high-risk disease. Second-generation proteasome inhibitors with novel properties, such as NPI-0052 and carfilzomib, are entering the clinical arena, and showing evidence of anti-myeloma activity. In this spotlight review, we provide an overview of the current state of the art use of bortezomib and other proteasome inhibitors against multiple myeloma, and highlight areas for future study that will further optimize our ability to benefit patients with this disease. PMID:19741722

  1. Role of 26S proteasome and HRD genes in the degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, an integral endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, R Y; Gardner, R G; Rine, J

    1996-01-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-R), a key enzyme of sterol synthesis, is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In both humans and yeast, HMG-R is degraded at or in the ER. The degradation of HMG-R is regulated as part of feedback control of the mevalonate pathway. Neither the mechanism of degradation nor the nature of the signals that couple the degradation of HMG-R to the mevalonate pathway is known. We have launched a genetic analysis of the degradation of HMG-R in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a selection for mutants that are deficient in the degradation of Hmg2p, an HMG-R isozyme. The underlying genes are called HRD (pronounced "herd"), for HMG-CoA reductase degradation. So far we have discovered mutants in three genes: HRD1, HRD2, and HRD3. The sequence of the HRD2 gene is homologous to the p97 activator of the 26S proteasome. This p97 protein, also called TRAP-2, has been proposed to be a component of the mature 26S proteasome. The hrd2-1 mutant had numerous pleiotropic phenotypes expected for cells with a compromised proteasome, and these phenotypes were complemented by the human TRAP-2/p97 coding region. In contrast, HRD1 and HRD3 genes encoded previously unknown proteins predicted to be membrane bound. The Hrd3p protein was homologous to the Caenorhabditis elegans sel-1 protein, a negative regulator of at least two different membrane proteins, and contained an HRD3 motif shared with several other proteins. Hrd1p had no full-length homologues, but contained an H2 ring finger motif. These data suggested a model of ER protein degradation in which the Hrd1p and Hrd3p proteins conspire to deliver HMG-R to the 26S proteasome. Moreover, our results lend in vivo support to the proposed role of the p97/TRAP-2/Hrd2p protein as a functionally important component of the 26S proteasome. Because the HRD genes were required for the degradation of both regulated and unregulated substrates of ER degradation, the HRD genes are the

  2. Disulfiram promotes the conversion of carcinogenic cadmium to a proteasome inhibitor with pro-apoptotic activity in human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Lihua; Yang Huanjie; Chen Di; Cui, Cindy; Ping Dou, Q.

    2008-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in various cellular processes, including transcription, apoptosis, and cell cycle. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies suggest the potential use of proteasome inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant that has been classified as a human carcinogen. Recent study in our laboratory suggested that the clinically used anti-alcoholism drug disulfiram (DSF) could form a complex with tumor cellular copper, resulting in inhibition of the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity and induction of cancer cell apoptosis. In the current study, we report, for the first time, that DSF is able to convert the carcinogen Cd to a proteasome-inhibitor and cancer cell apoptosis inducer. Although the DSF-Cd complex inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC{sub 50} value of 32 {mu}mol/L, this complex was much more potent in inhibiting the chymotrypsin-like activity of prostate cancer cellular 26S proteasome. Inhibition of cellular proteasome activity by the DSF-Cd complex resulted in the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and the natural proteasome substrate p27, which was followed by activation of calpain and induction of apoptosis. Importantly, human breast cancer MCF10DCIS cells were much more sensitive to the DSF-Cd treatment than immortalized but non-tumorigenic human breast MCF-10A cells, demonstrating that the DSF-Cd complex could selectively induce proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in human tumor cells. Our work suggests the potential use of DSF for treatment of cells with accumulated levels of carcinogen Cd.

  3. Therapeutic potential of proteasome inhibitors in congenital erythropoietic porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Jean-Marc; Duchartre, Yann; Costet, Pierre; Lalanne, Magalie; Ged, Cécile; Lain, Ana; Millet, Oscar; de Verneuil, Hubert; Richard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) deficiency resulting in massive porphyrin accumulation in blood cells, which is responsible for hemolytic anemia and skin photosensitivity. Among the missense mutations actually described up to now in CEP patients, the C73R and the P248Q mutations lead to a profound UROS deficiency and are usually associated with a severe clinical phenotype. We previously demonstrated that the UROSC73R mutant protein conserves intrinsic enzymatic activity but triggers premature degradation in cellular systems that could be prevented by proteasome inhibitors. We show evidence that the reduced kinetic stability of the UROSP248Q mutant is also responsible for increased protein turnover in human erythroid cells. Through the analysis of EGFP-tagged versions of UROS enzyme, we demonstrate that both UROSC73R and UROSP248Q are equally destabilized in mammalian cells and targeted to the proteasomal pathway for degradation. We show that a treatment with proteasomal inhibitors, but not with lysosomal inhibitors, could rescue the expression of both EGFP-UROS mutants. Finally, in CEP mice (UrosP248Q/P248Q) treated with bortezomib (Velcade), a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor, we observed reduced porphyrin accumulation in circulating RBCs and urine, as well as reversion of skin photosensitivity on bortezomib treatment. These results of medical importance pave the way for pharmacologic treatment of CEP disease by preventing certain enzymatically active UROS mutants from early degradation by using proteasome inhibitors or chemical chaperones. PMID:24145442

  4. Therapeutic potential of proteasome inhibitors in congenital erythropoietic porphyria.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Jean-Marc; Duchartre, Yann; Costet, Pierre; Lalanne, Magalie; Ged, Cécile; Lain, Ana; Millet, Oscar; de Verneuil, Hubert; Richard, Emmanuel

    2013-11-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) deficiency resulting in massive porphyrin accumulation in blood cells, which is responsible for hemolytic anemia and skin photosensitivity. Among the missense mutations actually described up to now in CEP patients, the C73R and the P248Q mutations lead to a profound UROS deficiency and are usually associated with a severe clinical phenotype. We previously demonstrated that the UROS(C73R) mutant protein conserves intrinsic enzymatic activity but triggers premature degradation in cellular systems that could be prevented by proteasome inhibitors. We show evidence that the reduced kinetic stability of the UROS(P248Q) mutant is also responsible for increased protein turnover in human erythroid cells. Through the analysis of EGFP-tagged versions of UROS enzyme, we demonstrate that both UROS(C73R) and UROS(P248Q) are equally destabilized in mammalian cells and targeted to the proteasomal pathway for degradation. We show that a treatment with proteasomal inhibitors, but not with lysosomal inhibitors, could rescue the expression of both EGFP-UROS mutants. Finally, in CEP mice (Uros(P248Q/P248Q)) treated with bortezomib (Velcade), a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor, we observed reduced porphyrin accumulation in circulating RBCs and urine, as well as reversion of skin photosensitivity on bortezomib treatment. These results of medical importance pave the way for pharmacologic treatment of CEP disease by preventing certain enzymatically active UROS mutants from early degradation by using proteasome inhibitors or chemical chaperones. PMID:24145442

  5. The molecular mechanisms of acquired proteasome inhibitor resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Andrew J.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    The development of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) has transformed the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. To date, two PIs have been FDA approved, the boronate peptide bortezomib and, most recently, the epoxyketone peptide carfilzomib. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance to PIs, for which the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, may limit their efficacy. In this perspective, we discuss recent advances in the molecular understanding of PI resistance through acquired bortezomib resistance in human cell lines to evolved saliniosporamide A (marizomib) resistance in nature. Resistance mechanisms discussed include the upregulation of proteasome subunits and mutations of the catalytic β-subunits. Additionally, we explore potential strategies to overcome PI resistance. PMID:22978849

  6. Disulfiram promotes the conversion of carcinogenic cadmium to a proteasome inhibitor with pro-apoptotic activity in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihua; Yang, Huanjie; Chen, Di; Cui, Cindy; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitinproteasome system is involved in various cellular processes, including transcription, apoptosis, and cell cycle. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies suggest the potential use of proteasome inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant that has been classified as a human carcinogen. Recent study in our laboratory suggested that the clinically used anti-alcoholism drug disulfiram (DSF) could form a complex with tumor cellular copper, resulting in inhibition of the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity and induction of cancer cell apoptosis. In the current study, we report, for the first time, that DSF is able to convert the carcinogen Cd to a proteasome-inhibitor and cancer cell apoptosis inducer. Although the DSF–Cd complex inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC50 value of 32 μmol/L, this complex was much more potent in inhibiting the chymotrypsin-like activity of prostate cancer cellular 26S proteasome. Inhibition of cellular proteasome activity by the DSF–Cd complex resulted in the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and the natural proteasome substrate p27, which was followed by activation of calpain and induction of apoptosis. Importantly, human breast cancer MCF10DCIS cells were much more sensitive to the DSF–Cd treatment than immortalized but non-tumorigenic human breast MCF-10A cells, demonstrating that the DSF–Cd complex could selectively induce proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in human tumor cells. Our work suggests the potential use of DSF for treatment of cells with accumulated levels of carcinogen Cd. PMID:18304598

  7. Bacterial self-resistance to the natural proteasome inhibitor salinosporamide A.

    PubMed

    Kale, Andrew J; McGlinchey, Ryan P; Lechner, Anna; Moore, Bradley S

    2011-11-18

    Proteasome inhibitors have recently emerged as a therapeutic strategy in cancer chemotherapy, but susceptibility to drug resistance limits their efficacy. The marine actinobacterium Salinispora tropica produces salinosporamide A (NPI-0052, marizomib), a potent proteasome inhibitor and promising clinical agent in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Actinobacteria also possess 20S proteasome machinery, raising the question of self-resistance. We identified a redundant proteasome β-subunit, SalI, encoded within the salinosporamide biosynthetic gene cluster and biochemically characterized the SalI proteasome complex. The SalI β-subunit has an altered substrate specificity profile, 30-fold resistance to salinosporamide A, and cross-resistance to the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. An A49V mutation in SalI correlates to clinical bortezomib resistance from a human proteasome β5-subunit A49T mutation, suggesting that intrinsic resistance to natural proteasome inhibitors may predict clinical outcomes.

  8. The novel β2-selective proteasome inhibitor LU-102 synergizes with bortezomib and carfilzomib to overcome proteasome inhibitor resistance of myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Marianne; Bader, Juergen; Geurink, Paul P; Weyburne, Emily S; Mirabella, Anne C; Silzle, Tobias; Shabaneh, Tamer B; van der Linden, Wouter A; de Bruin, Gerjan; Haile, Sarah R; van Rooden, Eva; Appenzeller, Christina; Li, Nan; Kisselev, Alexei F; Overkleeft, Herman; Driessen, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Proteasome inhibitor resistance is a challenge for myeloma therapy. Bortezomib targets the β5 and β1 activity, but not the β2 activity of the proteasome. Bortezomib-resistant myeloma cells down-regulate the activation status of the unfolded protein response, and up-regulate β2 proteasome activity. To improve proteasome inhibition in bortezomib-resistant myeloma and to achieve more efficient UPR activation, we have developed LU-102, a selective inhibitor of the β2 proteasome activity. LU-102 inhibited the β2 activity in intact myeloma cells at low micromolar concentrations without relevant co-inhibition of β1 and β5 proteasome subunits. In proteasome inhibitor-resistant myeloma cells, significantly more potent proteasome inhibition was achieved by bortezomib or carfilzomib in combination with LU-102, compared to bortezomib/carfilzomib alone, resulting in highly synergistic cytotoxic activity of the drug combination via endoplasmatic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. Combining bortezomib/carfilzomib with LU-102 significantly prolonged proteasome inhibition and increased activation of the unfolded protein response and IRE1-a activity. IRE1-α has recently been shown to control myeloma cell differentiation and bortezomib sensitivity (Leung-Hagesteijn, Cancer Cell 24:3, 289-304). Thus, β2-selective proteasome inhibition by LU-102 in combination with bortezomib or carfilzomib results in synergistic proteasome inhibition, activation of the unfolded protein response, and cytotoxicity, and overcomes bortezomib/carfilzomib resistance in myeloma cells in vitro.

  9. Formation of Tankyrase Inhibitor-Induced Degradasomes Requires Proteasome Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nina Marie; Thorvaldsen, Tor Espen; Schultz, Sebastian Wolfgang; Wenzel, Eva Maria; Stenmark, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In canonical Wnt signaling, the protein levels of the key signaling mediator β-catenin are under tight regulation by the multimeric destruction complex that mediates proteasomal degradation of β-catenin. In colorectal cancer, destruction complex activity is often compromised due to mutations in the multifunctional scaffolding protein Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC), leading to a stabilization of β-catenin. Recently, tankyrase inhibitors (TNKSi), a novel class of small molecule inhibitors, were shown to re-establish a functional destruction complex in APC-mutant cancer cell lines by stabilizing AXIN1/2, whose protein levels are usually kept low via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by the tankyrase enzymes (TNKS1/2). Surprisingly, we found that for the formation of the morphological correlates of destruction complexes, called degradasomes, functional proteasomes are required. In addition we found that AXIN2 is strongly upregulated after 6 h of TNKS inhibition. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 counteracted TNKSi-induced degradasome formation and AXIN2 stabilization, and this was accompanied by reduced transcription of AXIN2. Mechanistically we could implicate the transcription factor FoxM1 in this process, which was recently shown to be a transcriptional activator of AXIN2. We observed a substantial reduction in TNKSi-induced stabilization of AXIN2 after siRNA-mediated depletion of FoxM1 and found that proteasome inhibition reduced the active (phosphorylated) fraction of FoxM1. This can explain the decreased protein levels of AXIN2 after MG132 treatment. Our findings have implications for the design of in vitro studies on the destruction complex and for clinical applications of TNKSi. PMID:27482906

  10. A novel proteasome inhibitor suppresses tumor growth via targeting both 19S proteasome deubiquitinases and 20S proteolytic peptidases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ningning; Liu, Chunjiao; Li, Xiaofen; Liao, Siyan; Song, Wenbin; Yang, Changshan; Zhao, Chong; Huang, Hongbiao; Guan, Lixia; Zhang, Peiquan; Liu, Shouting; Hua, Xianliang; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Lan, Xiaoying; Yi, Songgang; Wang, Shunqing; Wang, Xuejun; Dou, Q Ping; Liu, Jinbao

    2014-01-01

    The successful development of bortezomib-based therapy for treatment of multiple myeloma has established proteasome inhibition as an effective therapeutic strategy, and both 20S proteasome peptidases and 19S deubiquitinases (DUBs) are becoming attractive targets of cancer therapy. It has been reported that metal complexes, such as copper complexes, inhibit tumor proteasome. However, the involved mechanism of action has not been fully characterized. Here we report that (i) copper pyrithione (CuPT), an alternative to tributyltin for antifouling paint biocides, inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) via targeting both 19S proteasome-specific DUBs and 20S proteolytic peptidases with a mechanism distinct from that of the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib; (ii) CuPT potently inhibits proteasome-specific UCHL5 and USP14 activities; (iii) CuPT inhibits tumor growth in vivo and induces cytotoxicity in vitro and ex vivo. This study uncovers a novel class of dual inhibitors of DUBs and proteasome and suggests a potential clinical strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:24912524

  11. A novel proteasome inhibitor suppresses tumor growth via targeting both 19S proteasome deubiquitinases and 20S proteolytic peptidases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ningning; Liu, Chunjiao; Li, Xiaofen; Liao, Siyan; Song, Wenbin; Yang, Changshan; Zhao, Chong; Huang, Hongbiao; Guan, Lixia; Zhang, Peiquan; Liu, Shouting; Hua, Xianliang; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Lan, Xiaoying; Yi, Songgang; Wang, Shunqing; Wang, Xuejun; Dou, Q. Ping; Liu, Jinbao

    2014-01-01

    The successful development of bortezomib-based therapy for treatment of multiple myeloma has established proteasome inhibition as an effective therapeutic strategy, and both 20S proteasome peptidases and 19S deubiquitinases (DUBs) are becoming attractive targets of cancer therapy. It has been reported that metal complexes, such as copper complexes, inhibit tumor proteasome. However, the involved mechanism of action has not been fully characterized. Here we report that (i) copper pyrithione (CuPT), an alternative to tributyltin for antifouling paint biocides, inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) via targeting both 19S proteasome-specific DUBs and 20S proteolytic peptidases with a mechanism distinct from that of the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib; (ii) CuPT potently inhibits proteasome-specific UCHL5 and USP14 activities; (iii) CuPT inhibits tumor growth in vivo and induces cytotoxicity in vitro and ex vivo. This study uncovers a novel class of dual inhibitors of DUBs and proteasome and suggests a potential clinical strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:24912524

  12. Clinical Use of Proteasome Inhibitors in the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Merin, Noah M.; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. The use of proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of MM has led to significant improvements in outcomes. This article reviews data on the use of the two approved proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carlfilzomib), as well as newer agents under development. Emphasis is placed on the clinical use of proteasome inhibitors, including management of side effects and combination with other agents. PMID:25545164

  13. Computational Approaches for the Discovery of Human Proteasome Inhibitors: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Romina A; Serra, Patrícia; Salvador, Jorge A R; Guedes, Rita C

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome emerged as an important target in recent pharmacological research due to its pivotal role in degrading proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus of eukaryotic cells, regulating a wide variety of cellular pathways, including cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, transcription, immune response, and signaling processes. The last two decades witnessed intensive efforts to discover 20S proteasome inhibitors with significant chemical diversity and efficacy. To date, the US FDA approved to market three proteasome inhibitors: bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib. However new, safer and more efficient drugs are still required. Computer-aided drug discovery has long being used in drug discovery campaigns targeting the human proteasome. The aim of this review is to illustrate selected in silico methods like homology modeling, molecular docking, pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening, and combined methods that have been used in proteasome inhibitors discovery. Applications of these methods to proteasome inhibitors discovery will also be presented and discussed to raise improvements in this particular field. PMID:27438821

  14. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Saji, Chiaki; Higashi, Chizuka; Niinaka, Yasufumi; Yamada, Koji; Noguchi, Kohji; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). This study provides evidence that proteasomal activity is required for both survival of PEL cells stably harboring the KSHV genome and viral replication of KSHV. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors on PEL cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132, lactacystin, and proteasome inhibitor I dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of PEL cells through the accumulation of p21 and p27. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors induced the stabilization of NF-κB inhibitory molecule (IκBα) and suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in PEL cells. The NF-κB specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 also induced apoptosis in PEL cells. The constitutive activation of NF-κB signaling is essential for the survival and growth of B cell lymphoma cells, including PEL cells. NF-κB signaling is upregulated by proteasome-dependent degradation of IκBα. The suppression of NF-κB signaling by proteasome inhibitors may contribute to the induction of apoptosis in PEL cells. In addition, proteasome activity is required for KSHV replication in KSHV latently infected PEL cells. MG132 reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells at low concentrations, which do not affect PEL cell growth. These findings suggest that proteasome inhibitors may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of KSHV infection and KSHV-associated lymphomas.

  15. The inhibition mechanism of human 20S proteasomes enables next-generation inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Jil; Henneberg, Fabian; Mata, Ricardo A; Tittmann, Kai; Schneider, Thomas R; Stark, Holger; Bourenkov, Gleb; Chari, Ashwin

    2016-08-01

    The proteasome is a validated target for anticancer therapy, and proteasome inhibition is employed in the clinic for the treatment of tumors and hematological malignancies. Here, we describe crystal structures of the native human 20S proteasome and its complexes with inhibitors, which either are drugs approved for cancer treatment or are in clinical trials. The structure of the native human 20S proteasome was determined at an unprecedented resolution of 1.8 angstroms. Additionally, six inhibitor-proteasome complex structures were elucidated at resolutions between 1.9 and 2.1 angstroms. Collectively, the high-resolution structures provide new insights into the catalytic mechanisms of inhibition and necessitate a revised description of the proteasome active site. Knowledge about inhibition mechanisms provides insights into peptide hydrolysis and can guide strategies for the development of next-generation proteasome-based cancer therapeutics. PMID:27493187

  16. Oxidative stress and proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lipchick, Brittany C; Fink, Emily E; Nikiforov, Mikhail A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a form of plasma cell neoplasm that accounts for approximately 10% of all hematological malignancies. Recently, several novel drugs have been discovered that almost doubled the overall survival of multiple myeloma patients. One of these drugs, the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) has demonstrated remarkable response rates in multiple myeloma patients, and yet, currently this disease remains incurable. The major factor undermining the success of multiple myeloma treatment is a rapidly emerging resistance to the available therapy. Thus, the development of stand-alone or adjuvant anti-myeloma agents becomes of paramount importance. Overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) often accompanies malignant transformation due to oncogene activation and/or enhanced metabolism in tumor cells. As a result, these cells possess higher levels of ROS and lower levels of antioxidant molecules compared to their normal counterparts. Unbalanced production of ROS leads to oxidative stress which, if left unchecked, could be toxic for the cell. In multiple myeloma cells where high rates of immunoglobulin synthesis is an additional factor contributing to overproduction of ROS, further induction of oxidative stress can be an effective strategy to cope with this disease. Here we will review the available data on the role of oxidative stress in the cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibitors and the use of ROS-inducing compounds as anti-myeloma agents. PMID:26827824

  17. Proteasome inhibitors induce p53-independent apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Bulbul; Gartel, Andrei L

    2011-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors are used against human cancer, but their mechanisms of action are not entirely understood. For example, the role of the tumor suppressor p53 is controversial. We reevaluated the role of p53 in proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis by using isogenic human cancer cell lines with different p53 status. We found that well-known proteasome inhibitors such as MG132 and bortezomib, as well as the recently discovered proteasome inhibitor thiostrepton, induced p53-independent apoptosis in human cancer cell lines that correlated with p53-independent induction of proapoptotic Noxa but not Puma protein. In addition, these drugs inhibited growth of several cancer cell lines independently of p53 status. Notably, thiostrepton induced more potent apoptosis in HepG2 cells with p53 knockdown than in parental cells with wild-type p53. Our data confirm that proteasome inhibitors generally induce p53-independent apoptosis in human cancer cells.

  18. Regulation of the proteasome by ATP: implications for ischemic myocardial injury and donor heart preservation.

    PubMed

    Majetschak, Matthias

    2013-08-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that proteasomes are involved in multiple aspects of myocardial physiology and pathology, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. It is well established that the 26S proteasome is an ATP-dependent enzyme and that ischemic heart disease is associated with changes in the ATP content of the cardiomyocyte. A functional link between the 26S proteasome, myocardial ATP concentrations, and ischemic cardiac injury, however, has been suggested only recently. This review discusses the currently available data on the pathophysiological role of the cardiac proteasome during ischemia and reperfusion in the context of the cellular ATP content. Depletion of the myocardial ATP content during ischemia appears to activate the 26S proteasome via direct regulatory effects of ATP on 26S proteasome stability and activity. This implies pathological degradation of target proteins by the proteasome and could provide a pathophysiological basis for beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitors in various models of myocardial ischemia. In contrast to that in the ischemic heart, reduced and impaired proteasome activity is detectable in the postischemic heart. The paradoxical findings that proteasome inhibitors showed beneficial effects when administered during reperfusion in some studies could be explained by their anti-inflammatory and immune suppressive actions, leading to reduction of leukocyte-mediated myocardial reperfusion injury. The direct regulatory effects of ATP on the 26S proteasome have implications for the understanding of the contribution of the 26S proteasome to the pathophysiology of the ischemic heart and its possible role as a therapeutic target.

  19. The multiubiquitin-chain-binding protein Mcb1 is a component of the 26S proteasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and plays a nonessential, substrate-specific role in protein turnover.

    PubMed

    van Nocker, S; Sadis, S; Rubin, D M; Glickman, M; Fu, H; Coux, O; Wefes, I; Finley, D; Vierstra, R D

    1996-11-01

    The 26S proteasome is an essential proteolytic complex that is responsible for degrading proteins conjugated with ubiquitin. It has been proposed that the recognition of substrates by the 26S proteasome is mediated by a multiubiquitin-chain-binding protein that has previously been characterized in both plants and animals. In this study, we identified a Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of this protein, designated Mcb1. Mcb1 copurified with the 26S proteasome in both conventional and nickel chelate chromatography. In addition, a significant fraction of Mcb1 in cell extracts was present in a low-molecular-mass form free of the 26S complex. Recombinant Mcb1 protein bound multiubiquitin chains in vitro and, like its plant and animal counterparts, exhibited a binding preference for longer chains. Surprisingly, (delta)mcb1 deletion mutants were viable, grew at near-wild-type rates, degraded the bulk of short-lived proteins normally, and were not sensitive to UV radiation or heat stress. These data indicate that Mcb1 is not an essential component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in S.cerevisiae. However, the (delta)mcb1 mutant exhibited a modest sensitivity to amino acid analogs and had increased steady-state levels of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Whereas the N-end rule substrate, Arg-beta-galactosidase, was degraded at the wild-type rate in the (delta)mcb1 strain, the ubiquitin fusion degradation pathway substrate, ubiquitin-Pro-beta-galactosidase, was markedly stabilized. Collectively, these data suggest that Mcb1 is not the sole factor involved in ubiquitin recognition by the 26S proteasome and that Mcb1 may interact with only a subset of ubiquitinated substrates.

  20. ARS5 is a component of the 26S proteasome complex and negatively regulates thiol biosynthesis and arsenic tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Dong-Yul; Kim, Tae-Houn; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A forward genetic screen in Arabidopsis led to the isolation of several arsenic tolerance mutants. ars5 is the strongest arsenate and arsenite resistant mutant identified in this genetic screen. Here, we report the characterization and cloning of the ars5 mutant gene. ars5 is shown to exhibit an increased accumulation of arsenic and thiol compounds during arsenic stress. Rough mapping together with microarray-based expression mapping identified the ars5 mutation in the alpha subunit F (PAF1) of the 26S proteasome complex. Characterization of an independent paf1 T-DNA insertion allele and complementation by PAF1 confirmed that paf1 mutation is responsible for the enhanced thiol accumulation and the arsenic tolerance phenotypes. Arsenic tolerance was not observed in a knockout mutant of the highly homologous PAF2 gene. However, genetic complementation of ars5 by over expression of PAF2 suggests that the PAF2 protein is functionally equivalent to PAF1 when expressed at high levels. No detectible difference was observed in total ubiquitinylated protein profiles between ars5 and wild type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the arsenic tolerance observed in ars5 is not derived from a general impairment in proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that arsenic induces enhanced transcriptional activation of several key genes that function in glutathione and phytochelatin biosynthesis in wild type and this arsenic-induction of gene expression is more dramatic in ars5. The enhanced transcriptional response to arsenic and the increased accumulation of thiol compounds in ars5 compared to WT suggest the presence of a positive regulation pathway for thiol biosynthesis that is enhanced in the ars5 background. PMID:19453443

  1. Proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma: 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Paul G.; Cavo, Michele; Orlowski, Robert Z.; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Palumbo, Antonio; Harousseau, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has emerged as an important therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma (MM). Since the publication of the first phase 1 trials of bortezomib 10 years ago, this first-in-class proteasome inhibitor (PI) has contributed substantially to the observed improvement in survival in MM patients over the past decade. Although first approved as a single agent in the relapsed setting, bortezomib is now predominantly used in combination regimens. Furthermore, the standard twice-weekly schedule may be replaced by weekly infusion, especially when bortezomib is used as part of combination regimens in frontline therapy. Indeed, bortezomib is an established component of induction therapy for patients eligible or ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. Bortezomib has also been incorporated into conditioning regimens before autologous stem cell transplantation, as well as into post-ASCT consolidation therapy, and in the maintenance setting. In addition, a new route of bortezomib administration, subcutaneous infusion, has recently been approved. Recently, several new agents have been introduced into the clinic, including carfilzomib, marizomib, and MLN9708, and trials investigating these “second-generation” PIs in patients with relapsed/refractory MMs have demonstrated positive results. This review provides an overview of the role of PIs in the treatment of MM, focusing on developments over the past decade. PMID:22645181

  2. Proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome is required for the meiotic resumption, germinal vesicle breakdown, and cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes matured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Nagyova, Eva; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Procházka, Radek; Sutovsky, Miriam; Park, Chang-Sik; Sutovsky, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The resumption of oocyte meiosis in mammals encompasses the landmark event of oocyte germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown (GVBD), accompanied by the modification of cell-to-cell communication and adhesion between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells. The concomitant cumulus expansion relies on microfilament-cytoskeletal remodeling and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. We hypothesized that this multifaceted remodeling event requires substrate-specific proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). We evaluated meiotic progression, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the production of cumulus ECM in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured with or without 10-200 microM MG132, a specific proteasomal inhibitor, for the first 22 h of in vitro maturation, followed by 22 h of culture with or without MG132. Treatment with 10 microM MG132 arrested 28.4% of oocytes in GV stage (vs. 1.3% in control), 43.1% in prometaphase I, and 16.2% in metaphase I, whereas 83.7% of control ova reached metaphase II (0% of MG132 reached metaphase II). The proportion of GV-stage ova increased progressively to >90% with increased concentration of MG132 (20-200 microM). Furthermore, MG132 blocked the extrusion of the first polar body and degradation of F-actin-rich transzonal projections (TZP) interconnecting cumulus cells with the oocyte. The microfilament disruptor cytochalasin E (CE) prevented cumulus expansion but accelerated the breakdown of TZPs. Ova treated with a combination of 10 microM MG132 and 10 microM CE underwent GVBD, despite the inhibition of proteasomal activity. However, 90.0% of cumulus-free ova treated with 10 microM MG132 remained in GV stage, compared with 16.7% GV ova in control. Cumulus expansion, retention of hyaluronic acid, and the deposition of cumulus ECM relying on the covalent transfer of heavy chains of inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (IalphaI) were also inhibited by MG132. Cumulus expansion in control COCs was accompanied by the degradation of ubiquitin

  3. Structure and function based design of Plasmodium-selective proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; O'Donoghue, Anthony J.; van der Linden, Wouter A.; Xie, Stanley C.; Yoo, Euna; Foe, Ian T.; Tilley, Leann; Craik, Charles S.; da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation1. Compounds that target the proteasome are potentially valuable tools for the treatment of pathogens that depend on proteasome function for survival and replication. In particular, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at all stages of its life cycle2-5. Most compounds that have been tested against the parasite also inhibit the mammalian proteasome resulting in toxicity that precludes their use as therapeutic agents2,6. Therefore, better definition of the substrate specificity and structural properties of the Plasmodium proteasome could enable the development of compounds with sufficient selectivity to allow their use as anti-malarial agents. To accomplish this goal, we used a substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and P. falciparum proteasome. We designed inhibitors based on amino acid preferences specific to the parasite proteasome, and found that they preferentially inhibit the β 2 subunit. We determined the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to the inhibitor using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 Å. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparum β2 active site and provide valuable information regarding active site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, consistent with the recent finding that the proteasome is important for stress pathways associated with resistance of artemisinin (ART) family anti-malarials7,8, we observed growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this β 2 selective inhibitor in ART sensitive and resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrated that a parasite selective inhibitor could be used to attenuate parasite growth in vivo without significant toxicity to the host. Thus, the

  4. Structure- and function-based design of Plasmodium-selective proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; van der Linden, Wouter A; Xie, Stanley C; Yoo, Euna; Foe, Ian T; Tilley, Leann; Craik, Charles S; da Fonseca, Paula C A; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-02-11

    The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation. Compounds that target the proteasome are potentially valuable tools for the treatment of pathogens that depend on proteasome function for survival and replication. In particular, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at all stages of its life cycle. Most compounds that have been tested against the parasite also inhibit the mammalian proteasome, resulting in toxicity that precludes their use as therapeutic agents. Therefore, better definition of the substrate specificity and structural properties of the Plasmodium proteasome could enable the development of compounds with sufficient selectivity to allow their use as anti-malarial agents. To accomplish this goal, here we use a substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and P. falciparum proteasome. We design inhibitors based on amino-acid preferences specific to the parasite proteasome, and find that they preferentially inhibit the β2-subunit. We determine the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to the inhibitor using cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 Å. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparum β2 active site and provide valuable information about active-site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, consistent with the recent finding that the proteasome is important for stress pathways associated with resistance of artemisinin family anti-malarials, we observe growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this β2-selective inhibitor in artemisinin-sensitive and -resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrate that a parasite-selective inhibitor could be used to attenuate parasite growth in vivo without appreciable toxicity to the host. Thus, the Plasmodium proteasome is a

  5. Structure- and function-based design of Plasmodium-selective proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; van der Linden, Wouter A; Xie, Stanley C; Yoo, Euna; Foe, Ian T; Tilley, Leann; Craik, Charles S; da Fonseca, Paula C A; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-02-11

    The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation. Compounds that target the proteasome are potentially valuable tools for the treatment of pathogens that depend on proteasome function for survival and replication. In particular, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at all stages of its life cycle. Most compounds that have been tested against the parasite also inhibit the mammalian proteasome, resulting in toxicity that precludes their use as therapeutic agents. Therefore, better definition of the substrate specificity and structural properties of the Plasmodium proteasome could enable the development of compounds with sufficient selectivity to allow their use as anti-malarial agents. To accomplish this goal, here we use a substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and P. falciparum proteasome. We design inhibitors based on amino-acid preferences specific to the parasite proteasome, and find that they preferentially inhibit the β2-subunit. We determine the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to the inhibitor using cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 Å. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparum β2 active site and provide valuable information about active-site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, consistent with the recent finding that the proteasome is important for stress pathways associated with resistance of artemisinin family anti-malarials, we observe growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this β2-selective inhibitor in artemisinin-sensitive and -resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrate that a parasite-selective inhibitor could be used to attenuate parasite growth in vivo without appreciable toxicity to the host. Thus, the Plasmodium proteasome is a

  6. Proteasome inhibitors reduce luciferase and beta-galactosidase activity in tissue culture cells.

    PubMed

    Deroo, Bonnie J; Archer, Trevor K

    2002-06-01

    Reporter enzymes are commonly used in cell biology to study transcriptional activity of genes. Recently, reporter enzymes in combination with compounds that inhibit proteasome function have been used to study the effect of blocking transcription factor degradation on gene activation. While investigating the effect of proteasome inhibition on steroid receptor activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, we found that treatment with proteasome inhibitors enhanced glucocorticoid activation of the promoter attached to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter, but inhibited activation of MMTV attached to a firefly luciferase or beta-galactosidase reporter. MMTV RNA levels under these conditions correlated with the promoter activity observed using the CAT reporter, suggesting that proteasome inhibitor treatment interfered with luciferase or beta-galactosidase reporter assays. Washout experiments demonstrated that the majority of luciferase activity was lost if the proteasome inhibitor was added at the same time luciferase was produced, not once the functional protein was made, suggesting that proteasome inhibition interferes with production of luciferase protein. Indeed, we found that proteasome inhibitor treatment dramatically reduced the levels of luciferase and beta-galactosidase protein produced, as determined by Western blot. Thus, treatment with proteasome inhibitors interferes with luciferase and beta-galactosidase reporter assays, possibly by inhibiting production of a functional reporter protein.

  7. BBX21, an Arabidopsis B-box protein, directly activates HY5 and is targeted by COP1 for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongqing; Jiang, Yan; Li, Jigang; Lin, Fang; Holm, Magnus; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-07-01

    BBX21 (also known as SALT TOLERANCE HOMOLOG 2), a B-box (BBX)-containing protein, has been previously identified as a positive regulator of light signaling; however, the precise role of BBX21 in regulating seedling photomorphogenesis remains largely unclear. In this study, we report that CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) interacts with BBX21 in vivo and is able to ubiquitinate BBX21 in vitro. Thus, BBX21 is targeted for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings in a COP1-dependent manner. Moreover, we show that BBX21 binds to the T/G-box in the ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) promoter and directly activates HY5 expression in the light. Transgenic seedlings overexpressing BBX21 exhibit dramatically shortened hypocotyls in the light, and this phenotype is dependent on a functional HY5. Taken together, our data suggest a molecular base underlying BBX21-mediated seedling photomorphogenesis, indicating that BBX21 is a pivotal component involved in the COP1-HY5 regulatory hub. PMID:27325768

  8. Secomycalolide A: A New Proteasome Inhibitor Isolated from a Marine Sponge of the Genus Mycale

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Sachiko; Koimaru, Keiichirou; Ohta, Tomihisa

    2005-01-01

    A new oxazole-containing proteasome inhibitor, secomycalolide A, together with known mycalolide A and 30-hydroxymycalolide A, was isolated from a marine sponge of the genus Mycale. They showed proteasome inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 11–45 μg/mL.

  9. Fellutamide B is a Potent Inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.; Li, D; Chidawanyika, T; Nathan, C; Li, H

    2010-01-01

    Via high-throughput screening of a natural compound library, we have identified a lipopeptide aldehyde, fellutamide B (1), as the most potent inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteasome tested to date. Kinetic studies reveal that 1 inhibits both Mtb and human proteasomes in a time-dependent manner under steady-state condition. Remarkably, 1 inhibits the Mtb proteasome in a single-step binding mechanism with K{sub i} = 6.8 nM, whereas it inhibits the human proteasome {beta}5 active site following a two-step mechanism with K{sub i} = 11.5 nM and K*{sub i} = 0.93 nM. Co-crystallization of 1 bound to the Mtb proteasome revealed a structural basis for the tight binding of 1 to the active sites of the Mtb proteasome. The hemiacetal group of 1 in the Mtb proteasome takes the (R)-configuration, whereas in the yeast proteasome it takes the (S)-configuration, indicating that the pre-chiral CHO group of 1 binds to the active site Thr1 in a different orientation. Re-examination of the structure of the yeast proteasome in complex with 1 showed significant conformational changes at the substrate-binding cleft along the active site. These structural differences are consistent with the different kinetic mechanisms of 1 against Mtb and human proteasomes.

  10. Characterization of a new series of non-covalent proteasome inhibitors with exquisite potency and selectivity for the 20S [beta]5-subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, Christopher; Gigstad, Kenneth M.; Hales, Paul; Garcia, Khristofer; Jones, Matthew; Bruzzese, Frank J.; Barrett, Cynthia; Liu, Jane X.; Soucy, Teresa A.; Sappal, Darshan S.; Bump, Nancy; Olhava, Edward J.; Fleming, Paul; Dick, Lawrence R.; Tsu, Christopher; Sintchak, Michael D.; Blank, Jonathan L.

    2012-04-30

    The mammalian 26S proteasome is a 2500 kDa multi-catalytic complex involved in intracellular protein degradation. We describe the synthesis and properties of a novel series of non-covalent di-peptide inhibitors of the proteasome used on a capped tri-peptide that was first identified by high-throughput screening of a library of approx. 350000 compounds for inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in cells. We show that these compounds are entirely selective for the {beta}5 (chymotrypsin-like) site over the {beta}1 (caspase-like) and {beta}2 (trypsin-like) sites of the 20S core particle of the proteasome, and over a panel of less closely related proteases. Compound optimization, guided by X-ray crystallography of the liganded 20S core particle, confirmed their non-covalent binding mode and provided a structural basis for their enhanced in vitro and cellular potencies. We demonstrate that such compounds show low nanomolar IC{sub 50} values for the human 20S {beta}5 site in vitro, and that pharmacological inhibition of this site in cells is sufficient to potently inhibit the degradation of a tetra-ubiquitin-luciferase reporter, activation of NF{Kappa}B (nuclear factor {Kappa}B) in response to TNF-{alpha} (tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}) and the proliferation of cancer cells. Finally, we identified capped di-peptides that show differential selectivity for the {beta}5 site of the constitutively expressed proteasome and immunoproteasome in vitro and in B-cell lymphomas. Collectively, these studies describe the synthesis, activity and binding mode of a new series of non-covalent proteasome inhibitors with unprecedented potency and selectivity for the {beta}5 site, and which can discriminate between the constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome in vitro and in cells.

  11. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saji, Chiaki; Higashi, Chizuka; Niinaka, Yasufumi; Yamada, Koji; Noguchi, Kohji; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutive NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of PEL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by the proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress NF-{kappa}B signaling and induce apoptosis in PEL cells through stabilization of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress viral replication in PEL cells during lytic KSHV infection. -- Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). This study provides evidence that proteasomal activity is required for both survival of PEL cells stably harboring the KSHV genome and viral replication of KSHV. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors on PEL cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132, lactacystin, and proteasome inhibitor I dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of PEL cells through the accumulation of p21 and p27. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors induced the stabilization of NF-{kappa}B inhibitory molecule (I{kappa}B{alpha}) and suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in PEL cells. The NF-{kappa}B specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 also induced apoptosis in PEL cells. The constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of B cell lymphoma cells, including PEL cells. NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B signaling by proteasome inhibitors may contribute to the induction of apoptosis in PEL cells. In addition, proteasome activity is required for KSHV replication in KSHV latently infected PEL cells. MG132 reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells at low concentrations, which do not affect PEL cell growth. These findings suggest that proteasome inhibitors

  12. Tight Junction Protein 1 Modulates Proteasome Capacity and Proteasome Inhibitor Sensitivity in Multiple Myeloma via EGFR/JAK1/STAT3 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-Ding; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lin, Heather; Mulligan, George; Li, Bin; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee W; Qi, Lin; Xu, Jianliang; Hunziker, Walter; Barlogie, Bart; Usmani, Saad Z; Zhang, Qing; Crowley, John; Hoering, Antje; Shah, Jatin J; Weber, Donna M; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Thomas, Sheeba K; Li, Bing-Zong; Wang, Hui-Han; Zhang, Jiexin; Kuiatse, Isere; Tang, Jin-Le; Wang, Hua; He, Jin; Yang, Jing; Milan, Enrico; Cenci, Simone; Ma, Wen-Cai; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Davis, Richard Eric; Yang, Lin; Orlowski, Robert Z

    2016-05-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have revolutionized outcomes in multiple myeloma, but they are used empirically, and primary and secondary resistance are emerging problems. We have identified TJP1 as a determinant of plasma cell proteasome inhibitor susceptibility. TJP1 suppressed expression of the catalytically active immunoproteasome subunits LMP7 and LMP2, decreased proteasome activity, and enhanced proteasome inhibitor sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. This occurred through TJP1-mediated suppression of EGFR/JAK1/STAT3 signaling, which modulated LMP7 and LMP2 levels. In the clinic, high TJP1 expression in patient myeloma cells was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of responding to bortezomib and a longer response duration, supporting the use of TJP1 as a biomarker to identify patients most likely to benefit from proteasome inhibitors. PMID:27132469

  13. Novel proteasome inhibitor ixazomib sensitizes neuroblastoma cells to doxorubicin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoyu; Chen, Zhenghu; Hu, Ting; Wang, Long; Yu, Yang; Zhao, Yanling; Sun, Wenijing; Guan, Shan; Pang, Jonathan C.; Woodfield, Sarah E.; Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial malignant solid tumor seen in children and continues to lead to the death of many pediatric cancer patients. The poor outcome in high risk NB is largely attributed to the development of chemoresistant tumor cells. Doxorubicin (dox) has been widely employed as a potent anti-cancer agent in chemotherapeutic regimens; however, it also leads to chemoresistance in many cancer types including NB. Thus, developing novel small molecules that can overcome dox-induced chemoresistance is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Here we show that the second generation proteasome inhibitor ixazomib (MLN9708) not only inhibits NB cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro but also enhances dox-induced cytotoxicity in NB cells. Ixazomib inhibits dox-induced NF-κB activity and sensitizes NB cells to dox-induced apoptosis. More importantly, ixazomib demonstrated potent anti-tumor efficacy in vivo by enhancing dox-induced apoptosis in an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model. Collectively, our study illustrates the anti-tumor efficacy of ixazomib in NB both alone and in combination with dox, suggesting that combination therapy including ixazomib with traditional therapeutic agents such as dox is a viable strategy that may achieve better outcomes for NB patients. PMID:27687684

  14. Dyclonine and alverine citrate enhance the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitor MG132 on breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    JU, DONGHONG; WANG, XIAOGANG; XIE, YOUMING

    2014-01-01

    Proteasome is an important target in cancer therapy. To enhance the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors is a challenging task due to the paucity of understanding the functional interactions between proteasome and other cellular pathways in mammalian cells. Taking advantage of the knowledge gained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that dyclonine and alverine citrate, the major components of two over-the-counter medicines, can substantially enhance the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitor MG132 on breast cancer cells. This study also highlights an important yeast genetic approach to identification of potential therapeutics that can be used for combination therapy with proteasome inhibitors. PMID:19148544

  15. Dyclonine and alverine citrate enhance the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitor MG132 on breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, Donghong; Wang, Xiaogang; Xie, Youming

    2009-02-01

    Proteasome is an important target in cancer therapy. To enhance the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors is a challenging task due to the paucity of understanding the functional interactions between proteasome and other cellular pathways in mammalian cells. Taking advantage of the knowledge gained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that dyclonine and alverine citrate, the major components of two over-the-counter medicines, can substantially enhance the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitor MG132 on breast cancer cells. This study also highlights an important yeast genetic approach to identification of potential therapeutics that can be used for combination therapy with proteasome inhibitors. PMID:19148544

  16. Suppression of cytochrome P450 3A protein levels by proteasome inhibitors.

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C. ); Kocarek, Thomas A.; Shen, Shang; Bollinger, Nikki ); Dahn, Michael S.; Lee, Donna W.

    2003-06-01

    We have previously reported that CYP3A cross-links with polyubiquitinated proteins in microsomes from nicardipine-treated rats in a process that is distinct from classical polyubiquitination. To further examine the role of the proteasome in CYP3A degradation, we investigated the effects of proteasome inhibitors lactacystin, MG132, proteasome inhibitor 1, and hemin in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes. With the exception of hemin, these agents increased the total pool of ubiquitinated proteins in microsomes isolated from rat hepatocytes, indicating that lactacystin, MG132, and proteasome inhibitor 1 effectively inhibited the proteasome in these cells. All four agents caused a reduction in the amount of the major approximately 55-kDa CYP3A band, opposite to what would be expected if the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degraded CYP3A. Only hemin treatment caused an increase in high molecular mass (HMM) CYP3A bands. Because hemin treatment did not alter levels of ubiquitin in CYP3 A immunoprecipitates, the HMM CYP3A bands formed in response to hemin treatment clearly were not due to proteasome inhibition. Rather, because hemin treatment also caused an increase in HMM CYP3A in the detergent-insoluble fraction of the 10,000g pellet, the HMM CYP3A seems to represent a large protein complex that is unlikely to primarily represent ubiquitination.

  17. Suppression of cytochrome P450 3A protein levels by proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zangar, Richard C; Kocarek, Thomas A; Shen, Shang; Bollinger, Nikki; Dahn, Michael S; Lee, Donna W

    2003-06-01

    We have previously reported that CYP3A cross-links with polyubiquitinated proteins in microsomes from nicardipine-treated rats in a process that is distinct from classical polyubiquitination. To further examine the role of the proteasome in CYP3A degradation, we investigated the effects of proteasome inhibitors lactacystin, MG132, proteasome inhibitor 1, and hemin in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes. With the exception of hemin, these agents increased the total pool of ubiquitinated proteins in microsomes isolated from rat hepatocytes, indicating that lactacystin, MG132, and proteasome inhibitor 1 effectively inhibited the proteasome in these cells. All four agents caused a reduction in the amount of the major approximately 55-kDa CYP3A band, opposite to what would be expected if the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degraded CYP3A. Only hemin treatment caused an increase in high molecular mass (HMM) CYP3A bands. Because hemin treatment did not alter levels of ubiquitin in CYP3A immunoprecipitates, the HMM CYP3A bands formed in response to hemin treatment clearly were not due to proteasome inhibition. Rather, because hemin treatment also caused an increase in HMM CYP3A in the detergent-insoluble fraction of the 10,000g pellet, the HMM CYP3A seems to represent a large protein complex that is unlikely to primarily represent ubiquitination.

  18. Induction of autophagy by proteasome inhibitor is associated with proliferative arrest in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei Wu Yachun; Yu Le; Li Zhijie; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Cho, C.H.

    2008-09-19

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and lysosome-dependent macroautophagy (autophagy) are two major intracellular pathways for protein degradation. Blockade of UPS by proteasome inhibitors has been shown to activate autophagy. Recent evidence also suggests that proteasome inhibitors may inhibit cancer growth. In this study, the effect of a proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on the proliferation and autophagy of cultured colon cancer cells (HT-29) was elucidated. Results showed that MG-132 inhibited HT-29 cell proliferation and induced G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest which was associated with the formation of LC3{sup +} autophagic vacuoles and the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. MG-132 also increased the protein expression of LC3-I and -II in a time-dependent manner. In this connection, 3-methyladenine, a Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, significantly abolished the formation of LC3{sup +} autophagic vacuoles and the expression of LC3-II but not LC3-I induced by MG-132. Taken together, this study demonstrates that inhibition of proteasome in colon cancer cells lowers cell proliferation and activates autophagy. This discovery may shed a new light on the novel function of proteasome in the regulation of autophagy and proliferation in colon cancer cells.

  19. Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowers gastric adenocarcinoma TMK1 cell proliferation via bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Yu Le; Cho, C.H.

    2008-06-27

    Proteasome inhibitor is a novel class of cancer therapeutics, of which the mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is reported that proteasome inhibitor enhances bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in osteoblasts to stimulate bone formation. BMP signaling is also an important tumor-suppressing pathway in gastric carcinogenesis. We therefore sought to determine the anti-mitogenic effect of proteasome inhibition in relation to BMP signaling in gastric cancer cells. Results showed that proteasome inhibitor MG-132 significantly suppressed the proliferation and the colony-forming ability of gastric cancer TMK1 cells. In this connection, MG-132 activated BMP signaling, manifested as an increase in Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and up-regulation of p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of BMP receptor II by RNA interference abolished Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} induction, and the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by MG-132. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 up-regulated the expression of BMP1 and BMP4 and suppressed the expression of Smad6. Knockdown of Smad6 also mimicked the effect of MG-132 on BMP signaling. Collectively, these findings suggest that inhibition of proteasome suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation via activation of BMP signaling. This discovery may open up a novel therapeutic avenue to proteasome inhibitors for the management of gastric cancer.

  20. Regulation of dimethyl-fumarate toxicity by proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Booth, Laurence; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Tavallai, Seyedmehrad; Roberts, Jane L; Peery, Matthew; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present studies examined the biology of the multiple sclerosis drug dimethyl-fumarate (DMF) or its in vivo breakdown product and active metabolite mono-methyl-fumarate (MMF), alone or in combination with proteasome inhibitors, in primary human glioblastoma (GBM) cells. MMF enhanced velcade and carfilzomib toxicity in multiple primary GBM isolates. Similar data were obtained in breast and colon cancer cells. MMF reduced the invasiveness of GBM cells, and enhanced the toxicity of ionizing radiation and temozolomide. MMF killed freshly isolated activated microglia which was associated with reduced IL-6, TGFβ and TNFα production. The combination of MMF and the multiple sclerosis drug Gilenya further reduced both GBM and activated microglia viability and cytokine production. Over-expression of c-FLIP-s or BCL(-)XL protected GBM cells from MMF and velcade toxicity. MMF and velcade increased plasma membrane localization of CD95, and knock down of CD95 or FADD blocked the drug interaction. The drug combination inactivated AKT, ERK1/2 and mTOR. Molecular inhibition of AKT/ERK/mTOR signaling enhanced drug combination toxicity whereas molecular activation of these pathways suppressed killing. MMF and velcade increased the levels of autophagosomes and autolysosomes and knock down of ATG5 or Beclin1 protected cells. Inhibition of the eIF2α/ATF4 arm or the IRE1α/XBP1 arm of the ER stress response enhanced drug combination lethality. This was associated with greater production of reactive oxygen species and quenching of ROS suppressed cell killing. PMID:25482938

  1. Validation of the 2nd Generation Proteasome Inhibitor Oprozomib for Local Therapy of Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Semren, Nora; Habel-Ungewitter, Nunja C.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Stöger, Tobias; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has been shown to prevent development of fibrosis in several organs including the lung. However, effects of proteasome inhibitors on lung fibrosis are controversial and cytotoxic side effects of the overall inhibition of proteasomal protein degradation cannot be excluded. Therefore, we hypothesized that local lung-specific application of a novel, selective proteasome inhibitor, oprozomib (OZ), provides antifibrotic effects without systemic toxicity in a mouse model of lung fibrosis. Oprozomib was first tested on the human alveolar epithelial cancer cell line A549 and in primary mouse alveolar epithelial type II cells regarding its cytotoxic effects on alveolar epithelial cells and compared to the FDA approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ). OZ was less toxic than BZ and provided high selectivity for the chymotrypsin-like active site of the proteasome. In primary mouse lung fibroblasts, OZ showed significant anti-fibrotic effects, i.e. reduction of collagen I and α smooth muscle actin expression, in the absence of cytotoxicity. When applied locally into the lungs of healthy mice via instillation, OZ was well tolerated and effectively reduced proteasome activity in the lungs. In bleomycin challenged mice, however, locally applied OZ resulted in accelerated weight loss and increased mortality of treated mice. Further, OZ failed to reduce fibrosis in these mice. While upon systemic application OZ was well tolerated in healthy mice, it rather augmented instead of attenuated fibrotic remodelling of the lung in bleomycin challenged mice. To conclude, low toxicity and antifibrotic effects of OZ in pulmonary fibroblasts could not be confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis of bleomycin-treated mice. In light of these data, the use of proteasome inhibitors as therapeutic agents for the treatment of fibrotic lung diseases should thus be considered with caution. PMID:26340365

  2. Combination Treatment with Sublethal Ionizing Radiation and the Proteasome Inhibitor, Bortezomib, Enhances Death-Receptor Mediated Apoptosis and Anti-Tumor Immune Attack

    PubMed Central

    Cacan, Ercan; Spring, Alexander M.; Kumari, Anita; Greer, Susanna F.; Garnett-Benson, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Sub-lethal doses of radiation can modulate gene expression, making tumor cells more susceptible to T-cell-mediated immune attack. Proteasome inhibitors demonstrate broad anti-tumor activity in clinical and pre-clinical cancer models. Here, we use a combination treatment of proteasome inhibition and irradiation to further induce immunomodulation of tumor cells that could enhance tumor-specific immune responses. We investigate the effects of the 26S proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, alone or in combination with radiotherapy, on the expression of immunogenic genes in normal colon and colorectal cancer cell lines. We examined cells for changes in the expression of several death receptors (DR4, DR5 and Fas) commonly used by T cells for killing of target cells. Our results indicate that the combination treatment resulted in increased cell surface expression of death receptors by increasing their transcript levels. The combination treatment further increases the sensitivity of carcinoma cells to apoptosis through FAS and TRAIL receptors but does not change the sensitivity of normal non-malignant epithelial cells. Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly enhances tumor cell killing by tumor specific CD8+ T cells. This study suggests that combining radiotherapy and proteasome inhibition may simultaneously enhance tumor immunogenicity and the induction of antitumor immunity by enhancing tumor-specific T-cell activity. PMID:26703577

  3. Proteasome inhibition reverses hedgehog inhibitor and taxane resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Steg, Adam D; Burke, Mata R; Amm, Hope M; Katre, Ashwini A; Dobbin, Zachary C; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Landen, Charles N

    2014-08-30

    The goal of this study was to determine whether combined targeted therapies, specifically those against the Notch, hedgehog and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways, could overcome ovarian cancer chemoresistance. Chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells were exposed to gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI-I, Compound E) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, alone and in combination with the hedgehog antagonist, LDE225. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, was evaluated for effects on paclitaxel efficacy. Cell viability and cell cycle analysis were assessed by MTT assay and propidium iodide staining, respectively. Proteasome activity and gene expression were determined by luminescence assay and qPCR, respectively. Studies demonstrated that GSI-I, but not Compound E, inhibited proteasome activity, similar to bortezomib. Proteasome inhibition decreased hedgehog target genes (PTCH1, GLI1 and GLI2) and increased LDE225 sensitivity in vitro. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, increased paclitaxel sensitivity through apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Expression of the multi-drug resistance gene ABCB1/MDR1 was decreased and acetylation of α-tubulin, a marker of microtubule stabilization, was increased following bortezomib treatment. HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin-a demonstrated that microtubule effects are associated with hedgehog inhibition and sensitization to paclitaxel and LDE225. These results suggest that proteasome inhibition, through alteration of microtubule dynamics and hedgehog signaling, can reverse taxane-mediated chemoresistance. PMID:25216523

  4. Proteasome inhibitors attenuated cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjung; Park, Jinyoung; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Yoo, Young Sook; Song, Eun Joo

    2016-05-01

    The Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays roles in protein degradation, cell cycle control, and growth and inflammatory cell signaling. Dysfunction of UPS in cardiac diseases has been seen in many studies. Cholesterol acts as an inducer of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the cholesterol-induced hypertrophic growth in H9c2 cells is examined in order to observe whether UPS is involved in cardiac hypertrophy. The treatment of proteasome inhibitors MG132 and Bortezomib markedly reduced cellular surface area and mRNA expression of β-MHC in cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, activated AKT and ERK were significantly attenuated by MG132 and Bortezomib in cholesterol- induced cardiac hypertrophy. We demonstrated that cholesterol- induced cardiac hypertrophy was suppressed by proteasome inhibitors. Thus, regulatory mechanism of cholesterol- induced cardiac hypertrophy by proteasome inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic strategy to prevent the progression of heart failure. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 270-275]. PMID:26592933

  5. Proteasome inhibitors attenuated cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunjung; Park, Jinyoung; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Yoo, Young Sook; Song, Eun Joo

    2016-01-01

    The Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays roles in protein degradation, cell cycle control, and growth and inflammatory cell signaling. Dysfunction of UPS in cardiac diseases has been seen in many studies. Cholesterol acts as an inducer of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the cholesterol-induced hypertrophic growth in H9c2 cells is examined in order to observe whether UPS is involved in cardiac hypertrophy. The treatment of proteasome inhibitors MG132 and Bortezomib markedly reduced cellular surface area and mRNA expression of β-MHC in cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, activated AKT and ERK were significantly attenuated by MG132 and Bortezomib in cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We demonstrated that cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy was suppressed by proteasome inhibitors. Thus, regulatory mechanism of cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy by proteasome inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic strategy to prevent the progression of heart failure. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 270-275] PMID:26592933

  6. Exploiting nature's rich source of proteasome inhibitors as starting points in drug development.

    PubMed

    Gräwert, Melissa Ann; Groll, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Cancer is the No. 2 cause of death in the Western world and one of the most expensive diseases to treat. Thus, it is not surprising, that every major pharmaceutical and biotechnology company has a blockbuster oncology product. In 2003, Millennium Pharmaceuticals entered the race with Velcade®, a first-in-class proteasome inhibitor that has been approved by the FDA for treatment of multiple myeloma and its sales have passed the billion dollar mark. Velcade®'s extremely toxic boronic acid pharmacophore, however, contributes to a number of severe side effects. Nevertheless, the launching of this product has validated the proteasome as a target in fighting cancer and further proteasome inhibitors have entered the market as anti-cancer drugs. Additionally, proteasome inhibitors have found application as crop protection agents, anti-parasitics, immunosuppressives, as well as in new therapies for muscular dystrophies and inflammation. Many of these compounds are based on microbial metabolites. In this review, we emphasize the important role of the structural elucidation of the various unique binding mechanisms of these compounds that have been optimized throughout evolution to target the proteasome. Based on this knowledge, medicinal chemists have further optimized these natural products, resulting in potential drugs with reduced off-target activities.

  7. Repression of protein translation and mTOR signaling by proteasome inhibitor in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Volta, Viviana; Cho, Chi Hin; Wu, Ya Chun; Li, Hai Tao; Yu, Le; Li, Zhi Jie; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu

    2009-09-04

    Protein homeostasis relies on a balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a major catabolic pathway for protein degradation. In this respect, proteasome inhibition has been used therapeutically for the treatment of cancer. Whether inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor can repress protein translation via a negative feedback mechanism, however, is unknown. In this study, proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowered the proliferation of colon cancer cells HT-29 and SW1116. In this connection, MG-132 reduced the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at Ser2448 and Ser2481 and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets 4E-BP1 and p70/p85 S6 kinases. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 inhibited protein translation as evidenced by the reductions of {sup 35}S-methionine incorporation and polysomes/80S ratio. Knockdown of raptor, a structural component of mTOR complex 1, mimicked the anti-proliferative effect of MG-132. To conclude, we demonstrate that the inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor represses mTOR signaling and protein translation in colon cancer cells.

  8. Identification of a new series of amides as non-covalent proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Scarbaci, Kety; Troiano, Valeria; Micale, Nicola; Ettari, Roberta; Tamborini, Lucia; Di Giovanni, Carmen; Cerchia, Carmen; Grasso, Silvana; Novellino, Ettore; Schirmeister, Tanja; Lavecchia, Antonio; Zappalà, Maria

    2014-04-01

    Proteasome inhibition has emerged as an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and some forms of lymphoma, with potential application in other types of cancers. 20S proteasome consists of three different catalytic activities known as chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L), trypsin-like (T-L), and, post-glutamyl peptide hydrolyzing (PGPH) or caspase-like (C-L), which are located respectively on the β5, β2, and β1 subunits of each heptameric β rings. Currently a wide number of covalent proteasome inhibitors are reported in literature; however, the less widely investigated non-covalent inhibitors might be a promising alternative to employ in therapy, because of the lack of all drawbacks and side-effects related to irreversible inhibition. In the present work we identified a series of amides, two of which (1b and 1f) are good candidates to non-covalent inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the β5 proteasome subunit. The non-covalent binding mode was corroborated by docking simulations of the most active inhibitors 1b, 1f and 2h into the yeast 20S proteasome crystal structure. PMID:24561716

  9. Enzyme inhibition by hydroamination: design and mechanism of a hybrid carmaphycin-syringolin enone proteasome inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Trivella, Daniela B B; Pereira, Alban R; Stein, Martin L; Kasai, Yusuke; Byrum, Tara; Valeriote, Frederick A; Tantillo, Dean J; Groll, Michael; Gerwick, William H; Moore, Bradley S

    2014-06-19

    Hydroamination reactions involving the addition of an amine to an inactivated alkene are entropically prohibited and require strong chemical catalysts. While this synthetic process is efficient at generating substituted amines, there is no equivalent in small molecule-mediated enzyme inhibition. We report an unusual mechanism of proteasome inhibition that involves a hydroamination reaction of alkene derivatives of the epoxyketone natural product carmaphycin. We show that the carmaphycin enone first forms a hemiketal intermediate with the catalytic Thr1 residue of the proteasome before cyclization by an unanticipated intramolecular alkene hydroamination reaction, resulting in a stable six-membered morpholine ring. The carmaphycin enone electrophile, which does not undergo a 1,4-Michael addition as previously observed with vinyl sulfone and α,β-unsaturated amide-based inhibitors, is partially reversible and gives insight into the design of proteasome inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy.

  10. Enzyme inhibition by hydroamination: Design and mechanism of a hybrid carmaphycin-syringolin enone proteasome inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Trivella, Daniela B. B.; Pereira, Alban R.; Stein, Martin L.; Kasai, Yusuke; Byrum, Tara; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Groll, Michael; Gerwick, William H.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Hydroamination reactions involving the addition of an amine to an inactivated alkene are entropically prohibited and require strong chemical catalysts. While this synthetic process is efficient at generating substituted amines, there is no equivalent in small molecule-mediated enzyme inhibition. Here we report a new mechanism of proteasome inhibition by hydroamination involving alkene derivatives of the epoxyketone natural product carmaphycin. We show that the carmaphycin enone first forms a hemiketal intermediate with the catalytic Thr1 residue of the proteasome before cyclization by an unanticipated intramolecular alkene hydroamination reaction resulting in a stable 6-membered morpholine ring. The carmaphycin enone electrophile, which does not undergo a 1,4-Michael addition as previously observed with vinyl sulfone and α,β-unsaturated amide-based inhibitors, is partially reversible and gives insight to the design of proteasome inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:24930969

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of adamantylalanine and carboranylalanine and their incorporation into the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Gerjan; Mock, Elliot D; Hoogendoorn, Sascha; van den Nieuwendijk, Adrianus M C H; Mazurek, Jaroslaw; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Florea, Bogdan I; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2016-03-14

    The incorporation of adamantylalanine and carboranylalanine at the P2 site of bortezomib is well tolerated and provided potent cell permeable proteasome inhibitors with increased off-rates compared to bortezomib. Adamantylalanine and carboranylalanine were synthesized enantioselectively by an asymmetric Strecker reaction on Ellmans tert-butyl sulfinimines.

  12. Systemic Administration of a Proteasome Inhibitor Does Not Cause Nigrostriatal Dopamine Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Brian N.; Neely, M. Diana; Dyllick-Brenzinger, Melanie; Tandon, Anurag; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2007-01-01

    Proteasomal dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease. A recent study reported that systemic treatment of rats with the proteasome inhibitor Z-lle-Glu(OtBu)-Ala-Leu-al (PSI) causes a slowly progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, the presence of inclusion bodies in dopamine neurons, and motor impairment. We examined in vitro and in vivo the effects of PSI on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Mass spectrometric analysis was employed to verify the authenticity of the PSI compound. PSI was non-specifically toxic to neurons in ventral mesencephalic organotypic slice cultures, indicating that impairment of proteasome function in vitro is toxic. Moreover, systemic administration of PSI transiently decreased brain proteasome activity. Systemic treatment of rats with PSI did not, however, result in any biochemical or anatomical evidence of lesions of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, nor were any changes in locomotor activity observed. These data suggest that systemic administration of proteasome inhibitors to normal adult rats does not reliably cause an animal model of parkinsonism. PMID:17706185

  13. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by inducing nuclear translocation of IkappaBalpha.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hai-Yen; Juvekar, Ashish; Ghosh, Chandra; Ramaswami, Sitharam; Le, Dung Hong; Vancurova, Ivana

    2008-07-15

    Proteasome inhibitors are known to suppress the proteasome-mediated degradation of IkappaBalpha in stimulated cells. This results in the cytoplasmic retention of NFkappaB and its reduced nuclear transcriptional activity. In this study, we show that in the metastatic prostate cancer cells, the proteasome inhibitors exhibit a novel, previously unrecognized effect: they increase the cellular levels of IkappaBalpha, which then translocates to the nucleus, associates with the nuclear p65 NFkappaB, thus inhibiting the constitutive NFkappaB DNA binding activity and inducing apoptosis. The proteasome inhibition-induced nuclear translocation of IkappaBalpha is dependent on de novo protein synthesis, occurs also in other cell types, and does not require IkappaBalpha phosphorylation on Ser-32. Since NFkappaB activity is constitutively increased in many human cancers as well as in inflammatory disorders, the proteasome inhibition-induced nuclear translocation of IkappaBalpha could thus provide a new therapeutic strategy aimed at the specific inhibition of NFkappaB activity by the nuclear IkappaBalpha.

  14. Marizomib, a Proteasome Inhibitor for All Seasons: Preclinical Profile and a Framework for Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Potts, B.C.; Albitar, M.X.; Anderson, K.C.; Baritaki, S.; Berkers, C.; Bonavida, B.; Chandra, J.; Chauhan, D.; Cusack, J.C.; Fenical, W.; Ghobrial, I.M.; Groll, M.; Jensen, P.R.; Lam, K.S.; Lloyd, G.K.; McBride, W.; McConkey, D.J.; Miller, C.P.; Neuteboom, S.T.C.; Oki, Y.; Ovaa, H.; Pajonk, F.; Richardson, P.G.; Roccaro, A.M.; Sloss, C.M.; Spear, M.A.; Valashi, E.; Younes, A.; Palladino, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The proteasome has emerged as an important clinically relevant target for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Since the Food and Drug Administration approved the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade®) for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma, it has become clear that new inhibitors are needed that have a better therapeutic ratio, can overcome inherent and acquired bortezomib resistance and exhibit broader anti-cancer activities. Marizomib (NPI-0052; salinosporamide A) is a structurally and pharmacologically unique β-lactone-γ-lactam proteasome inhibitor that may fulfill these unmet needs. The potent and sustained inhibition of all three proteolytic activities of the proteasome by marizomib has inspired extensive preclinical evaluation in a variety of hematologic and solid tumor models, where it is efficacious as a single agent and in combination with biologics, che-motherapeutics and targeted therapeutic agents. Specifically, marizomib has been evaluated in models for multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, chronic and acute lymphocytic leukemia, as well as glioma, colorectal and pancreatic cancer models, and has exhibited synergistic activities in tumor models in combination with bortezomib, the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide (Revlimid®), and various histone deacetylase inhibitors. These and other studies provided the framework for ongoing clinical trials in patients with MM, lymphomas, leukemias and solid tumors, including those who have failed bortezomib treatment, as well as in patients with diagnoses where other proteasome inhibitors have not demonstrated significant efficacy. This review captures the remarkable translational studies and contributions from many collaborators that have advanced marizomib from seabed to bench to bedside. PMID:21247382

  15. Effect of proteasome inhibitors on expression of HLA-G isoforms.

    PubMed

    Poláková, K; Bandzuchová, E; Bystrická, M; Pancuchárová, H; Russ, G

    2006-01-01

    HLA-G primary transcript is alternatively spliced into a number of mRNAs. In addition to full length HLA-G1 protein isoform these mRNAs might also encode truncated HLA-G protein isoforms lacking one or two extracellular domains. Whereas HLA-G1 protein isoform is regularly identified, truncated HLAG protein isoforms are not detected even if all alternative spliced mRNAs are present in cells. The absence of entire domain(s) renders the truncated HLA-G protein isoforms incapable of binding peptide and beta2-microglobulin. These features of truncated HLA-G protein isoforms may result in their rapid degradation by proteasomes. Here we show that despite the presence of all alternatively spliced HLA-G transcripts in JEG-3 cells pretreated with proteasome inhibitors only a full length HLA-G1 protein isoform was regularly detected. Interestingly, immunoblot analysis showed slight increase of HLA-G1 protein in cells pretreated with proteasome inhibitors, although the expression of HLA-G1 transcript was basically not affected. Expression of HLA-G3 transcript increased in JEG-3 cells pre-incubated with LLL, however, neither HLA-G3 nor other HLA-G short protein isoform was regularly detected. In K562 transfectants proteasome inhibitor LLL greatly enhanced expression of the HLA-G1 and -G2 transcripts as well as corresponding protein isoforms. Flow cytometry analysis showed that in cells pre-treated with proteasome inhibitors cell surface expression of HLA-G1 protein decreased but the quantity of intracellularly localized HLA-G antigens increased. Altogether our results suggest that truncated HLA-G proteins isoforms are not detected in JEG-3 cells as a result of their instability and the low translation efficiency of truncated HLA-G transcripts.

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Naphthoquinone Analogs as a Novel Class of Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Harshani R.; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Luo, Yunting; Kendig, Robert; Ge, Yiyu; Jain, Sanjula; Daniel, Kenyon; Santiago, Daniel; Guida, Wayne C.; Sebti, Saïd M.

    2012-01-01

    Screening of the NCI Diversity Set-1 identified PI-083 (NSC-45382) a proteasome inhibitor selective for cancer over normal cells. Focused libraries of novel compounds based on PI-083 chloronaphthoquinone and sulfonamide moieties were synthesized to gain a better understanding of the structure activity relationship responsible for chymotrypsin-like proteasome inhibitory activity. This led to the demonstration that the chloronaphthoquinone and the sulfonamide moieties are critical for inhibitory activity. The pyridyl group in PI-083 can be replaced with other heterocyclic groups without significant loss of activity. Molecular modeling studies were also performed to explore the detailed interactions of PI-083 and its derivatives with the β5 and β6 subunits of the 20S proteasome. The refined model showed an H-bond interaction between the Asp-114 and the sulfonamide moiety of the PI-083 in the β6 subunit. PMID:20621484

  17. Dithiocarbamate-based coordination compounds as potent proteasome inhibitors in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buac, Daniela; Schmitt, Sara; Ventro, George; Kona, Fathima Rani; Dou, Q Ping

    2012-10-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. They have been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections, possible treatment of AIDS, and most recently cancer. Their anti-tumor effects can in part be attributed to their ability to complex tumor cellular copper, leading to binding to and inhibition of the proteasome and in turn initiating tumor cell-specific apoptosis. Current chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic and therefore their efficacy in the eradication of tumors is greatly limited. As a result many scientists have joined the quest for novel targeted therapies in hopes of reducing toxicity while maximizing potency and proteasome inhibition has become an attractive therapy in this regard. Here we discuss the origins, mechanism, and evolution of dithiocarbamates as potent proteasome inhibitors and therefore anti-cancer agents. PMID:22931591

  18. Dithiocarbamate-Based Coordination Compounds as Potent Proteasome Inhibitors in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buac, Daniela; Schmitt, Sara; Ventro, George; Kona, Fathima Rani; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. They have been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections, possible treatment of AIDS, and most recently cancer. Their anti-tumor effects can in part be attributed to their ability to complex tumor cellular copper, leading to binding to and inhibition of the proteasome and in turn initiating tumor cell-specific apoptosis. Current chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic and therefore their efficacy in the eradication of tumors is greatly limited. As a result many scientists have joined the quest for novel targeted therapies in hopes of reducing toxicity while maximizing potency and proteasome inhibition has become an attractive therapy in this regard. Here we discuss the origins, mechanism, and evolution of dithiocarbamates as potent proteasome inhibitors and therefore anti-cancer agents. PMID:22931591

  19. A novel combination treatment for breast cancer cells involving BAPTA-AM and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib

    PubMed Central

    YERLIKAYA, AZMI; ERDOĞAN, ELIF; OKUR, EMRAH; YERLIKAYA, ŞERIFE; SAVRAN, BIRCAN

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BIP) is a well-known endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein regulating ER stress by facilitating protein folding, assembly and Ca2+ binding. GRP78 is also a member of the heat shock protein 70 gene family and induces tumor cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics. Bortezomib is a highly specific 26S proteasome inhibitor that has been approved as treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. The present study first examined the dose- and time-dependent effects of bortezomib on GRP78 expression levels in the highly metastatic mouse breast cancer 4T1 cell line using western blot analysis. The analysis results revealed that GRP78 levels were significantly increased by bortezomib at a dose as low as 10 nM. Time-dependent experiments indicated that the accumulation of GRP78 was initiated after a 24 h incubation period following the addition of 10 nM bortezomib. Subsequently, the present study determined the half maximal inhibitory concentration of intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (13.6 µM) on 4T1 cells. The combination effect of BAPTA-AM and bortezomib on the 4T1 cells was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and WST-1 assays and an iCELLigence system. The results revealed that the combination of 10 nM bortezomib + 5 µM BAPTA-AM is more cytotoxic compared with monotherapies, including 10 nM bortezomib, 1 µM BAPTA-AM and 5 µM BAPTA-AM. In addition, the present results revealed that bortezomib + BAPTA-AM combination causes cell death through the induction of apoptosis. The present results also revealed that bortezomib + BAPTA-AM combination-induced apoptosis is associated with a clear increase in the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/Jun amino-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK. Overall, the present results suggest that bortezomib and BAPTA-AM combination therapy may be a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment

  20. FV-162 is a novel, orally bioavailable, irreversible proteasome inhibitor with improved pharmacokinetics displaying preclinical efficacy with continuous daily dosing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Dove, P; Wang, X; Shamas-Din, A; Li, Z; Nachman, A; Oh, Y J; Hurren, R; Ruschak, A; Climie, S; Press, B; Griffin, C; Undzys, E; Aman, A; Al-awar, R; Kay, L E; O'Neill, D; Trudel, S; Slassi, M; Schimmer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Approved proteasome inhibitors have advanced the treatment of multiple myeloma but are associated with serious toxicities, poor pharmacokinetics, and most with the inconvenience of intravenous administration. We therefore sought to identify novel orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitors with a continuous daily dosing schedule and improved therapeutic window using a unique drug discovery platform. We employed a fluorine-based medicinal chemistry technology to synthesize 14 novel analogs of epoxyketone-based proteasome inhibitors and screened them for their stability, ability to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like proteasome, and antimyeloma activity in vitro. The tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic activity, and antimyeloma efficacy of our lead candidate were examined in NOD/SCID mice. We identified a tripeptide epoxyketone, FV-162, as a metabolically stable, potent proteasome inhibitor cytotoxic to human myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells. FV-162 had limited toxicity and was well tolerated on a continuous daily dosing schedule. Compared with the benchmark oral irreversible proteasome inhibitor, ONX-0192, FV-162 had a lower peak plasma concentration and longer half-life, resulting in a larger area under the curve (AUC). Oral FV-162 treatment induced rapid, irreversible inhibition of chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity in murine red blood cells and inhibited tumor growth in a myeloma xenograft model. Our data suggest that oral FV-162 with continuous daily dosing schedule displays a favorable safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic profile in vivo, identifying it as a promising lead for clinical evaluation in myeloma therapy.

  1. Morphological Changes within the Rat Lateral Ventricle after the Administration of Proteasome Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Sławomir; Spodnik, Jan Henryk; Dziewiątkowski, Jerzy; Spodnik, Edyta; Moryś, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The broad variety of substances that inhibit the action of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-known as proteasome inhibitors-have been used extensively in previous studies, and they are currently frequently proposed as a novel form of cancer treatment and as a protective factor in intracerebral hemorrhage treatment. The experimental data on the safest route of proteasome inhibitor administration, their associated side effects, and the possible ways of minimizing these effects have recently become a very important topic. The aim of our present study was to determine the effects of administering of MG-132, lactacystin and epoxomicin, compounds belonging to three different classes of proteasome inhibitors, on the ependymal walls of the lateral ventricle. Observations were made 2 and 8 weeks after the intraventricular administration of the studied substances dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the lateral ventricle of adult Wistar rats. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of brain sections stained with histochemical and inmmunofluorescence techniques showed that the administration of proteasome inhibitors caused a partial occlusion of the injected ventricle in all of the studied animals. The occlusion was due to ependymal cells damage and subsequent ependymal discontinuity, which caused direct contact between the striatum and the lateral nuclei of the septum, mononuclear cell infiltration and the formation of a glial scar between these structures (with the activation of astroglia, microglia and oligodendroglia). Morphologically, the ubiquitin-positive aggregates corresponded to aggresomes, indicating impaired activity of the UPS and the accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins that coincided with the occurrence of glial scars. The most significant changes were observed in the wall covering the striatum in animals that were administered epoxomicin, and milder changes were observed in animals administered lactacystin and MG-132. Interestingly

  2. Optimization and Evaluation of 5-Styryl-Oxathiazol-2-one Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasome Inhibitors as Potential Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Francesco; Gising, Johan; Åkerbladh, Linda; Roos, Annette K; Naworyta, Agata; Mowbray, Sherry L; Sokolowski, Anders; Henderson, Ian; Alling, Torey; Bailey, Mai A; Files, Megan; Parish, Tanya; Karlén, Anders; Larhed, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report of 5-styryl-oxathiazol-2-ones as inhibitors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteasome. As part of the study, the structure–activity relationship of oxathiazolones as Mtb proteasome inhibitors has been investigated. Furthermore, the prepared compounds displayed a good selectivity profile for Mtb compared to the human proteasome. The 5-styryl-oxathiazol-2-one inhibitors identified showed little activity against replicating Mtb, but were rapidly bactericidal against nonreplicating bacteria. (E)-5-(4-Chlorostyryl)-1,3,4-oxathiazol-2-one) was most effective, reducing the colony-forming units (CFU)/mL below the detection limit in only seven days at all concentrations tested. The results suggest that this new class of Mtb proteasome inhibitors has the potential to be further developed into novel antitubercular agents for synergistic combination therapies with existing drugs. PMID:26246997

  3. The proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib (Velcade) as potential inhibitor of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Sonja; Thiede, Gitta; Hengstler, Jan G; Schad, Arno; Schmidt, Marcus; Sleeman, Jonathan P

    2015-08-01

    Around 70% of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor α (ERα) and depend on estrogen for growth, survival and disease progression. The presence of hormone sensitivity is usually associated with a favorable prognosis. Use of adjuvant anti-endocrine therapy has significantly decreased breast cancer mortality in patients with early-stage disease, and anti-endocrine therapy also plays a central role in the treatment of advanced stages. However a subset of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers do not benefit from anti-endocrine therapy, and nearly all hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancers ultimately develop resistance to anti-hormonal therapies. Despite new insights into mechanisms of anti-endocrine therapy resistance, e.g., crosstalk between ERα and Her2/neu, the management of advanced hormone-receptor-positive breast cancers that are resistant to anti-endocrine agents remains a significant challenge. In the present study, we demonstrate that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib strongly inhibits ERα and HER2/neu expression, increases expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, inhibits expression of multiple genes associated with poor prognosis in ERα+ breast cancer patients and induces cell death in ER+ breast cancer cells in both the presence and absence of functional p53. Although Bortezomib increased the levels of p53 and increased the expression of pro-apoptotic target genes in ERα+ breast cancer cells harboring wild-type p53, Bortezomib also exerts anti-tumoral effects on ERα+ breast cancer cells through suppression of ERα expression and inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ERK signaling independently of functional p53. These findings suggest that Bortezomib might have the potential to improve the management of anti-endocrine therapy resistant ERα+ breast cancers independently of their p53 status.

  4. Synergy between Proteasome Inhibitors and Imatinib Mesylate in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da-Peng; Liu, Ying; Feng, Ting-Ting; Meng, Fan-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Li; Jiang, Qian-Li; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Liu, Jing-Lei; Liu, Ping; Chen, Zhu; Chen, Sai-Juan; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2009-01-01

    Background Resistance developed by leukemic cells, unsatisfactory efficacy on patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) at accelerated and blastic phases, and potential cardiotoxity, have been limitations for imatinib mesylate (IM) in treating CML. Whether low dose IM in combination with agents of distinct but related mechanisms could be one of the strategies to overcome these concerns warrants careful investigation. Methods and Findings We tested the therapeutic efficacies as well as adverse effects of low dose IM in combination with proteasome inhibitor, Bortezomib (BOR) or proteasome inhibitor I (PSI), in two CML murine models, and investigated possible mechanisms of action on CML cells. Our results demonstrated that low dose IM in combination with BOR exerted satisfactory efficacy in prolongation of life span and inhibition of tumor growth in mice, and did not cause cardiotoxicity or body weight loss. Consistently, BOR and PSI enhanced IM-induced inhibition of long-term clonogenic activity and short-term cell growth of CML stem/progenitor cells, and potentiated IM-caused inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis of BCR-ABL+ cells. IM/BOR and IM/PSI inhibited Bcl-2, increased cytoplasmic cytochrome C, and activated caspases. While exerting suppressive effects on BCR-ABL, E2F1, and β-catenin, IM/BOR and IM/PSI inhibited proteasomal degradation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to a re-activation of this important negative regulator of BCR-ABL. In addition, both combination therapties inhibited Bruton's tyrosine kinase via suppression of NFκB. Conclusion These data suggest that combined use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and proteasome inhibitor might be helpful for optimizing CML treatment. PMID:19606213

  5. Morphological Changes within the Rat Lateral Ventricle after the Administration of Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Sławomir; Spodnik, Jan Henryk; Dziewiątkowski, Jerzy; Spodnik, Edyta; Moryś, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The broad variety of substances that inhibit the action of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)—known as proteasome inhibitors—have been used extensively in previous studies, and they are currently frequently proposed as a novel form of cancer treatment and as a protective factor in intracerebral hemorrhage treatment. The experimental data on the safest route of proteasome inhibitor administration, their associated side effects, and the possible ways of minimizing these effects have recently become a very important topic. The aim of our present study was to determine the effects of administering of MG-132, lactacystin and epoxomicin, compounds belonging to three different classes of proteasome inhibitors, on the ependymal walls of the lateral ventricle. Observations were made 2 and 8 weeks after the intraventricular administration of the studied substances dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the lateral ventricle of adult Wistar rats. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of brain sections stained with histochemical and inmmunofluorescence techniques showed that the administration of proteasome inhibitors caused a partial occlusion of the injected ventricle in all of the studied animals. The occlusion was due to ependymal cells damage and subsequent ependymal discontinuity, which caused direct contact between the striatum and the lateral nuclei of the septum, mononuclear cell infiltration and the formation of a glial scar between these structures (with the activation of astroglia, microglia and oligodendroglia). Morphologically, the ubiquitin-positive aggregates corresponded to aggresomes, indicating impaired activity of the UPS and the accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins that coincided with the occurrence of glial scars. The most significant changes were observed in the wall covering the striatum in animals that were administered epoxomicin, and milder changes were observed in animals administered lactacystin and MG-132

  6. Discovery of new [Formula: see text] proteasome inhibitors using a knowledge-based computational screening approach.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rukmankesh; Chib, Reena; Munagala, Gurunadham; Yempalla, Kushalava Reddy; Khan, Inshad Ali; Singh, Parvinder Pal; Khan, Farrah Gul; Nargotra, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria cause deadly infections in patients [Corrected]. The rise of multidrug resistance associated with tuberculosis further makes the situation worse in treating the disease. M. tuberculosis proteasome is necessary for the pathogenesis of the bacterium validated as an anti-tubercular target, thus making it an attractive enzyme for designing Mtb inhibitors. In this study, a computational screening approach was applied to identify new proteasome inhibitor candidates from a library of 50,000 compounds. This chemical library was procured from the ChemBridge (20,000 compounds) and the ChemDiv (30,000 compounds) databases. After a detailed analysis of the computational screening results, 50 in silico hits were retrieved and tested in vitro finding 15 compounds with [Formula: see text] values ranging from 35.32 to 64.15 [Formula: see text]M on lysate. A structural analysis of these hits revealed that 14 of these compounds probably have non-covalent mode of binding to the target and have not reported for anti-tubercular or anti-proteasome activity. The binding interactions of all the 14 protein-inhibitor complexes were analyzed using molecular docking studies. Further, molecular dynamics simulations of the protein in complex with the two most promising hits were carried out so as to identify the key interactions and validate the structural stability.

  7. p53 status dictates responses of B lymphomas to monotherapy with proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Duonan; Carroll, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The proapoptotic function of p53 is thought to underlie most anticancer modalities and is also activated in response to oncogenic insults, such as overexpression of the Myc oncoprotein. Here we generated tractable B lymphomas using retroviral transduction of the MYC oncogene into hematopoietic cells with 2 knock-in alleles encoding a fusion between p53 and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT) receptor (p53ERTAM). In these polyclonal tumors, Myc is the only oncogenic lesion, and p53ERTAM status can be rapidly toggled between “off” and “on” with 4OHT, provided that the Trp53 promoter has been independently activated. Although 4OHT can trigger widespread apoptosis and overt tumor regression even in the absence of DNA-damaging agents, in tumors with high levels of Mdm2 these responses are blunted. However, cotreatment with proteasome inhibitors fully restores therapeutic effects in vivo. Similarly, human Burkitt lymphomas with wild-type p53 and overexpression of Hdm2 are highly sensitive to proteasome inhibitors, unless p53 levels are reduced using the HPV-E6 ubiquitin ligase. Therefore, proteasome inhibitors could be highly effective as a monotherapy against Myc-induced lymphomas, with no need for adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy. On the other hand, their efficacy is crucially dependent on the wild-type p53 status of the tumor, placing important restrictions on patient selection. PMID:17284530

  8. Proteasome inhibitors, including curcumin, improve pancreatic β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, S; Leibel, R; Tortoriello, D V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes stems from obesity-associated insulin resistance, and in the genetically susceptible, concomitant pancreatic β-cell failure can occur, which further exacerbates hyperglycemia. Recent work by our group and others has shown that the natural polyphenol curcumin attenuates the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in mouse models of hyperinsulinemic or compensated type 2 diabetes. Although several potential downstream molecular targets of curcumin exist, it is now recognized to be a direct inhibitor of proteasome activity. We now show that curcumin also prevents β-cell failure in a mouse model of uncompensated obesity-related insulin resistance (Leprdb/db on the Kaliss background). Results: In this instance, dietary supplementation with curcumin prevented hyperglycemia, increased insulin production and lean body mass, and prolonged lifespan. In addition, we show that short-term in vivo treatment with low dosages of two molecularly distinct proteasome inhibitors celastrol and epoxomicin reverse hyperglycemia in mice with β-cell failure by increasing insulin production and insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: These studies suggest that proteasome inhibitors may prove useful for patients with diabetes by improving both β-cell function and relieving insulin resistance. PMID:27110686

  9. Commentary on "Proteasome Inhibitors: A Novel Class of Potent and Effective Antitumor Agents".

    PubMed

    Tew, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    The relatively recent clinical success of bortezomib, particularly in multiple myeloma, has established the validity of the proteasome as a viable target for anticancer drug development. This highly cited 1999 Cancer Research article from Adams and colleagues was published during the period when this drug was transitioning from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trial status. Their results detail structure-activity analyses using a series of boronic acid proteasome inhibitors and correlate cytotoxicity with inhibition of proteasome activity. In and of itself, the recognition that interference with proteasome functions represented a novel therapeutic approach likely underlies the popularity of this article. In addition, the provision of in vitro (at that time using the NCI 60 cell line panel) and in vivo antitumor activity, toxicology, and mouse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data provided a solid basis for establishing the future credentials for bortezomib to gain initial FDA approval in 2003. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4916-7. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Adams et al., Cancer Res 1999;59:2615-22Visit the Cancer Research 75(th) Anniversary timeline. PMID:27587650

  10. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 interacts with alpha3 subunit of proteasome and modulates its activity.

    PubMed

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Osinska, Magdalena; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S

    2011-02-25

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), a multifunctional protein, is an important physiological regulator of fibrinolysis, extracellular matrix homeostasis, and cell motility. Recent observations show that PAI-1 may also be implicated in maintaining integrity of cells, especially with respect to cellular proliferation or apoptosis. In the present study we provide evidence that PAI-1 interacts with proteasome and affects its activity. First, by using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that the α3 subunit of proteasome directly interacts with PAI-1. Then, to ensure that the PAI-1-proteasome complex is formed in vivo, both proteins were coimmunoprecipitated from endothelial cells and identified with specific antibodies. The specificity of this interaction was evidenced after transfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-1 and coimmunoprecipitation of both proteins with anti-PAI-1 antibodies. Subsequently, cellular distribution of the PAI-1-proteasome complexes was established by immunogold staining and electron microscopy analyses. Both proteins appeared in a diffuse cytosolic pattern but also could be found in a dense perinuclear and nuclear location. Furthermore, PAI-1 induced formation of aggresomes freely located in endothelial cytoplasm. Increased PAI-1 expression abrogated degradation of degron analyzed after cotransfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-1 and pd2EGFP-N1 and prevented degradation of p53 as well as IκBα, as evidenced both by confocal microscopy and Western immunoblotting.

  11. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Interacts with α3 Subunit of Proteasome and Modulates Its Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Osinska, Magdalena; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S.

    2011-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), a multifunctional protein, is an important physiological regulator of fibrinolysis, extracellular matrix homeostasis, and cell motility. Recent observations show that PAI-1 may also be implicated in maintaining integrity of cells, especially with respect to cellular proliferation or apoptosis. In the present study we provide evidence that PAI-1 interacts with proteasome and affects its activity. First, by using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that the α3 subunit of proteasome directly interacts with PAI-1. Then, to ensure that the PAI-1-proteasome complex is formed in vivo, both proteins were coimmunoprecipitated from endothelial cells and identified with specific antibodies. The specificity of this interaction was evidenced after transfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-1 and coimmunoprecipitation of both proteins with anti-PAI-1 antibodies. Subsequently, cellular distribution of the PAI-1-proteasome complexes was established by immunogold staining and electron microscopy analyses. Both proteins appeared in a diffuse cytosolic pattern but also could be found in a dense perinuclear and nuclear location. Furthermore, PAI-1 induced formation of aggresomes freely located in endothelial cytoplasm. Increased PAI-1 expression abrogated degradation of degron analyzed after cotransfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-1 and pd2EGFP-N1 and prevented degradation of p53 as well as IκBα, as evidenced both by confocal microscopy and Western immunoblotting. PMID:21135093

  12. Production of Proteasome Inhibitor Syringolin A by the Endophyte Rhizobium sp. Strain AP16

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Laurent; Dudler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Syringolin A, the product of a mixed nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase encoded by the syl gene cluster, is a virulence factor secreted by certain Pseudomonas syringae strains. Together with the glidobactins produced by a number of beta- and gammaproteobacterial human and animal pathogens, it belongs to the syrbactins, a structurally novel class of proteasome inhibitors. In plants, proteasome inhibition by syringolin A-producing P. syringae strains leads to the suppression of host defense pathways requiring proteasome activity, such as the ones mediated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Here we report the discovery of a syl-like gene cluster with some unusual features in the alphaproteobacterial endophyte Rhizobium sp. strain AP16 that encodes a putative syringolin A-like synthetase whose components share 55% to 65% sequence identity (72% to 79% similarity) at the amino acid level. As revealed by average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations, this strain likely belongs to the same species as biocontrol strain R. rhizogenes K84 (formely known as Agrobacterium radiobacter K84), which, however, carries a nonfunctional deletion remnant of the syl-like gene cluster. Here we present a functional analysis of the syl-like gene cluster of Rhizobium sp. strain AP16 and demonstrate that this endophyte synthesizes syringolin A and some related minor variants, suggesting that proteasome inhibition by syrbactin production can be important not only for pathogens but also for endophytic bacteria in the interaction with their hosts. PMID:24727275

  13. Commentary on "Proteasome Inhibitors: A Novel Class of Potent and Effective Antitumor Agents".

    PubMed

    Tew, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    The relatively recent clinical success of bortezomib, particularly in multiple myeloma, has established the validity of the proteasome as a viable target for anticancer drug development. This highly cited 1999 Cancer Research article from Adams and colleagues was published during the period when this drug was transitioning from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trial status. Their results detail structure-activity analyses using a series of boronic acid proteasome inhibitors and correlate cytotoxicity with inhibition of proteasome activity. In and of itself, the recognition that interference with proteasome functions represented a novel therapeutic approach likely underlies the popularity of this article. In addition, the provision of in vitro (at that time using the NCI 60 cell line panel) and in vivo antitumor activity, toxicology, and mouse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data provided a solid basis for establishing the future credentials for bortezomib to gain initial FDA approval in 2003. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4916-7. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Adams et al., Cancer Res 1999;59:2615-22Visit the Cancer Research 75(th) Anniversary timeline.

  14. Next-generation proteasome inhibitor MLN9708 sensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Yang; Jiang, Zheng; Cao, Wen-Ming; Wang, Zhenyu; Dou, Jun; Zhao, Yanling; Cui, Yunfu; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), one of the most effective chemotherapy drug for cancer treatment, is limited by its severe side effects and chemoresistance. Dox induces DNA damage and leads to significant proteomic changes in the cancer cells, which makes the ubiquitin-proteasome system a potential target to enhance the efficacy of Dox therapy. The unsuccessful clinical trials of proteasome inhibitor PS-341 (bortezomib) in solid tumors led to the invention of MLN9708 (ixazomib), an orally bioavailable next-generation proteasome inhibitor with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features. In this preclinical study, we used eight human breast cancer cell lines, which represent the major molecular subtypes of breast cancer, to validate the cytotoxic effects of MLN9708, alone and in combination with Dox. We found that MLN9708 had cytotoxic effects, induced autophagy and MKP-1 expression, and enhanced Dox-induced apoptosis in these cell lines. MLN9708 also enhanced Dox-induced JNK and p38 phosphorylation and inhibited Dox-induced IκBα degradation. Our in vitro results suggest that MLN9708 has antitumor effects in breast cancer and can sensitize breast cancer cells to Dox treatment. This promising combination may be an effective and feasible therapeutic option for treating breast cancer and warrants clinical validation. PMID:27217076

  15. Copper-binding compounds as proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Kenyon G; Chen, Di; Yan, Bing; Dou, Q Ping

    2007-01-01

    The trace element copper is vital to the healthy functioning of organisms. Copper is used in a multitude of cellular activities including respiration, angiogenesis, and immune responses. Recently, copper has become a focus in medical research ranging from Alzheimer's disease to cancer. Copper modulation has been suggested to be a potential modality for therapy in these diseases. Several copper-binding compounds have been found to spontaneously complex with copper and form active proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers. This review examines compounds in the quinoline and dithiocarbamate families and from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Diversity Set that bind with copper and act as anticancer agents. In each case, it is shown that these compounds can bind with copper, inhibit the proteasome activity, and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. These activities are absent when copper is not present. Compounds alone, clioquinol and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate as examples, are shown to have no effects in normal breast cells. Current research suggests that a possible therapeutic modality for cancer may be developed using the difference of high copper load in tumors versus low copper load in normal cells. This strategy would convert tumor cellular copper into a potent, specific proteasome inhibitor and apoptosis inducer. Thus, this approach could pave the way for the development of nontoxic anticancer therapy.

  16. The genetic basis for the biosynthesis of the pharmaceutically important class of epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Schorn, Michelle; Zettler, Judith; Noel, Joseph P.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Moore, Bradley S.; Kaysser, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    The epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors are an established class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. Their unique α′,β′-epoxyketone pharmacophore allows binding to the catalytic β-subunits of the proteasome with extraordinary specificity. Here we report the characterization of the first gene clusters for the biosynthesis of natural peptidyl-epoxyketones. The clusters for epoxomicin, the lead compound for the anti-cancer drug Kyprolis™, and for eponemycin were identified in the actinobacterial producer strains ATCC 53904 and Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC 53709, respectively, using a modified protocol for Ion Torrent PGM genome sequencing. Both gene clusters code for a hybrid non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase multifunctional enzyme complex and homologous redox enzymes. Epoxomicin and eponemycin were heterologously produced in Streptomyces albus J1046 via whole pathway expression. Moreover, we employed mass spectral molecular networking for a new comparative metabolomics approach in a heterologous system and discovered a number of putative epoxyketone derivatives. With this study we have definitively linked epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors and their biosynthesis genes for the first time in any organism, which will now allow for their detailed biochemical investigation. PMID:24168704

  17. Proteasome inhibitor model of Parkinson's disease in mice is confounded by neurotoxicity of the ethanol vehicle.

    PubMed

    Landau, Anne M; Kouassi, Edouard; Siegrist-Johnstone, Rosmarie; Desbarats, Julie

    2007-02-15

    Defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been implicated in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Recently, a rat model of PD was developed using a synthetic proteasome inhibitor (PSI), (Z-lle-Glu(OtBu)-Ala-Leu-al). We attempted to transfer this model to mouse studies, where genetics can be more readily investigated due to the availability of genetically modified mice. We treated C57BL/6 (B6) mice with six intraperitoneal injections of 6 mg/kg PSI in 50 mul of 70% ethanol over a 2-week-period. We found significant decreases in nigrostriatal dopamine in PSI-treated mice compared with saline-treated mice. However, we observed similar decreases in the ethanol-treated vehicle control group. Administration of ethanol alone led to significant long-term alterations in dopamine levels. Ethanol significantly eclipses the effects of PSI in the dopamine system, and therefore is a confounding vehicle for this model. PMID:17230468

  18. Proteasome Inhibitor YSY01A Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Cisplatin-Resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Zhou, Quan; Yuan, Xia; Ge, Ze-mei; Ran, Fu-xiang; Yang, Hua-yu; Qiang, Guang-liang; Li, Run-tao; Cui, Jing-rong

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most common drugs used for treatment of solid tumors such as ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, the development of resistance against this cytotoxic agent limits its clinical use. Here we report that YSY01A, a novel proteasome inhibitor, is capable of suppressing survival of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. And YSY01A treatment enhances the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Specifically, YSY01A abrogates regulatory proteins important for cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis including NF-κB p65 and STAT3, resulting in down-regulation of Bcl-2. A dramatic increase in cisplatin uptake was also observed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following exposure to YSY01A. Taken together, YSY01A serves as a potential candidate for further development as anticancer therapeutics targeting the proteasome. PMID:27326257

  19. Dual targeting of glioblastoma multiforme with a proteasome inhibitor (Velcade) and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (ZSTK474).

    PubMed

    Lin, Lehang; Gaut, Daria; Hu, Kaishun; Yan, Haiyan; Yin, Dong; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2014-02-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have been proven to be effective anticancer compounds in many tumor models, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In this study, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Velcade (PS-341/bortezomib) caused GBM cell death while simultaneously activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. Therefore, we sought to investigate if the PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 would enhance the effectiveness of Velcade in anticancer therapy. Two GBM cell lines were used to detect the effects of Velcade and ZSTK474 alone or in combination in vitro. The combination of Velcade and ZSTK474 synergistically inhibited the proliferation of GBM cell lines. Cell apoptosis was increased when exposed to Velcade and ZSTK474 in combination as shown by Annexin V analysis. Treatment with both drugs led to downregulation of the p-Akt, p-4EBP1 and p-mTOR proteins as determined by western blot analysis. The anticancer ability of Velcade for glioblastoma multiforme was, therefore, enhanced by combination with the PI3K pathway inhibitor ZSTK474 in glioblastoma multiforme.

  20. A potent and selective inhibitor for the UBLCP1 proteasome phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    He, Yantao; Guo, Xing; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.; Zhang, Yan; Dixon, Jack E.; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like domain-containing C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (UBLCP1) has been implicated as a negative regulator of the proteasome, a key mediator in the ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. Small molecule inhibitors that block UBLCP1 activity would be valuable as research tools and potential therapeutics for human diseases caused by the cellular accumulation of misfold/damaged proteins. We report a salicylic acid fragment-based library approach aimed at targeting both the phosphatase active site and its adjacent binding pocket for enhanced affinity and selectivity. Screening of the focused libraries led to the identification of the first potent and selective UBLCP1 inhibitor 13. Compound 13 exhibits an IC50 of 1.0 μM for UBLCP1 and greater than 5-fold selectivity against a large panel of protein phosphatases from several distinct families. Importantly, the inhibitor possesses efficacious cellular activity and is capable of inhibiting UBLCP1 function in cells, which in turn up-regulates nuclear proteasome activity. These studies set the groundwork for further developing compound 13 into chemical probes or potential therapeutic agents targeting the UBLCP1 phosphatase. PMID:25907364

  1. Cell cycle -dependent proteolysis in plants. Identification Of the destruction box pathway and metaphase arrest produced by the proteasome inhibitor mg132

    PubMed Central

    Genschik, P; Criqui, MC; Parmentier, Y; Derevier, A; Fleck, J

    1998-01-01

    It is widely assumed that mitotic cyclins are rapidly degraded during anaphase, leading to the inactivation of the cell cycle-dependent protein kinase Cdc2 and allowing exit from mitosis. The proteolysis of mitotic cyclins is ubiquitin/26S proteasome mediated and requires the presence of the destruction box motif at the N terminus of the proteins. As a first attempt to study cyclin proteolysis during the plant cell cycle, we investigated the stability of fusion proteins in which the N-terminal domains of an A-type and a B-type tobacco mitotic cyclin were fused in frame with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT ) reporter gene and constitutively expressed in transformed tobacco BY2 cells. For both cyclin types, the N-terminal domains led the chimeric cyclin-CAT fusion proteins to oscillate in a cell cycle-specific manner. Mutations within the destruction box abolished cell cycle-specific proteolysis. Although both fusion proteins were degraded after metaphase, cyclin A-CAT proteolysis was turned off during S phase, whereas that of cyclin B-CAT was turned off only during the late G2 phase. Thus, we demonstrated that mitotic cyclins in plants are subjected to post-translational control (e.g., proteolysis). Moreover, we showed that the proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocks BY2 cells during metaphase in a reversible way. During this mitotic arrest, both cyclin-CAT fusion proteins remained stable. PMID:9836745

  2. Multiplexed metagenome mining using short DNA sequence tags facilitates targeted discovery of epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Jeremy G.; Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Smith, Alexandra G.; Ternei, Melinda A.; Calle, Paula Y.; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B.; Montiel, Daniel; Brady, Sean F.

    2015-01-01

    In molecular evolutionary analyses, short DNA sequences are used to infer phylogenetic relationships among species. Here we apply this principle to the study of bacterial biosynthesis, enabling the targeted isolation of previously unidentified natural products directly from complex metagenomes. Our approach uses short natural product sequence tags derived from conserved biosynthetic motifs to profile biosynthetic diversity in the environment and then guide the recovery of gene clusters from metagenomic libraries. The methodology is conceptually simple, requires only a small investment in sequencing, and is not computationally demanding. To demonstrate the power of this approach to natural product discovery we conducted a computational search for epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors within 185 globally distributed soil metagenomes. This led to the identification of 99 unique epoxyketone sequence tags, falling into 6 phylogenetically distinct clades. Complete gene clusters associated with nine unique tags were recovered from four saturating soil metagenomic libraries. Using heterologous expression methodologies, seven potent epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors (clarepoxcins A–E and landepoxcins A and B) were produced from these pathways, including compounds with different warhead structures and a naturally occurring halohydrin prodrug. This study provides a template for the targeted expansion of bacterially derived natural products using the global metagenome. PMID:25831524

  3. Multiplexed metagenome mining using short DNA sequence tags facilitates targeted discovery of epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jeremy G; Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Smith, Alexandra G; Ternei, Melinda A; Calle, Paula Y; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B; Montiel, Daniel; Brady, Sean F

    2015-04-01

    In molecular evolutionary analyses, short DNA sequences are used to infer phylogenetic relationships among species. Here we apply this principle to the study of bacterial biosynthesis, enabling the targeted isolation of previously unidentified natural products directly from complex metagenomes. Our approach uses short natural product sequence tags derived from conserved biosynthetic motifs to profile biosynthetic diversity in the environment and then guide the recovery of gene clusters from metagenomic libraries. The methodology is conceptually simple, requires only a small investment in sequencing, and is not computationally demanding. To demonstrate the power of this approach to natural product discovery we conducted a computational search for epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors within 185 globally distributed soil metagenomes. This led to the identification of 99 unique epoxyketone sequence tags, falling into 6 phylogenetically distinct clades. Complete gene clusters associated with nine unique tags were recovered from four saturating soil metagenomic libraries. Using heterologous expression methodologies, seven potent epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors (clarepoxcins A-E and landepoxcins A and B) were produced from these pathways, including compounds with different warhead structures and a naturally occurring halohydrin prodrug. This study provides a template for the targeted expansion of bacterially derived natural products using the global metagenome.

  4. Inhibition of human preadipocyte proteasomal activity by HIV protease inhibitors or specific inhibitor lactacystin leads to a defect in adipogenesis, which involves matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    De Barros, Sandra; Zakaroff-Girard, Alexia; Lafontan, Max; Galitzky, Jean; Bourlier, Virginie

    2007-01-01

    In a previous publication, we reported that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) inhibited the differentiation of human preadipocytes in primary culture, reducing the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). The present work was performed to clarify this mechanism. Interestingly, HIV-PIs have been reported to be inhibitors of the proteasome complex, which is known to regulate nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and transcription of its target genes, among them MMP-9. We thus investigated the potential involvement of the proteasome in the antiadipogenic effects of HIV-PIs. The effect of four HIV-PIs was tested on preadipocyte proteasomal activity, and chronic treatment with the specific proteasome inhibitor lactacystin was performed to evaluate alterations of adipogenesis and MMP-9 expression/secretion. Finally, modifications of the NF-kappaB pathway induced by either HIV-PIs or lactacystin were studied. We demonstrated that preadipocyte proteasomal activity was decreased by several HIV-PIs and that chronic treatment with lactacystin mimicked the effects of HIV-PIs by reducing adipogenesis and MMP-9 expression/secretion. Furthermore, we observed an intracellular accumulation of the NF-kappaB inhibitor, IkappaBbeta, with chronic treatment with HIV-PIs or lactacystin as well as a decrease in MMP-9 expression induced by acute tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation. These results indicate that inhibition of the proteasome by specific (lactacystin) or nonspecific (HIV-PIs) inhibitors leads to a reduction of human adipogenesis, and they therefore implicate deregulation of the NF-kappaB pathway and the related decrease of the key adipogenic factor, MMP-9. This study adds significantly to recent reports that have linked HIV-PI-related lipodystrophic syndrome with altered proteasome function, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and metabolic disorders.

  5. Mapping subunit contacts in the regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome. S2 and S5b form a tetramer with ATPase subunits S4 and S7.

    PubMed

    Gorbea, C; Taillandier, D; Rechsteiner, M

    2000-01-14

    The 19 S regulatory complex (RC) of the 26 S proteasome is composed of at least 18 different subunits, including six ATPases that form specific pairs S4-S7, S6-S8, and S6'-S10b in vitro. One of the largest regulatory complex subunits, S2, was translated in reticulocyte lysate containing [(35)S]methionine and used to probe membranes containing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separated RC subunits. S2 bound to two ATPases, S4 and S7. Association of S2 with regulatory complex subunits was also assayed by co-translation and sedimentation. S2 formed an immunoprecipitable heterotrimer upon co-translation with S4 and S7. The non-ATPase S5b also formed a ternary complex with S4 and S7 and the three proteins assembled into a tetramer with S2. Neither S2 nor S5b formed complexes with S6'-S10b dimers or with S6-S8 oligomers. The use of chimeric ATPases demonstrated that S2 binds the NH(2)-terminal region of S4 and the COOH-terminal two-thirds of S7. Conversely, S5b binds the COOH-terminal two-thirds of S4 and to S7's NH(2)-terminal region. The demonstrated association of S2 with ATPases in the mammalian 19 S regulatory complex is consistent with and extends the recent finding that the yeast RC is composed of two subcomplexes, the lid and the base (Glickman, M. H., Rubin, D. M., Coux, O., Wefes, I., Pfeifer, G., Cejka, Z., Baumeister, W., Fried, V. A., and Finley, D. (1998) Cell 94, 615-623).

  6. Salinosporamide Natural Products: Potent 20S Proteasome Inhibitors as Promising Cancer Chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors are rapidly evolving as potent treatment options in cancer therapy. One of the most promising drug candidates of this type is salinosporamide A from the bacterium Salinispora tropica. This marine natural product possesses a complex, densely functionalized γ-lactam-β-lactone pharmacophore, which is responsible for its irreversible binding to its target, the β subunit of the 20S proteasome. Salinosporamide A entered phase I clinical trials for the treatment of multiple myeloma only three years after its discovery. The strong biological activity and the challenging structure of this compound have fueled intense academic and industrial research in recent years, which has led to the development of more than ten syntheses, the elucidation of its biosynthetic pathway, and the generation of promising structure–activity relationships and oncological data. Salinosporamide A thus serves as an intriguing example of the successful interplay of modern drug discovery and biomedical research, medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, natural product synthesis and analysis, as well as biosynthesis and bioengineering. PMID:20927786

  7. Withaferin A: a proteasomal inhibitor promotes healing after injury and exerts anabolic effect on osteoporotic bone.

    PubMed

    Khedgikar, V; Kushwaha, P; Gautam, J; Verma, A; Changkija, B; Kumar, A; Sharma, S; Nagar, G K; Singh, D; Trivedi, P K; Sangwan, N S; Mishra, P R; Trivedi, R

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera or Ashwagandha is a medicinal herb of Ayurveda. Though the extract and purified molecules, withanolides, from this plant have been shown to have different pharmacological activities, their effect on bone formation has not been studied. Here, we show that one of the withanolide, withaferin A (WFA) acts as a proteasomal inhibitor (PI) and binds to specific catalytic β subunit of the 20S proteasome. It exerts positive effect on osteoblast by increasing osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. WFA increased expression of osteoblast-specific transcription factor and mineralizing genes, promoted osteoblast survival and suppressed inflammatory cytokines. In osteoclast, WFA treatment decreased osteoclast number directly by decreasing expression of tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) and indirectly by decreasing osteoprotegrin/RANK ligand ratio. Our data show that in vitro treatment of WFA to calvarial osteoblast cells decreased expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase, Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2), preventing degradation of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RunX2) and relevant Smad proteins, which are phosphorylated by bone morphogenetic protein 2. Increased Smurf2 expression due to exogenous treatment of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to primary osteoblast cells was decreased by WFA treatment. This was corroborated by using small interfering RNA against Smurf2. Further, WFA also blocked nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) signaling as assessed by tumor necrosis factor stimulated nuclear translocation of p65-subunit of NF-kB. Overall data show that in vitro proteasome inhibition by WFA simultaneously promoted osteoblastogenesis by stabilizing RunX2 and suppressed osteoclast differentiation, by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Oral administration of WFA to osteopenic ovariectomized mice increased osteoprogenitor cells in the bone marrow and increased expression of osteogenic genes. WFA

  8. Withaferin A: a proteasomal inhibitor promotes healing after injury and exerts anabolic effect on osteoporotic bone.

    PubMed

    Khedgikar, V; Kushwaha, P; Gautam, J; Verma, A; Changkija, B; Kumar, A; Sharma, S; Nagar, G K; Singh, D; Trivedi, P K; Sangwan, N S; Mishra, P R; Trivedi, R

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera or Ashwagandha is a medicinal herb of Ayurveda. Though the extract and purified molecules, withanolides, from this plant have been shown to have different pharmacological activities, their effect on bone formation has not been studied. Here, we show that one of the withanolide, withaferin A (WFA) acts as a proteasomal inhibitor (PI) and binds to specific catalytic β subunit of the 20S proteasome. It exerts positive effect on osteoblast by increasing osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. WFA increased expression of osteoblast-specific transcription factor and mineralizing genes, promoted osteoblast survival and suppressed inflammatory cytokines. In osteoclast, WFA treatment decreased osteoclast number directly by decreasing expression of tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) and indirectly by decreasing osteoprotegrin/RANK ligand ratio. Our data show that in vitro treatment of WFA to calvarial osteoblast cells decreased expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase, Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2), preventing degradation of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RunX2) and relevant Smad proteins, which are phosphorylated by bone morphogenetic protein 2. Increased Smurf2 expression due to exogenous treatment of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to primary osteoblast cells was decreased by WFA treatment. This was corroborated by using small interfering RNA against Smurf2. Further, WFA also blocked nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) signaling as assessed by tumor necrosis factor stimulated nuclear translocation of p65-subunit of NF-kB. Overall data show that in vitro proteasome inhibition by WFA simultaneously promoted osteoblastogenesis by stabilizing RunX2 and suppressed osteoclast differentiation, by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Oral administration of WFA to osteopenic ovariectomized mice increased osteoprogenitor cells in the bone marrow and increased expression of osteogenic genes. WFA

  9. Epigenetic Manipulation of a Filamentous Fungus by the Proteasome-Inhibitor Bortezomib Induces the Production of an Additional Secondary Metabolite

    PubMed Central

    VanderMolen, Karen M.; Darveaux, Blaise A.; Chen, Wei-Lun; Swanson, Steven M.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of epigenetic modifiers, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, has been explored increasingly as a technique to induce the production of additional microbial secondary metabolites. The application of such molecules to microbial cultures has been shown to upregulate otherwise suppressed genes, and in several cases has led to the production of new molecular structures. In this study, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was used to induce the production of an additional metabolite from a filamentous fungus (Pleosporales). The induced metabolite was previously isolated from a plant, but the configuration was not assigned until now; in addition, an analogue was isolated from a degraded sample, yielding a new compound. Proteasome inhibitors have not previously been used in this application and offer an additional tool for microbial genome mining. PMID:24955237

  10. The RNA-binding protein Musashi-1 regulates proteasome subunit expression in breast cancer- and glioma-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Lagadec, Chann; Vlashi, Erina; Frohnen, Patricia; Alhiyari, Yazeed; Chan, Mabel; Pajonk, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells, similar to normal tissue stem cells, rely on developmental pathways, such as the Notch pathway, to maintain their stem cell state. One of the regulators of the Notch pathway is Musashi-1, a mRNA-binding protein. Musashi-1 promotes Notch signaling by binding to the mRNA of Numb, the negative regulator of Notch signaling, thus preventing its translation. Cancer stem cells have also been shown to down-regulate their 26S proteasome activity in several types of solid tumors, thus making them resistant to proteasome-inhibitors used as anti-cancer agents in the clinic. Interestingly, the Notch pathway can be inhibited by proteasomal degradation of the Notch intracellular domain (Notch-ICD), therefore down-regulation of the 26S proteasome activity can lead to stabilization of Notch-ICD. Here we present evidence that the down-regulation of the 26S proteasome in CSCs constitutes another level of control by which Musashi-1 promotes signaling through the Notch pathway and maintenance of the stem cell phenotype of this subpopulation of cancer cells. We demonstrate that Musashi-1 mediates the down-regulation of the 26S proteasome by binding to the mRNA of NF-YA, the transcriptional factor regulating 26S proteasome subunit expression, thus providing an additional route by which the degradation of Notch-ICD is prevented, and Notch signaling is sustained. PMID:24022895

  11. Stabilization of mutant 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptors by proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin.

    PubMed

    Breuer, P; Braulke, T

    1998-12-11

    Palmitoylation of cysteine residue 34 within the 67-amino acid cytoplasmic domain of the 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR 46), which may be anchored to the lipid bilayer, prevents the receptor from entering lysosomes (Schweizer, A., Kornfeld, S., and Rohrer, J. (1996) J. Cell Biol. 132, 577-584). In the present study, we examined the importance of the spacing between the transmembrane domain and the palmitoylation anchor site in the cytoplasmic domain for stability and trafficking of MPR 46. MPR 46 mutants with deletions of residues 20-23 and 24-29 expressed in baby hamster kidney cells were rapidly degraded with half-lives of less than 10 h. The replacement of residues 24-29 by alanine resulted in prolongation of receptor stability (t(1)/(2) approximately 20 h). Whereas mutant MPR 46 could not be detected in lysosomal fractions and inhibitors of lysosomal proteases failed to prevent degradation, treatment with the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin resulted in increased stability of mutant MPR 46. Pulse-chase experiments at low temperature and the acquirement of endoglucosaminidase H-resistant oligosaccharides indicate that the majority of mutant MPR 46 is degraded after leaving the Golgi compartment. Altered trafficking of mutant MPR 46 may be the result of decreased palmitoylation reaching 40% of wild type receptors. The data suggest that the spacing between the transmembrane domain and the proposed palmitoylation anchor site in the cytoplasmic domain of MPR 46 is important for a post Golgi sorting step preventing receptor degradation by multiple proteolytic systems including the proteasome. PMID:9837896

  12. Proteasome Inhibitors Evoke Latent Tumor Suppression Programs in Pro-B MLL Leukemias Through MLL-AF4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Westergard, Todd D.; Cashen, Amanda; Piwnica-Worms, David R.; Kunkle, Lori; Vij, Ravi; Pham, Can G.; DiPersio, John; Cheng, Emily H.; Hsieh, James J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromosomal translocations disrupting MLL generate MLL-fusion proteins that induce aggressive leukemias. Unexpectedly, MLL-fusion proteins are rarely observed at high levels, suggesting excessive MLL-fusions may be incompatible with a malignant phenotype. Here, we used clinical proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib, to reduce the turnover of endogenous MLL-fusions and discovered that accumulated MLL-fusions induce latent, context-dependent tumor suppression programs. Specifically, in MLL pro-B lymphoid, but not myeloid, leukemias, proteasome inhibition triggers apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involving activation cleavage of BID by Caspase-8 and upregulation of p27, respectively. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition conferred preliminary benefit to MLL-AF4 leukemia patients. Hence, feasible strategies to treat cancer-type and oncogene specific cancers can be improvised through harnessing inherent tumor suppression properties of individual oncogenic fusions. PMID:24735925

  13. Clioquinol and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex with copper to form proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Kenyon G; Chen, Di; Orlu, Shirley; Cui, Qiuzhi Cindy; Miller, Fred R; Dou, Q Ping

    2005-01-01

    Introduction A physiological feature of many tumor tissues and cells is the tendency to accumulate high concentrations of copper. While the precise role of copper in tumors is cryptic, copper, but not other trace metals, is required for angiogenesis. We have recently reported that organic copper-containing compounds, including 8-hydroxyquinoline-copper(II) and 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline-copper(II), comprise a novel class of proteasome inhibitors and tumor cell apoptosis inducers. In the current study, we investigate whether clioquinol (CQ), an analog of 8-hydroxyquinoline and an Alzheimer's disease drug, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a known copper-binding compound and antioxidant, can interact with copper to form cancer-specific proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human breast cancer cells. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM), a strong copper chelator currently being tested in clinical trials, is used as a comparison. Methods Breast cell lines, normal, immortalized MCF-10A, premalignant MCF10AT1K.cl2, and malignant MCF10DCIS.com and MDA-MB-231, were treated with CQ or PDTC with or without prior interaction with copper, followed by measurement of proteasome inhibition and cell death. Inhibition of the proteasome was determined by levels of the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity and ubiquitinated proteins in protein extracts of the treated cells. Apoptotic cell death was measured by morphological changes, Hoechst staining, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Results When in complex with copper, both CQ and PDTC, but not TM, can inhibit the proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity, block proliferation, and induce apoptotic cell death preferentially in breast cancer cells, less in premalignant breast cells, but are non-toxic to normal/non-transformed breast cells at the concentrations tested. In contrast, CQ, PDTC, TM or copper alone had no effects on any of the cells. Breast premalignant or cancer cells that contain copper at concentrations

  14. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) with proteasome within endothelial cells activated with inflammatory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S

    2011-12-16

    Quiescent endothelial cells contain low concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2). However, its synthesis can be rapidly stimulated by a variety of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we provide evidence that PAI-2 interacts with proteasome and affects its activity in endothelial cells. To ensure that the PAI-2·proteasome complex is formed in vivo, both proteins were coimmunoprecipitated from endothelial cells and identified with specific antibodies. The specificity of this interaction was evidenced after (a) transfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-2 and coimmunoprecipitation of both proteins with anti-PAI-2 antibodies and (b) silencing of the PAI-2 gene using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). Subsequently, cellular distribution of the PAI-2·proteasome complexes was established by immunogold staining and electron microscopy analyses. As judged by confocal microscopy, both proteins appeared in a diffuse cytosolic pattern, but they also could be found in a dense perinuclear and nuclear location. PAI-2 was not polyubiquitinated, suggesting that it bound to proteasome not as the substrate but rather as its inhibitor. Consistently, increased PAI-2 expression (a) abrogated degradation of degron analyzed after cotransfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-2 and pd2EGFP-N1, (b) prevented degradation of p53, as evidenced both by confocal microscopy and Western immunoblotting, and (c) inhibited proteasome cleavage of specific fluorogenic substrate. This suggests that PAI-2, in endothelial cells induced with inflammatory stimuli, can inhibit proteasome and thus tilt the balance favoring proapoptotic signaling.

  15. Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 2 (PAI-2) with Proteasome within Endothelial Cells Activated with Inflammatory Stimuli*

    PubMed Central

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S.

    2011-01-01

    Quiescent endothelial cells contain low concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2). However, its synthesis can be rapidly stimulated by a variety of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we provide evidence that PAI-2 interacts with proteasome and affects its activity in endothelial cells. To ensure that the PAI-2·proteasome complex is formed in vivo, both proteins were coimmunoprecipitated from endothelial cells and identified with specific antibodies. The specificity of this interaction was evidenced after (a) transfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-2 and coimmunoprecipitation of both proteins with anti-PAI-2 antibodies and (b) silencing of the PAI-2 gene using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). Subsequently, cellular distribution of the PAI-2·proteasome complexes was established by immunogold staining and electron microscopy analyses. As judged by confocal microscopy, both proteins appeared in a diffuse cytosolic pattern, but they also could be found in a dense perinuclear and nuclear location. PAI-2 was not polyubiquitinated, suggesting that it bound to proteasome not as the substrate but rather as its inhibitor. Consistently, increased PAI-2 expression (a) abrogated degradation of degron analyzed after cotransfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-2 and pd2EGFP-N1, (b) prevented degradation of p53, as evidenced both by confocal microscopy and Western immunoblotting, and (c) inhibited proteasome cleavage of specific fluorogenic substrate. This suggests that PAI-2, in endothelial cells induced with inflammatory stimuli, can inhibit proteasome and thus tilt the balance favoring proapoptotic signaling. PMID:21976669

  16. Shikonin, dually functions as a proteasome inhibitor and a necroptosis inducer in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Wada, Naoko; Kawano, Yawara; Fujiwara, Shiho; Kikukawa, Yoshitaka; Okuno, Yutaka; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Ando, Yukio; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Ri, Masaki; Iida, Shinsuke; Nakashima, Takayuki; Shiotsu, Yukimasa; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Hata, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Shikonin (SHK), a natural small agent (MW 288.3), reportedly induces cell death in various tumor cells. We have found that SHK also exerts potent cytocidal effects on human multiple myeloma (MM) cells, but its anticancer mechanism in MM cells remains to be elucidated. SHK at 2.5-5 µM induced apoptosis in seven MM cell lines, including the bortezomib-resistant cell line KMS11/BTZ. The IC50 value of SHK against KMS11/BTZ was comparable to that of a parental cell line KMS11 (1.1 and 1.56 µM, respectively). SHK induces accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and activates XBP-1 in MM cells, suggesting that SHK functions as a proteasome inhibitor, eventually inducing ER stress-associated apoptosis. SHK increases levels of HSP70/72, which protects cells from apoptosis, and exerts greater cytocidal effects in combination with the HSP70/72 inhibitor VER-155008. At higher concentrations (10-20 µM), SHK induced cell death, which was completely inhibited by a necroptosis inhibitor, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), while the cytocidal activity was unaffected by Z-VAD-FMK, strongly suggesting that cell death is induced by SHK at high concentrations through necroptosis. The present data show for the first time that SHK induces cell death in MM cells. SHK efficiently induces apoptosis and combination of heat shock protein inhibitor with low dose SHK enhances apoptosis, while high dose SHK induces necroptosis in MM cells. These findings together support the use of SHK as a potential therapeutic agent for MM. PMID:25530098

  17. Compromising the 19S proteasome complex protects cells from reduced flux through the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkov, Peter; Mendillo, Marc L; Zhao, Jinghui; Carette, Jan E; Merrill, Parker H; Cikes, Domagoj; Varadarajan, Malini; van Diemen, Ferdy R; Penninger, Josef M; Goldberg, Alfred L; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Santagata, Sandro; Lindquist, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are central regulators of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. Proteasome function is vulnerable to environmental insults, cellular protein imbalance and targeted pharmaceuticals. Yet, mechanisms that cells deploy to counteract inhibition of this central regulator are little understood. To find such mechanisms, we reduced flux through the proteasome to the point of toxicity with specific inhibitors and performed genome-wide screens for mutations that allowed cells to survive. Counter to expectation, reducing expression of individual subunits of the proteasome's 19S regulatory complex increased survival. Strong 19S reduction was cytotoxic but modest reduction protected cells from inhibitors. Protection was accompanied by an increased ratio of 20S to 26S proteasomes, preservation of protein degradation capacity and reduced proteotoxic stress. While compromise of 19S function can have a fitness cost under basal conditions, it provided a powerful survival advantage when proteasome function was impaired. This means of rebalancing proteostasis is conserved from yeast to humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08467.001 PMID:26327695

  18. The proteasome stress regulon is controlled by a pair of NAC transcription factors in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteotoxic stress is mitigated by a variety of mechanisms, including activation of the unfolded protein response and co-ordinated increases in protein chaperones and activities that direct proteolysis such as the 26S proteasome. Using RNA-seq analyses combined with either chemical inhibitors or mut...

  19. The proteasome stress regulon is controlled by a pair of NAC transcription factors in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteotoxic stress is mitigated by a variety of mechanisms, including activation of the unfolded protein response and coordinated increases in protein chaperones and activities that direct proteolysis such as the 26S proteasome. Using RNA-seq analyses combined with either chemical inhibitors or mut...

  20. Crystal structure of N-{N-[N-acetyl-(S)-leucyl]-(S)-leucyl}norleucinal (ALLN), an inhibitor of proteasome

    DOE PAGES

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Basava, Channa; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    The title compound, C20H37N3O4, also known by the acronym ALLN, is a tripeptidic inhibitor of the proteolytic activity of the proteasomes, enzyme complexes implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases and other disorders, including cancer. Thus, the crystal structure of ALLN, solved from synchrotron radiation diffraction data, revealed the molecules in extended conformation of the backbone and engaging all peptide N and O atoms in intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming an infinite antiparallel β-sheet.

  1. Selective overproduction of the proteasome inhibitor salinosporamide A via precursor pathway regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Anna; Eustáquio, Alessandra S.; Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Hafner, Mathias; Moore, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The chlorinated natural product salinosporamide A is a potent 20S proteasome inhibitor currently in clinical trials as an anticancer agent. To deepen our understanding of salinosporamide biosynthesis, we investigated the function of a LuxR-type pathway-specific regulatory gene, salR2, and observed a selective effect on the production of salinosporamide A over its less active aliphatic analogs. SalR2 was shown to specifically activate genes involved in the biosynthesis of the halogenated precursor chloroethylmalonyl-CoA, which is a dedicated precursor of salinosporamide A. Specifically, SalR2 activates transcription of two divergent operons – one of which contains the unique S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent chlorinase encoding gene salL. By applying this knowledge towards rational engineering, we were able to selectively double salinosporamide A production. This study exemplifies the specialized regulation of a polyketide precursor pathway and its application to the selective overproduction of a specific natural product congener. PMID:22195555

  2. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae uses proteasome inhibitor syringolin A to colonize from wound infection sites.

    PubMed

    Misas-Villamil, Johana C; Kolodziejek, Izabella; Crabill, Emerson; Kaschani, Farnusch; Niessen, Sherry; Shindo, Takayuki; Kaiser, Markus; Alfano, James R; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2013-03-01

    Infection of plants by bacterial leaf pathogens at wound sites is common in nature. Plants defend wound sites to prevent pathogen invasion, but several pathogens can overcome spatial restriction and enter leaf tissues. The molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to suppress containment at wound infection sites are poorly understood. Here, we studied Pseudomonas syringae strains causing brown spot on bean and blossom blight on pear. These strains exist as epiphytes that can cause disease upon wounding caused by hail, sand storms and frost. We demonstrate that these strains overcome spatial restriction at wound sites by producing syringolin A (SylA), a small molecule proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, SylA-producing strains are able to escape from primary infection sites and colonize adjacent tissues along the vasculature. We found that SylA diffuses from the primary infection site and suppresses acquired resistance in adjacent tissues by blocking signaling by the stress hormone salicylic acid (SA). Thus, SylA diffusion creates a zone of SA-insensitive tissue that is prepared for subsequent colonization. In addition, SylA promotes bacterial motility and suppresses immune responses at the primary infection site. These local immune responses do not affect bacterial growth and were weak compared to effector-triggered immunity. Thus, SylA facilitates colonization from wounding sites by increasing bacterial motility and suppressing SA signaling in adjacent tissues. PMID:23555272

  3. Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a Multiple Myeloma Patient Treated with Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, Nikolai P.; Kadayakkara, Deepak K.; Forde, Inga C.; Rudkovaskaia, Anastasiia; Saul, Zane K.; Lobo, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 71 Final Diagnosis: Pulmonary nocardiosis Symptoms: Cough • dyspnea • fever Medication: Carfillzomib Clinical Procedure: Bronchoscopy Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: The use of proteasome inhibitors like Bortezomib to treat multiple myeloma has been associated with increased rates of opportunistic infections, including Nocardia, especially when lymphopenia is present. The prevalence or association of such infections with newer agents like Carfilzomib is not known. Case Report: A 71-year-old man with multiple myeloma presented with a 6-week history of respiratory symptoms and cyclic fevers. He was undergoing chemotherapy with Carfilzomib. Work-up revealed severe lymphopenia and a CT chest showed multiple lung nodules and a mass-like consolidation. He underwent a bronchoscopy, and respiratory cultures grew Nocardia species. He responded well to intravenous antibiotics with resolution of symptoms and CT findings. Conclusions: With the introduction of newer agents like Carfilzomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma, clinicians must maintain a high degree of suspicion for opportunistic infections to achieve early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26861506

  4. Sorafenib enhances proteasome inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity via inhibition of unfolded protein response and keratin phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to conventional systemic therapies and prognosis for advanced HCC patients remains poor. Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression have identified several potential molecular targets in HCC. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor shown to have survival benefits in advanced HCC. It acts by inhibiting the serine/threonine kinases and the receptor type tyrosine kinases. In preclinical experiments sorafenib had anti-proliferative activity in hepatoma cells and it reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib include its inhibitory effects on protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response (UPR) and keratin phosphorylation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, we show that combined treatment with sorafenib and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) synergistically induced a marked increase in cell death in hepatoma- and hepatocyte-derived cells. These observations may open the way to potentially interesting treatment combinations that may augment the effect of sorafenib, possibly including drugs that promote ER stress. Because sorafenib blocked the cellular defense mechanisms against hepatotoxic injury not only in hepatoma cells but also in hepatocyte-derived cells, we must be careful to avoid severe liver injury. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •We examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib in hepatoma cells. •Sorafenib induces cell death via apoptotic and necrotic fashion. •Sorafenib inhibits protein ubiquitination and unfolded protein response. •Autophagy induced by sorafenib may affect its cytotoxicity. •Sorafenib inhibits keratin phosphorylation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation.

  5. A plastic SQSTM1/p62-dependent autophagic reserve maintains proteostasis and determines proteasome inhibitor susceptibility in multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Enrico; Perini, Tommaso; Resnati, Massimo; Orfanelli, Ugo; Oliva, Laura; Raimondi, Andrea; Cascio, Paolo; Bachi, Angela; Marcatti, Magda; Ciceri, Fabio; Cenci, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the paradigmatic proteasome inhibitor (PI) responsive cancer, but many patients fail to respond. An attractive target to enhance sensitivity is (macro)autophagy, recently found essential to bone marrow plasma cells, the normal counterpart of MM. Here, integrating proteomics with hypothesis-driven strategies, we identified the autophagic cargo receptor and adapter protein, SQSTM1/p62 as an essential component of an autophagic reserve that not only synergizes with the proteasome to maintain proteostasis, but also mediates a plastic adaptive response to PIs, and faithfully reports on inherent PI sensitivity. Lentiviral engineering revealed that SQSTM1 is essential for MM cell survival and affords specific PI protection. Under basal conditions, SQSTM1-dependent autophagy alleviates the degradative burden on the proteasome by constitutively disposing of substantial amounts of ubiquitinated proteins. Indeed, its inhibition or stimulation greatly sensitized to, or protected from, PI-induced protein aggregation and cell death. Moreover, under proteasome stress, myeloma cells selectively enhanced SQSTM1 de novo expression and reset its vast endogenous interactome, diverting SQSTM1 from signaling partners to maximize its association with ubiquitinated proteins. Saturation of such autophagic reserve, as indicated by intracellular accumulation of undigested SQSTM1-positive aggregates, specifically discriminated patient-derived myelomas inherently susceptible to PIs from primarily resistant ones. These aggregates correlated with accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum, which comparative proteomics identified as the main cell compartment targeted by autophagy in MM. Altogether, the data integrate autophagy into our previously established proteasome load-versus-capacity model, and reveal SQSTM1 aggregation as a faithful marker of defective proteostasis, defining a novel prognostic and therapeutic framework for MM. PMID:26043024

  6. Next-generation proteasome inhibitor oprozomib synergizes with modulators of the unfolded protein response to suppress hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vandewynckel, Yves-Paul; Coucke, Céline; Laukens, Debby; Devisscher, Lindsey; Paridaens, Annelies; Bogaerts, Eliene; Vandierendonck, Astrid; Raevens, Sarah; Verhelst, Xavier; Van Steenkiste, Christophe; Libbrecht, Louis; Geerts, Anja; Van Vlierberghe, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) responds poorly to conventional systemic therapies. The first-in-class proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has been approved in clinical use for hematologic malignancies and has shown modest activity in solid tumors, including HCC. However, a considerable proportion of patients fail to respond and experience important adverse events. Recently, the next-generation orally bioavailable irreversible proteasome inhibitor oprozomib was developed. Here, we assessed the efficacy of oprozomib and its effects on the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling cascade activated through the ATF6, PERK and IRE1 pathways by accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, in HCC. The effects of oprozomib and the role of the UPR were evaluated in HCC cell lines and in diethylnitrosamine-induced and xenograft mouse models for HCC. Oprozomib dose-dependently reduced the viability and proliferation of human HCC cells. Unexpectedly, oprozomib-treated cells displayed diminished cytoprotective ATF6-mediated signal transduction as well as unaltered PERK and IRE1 signaling. However, oprozomib increased pro-apoptotic UPR-mediated protein levels by prolonging their half-life, implying that the proteasome acts as a negative UPR regulator. Supplementary boosting of UPR activity synergistically improved the sensitivity to oprozomib via the PERK pathway. Oral oprozomib displayed significant antitumor effects in the orthotopic and xenograft models for HCC, and importantly, combining oprozomib with different UPR activators enhanced the antitumor efficacy by stimulating UPR-induced apoptosis without cumulative toxicity. In conclusion, next-generation proteasome inhibition by oprozomib results in dysregulated UPR activation in HCC. This finding can be exploited to enhance the antitumor efficacy by combining oprozomib with clinically applicable UPR activators. PMID:27167000

  7. Selective intracellular delivery of proteasome inhibitors through pH-sensitive polymeric micelles directed to efficient antitumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Quader, S; Cabral, H; Mochida, Y; Ishii, T; Liu, X; Toh, K; Kinoh, H; Miura, Y; Nishiyama, N; Kataoka, K

    2014-08-28

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is central in the regulation of cellular proteins controlling cell cycle progression and apoptosis, drawing much interest for developing effective targeted cancer therapies. Herein, we developed a novel pH-responsive polymeric-micelle-based carrier system to effectively deliver the proteasome inhibitor MG132 into cancer cells. MG132 is covalently bound to the block copolymer composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyaspartate through an acid-labile hydrazone bond. This bond is stable at physiological condition, but hydrolytically degradable in acidic compartments in the cell, such as late-endosomes and lysosomes, and thus, it was used for controlled release of MG132 after EPR-mediated preferential accumulation of the micelles into the tumor. MG132-loaded micelles have monodispersed size distribution with an average diameter of 45nm, and critical micelle concentration is well below 10(-7)M. In vitro studies against several cancer cell lines confirmed that MG132-loaded micelles retained the cytotoxic effect, and this activity was indeed due to the inhibition of proteasome by released MG132 from the micelles. Real-time in vitro confocal-microscopy experiments clearly indicated that MG132-conjugated micelles disintegrated only inside the target cells. By intravital confocal micro-videography, we also confirmed the prolonged circulation of MG132 loaded micelles in the bloodstream, which lead to tumor specific accumulation of micelles, as confirmed by in vivo imaging 24h after injection. These micelles showed significantly lower in vivo toxicity than free MG132, while achieving remarkable antitumor effect against a subcutaneous HeLa-luc tumor model. Our findings create a paradigm for future development of polymeric-micelle-based carrier system for other peptide aldehyde type proteasome inhibitors to make them effective cohort of the existing cancer therapeutic regiments. PMID:24892974

  8. [Effect of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib on proliferation, apoptosis and SHIP gene expression in K562 cells].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Wei, Yu-Tao; Li, Ai-Ming; Cheng, Zhi-Yong

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib on proliferation, apoptosis and the SHIP expression of K562 cells. K562 cells were treated with bortezomib of different concentrations. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and SHIP mRNA expression was assayed by RT-PCR.The results showed that after being treated with 10, 20, 50 and 100 nmol/L bortezomib for 24 h, the inhibitory rates of K562 cells were (5.76 ± 1.47)%, (10.55 ± 1.59)%, (17.14 ± 2.05)% and (27.69 ± 3.57)% respectively, and were higher than that in control (1.30 ± 0.10); when K562 cells were treated with 20 nmol/L bortezomib for 24, 48 and 72 h, the inhibitory rates of cell proliferation were (10.55 ± 1.59)%, (16.33 ± 2.53)% and (19.78 ± 1.56)% respectively, there was statistic difference of cell proliferation rate between 24 h group and 48 h group (P < 0.05). After being treated with 10,20,50,100 nmol/L bortezomib for 24 h, the apoptotic rates of K562 cells were (12.7 ± 0.6)%, (26.9 ± 0.9)%, (32.6 ± 1.2)% and (72.5 ± 1.5)% respectively,and all higher than that in control (1.0 ± 0.5)% (P < 0.05). According to results of RT-PCR detection, the expression level of SHIP mRNA was obviously up-regulated after treatment with bortezomib, and showed statistical difference in comparison with control. It is concluded that bortezomib inhibits proliferation of K562 cells in time and concentration-dependent manner and induces apoptosis through up-regulation of SHIP gene.

  9. Identification of Long Non-Coding RNAs Deregulated in Multiple Myeloma Cells Resistant to Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Ehsan; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Driscoll, James J.

    2016-01-01

    While the clinical benefit of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) for multiple myeloma (MM) treatment remains unchallenged, dose-limiting toxicities and the inevitable emergence of drug resistance limit their long-term utility. Disease eradication is compromised by drug resistance that is either present de novo or therapy-induced, which accounts for the majority of tumor relapses and MM-related deaths. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a broad class of RNA molecules, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), that do not encode proteins but play a major role in regulating the fundamental cellular processes that control cancer initiation, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. While lncRNAs have recently attracted significant attention as therapeutic targets to potentially improve cancer treatment, identification of lncRNAs that are deregulated in cells resistant to PIs has not been previously addressed. We have modeled drug resistance by generating three MM cell lines with acquired resistance to either bortezomib, carfilzomib, or ixazomib. Genome-wide profiling identified lncRNAs that were significantly deregulated in all three PI-resistant cell lines relative to the drug-sensitive parental cell line. Strikingly, certain lncRNAs deregulated in the three PI-resistant cell lines were also deregulated in MM plasma cells isolated from newly diagnosed patients compared to healthy plasma cells. Taken together, these preliminary studies strongly suggest that lncRNAs represent potential therapeutic targets to prevent or overcome drug resistance. More investigations are ongoing to expand these initial studies in a greater number of MM patients to better define lncRNAs signatures that contribute to PI resistance in MM. PMID:27782060

  10. Evolution of proteasome regulators in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Fort, Philippe; Kajava, Andrey V; Delsuc, Fredéric; Coux, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    All living organisms require protein degradation to terminate biological processes and remove damaged proteins. One such machine is the 20S proteasome, a specialized barrel-shaped and compartmentalized multicatalytic protease. The activity of the 20S proteasome generally requires the binding of regulators/proteasome activators (PAs), which control the entrance of substrates. These include the PA700 (19S complex), which assembles with the 20S and forms the 26S proteasome and allows the efficient degradation of proteins usually labeled by ubiquitin tags, PA200 and PA28, which are involved in proteolysis through ubiquitin-independent mechanisms and PI31, which was initially identified as a 20S inhibitor in vitro. Unlike 20S proteasome, shown to be present in all Eukaryotes and Archaea, the evolutionary history of PAs remained fragmentary. Here, we made a comprehensive survey and phylogenetic analyses of the four types of regulators in 17 clades covering most of the eukaryotic supergroups. We found remarkable conservation of each PA700 subunit in all eukaryotes, indicating that the current complex PA700 structure was already set up in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Also present in LECA, PA200, PA28, and PI31 showed a more contrasted evolutionary picture, because many lineages have subsequently lost one or two of them. The paramount conservation of PA700 composition in all eukaryotes and the dynamic evolution of PA200, PA28, and PI31 are discussed in the light of current knowledge on their physiological roles.

  11. Evolution of Proteasome Regulators in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Philippe; Kajava, Andrey V.; Delsuc, Fredéric; Coux, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms require protein degradation to terminate biological processes and remove damaged proteins. One such machine is the 20S proteasome, a specialized barrel-shaped and compartmentalized multicatalytic protease. The activity of the 20S proteasome generally requires the binding of regulators/proteasome activators (PAs), which control the entrance of substrates. These include the PA700 (19S complex), which assembles with the 20S and forms the 26S proteasome and allows the efficient degradation of proteins usually labeled by ubiquitin tags, PA200 and PA28, which are involved in proteolysis through ubiquitin-independent mechanisms and PI31, which was initially identified as a 20S inhibitor in vitro. Unlike 20S proteasome, shown to be present in all Eukaryotes and Archaea, the evolutionary history of PAs remained fragmentary. Here, we made a comprehensive survey and phylogenetic analyses of the four types of regulators in 17 clades covering most of the eukaryotic supergroups. We found remarkable conservation of each PA700 subunit in all eukaryotes, indicating that the current complex PA700 structure was already set up in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Also present in LECA, PA200, PA28, and PI31 showed a more contrasted evolutionary picture, because many lineages have subsequently lost one or two of them. The paramount conservation of PA700 composition in all eukaryotes and the dynamic evolution of PA200, PA28, and PI31 are discussed in the light of current knowledge on their physiological roles. PMID:25943340

  12. Arabidopsis PROTEASOME REGULATOR1 is required for auxin-mediated suppression of proteasome activity and regulates auxin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bao-Jun; Han, Xin-Xin; Yin, Lin-Lin; Xing, Mei-Qing; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is perceived by the nuclear F-box protein TIR1 receptor family and regulates gene expression through degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Several studies have revealed the importance of the proteasome in auxin signalling, but details on how the proteolytic machinery is regulated and how this relates to degradation of Aux/IAA proteins remains unclear. Here we show that an Arabidopsis homologue of the proteasome inhibitor PI31, which we name PROTEASOME REGULATOR1 (PTRE1), is a positive regulator of the 26S proteasome. Loss-of-function ptre1 mutants are insensitive to auxin-mediated suppression of proteasome activity, show diminished auxin-induced degradation of Aux/IAA proteins and display auxin-related phenotypes. We found that auxin alters the subcellular localization of PTRE1, suggesting this may be part of the mechanism by which it reduces proteasome activity. Based on these results, we propose that auxin regulates proteasome activity via PTRE1 to fine-tune the homoeostasis of Aux/IAA repressor proteins thus modifying auxin activity. PMID:27109828

  13. Arabidopsis PROTEASOME REGULATOR1 is required for auxin-mediated suppression of proteasome activity and regulates auxin signalling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bao-Jun; Han, Xin-Xin; Yin, Lin-Lin; Xing, Mei-Qing; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is perceived by the nuclear F-box protein TIR1 receptor family and regulates gene expression through degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Several studies have revealed the importance of the proteasome in auxin signalling, but details on how the proteolytic machinery is regulated and how this relates to degradation of Aux/IAA proteins remains unclear. Here we show that an Arabidopsis homologue of the proteasome inhibitor PI31, which we name PROTEASOME REGULATOR1 (PTRE1), is a positive regulator of the 26S proteasome. Loss-of-function ptre1 mutants are insensitive to auxin-mediated suppression of proteasome activity, show diminished auxin-induced degradation of Aux/IAA proteins and display auxin-related phenotypes. We found that auxin alters the subcellular localization of PTRE1, suggesting this may be part of the mechanism by which it reduces proteasome activity. Based on these results, we propose that auxin regulates proteasome activity via PTRE1 to fine-tune the homoeostasis of Aux/IAA repressor proteins thus modifying auxin activity. PMID:27109828

  14. Proteasome Inhibitors Block DNA Repair and Radiosensitize Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Deepa S.; Hsieh, Grace; Merzon, Dmitry; Rameseder, Jonathan; Chen, Clark C.; D’Andrea, Alan D.; Kozono, David

    2013-01-01

    Despite optimal radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy and/or surgery, a majority of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fail treatment. To identify novel gene targets for improved tumor control, we performed whole genome RNAi screens to identify knockdowns that most reproducibly increase NSCLC cytotoxicity. These screens identified several proteasome subunits among top hits, including the topmost hit PSMA1, a component of the core 20 S proteasome. Radiation and proteasome inhibition showed synergistic effects. Proteasome inhibition resulted in an 80–90% decrease in homologous recombination (HR), a 50% decrease in expression of NF-κB-inducible HR genes BRCA1 and FANCD2, and a reduction of BRCA1, FANCD2 and RAD51 ionizing radiation-induced foci. IκBα RNAi knockdown rescued NSCLC radioresistance. Irradiation of mice with NCI-H460 xenografts after inducible PSMA1 shRNA knockdown markedly increased murine survival compared to either treatment alone. Proteasome inhibition is a promising strategy for NSCLC radiosensitization via inhibition of NF-κB-mediated expression of Fanconi Anemia/HR DNA repair genes. PMID:24040035

  15. Induction of autophagy by the MG‑132 proteasome inhibitor is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress in MCF‑7 cells.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wenhua; Gu, Yiqi; Ta, La; Wang, Keren; Xu, Zheli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in MG‑132‑induced autophagy, and to determine the effects of the inhibition of autophagy and ER stress on cell viability following MG‑132 treatment. The proteasome inhibitor, MG‑132, was used to induce autophagy in MCF‑7 cells, and 3‑methyladenine (3‑MA) and salubrinal were used to inhibit autophagy and ER stress, respectively. An MTT assay was used to analyze cell viability. Apoptosis and the cell cycle were analyzed using flow cytometry. The expression levels of apoptosis‑ and ER stress‑associated genes were investigated using western blot and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. MG‑132 inhibited cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Notably, MG‑132 increased the autophagy‑associated conversion of microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)‑I to LC3‑II, which was partially attenuated by the ER stress inhibitor, salubrinal. In addition, MG‑132 inhibited the protein expression of the anti‑apoptotic protein, B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2, whereas the expression levels of Bcl‑2‑associated X protein and caspase‑3 were upregulated. These effects were enhanced by co‑treatment with either 3‑MA or salubrinal. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of the ER stress‑associated genes, glucose‑regulated protein 78, growth arrest and DNA damage induced gene‑153, and caspase‑12, were upregulated by MG132, and these levels were significantly inhibited by co‑treatment of the cells with salubrinal. Taken together, the results of the present study indicated that the induction of autophagy by the proteasome inhibitor was associated with ER stress in the MCF‑7 cells, and that the inhibition of autophagy or ER stress enhanced MG‑132‑induced apoptosis. These findings suggest the potential application of inhibitors of ER

  16. 3D-QSAR-aided design, synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of dipeptidyl boronic acid proteasome inhibitors and mechanism studies.

    PubMed

    Lei, Meng; Feng, Huayun; Wang, Cheng; Li, Hailing; Shi, Jingmiao; Wang, Jia; Liu, Zhaogang; Chen, Shanshan; Hu, Shihe; Zhu, Yongqiang

    2016-06-01

    Proteasome had been clinically validated as an effective target for the treatment of cancers. Up to now, many structurally diverse proteasome inhibitors were discovered. And two of them were launched to treat multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Based on our previous biological results of dipeptidyl boronic acid proteasome inhibitors, robust 3D-QSAR models were developed and structure-activity relationship (SAR) was summarized. Several structurally novel compounds were designed based on the theoretical models and finally synthesized. Biological results showed that compound 12e was as active as the standard bortezomib in enzymatic and cellular activities. In vivo pharmacokinetic profiles suggested compound 12e showed a long half-life, which indicated that it could be administered intravenously. Cell cycle analysis indicated that compound 12e inhibited cell cycle progression at the G2M stage. PMID:27117691

  17. Turnover of mitochondrial steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein by Lon protease: the unexpected effect of proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Granot, Zvi; Kobiler, Oren; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Eimerl, Sarah; Bahat, Assaf; Lu, Bin; Braun, Sergei; Maurizi, Michael R; Suzuki, Carolyn K; Oppenheim, Amos B; Orly, Joseph

    2007-09-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is a vital mitochondrial protein promoting transfer of cholesterol into steroid making mitochondria in specialized cells of the adrenal cortex and gonads. Our previous work has demonstrated that StAR is rapidly degraded upon import into the mitochondrial matrix. To identify the protease(s) responsible for this rapid turnover, murine StAR was expressed in wild-type Escherichia coli or in mutant strains lacking one of the four ATP-dependent proteolytic systems, three of which are conserved in mammalian mitochondria-ClpP, FtsH, and Lon. StAR was rapidly degraded in wild-type bacteria and stabilized only in lon (-)mutants; in such cells, StAR turnover was fully restored upon coexpression of human mitochondrial Lon. In mammalian cells, the rate of StAR turnover was proportional to the cell content of Lon protease after expression of a Lon-targeted small interfering RNA, or overexpression of the protein. In vitro assays using purified proteins showed that Lon-mediated degradation of StAR was ATP-dependent and blocked by the proteasome inhibitors MG132 (IC(50) = 20 microm) and clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone (cLbetaL, IC(50) = 3 microm); by contrast, epoxomicin, representing a different class of proteasome inhibitors, had no effect. Such inhibition is consistent with results in cultured rat ovarian granulosa cells demonstrating that degradation of StAR in the mitochondrial matrix is blocked by MG132 and cLbetaL but not by epoxomicin. Both inhibitors also blocked Lon-mediated cleavage of the model substrate fluorescein isothiocyanate-casein. Taken together, our former studies and the present results suggest that Lon is the primary ATP-dependent protease responsible for StAR turnover in mitochondria of steroidogenic cells.

  18. L-Ornithine Schiff base-copper and -cadmium complexes as new proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyu; Bi, Caifeng; Fan, Yuhua; Zhang, Nan; Deshmukh, Rahul; Yan, Xingchen; Lv, Xiuwen; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Xia; Dou, Q Ping

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in many cellular processes such as cell cycle, proliferation and apoptosis. Aberrant activation of UPS may result in cellular transformation or other altered pathological conditions. Previous studies have shown that metal-based complexes could inhibit proteasome activity and induce apoptosis in certain human cancer cells. In the current study, we report that the cadmium and copper complexes with heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base are potent inhibitors of proteasomal chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) activity, leading to induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Two novel copper-containing complexes and two novel cadmium-containing complexes with different heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base structures as ligands were synthesized and characterized. We found that complexes Cu1, Cd1 and Cd2 show proteasome-inhibitory activities in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and human prostate cancer LNCaP cells, resulting in the accumulation of p27, a natural proteasome substrate and other ubiquitinated proteins, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Our results suggest that metal complexes with heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base have proteasome-inhibitory capabilities and have the potential to be developed into novel anticancer drugs.

  19. Intracellular colocalization of HAP1/STBs with steroid hormone receptors and its enhancement by a proteasome inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Fujinaga, Ryutaro; Takeshita, Yukio; Yoshioka, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Shuhei; Islam, Md. Nabiul; Jahan, Mir Rubayet; Yanai, Akie; Kokubu, Keiji; Shinoda, Koh

    2011-07-15

    The stigmoid body (STB) is a cytoplasmic inclusion containing huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1), and HAP1/STB formation is induced by transfection of the HAP1 gene into cultured cells. In the present study, we examined the intracellular colocalization of HAP1/STBs with steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), including the androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptor, in COS-7 cells cotransfected with HAP1 and each receptor. We found that C-terminal ligand-binding domains of all SHRs had potential for colocalization with HAP1/STBs, whereas only AR and GR were clearly colocalized with HAP1/STBs when each full-length SHR was coexpressed with HAP1. In addition, it appeared that HAP1/STBs did not disrupt GR and AR functions because the receptors on HAP1/STBs maintained nuclear translocation activity in response to their specific ligands. When the cells were treated with a proteasome inhibitor, GR and AR localized outside HAP1/STBs translocated into the nucleus, whereas the receptors colocalized with HAP1/STBs persisted in their colocalization even after treatment with their ligands. Therefore, HAP1/STBs may be involved in cytoplasmic modifications of the nuclear translocation of GR and AR in a ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  20. Generating a Generation of Proteasome Inhibitors: From Microbial Fermentation to Total Synthesis of Salinosporamide A (Marizomib) and Other Salinosporamides

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Barbara C.; Lam, Kin S.

    2010-01-01

    The salinosporamides are potent proteasome inhibitors among which the parent marine-derived natural product salinosporamide A (marizomib; NPI-0052; 1) is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. Methods to generate this class of compounds include fermentation and natural products chemistry, precursor-directed biosynthesis, mutasynthesis, semi-synthesis, and total synthesis. The end products range from biochemical tools for probing mechanism of action to clinical trials materials; in turn, the considerable efforts to produce the target molecules have expanded the technologies used to generate them. Here, the full complement of methods is reviewed, reflecting remarkable contributions from scientists of various disciplines over a period of 7 years since the first publication of the structure of 1. PMID:20479958

  1. Rescue of Murine F508del CFTR Activity in Native Intestine by Low Temperature and Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Martina; Bot, Alice; Jorna, Huub; Scholte, Bob J.; de Jonge, Hugo R.

    2012-01-01

    Most patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) carry at least one allele with the F508del mutation, resulting in a CFTR chloride channel protein with a processing, gating and stability defect, but with substantial residual activity when correctly sorted to the apical membranes of epithelial cells. New therapies are therefore aimed at improving the folding and trafficking of F508del CFTR, (CFTR correctors) or at enhancing the open probability of the CFTR chloride channel (CFTR potentiators). Preventing premature breakdown of F508del CFTR is an alternative or additional strategy, which is investigated in this study. We established an ex vivo assay for murine F508del CFTR rescue in native intestinal epithelium that can be used as a pre-clinical test for candidate therapeutics. Overnight incubation of muscle stripped ileum in modified William's E medium at low temperature (26°C), and 4 h or 6 h incubation at 37°C with different proteasome inhibitors (PI: ALLN, MG-132, epoxomicin, PS341/bortezomib) resulted in fifty to hundred percent respectively of the wild type CFTR mediated chloride secretion (forskolin induced short-circuit current). The functional rescue was accompanied by enhanced expression of the murine F508del CFTR protein at the apical surface of intestinal crypts and a gain in the amount of complex-glycosylated CFTR (band C) up to 20% of WT levels. Sustained rescue in the presence of brefeldin A shows the involvement of a post-Golgi compartment in murine F508del CFTR degradation, as was shown earlier for its human counterpart. Our data show that proteasome inhibitors are promising candidate compounds for improving rescue of human F508del CFTR function, in combination with available correctors and potentiators. PMID:23284872

  2. Proteasome Activation is a Mechanism for Pyrazolone Small Molecules Displaying Therapeutic Potential in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease. Pyrazolone containing small molecules have shown significant disease attenuating efficacy in cellular and murine models of ALS. Pyrazolone based affinity probes were synthesized to identify high affinity binding partners and ascertain a potential biological mode of action. Probes were confirmed to be neuroprotective in PC12-SOD1G93A cells. PC12-SOD1G93A cell lysates were used for protein pull-down, affinity purification, and subsequent proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS. Proteomics identified the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 4 (PSMC1), 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 6B (PSMC4), and T-complex protein 1 (TCP-1) as putative protein targets. Coincubation with appropriate competitors confirmed the authenticity of the proteomics results. Activation of the proteasome by pyrazolones was demonstrated in the absence of exogenous proteasome inhibitor and by restoration of cellular protein degradation of a fluorogenic proteasome substrate in PC12-SOD1G93A cells. Importantly, supplementary studies indicated that these molecules do not induce a heat shock response. We propose that pyrazolones represent a rare class of molecules that enhance proteasomal activation in the absence of a heat shock response and may have therapeutic potential in ALS. PMID:25001311

  3. Increased resistance to proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma mediated by cIAP2 - implications for a combinatorial treatment

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Prasoon; Arngården, Linda; Hammarberg, Anna; Maes, Ken; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Vanderkerken, Karin; Wiklund, Helena Jernberg

    2015-01-01

    Despite the introduction of new treatment options for multiple myeloma (MM), a majority of patients relapse due to the development of resistance. Unraveling new mechanisms underlying resistance could lead to identification of possible targets for combinatorial treatment. Using TRAF3 deleted/mutated MM cell lines, we evaluated the role of the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (cIAP2) in drug resistance and uncovered the plausible mechanisms underlying this resistance and possible strategies to overcome this by combinatorial treatment. In MM, cIAP2 is part of the gene signature of aberrant NF-κB signaling and is heterogeneously expressed amongst MM patients. In cIAP2 overexpressing cells a decreased sensitivity to the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, MG132 and carfilzomib was observed. Gene expression analysis revealed that 440 genes were differentially expressed due to cIAP2 overexpression. Importantly, the data imply that cIAPs are rational targets for combinatorial treatment in the population of MM with deleted/mutated TRAF3. Indeed, we found that treatment with the IAP inhibitor AT-406 enhanced the anti-MM effect of bortezomib in the investigated cell lines. Taken together, our results show that cIAP2 is an important factor mediating bortezomib resistance in MM cells harboring TRAF3 deletion/mutation and therefore should be considered as a target for combinatorial treatment. PMID:26036313

  4. Tau protein degradation is catalyzed by the ATP/ubiquitin-independent 20S proteasome under normal cell conditions

    PubMed Central

    Grune, Tilman; Botzen, Diana; Engels, Martina; Voss, Peter; Kaiser, Barbara; Jung, Tobias; Grimm, Stefanie; Ermak, Gennady; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Tau is the major protein exhibiting intracellular accumulation in Alzheimer disease. The mechanisms leading to its accumulation are not fully understood. It has been proposed that the proteasome is responsible for degrading tau but, since proteasomal inhibitors block both the ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasome and the ubiqutin-independent 20S proteasome pathways, it is not clear which of these pathways is involved in tau degradation. Some involvement of the ubiquitin ligase, CHIP in tau degradation has also been postulated during stress. In the current studies, we utilized HT22 cells and tau-transfected E36 cells in order to test the relative importance or possible requirement of the ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasomal system versus the ubiquitin-independent 20S proteasome, in tau degradation. By means of ATP-depletion, ubiquitinylation-deficient E36ts20 cells, a 19S proteasomal regulator subunit MSS1-siRNA approaches, and in vitro ubiquitinylation studies, we were able to demonstrate that ubiquitinylation is not required for normal tau degradation. PMID:20478262

  5. The Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Is a Potent Inducer of Zinc Finger AN1-type Domain 2a Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Antonio; Riccio, Anna; Coccia, Marta; Trotta, Edoardo; La Frazia, Simone; Santoro, M. Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The zinc finger AN1-type domain 2a gene, also known as arsenite-inducible RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), was recently identified as a novel human canonical heat shock gene strictly controlled by heat shock factor (HSF) 1. Little is known about AIRAP gene regulation in human cells. Here we report that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor with anticancer and antiangiogenic properties used in the clinic for treatment of multiple myeloma, is a potent inducer of AIRAP expression in human cells. Using endothelial cells as a model, we unraveled the molecular mechanism regulating AIRAP expression during proteasome inhibition. Bortezomib induces AIRAP expression at the transcriptional level early after treatment, concomitantly with polyubiquitinated protein accumulation and HSF activation. AIRAP protein is detected at high levels for at least 48 h after bortezomib exposure, together with the accumulation of HSF2, a factor implicated in differentiation and development regulation. Different from heat-mediated induction, in bortezomib-treated cells, HSF1 and HSF2 interact directly, forming HSF1-HSF2 heterotrimeric complexes recruited to a specific heat shock element in the AIRAP promoter. Interestingly, whereas HSF1 has been confirmed to be critical for AIRAP gene transcription, HSF2 was found to negatively regulate AIRAP expression after bortezomib treatment, further emphasizing an important modulatory role of this transcription factor under stress conditions. AIRAP function is still not defined. However, the fact that AIRAP is expressed abundantly in primary human cells at bortezomib concentrations comparable with plasma levels in treated patients suggests that AIRAP may participate in the regulatory network controlling proteotoxic stress during bortezomib treatment. PMID:24619424

  6. Prolonged Proteasome Inhibition Cyclically Upregulates Oct3/4 and Nanog Gene Expression, but Reduces Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Colony Formation

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Elizabeth Z.; Staszkiewicz, Jaroslaw; Power, Rachel A.; Kilroy, Gail; Kirk-Ballard, Heather; Barnes, Christian W.; Strickler, Karen L.; Rim, Jong S.; Harkins, Lettie L.; Gao, Ru; Kim, Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is ample evidence that the ubiquitin–proteasome system is an important regulator of transcription and its activity is necessary for maintaining pluripotency and promoting cellular reprogramming. Moreover, proteasome activity contributes to maintaining the open chromatin structure found in pluripotent stem cells, acting as a transcriptional inhibitor at specific gene loci generally associated with differentiation. The current study was designed to understand further the role of proteasome inhibition in reprogramming and its ability to modulate endogenous expression of pluripotency-related genes and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) colony formation. Herein, we demonstrate that acute combinatorial treatment with the proteasome inhibitors MG101 or MG132 and the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) increases gene expression of the pluripotency marker Oct3/4, and that MG101 alone is as effective as VPA in the induction of Oct3/4 mRNA expression in fibroblasts. Prolonged proteasome inhibition cyclically upregulates gene expression of Oct3/4 and Nanog, but reduces colony formation in the presence of the iPSC induction cocktail. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the 26S proteasome is an essential modulator in the reprogramming process. Its inhibition enhances expression of pluripotency-related genes; however, efficient colony formation requires proteasome activity. Therefore, discovery of small molecules that increase proteasome activity might lead to more efficient cell reprogramming and generation of pluripotent cells. PMID:25826722

  7. Identification of noncovalent proteasome inhibitors with high selectivity for chymotrypsin-like activity by a multistep structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Carmen; Ettari, Roberta; Sarno, Serena; Rotondo, Archimede; Bitto, Alessandra; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Schirmeister, Tanja; Novellino, Ettore; Grasso, Silvana; Zappalà, Maria; Lavecchia, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Noncovalent proteasome inhibitors introduce an alternative mechanism of inhibition to that of covalent inhibitors, e.g. carfilzomib, used in cancer therapy. A multistep hierarchical structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) of the 65,375 NCI lead-like compound library led to the identification of two compounds (9 and 28) which noncovalently inhibited the chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L) activity (Ki = 2.18 and 2.12 μM, respectively) with little or no effects on the other two major proteasome proteolytic activities, trypsin-like (T-L) and post-glutamyl peptide hydrolase (PGPH) activities. A subsequent hierarchical similarity search over the full NCI database with the most active tripeptide-based inhibitor 9 resulted in the discovery of the β5/β6-specific tripeptide derivative 38 that noncovalently binds the ChT-L site (Ki = 0.42 μM). The solution structure of 9 and 38 was solved by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and the binding mode of the inhibitors was elucidated by docking experiments using the yeast 20S proteasome. Compound 38 (IC50 = 26.7 μM) is slightly more potent than 9 (IC50 = 34.3 μM) at inhibiting survival of dexamethasone-resistant (MM.1R) human multiple myeloma cells. The identified ligand thus provides valuable insights for the future structure-based design of subtype-specific proteasome inhibitors. PMID:27318981

  8. A UHPLC-UV-QTOF study on the stability of carfilzomib, a novel proteasome inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sestak, Vit; Roh, Jaroslav; Klepalova, Libuse; Kovarikova, Petra

    2016-05-30

    This study addresses the lack of data on the stability of carfilzomib, a newly approved proteasome-inhibiting anticancer drug. A new stability-indicating UHPLC-UV method for analysis of carfilzomib was developed and validated within the concentrations of 10-250 μg/mL. The aforementioned method was utilized to evaluate the effects of forced degradation and to investigate the degradation kinetics, as well as to examine drug stability in a pharmaceutical formulation. A UHPLC-QTOF method was utilized to identify the principal degradation products. It was found that carfilzomib: (1) is stable at neutral and slightly acidic pH, but prone to degradation at both high and low pH; (2) is acceptably stable in the pharmaceutical formulation; but (3) is prone to oxidation and photodegradation. Carfilzomib degradation followed first-order kinetics. The decomposition products resulted from peptide bond hydrolysis, epoxide hydrolysis, hydrogen chloride addition, base-catalyzed Robinson-Gabriel reaction, tertiary amine oxidation and isomerization. Our results document, for the first time, the inherent stability of carfilzomib and provide information about the identity of its degradation products. These results highlight the stability issues that need to be kept in mind for handling and storage of carfilzomib.

  9. A UHPLC-UV-QTOF study on the stability of carfilzomib, a novel proteasome inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sestak, Vit; Roh, Jaroslav; Klepalova, Libuse; Kovarikova, Petra

    2016-05-30

    This study addresses the lack of data on the stability of carfilzomib, a newly approved proteasome-inhibiting anticancer drug. A new stability-indicating UHPLC-UV method for analysis of carfilzomib was developed and validated within the concentrations of 10-250 μg/mL. The aforementioned method was utilized to evaluate the effects of forced degradation and to investigate the degradation kinetics, as well as to examine drug stability in a pharmaceutical formulation. A UHPLC-QTOF method was utilized to identify the principal degradation products. It was found that carfilzomib: (1) is stable at neutral and slightly acidic pH, but prone to degradation at both high and low pH; (2) is acceptably stable in the pharmaceutical formulation; but (3) is prone to oxidation and photodegradation. Carfilzomib degradation followed first-order kinetics. The decomposition products resulted from peptide bond hydrolysis, epoxide hydrolysis, hydrogen chloride addition, base-catalyzed Robinson-Gabriel reaction, tertiary amine oxidation and isomerization. Our results document, for the first time, the inherent stability of carfilzomib and provide information about the identity of its degradation products. These results highlight the stability issues that need to be kept in mind for handling and storage of carfilzomib. PMID:26994320

  10. A binuclear complex constituted by diethyldithiocarbamate and copper(I) functions as a proteasome activity inhibitor in pancreatic cancer cultures and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinbin; Liu, Luming; Yue, Xiaoqiang; Chang, Jinjia; Shi, Weidong; Hua, Yongqiang

    2013-12-15

    It is a therapeutic strategy for cancers including pancreatic to inhibit proteasome activity. Disulfiram (DSF) may bind copper (Cu) to form a DSF-Cu complex. DSF-Cu is capable of inducing apoptosis in cancer cells by inhibiting proteasome activity. DSF is rapidly converted to diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) within bodies. Copper(II) absorbed by bodies is reduced to copper(I) when it enters cells. We found that DDTC and copper(I) could form a binuclear complex which might be entitled DDTC-Cu(I), and it had been synthesized by us in the laboratory. This study is to investigate the anticancer potential of this complex on pancreatic cancer and the possible mechanism. Pancreatic cancer cell lines, SW1990, PANC-1 and BXPC-3 were used for in vitro assays. Female athymic nude mice grown SW1990 xenografts were used as animal models. Cell counting kit-8 (cck-8) assay and flow cytometry were used for analyzing apoptosis in cells. A 20S proteasome assay kit was used in proteasome activity analysis. Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used in tumor sample analysis. The results suggest that DDTC-Cu(I) inhibit pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and proteasome activity in vitro and in vivo. Accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, and increased p27 as well as decreased NF-κB expression were detected in tumor tissues of DDTC-Cu(I)-treated group. Our data indicates that DDTC-Cu(I) is an effective proteasome activity inhibitor with the potential to be explored as a drug for pancreatic cancer.

  11. Bortezomib Amplifies Effect on Intracellular Proteasomes by Changing Proteasome Structure.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, David S; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Tzortzis, Konstantinos; Auner, Holger W; Karadimitris, Anastasios; Kleijnen, Maurits F

    2015-07-01

    The proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib is used to treat multiple myeloma (MM). Bortezomib inhibits protein degradation by inactivating proteasomes' active-sites. MM cells are exquisitely sensitive to Bortezomib - exhibiting a low-nanomolar IC(50) - suggesting that minimal inhibition of degradation suffices to kill MM cells. Instead, we report, a low Bortezomib concentration, contrary to expectation, achieves severe inhibition of proteasome activity in MM cells: the degree of inhibition exceeds what one would expect from the small proportion of active-sites that Bortezomib inhibits. Our data indicate that Bortezomib achieves this severe inhibition by triggering secondary changes in proteasome structure that further inhibit proteasome activity. Comparing MM cells to other, Bortezomib-resistant, cancer cells shows that the degree of proteasome inhibition is the greatest in MM cells and only there leads to proteasome stress, providing an explanation for why Bortezomib is effective against MM but not other cancers.

  12. Wnt pathway activation and ABCB1 expression account for attenuation of Proteasome inhibitor-mediated apoptosis in multidrug-resistant cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Kowit Yu; Hsu, Chih-Jung; Hung, Tsai-Hsien; Hu, Han-Shu; Huang, Tsung-Teng; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Wang, Chihuei; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Choo, Kong Bung; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to attenuating the effectiveness of chemotherapy to many human malignancies. Proteasome inhibition induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells and is recognized as a novel anticancer therapy approach. Despite its success, some multiple myeloma patients are resistant or become refractory to ongoing treatment by bortezomib suggesting that chemoresistant cancer cells may have developed a novel mechanism directed against the proteasome inhibitor. The present study aimed to investigate potential mechanism(s) of attenuation in a MDR cell line, MES-SA/Dx5. We found that compared to the parental human uterus sarcoma cell line MES-SA cells, MES-SA/Dx5 cells highly expressed the ABCB1 was more resistant to MG132 and bortezomib, escaping the proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis pathway. The resistance was reversed by co-treatment of MG132 and the ABCB1 inhibitor verapamil. The data indicated that ABCB1 might play a role in the efflux of MG132 from the MES-SA/Dx5 cells to reduce MG132-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the canonical Wnt pathway was found activated only in the MES-SA/Dx5 cells through active β-catenin and related transactivation activities. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Wnt-targeting genes, including c-Myc and cyclin D1, were upregulated and were relevant in inhibiting the expression of p21 in MES-SA/Dx5 cells. On the other hand, MES-SA cells expressed high levels of p21 and downregulated cyclin D1 and caused cell cycle arrest. Together, our study demonstrated the existence and participation of ABCB1 and the Wnt pathway in an MDR cell line that attenuated proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis. PMID:25590413

  13. A Phase II Trial of the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib in Patients with Advanced Biliary Tract Cancers*

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Meropol, Neal J.; Li, Tianyu; Lewis, Nancy L.; Engstrom, Paul F.; Weiner, Louis M.; Cheng, Jonathan D.; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Cooper, Harry; Wright, John J.; Cohen, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with advanced biliary tract cancers have limited therapeutic options. Preclinical data suggest proteasome inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy. We thus evaluated the clinical efficacy of bortezomib in advanced biliary tract cancers. Patients and Methods Patients with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma or gallbladder adenocarcinoma who had received 0–2 prior therapies received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. A Simon two-stage design was employed (null response rate of < 5% and response rate of ≥ 20% of interest). Results Twenty patients enrolled: bile duct/gallbladder cancer (14/6), prior treatments 0/1/2 (10/6/3). The trial was discontinued early due to lack of confirmed partial responses. No unanticipated adverse events were noted. There was one unconfirmed partial response. Ten patients achieved stable disease as best response. Median time to progression was 5.8 months (95% CI 0.7–77.6 months). Median survival was 9 months (95% CI 4.6–18.5 months). The 6-month and 1-year survival rates were 70% and 38%. There was no difference in survival based on primary disease site. Conclusions Single agent bortezomib does not result in objective responses in biliary tract cancers. However, the rate of stable disease and time to progression benchmark is encouraging. Further development of bortezomib in combination with other therapies in this disease setting should be considered. PMID:24512954

  14. The small heat shock protein, HSP30, is associated with aggresome-like inclusion bodies in proteasomal inhibitor-, arsenite-, and cadmium-treated Xenopus kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, treatment of Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells with the proteasomal inhibitor, MG132, or the environmental toxicants, sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride, induced the accumulation of the small heat shock protein, HSP30, in total and in both soluble and insoluble protein fractions. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the presence of relatively large HSP30 structures primarily in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm. All three of the stressors promoted the formation of aggresome-like inclusion bodies as determined by immunocytochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy using a ProteoStat aggresome dye and additional aggresomal markers, namely, anti-γ-tubulin and anti-vimentin antibodies. Further analysis revealed that HSP30 co-localized with these aggresome-like inclusion bodies. In most cells, HSP30 was found to envelope or occur within these structures. Finally, we show that treatment of cells with withaferin A, a steroidal lactone with anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and proteasomal inhibitor properties, also induced HSP30 accumulation that co-localized with aggresome-like inclusion bodies. It is possible that proteasomal inhibitor or metal/metalloid-induced formation of aggresome-like inclusion bodies may sequester toxic protein aggregates until they can be degraded. While the role of HSP30 in these aggresome-like structures is not known, it is possible that they may be involved in various aspects of aggresome-like inclusion body formation or transport.

  15. Shikonin Exerts Antitumor Activity via Proteasome Inhibition and Cell Death Induction in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huanjie; Zhou, Ping; Huang, Hongbiao; Chen, Di; Ma, Ningfang; Cui, Cindy Qiuzhi; Shen, Shouxing; Dong, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Lian, Wen; Wang, Xuejun; Dou, Q. Ping; Liu, Jinbao

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an essential role in tumor growth and development. Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Zi Cao (gromwell), has been reported to possess tumor cell-killing activity, and results from a clinical study using a shikonin-containing mixture demonstrated its safety and efficacy for the treatment of late-stage lung cancer. In the present study, we reported that shikonin is an inhibitor of tumor proteasome activity in vitro and in vivo. Our computational modeling predicts that the carbonyl carbons C1 and C4 of shikonin potentially interact with the catalytic site of β5 chymotryptic subunit of the proteasome. Indeed, shikonin potently inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome (IC50 12.5 μmol/L) and tumor cellular 26S proteasome (IC50 between 2-16 μmol/L). Inhibition of the proteasome by shikonin in murine hepatoma H22, leukemia P388 and human prostate cancer PC-3 cultures resulted in accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and several proteasome target proapoptotic proteins (IκB-α, Bax and p27), followed by induction of cell death. Shikonin treatment resulted in tumor growth inhibition in both H22 allografts and PC-3 xenografts, associated with suppression of the proteasomal activity and induction of cell death in vivo. Finally, shikonin treatment significantly prolonged the survival period of mice bearing P388 leukemia. Our results indicate that the tumor proteasome is one of the cellular targets of shikonin, and inhibition of the proteasome activity by shikonin contributes to its anti-tumor property. PMID:19165859

  16. A novel Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor CC-292 in combination with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib impacts the bone microenvironment in a multiple myeloma model with resultant antimyeloma activity.

    PubMed

    Eda, H; Santo, L; Cirstea, D D; Yee, A J; Scullen, T A; Nemani, N; Mishima, Y; Waterman, P R; Arastu-Kapur, S; Evans, E; Singh, J; Kirk, C J; Westlin, W F; Raje, N S

    2014-09-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) modulates B-cell development and activation and has an important role in antibody production. Interestingly, Btk may also affect human osteoclast (OC) function; however, the mechanism was unknown. Here we studied a potent and specific Btk inhibitor, CC-292, in multiple myeloma (MM). In this report, we demonstrate that, although CC-292 increased OC differentiation, it inhibited OC function via inhibition of c-Src, Pyk2 and cortactin, all involved in OC-sealing zone formation. As CC-292 did not show potent in vitro anti-MM activity, we next evaluated it in combination with the proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib. We first studied the effect of carfilzomib on OC. Carfilzomib did not have an impact on OC-sealing zone formation but significantly inhibited OC differentiation. CC-292 combined with carfilzomib inhibited both sealing zone formation and OC differentiation, resulting in more profound inhibition of OC function than carfilzomib alone. Moreover, the combination treatment in an in vivo MM mouse model inhibited tumor burden compared with CC-292 alone; it also increased bone volume compared with carfilzomib alone. These results suggest that CC-292 combined with carfilzomib augments the inhibitory effects against OC within the bone microenvironment and has promising therapeutic potential for the treatment of MM and related bone disease.

  17. Transferrin surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles-mediated delivery of a proteasome inhibitor to human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Frasco, Manuela F; Almeida, Gabriela M; Santos-Silva, Filipe; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Coelho, Manuel A N

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a drug delivery system based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for an efficient and targeted action of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib against pancreatic cancer cells. The PLGA nanoparticles were formulated with a poloxamer, and further surface-modified with transferrin for tumor targeting. The nanoparticles were characterized as polymer carriers of bortezomib, and the cellular uptake and growth inhibitory effects were evaluated in pancreatic cells. Cellular internalization of nanoparticles was observed in normal and cancer cells, but with higher uptake by cancer cells. The sustained release of the loaded bortezomib from PLGA nanoparticles showed cytotoxic effects against pancreatic normal and cancer cells. Noteworthy differential cytotoxicity was attained by transferrin surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles since significant cell growth inhibition by delivered bortezomib was only observed in cancer cells. These findings demonstrate that the ligand transferrin enhanced the targeted delivery of bortezomib-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to pancreatic cancer cells. These in vitro results highlight the transferrin surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles as a promising system for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. PMID:25046528

  18. Obatoclax interacts synergistically with the irreversible proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib in GC- and ABC- DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dasmahapatra, Girija; Lembersky, Dmitry; Son, Minkyeong P.; Patel, Hiral; Peterson, Derick; Attkisson, Elisa; Fisher, Richard I.; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between the the irreversible proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (CFZ) and the pan-BH3 mimetic obatoclax (Obato) were examined in GC- and ABC-DLBCL cells. Co-treatment with minimally toxic concentrations of CFZ (i.e., 2–6 nM) and sub-toxic concentrations of obato (0.05–2.0μM) synergistically increased apoptosis in multiple DLBCL cell lines and increased lethality toward primary human DLBCL but not normal CD34+ cells. Synergistic interactions were associated with sharp increases in caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, phospho-JNK induction, up-regulation of Noxa, and AKT dephosphorylation. Combined treatment also diminished CFZ-mediated Mcl-1 up-regulation while immunoprecipitation analysis revealed reduced associations between Bak and Mcl-1/Bcl-xL, and Bim and Mcl-1. The CFZ/Obato regimen triggered translocation, conformational change and dimerization of Bax and activation of Bak. Genetic interruption of JNK and Noxa by shRNA knockdown, ectopic Mcl-1 expression, or enforced activation of AKT significantly attenuated CFZ/Obato-mediated apoptosis. Notably, co-administration of CFZ/Obato sharply increased apoptosis in multiple bortezomib-resistant DLBCL models. Finally, in vivo administration of CFZ and Obato to mice inoculated with SUDHL4 cells substantially suppressed tumor growth, activated JNK, inactivated AKT, and increased survival compared to the effects of single agent treatment. Together, these findings argue that a strategy combining CFZ and Obato warrants attention in DLBCL. PMID:22411899

  19. Proteasome inhibitors prevent the degradation of familial Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin 1 and potentiate A beta 42 recovery from human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marambaud, P.; Ancolio, K.; Lopez-Perez, E.; Checler, F.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that most of the early-onset forms of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) are due to inherited mutations borne by a chromosome 14-encoded protein, presenilin 1 (PS1). This is likely related to an increased production of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) 42, one of the main components of the extracellular deposits called senile plaques that invade human cortical areas during the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We set up stably transfected HEK293 cells overexpressing wild-type (wt) and various FAD-linked mutated PS1. By Western blot analysis, we examined the influence of specific proteasome inhibitors on PS1-like immunoreactivities. Furthermore, by means of metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation with A beta 40 and A beta 42-directed specific antibodies, we assessed the effect of the inhibitors on the production of A beta s by wt and mutated PS1-expressing cells transiently transfected with beta APP751. RESULTS: We show that two distinct proteasome inhibitors, Z-IE (Ot-Bu)A-Leucinal and lactacystin, increase in a time- and dose-dependent manner the immunoreactivities of both wt and mutated PS1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PS1 is polyubiquitinated in these cells. Other inhibitors, ineffective on the proteasome, fail to protect wt and mutated PS1-like immunoreactivities. We also establish that the FAD-linked mutations of PS1 trigger a selective increased formation of A beta 42 as reflected by higher A beta 42 over total A beta ratios when compared with wtPS1-expressing cells. Interestingly, this augmentation was further amplified by proteasome inhibitors in cells expressing mutated but not wtPS1. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our data indicate that PS1 undergoes polyubiquitination in HEK293 cells and that the proteasome contributes to the degradation of wt and FAD-linked PS1, thereby directly influencing the A beta production in human cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:9562973

  20. Treatment with the HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir triggers the unfolded protein response and may overcome proteasome inhibitor resistance of multiple myeloma in combination with bortezomib: a phase I trial (SAKK 65/08)

    PubMed Central

    Driessen, Christoph; Kraus, Marianne; Joerger, Markus; Rosing, Hilde; Bader, Jürgen; Hitz, Felicitas; Berset, Catherine; Xyrafas, Alexandros; Hawle, Hanne; Berthod, Gregoire; Overkleeft, Hermann S.; Sessa, Christiana; Huitema, Alwin; Pabst, Thomas; von Moos, Roger; Hess, Dagmar; Mey, Ulrich J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Downregulation of the unfolded protein response mediates proteasome inhibitor resistance in multiple myeloma. The Human Immunodeficieny Virus protease inhibitor nelfinavir activates the unfolded protein response in vitro. We determined dose-limiting toxicity and recommended dose for phase II of nelfinavir in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Twelve patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were treated with nelfinavir (2500–5000 mg/day p.o., days 1–14, 3+3 dose escalation) and bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2, days 1, 4, 8, 11; 21-day cycles). A run in phase with nelfinavir monotherapy allowed pharmakokinetic/pharmakodynamic assessment of nelfinavir in the presence or absence of concomittant bortezomib. End points included dose-limiting toxicity, activation of the unfolded protein response, proteasome activity, toxicity and response to trial treatment. Nelfinavir 2×2500 mg was the recommended phase II dose identified. Nelfinavir alone significantly up-regulated expression of proteins related to the unfolded protein response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and inhibited proteasome activity. Of 10 evaluable patients in the dose escalation cohort, 3 achieved a partial response, 4 stable disease for 2 cycles or more, while 3 had progressive disease as best response. In an exploratory extension cohort with 6 relapsed, bortezomib-refractory, lenalidomide-resistant myeloma patients treated at the recommended phase II dose, 3 reached a partial response, 2 a minor response, and one progressive disease. The combination of nelfinavir with bortezomib is safe and shows promising activity in advanced, bortezomib-refractory multiple myeloma. Induction of the unfolded protein response by nelfinavir may overcome the biological features of proteasome inhibitor resistance. PMID:26659919

  1. Bacterial Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  2. The proteasome.

    PubMed

    Dalton, William S

    2004-12-01

    The proteasome is an abundant multicatalytic enzyme complex present in the cytoplasm and nucleus of all eukaryotic cells. The primary function of the proteasome is to degrade proteins. While it was once thought to act primarily as a cellular "garbage disposal" that removed damaged or misfolded proteins from cells, the proteasome is now known to also remove various short-lived proteins that regulate the cell cycle, cell growth, and differentiation. By regulating the turnover of these proteins via timely degradation and recycling, the proteasome plays a critical role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Substrates of the proteasome include cell-cycle regulators, signaling molecules, tumor suppressors, transcription factors, and antiapoptotic proteins; over 80% of all cellular proteins are recycled through the proteasome. This article discusses the structure and function of the proteasome, and its role in malignant cells and as a therapeutic target.

  3. A binuclear complex constituted by diethyldithiocarbamate and copper(I) functions as a proteasome activity inhibitor in pancreatic cancer cultures and xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jinbin; Yue, Xiaoqiang; Chang, Jinjia; Shi, Weidong; Hua, Yongqiang

    2013-12-15

    It is a therapeutic strategy for cancers including pancreatic to inhibit proteasome activity. Disulfiram (DSF) may bind copper (Cu) to form a DSF–Cu complex. DSF–Cu is capable of inducing apoptosis in cancer cells by inhibiting proteasome activity. DSF is rapidly converted to diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) within bodies. Copper(II) absorbed by bodies is reduced to copper(I) when it enters cells. We found that DDTC and copper(I) could form a binuclear complex which might be entitled DDTC–Cu(I), and it had been synthesized by us in the laboratory. This study is to investigate the anticancer potential of this complex on pancreatic cancer and the possible mechanism. Pancreatic cancer cell lines, SW1990, PANC-1 and BXPC-3 were used for in vitro assays. Female athymic nude mice grown SW1990 xenografts were used as animal models. Cell counting kit-8 (cck-8) assay and flow cytometry were used for analyzing apoptosis in cells. A 20S proteasome assay kit was used in proteasome activity analysis. Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used in tumor sample analysis. The results suggest that DDTC–Cu(I) inhibit pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and proteasome activity in vitro and in vivo. Accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, and increased p27 as well as decreased NF-κB expression were detected in tumor tissues of DDTC–Cu(I)-treated group. Our data indicates that DDTC–Cu(I) is an effective proteasome activity inhibitor with the potential to be explored as a drug for pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • A new structure of DDTC–Cu(I) was reported for the first time. • DDTC–Cu(I) dissolved directly in water was for in vitro and in vivo uses. • DDTC–Cu(I) demonstrated significant anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo. • DDTC–Cu(I) is capable of inhibiting proteasome activity in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Phase I Trial Using the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib and Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, Gregory J.; Axelrod, Rita S.; Machtay, Mitchell; Ahn, Peter H.; Anne, Pramila R.; Fogh, Shannon; Cognetti, David; Myers, Thomas J.; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Advanced head-and-neck cancer (HNC) remains a difficult disease to cure. Proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib have the potential to improve survival over chemoradiotherapy alone. This Phase I dose-escalation study examined the potential of bortezomib in combination with cisplatin chemotherapy and concurrent radiation in the treatment of locally advanced and recurrent HNC. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients received cisplatin once weekly at 30 mg/m{sup 2} per week and bortezomib along with concurrent radiation. Bortezomib was given on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 3 weeks, with an initial starting dose of 0.7 mg/m{sup 2} and escalation levels of 1.0 and 1.3 mg/m{sup 2}. Dose escalation was performed only after assessment to rule out any dose-limiting toxicity. Results: We enrolled 27 patients with HNC, including 17 patients with recurrent disease who had received prior irradiation. Patients received bortezomib dose levels of 0.7 mg/m{sup 2} (7 patients), 1.0 mg/m{sup 2} (10 patients), and 1.3 mg/m{sup 2} (10 patients). No Grade 5 toxicities, 3 Grade 4 toxicities (all hematologic and considered dose-limiting toxicities), and 39 Grade 3 toxicities (in 20 patients) were observed. With a median follow-up of 7.4 months, the overall median survival was 24.7 months (48.4 months for advanced HNC patients and 15.4 months for recurrent HNC patients). Conclusion: Bortezomib in combination with radiation therapy and cisplatin chemotherapy is safe in the treatment of HNC with a bortezomib maximum tolerated dose of 1.0 mg/m{sup 2} in patients previously treated for HNC and 1.3 mg/m{sup 2} in radiation-naive patients.

  5. Switching from body surface area-based to fixed dosing for the investigational proteasome inhibitor ixazomib: a population pharmacokinetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neeraj; Zhao, Yuan; Hui, Ai-Min; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Venkatakrishnan, Karthik

    2015-01-01

    Aims This population pharmacokinetic analysis of the investigational oral proteasome inhibitor ixazomib assessed the feasibility of switching from body surface area (BSA)-based to fixed dosing, and the impact of baseline covariates on ixazomib pharmacokinetics. Methods Data were pooled from 226 adult patients with multiple myeloma, lymphoma or solid tumours in four phase 1 studies, in which ixazomib dosing (oral/intravenous, once/twice weekly) was based on BSA. Population pharmacokinetic modelling was undertaken using nonmem version 7.2. Results Ixazomib pharmacokinetics were well described by a three compartment model with first order absorption and linear elimination. Ixazomib was absorbed rapidly (Ka 0.5 h−1), with dose- and time-independent pharmacokinetics. Estimated absolute bioavailability and clearance were 60% and 2 l h−1, respectively. Although a small effect of BSA (range 1.3–2.6 m2) was observed on the peripheral volume of distribution (V4), reducing the corresponding inter-individual variability by 12.9%, there was no relationship between BSA and ixazomib clearance (the parameter that dictates total systemic exposure following fixed dosing). Consistently, based on simulations (n = 1000), median AUCs (including interquartile range) were similar after BSA-based (2.23 mg m−2) and fixed (4 mg) oral dosing with no trend in simulated AUC vs. BSA for fixed dosing (P = 0.42). No other covariates, including creatinine clearance (22–213.7 ml min−1) and age (23–86 years), influenced ixazomib pharmacokinetics. Conclusions This analysis supports a switch from BSA-based to fixed dosing, without dose modification for mild/moderate renal impairment or age, in future adult studies of ixazomib, simplifying dosing guidance and clinical development. PMID:25377318

  6. A Bowman–Birk inhibitor induces apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma through mitochondrial impairment and oxidative damage following proteasome 20S inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mehdad, A; Brumana, G; Souza, AA; Barbosa, JARG; Ventura, MM; de Freitas, SM

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors are emerging as a new class of chemopreventive agents and have gained huge importance as potential pharmacological tools in breast cancer treatment. Improved understanding of the role played by proteases and their specific inhibitors in humans offers novel and challenging opportunities for preventive and therapeutic intervention. In this study, we demonstrated that the Bowman–Birk protease inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata seeds, named black-eyed pea trypsin/chymotrypsin Inhibitor (BTCI), potently suppresses human breast adenocarcinoma cell viability by inhibiting the activity of proteasome 20S. BTCI induced a negative growth effect against a panel of breast cancer cells, with a concomitant cytostatic effect at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and an increase in apoptosis, as observed by an augmented number of cells at the sub-G1 phase and annexin V-fluorescin isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. In contrast, BTCI exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, the increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential in cells treated with BTCI indicated mitochondrial damage as a crucial cellular event responsible for the apoptotic process. The higher activity of caspase in tumoral cells treated with BTCI in comparison with untreated cells suggests that BTCI induces apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. BTCI affected NF-kB target gene expression in both non invasive and invasive breast cancer cell lines, with the effect highly pronounced in the invasive cells. An increased expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in both cell lines was also observed. Taken together, these results suggest that BTCI promotes apoptosis through ROS-induced mitochondrial damage following proteasome inhibition. These findings highlight the pharmacological potential and benefit of BTCI in breast cancer treatment. PMID:27551492

  7. A Bowman-Birk inhibitor induces apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma through mitochondrial impairment and oxidative damage following proteasome 20S inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mehdad, A; Brumana, G; Souza, A A; Barbosa, Jarg; Ventura, M M; de Freitas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors are emerging as a new class of chemopreventive agents and have gained huge importance as potential pharmacological tools in breast cancer treatment. Improved understanding of the role played by proteases and their specific inhibitors in humans offers novel and challenging opportunities for preventive and therapeutic intervention. In this study, we demonstrated that the Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata seeds, named black-eyed pea trypsin/chymotrypsin Inhibitor (BTCI), potently suppresses human breast adenocarcinoma cell viability by inhibiting the activity of proteasome 20S. BTCI induced a negative growth effect against a panel of breast cancer cells, with a concomitant cytostatic effect at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and an increase in apoptosis, as observed by an augmented number of cells at the sub-G1 phase and annexin V-fluorescin isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. In contrast, BTCI exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, the increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential in cells treated with BTCI indicated mitochondrial damage as a crucial cellular event responsible for the apoptotic process. The higher activity of caspase in tumoral cells treated with BTCI in comparison with untreated cells suggests that BTCI induces apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. BTCI affected NF-kB target gene expression in both non invasive and invasive breast cancer cell lines, with the effect highly pronounced in the invasive cells. An increased expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in both cell lines was also observed. Taken together, these results suggest that BTCI promotes apoptosis through ROS-induced mitochondrial damage following proteasome inhibition. These findings highlight the pharmacological potential and benefit of BTCI in breast cancer treatment. PMID:27551492

  8. The recognition of ubiquitinated proteins by the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Grice, Guinevere L; Nathan, James A

    2016-09-01

    The ability of ubiquitin to form up to eight different polyubiquitin chain linkages generates complexity within the ubiquitin proteasome system, and accounts for the diverse roles of ubiquitination within the cell. Understanding how each type of ubiquitin linkage is correctly interpreted by ubiquitin binding proteins provides important insights into the link between chain recognition and cellular fate. A major function of ubiquitination is to signal degradation of intracellular proteins by the 26S proteasome. Lysine-48 (K48) linked polyubiquitin chains are well established as the canonical signal for proteasomal degradation, but recent studies show a role for other ubiquitin linked chains in facilitating degradation by the 26S proteasome. Here, we review how different types of polyubiquitin linkage bind to ubiquitin receptors on the 26S proteasome, how they signal degradation and discuss the implications of ubiquitin chain linkage in regulating protein breakdown by the proteasome. PMID:27137187

  9. The pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat potentiates the activity of the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib in human DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dasmahapatra, Girija; Lembersky, Dmitry; Kramer, Lora; Fisher, Richard I; Friedberg, Jonathan; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2010-06-01

    Interactions between histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) and the novel proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (CFZ) were investigated in GC- and activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) cells. Coadministration of subtoxic or minimally toxic concentrations of CFZ) with marginally lethal concentrations of HDACIs (vorinostat, SNDX-275, or SBHA) synergistically increased mitochondrial injury, caspase activation, and apoptosis in both GC- and ABC-DLBCL cells. These events were associated with Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38MAPK activation, abrogation of HDACI-mediated nuclear factor-kappaB activation, AKT inactivation, Ku70 acetylation, and induction of gammaH2A.X. Genetic or pharmacologic JNK inhibition significantly diminished CFZ/vorinostat lethality. CFZ/vorinostat induced pronounced lethality in 3 primary DLBCL specimens but minimally affected normal CD34(+) hematopoietic cells. Bortezomib-resistant GC (SUDHL16) and ABC (OCI-LY10) cells exhibited partial cross-resistance to CFZ. However, CFZ/vorinostat dramatically induced resistant cell apoptosis, accompanied by increased JNK activation and gammaH2A.X expression. Finally, subeffective vorinostat doses markedly increased CFZ-mediated tumor growth suppression and apoptosis in a murine xenograft OCI-LY10 model. These findings indicate that HDACIs increase CFZ activity in GC- and ABC-DLBCL cells sensitive or resistant to bortezomib through a JNK-dependent mechanism in association with DNA damage and inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Together, they support further investigation of strategies combining CFZ and HDACIs in DLBCL. PMID:20233973

  10. The pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat potentiates the activity of the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib in human DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dasmahapatra, Girija; Lembersky, Dmitry; Kramer, Lora; Fisher, Richard I.; Friedberg, Jonathan; Dent, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) and the novel proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (CFZ) were investigated in GC- and activated B-cell–like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) cells. Coadministration of subtoxic or minimally toxic concentrations of CFZ) with marginally lethal concentrations of HDACIs (vorinostat, SNDX-275, or SBHA) synergistically increased mitochondrial injury, caspase activation, and apoptosis in both GC- and ABC-DLBCL cells. These events were associated with Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38MAPK activation, abrogation of HDACI-mediated nuclear factor-κB activation, AKT inactivation, Ku70 acetylation, and induction of γH2A.X. Genetic or pharmacologic JNK inhibition significantly diminished CFZ/vorinostat lethality. CFZ/vorinostat induced pronounced lethality in 3 primary DLBCL specimens but minimally affected normal CD34+ hematopoietic cells. Bortezomib-resistant GC (SUDHL16) and ABC (OCI-LY10) cells exhibited partial cross-resistance to CFZ. However, CFZ/vorinostat dramatically induced resistant cell apoptosis, accompanied by increased JNK activation and γH2A.X expression. Finally, subeffective vorinostat doses markedly increased CFZ-mediated tumor growth suppression and apoptosis in a murine xenograft OCI-LY10 model. These findings indicate that HDACIs increase CFZ activity in GC- and ABC-DLBCL cells sensitive or resistant to bortezomib through a JNK-dependent mechanism in association with DNA damage and inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation. Together, they support further investigation of strategies combining CFZ and HDACIs in DLBCL. PMID:20233973

  11. Activation of Chymotrypsin-Like Activity of the Proteasome during Ischemia Induces Myocardial Dysfunction and Death.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Gina; Berrios, Daniela; Olmedo, Ivonne; Pezoa, Javier; Riquelme, Jaime A; Montecinos, Luis; Pedrozo, Zully; Donoso, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system improve hemodynamic parameters and decrease the infarct size after ischemia reperfusion. The molecular basis of this protection is not fully understood since most available data report inhibition of the 26 proteasome after ischemia reperfusion. The decrease in cellular ATP levels during ischemia leads to the dissociation of the 26S proteasome into the 19S regulatory complex and the 20S catalytic core, which results in protein degradation independently of ubiquitination. There is scarce information on the activity of the 20S proteasome during cardiac ischemia. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to determine the effects of 30 minutes of ischemia, or 30 min of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion on the three main peptidase activities of the 20S proteasome in Langendorff perfused rat hearts. We found that 30 min of ischemia produced a significant increase in the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, without changes in its caspase-like or trypsin-like activities. In contrast, all three activities were decreased upon reperfusion. Ixazomib, perfused before ischemia at a concentration that reduced the chymotrypsin-like activity to 50% of the control values, without affecting the other proteasomal activities, improved the hemodynamic parameters upon reperfusion and decreased the infarct size. Ixazomib also prevented the 50% reduction in RyR2 content observed after ischemia. The protection was lost, however, when simultaneous inhibition of chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities of the proteasome was achieved at higher concentration of ixazomib. Our results suggest that selective inhibition of chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome during ischemia preserves key proteins for cardiomyocyte function and exerts a positive impact on cardiac performance after reperfusion.

  12. Activation of Chymotrypsin-Like Activity of the Proteasome during Ischemia Induces Myocardial Dysfunction and Death

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gina; Berrios, Daniela; Olmedo, Ivonne; Pezoa, Javier; Riquelme, Jaime A.; Montecinos, Luis; Pedrozo, Zully; Donoso, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system improve hemodynamic parameters and decrease the infarct size after ischemia reperfusion. The molecular basis of this protection is not fully understood since most available data report inhibition of the 26 proteasome after ischemia reperfusion. The decrease in cellular ATP levels during ischemia leads to the dissociation of the 26S proteasome into the 19S regulatory complex and the 20S catalytic core, which results in protein degradation independently of ubiquitination. There is scarce information on the activity of the 20S proteasome during cardiac ischemia. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to determine the effects of 30 minutes of ischemia, or 30 min of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion on the three main peptidase activities of the 20S proteasome in Langendorff perfused rat hearts. We found that 30 min of ischemia produced a significant increase in the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, without changes in its caspase-like or trypsin-like activities. In contrast, all three activities were decreased upon reperfusion. Ixazomib, perfused before ischemia at a concentration that reduced the chymotrypsin-like activity to 50% of the control values, without affecting the other proteasomal activities, improved the hemodynamic parameters upon reperfusion and decreased the infarct size. Ixazomib also prevented the 50% reduction in RyR2 content observed after ischemia. The protection was lost, however, when simultaneous inhibition of chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities of the proteasome was achieved at higher concentration of ixazomib. Our results suggest that selective inhibition of chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome during ischemia preserves key proteins for cardiomyocyte function and exerts a positive impact on cardiac performance after reperfusion. PMID:27529620

  13. Activation of Chymotrypsin-Like Activity of the Proteasome during Ischemia Induces Myocardial Dysfunction and Death.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Gina; Berrios, Daniela; Olmedo, Ivonne; Pezoa, Javier; Riquelme, Jaime A; Montecinos, Luis; Pedrozo, Zully; Donoso, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system improve hemodynamic parameters and decrease the infarct size after ischemia reperfusion. The molecular basis of this protection is not fully understood since most available data report inhibition of the 26 proteasome after ischemia reperfusion. The decrease in cellular ATP levels during ischemia leads to the dissociation of the 26S proteasome into the 19S regulatory complex and the 20S catalytic core, which results in protein degradation independently of ubiquitination. There is scarce information on the activity of the 20S proteasome during cardiac ischemia. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to determine the effects of 30 minutes of ischemia, or 30 min of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion on the three main peptidase activities of the 20S proteasome in Langendorff perfused rat hearts. We found that 30 min of ischemia produced a significant increase in the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, without changes in its caspase-like or trypsin-like activities. In contrast, all three activities were decreased upon reperfusion. Ixazomib, perfused before ischemia at a concentration that reduced the chymotrypsin-like activity to 50% of the control values, without affecting the other proteasomal activities, improved the hemodynamic parameters upon reperfusion and decreased the infarct size. Ixazomib also prevented the 50% reduction in RyR2 content observed after ischemia. The protection was lost, however, when simultaneous inhibition of chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities of the proteasome was achieved at higher concentration of ixazomib. Our results suggest that selective inhibition of chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome during ischemia preserves key proteins for cardiomyocyte function and exerts a positive impact on cardiac performance after reperfusion. PMID:27529620

  14. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Fu, Jianfang; Zhang, Shun; Zhao, Jie; Xie, Nianlin; Cai, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  15. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Fu, Jianfang; Zhang, Shun; Zhao, Jie; Xie, Nianlin; Cai, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli-germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli-germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. PMID:25886977

  16. Cellular and computational studies of proteasome inhibition and apoptosis induction in human cancer cells by amino acid Schiff base–copper complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Jian; Bi, Caifeng; Fan, Yuhua; Buac, Daniela; Nardon, Chiara; Daniel, Kenyon G.; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation and apoptosis pathways are tightly regulated in a cell by the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) and alterations in the UPS may result in cellular transformation or other pathological conditions. Indeed, the proteasome is often found to be overactive in cancer cells. It has also been found that cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibition than normal cells, and therefore proteasome inhibitors are pursued as antitumor drugs. The use of the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib for treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma has proved this principle. Recent studies have suggested that copper complexes can inhibit proteasome activity and induce apoptosis in some human cancer cells. However, the involved molecular mechanism is unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological activities of four amino acid Schiff base–copper(II) complexes by using human breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and prostate (PC-3) cancer cells. The complexes C1 and C3, but not their counterparts C2 and C4, inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome and human cancer cellular 26S proteasome, cause accumulation of proteasome target proteins Bax and IκB-α, and induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Docking analysis shows that C1, but not C2 has hydrophobic, pi–pi, pi–cation and hydrogen bond interactions with the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like pocket and could stably fit into the S3 region, leading to specific inhibition. Our study has identified the mechanism of action of these copper complexes on inhibiting tumor cell proteasome and suggested their great potential as novel anticancer agents. PMID:23142973

  17. Chronic aspirin via dose-dependent and selective inhibition of cardiac proteasome possibly contributed a potential risk to the ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chunjiang; Chen, Wenlie; Wu, Yanbin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Ruhui; Tan, Xuerui; Chen, Songming

    2013-08-01

    Impaired cardiac proteasome has been reported in ischemic heart and heart failure. Recent data highlighted aspirin as an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, however, it's unclear whether it affects cardiac proteasome functions. Myocardial infarction (MI), sham or normal male SD rats were injected intraperitoneally with high (300 mg/kg), low (5 mg/kg) aspirin or saline (control) once a day for seven weeks. Parallel experiments were performed in the hypoxia/reoxygenated human ventricular myocytes. Dose-related increases in heart and ventricular weight, and impaired cardiac functions, were found more exacerbated in the aspirin-treated MI rat hearts than the saline-treated MI counterparts. The activity of 26S, 20S and 19S declined by about 30%, or the 20S proteasome subunits β5, β2 and β1 decreased by 40%, 20% and 30%, respectively, in the MI rats compared with the non-MI rats (P<0.05). Compared with the saline-treated MI rats, 26S and 20S in high or low dose aspirin-treated MI rats further decreased by 30% and 20%, β5 by 30% and 12%, and β1 by 40% and 30%, respectively, and the lost activity was correlated with the compromised cardiac functions or the decreased cell viability. The dose-related and selective inhibition of 26S and 20S proteasome, or the 20S proteasome subunits β5 and β1 by aspirin was comparable to their protein expressions in the MI rats and in the cultured cells. The impaired cardiac proteasome, enhanced by chronic aspirin treatment, attenuated the removal of oxidative and ubiquitinated proteins, and chronic aspirin treatment via selective and dose-dependent inhibition of cardiac proteasome possibly constituted a potential risk to ischemic heart.

  18. Crystal structure of N-{N-[N-acetyl-(S)-leucyl]-(S)-leucyl}norleucinal (ALLN), an inhibitor of proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Basava, Channa; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    The title compound, C20H37N3O4, also known by the acronym ALLN, is a tripeptidic inhibitor of the proteolytic activity of the proteasomes, enzyme complexes implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases and other disorders, including cancer. Thus, the crystal structure of ALLN, solved from synchrotron radiation diffraction data, revealed the molecules in extended conformation of the backbone and engaging all peptide N and O atoms in intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming an infinite antiparallel β-sheet.

  19. Direct cellular delivery of human proteasomes to delay tau aggregation.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong Hoon; Na, Hee-Kyung; Choi, Won Hoon; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kim, Yun Kyung; Won, Cheolhee; Lee, Seung-Han; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kuret, Jeff; Min, Dal-Hee; Lee, Min Jae

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is the primary machinery that degrades ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugated proteins, including many proteotoxic proteins implicated in neurodegeneraton. It has been suggested that the elevation of proteasomal activity is tolerable to cells and may be beneficial to prevent the accumulation of protein aggregates. Here we show that purified proteasomes can be directly transported into cells through mesoporous silica nanoparticle-mediated endocytosis. Proteasomes that are loaded onto nanoparticles through non-covalent interactions between polyhistidine tags and nickel ions fully retain their proteolytic activity. Cells treated with exogenous proteasomes are more efficient in degrading overexpressed human tau than endogenous proteasomal substrates, resulting in decreased levels of tau aggregates. Moreover, exogenous proteasome delivery significantly promotes cell survival against proteotoxic stress caused by tau and reactive oxygen species. These data demonstrate that increasing cellular proteasome activity through the direct delivery of purified proteasomes may be an effective strategy for reducing cellular levels of proteotoxic proteins. PMID:25476420

  20. Identification of proteasome subunit beta type 6 (PSMB6) associated with deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes by proteomic and bioassay analyses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linchun; Ye, Yuting; Sun, Haibo; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Li; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Donghui; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2013-01-01

    Deltamethrin (DM) insecticides are currently being promoted worldwide for mosquito control, because of the high efficacy, low mammalian toxicity and less environmental impact. Widespread and improper use of insecticides induced resistance, which has become a major obstacle for the insect-borne disease management. Resistance development is a complex and dynamic process involving many genes. To better understand the possible molecular mechanisms involved in DM resistance, a proteomic approach was employed for screening of differentially expressed proteins in DM-susceptible and -resistant mosquito cells. Twenty-seven differentially expressed proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Four members of the ubiquitin-proteasome system were significantly elevated in DM-resistant cells, suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may play an important role in DM resistance. Proteasome subunit beta type 6 (PSMB6) is a member of 20S proteasomal subunit family, which forms the proteolytic core of 26S proteasome. We used pharmaceutical inhibitor and molecular approaches to study the contributions of PSMB6 in DM resistance: the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and bortezomib were used to suppress the proteasomal activity and siRNA was designed to block the function of PSMB6. The results revealed that both MG-132 and bortezomib increased the susceptibility in DM-resistant cells and resistance larvae. Moreover, PSMB6 knockdown decreased cellular viability under DM treatment. Taken together, our study indicated that PSMB6 is associated with DM resistance in mosquitoes and that proteasome inhibitors such as MG-132 or bortezomib are suitable for use as a DM synergist for vector control.

  1. Proteasome inhibition induces both antioxidant and hb f responses in sickle cell disease via the nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Pullarkat, Vinod; Meng, Zhuo; Tahara, Stanley M; Johnson, Cage S; Kalra, Vijay K

    2014-01-01

    Oxidant stress is implicated in the manifestations of sickle cell disease including hemolysis and vascular occlusion. Strategies to induce antioxidant response as well as Hb F (α2γ2) have the potential to ameliorate the severity of sickle cell disease. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2 or Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates antioxidant enzymes as well as γ-globin transcription. The Nrf2 in the cytoplasm is bound to its adapter protein Keap-1 that targets Nrf2 for proteasomal degradation, thereby preventing its nuclear translocation. We examined whether inhibiting the 26S proteasome using the clinically applicable proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and MLN 9708 would promote nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and thereby induce an antioxidant response and as well as Hb F in sickle cell disease. Proteasome inhibitors induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby increased Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme transcripts, elevated cellular glutathione (GSH) levels and γ-globin transcripts as well as Hb F levels in the K562 cell line and also in erythroid burst forming units (BFU-E) generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of sickle cell disease patients. These responses were abolished by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2. Proteasome inhibitors, especially newer oral agents such as MLN9708 have the potential to be readily translated to clinical trials in sickle cell disease with the dual end points of antioxidant response and Hb F induction.

  2. The proteasome deubiquitinase inhibitor VLX1570 shows selectivity for ubiquitin-specific protease-14 and induces apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Mazurkiewicz, Magdalena; Hillert, Ellin-Kristina; Olofsson, Maria Hägg; Pierrou, Stefan; Hillertz, Per; Gullbo, Joachim; Selvaraju, Karthik; Paulus, Aneel; Akhtar, Sharoon; Bossler, Felicitas; Khan, Asher Chanan; Linder, Stig; D’Arcy, Padraig

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of deubiquitinase (DUB) activity is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. VLX1570 is an inhibitor of proteasome DUB activity currently in clinical trials for relapsed multiple myeloma. Here we show that VLX1570 binds to and inhibits the activity of ubiquitin-specific protease-14 (USP14) in vitro, with comparatively weaker inhibitory activity towards UCHL5 (ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase-5). Exposure of multiple myeloma cells to VLX1570 resulted in thermostabilization of USP14 at therapeutically relevant concentrations. Transient knockdown of USP14 or UCHL5 expression by electroporation of siRNA reduced the viability of multiple myeloma cells. Treatment of multiple myeloma cells with VLX1570 induced the accumulation of proteasome-bound high molecular weight polyubiquitin conjugates and an apoptotic response. Sensitivity to VLX1570 was moderately affected by altered drug uptake, but was unaffected by overexpression of BCL2-family proteins or inhibitors of caspase activity. Finally, treatment with VLX1570 was found to lead to extended survival in xenograft models of multiple myeloma. Our findings demonstrate promising antiproliferative activity of VLX1570 in multiple myeloma, primarily associated with inhibition of USP14 activity. PMID:27264969

  3. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural analyses of the function of the ubiquitin-proteasome system during spermiogenesis with the use of the inhibitors of proteasome proteolytic activity in the alga, Chara vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Agnieszka; Kwiatkowska, Maria

    2008-04-01

    Spermiogenesis in Chara vulgaris and in animals share many common features, including exchange of nucleohistones into nucleoprotamines, remodeling and extreme condensation of chromatin, formation of flagellae and of microtubule manchette, and decrease in cytoplasm volume. In C. vulgaris, spermiogenesis is not preceded by meiosis since this alga is a haplobiont. In the present work we showed that in early spermiogenesis characterized by a significant metabolic activity of spermatids, the inhibitors of proteasomes did not visibly change their ultrastructure but significantly prolonged this process. At late stages of spermiogenesis, MG-132 and epoxomicin dramatically changed the structure of nuclei: regular fibrillar and lamellar structure of chromatin was disturbed and clusters of grains corresponding to aggresomes appeared, but the nucleus shape and cytoplasm structure were the same as in the controls. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that these inhibitors blocked disappearance of histones from nuclei while the structures corresponding to aggresomes were clusters of undegraded ubiquitinated histones, since they gave positive immunosignals indicating the presence of ubiquitin and histones.

  4. Decreased activity of the 20S proteasome in the brain white matter and gray matter of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianzheng; Bizzozero, Oscar A

    2011-04-01

    Carbonylated (oxidized) proteins are known to accumulate in the cerebral white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Although oxidative stress is necessary for carbonyl generation, it is the failure of the degradation systems that ultimately leads to the build-up of carbonylated proteins within tissues. In this study, we measured the activity of the 20S proteasome and other proteolytic systems in the cerebral WM and GM of 13 MS patients and 13 controls. We report that the activities of the three peptidases of the 20S proteasome (i.e. chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like and trypsin-like) in both MS-WM and MS-GM are greatly reduced. Interestingly, neither the amount of proteasome nor the levels of the catalytic subunits (β1, β2, and β5) are diminished in this disease. Proteins containing Lys-48 poly-ubiquitin also accumulate in MS tissues, indicating failure of the 26S proteasome as well. Levels of the regulatory caps 11S α and 19S are also lower in MS than in controls, suggesting that the activity of the more complex proteasomes may be reduced further. Finally, the activities of other proteases that might also remove oxidized proteins (calpain, cathepsin B, mitochondrial LonP) are not lessened in MS. Together, these studies suggest that direct inactivation of proteolytic centers in the 20S particle and/or the presence of specific inhibitors is the underlying cause of proteasomal dysfunction in MS.

  5. Anticancer Effect of a Novel Proteasome Inhibitor, YSY01A, via G2/M Arrest in PC-3M Cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Xia; Xu, Bo; Guo, Wei; Ran, Fu-Xiang; Li, Run-Tao; Cui, Jing-Rong

    2015-01-01

    YSY01A is a new tripeptideboronic acid and an analog of PS341. However, YSY01A's antitumor effects and mechanism have not yet been elucidated. This study demonstrates that YSY01A inhibited proteasome activity by combining with the chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) site (β5i/β5), the post-glutamyl peptide hydrolase (PGPH) site (β1i/β1) and the trypsin-like (T-L) site (β2i/β2) in special fluorgonic substrates and proteasome probe tests. We explored the anticancer effect using methyl thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) or sulforhodamine B (SRB), and PC-3M cells were sensitive to YSY01A among the four cancer cell types tested. The YSY01A antiproliferative effect was stronger than that of PS341. In vivo, YSY01A (1.25, 2.25, and 3.25 mg/kg) inhibited PC-3M cell xenograft tumor growth, and the tumor volume inhibition rate was approximately 40% to 60%. YSY01A arrested PC-3M cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle by flow cytometry (FCM). Many proteins related to the cell cycle were analyzed using western blot, and YSY01A was shown to increase p21, p27, cyclinB1, P-cdc2 (tyr15) and wee1 protein expression in both cells and tumor tissue in a concentration-dependent manner. YSY01A, a proteasome inhibitor, exerts anticancer effects on PC-3M cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of the YSY01A-mediated antitumor effect is that the cell cycle is arrested at the G2/M stage. This study suggests that YSY01A may be a novel therapeutic agent for prostate cancer. PMID:26185531

  6. How the ubiquitin proteasome system regulates the regulators of transcription.

    PubMed

    Ee, Gary; Lehming, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system plays an important role in transcription. Monoubiquitination of activators is believed to aid their function, while the 26S proteasomal degradation of repressors is believed to restrict their function. What remains controversial is the question of whether the degradation of activators aids or restricts their function.

  7. Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and cellular responses to oxidative stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is the primary cytosolic proteolytic machinery for the selective degradation of various forms of damaged proteins. Thus, the UPP is an important protein quality control mechanism. In the canonical UPP, both ubiquitin and the 26S proteasome are involved. Subs...

  8. Proteasome Activity Is Affected by Fluctuations in Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Distribution.

    PubMed

    Sbardella, Diego; Tundo, Grazia Raffaella; Sciandra, Francesca; Bozzi, Manuela; Gioia, Magda; Ciaccio, Chiara; Tarantino, Umberto; Brancaccio, Andrea; Coletta, Massimo; Marini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-Degrading-Enzyme (IDE) is a Zn2+-dependent peptidase highly conserved throughout evolution and ubiquitously distributed in mammalian tissues wherein it displays a prevalent cytosolic localization. We have recently demonstrated a novel Heat Shock Protein-like behaviour of IDE and its association with the 26S proteasome. In the present study, we examine the mechanistic and molecular features of IDE-26S proteasome interaction in a cell experimental model, extending the investigation also to the effect of IDE on the enzymatic activities of the 26S proteasome. Further, kinetic investigations indicate that the 26S proteasome activity undergoes a functional modulation by IDE through an extra-catalytic mechanism. The IDE-26S proteasome interaction was analyzed during the Heat Shock Response and we report novel findings on IDE intracellular distribution that might be of critical relevance for cell metabolism.

  9. Proteasome Activity Is Affected by Fluctuations in Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Sbardella, Diego; Tundo, Grazia Raffaella; Sciandra, Francesca; Bozzi, Manuela; Gioia, Magda; Ciaccio, Chiara; Tarantino, Umberto; Brancaccio, Andrea; Coletta, Massimo; Marini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-Degrading-Enzyme (IDE) is a Zn2+-dependent peptidase highly conserved throughout evolution and ubiquitously distributed in mammalian tissues wherein it displays a prevalent cytosolic localization. We have recently demonstrated a novel Heat Shock Protein-like behaviour of IDE and its association with the 26S proteasome. In the present study, we examine the mechanistic and molecular features of IDE-26S proteasome interaction in a cell experimental model, extending the investigation also to the effect of IDE on the enzymatic activities of the 26S proteasome. Further, kinetic investigations indicate that the 26S proteasome activity undergoes a functional modulation by IDE through an extra-catalytic mechanism. The IDE-26S proteasome interaction was analyzed during the Heat Shock Response and we report novel findings on IDE intracellular distribution that might be of critical relevance for cell metabolism. PMID:26186340

  10. Dendritic Glycopolymer as Drug Delivery System for Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib in a Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement: First Steps Toward a Local Therapy of Osteolytic Bone Lesions.

    PubMed

    Striegler, Christin; Schumacher, Matthias; Effenberg, Christiane; Müller, Martin; Seckinger, Anja; Schnettler, Reinhard; Voit, Brigitte; Hose, Dirk; Gelinsky, Michael; Appelhans, Dietmar

    2015-09-01

    Establishment of drug delivery system (DDS) in bone substitute materials for local treatment of bone defects still requires ambitious solutions for a retarded drug release. We present two novel DDS, a weakly cationic dendritic glycopolymer and a cationic polyelectrolyte complex, composed of dendritic glycopolymer and cellulose sulfate, for the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Both DDS are able to induce short-term retarded release of bortezomib from calcium phosphate bone cement in comparison to a burst-release of the drug from bone cement alone. Different release parameters have been evaluated to get a first insight into the release mechanism from bone cements. In addition, biocompatibility of the calcium phosphate cement, modified with the new DDS was investigated using human mesenchymal stromal cells. PMID:26018141

  11. Dendritic Glycopolymer as Drug Delivery System for Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib in a Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement: First Steps Toward a Local Therapy of Osteolytic Bone Lesions.

    PubMed

    Striegler, Christin; Schumacher, Matthias; Effenberg, Christiane; Müller, Martin; Seckinger, Anja; Schnettler, Reinhard; Voit, Brigitte; Hose, Dirk; Gelinsky, Michael; Appelhans, Dietmar

    2015-09-01

    Establishment of drug delivery system (DDS) in bone substitute materials for local treatment of bone defects still requires ambitious solutions for a retarded drug release. We present two novel DDS, a weakly cationic dendritic glycopolymer and a cationic polyelectrolyte complex, composed of dendritic glycopolymer and cellulose sulfate, for the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Both DDS are able to induce short-term retarded release of bortezomib from calcium phosphate bone cement in comparison to a burst-release of the drug from bone cement alone. Different release parameters have been evaluated to get a first insight into the release mechanism from bone cements. In addition, biocompatibility of the calcium phosphate cement, modified with the new DDS was investigated using human mesenchymal stromal cells.

  12. Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and cellular responses to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Allen

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is the primary cytosolic proteolytic machinery for the selective degradation of various forms of damaged proteins. Thus, the UPP is an important protein quality control mechanism. In the canonical UPP, both ubiquitin and the 26S proteasome are involved. Substrate proteins of the canonical UPP are first tagged by multiple ubiquitin molecules and then degraded by the 26S proteasome. However, in non-canonical UPP, proteins can be degraded by the 26S or the 20S proteasome without being ubiquitinated. It is clear that a proteasome is responsible for selective degradation of oxidized proteins, but the extent to which ubiquitination is involved in this process remains a subject of debate. While many publications suggest that the 20S proteasome degrades oxidized proteins independent of ubiquitin, there is also solid evidence indicating that ubiquitin and ubiquitination are involved in degradation of some forms of oxidized proteins. A fully functional UPP is required for cells to cope with oxidative stress and the activity of the UPP is also modulated by cellular redox status. Mild or transient oxidative stress up-regulates the ubiquitination system and proteasome activity in cells and tissues and transiently enhances intracellular proteolysis. Severe or sustained oxidative stress impairs the function of the UPP and decreases intracellular proteolysis. Both the ubiquitin conjugation enzymes and the proteasome can be inactivated by sustained oxidative stress, especially the 26S proteasome. Differential susceptibilities of the ubiquitin conjugation enzymes and the 26S proteasome to oxidative damage lead to an accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates in cells in response to mild oxidative stress. Thus, increased levels of ubiquitin conjugates in cells appear to be an indicator of mild oxidative stress. PMID:21530648

  13. MCPIP1 contributes to the toxicity of proteasome inhibitor MG-132 in HeLa cells by the inhibition of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Skalniak, Lukasz; Dziendziel, Monika; Jura, Jolanta

    2014-10-01

    Recently, we have shown that the treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 results in the induction of expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 induced protein 1 (MCPIP1). MCPIP1 is a ribonuclease, responsible for the degradation of transcripts encoding certain pro-inflammatory cytokines. The protein is also known as an inhibitor of NF-κB transcription factor. Thanks to its molecular properties, MCPIP1 is considered as a regulator of inflammation, differentiation, and survival. Using siRNA technology, we show here that MCPIP1 expression contributes to the toxic properties of MG-132 in HeLa cells. The inhibition of proteasome by MG-132 and epoxomicin markedly increased MCPIP1 expression. While MG-132 induces HeLa cell death, down-regulation of MCPIP1 expression by siRNA partially protects HeLa cells from MG-132 toxicity and restores Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, inhibited by MG-132 treatment. Inversely, overexpression of MCPIP1 decreased constitutive activity of NF-κB and limited the survival of HeLa cells, as we have shown in the previous study. Interestingly, although MG-132 decreased the expression of IκBα and increased p65 phosphorylation, the inhibition of constitutive NF-κB activity was observed in MG-132-treated cells. Since the elevated constitutive activity of NF-κB is one of the mechanisms providing increased survival of cancer cells, including HeLa cells, we propose that death-promoting properties of MCPIP1 in MG-132-treated HeLa cells may, at least partially, derive from the negative effect on the constitutive NF-κB activity.

  14. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib acts independently of p53 and induces cell death via apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe in B-cell lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Sandra J; Higginbottom, Karen; Jüliger, Simone; Maharaj, Lenushka; Allen, Paul; Schenkein, David; Lister, T Andrew; Joel, Simon P

    2007-03-15

    Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor with proven efficacy in multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This study reports the effects of bortezomib in B-cell lymphoma cell lines with differing sensitivity to bortezomib to investigate factors that influence sensitivity. Bortezomib induced a time- and concentration-dependent reduction in cell viability in five lymphoma cell lines, with EC(50) values ranging from 6 nmol/L (DHL-7 cells) to 25 nmol/L (DHL-4 cells) after 72 h. Bortezomib cytotoxicity was independent of p53 function, as all cell lines exhibited mutations by sequence analysis. The difference in sensitivity was not explained by proteasome or nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibition as these were similar in the most and least sensitive cells. NF-kappaB inhibition was less marked than that of a specific NF-kappaB inhibitor, Bay 11-7082. Cell cycle analysis showed a marked G(2)-arrested population in the least sensitive DHL-4 line only, an effect that was not present with Bay 11-7082 treatment. Conversely, in DHL-7 cells, bortezomib treatment resulted in cells moving into an aberrant mitosis, indicative of mitotic catastrophe that may contribute to increased sensitivity to bortezomib. These studies show that although bortezomib treatment had similar effects on apoptotic and NF-kappaB signaling pathways in these cell lines, different cell cycle effects were observed and induction of a further mechanism of cell death, mitotic catastrophe, was observed in the more sensitive cell line, which may provide some pointers to the difference in sensitivity between cell lines. An improved understanding of how DHL-7 cells abrogate the G(2)-M cell cycle checkpoint may help identify targets to increase the efficacy of bortezomib.

  15. MAP17 (PDZKIP1) Expression Determines Sensitivity to the Proteasomal Inhibitor Bortezomib by Preventing Cytoprotective Autophagy and NFκB Activation in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Galván, Sandra; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Perez, Marco; Carnero, Amancio

    2015-06-01

    MAP17 is a small nonglycosylated membrane protein that is overexpressed in a high percentage of carcinomas. High levels of MAP17 enhance the tumorigenic properties of tumor cells by increasing oxidative stress, which is dependent on Na(+)-coupled cotransport. Here, we show that MAP17 is associated with proteins involved in protein degradation and that proteasome inhibition induces autophagy. To analyze whether MAP17 could also alter this process, we used the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), which is approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma, although it has a high rate of resistance emergence and poor efficacy in solid tumors. We provide evidence that bortezomib induces a cytoprotective effect by activating autophagy and NFκB nuclear translocation, responses that are repressed in the presence of high levels of MAP17 both in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, patients with multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib showed higher response rates and a longer time to progression associated with increased levels of MAP17 expression. The MAP17-induced sensitivity to bortezomib is dependent on the oxidative status of the cells and the activity of Na(+)-coupled transporters because treatment with antioxidants or the inhibitor furosemide restores the cytoprotective activity induced by bortezomib. Therefore, bortezomib induces a prosurvival response through cytoprotective autophagy and NFκB nuclear translocation, which is repressed by high levels of MAP17. We propose that the levels of MAP17 could be used as a prognostic marker to predict the response to bortezomib in hematologic malignancies and in other tissues that are not commonly responsive to the drug.

  16. Proteasome Activators

    PubMed Central

    Stadtmueller, Beth M.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Proteasomes degrade a multitude of protein substrates in the cytosol and nucleus, and thereby are essential for many aspects of cellular function. Because the proteolytic sites are sequestered in a closed barrel-shaped structure, activators are required to facilitate substrate access. Structural and biochemical studies of two activator families, 11S and Blm10, have provided insights to proteasome activation mechanisms, although the biological functions of these factors remain obscure. Recent advances have improved our understanding of the third activator family, including the 19S activator, which targets polyubiquitylated proteins for degradation. PMID:21211719

  17. Physiological levels of ATP Negatively Regulate Proteasome Function

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hongbiao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Shujue; Liu, Ningning; Lian, Wen; McDowell, Emily; Zhou, Ping; Zhao, Canguo; Guo, Haiping; Zhang, Change; Yang, Changshan; Wen, Guangmei; Dong, Xiaoxian; Lu, Li; Ma, Ningfang; Dong, Weihua; Dou, Q. Ping; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Jinbao

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is ATP-dependent and the optimal ATP concentration to activate proteasome function in vitro is ~100 μM. Intracellular ATP levels are generally in the low millimolar range but ATP at a level within this range was shown to inhibit proteasome peptidase activities in vitro. Here we report new evidence that supports a hypothesis that intracellular ATP at the physiological levels bidirectionally regulates 26S proteasome proteolytic function in the cell. First, we confirmed that ATP exerted bidirectional regulation on the 26S proteasome in vitro, with the optimal ATP concentration (between 50–100 μM) stimulating proteasome chymotrypsin-like activities. Second, we found that manipulating intracellular ATP levels also led to bidirectional changes in the levels of proteasome-specific protein substrates in cultured cells. Finally, measures to increase intracellular ATP enhanced, while decreasing intracellular ATP attenuated, the ability of proteasome inhibition to induce cell death. These data strongly suggest that endogenous ATP within the physiological concentration range can exert a negative impact on proteasome activities, allowing the cell to rapidly up-regulate proteasome activity upon ATP reduction under stress conditions. PMID:20805844

  18. Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 enhances histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA-induced cell death of chronic myeloid leukemia cells by an ROS-mediated mechanism and downregulation of the Bcr-Abl fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, WENJING; ZHU, WEIWEI; MA, LIYA; XIAO, FENG; QIAN, WENBIN

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been progress in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, novel therapeutic strategies are required in order to address the emerging problem of imatinib resistance. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and proteasome inhibitors are promising alternatives, and may be amenable to integration with current therapeutic approaches. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these two agents remain unclear. The present study assessed the cytotoxic effect of the HDACi, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), in combination with the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, in imatinib-sensitive K562 and imatinib-resistant K562G cells, and investigated the mechanism underlying this effect. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and protein expression levels were determined by western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation levels were observed under a fluorescence microscope The results indicated that SAHA and MG-132 act in a synergistic manner to induce cell death in K562 and K562G cells. This effect was associated with Bcr-Abl downregulation and the production of ROS. Notably, the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, almost fully reversed the cell death and Bcr-Abl downregulation that was induced by the combination of SAHA and MG-132. By contrast, the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, only partially reversed the cell death induced by these two drugs in CML cells. These results indicated that increased intracellular ROS levels are important in the induction of cell death and the downregulation of Bcr-Abl. In conclusion, the present results suggested that combined SAHA and MG-132 may be a promising treatment for CML. PMID:26722260

  19. Multiple sclerosis autoantigen myelin basic protein escapes control by ubiquitination during proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Belogurov, Alexey; Kudriaeva, Anna; Kuzina, Ekaterina; Smirnov, Ivan; Bobik, Tatyana; Ponomarenko, Natalia; Kravtsova-Ivantsiv, Yelena; Ciechanover, Aaron; Gabibov, Alexander

    2014-06-20

    The vast majority of cellular proteins are degraded by the 26S proteasome after their ubiquitination. Here, we report that the major component of the myelin multilayered membrane sheath, myelin basic protein (MBP), is hydrolyzed by the 26S proteasome in a ubiquitin-independent manner both in vitro and in mammalian cells. As a proteasomal substrate, MBP reveals a distinct and physiologically relevant concentration range for ubiquitin-independent proteolysis. Enzymatic deimination prevents hydrolysis of MBP by the proteasome, suggesting that an abnormally basic charge contributes to its susceptibility toward proteasome-mediated degradation. To our knowledge, our data reveal the first case of a pathophysiologically important autoantigen as a ubiquitin-independent substrate of the 26S proteasome.

  20. Induction of tumor cell apoptosis by taurine Schiff base copper complex is associated the with inhibition of proteasomal activity

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIA; BI, CAIFENG; FAN, YUHUA; CUI, QIUZHI; CHEN, DI; XIAO, YAN; DOU, Q. PING

    2013-01-01

    Schiff bases have been intensively investigated due to their antibacterial and antitumor properties. Copper is a cofactor essential for the tumor angiogenesis processes, whereas other transition metals are not. Consistently, high serum or tissue levels of copper were found in many types of human cancer including breast, prostate, colon, lung, and brain, supporting the idea that copper could be used as a novel selective target for cancer therapies. In the current study we hypothesize that a synthetic taurine Schiff base copper complex (Compound 1) could suppress tumor cell growth via the direct inhibition of proteasome activity. Compound 1 potently inhibits the activity of purified 20S and 26S proteasome in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and leukemia Jurkat T cells. Inhibition of tumor cellular proteasomal activity by Compound 1 results in the accumulation of ubiquitinated protein and the proteasome target proteins p27 and Bax, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Our results strongly suggest that taurine Schiff base copper complexes, as potent proteasome inhibitors, have great potential to be developed into novel anticancer drugs. PMID:18949390

  1. Proteasome targeting of proteins in Arabidopsis leaf mesophyll, epidermal and vascular tissues

    PubMed Central

    Svozil, Julia; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Protein and transcript levels are partly decoupled as a function of translation efficiency and protein degradation. Selective protein degradation via the Ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS) ensures protein homeostasis and facilitates adjustment of protein abundance during changing environmental conditions. Since individual leaf tissues have specialized functions, their protein composition is different and hence also protein level regulation is expected to differ. To understand UPS function in a tissue-specific context we developed a method termed Meselect to effectively and rapidly separate Arabidopsis thaliana leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Epidermal and vascular tissue cells are separated mechanically, while mesophyll cells are obtained after rapid protoplasting. The high yield of proteins was sufficient for tissue-specific proteome analyses after inhibition of the proteasome with the specific inhibitor Syringolin A (SylA) and affinity enrichment of ubiquitylated proteins. SylA treatment of leaves resulted in the accumulation of 225 proteins and identification of 519 ubiquitylated proteins. Proteins that were exclusively identified in the three different tissue types are consistent with specific cellular functions. Mesophyll cell proteins were enriched for plastid membrane translocation complexes as targets of the UPS. Epidermis enzymes of the TCA cycle and cell wall biosynthesis specifically accumulated after proteasome inhibition, and in the vascular tissue several enzymes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were found to be ubiquitylated. Our results demonstrate that protein level changes and UPS protein targets are characteristic of the individual leaf tissues and that the proteasome is relevant for tissue-specific functions. PMID:26074939

  2. Lipopolysaccharide Induces Degradation of Connexin43 in Rat Astrocytes via the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Proteolytic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chih-Kai; Jeng, Chung-Jiuan; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Wang, Shu-Huei; Wu, Jiahn-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The astrocytic syncytium plays a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis of the brain through the regulation of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Changes to GJIC in response to inflammatory stimuli in astrocytes may have serious effects on the brain. We have previously shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces connexin43 (Cx43) expression and GJIC in cultured rat astrocytes via a toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling pathway. In the present study, treatment of astrocytes with LPS resulted in a significant increase in levels of the phosphorylated forms of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) -1, -2, and -3 for up to 18 h. An increase in nuclear transcription factor NF-κB levels was also observed after 8 h of LPS treatment and was sustained for up to 18 h. The LPS-induced decrease in Cx43 protein levels and inhibition of GJIC were blocked by the SAPK/JNK inhibitor SP600125, but not by the NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082. Following blockade of de novo protein synthesis by cycloheximide, LPS accelerated Cx43 degradation. Moreover, the LPS-induced downregulation of Cx43 was blocked following inhibition of 26S proteasome activity using the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG132 or the irreversible proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. Immunoprecipitation analyses revealed an increased association of Cx43 with both ubiquitin and E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 in astrocytes after LPS stimulation for 6 h and this effect was prevented by SP600125. Taken together, these results suggest that LPS stimulation leads to downregulation of Cx43 expression and GJIC in rat astrocytes by activation of SAPK/JNK and the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. PMID:24236122

  3. The Proteasome Is a Molecular Target of Environmental Toxic Organotins

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guoqing; Chen, Di; Zhai, Guangshu; Chen, Marina S.; Cui, Qiuzhi Cindy; Zhou, Qunfang; He, Bin; Dou, Q. Ping; Jiang, Guibin

    2009-01-01

    Background Because of the vital importance of the proteasome pathway, chemicals affecting proteasome activity could disrupt essential cellular processes. Although the toxicity of organotins to both invertebrates and vertebrates is well known, the essential cellular target of organotins has not been well identified. We hypothesize that the proteasome is a molecular target of environmental toxic organotins. Objectives Our goal was to test the above hypothesis by investigating whether organotins could inhibit the activity of purified and cellular proteasomes and, if so, the involved molecular mechanisms and downstream events. Results We found that some toxic organotins [e.g., triphenyltin (TPT)] can potently and preferentially inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasomes and human breast cancer cellular 26S proteasomes. Direct binding of tin atoms to cellular proteasomes is responsible for the observed irreversible inhibition. Inhibition of cellular proteasomes by TPT in several human cell lines results in the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and natural proteasome target proteins, accompanied by induction of cell death. Conclusions The proteasome is one of the molecular targets of environmental toxic organotins in human cells, and proteasome inhibition by organotins contributes to their cellular toxicity. PMID:19337512

  4. Extracellular Matrix Degradation and Tissue Remodeling in Periprosthetic Loosening and Osteolysis: Focus on Matrix Metalloproteinases, Their Endogenous Tissue Inhibitors, and the Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Syggelos, Spyros A.; Aletras, Alexios J.; Smirlaki, Ioanna; Skandalis, Spyros S.

    2013-01-01

    The leading complication of total joint replacement is periprosthetic osteolysis, which often results in aseptic loosening of the implant, leading to revision surgery. Extracellular matrix degradation and connective tissue remodeling around implants have been considered as major biological events in the periprosthetic loosening. Critical mediators of wear particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis released by periprosthetic synovial cells (mainly macrophages) are inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and proteolytic enzymes, mainly matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Numerous studies reveal a strong interdependence of MMP expression and activity with the molecular mechanisms that control the composition and turnover of periprosthetic matrices. MMPs can either actively modulate or be modulated by the molecular mechanisms that determine the debris-induced remodeling of the periprosthetic microenvironment. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms that control the composition, turnover, and activity of matrix macromolecules within the periprosthetic microenvironment exposed to wear debris are summarized and presented. Special emphasis is given to MMPs and their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), as well as to the proteasome pathway, which appears to be an elegant molecular regulator of specific matrix macromolecules (including specific MMPs and TIMPs). Furthermore, strong rationale for potential clinical applications of the described molecular mechanisms to the treatment of periprosthetic loosening and osteolysis is provided. PMID:23862137

  5. The Effect of a High-Fat Meal on the Pharmacokinetics of Ixazomib, an Oral Proteasome Inhibitor, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neeraj; Hanley, Michael J; Venkatakrishnan, Karthik; Wang, Bingxia; Sharma, Sunil; Bessudo, Alberto; Hui, Ai-Min; Nemunaitis, John

    2016-10-01

    Ixazomib is the first oral proteasome inhibitor to be investigated in the clinic. This clinical study assessed whether the pharmacokinetics of ixazomib would be altered if administered after a high-calorie, high-fat meal. In a 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design, adult patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma received a 4-mg oral dose of ixazomib as immediate-release capsules on day 1 without food (fasted, administered following an overnight fast) or with food (fed, following consumption of a high-calorie, high-fat meal), followed by another dose on day 15 in the alternate food intake condition (fasted to fed or fed to fasted). Twenty-four patients were enrolled; of these, 15 were included in the pharmacokinetic-evaluable population. Administration of ixazomib after a high-fat meal reduced both the rate and extent of absorption of ixazomib. Under fed conditions, the median time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax ) of ixazomib was delayed by approximately 3 hours compared with administration in the fasted state (1.02 hours vs 4.0 hours), and there was a 28% reduction in total systemic exposure (area under the curve, AUC) and a 69% reduction in peak plasma concentration (Cmax ). Together, the results support the administration of ixazomib on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or at least 2 hours after food. These recommendations are reflected in the United States Prescribing Information for ixazomib (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01454076).

  6. The Effect of a High-Fat Meal on the Pharmacokinetics of Ixazomib, an Oral Proteasome Inhibitor, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neeraj; Hanley, Michael J; Venkatakrishnan, Karthik; Wang, Bingxia; Sharma, Sunil; Bessudo, Alberto; Hui, Ai-Min; Nemunaitis, John

    2016-10-01

    Ixazomib is the first oral proteasome inhibitor to be investigated in the clinic. This clinical study assessed whether the pharmacokinetics of ixazomib would be altered if administered after a high-calorie, high-fat meal. In a 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design, adult patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma received a 4-mg oral dose of ixazomib as immediate-release capsules on day 1 without food (fasted, administered following an overnight fast) or with food (fed, following consumption of a high-calorie, high-fat meal), followed by another dose on day 15 in the alternate food intake condition (fasted to fed or fed to fasted). Twenty-four patients were enrolled; of these, 15 were included in the pharmacokinetic-evaluable population. Administration of ixazomib after a high-fat meal reduced both the rate and extent of absorption of ixazomib. Under fed conditions, the median time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax ) of ixazomib was delayed by approximately 3 hours compared with administration in the fasted state (1.02 hours vs 4.0 hours), and there was a 28% reduction in total systemic exposure (area under the curve, AUC) and a 69% reduction in peak plasma concentration (Cmax ). Together, the results support the administration of ixazomib on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or at least 2 hours after food. These recommendations are reflected in the United States Prescribing Information for ixazomib (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01454076). PMID:26872892

  7. Autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system contribute to sperm mitophagy after mammalian fertilization.

    PubMed

    Song, Won-Hee; Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Miriam; Meyers, Stuart; Sutovsky, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mtDNA is a universal principle in human and animal development, guided by selective ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the sperm-borne mitochondria after fertilization. However, it is not clear how the 26S proteasome, the ubiquitin-dependent protease that is only capable of degrading one protein molecule at a time, can dispose of a whole sperm mitochondrial sheath. We hypothesized that the canonical ubiquitin-like autophagy receptors [sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP)] and the nontraditional mitophagy pathways involving ubiquitin-proteasome system and the ubiquitin-binding protein dislocase, valosin-containing protein (VCP), may act in concert during mammalian sperm mitophagy. We found that the SQSTM1, but not GABARAP or LC3, associated with sperm mitochondria after fertilization in pig and rhesus monkey zygotes. Three sperm mitochondrial proteins copurified with the recombinant, ubiquitin-associated domain of SQSTM1. The accumulation of GABARAP-containing protein aggregates was observed in the vicinity of sperm mitochondrial sheaths in the zygotes and increased in the embryos treated with proteasomal inhibitor MG132, in which intact sperm mitochondrial sheaths were observed. Pharmacological inhibition of VCP significantly delayed the process of sperm mitophagy and completely prevented it when combined with microinjection of autophagy-targeting antibodies specific to SQSTM1 and/or GABARAP. Sperm mitophagy in higher mammals thus relies on a combined action of SQSTM1-dependent autophagy and VCP-mediated dislocation and presentation of ubiquitinated sperm mitochondrial proteins to the 26S proteasome, explaining how the whole sperm mitochondria are degraded inside the fertilized mammalian oocytes by a protein recycling system involved in degradation of single protein molecules. PMID:27551072

  8. Synergistic anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of combined therapy with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) drugs in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cascone, Tina; Morelli, Maria Pia; Morgillo, Floriana; Kim, Woo-Young; Rodolico, Gabriella; Pepe, Stefano; Tortora, Giampaolo; Berrino, Liberato; Lee, Ho-Young; Heymach, John V; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2008-09-01

    The proteasome plays a pivotal role in the turnover of regulatory transduction proteins induced by activated cell membrane growth factor receptors. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is crucial in the development and progression of human epithelial cancers. Proteasome inhibition may sensitize human cancer cell lines to EGFR inhibitors. We investigated the growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in combination with anti-EGFR drugs, such as gefitinib, vandetanib, and cetuximab in EGFR-expressing human cancer cell lines. Bortezomib determined dose-dependent growth inhibition in a nine cancer cell line panel (IC(50) values, range 6-42 nM). A significant synergistic growth inhibitory effect was observed with the combination of bortezomib and each EGFR inhibitor in all cell lines (combination index, CI, range 0.10-0.55), which was accompanied by a significant induction in apoptosis by the combined treatment with bortezomib, cetuximab and vandetanib. In HCT-116 colon cancer and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, bortezomib plus EGFR inhibitor treatment induced a more effective inhibition of EGFR-activated down-stream signals, including a marked suppression in activated, phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt). In contrast, overexpression of a constitutively active P-Akt protected A549 cells by cell growth inhibition and apoptosis following treatment with bortezomib and EGFR inhibitors. The combined treatment with bortezomib and EGFR inhibitors has a synergistic growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic activity in different human cancer cells which possess a functional EGFR-dependent autocrine growth pathway through to a more efficient and sustained inhibition of Akt.

  9. KRAS Genotype Correlates with Proteasome Inhibitor Ixazomib Activity in Preclinical In Vivo Models of Colon and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Potential Role of Tumor Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Nibedita; Berger, Allison J.; Koenig, Erik; Bannerman, Bret; Garnsey, James; Bernard, Hugues; Hales, Paul; Maldonado Lopez, Angel; Yang, Yu; Donelan, Jill; Jordan, Kristen; Tirrell, Stephen; Stringer, Bradley; Xia, Cindy; Hather, Greg; Galvin, Katherine; Manfredi, Mark; Rhodes, Nelson; Amidon, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In non-clinical studies, the proteasome inhibitor ixazomib inhibits cell growth in a broad panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. In contrast, antitumor activity in xenograft tumors is model-dependent, with some solid tumors showing no response to ixazomib. In this study we examined factors responsible for ixazomib sensitivity or resistance using mouse xenograft models. A survey of 14 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 6 colon xenografts showed a striking relationship between ixazomib activity and KRAS genotype; tumors with wild-type (WT) KRAS were more sensitive to ixazomib than tumors harboring KRAS activating mutations. To confirm the association between KRAS genotype and ixazomib sensitivity, we used SW48 isogenic colon cancer cell lines. Either KRAS-G13D or KRAS-G12V mutations were introduced into KRAS-WT SW48 cells to generate cells that stably express activated KRAS. SW48 KRAS WT tumors, but neither SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors nor SW48-KRAS-G12V tumors, were sensitive to ixazomib in vivo. Since activated KRAS is known to be associated with metabolic reprogramming, we compared metabolite profiling of SW48-WT and SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors treated with or without ixazomib. Prior to treatment there were significant metabolic differences between SW48 WT and SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors, reflecting higher oxidative stress and glucose utilization in the KRAS-G13D tumors. Ixazomib treatment resulted in significant metabolic regulation, and some of these changes were specific to KRAS WT tumors. Depletion of free amino acid pools and activation of GCN2-eIF2α-pathways were observed both in tumor types. However, changes in lipid beta oxidation were observed in only the KRAS WT tumors. The non-clinical data presented here show a correlation between KRAS genotype and ixazomib sensitivity in NSCLC and colon xenografts and provide new evidence of regulation of key metabolic pathways by proteasome inhibition. PMID:26709701

  10. KRAS Genotype Correlates with Proteasome Inhibitor Ixazomib Activity in Preclinical In Vivo Models of Colon and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Potential Role of Tumor Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Nibedita; Berger, Allison J; Koenig, Erik; Bannerman, Bret; Garnsey, James; Bernard, Hugues; Hales, Paul; Maldonado Lopez, Angel; Yang, Yu; Donelan, Jill; Jordan, Kristen; Tirrell, Stephen; Stringer, Bradley; Xia, Cindy; Hather, Greg; Galvin, Katherine; Manfredi, Mark; Rhodes, Nelson; Amidon, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In non-clinical studies, the proteasome inhibitor ixazomib inhibits cell growth in a broad panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. In contrast, antitumor activity in xenograft tumors is model-dependent, with some solid tumors showing no response to ixazomib. In this study we examined factors responsible for ixazomib sensitivity or resistance using mouse xenograft models. A survey of 14 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 6 colon xenografts showed a striking relationship between ixazomib activity and KRAS genotype; tumors with wild-type (WT) KRAS were more sensitive to ixazomib than tumors harboring KRAS activating mutations. To confirm the association between KRAS genotype and ixazomib sensitivity, we used SW48 isogenic colon cancer cell lines. Either KRAS-G13D or KRAS-G12V mutations were introduced into KRAS-WT SW48 cells to generate cells that stably express activated KRAS. SW48 KRAS WT tumors, but neither SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors nor SW48-KRAS-G12V tumors, were sensitive to ixazomib in vivo. Since activated KRAS is known to be associated with metabolic reprogramming, we compared metabolite profiling of SW48-WT and SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors treated with or without ixazomib. Prior to treatment there were significant metabolic differences between SW48 WT and SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors, reflecting higher oxidative stress and glucose utilization in the KRAS-G13D tumors. Ixazomib treatment resulted in significant metabolic regulation, and some of these changes were specific to KRAS WT tumors. Depletion of free amino acid pools and activation of GCN2-eIF2α-pathways were observed both in tumor types. However, changes in lipid beta oxidation were observed in only the KRAS WT tumors. The non-clinical data presented here show a correlation between KRAS genotype and ixazomib sensitivity in NSCLC and colon xenografts and provide new evidence of regulation of key metabolic pathways by proteasome inhibition. PMID:26709701

  11. Activity-based imaging probes of the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Carmony, Kimberly Cornish; Kim, Kyung Bo

    2013-09-01

    Over the years, the proteasome has been extensively investigated due to its crucial roles in many important signaling pathways and its implications in diseases. Two proteasome inhibitors--bortezomib and carfilzomib--have received FDA approval for the treatment of multiple myeloma, thereby validating the proteasome as a chemotherapeutic target. As a result, further research efforts have been focused on dissecting the complex biology of the proteasome to gain the insight required for developing next-generation proteasome inhibitors. It is clear that chemical probes have made significant contributions to these efforts, mostly by functioning as inhibitors that selectively block the catalytic activity of proteasomes. Analogues of these inhibitors are now providing additional tools for visualization of catalytically active proteasome subunits, several of which allow real-time monitoring of proteasome activity in living cells as well as in in vivo settings. These imaging probes will provide powerful tools for assessing the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in clinical settings. In this review, we will focus on the recent efforts towards developing imaging probes of proteasomes, including the latest developments in immunoproteasome-selective imaging probes. PMID:23700161

  12. A mechanistic insight into a proteasome-independent constitutive inhibitor kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) degradation and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation pathway in WEHI-231 B-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shumway, Stuart D; Miyamoto, Shigeki

    2004-01-01

    Inducible activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) is classically mediated by proteasomal degradation of its associated inhibitors, IkappaBalpha (inhibitory kappaBalpha) and IkappaBbeta. However, certain B-lymphocytes maintain constitutively nuclear NF-kappaB activity (a p50-c-Rel heterodimer) which is resistant to inhibition by proteasome inhibitors. This activity in the WEHI-231 B-cell line is associated with continual and preferential degradation of IkappaBalpha, which is also unaffected by proteasome inhibitors. Pharmacological studies indicated that there was a correlation between inhibition of IkappaBalpha degradation and constitutive p50-c-Rel activity. Domain analysis of IkappaBalpha by deletion mutagenesis demonstrated that an N-terminal 36-amino-acid sequence of IkappaBalpha represented an instability determinant for constitutive degradation. Moreover, domain grafting studies indicated that this sequence was sufficient to cause IkappaBbeta, but not chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, to be rapidly degraded in WEHI-231 B-cells. However, this sequence was insufficient to target IkappaBbeta to the non-proteasome degradation pathway, suggesting that there was an additional cis-element(s) in IkappaBalpha that was required for complete targeting. Nevertheless, the NF-kappaB pool associated with IkappaBbeta now became constitutively active by virtue of IkappaBbeta instability in these cells. These findings further support the notion that IkappaB instability governs the maintenance of constitutive p50-c-Rel activity in certain B-cells via a unique degradation pathway. PMID:14763901

  13. Basic Leucine Zipper Protein Cnc-C Is a Substrate and Transcriptional Regulator of the Drosophila 26S Proteasome▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Grimberg, Kristian Björk; Beskow, Anne; Lundin, Daniel; Davis, Monica M.; Young, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    While the 26S proteasome is a key proteolytic complex, little is known about how proteasome levels are maintained in higher eukaryotic cells. Here we describe an RNA interference (RNAi) screen of Drosophila melanogaster that was used to identify transcription factors that may play a role in maintaining levels of the 26S proteasome. We used an RNAi library against 993 Drosophila transcription factor genes to identify genes whose suppression in Schneider 2 cells stabilized a ubiquitin-green fluorescent protein reporter protein. This screen identified Cnc (cap 'n’ collar [CNC]; basic region leucine zipper) as a candidate transcriptional regulator of proteasome component expression. In fact, 20S proteasome activity was reduced in cells depleted of cnc. Immunoblot assays against proteasome components revealed a general decline in both 19S regulatory complex and 20S proteasome subunits after RNAi depletion of this transcription factor. Transcript-specific silencing revealed that the longest of the seven transcripts for the cnc gene, cnc-C, was needed for proteasome and p97 ATPase production. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR confirmed the role of Cnc-C in activation of transcription of genes encoding proteasome components. Expression of a V5-His-tagged form of Cnc-C revealed that the transcription factor is itself a proteasome substrate that is stabilized when the proteasome is inhibited. We propose that this single cnc gene in Drosophila resembles the ancestral gene family of mammalian nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related transcription factors, which are essential in regulating oxidative stress and proteolysis. PMID:21149573

  14. Cytoplasmic proteasomes are not indispensable for cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Arai, Naoko; Tanaka, Keiji Saeki, Yasushi

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •We succeeded to control the proteasome localization by the anchor-away technique. •Nuclear proteasome-depleted cells showed a lethal phenotype. •Cytoplasmic proteasomes are not indispensable for cell growth in dividing cells. -- Abstract: The 26S proteasome is an essential protease complex responsible for the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotic cells. In rapidly proliferating yeast cells, proteasomes are mainly localized in the nucleus, but the biological significance of the proteasome localization is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the proteasome localization and the functions by the anchor-away technique, a ligand-dependent sequestration of a target protein into specific compartment(s). Anchoring of the proteasome to the plasma membrane or the ribosome resulted in conditional depletion of the nuclear proteasomes, whereas anchoring to histone resulted in the proteasome sequestration into the nucleus. We observed that the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in all the proteasome-targeted cells, suggesting that both the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteasomes have proteolytic functions and that the ubiquitinated proteins are produced and degraded in each compartment. Consistent with previous studies, the nuclear proteasome-depleted cells exhibited a lethal phenotype. In contrast, the nuclear sequestration of the proteasome resulted only in a mild growth defect, suggesting that the cytoplasmic proteasomes are not basically indispensable for cell growth in rapidly growing yeast cells.

  15. Could inhibition of the proteasome cause mad cow disease?

    PubMed

    Hooper, Nigel M

    2003-04-01

    The proteasome is the cellular machinery responsible for the degradation of normal and misfolded proteins. Inhibitors of the proteasome are being evaluated as therapeutic agents and recent work suggests that such inhibition might promote the neurotoxic properties of the prion protein (the causative agent of mad cow disease) and its conformational conversion to the infectious form, thus raising the question as to whether proteasome inhibitors might facilitate the development of prion diseases. PMID:12679058

  16. Could inhibition of the proteasome cause mad cow disease?

    PubMed

    Hooper, Nigel M

    2003-04-01

    The proteasome is the cellular machinery responsible for the degradation of normal and misfolded proteins. Inhibitors of the proteasome are being evaluated as therapeutic agents and recent work suggests that such inhibition might promote the neurotoxic properties of the prion protein (the causative agent of mad cow disease) and its conformational conversion to the infectious form, thus raising the question as to whether proteasome inhibitors might facilitate the development of prion diseases.

  17. Localization of the proteasomal ubiquitin receptors Rpn10 and Rpn13 by electron cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Eri; Bohn, Stefan; Mihalache, Oana; Kiss, Petra; Beck, Florian; Nagy, Istvan; Nickell, Stephan; Tanaka, Keiji; Saeki, Yasushi; Förster, Friedrich; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2012-01-31

    Two canonical subunits of the 26S proteasome, Rpn10 and Rpn13, function as ubiquitin (Ub) receptors. The mutual arrangement of these subunits--and all other non-ATPase subunits--in the regulatory particle is unknown. Using electron cryomicroscopy, we calculated difference maps between wild-type 26S proteasome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and deletion mutants (rpn10Δ, rpn13Δ, and rpn10Δrpn13Δ). These maps allowed us to localize the two Ub receptors unambiguously. Rpn10 and Rpn13 mapped to the apical part of the 26S proteasome, above the N-terminal coiled coils of the AAA-ATPase heterodimers Rpt4/Rpt5 and Rpt1/Rpt2, respectively. On the basis of the mutual positions of Rpn10 and Rpn13, we propose a model for polyubiquitin binding to the 26S proteasome.

  18. Localization of the proteasomal ubiquitin receptors Rpn10 and Rpn13 by electron cryomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Eri; Bohn, Stefan; Mihalache, Oana; Kiss, Petra; Beck, Florian; Nagy, Istvan; Nickell, Stephan; Tanaka, Keiji; Saeki, Yasushi; Förster, Friedrich; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Two canonical subunits of the 26S proteasome, Rpn10 and Rpn13, function as ubiquitin (Ub) receptors. The mutual arrangement of these subunits—and all other non-ATPase subunits—in the regulatory particle is unknown. Using electron cryomicroscopy, we calculated difference maps between wild-type 26S proteasome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and deletion mutants (rpn10Δ, rpn13Δ, and rpn10Δrpn13Δ). These maps allowed us to localize the two Ub receptors unambiguously. Rpn10 and Rpn13 mapped to the apical part of the 26S proteasome, above the N-terminal coiled coils of the AAA-ATPase heterodimers Rpt4/Rpt5 and Rpt1/Rpt2, respectively. On the basis of the mutual positions of Rpn10 and Rpn13, we propose a model for polyubiquitin binding to the 26S proteasome. PMID:22215586

  19. HIV protease inhibitors and onset of cardiovascular diseases: a central role for oxidative stress and dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Reyskens, Kathleen M S E; Essop, M Faadiel

    2014-02-01

    The successful roll-out of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has extended life expectancy and enhanced the overall well-being of HIV-positive individuals. There are, however, increased concerns regarding HAART-mediated metabolic derangements and its potential risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the long-term. Here certain classes of antiretroviral drugs such as the HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are strongly implicated in this process. This article largely focuses on the direct PI-linked development of cardio-metabolic complications, and reviews the inter-linked roles of oxidative stress and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) as key mediators driving this process. It is proposed that PIs trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that leads to serious downstream consequences such as cell death, impaired mitochondrial function, and UPS dysregulation. Moreover, we advocate that HIV PIs may also directly lower myocardial UPS function. The attenuation of cardiac UPS can initiate transcriptional changes that contribute to perturbed lipid metabolism, thereby fueling a pro-atherogenic milieu. It may also directly alter ionic channels and interfere with electrical signaling in the myocardium. Therefore HIV PI-induced ROS together with a dysfunctional UPS elicit detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system that will eventually result in the onset of heart diseases. Thus while HIV PIs substantially improve life expectancy and quality of life in HIV-positive patients, its longer-term side-effects on the cardiovascular system should lead to a) greater clinical awareness regarding its benefit-harm paradigm, and b) the development and evaluation of novel co-treatment strategies.

  20. Exposure-safety-efficacy analysis of single-agent ixazomib, an oral proteasome inhibitor, in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: dose selection for a phase 3 maintenance study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neeraj; Labotka, Richard; Liu, Guohui; Hui, Ai-Min; Venkatakrishnan, Karthik

    2016-06-01

    Background Ixazomib is the first oral, small molecule proteasome inhibitor to reach phase 3 trials. The current analysis characterized the exposure-safety and exposure-efficacy relationships of ixazomib in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) with a purpose of recommending an approach to ixazomib dosing for maintenance therapy. Methods Logistic regression was used to investigate relationships between ixazomib plasma exposure (area under the curve/day; derived from individual apparent clearance values from a published population pharmacokinetic analysis) and safety/efficacy outcomes (hematologic [grade ≥ 3 vs ≤ 2] or non-hematologic [grade ≥ 2 vs ≤ 1] adverse events [AEs], and clinical benefit [≥stable disease vs progressive disease]) using phase 1 data in relapsed/refractory MM (NCT00963820; N = 44). Results Significant relationships to ixazomib exposure were observed for five AEs (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, rash, fatigue, and diarrhea) and clinical benefit (p < 0.05). Dose-response relationships indicated a favorable benefit/risk ratio at 3 mg and 4 mg weekly, which are below the maximum tolerated dose of 5.5 mg. At 3 mg, the model predicted that: 37 % of patients will achieve clinical benefit; incidence of grade ≥ 3 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia will be 10 % and 23 %, respectively; and incidence of grade ≥ 2 rash, fatigue, and diarrhea will be 8 %, 19 %, and 19 %, respectively. Conclusions Based on the findings, patients in the phase 3 maintenance trial will initiate ixazomib at a once-weekly dose of 3 mg, increasing to 4 mg if acceptable tolerability after 4 cycles, to provide maximum clinical benefit balanced with adequate tolerability. PMID:27039387

  1. The Effect of a High‐Fat Meal on the Pharmacokinetics of Ixazomib, an Oral Proteasome Inhibitor, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Michael J.; Venkatakrishnan, Karthik; Wang, Bingxia; Sharma, Sunil; Bessudo, Alberto; Hui, Ai‐Min; Nemunaitis, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ixazomib is the first oral proteasome inhibitor to be investigated in the clinic. This clinical study assessed whether the pharmacokinetics of ixazomib would be altered if administered after a high‐calorie, high‐fat meal. In a 2‐period, 2‐sequence, crossover study design, adult patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma received a 4‐mg oral dose of ixazomib as immediate‐release capsules on day 1 without food (fasted, administered following an overnight fast) or with food (fed, following consumption of a high‐calorie, high‐fat meal), followed by another dose on day 15 in the alternate food intake condition (fasted to fed or fed to fasted). Twenty‐four patients were enrolled; of these, 15 were included in the pharmacokinetic‐evaluable population. Administration of ixazomib after a high‐fat meal reduced both the rate and extent of absorption of ixazomib. Under fed conditions, the median time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) of ixazomib was delayed by approximately 3 hours compared with administration in the fasted state (1.02 hours vs 4.0 hours), and there was a 28% reduction in total systemic exposure (area under the curve, AUC) and a 69% reduction in peak plasma concentration (Cmax). Together, the results support the administration of ixazomib on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or at least 2 hours after food. These recommendations are reflected in the United States Prescribing Information for ixazomib (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01454076). PMID:26872892

  2. Obatoclax interacts synergistically with the irreversible proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib in GC- and ABC-DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dasmahapatra, Girija; Lembersky, Dmitry; Son, Minkyeong P; Patel, Hiral; Peterson, Derick; Attkisson, Elisa; Fisher, Richard I; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between the irreversible proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib and the pan-BH3 mimetic obatoclax were examined in germinal center (GC)- and activated B-cell-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) cells. Cotreatment with minimally toxic concentrations of carfilzomib (i.e., 2-6 nmol/L) and subtoxic concentrations of obatoclax (0.05-2.0 μmol/L) synergistically increased apoptosis in multiple DLBCL cell lines and increased lethality toward primary human DLBCL but not normal CD34(+) cells. Synergistic interactions were associated with sharp increases in caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, p-JNK induction, upregulation of Noxa, and AKT dephosphorylation. Combined treatment also diminished carfilzomib-mediated Mcl-1 upregulation whereas immunoprecipitation analysis revealed reduced associations between Bak and Mcl-1/Bcl-xL and Bim and Mcl-1. The carfilzomib/obatoclax regimen triggered translocation, conformational change, and dimerization of Bax and activation of Bak. Genetic interruption of c-jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK) and Noxa by short hairpin RNA knockdown, ectopic Mcl-1 expression, or enforced activation of AKT significantly attenuated carfilzomib/obatoclax-mediated apoptosis. Notably, coadministration of carfilzomib/obatoclax sharply increased apoptosis in multiple bortezomib-resistant DLBCL models. Finally, in vivo administration of carfilzomib and obatoclax to mice inoculated with SUDHL4 cells substantially suppressed tumor growth, activated JNK, inactivated AKT, and increased survival compared with the effects of single-agent treatment. Together, these findings argue that a strategy combining carfilzomib and obatoclax warrants attention in DLBCL. PMID:22411899

  3. Proteasomal degradation of sphingosine kinase 1 and inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase by the sphingosine kinase inhibitors, SKi or ABC294640, induces growth arrest in androgen-independent LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Melissa; Pitman, Melissa; Pitson, Stuart M.; Pyne, Nigel J.; Pyne, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (two isoforms termed SK1 and SK2) catalyse the formation of the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate. We demonstrate here that the SK2 inhibitor, ABC294640 (3-(4-chlorophenyl)-adamantane-1-carboxylic acid (pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amide) or the SK1/SK2 inhibitor, SKi (2-(p-hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-chlorophenyl)thiazole)) induce the proteasomal degradation of SK1a (Mr = 42 kDa) and inhibit DNA synthesis in androgen-independent LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. These effects are recapitulated by the dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1) inhibitor, fenretinide. Moreover, SKi or ABC294640 reduce Des1 activity in Jurkat cells and ABC294640 induces the proteasomal degradation of Des1 (Mr = 38 kDa) in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, SKi or ABC294640 or fenretinide increase the expression of the senescence markers, p53 and p21 in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. The siRNA knockdown of SK1 or SK2 failed to increase p53 and p21 expression, but the former did reduce DNA synthesis in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. Moreover, N-acetylcysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger) blocked the SK inhibitor-induced increase in p21 and p53 expression but had no effect on the proteasomal degradation of SK1a. In addition, siRNA knockdown of Des1 increased p53 expression while a combination of Des1/SK1 siRNA increased the expression of p21. Therefore, Des1 and SK1 participate in regulating LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cell growth and this involves p53/p21-dependent and -independent pathways. Therefore, we propose targeting androgen-independent prostate cancer cells with compounds that affect Des1/SK1 to modulate both de novo and sphingolipid rheostat pathways in order to induce growth arrest. PMID:26934645

  4. Proteasomal degradation of sphingosine kinase 1 and inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase by the sphingosine kinase inhibitors, SKi or ABC294640, induces growth arrest in androgen-independent LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Melissa; Pitman, Melissa; Pitson, Stuart M; Pyne, Nigel J; Pyne, Susan

    2016-03-29

    Sphingosine kinases (two isoforms termed SK1 and SK2) catalyse the formation of the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate. We demonstrate here that the SK2 inhibitor, ABC294640 (3-(4-chlorophenyl)-adamantane-1-carboxylic acid (pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amide) or the SK1/SK2 inhibitor, SKi (2-(p-hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-chlorophenyl)thiazole)) induce the proteasomal degradation of SK1a (Mr = 42 kDa) and inhibit DNA synthesis in androgen-independent LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. These effects are recapitulated by the dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1) inhibitor, fenretinide. Moreover, SKi or ABC294640 reduce Des1 activity in Jurkat cells and ABC294640 induces the proteasomal degradation of Des1 (Mr = 38 kDa) in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, SKi or ABC294640 or fenretinide increase the expression of the senescence markers, p53 and p21 in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. The siRNA knockdown of SK1 or SK2 failed to increase p53 and p21 expression, but the former did reduce DNA synthesis in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. Moreover, N-acetylcysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger) blocked the SK inhibitor-induced increase in p21 and p53 expression but had no effect on the proteasomal degradation of SK1a. In addition, siRNA knockdown of Des1 increased p53 expression while a combination of Des1/SK1 siRNA increased the expression of p21. Therefore, Des1 and SK1 participate in regulating LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cell growth and this involves p53/p21-dependent and -independent pathways. Therefore, we propose targeting androgen-independent prostate cancer cells with compounds that affect Des1/SK1 to modulate both de novo and sphingolipid rheostat pathways in order to induce growth arrest.

  5. Reply to Vangala et al.: Complete inhibition of the proteasome reduces new proteasome production by causing Nrf1 aggregation.

    PubMed

    Sha, Zhe; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2016-09-26

    An important adaptation of cells to proteasome inhibition is the induction of new proteasomes via the transcription factor Nrf1 [1,2], which is produced as a precursor bound to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through its amino terminus. Nrf1 was reported to require proteolytic processing to enter the nucleus [3]. Increased proteasome production is induced by low concentrations of proteasome inhibitors that reduce proteolysis by <50%. Surprisingly, in earlier studies we found that proteasome induction and Nrf1 processing to its shorter form (which we estimated to be 75 kDa [2]) were suppressed by high concentrations of inhibitors that markedly reduce proteasome activity [4]. This unusual bimodal concentration dependence implied that some proteasome function was necessary for Nrf1 processing. Because we found that Nrf1 processing also required ubiquitin conjugation [2], we previously proposed that Nrf1 processing is catalyzed by partially inhibited proteasomes [2]. However, Vangala et al.[5] present compelling evidence that conversion of the ER-bound Nrf1 to the shorter form, which they describe as 110 kDa, is independent of proteasomes and is not blocked by high concentrations of proteasome inhibitors. Therefore, we investigated the basis for these differing results. Here we report that we and Vangala et al. have studied the same processed form of Nrf1, the actual molecular weight of which appears to be 90-95 kDa. We confirm our earlier finding [2] that high concentrations of proteasome inhibitors suppress proteasome induction and accumulation of processed Nrf1 in soluble lysates. However, we now show that the inhibitors do so not by blocking Nrf1 processing, but instead by causing the processed Nrf1 to aggregate. Therefore, Nrf1 must be cleaved by a non-proteasomal endoprotease that we show requires ubiquitination. Finally, we provide evidence supporting the recent report that Ddi1/Ddi2 is the critical protease [6,7]. PMID:27676298

  6. Selective increase of in vivo firing frequencies in DA SN neurons after proteasome inhibition in the ventral midbrain.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mahalakshmi; Kern, Beatrice; Vogel, Simone; Klose, Verena; Schneider, Gaby; Roeper, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    The impairment of protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and might play a key role in selective degeneration of vulnerable dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Further evidence for a causal role of dysfunctional UPS in familial PD comes from mutations in parkin, which results in a loss of function of an E3-ubiquitin-ligase. In a mouse model, genetic inactivation of an essential component of the 26S proteasome lead to widespread neuronal degeneration including DA midbrain neurons and the formation of alpha-synuclein-positive inclusion bodies, another hallmark of PD. Studies using pharmacological UPS inhibition in vivo had more mixed results, varying from extensive degeneration to no loss of DA SN neurons. However, it is currently unknown whether UPS impairment will affect the neurophysiological functions of DA midbrain neurons. To answer this question, we infused a selective proteasome inhibitor into the ventral midbrain in vivo and recorded single DA midbrain neurons 2 weeks after the proteasome challenge. We found a selective increase in the mean in vivo firing frequencies of identified DA SN neurons in anesthetized mice, while those in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were unaffected. Our results demonstrate that a single-hit UPS inhibition is sufficient to induce a stable and selective hyperexcitability phenotype in surviving DA SN neurons in vivo. This might imply that UPS dysfunction sensitizes DA SN neurons by enhancing 'stressful pacemaking'.

  7. The Ubiquitin Ligase Hul5 Promotes Proteasomal Processivity▿

    PubMed Central

    Aviram, Sharon; Kornitzer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a large cytoplasmic protease that degrades polyubiquitinated proteins to short peptides in a processive manner. The proteasome 19S regulatory subcomplex tethers the target protein via its polyubiquitin adduct and unfolds the target polypeptide, which is then threaded into the proteolytic site-containing 20S subcomplex. Hul5 is a 19S subcomplex-associated ubiquitin ligase that elongates ubiquitin chains on proteasome-bound substrates. We isolated hul5Δ as a mutation with which fusions of an unstable cyclin to stable reporter proteins accumulate as partially processed products. These products appear transiently in the wild type but are strongly stabilized in 19S ATPase mutants and in the hul5Δ mutant, supporting a role for the ATPase subunits in the unfolding of proteasome substrates before insertion into the catalytic cavity and suggesting a role for Hul5 in the processive degradation of proteins that are stalled on the proteasome. PMID:20008553

  8. Inhibition of nuclear factor-{kappa}B and target genes during combined therapy with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and reirradiation in patients with recurrent head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Van Waes, Carter . E-mail: vanwaesc@nidcd.nih.gov; Chang, Angela A.; Lebowitz, Peter F.; Druzgal, Colleen H.; Chen, Zhong; Elsayed, Yusri A.; Sunwoo, John B.; Rudy, Susan; Morris, John C.; Mitchell, James B.; Camphausen, Kevin; Gius, David; Adams, Julian; Sausville, Edward A.; Conley, Barbara A.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (VELCADE) on transcription factor nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and target genes and the feasibility of combination therapy with reirradiation in patients with recurrent head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: The tolerability and response to bortezomib 0.6 mg/m{sup 2} and 0.9 mg/m{sup 2} given twice weekly concurrent with daily reirradiation to 50-70 Gy was explored. Blood proteasome inhibition and NF-{kappa}B-modulated cytokines and factors were measured. Proteasome inhibition, nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B phospho-p65, apoptosis, and expression of NF-{kappa}B-modulated mRNAs were compared in serial biopsies from accessible tumors. Results: The maximally tolerated dose was exceeded, and study was limited to 7 and 2 patients, respectively, given bortezomib 0.6 mg/m{sup 2} and 0.9 mg/m{sup 2}/dose with reirradiation. Grade 3 hypotension and hyponatremia were dose limiting. Mucositis was Grade 3 or less and was delayed. The mean blood proteasome inhibition at 1, 24, and 48 h after 0.6 mg/m{sup 2} was 32%, 16%, and 7% and after 0.9 mg/m{sup 2} was 56%, 26%, and 14%, respectively. Differences in proteasome and NF-{kappa}B activity, apoptosis, and expression of NF-{kappa}B-modulated cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis factor mRNAs were detected in 2 patients with minor tumor reductions and in serum NF-{kappa}B-modulated cytokines in 1 patient with a major tumor reduction. Conclusions: In combination with reirradiation, the maximally tolerated dose of bortezomib was exceeded at a dose of 0.6 mg/m{sup 2} and the threshold of proteasome inhibition. Although this regimen with reirradiation is not feasible, bortezomib induced detectable differences in NF-{kappa}B localization, apoptosis, and NF-{kappa}B-modulated genes and cytokines in tumor and serum in association with tumor reduction, indicating that other schedules of bortezomib combined with primary

  9. Enhanced rate of degradation of basic proteins by 26S immunoproteasomes.

    PubMed

    Raule, Mary; Cerruti, Fulvia; Cascio, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Immunoproteasomes are alternative forms of proteasomes specialized in the generation of MHC class I antigenic peptides and important for efficient cytokine production. We have identified a new biochemical property of 26S immunoproteasomes, namely the ability to hydrolyze basic proteins at greatly increased rates compared to constitutive proteasomes. This enhanced degradative capacity is specific for basic polypeptides, since substrates with a lower content in lysine and arginine residues are hydrolyzed at comparable rates by constitutive and immunoproteasomes. Crucially, selective inhibition of the immunoproteasome tryptic subunit β2i strongly reduces degradation of basic proteins. Therefore, our data demonstrate the rate limiting function of the proteasomal trypsin-like activity in controlling turnover rates of basic protein substrates and suggest new biological roles for immunoproteasomes in maintaining cellular homeostasis by rapidly removing a potentially harmful excess of free histones that can build up under different pathophysiological conditions.

  10. Fast axonal transport of the proteasome complex depends on membrane interaction and molecular motor function.

    PubMed

    Otero, Maria G; Alloatti, Matías; Cromberg, Lucas E; Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Encalada, Sandra E; Pozo Devoto, Victorio M; Bruno, Luciana; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Falzone, Tomás L

    2014-04-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in neurons depends on the correct delivery of the proteasome complex. In neurodegenerative diseases, aggregation and accumulation of proteins in axons link transport defects with degradation impairments; however, the transport properties of proteasomes remain unknown. Here, using in vivo experiments, we reveal the fast anterograde transport of assembled and functional 26S proteasome complexes. A high-resolution tracking system to follow fluorescent proteasomes revealed three types of motion: actively driven proteasome axonal transport, diffusive behavior in a viscoelastic axonema and proteasome-confined motion. We show that active proteasome transport depends on motor function because knockdown of the KIF5B motor subunit resulted in impairment of the anterograde proteasome flux and the density of segmental velocities. Finally, we reveal that neuronal proteasomes interact with intracellular membranes and identify the coordinated transport of fluorescent proteasomes with synaptic precursor vesicles, Golgi-derived vesicles, lysosomes and mitochondria. Taken together, our results reveal fast axonal transport as a new mechanism of proteasome delivery that depends on membrane cargo 'hitch-hiking' and the function of molecular motors. We further hypothesize that defects in proteasome transport could promote abnormal protein clearance in neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Nanoparticles Exacerbate Both Ubiquitin and Heat Shock Protein Expressions in Spinal Cord Injury: Neuroprotective Effects of the Proteasome Inhibitor Carfilzomib and the Antioxidant Compound H-290/51.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari S; Muresanu, Dafin F; Lafuente, Jose V; Sjöquist, Per-Ove; Patnaik, Ranjana; Sharma, Aruna

    2015-10-01

    compounds or proteasome inhibitors are required for neuroprotection in the NP-exposed traumatized group, and (iii) ubiquitin and HSP expressions play a key role in neuronal injury in SCI, not reported earlier.

  12. Synergism between arsenite and proteasome inhibitor MG132 over cell death in myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and the induction of low levels of intracellular superoxide anion

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Tomás; Cavaliere, Victoria; Costantino, Susana N.; Kornblihtt, Laura; Alvarez, Elida M.; Blanco, Guillermo A.

    2012-02-01

    Increased oxygen species production has often been cited as a mechanism determining synergism on cell death and growth inhibition effects of arsenic-combined drugs. However the net effect of drug combination may not be easily anticipated solely from available knowledge of drug-induced death mechanisms. We evaluated the combined effect of sodium arsenite with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, and the anti-leukaemic agent CAPE, on growth-inhibition and cell death effect in acute myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and Burkitt's lymphoma-derived Raji cells, by the Chou–Talalay method. In addition we explored the association of cytotoxic effect of drugs with changes in intracellular superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup −}) levels. Our results showed that combined arsenite + MG132 produced low levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} at 6 h and 24 h after exposure and were synergic on cell death induction in U937 cells over the whole dose range, although the combination was antagonistic on growth inhibition effect. Exposure to a constant non-cytotoxic dose of 80 μM hydrogen peroxide together with arsenite + MG132 changed synergism on cell death to antagonism at all effect levels while increasing O{sub 2}{sup −} levels. Arsenite + hydrogen peroxide also resulted in antagonism with increased O{sub 2}{sup −} levels in U937 cells. In Raji cells, arsenite + MG132 also produced low levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} at 6 h and 24 h but resulted in antagonism on cell death and growth inhibition. By contrast, the combination arsenite + CAPE showed high levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} production at 6 h and 24 h post exposure but resulted in antagonism over cell death and growth inhibition effects in U937 and Raji cells. We conclude that synergism between arsenite and MG132 in U937 cells is negatively associated to O{sub 2}{sup −} levels at early time points after exposure. -- Highlights: ► Arsenic combined cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects by Chou–Talalay method. ► Cytotoxic effect associated

  13. Targeting MAGE-C1/CT7 Expression Increases Cell Sensitivity to the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib in Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Fabricio; Costa, Erico T.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Gregorio, Juliana C.; Masotti, Cibele; Andrade, Valeria C.C.; Strauss, Bryan E.; Caballero, Otavia L.; Atanackovic, Djordje; Colleoni, Gisele W.B.

    2011-01-01

    a strategy for future therapies in MM, in particular in combination with proteasome inhibitors. PMID:22110734

  14. Morphological and metabolic changes in the nigro-striatal pathway of synthetic proteasome inhibitor (PSI)-treated rats: a MRI and MRS study.

    PubMed

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Rossi, Cosmo; Di Matteo, Vincenzo; Esposito, Ennio; Guarnieri, Simone; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Franciotti, Raffaella; Caulo, Massimo; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco; Tartaro, Armando; Bonanni, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Systemic administration of a Synthetic Proteasome Inhibitor (PSI) in rats has been described as able to provide a model of Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by behavioral and biochemical modifications, including loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), as assessed by post-mortem studies. With the present study we aimed to assess in-vivo by Magnetic Resonance (MR) possible morphological and metabolic changes in the nigro-striatal pathway of PSI-treated rats. 10 animals were subcutaneously injected with PSI 6.0 mg/kg dissolved in DMSO 100%. Injections were made thrice weekly over the course of two weeks. 5 more animals injected with DMSO 100% with the same protocol served as controls. The animals underwent MR sessions before and at four weeks after the end of treatment with either PSI or vehicle. MR Imaging was performed to measure SN volume and Proton MR Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed to measure metabolites changes at the striatum. Animals were also assessed for motor function at baseline and at 4 and 6 weeks after treatment. Dopamine and dopamine metabolite levels were measured in the striata at 6 weeks after treatment. PSI-treated animals showed volumetric reduction of the SN (p<0.02) at 4 weeks after treatment as compared to baseline. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed MRI changes in SN showing a reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase expression as compared to neuron-specific enolase expression. A reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate/total creatine ratio (p = 0.05) and an increase of glutamate-glutamine-γ amminobutirrate/total creatine were found at spectroscopy (p = 0.03). At 6 weeks after treatment, PSI-treated rats also showed motor dysfunction compared to baseline (p = 0.02), accompanied by dopamine level reduction in the striatum (p = 0.02). Treatment with PSI produced morphological and metabolic modifications of the nigro-striatal pathway, accompanied by motor dysfunction. MR demonstrated to be a powerful mean to assess in-vivo the

  15. Protein Abundance Changes and Ubiquitylation Targets Identified after Inhibition of the Proteasome with Syringolin A*

    PubMed Central

    Svozil, Julia; Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Dudler, Robert; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2014-01-01

    As proteins are the main effectors inside cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partly achieved by specific protein degradation via the Ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS). In plants, an exceptionally high number of proteins are involved in Ubiquitin-26S proteasome system-mediated protein degradation and it is known to regulate most, if not all, important cellular processes. Here, we investigated the response to the inhibition of the proteasome at the protein level treating leaves with the specific inhibitor Syringolin A (SylA) in a daytime specific manner and found 109 accumulated and 140 decreased proteins. The patterns of protein level changes indicate that the accumulating proteins cause proteotoxic stress that triggers various responses. Comparing protein level changes in SylA treated with those in a transgenic line over-expressing a mutated ubiquitin unable to form polyubiquitylated proteins produced little overlap pointing to different response pathways. To distinguish between direct and indirect targets of the UPS we also enriched and identified ubiquitylated proteins after inhibition of the proteasome, revealing a total of 1791 ubiquitylated proteins in leaves and roots and 1209 that were uniquely identified in our study. The comparison of the ubiquitylated proteins with those changing in abundance after SylA-mediated inhibition of the proteasome confirmed the complexity of the response and revealed that some proteins are regulated both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. For the ubiquitylated proteins that accumulate in the cytoplasm but are targeted to the plastid or the mitochondrion, we often found peptides in their target sequences, demonstrating that the UPS is involved in controlling organellar protein levels. Attempts to identify the sites of ubiquitylation revealed that the specific properties of this post-translational modification can lead to incorrect peptide spectrum assignments in complex peptide mixtures

  16. Proteasomal degradation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α is mediated by Homer-3 via the proteasomal S8 ATPase: Signal transduction and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Khosrow; Baalman, Kelli; Teng, Yanfen; Mee, Maureen P; Dawson, Simon P; Wang, Hongmin; De Biasi, Mariella; Mayer, R John

    2012-07-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) fine-tune the efficacy of synaptic transmission. This unique feature makes mGluRs potential targets for the treatment of various CNS disorders. There is ample evidence to show that the ubiquitin proteasome system mediates changes in synaptic strength leading to multiple forms of synaptic plasticity. The present study describes a novel interaction between post-synaptic adaptors, long Homer-3 proteins, and one of the 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, the S8 ATPase, that influences the degradation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α (mGluR1α). We have shown that the two human long Homer-3 proteins specifically interact with human proteasomal S8 ATPase. We identified that mGluR1α and long Homer-3s immunoprecipitate with the 26S proteasome both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that the mGluR1α receptor can be ubiquitinated and degraded by the 26S proteasome and that Homer-3A facilitates this process. Furthermore, the siRNA mediated silencing of Homer-3 led to increased levels of total and plasma membrane-associated mGluR1α receptors. These results suggest that long Homer-3 proteins control the degradation of mGluR1α receptors by shuttling ubiquitinated mGluR-1α receptors to the 26S proteasome via the S8 ATPase which may modulate synaptic transmission.

  17. Sensitization of U937 leukemia cells to doxorubicin by the MG132 proteasome inhibitor induces an increase in apoptosis by suppressing NF-kappa B and mitochondrial membrane potential loss

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The resistance of cancerous cells to chemotherapy remains the main limitation for cancer treatment at present. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent antitumor drug that activates the ubiquitin-proteasome system, but unfortunately it also activates the Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB) pathway leading to the promotion of tumor cell survival. MG132 is a drug that inhibits I kappa B degradation by the proteasome-avoiding activation of NF-кB. In this work, we studied the sensitizing effect of the MG132 proteasome inhibitor on the antitumor activity of DOX. Methods U937 human leukemia cells were treated with MG132, DOX, or both drugs. We evaluated proliferation, viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, -8, and −9 activity and cleavage, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial membrane potential, the Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL antiapoptotic proteins, senescence, p65 phosphorylation, and pro- and antiapoptotic genes. Results The greatest apoptosis percentage in U937 cells was obtained with a combination of MG132 + DOX. Likewise, employing both drugs, we observed a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and important caspase-3 activation, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential loss. Therefore, MG132 decreases senescence, p65 phosphorylation, and the DOX-induced Bcl-2 antiapoptotic protein. The MG132 + DOX treatment induced upregulation of proapoptotic genes BAX, DIABLO, NOXA, DR4, and FAS. It also induced downregulation of the antiapoptotic genes BCL-XL and SURVIVIN. Conclusion MG132 sensitizes U937 leukemia cells to DOX-induced apoptosis, increasing its anti-leukemic effectiveness. PMID:24495648

  18. Myostatin Activates the Ubiquitin-Proteasome and Autophagy-Lysosome Systems Contributing to Muscle Wasting in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Tao; Yang, Ya-Jun; Huang, Ren-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Our evidence demonstrated that CKD upregulated the expression of myostatin, TNF-α, and p-IkBa and downregulated the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and FoxO3a, which were also associated with protein degradation and muscle atrophy. The autophagosome formation and protein expression of autophagy-related genes were increased in muscle of CKD rats. The mRNA level and protein expression of MAFbx and MuRF-1 were also upregulated in CKD rats, as well as proteasome activity of 26S. Moreover, activation of myostatin elicited by TNF-α induces C2C12 myotube atrophy via upregulating the expression of autophagy-related genes, including MAFbx and MuRF1 and proteasome subunits. Inactivation of FoxO3a triggered by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 prevented the myostatin-induced increase of expression of MuRF1, MAFbx, and LC3-II protein in C2C12 myotubes. The findings were further consolidated by using siRNA interference and overexpression of myostatin. Additionally, expression of myostatin was activated by TNF-α via a NF-κB dependent pathway in C2C12 myotubes, while inhibition of NF-κB activity suppressed myostatin and improved myotube atrophy. Collectively, myostatin mediated CKD-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of the autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems. PMID:26448817

  19. Genetics of proteasome diseases.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Aldrin V

    2013-01-01

    The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (-8C/G) is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit. PMID:24490108

  20. Genetics of Proteasome Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2013-01-01

    The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (−8C/G) is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit. PMID:24490108

  1. 1.15 Å resolution structure of the proteasome-assembly chaperone Nas2 PDZ domain

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Chingakham R.; Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Chowdhury, Wasimul Q.; Geanes, Eric S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Roelofs, Jeroen

    2014-03-25

    The proteasome-assembly chaperone Nas2 binds to the proteasome subunit Rpt5 using its PDZ domain. The structure of the Nas2 PDZ domain has been determined. The 26S proteasome is a 2.5 MDa protease dedicated to the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotes. The assembly of this complex containing 66 polypeptides is assisted by at least nine proteasome-specific chaperones. One of these, Nas2, binds to the proteasomal AAA-ATPase subunit Rpt5. The PDZ domain of Nas2 binds to the C-terminal tail of Rpt5; however, it does not require the C-terminus of Rpt5 for binding. Here, the 1.15 Å resolution structure of the PDZ domain of Nas2 is reported. This structure will provide a basis for further insights regarding the structure and function of Nas2 in proteasome assembly.

  2. Bufalin derivative BF211 inhibits proteasome activity in human lung cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting β1 subunit expression and disrupting proteasome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Feng, Li-xing; Zhang, Dong-mei; Liu, Miao; Liu, Wang; Mi, Tian; Wu, Wan-ying; Jiang, Bao-hong; Yang, Min; Hu, Li-hong; Guo, De-an; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Bufalin is one of the active components in the traditional Chinese medicine ChanSu that is used to treat arrhythmia, inflammation and cancer. BF211 is a bufalin derivative with stronger cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to identify the putative target proteins of BF211 and the signaling pathways in cancer cells. Methods: A549 human lung cancer cells were treated with BF211. A SILAC-based proteomic analysis was used to detect the protein expression profiles of BF211-treated A549 cells. Cellular proteasome activities were examined using fluorogenic peptide substrates, and the binding affinities of BF211 to recombinant proteasome subunit proteins were evaluated using the Biacore assay. The expression levels of proteasome subunits were determined using RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the levels of the integral 26S proteasome were evaluated using native PAGE analysis. Results: The proteomic analysis revealed that 1282 proteins were differentially expressed in BF211-treated A549 cells, and the putative target proteins of BF211 were associated with various cellular functions, including transcription, translation, mRNA splicing, ribosomal protein synthesis and proteasome function. In A549 cells, BF211 (5, 10, and 20 nmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the enzymatic activities of proteasome. But BF211 displayed a moderate affinity in binding to proteasome β1 subunit and no binding affinity to the β2 and β5 subunits. Moreover, BF211 (0.1, 1, and 10 nmol/L) did not inhibit the proteasome activities in the cell lysates. BF211 (5, 10, and 20 nmol/L) significantly decreased the expression level of proteasome β1 subunit and the levels of integral 26S proteasome in A549 cells. Similarly, knockdown of the β1 subunit with siRNA in A549 cells significantly decreased integral 26S proteasome and proteasome activity. Conclusion: BF211 inhibits proteasome activity in A549 cells by decreasing β1 subunit expression and disrupting proteasome assembly

  3. A Conserved 20S Proteasome Assembly Factor Requires a C-terminal HbYX Motif for Proteasomal Precursor Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kusmierczyk, Andrew R.; Kunjappu, Mary J.; Kim, Roger Y.; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Dedicated chaperones facilitate eukaryotic proteasome assembly, yet how they function remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that a yeast 20S proteasome assembly factor, Pba1–Pba2, requires a previously overlooked C-terminal HbYX (hydrophobic-tyrosine-X) motif for function. HbYX motifs in proteasome activators open the 20S proteasome entry pore, but Pba1–Pba2 instead binds inactive proteasomal precursors. We discovered an archaeal ortholog of this factor, here named PbaA, that also binds preferentially to proteasomal precursors in a HbYX-dependent fashion using the same proteasomal α-ring surface pockets bound by activators. Remarkably, PbaA and the related PbaB protein can be induced to bind mature 20S proteasomes if the active sites in the central chamber are occupied by inhibitors. Our data suggest an allosteric mechanism in which proteasome active-site maturation determines assembly chaperone binding, potentially shielding assembly intermediates or misassembled complexes from non-productive associations until assembly is complete. PMID:21499243

  4. Proteasome proteolysis supports stimulated platelet function and thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nilaksh; Li, Wei; Willard, Belinda; Silverstein, Roy L.; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Proteasome inhibitors are in use to treat hematologic cancers, but also reduce thrombosis. Whether the proteasome participates in platelet activation or function is opaque since little is known of the proteasome in these terminally differentiated cells. Approach and Results Platelets displayed all three primary proteasome protease activities, which MG132 and bortezomib (Velcade®) inhibited. Proteasome substrates are marked by ubiquitin, and platelets contained a functional ubiquitination system that modified the proteome by mono- and poly-ubiquitination. Systemic MG132 strongly suppressed formation of occlusive, platelet-rich thrombi in FeCl3-damaged carotid arteries. Transfusion of platelets treated ex vivo with MG132 and washed prior to transfusion into thrombocytopenic mice also reduced carotid artery thrombosis. Proteasome inhibition reduced platelet aggregation by low thrombin concentrations and ristocetin-stimulated agglutination through the GPIb-IX-V complex. This receptor was not appropriately internalized after proteasome inhibition in stimulated platelets, and spreading and clot retraction after MG132 exposure also were decreased. The effects of proteasome inhibitors were not confined to a single receptor as MG132 suppressed thrombin-, ADP-, and LPS-stimulated microparticle shedding. Proteasome inhibition increased ubiquitin decoration of cytoplasmic proteins, including the cytoskeletal proteins Filamin A and Talin-1. Mass spectrometry revealed a single MG132-sensitive tryptic cleavage after R1745 in an extended Filamin A loop, which would separate its actin-binding domain from its carboxy terminal GPIbα binding domain. Conclusions Platelets contain a ubiquitin/proteasome system that marks cytoskeletal proteins for proteolytic modification to promote productive platelet-platelet and platelet-wall interactions. PMID:24177323

  5. The proteasome assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Madura, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of the proteasome — the cellular machine that eliminates unwanted proteins — is a carefully choreographed affair, involving a complex sequence of steps overseen by dedicated protein chaperones. PMID:19516331

  6. Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) Diethyldithiocarbamate Complexes Show Various Activities Against the Proteasome in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cvek, Boris; Milacic, Vesna; Taraba, Jan; Dou, Q. Ping

    2008-01-01

    A series of three complexes with diethyldithiocarbamate ligand and three different metals (Ni, Cu, Zn) was prepared, confirmed by X-ray crystallography, and tested in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Zinc and copper complexes, but not nickel complex, were found to be more active against cellular 26S proteasome than against purified 20S proteasome core particle. One of the possible explanations is inhibition of JAMM domain in the 19S proteasome lid. PMID:18816109

  7. Proteomic profiling of expression of proteasomal subunits from livers of mice treated with diethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fuqiang; Lu, Jia; You, Pan; Yang, Zengming; Yang, Pengyuan; Ma, Qiling; Tao, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in transforming and clearing chemicals and is susceptible to the toxicity from these agents. Diethylnitrosamine is metabolized primarily in the liver by cytochrome P-450 and can cause DNA damage. The 26S proteasome is a large proteolytic complex that degrades ubiquitinated proteins, and regulates many physiological processes. We used proteomics-based approaches to examine expressional differences of liver proteasomal subunits from diethylnitrosamine-treated mice. The expression of most proteasomal subunits was observed to be upregulated in the analysis of 2DE and MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Some of these differentially expressed proteasomal subunits were further confirmed by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Our results provided useful information on the relationship between the proteasomal complex and related diseases.

  8. Pentoxifylline and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 induce apoptosis in human leukemia U937 cells through a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL and phosphorylation of p65

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Oncology, the resistance of the cancerous cells to chemotherapy continues to be the principal limitation. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor plays an important role in tumor escape and resistance to chemotherapy and this factor regulates several pathways that promote tumor survival including some antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. In this study, we investigated, in U937 human leukemia cells, the effects of PTX and the MG132 proteasome inhibitor, drugs that can disrupt the NF-κB pathway. For this, we evaluated viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, caspases-3, -8, -9, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, p65 phosphorylation, and the modification in the expression of pro- and antiapoptotic genes, and the Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL antiapoptotic proteins. Results The two drugs affect the viability of the leukemia cells in a time-dependent manner. The greatest percentage of apoptosis was obtained with a combination of the drugs; likewise, PTX and MG132 induce G1 phase cell cycle arrest and cleavage of caspases -3,-8, -9 and cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane potential loss in U937 human leukemia cells. In these cells, PTX and the MG132 proteasome inhibitor decrease p65 (NF-κB subunit) phosphorylation and the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. We also observed, with a combination of these drugs overexpression of a group of the proapoptotic genes BAX, DIABLO, and FAS while the genes BCL-XL, MCL-1, survivin, IκB, and P65 were downregulated. Conclusions The two drugs used induce apoptosis per se, this cytotoxicity was greater with combination of both drugs. These observations are related with the caspases -9, -3 cleavage and G1 phase cell cycle arrest, and a decrease in p65 phosphorylation and Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins. As well as this combination of drugs promotes the upregulation of the proapoptotic genes and downregulation of antiapoptotic genes. These observations strongly confirm

  9. Opposing effects on immune function and skin barrier regulation by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in an allergen-induced eczema model.

    PubMed

    Mudnakudu Nagaraju, Kiran Kumar; Babina, Magda; Worm, Margitta

    2013-11-01

    Proteasome inhibition (PI) has been reported to interfere with antibody-driven autoimmune diseases. The impact of PI on the allergic immune response and on skin diseases like atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been thoroughly explored, however. Here, we examined whether the PI bortezomib interferes with the allergic immune response and the severity of AD by using an established mouse model of allergen-driven dermatitis, to which bortezomib was applied after the establishment of systemic sensitization to ovalbumin. The treatment indeed resulted in a remarkable decrease in total and allergen-specific plasma cells/antibody-secreting cells, as evidenced by flow cytometry and ELISpot, respectively. This was accompanied by rapid reductions in serum antibody titres, including a prominent reduction of the IgE isotype. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were greatly diminished in lesional skin on immunohistological staining. The impressive effects at the level of immune modulation did not result in any improvement in the eczema, however. Following up on this unexpected result, we found that the skin itself was susceptible to bortezomib, by which it was instructed to lower the expression of critical skin barrier genes, especially transglutaminase-1 and filaggrin. Together, bortezomib eliminates plasma cells and decreases immunoglobulin responses, including allergenic IgE. Although anti-inflammatory effects are detectable in the skin, counter-regulatory effects from PI on resident skin cells likely undermine improvement in the eczema. These results caution against the therapeutic use of bortezomib for inflammatory skin disorders, which are characterized by inherently impaired barrier function, especially AD.

  10. Long-term incubation with proteasome inhibitors (PIs) induces IκBα degradation via the lysosomal pathway in an IκB kinase (IKK)-dependent and IKK-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Jeong, Jiyeong; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2013-11-01

    Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) have been reported to induce apoptosis in many types of tumor. Their apoptotic activities have been suggested to be associated with the up-regulation of molecules implicated in pro-apoptotic cascades such as p53, p21(Waf1), and p27(Kip1). Moreover, the blocking of NF-κB nuclear translocation via the stabilization of IκB is an important mechanism of PI-induced apoptosis. However, we found that long-term incubation with PIs (PS-341 or MG132) increased NF-κB-regulated gene expression such as COX-2, cIAP2, XIAP, and IL-8 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was mediated by phosphorylation of IκBα and its subsequent degradation via the alternative route, lysosome. Overexpression of the IκBα superrepressor (IκBα-SR) blocked PI-induced NF-κB activation. Treatment with lysosomal inhibitors (ammonium chloride or chloroquine) or inhibitors of cathepsins (Z-FF-FMK or Z-FA-FMK) or knock-down of LC3B expression by siRNAs suppressed PI-induced IκBα degradation. Furthermore, we found that both IKK-dependent and IKK-independent pathways were required for PI-induced IκBα degradation. Pretreatment with IKKβ specific inhibitor, SC-514, partially suppressed IκBα degradation and IL-8 production by PIs. Blockade of IKK activity using insolubilization by heat shock (HS) and knock-down by siRNAs for IKKβ only delayed IκBα degradation up to 8 h after treatment with PIs. In addition, PIs induced Akt-dependent inactivation of GSK-3β. Inactive GSK-3β accelerated PI-induced IκBα degradation. Overexpression of active GSK-3β (S9A) or knock-down of GSK-3β delayed PI-induced IκBα degradation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that long-term incubation with PIs activates NF-κB, which is mediated by IκBα degradation via the lysosome in an IKK-dependent and IKK-independent manner. PMID:24085292

  11. Transcriptional upregulation of BAG3 upon proteasome inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huaqin Liu Haimei; Zhang Haiyan; Guan Yifu; Du Zhenxian

    2008-01-11

    Proteasome inhibitors exhibit antitumoral activity against malignancies of different histology. Emerging evidence indicates that antiapoptotic factors may also accumulate as a consequence of exposure to these drugs, thus it seems plausible that activation of survival signaling cascades might compromise their antitumoral effects. Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins are characterized by their property of interaction with a variety of partners involved in modulating the proliferation/death balance, including heat shock proteins (HSP), Bcl-2, Raf-1. In this report, we demonstrated that BAG3 is a novel antiapoptotic molecule induced by proteasome inhibitors in various cancer cells at the transcriptional level. Moreover, we demonstrated that BAG3 knockdown by siRNA sensitized cancer cells to MG132-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that BAG3 induction might represents as an unwanted molecular consequence of utilizing proteasome inhibitors to combat tumors.

  12. Association of metals and proteasome activity in erythrocytes of prostate cancer patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Mitra, Bharati; Kandegedara, Ashoka; Chen, Di; Schmitt, Sara; Shen, Min; Cui, Qiuzhi; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Dou, Q Ping

    2012-10-01

    Information is lacking on the effects toxic environmental metals may have on the 26S proteasome. The proteasome is a primary vehicle for selective degradation of damaged proteins in a cell and due to its role in cell proliferation, inhibition of the proteasome has become a target for cancer therapy. Metals are essential to the proteasome's normal function and have been used within proteasome-inhibiting complexes for cancer therapy. This study evaluated the association of erythrocyte metal levels and proteasome chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) activity in age- and race-matched prostate cancer cases (n=61) and controls (n=61). Erythrocyte metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). CT-like activity was measured by proteasome activity assay using a fluorogenic peptide substrate. Among cases, significant correlations between individual toxic metals were observed (r(arsenic-cadmium)=0.49, p<0.001; r(arsenic-lead)=0.26, p=0.04, r(cadmium-lead) 0.53, p<0.001), but there were no significant associations between metals and CT-like activity. In contrast, within controls there were no significant associations between metals, however, copper and lead levels were significantly associated with CT-like activity. The associations between copper and lead and proteasome activity (r(copper-CT-like)=-0.28, p=0.002 ; r(lead-CT-like)=0.23, p=0.011) remained significant in multivariable models that included all of the metals. These findings suggest that biologically essential metals and toxic metals may affect proteasome activity in healthy controls and, further, show that prostate cancer cases and controls differ in associations between metals and proteasome activity in erythrocytes. More research on toxic metals and the proteasome in prostate cancer is warranted.

  13. Base-CP proteasome can serve as a platform for stepwise lid formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zanlin; Livnat-Levanon, Nurit; Kleifeld, Oded; Mansour, Wissam; Nakasone, Mark A; Castaneda, Carlos A; Dixon, Emma K; Fushman, David; Reis, Noa; Pick, Elah; Glickman, Michael H

    2015-01-27

    26S proteasome, a major regulatory protease in eukaryotes, consists of a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) capped by a 19S regulatory particle (RP). The 19S RP is divisible into base and lid sub-complexes. Even within the lid, subunits have been demarcated into two modules: module 1 (Rpn5, Rpn6, Rpn8, Rpn9 and Rpn11), which interacts with both CP and base sub-complexes and module 2 (Rpn3, Rpn7, Rpn12 and Rpn15) that is attached mainly to module 1. We now show that suppression of RPN11 expression halted lid assembly yet enabled the base and 20S CP to pre-assemble and form a base-CP. A key role for Regulatory particle non-ATPase 11 (Rpn11) in bridging lid module 1 and module 2 subunits together is inferred from observing defective proteasomes in rpn11-m1, a mutant expressing a truncated form of Rpn11 and displaying mitochondrial phenotypes. An incomplete lid made up of five module 1 subunits attached to base-CP was identified in proteasomes isolated from this mutant. Re-introducing the C-terminal portion of Rpn11 enabled recruitment of missing module 2 subunits. In vitro, module 1 was reconstituted stepwise, initiated by Rpn11-Rpn8 heterodimerization. Upon recruitment of Rpn6, the module 1 intermediate was competent to lock into base-CP and reconstitute an incomplete 26S proteasome. Thus, base-CP can serve as a platform for gradual incorporation of lid, along a proteasome assembly pathway. Identification of proteasome intermediates and reconstitution of minimal functional units should clarify aspects of the inner workings of this machine and how multiple catalytic processes are synchronized within the 26S proteasome holoenzymes.

  14. Proteasome inhibition and its therapeutic potential in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ajai; Mazumder, Amitabha; Jagannath, Sundar

    2010-01-01

    Due to an unmet clinical need for treatment, the first in class proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, moved from drug discovery to FDA approval in multiple myeloma in an unprecedented eight years. In the wake of this rapid approval arose a large number of questions about its mechanism of action and toxicity as well as its ultimate role in the treatment of this disease. In this article, we briefly review the preclinical and clinical development of the drug as the underpinning for a systematic review of the large number of clinical trials that are beginning to shed some light on the full therapeutic potential of bortezomib in myeloma. We conclude with our current understanding of the mechanism of action of this agent and a discussion of the novel proteasome inhibitors under development, as it will be progress in these areas that will ultimately determine the true potential of proteasome inhibition in myeloma. PMID:21116326

  15. The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates plant hormone signaling

    PubMed Central

    Santner, Aaron; Estelle, Mark

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Plants utilize the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to modulate nearly every aspect of growth and development. Ubiquitin is covalently attached to target proteins through the action of three enzymes known as E1, E2, and E3. The ultimate outcome of this post-translational modification depends on the nature of the ubiquitin linkage and the extent of polyubiquitination. In most cases, ubiquitination results in degradation of the target protein in the 26S proteasome. During the last 10 years it has become clear that the UPS plays a prominent regulatory role in hormone biology. E3 ubiquitin ligases in particular actively participate in hormone perception, de-repression of hormone signaling pathways, degradation of hormone specific transcription factors, and regulation of hormone biosynthesis. It is certain that additional functions will be discovered as more of the nearly 1200 potential E3s in plants are elucidated. PMID:20409276

  16. Ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of ATG12 regulates its proapoptotic activity

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Martina; Hock, Andreas K; Giampazolias, Evangelos; Oberst, Andrew; Green, Douglas R; Debnath, Jayanta; Ryan, Kevin M; Vousden, Karen H; Tait, Stephen W G

    2015-01-01

    During macroautophagy, conjugation of ATG12 to ATG5 is essential for LC3 lipidation and autophagosome formation. Additionally, ATG12 has ATG5-independent functions in diverse processes including mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the regulation of free ATG12. In stark contrast to the stable ATG12–ATG5 conjugate, we find that free ATG12 is highly unstable and rapidly degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. Surprisingly, ATG12, itself a ubiquitin-like protein, is directly ubiquitinated and this promotes its proteasomal degradation. As a functional consequence of its turnover, accumulation of free ATG12 contributes to proteasome inhibitor-mediated apoptosis, a finding that may be clinically important given the use of proteasome inhibitors as anticancer agents. Collectively, our results reveal a novel interconnection between autophagy, proteasome activity, and cell death mediated by the ubiquitin-like properties of ATG12. PMID:25629932

  17. Nuclear Import of Yeast Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Burcoglu, Julianne; Zhao, Liang; Enenkel, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are highly conserved protease complexes responsible for the degradation of aberrant and short-lived proteins. In highly proliferating yeast and mammalian cells, proteasomes are predominantly nuclear. During quiescence and cell cycle arrest, proteasomes accumulate in granules in close proximity to the nuclear envelope/ER. With prolonged quiescence in yeast, these proteasome granules pinch off as membraneless organelles, and migrate as stable entities through the cytoplasm. Upon exit from quiescence, the proteasome granules clear and the proteasomes are rapidly transported into the nucleus, a process reflecting the dynamic nature of these multisubunit complexes. Due to the scarcity of studies on the nuclear transport of mammalian proteasomes, we summarised the current knowledge on the nuclear import of yeast proteasomes. This pathway uses canonical nuclear localisation signals within proteasomal subunits and Srp1/Kap95, and the canonical import receptor, named importin/karyopherin αβ. Blm10, a conserved 240 kDa protein, which is structurally related to Kap95, provides an alternative import pathway. Two models exist upon which either inactive precursor complexes or active holo-enzymes serve as the import cargo. Here, we reconcile both models and suggest that the import of inactive precursor complexes predominates in dividing cells, while the import of mature enzymes mainly occurs upon exit from quiescence. PMID:26262643

  18. The proteasome: a proteolytic nanomachine of cell regulation and waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dieter H; Hilt, Wolfgang

    2004-11-29

    The final destination of the majority of proteins that have to be selectively degraded in eukaryotic cells is the proteasome, a highly sophisticated nanomachine essential for life. 26S proteasomes select target proteins via their modification with polyubiquitin chains or, in rare cases, by the recognition of specific motifs. They are made up of different subcomplexes, a 20S core proteasome harboring the proteolytic active sites hidden within its barrel-like structure and two 19S caps that execute regulatory functions. Similar complexes equipped with PA28 regulators instead of 19S caps are a variation of this theme specialized for the production of antigenic peptides required in immune response. Structure analysis as well as extensive biochemical and genetic studies of the 26S proteasome and the ubiquitin system led to a basic model of substrate recognition and degradation. Recent work raised new concepts. Additional factors involved in substrate acquisition and delivery to the proteasome have been discovered. Moreover, first insights in the tasks of individual subunits or subcomplexes of the 19S caps in substrate recognition and binding as well as release and recycling of polyubiquitin tags have been obtained. PMID:15571806

  19. Direct Ubiquitin Independent Recognition and Degradation of a Folded Protein by the Eukaryotic Proteasomes-Origin of Intrinsic Degradation Signals

    PubMed Central

    Singh Gautam, Amit Kumar; Balakrishnan, Satish; Venkatraman, Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic 26S proteasomes are structurally organized to recognize, unfold and degrade globular proteins. However, all existing model substrates of the 26S proteasome in addition to ubiquitin or adaptor proteins require unstructured regions in the form of fusion tags for efficient degradation. We report for the first time that purified 26S proteasome can directly recognize and degrade apomyoglobin, a globular protein, in the absence of ubiquitin, extrinsic degradation tags or adaptor proteins. Despite a high affinity interaction, absence of a ligand and presence of only helices/loops that follow the degradation signal, apomyoglobin is degraded slowly by the proteasome. A short floppy F-helix exposed upon ligand removal and in conformational equilibrium with a disordered structure is mandatory for recognition and initiation of degradation. Holomyoglobin, in which the helix is buried, is neither recognized nor degraded. Exposure of the floppy F-helix seems to sensitize the proteasome and primes the substrate for degradation. Using peptide panning and competition experiments we speculate that initial encounters through the floppy helix and additional strong interactions with N-terminal helices anchors apomyoglobin to the proteasome. Stabilizing helical structure in the floppy F-helix slows down degradation. Destabilization of adjacent helices accelerates degradation. Unfolding seems to follow the mechanism of helix unraveling rather than global unfolding. Our findings while confirming the requirement for unstructured regions in degradation offers the following new insights: a) origin and identification of an intrinsic degradation signal in the substrate, b) identification of sequences in the native substrate that are likely to be responsible for direct interactions with the proteasome, and c) identification of critical rate limiting steps like exposure of the intrinsic degron and destabilization of an unfolding intermediate that are presumably catalyzed by the ATPases

  20. Primary proteasome inhibition results in cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Joerg; Wohlert, Christine; Saguner, Ardan M.; Flores, Ana; Nesbitt, Lisa L.; Chade, Alejandro; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lerman, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Aims The proteasome prevents the intracellular accumulation of proteins and its impairment can lead to structural and functional alterations, as noted for the coronary vasculature in a previous study. Utilizing the same model, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that chronic proteasome inhibition (PSI) also leads to structural and functional changes of the heart. Methods and results Female domestic pigs were randomized to a normal diet without (N) or with twice-weekly subcutaneous injections of the proteasome inhibitor MLN-273 (0.08 mg/kg, N + PSI, n = 5 each group). In vivo data on cardiac structure and function as well as myocardial perfusion and microvascular permeability response to adenosine and dobutamine were obtained by electron beam computed tomography after 11 weeks. Subsequent ex vivo myocardial analyses included immunoblotting, immunostaining, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling), Masson trichrome, and Congo red staining. Compared with N, an increase in LV mass was observed in N + PSI (106.5 ± 16.4 g vs. 183.1 ± 24.2 g, P < 0.05). The early to late diastolic filling ratio was increased in N + PSI vs. N (3.5 ± 0.6 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1, P < 0.05). The EF tended to be lower (46 ± 12% and 53 ± 9%, respectively) and cardiac output was significantly lower in N + PSI than in N (2.9 ± 1.1 vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 L/min, P < 0.05). Tissue analyses demonstrated an accumulation of proteasome substrates, apoptosis, and fibrosis in the PSI group. Compared with N, the myocardial perfusion response was reduced and microvascular permeability was increased in N + PSI. Conclusion The current study demonstrates that chronic proeasome inhibition affects the cardiovascular system, leading to functional and structural alteration of the heart consistent with a hypertrophic–restrictive cardiomyopathy phenotype. PMID:23616520

  1. Plant ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and its role in gibberellin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Deng, Xing Wang

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in plants, like in other eukaryotes, targets numerous intracellular regulators and thus modulates almost every aspect of growth and development. The well-known and best-characterized outcome of ubiquitination is mediating target protein degradation via the 26S proteasome, which represents the major selective protein degradation pathway conserved among eukaryotes. In this review, we will discuss the molecular composition, regulation and function of plant UPS, with a major focus on how DELLA protein degradation acts as a key in gibberellin signal transduction and its implication in the regulation of plant growth. PMID:21788985

  2. Stimulation of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through the expression of amidohydrolase for N-terminal asparagine (Ntan1) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons exposed to static magnetism.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Takao; Taniura, Hideo; Goto, Yasuaki; Ogura, Masato; Sng, Judy C G; Yoneda, Yukio

    2006-03-01

    In order to elucidate mechanisms underlying modulation by static magnetism of the cellular functionality and/or integrity in the brain, we screened genes responsive to brief magnetism in cultured rat hippocampal neurons using differential display analysis. We have for the first time cloned and identified Ntan1 (amidohydrolase for N-terminal asparagine) as a magnetism responsive gene in rat brain. Ntan1 is an essential component of a protein degradation signal, which is a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a protein, in the N-end rule. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed abundant expression of Ntan1 mRNA in hippocampal neurons in vivo. Northern blot analysis showed that Ntan1 mRNA was increased about three-fold after 3 h in response to brief magnetism. Brief magnetism also increased the transcriptional activity of Ntan1 promoter by luciferase reporter assay. Brief magnetism induced degradation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) without affecting cell morphology and viability, which was prevented by a selective inhibitor of 26S proteasome in hippocampal neurons. Overexpression of Ntan1 using recombinant Ntan1 adenovirus vector resulted in a marked decrease in the MAP2 protein expression in hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that brief magnetism leads to the induction of Ntan1 responsible for MAP2 protein degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in rat hippocampal neurons.

  3. Altered ubiquitin-proteasome signaling in right ventricular hypertrophy and failure.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Zhao, Mingming; Reddy, Sushma; Fajardo, Giovanni; Wang, Xuejun; Dewey, Shannamar; Gomes, Aldrin V; Bernstein, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    Alterations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) have been described in left ventricular hypertrophy and failure, although results have been inconsistent. The role of the UPS in right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy (RVH) and RV failure (RVF) is unknown. Given the greater percent increase in RV mass associated with RV afterload stress, as present in many congenital heart lesions, we hypothesized that alterations in the UPS could play an important role in RVH/RVF. UPS expression and activity were measured in the RV from mice with RVH/RVF secondary to pulmonary artery constriction (PAC). Epoxomicin and MG132 were used to inhibit the proteasome, and overexpression of the 11S PA28α subunit was used to activate the proteasome. PAC mice developed RVH (109.3% increase in RV weight to body weight), RV dilation with septal shift, RV dysfunction, and clinical RVF. Proteasomal function (26S β₅ chymotrypsin-like activity) was decreased 26% (P < 0.05). Protein expression of 19S subunit Rpt5 (P < 0.05), UCHL1 deubiquitinase (P < 0.0001), and Smurf1 E3 ubiquitin ligase (P < 0.01) were increased, as were polyubiquitinated proteins (P < 0.05) and free-ubiquitins (P = 0.05). Pro-apoptotic Bax was increased (P < 0.0001), whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 decreased (P < 0.05), resulting in a sixfold increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Proteasomal inhibition did not accelerate RVF. However, proteasome enhancement by cardiac-specific proteasome overexpression partially improved survival. Proteasome activity is decreased in RVH/RVF, associated with upregulation of key UPS regulators and pro-apoptotic signaling. Enhancement of proteasome function partially attenuates RVF, suggesting that UPS dysfunction contributes to RVF.

  4. Copper(II) ions affect the gating dynamics of the 20S proteasome: a molecular and in cell study.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Anna Maria; Monaco, Irene; Attanasio, Francesco; Lanza, Valeria; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Marianna Flora; Cunsolo, Alessandra; Rizzarelli, Enrico; De Luigi, Ada; Salmona, Mario; Milardi, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Due to their altered metabolism cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibition or changes of copper levels than normal cells. Thus, the development of copper complexes endowed with proteasome inhibition features has emerged as a promising anticancer strategy. However, limited information is available about the exact mechanism by which copper inhibits proteasome. Here we show that Cu(II) ions simultaneously inhibit the three peptidase activities of isolated 20S proteasomes with potencies (IC50) in the micromolar range. Cu(II) ions, in cell-free conditions, neither catalyze red-ox reactions nor disrupt the assembly of the 20S proteasome but, rather, promote conformational changes associated to impaired channel gating. Notably, HeLa cells grown in a Cu(II)-supplemented medium exhibit decreased proteasome activity. This effect, however, was attenuated in the presence of an antioxidant. Our results suggest that if, on one hand, Cu(II)-inhibited 20S activities may be associated to conformational changes that favor the closed state of the core particle, on the other hand the complex effect induced by Cu(II) ions in cancer cells is the result of several concurring events including ROS-mediated proteasome flooding, and disassembly of the 26S proteasome into its 20S and 19S components. PMID:27633879

  5. Copper(II) ions affect the gating dynamics of the 20S proteasome: a molecular and in cell study

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Anna Maria; Monaco, Irene; Attanasio, Francesco; Lanza, Valeria; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Marianna Flora; Cunsolo, Alessandra; Rizzarelli, Enrico; De Luigi, Ada; Salmona, Mario; Milardi, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Due to their altered metabolism cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibition or changes of copper levels than normal cells. Thus, the development of copper complexes endowed with proteasome inhibition features has emerged as a promising anticancer strategy. However, limited information is available about the exact mechanism by which copper inhibits proteasome. Here we show that Cu(II) ions simultaneously inhibit the three peptidase activities of isolated 20S proteasomes with potencies (IC50) in the micromolar range. Cu(II) ions, in cell-free conditions, neither catalyze red-ox reactions nor disrupt the assembly of the 20S proteasome but, rather, promote conformational changes associated to impaired channel gating. Notably, HeLa cells grown in a Cu(II)-supplemented medium exhibit decreased proteasome activity. This effect, however, was attenuated in the presence of an antioxidant. Our results suggest that if, on one hand, Cu(II)-inhibited 20S activities may be associated to conformational changes that favor the closed state of the core particle, on the other hand the complex effect induced by Cu(II) ions in cancer cells is the result of several concurring events including ROS-mediated proteasome flooding, and disassembly of the 26S proteasome into its 20S and 19S components. PMID:27633879

  6. A role for the proteasome in the turnover of Sup35p and in [PSI(+) ] prion propagation.

    PubMed

    Kabani, Mehdi; Redeker, Virginie; Melki, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    Yeast prions are superb models for understanding the mechanisms of self-perpetuating protein aggregates formation. [PSI(+) ] stands among the most documented yeast prions and results from self-assembly of the translation termination factor Sup35p into protein fibrils. A plethora of cellular factors were shown to affect [PSI(+) ] formation and propagation. Clearance of Sup35p prion particles is however poorly understood and documented. Here, we investigated the role of the proteasome in the degradation of Sup35p and in [PSI(+) ] prion propagation. We found that cells lacking the RPN4 gene, which have reduced intracellular proteasome pools, accumulated Sup35p and have defects in [PSI(+) ] formation and propagation. Sup35p is degraded in vitro by the 26S and 20S proteasomes in a ubiquitin-independent manner, generating an array of amyloidogenic peptides derived from its prion-domain. We also demonstrate the formation of a proteasome-resistant fragment spanning residues 83-685 which is devoid of the prion-domain that is essential for [PSI(+) ] propagation. Most important was the finding that the 26S and 20S proteasomes degrade Sup35p fibrils in vitro and abolish their infectivity. Our results point to an overlooked role of the proteasome in clearing toxic protein aggregates, and have important implications for a better understanding of the life cycle of infectious protein assemblies.

  7. Characterisation of 20S Proteasome in Tritrichomonas foetus and Its Role during the Cell Cycle and Transformation into Endoflagellar Form.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Neves, Antonio; Gonzaga, Luiz; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Benchimol, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are intracellular complexes that control selective protein degradation in organisms ranging from Archaea to higher eukaryotes. These structures have multiple proteolytic activities that are required for cell differentiation, replication and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Here, we document the presence of the 20S proteasome in the protist parasite Tritrichomonas foetus. Complementary techniques, such as a combination of whole genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics algorithms, cell fractionation and biochemistry and microscopy approaches were used to characterise the 20S proteasome of T. foetus. The 14 homologues of the typical eukaryotic proteasome subunits were identified in the T. foetus genome. Alignment analyses showed that the main regulatory and catalytic domains of the proteasome were conserved in the predicted amino acid sequences from T. foetus-proteasome subunits. Immunofluorescence assays using an anti-proteasome antibody revealed a labelling distributed throughout the cytosol as punctate cytoplasmic structures and in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy of a T. foetus-proteasome-enriched fraction confirmed the presence of particles that resembled the typical eukaryotic 20S proteasome. Fluorogenic assays using specific peptidyl substrates detected presence of the three typical peptidase activities of eukaryotic proteasomes in T. foetus. As expected, these peptidase activities were inhibited by lactacystin, a well-known specific proteasome inhibitor, and were not affected by inhibitors of serine or cysteine proteases. During the transformation of T. foetus to endoflagellar form (EFF), also known as pseudocyst, we observed correlations between the EFF formation rates, increases in the proteasome activities and reduced levels of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. The growth, cell cycle and EFF transformation of T. foetus were inhibited after treatment with lactacystin in a dose-dependent manner. Lactacystin treatment also resulted in

  8. Characterisation of 20S Proteasome in Tritrichomonas foetus and Its Role during the Cell Cycle and Transformation into Endoflagellar Form

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Neves, Antonio; Gonzaga, Luiz; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Benchimol, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are intracellular complexes that control selective protein degradation in organisms ranging from Archaea to higher eukaryotes. These structures have multiple proteolytic activities that are required for cell differentiation, replication and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Here, we document the presence of the 20S proteasome in the protist parasite Tritrichomonas foetus. Complementary techniques, such as a combination of whole genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics algorithms, cell fractionation and biochemistry and microscopy approaches were used to characterise the 20S proteasome of T. foetus. The 14 homologues of the typical eukaryotic proteasome subunits were identified in the T. foetus genome. Alignment analyses showed that the main regulatory and catalytic domains of the proteasome were conserved in the predicted amino acid sequences from T. foetus-proteasome subunits. Immunofluorescence assays using an anti-proteasome antibody revealed a labelling distributed throughout the cytosol as punctate cytoplasmic structures and in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy of a T. foetus-proteasome-enriched fraction confirmed the presence of particles that resembled the typical eukaryotic 20S proteasome. Fluorogenic assays using specific peptidyl substrates detected presence of the three typical peptidase activities of eukaryotic proteasomes in T. foetus. As expected, these peptidase activities were inhibited by lactacystin, a well-known specific proteasome inhibitor, and were not affected by inhibitors of serine or cysteine proteases. During the transformation of T. foetus to endoflagellar form (EFF), also known as pseudocyst, we observed correlations between the EFF formation rates, increases in the proteasome activities and reduced levels of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. The growth, cell cycle and EFF transformation of T. foetus were inhibited after treatment with lactacystin in a dose-dependent manner. Lactacystin treatment also resulted in

  9. Proteasome Inhibition Suppresses Dengue Virus Egress in Antibody Dependent Infection.

    PubMed

    Choy, Milly M; Zhang, Summer L; Costa, Vivian V; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Horrevorts, Sophie; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2015-11-01

    The mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) is a cause of significant global health burden, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually. However, no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for dengue is available. DENV interacts with host cell factors to complete its life cycle although this virus-host interplay remains to be fully elucidated. Many studies have identified the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) to be important for successful DENV production, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle as host factors remains ill defined. We show here that proteasome inhibition decouples infectious virus production from viral RNA replication in antibody-dependent infection of THP-1 cells. Molecular and imaging analyses in β-lactone treated THP-1 cells suggest that proteasome function does not prevent virus assembly but rather DENV egress. Intriguingly, the licensed proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, is able to inhibit DENV titers at low nanomolar drug concentrations for different strains of all four serotypes of DENV in primary monocytes. Furthermore, bortezomib treatment of DENV-infected mice inhibited the spread of DENV in the spleen as well as the overall pathological changes. Our findings suggest that preventing DENV egress through proteasome inhibition could be a suitable therapeutic strategy against dengue. PMID:26565697

  10. Proteasome Inhibition Suppresses Dengue Virus Egress in Antibody Dependent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vivian V.; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Horrevorts, Sophie; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) is a cause of significant global health burden, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually. However, no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for dengue is available. DENV interacts with host cell factors to complete its life cycle although this virus-host interplay remains to be fully elucidated. Many studies have identified the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) to be important for successful DENV production, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle as host factors remains ill defined. We show here that proteasome inhibition decouples infectious virus production from viral RNA replication in antibody-dependent infection of THP-1 cells. Molecular and imaging analyses in β-lactone treated THP-1 cells suggest that proteasome function does not prevent virus assembly but rather DENV egress. Intriguingly, the licensed proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, is able to inhibit DENV titers at low nanomolar drug concentrations for different strains of all four serotypes of DENV in primary monocytes. Furthermore, bortezomib treatment of DENV-infected mice inhibited the spread of DENV in the spleen as well as the overall pathological changes. Our findings suggest that preventing DENV egress through proteasome inhibition could be a suitable therapeutic strategy against dengue. PMID:26565697

  11. Quiescent fibroblasts are protected from proteasome inhibition–mediated toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Legesse-Miller, Aster; Raitman, Irene; Haley, Erin M.; Liao, Albert; Sun, Lova L.; Wang, David J.; Krishnan, Nithya; Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Suh, Eric J.; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Lund, Benjamin A.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2012-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition is used as a treatment strategy for multiple types of cancers. Although proteasome inhibition can induce apoptotic cell death in actively proliferating cells, it is less effective in quiescent cells. In this study, we used primary human fibroblasts as a model system to explore the link between the proliferative state of a cell and proteasome inhibition–mediated cell death. We found that proliferating and quiescent fibroblasts have strikingly different responses to MG132, a proteasome inhibitor; proliferating cells rapidly apoptosed, whereas quiescent cells maintained viability. Moreover, MG132 treatment of proliferating fibroblasts led to increased superoxide anion levels, juxtanuclear accumulation of ubiquitin- and p62/SQSTM1-positive protein aggregates, and apoptotic cell death, whereas MG132-treated quiescent cells displayed fewer juxtanuclear protein aggregates, less apoptosis, and higher levels of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. In both cell states, reducing reactive oxygen species with N-acetylcysteine lessened protein aggregation and decreased apoptosis, suggesting that protein aggregation promotes apoptosis. In contrast, increasing cellular superoxide levels with 2-methoxyestradiol treatment or inhibition of autophagy/lysosomal pathways with bafilomycin A1 sensitized serum-starved quiescent cells to MG132-induced apoptosis. Thus, antioxidant defenses and the autophagy/lysosomal pathway protect serum-starved quiescent fibroblasts from proteasome inhibition–induced cytotoxicity. PMID:22875985

  12. Proteasome Inhibition Suppresses Dengue Virus Egress in Antibody Dependent Infection.

    PubMed

    Choy, Milly M; Zhang, Summer L; Costa, Vivian V; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Horrevorts, Sophie; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2015-11-01

    The mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) is a cause of significant global health burden, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually. However, no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for dengue is available. DENV interacts with host cell factors to complete its life cycle although this virus-host interplay remains to be fully elucidated. Many studies have identified the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) to be important for successful DENV production, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle as host factors remains ill defined. We show here that proteasome inhibition decouples infectious virus production from viral RNA replication in antibody-dependent infection of THP-1 cells. Molecular and imaging analyses in β-lactone treated THP-1 cells suggest that proteasome function does not prevent virus assembly but rather DENV egress. Intriguingly, the licensed proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, is able to inhibit DENV titers at low nanomolar drug concentrations for different strains of all four serotypes of DENV in primary monocytes. Furthermore, bortezomib treatment of DENV-infected mice inhibited the spread of DENV in the spleen as well as the overall pathological changes. Our findings suggest that preventing DENV egress through proteasome inhibition could be a suitable therapeutic strategy against dengue.

  13. Postnatal Proteasome Inhibition Induces Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Deficiencies in Adult Mice: A New Model of Neurodevelopment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Granados, Rocío; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Aguilar-Montilla, Francisco Javier; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been related to aging and the development of neurodegenerative disease, although the effects of deficient proteasome activity during early postnatal development are poorly understood. Accordingly, we have assessed how proteasome dysfunction during early postnatal development, induced by administering proteasome inhibitors daily during the first 10 days of life, affects the behaviour of adult mice. We found that this regime of exposure to the proteasome inhibitors MG132 or lactacystin did not produce significant behavioural or morphological changes in the first 15 days of life. However, towards the end of the treatment with proteasome inhibitors, there was a loss of mitochondrial markers and activity, and an increase in DNA oxidation. On reaching adulthood, the memory of mice that were injected with proteasome inhibitors postnatally was impaired in hippocampal and amygdala-dependent tasks, and they suffered motor dysfunction and imbalance. These behavioural deficiencies were correlated with neuronal loss in the hippocampus, amygdala and brainstem, and with diminished adult neurogenesis. Accordingly, impairing proteasome activity at early postnatal ages appears to cause morphological and behavioural alterations in adult mice that resemble those associated with certain neurodegenerative diseases and/or syndromes of mental retardation. PMID:22174927

  14. Molecular Architecture and Assembly of the Eukaryotic Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Tomko, Robert J.; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system is responsible for most cellular quality-control and regulatory protein degradation. Its substrates, which are usually modified by polymers of ubiquitin, are ultimately degraded by the 26S proteasome. This 2.6 MDa protein complex is separated into a barrel-shaped proteolytic 20S core particle (CP) of 28 subunits capped on one or both ends by a 19S regulatory particle (RP) comprising at least 19 subunits. The RP coordinates substrate recognition, removal of substrate polyubiquitin chains, and substrate unfolding and translocation into the CP for degradation. While many atomic structures of the CP have been determined, the RP has resisted high-resolution analysis. Recently, however, a combination of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), biochemical analysis, and crystal structure determination of several RP subunits has yielded a near-atomic resolution view of much of the complex. Major new insights into chaperone-assisted proteasome assembly have also recently been made. Here we review these novel findings. PMID:23495936

  15. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Counts Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Videos Starting the Conversation Playing it Safe A Look at Hemophilia Joint Range of Motion My Story Links to Other Websites ...

  16. 1.15 Å resolution structure of the proteasome-assembly chaperone Nas2 PDZ domain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chingakham R; Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Chowdhury, Wasimul Q; Geanes, Eric S; Battaile, Kevin P; Roelofs, Jeroen

    2014-04-01

    The 26S proteasome is a 2.5 MDa protease dedicated to the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotes. The assembly of this complex containing 66 polypeptides is assisted by at least nine proteasome-specific chaperones. One of these, Nas2, binds to the proteasomal AAA-ATPase subunit Rpt5. The PDZ domain of Nas2 binds to the C-terminal tail of Rpt5; however, it does not require the C-terminus of Rpt5 for binding. Here, the 1.15 Å resolution structure of the PDZ domain of Nas2 is reported. This structure will provide a basis for further insights regarding the structure and function of Nas2 in proteasome assembly.

  17. 1.15 Å resolution structure of the proteasome-assembly chaperone Nas2 PDZ domain

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chingakham R.; Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Chowdhury, Wasimul Q.; Geanes, Eric S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Roelofs, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a 2.5 MDa protease dedicated to the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotes. The assembly of this complex containing 66 polypeptides is assisted by at least nine proteasome-specific chaperones. One of these, Nas2, binds to the proteasomal AAA-ATPase subunit Rpt5. The PDZ domain of Nas2 binds to the C-terminal tail of Rpt5; however, it does not require the C-terminus of Rpt5 for binding. Here, the 1.15 Å resolution structure of the PDZ domain of Nas2 is reported. This structure will provide a basis for further insights regarding the structure and function of Nas2 in proteasome assembly. PMID:24699731

  18. Proteasome dysfunction triggers activation of SKN-1A/Nrf1 by the aspartic protease DDI-1

    PubMed Central

    Lehrbach, Nicolas J; Ruvkun, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Proteasomes are essential for protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. To preserve cellular function, transcription of proteasome subunit genes is induced in response to proteasome dysfunction caused by pathogen attacks or proteasome inhibitor drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this response requires SKN-1, a transcription factor related to mammalian Nrf1/2. Here, we use comprehensive genetic analyses to identify the pathway required for C. elegans to detect proteasome dysfunction and activate SKN-1. Genes required for SKN-1 activation encode regulators of ER traffic, a peptide N-glycanase, and DDI-1, a conserved aspartic protease. DDI-1 expression is induced by proteasome dysfunction, and we show that DDI-1 is required to cleave and activate an ER-associated isoform of SKN-1. Mammalian Nrf1 is also ER-associated and subject to proteolytic cleavage, suggesting a conserved mechanism of proteasome surveillance. Targeting mammalian DDI1 protease could mitigate effects of proteasome dysfunction in aging and protein aggregation disorders, or increase effectiveness of proteasome inhibitor cancer chemotherapies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17721.001 PMID:27528192

  19. Proteasome dysfunction triggers activation of SKN-1A/Nrf1 by the aspartic protease DDI-1.

    PubMed

    Lehrbach, Nicolas J; Ruvkun, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Proteasomes are essential for protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. To preserve cellular function, transcription of proteasome subunit genes is induced in response to proteasome dysfunction caused by pathogen attacks or proteasome inhibitor drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this response requires SKN-1, a transcription factor related to mammalian Nrf1/2. Here, we use comprehensive genetic analyses to identify the pathway required for C. elegans to detect proteasome dysfunction and activate SKN-1. Genes required for SKN-1 activation encode regulators of ER traffic, a peptide N-glycanase, and DDI-1, a conserved aspartic protease. DDI-1 expression is induced by proteasome dysfunction, and we show that DDI-1 is required to cleave and activate an ER-associated isoform of SKN-1. Mammalian Nrf1 is also ER-associated and subject to proteolytic cleavage, suggesting a conserved mechanism of proteasome surveillance. Targeting mammalian DDI1 protease could mitigate effects of proteasome dysfunction in aging and protein aggregation disorders, or increase effectiveness of proteasome inhibitor cancer chemotherapies. PMID:27528192

  20. Multiple assembly chaperones govern biogenesis of the proteasome regulatory particle base.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Minoru; Tomko, Robert J; Kobayashi, Hideki; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2009-05-29

    The central protease of eukaryotes, the 26S proteasome, has a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) and an attached 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP is further subdivided into lid and base subcomplexes. Little is known about RP assembly. Here, we show that four conserved assembly factors govern biogenesis of the yeast RP base. Nas2 forms a complex with the Rpt4 and Rpt5 ATPases and enhances 26S proteasome formation in vivo and in vitro. Other RP subcomplexes contain Hsm3, which is related to mammalian proteasome subunit S5b. Hsm3 also contributes to base assembly. Larger Hsm3-containing complexes include two additional proteins, Nas6 and Rpn14, which function as assembly chaperones as well. Specific deletion combinations affecting these four factors cause severe perturbations to RP assembly. Our results demonstrate that proteasomal RP biogenesis requires multiple, functionally overlapping chaperones and suggest a model in which subunits form specific subcomplexes that then assemble into the base.

  1. Structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasome and mechanism of inhibition by a peptidyl boronate

    SciTech Connect

    Hu,G.; Lin, G.; Wang, M.; Dick, L.; Xu, R.; Nathan, C.; Li, H.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has the remarkable ability to resist killing by human macrophages. The 750 kDa proteasome, not available in most eubacteria except Actinomycetes, appears to contribute to Mtb's resistance. The crystal structure of the Mtb proteasome at 3.0 Angstroms resolution reveals a substrate-binding pocket with composite features of the distinct {beta}1, {beta}2 and {beta}5 substrate binding sites of eukaryotic proteasomes, accounting for the broad specificity of the Mtb proteasome towards oligopeptides described in the companion article [Lin et al. (2006), Mol Microbiol doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.05035.x]. The substrate entrance at the end of the cylindrical proteasome appears open in the crystal structure due to partial disorder of the a-subunit N-terminal residues. However, cryo-electron microscopy of the core particle reveals a closed end, compatible with the density observed in negative-staining electron microscopy that depended on the presence of the N-terminal octapeptides of the a-subunits in the companion article, suggesting that the Mtb proteasome has a gated structure. We determine for the first time the proteasomal inhibition mechanism of the dipeptidyl boronate N-(4-morpholine)carbonyl-{beta}-(1-naphthyl)-l-alanine-l-leucine boronic acid (MLN-273), an analogue of the antimyeloma drug bortezomib. The structure improves prospects for designing Mtb-specific proteasomal inhibitors as a novel approach to chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

  2. The activation sequence of cellular protein handling systems after proteasomal inhibition in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction of protein handling has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases and inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been linked to the formation of protein aggregates and proteinopathies in such diseases. While proteasomal inhibition could trigger an array of downstream protein handling changes including up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs), induction of molecular chaperones, activation of the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and aggresome formation, little is known of the relationship of proteasomal inhibition to the sequence of activation of these diverse protein handling systems. In this study we utilized the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG132 and examined the activity of several major protein handling systems in the immortalized dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell line. In the early phase (up to 6 hours after proteasomal inhibition), MG132 induced time-dependent proteasomal inhibition which resulted in stimulation of the UPR, increased autophagic flux and stimulated heat shock protein response as determined by increased levels of phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)/GADD153, turnover of autophagy related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and increased levels of Hsp70 respectively. After prolonged proteasomal inhibition induced by MG132, we observed the formation of vimentin-caged aggresome-like inclusion bodies. A recovery study after MG132-induced proteasomal inhibition indicated that the autophagy-lysosomal pathway participated in the clearance of aggresomes. Our data characterizes the relationship between proteasome inhibition and activation of other protein handling systems. These data also indicated that the induction of alternate protein handling systems and their temporal relationships may be important factors that determine the extent of accumulation of misfolded proteins in cells as a result of

  3. Functions of the Proteasome on Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Tyler S.; Tansey, William P.

    2014-01-01

    The proteasome is a large self-compartmentalized protease complex that recognizes, unfolds, and destroys ubiquitylated substrates. Proteasome activities are required for a host of cellular functions, and it has become clear in recent years that one set of critical actions of the proteasome occur on chromatin. In this review, we discuss some of the ways in which proteasomes directly regulate the structure and function of chromatin and chromatin regulatory proteins, and how this influences gene transcription. We discuss lingering controversies in the field, the relative importance of proteolytic versus non-proteolytic proteasome activities in this process, and highlight areas that require further investigation. Our intention is to show that proteasomes are involved in major steps controlling the expression of the genetic information, that proteasomes use both proteolytic mechanisms and ATP-dependent protein remodeling to accomplish this task, and that much is yet to be learned about the full spectrum of ways that proteasomes influence the genome. PMID:25422899

  4. Proteasome function shapes innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kammerl, Ilona E; Meiners, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The proteasome system degrades more than 80% of intracellular proteins into small peptides. Accordingly, the proteasome is involved in many essential cellular functions, such as protein quality control, transcription, immune responses, cell signaling, and apoptosis. Moreover, degradation products are loaded onto major histocompatibility class I molecules to communicate the intracellular protein composition to the immune system. The standard 20S proteasome core complex contains three distinct catalytic active sites that are exchanged upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines to form the so-called immunoproteasome. Immunoproteasomes are constitutively expressed in immune cells and have different proteolytic activities compared with standard proteasomes. They are rapidly induced in parenchymal cells upon intracellular pathogen infection and are crucial for priming effective CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immune responses against infected cells. Beyond shaping these adaptive immune reactions, immunoproteasomes also regulate the function of immune cells by degradation of inflammatory and immune mediators. Accordingly, they emerge as novel regulators of innate immune responses. The recently unraveled impairment of immunoproteasome function by environmental challenges and by genetic variations of immunoproteasome genes might represent a currently underestimated risk factor for the development and progression of lung diseases. In particular, immunoproteasome dysfunction will dampen resolution of infections, thereby promoting exacerbations, may foster autoimmunity in chronic lung diseases, and possibly contributes to immune evasion of tumor cells. Novel pharmacological tools, such as site-specific inhibitors of the immunoproteasome, as well as activity-based probes, however, hold promises as innovative therapeutic drugs for respiratory diseases and biomarker profiling, respectively. PMID:27343191

  5. Proteasome function shapes innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kammerl, Ilona E; Meiners, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The proteasome system degrades more than 80% of intracellular proteins into small peptides. Accordingly, the proteasome is involved in many essential cellular functions, such as protein quality control, transcription, immune responses, cell signaling, and apoptosis. Moreover, degradation products are loaded onto major histocompatibility class I molecules to communicate the intracellular protein composition to the immune system. The standard 20S proteasome core complex contains three distinct catalytic active sites that are exchanged upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines to form the so-called immunoproteasome. Immunoproteasomes are constitutively expressed in immune cells and have different proteolytic activities compared with standard proteasomes. They are rapidly induced in parenchymal cells upon intracellular pathogen infection and are crucial for priming effective CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immune responses against infected cells. Beyond shaping these adaptive immune reactions, immunoproteasomes also regulate the function of immune cells by degradation of inflammatory and immune mediators. Accordingly, they emerge as novel regulators of innate immune responses. The recently unraveled impairment of immunoproteasome function by environmental challenges and by genetic variations of immunoproteasome genes might represent a currently underestimated risk factor for the development and progression of lung diseases. In particular, immunoproteasome dysfunction will dampen resolution of infections, thereby promoting exacerbations, may foster autoimmunity in chronic lung diseases, and possibly contributes to immune evasion of tumor cells. Novel pharmacological tools, such as site-specific inhibitors of the immunoproteasome, as well as activity-based probes, however, hold promises as innovative therapeutic drugs for respiratory diseases and biomarker profiling, respectively.

  6. Biochemical characterization and role of the proteasome in the oxidative stress response of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Renato Graciano; Ornelas, Alice Maria de Magalhães; Morais, Enyara Rezende; Borges, William de Castro; Natale, Massimo; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2014-08-01

    The trematode Schistosoma mansoni, an important parasite of humans, is the principle agent of the disease schistosomiasis. In the human host, one of the most important stress factors of this parasite is the oxidative stress generated by both the metabolism of the worm and the immune system of the host. The proteasomal system is responsible for protein homeostasis during oxidative stress. The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic protease formed by two compartments, a 20S core and regulatory particle 19S, and controls the degradation of intracellular proteins, hence regulating many cellular processes. In the present report, we describe the biochemical characterization and role of the 20S proteasome in the response of adult S. mansoni worms exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Characterization of the response to the oxidative stress included the evaluation of viability, egg production, mortality, tegument integrity, and both expression and activity of proteasome. We observed decreases in viability, egg production as well as 100% mortality at the higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide tested. The main changes observed in the tegument of adult worms were peeling as well as the appearance of bubbles and a decrease of spines on the tubercles. Furthermore, there were increases in 26S activity to the same extent as 20S proteasome activity, although there was increase of 20S proteasome content, suggesting that degradation of protein oxidized in adult worms is due to the 20S proteasome. It was demonstrated that adult S. mansoni worms are sensitive to oxidative stress, and that a variety of processes in this parasite are altered under this condition. The work contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms employed by S. mansoni to survive under oxidative stress. PMID:24870249

  7. Inhibition of the purified 20S proteasome by non-heme iron complexes

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jai; Schmitt, Sara M.; Dou, Q. Ping; Kodanko, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Polypyridyl pentadentate ligands N4Py (1) and Bn-TPEN (2), along with their respective iron complexes, have been investigated for their ability to inhibit the purified 20S proteasome. Results demonstrated that the iron complexes of both ligands are potent inhibitors of the 20S proteasome (IC50 = 9.2 μM for [FeII(OH2)(N4Py)]2+ (3) and 4.0 μM for [FeII(OH2)(Bn-TPEN)]2+ (4)). Control experiments showed that ligand 1 or FeII alone showed no inhibition, whereas 2 was moderately active (IC50 = 96 μM), suggesting that iron, when bound to these ligands, plays a key role in proteasome inhibition. Results from time-dependent inactivation studies suggest different modes of action for the iron complexes. Time-dependent decay of proteasome activity was observed upon incubation in the presence of 4, which accelerated in the presence of DTT, suggesting reductive activation of O2 and oxidation of the 20S proteasome as a mode of action. In contrast, loss of 20S proteasome activity was not observed with 3 over time, suggesting inhibition through direct binding of the iron complex to the enzyme. Inhibition of the 20S proteasome by 4 was not blocked by reactive oxygen species scavengers, consistent with a unique oxidant being responsible for the time-dependent inhibition observed. PMID:22170477

  8. Inhibition on Proteasome β1 Subunit Might Contribute to the Anti-Cancer Effects of Fangchinoline in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Feng, Li-Xing; Liu, Miao; Hu, Li-Hong; Wu, Wan-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Qu, Xiao-Bo; Guo, De-An; Liu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Fangchinoline is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Radix Stephaniae tetrandrae S. Moore. Fangchinoline and its structure analogue, tetrandrine, exhibited direct binding affinity with recombinant human proteasome β1 subunit and also inhibited its activity in vitro. In cultured prostate PC-3 cells and LnCap cells, fangchinoline could dose-dependently inhibit cell proliferation and caspase-like activity of cellular proteasome which was mediated by proteasome β1 subunit. The inhibitive effect of fangchinoline on caspase-like activity of proteasome was also observed in purified human erythrocyte 20S proteasome. In PC-3 cells, fangchinoline induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. Treatment of PC-3 tumor-bearing nude mice with fangchinoline inhibited tumor growth, induced apoptosis and also caused decrease in proteasome activities in tumor xenografts. Dose-dependent and time-dependent accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and important proteasome substrates such as p27, Bax and IκB-α were observed in fangchinoline-treated cells. Over-expression of proteasome β1 subunit by plasmid transfection increased sensitivity of cells to the cytotoxicity of fangchinoline while knockdown of proteasome β1 subunit ameliorated cytotoxicity of fangchinoline in PC-3 cells. Results of the present study suggested that proteasome inhibition was involved in the anti-cancer effects of fangchinoline. Fangchinoline and its structure analogues might be new natural proteasome inhibitors targeting β1 subunit. PMID:26512898

  9. Inhibition on Proteasome β1 Subunit Might Contribute to the Anti-Cancer Effects of Fangchinoline in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lu, Yu; Sun, Peng; Feng, Li-Xing; Liu, Miao; Hu, Li-Hong; Wu, Wan-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Qu, Xiao-Bo; Guo, De-An; Liu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Fangchinoline is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Radix Stephaniae tetrandrae S. Moore. Fangchinoline and its structure analogue, tetrandrine, exhibited direct binding affinity with recombinant human proteasome β1 subunit and also inhibited its activity in vitro. In cultured prostate PC-3 cells and LnCap cells, fangchinoline could dose-dependently inhibit cell proliferation and caspase-like activity of cellular proteasome which was mediated by proteasome β1 subunit. The inhibitive effect of fangchinoline on caspase-like activity of proteasome was also observed in purified human erythrocyte 20S proteasome. In PC-3 cells, fangchinoline induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. Treatment of PC-3 tumor-bearing nude mice with fangchinoline inhibited tumor growth, induced apoptosis and also caused decrease in proteasome activities in tumor xenografts. Dose-dependent and time-dependent accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and important proteasome substrates such as p27, Bax and IκB-α were observed in fangchinoline-treated cells. Over-expression of proteasome β1 subunit by plasmid transfection increased sensitivity of cells to the cytotoxicity of fangchinoline while knockdown of proteasome β1 subunit ameliorated cytotoxicity of fangchinoline in PC-3 cells. Results of the present study suggested that proteasome inhibition was involved in the anti-cancer effects of fangchinoline. Fangchinoline and its structure analogues might be new natural proteasome inhibitors targeting β1 subunit. PMID:26512898

  10. Proteasomal activities in the claw muscle tissue of European lobster, Homarus gammarus, during larval development.

    PubMed

    Götze, Sandra; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Decapod crustaceans grow discontinuously and gain size through complex molt processes. The molt comprises the loss of the old cuticle and, moreover, substantial reduction and re-organization of muscles and connective tissues. In adult lobsters, the muscle tissue of the massive claws undergoes significant atrophy of 40-75% before ecdysis. The degradation of this tissue is facilitated by calcium-dependent proteases and by the proteasome, an intra-cellular proteolytic multi-enzyme complex. In contrast to the adults, the involvement of the proteasome during the larval development is yet not validated. Therefore, we developed micro-methods to measure the 20S and the 26S proteasomal activities within mg- and sub-mg-quantities of the larval claw tissue of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Within the three larval stages (Z1-3) we distinguished between sub-stages of freshly molted/hatched (post-molt), inter-molt, and ready to molt (pre-molt) larvae. Juveniles were analyzed in the post-molt and in the inter-molt stage. The trypsin-like, the chymotrypsin-like, and the peptidyl-glutamyl peptide hydrolase activity (PGPH) of the 20S proteasome increased distinctly from freshly hatched larvae to pre-molt Z1. During the Z2 stage, the activities were highest in the post-molt animals, decreased in the inter-molt animals and increased again in the pre-molt animals. A similar but less distinct trend was evident in the Z3 stages. In the juveniles, the proteasomal activities decreased toward the lowest values. A similar pattern was present for the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 26S proteasome. The results show that the proteasome plays a significant role during the larval development of lobsters. This is not only reflected by the elevated activities, but also by the continuous change of the trypsin/chymotrypsin-ratio which may indicate a shift in the subunit composition of the proteasome and, thus, a biochemical adjustment to better cope with elevated protein turnover rates

  11. Targeting Tumor Proteasome with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huanjie; Liu, Jinbao; Dou, Q. Ping

    2012-01-01

    The proteasome is a multicatalytic protease complex whose activity is required for the growth of normal or tumor cells. It has been shown that human cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibition than normal cells, indicating that the proteasome could be a target of chemotherapy. Studies suggest that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an effective approach for cancer treatment. Here we reviewed several TCMs for their potential in treatment of cancer. This short review focuses mainly on the TCMs that potentially target the tumor cellular proteasome and NF-κB pathway whose activation is dependent on the proteasome activity. PMID:20156140

  12. Proteasome activity is required for the stage-specific transformation of a protozoan parasite

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    A prominent feature of the life cycle of intracellular parasites is the profound morphological changes they undergo during development in the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. In eukaryotic cells, most cytoplasmic proteins are degraded in proteasomes. Here, we show that the transformation in axenic medium of trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi into amastigote-like organisms, and the intracellular development of the parasite from amastigotes into trypomastigotes, are prevented by lactacystin, or by a peptide aldehyde that inhibits proteasome function. Clasto-lactacystin, an inactive analogue of lactacystin, and cell-permeant peptide aldehyde inhibitors of T. cruzi cysteine proteinases have no effect. We have also identified the 20S proteasomes from T. cruzi as a target of lactacystin in vivo. Our results document the essential role of proteasomes in the stage-specific transformation of a protozoan. PMID:8920878

  13. Secondary Metabolites Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis sydowiana and Their 20S Proteasome Inhibitory Activities.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuekui; Kim, Soonok; Liu, Changheng; Shim, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have attracted attention due to their functional diversity. Secondary metabolites produced by Pestalotiopsis sydowiana from a halophyte, Phragmites communis Trinus, were investigated. Eleven compounds, including four penicillide derivatives (1-4) and seven α-pyrone analogues (5-10) were isolated from cultures of P. sydowiana. The compounds were identified based on spectroscopic data. The inhibitory activities against the 20S proteasome were evaluated. Compounds 1-3, 5, and 9-10 showed modest proteasome inhibition activities, while compound 8 showed strong activity with an IC50 of 1.2 ± 0.3 μM. This is the first study on the secondary metabolites produced by P. sydowiana and their proteasome inhibitory activities. The endophytic fungus P. sydowiana might be a good resource for proteasome inhibitors. PMID:27447600

  14. N,C-Capped dipeptides with selectivity for mycobacterial proteasome over human proteasomes: role of S3 and S1 binding pockets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gang; Chidawanyika, Tamutenda; Tsu, Christopher; Warrier, Thulasi; Vaubourgeix, Julien; Blackburn, Christopher; Gigstad, Kenneth; Sintchak, Michael; Dick, Lawrence; Nathan, Carl

    2013-07-10

    We identified N,C-capped dipeptides that are selective for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasome over human constitutive and immunoproteasomes. Differences in the S3 and S1 binding pockets appeared to account for the species selectivity. The inhibitors can penetrate mycobacteria and kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis under nitrosative stress.

  15. Why does threonine, and not serine, function as the active site nucleophile in proteasomes?

    PubMed

    Kisselev, A F; Songyang, Z; Goldberg, A L

    2000-05-19

    Proteasomes belong to the N-terminal nucleophile group of amidases and function through a novel proteolytic mechanism, in which the hydroxyl group of the N-terminal threonines is the catalytic nucleophile. However, it is unclear why threonine has been conserved in all proteasomal active sites, because its replacement by a serine in proteasomes from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum (T1S mutant) does not alter the rates of hydrolysis of Suc-LLVY-amc (Seemüller, E., Lupas, A., Stock, D., Lowe, J., Huber, R., and Baumeister, W. (1995) Science 268, 579-582) and other standard peptide amide substrates. However, we found that true peptide bonds in decapeptide libraries were cleaved by the T1S mutant 10-fold slower than by wild type (wt) proteasomes. In degrading proteins, the T1S proteasome was 3.5- to 6-fold slower than the wt, and this difference increased when proteolysis was stimulated using the proteasome-activating nucleotidase (PAN) ATPase complex. With mutant proteasomes, peptide bond cleavage appeared to be rate-limiting in protein breakdown, unlike with wt. Surprisingly, a peptide ester was hydrolyzed by both particles much faster than the corresponding amide, and the T1S mutant cleaved it faster than the wt. Moreover, the T1S mutant was inactivated by the ester inhibitor clasto-lactacystin-beta-lactone severalfold faster than the wt, but reacted with nonester irreversible inhibitors at similar rates. T1A and T1C mutants were completely inactive in all these assays. Thus, proteasomes lack additional active sites, and the N-terminal threonine evolved because it allows more efficient protein breakdown than serine. PMID:10809725

  16. Proteasome Dysfunction Mediates High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis in Rodent Beta Cells and Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Broca, Christophe; Varin, Elodie; Armanet, Mathieu; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Bosco, Domenico; Dalle, Stéphane; Wojtusciszyn, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS), a major cellular protein degradation machinery, plays key roles in the regulation of many cell functions. Glucotoxicity mediated by chronic hyperglycaemia is detrimental to the function and survival of pancreatic beta cells. The aim of our study was to determine whether proteasome dysfunction could be involved in beta cell apoptosis in glucotoxic conditions, and to evaluate whether such a dysfunction might be pharmacologically corrected. Therefore, UPS activity was measured in GK rats islets, INS-1E beta cells or human islets after high glucose and/or UPS inhibitor exposure. Immunoblotting was used to quantify polyubiquitinated proteins, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through CHOP expression, and apoptosis through the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3, whereas total cell death was detected through histone-associated DNA fragments measurement. In vitro, we found that chronic exposure of INS-1E cells to high glucose concentrations significantly decreases the three proteasome activities by 20% and leads to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. We showed that pharmacological blockade of UPS activity by 20% leads to apoptosis in a same way. Indeed, ER stress was involved in both conditions. These results were confirmed in human islets, and proteasome activities were also decreased in hyperglycemic GK rats islets. Moreover, we observed that a high glucose treatment hypersensitized beta cells to the apoptotic effect of proteasome inhibitors. Noteworthily, the decreased proteasome activity can be corrected with Exendin-4, which also protected against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings reveal an important role of proteasome activity in high glucose-induced beta cell apoptosis, potentially linking ER stress and glucotoxicity. These proteasome dysfunctions can be reversed by a GLP-1 analog. Thus, UPS may be a potent target to treat deleterious metabolic conditions leading to type 2 diabetes. PMID:24642635

  17. Inhibition of Tumor Proteasome Activity by Gold Dithiocarbamato Complexes via both Redox-Dependent and –Independent Processes

    PubMed Central

    Milacic, Vesna; Ronconi, Luca; Fan, Yuhua; Bi, Caifeng; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q Ping

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported on a gold(III) complex, namely [AuBr2(DMDT)] (N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate) showing potent in vitro and in vivo growth inhibitory activities toward human cancer cells and identifying the cellular proteasome as one of the major targets. However, the importance of the oxidation state of the gold center and the involved mechanism of action has yet to be established. Here we show that both gold(III)- and gold(I)-dithiocarbamato species, namely [AuBr2(ESDT)] (AUL12) and [Au(ESDT)]2 (AUL15), could inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome and 26S proteasome in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, resulting in accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and proteasome target proteins, and induction of cell death, but at significantly different levels. Gold(I) and gold(III) compounds-mediated proteasome inhibition and cell death induction were completely reversed by the addition of a reducing agent, dithiothreitol or N-acetyl-l-cysteine, suggesting the involvement of redox processes. Furthermore, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with gold(III) compound (AUL12), but not the gold(I) analogue (AUL15), resulted in the production of significant level of reactive oxygen species. Our study provides strong evidence that the cellular proteasome is an imporant target of both gold(I) and gold(III) dithiocarbamates, but distinct cellular mechanisms of action are responsible for their different overall effect. PMID:19911377

  18. Proteasome Inhibition Promotes Parkin-Ubc13 Interaction and Lysine 63-Linked Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Xiao-Hui; Henry-Basil, Adeline; Sim, Roy W. X.; Tan, Jeanne M. M.; Chai, Chou; Lim, Kah-Leong

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which normally identifies and degrades unwanted intracellular proteins, is thought to underlie neurodegeneration. Supporting this, mutations of Parkin, a ubiquitin ligase, are associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism. Remarkably, Parkin can protect neurons against a wide spectrum of stress, including those that promote proteasome dysfunction. Although the mechanism underlying the preservation of proteasome function by Parkin is hitherto unclear, we have previously proposed that Parkin-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination (which is usually uncoupled from the proteasome) may serve to mitigate proteasomal stress by diverting the substrate load away from the machinery. By means of linkage-specific antibodies, we demonstrated here that proteasome inhibition indeed promotes K63-linked ubiquitination of proteins especially in Parkin-expressing cells. Importantly, we further demonstrated that the recruitment of Ubc13 (an E2 that mediates K63-linked polyubiquitin chain formation exclusively) by Parkin is selectively enhanced under conditions of proteasomal stress, thus identifying a mechanism by which Parkin could promote K63-linked ubiquitin modification in cells undergoing proteolytic stress. This mode of ubiquitination appears to facilitate the subsequent clearance of Parkin substrates via autophagy. Consistent with the proposed protective role of K63-linked ubiquitination in times of proteolytic stress, we found that Ubc13-deficient cells are significantly more susceptible to cell death induced by proteasome inhibitors compared to their wild type counterparts. Taken together, our study suggests a role for Parkin-mediated K63 ubiquitination in maintaining cellular protein homeostasis, especially during periods when the proteasome is burdened or impaired. PMID:24023840

  19. ATP binds to proteasomal ATPases in pairs with distinct functional effects implying an ordered reaction cycle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David M.; Fraga, Hugo; Reis, Christian; Kafri, Galit; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2011-01-01

    In the eukaryotic 26S proteasome, the 20S particle is regulated by six AAA ATPase subunits, and in archaea by a homologous ring complex, PAN. To clarify the role of ATP in proteolysis, we studied how nucleotides bind to PAN. Although PAN has six identical subunits it binds ATPs in pairs, and its subunits exhibit three conformational states with high, low, or no affinity for ATP. When PAN binds two ATPγS molecules, or two ATPγS plus two ADP molecules it is maximally active in binding protein substrates, associating with the 20S particle, and promoting 20S gate-opening. However, binding of four ATPγS molecules reduces these functions. The 26S proteasome shows similar nucleotide dependence. These findings imply an ordered cyclical mechanism in which two ATPase subunits bind ATP simultaneously and dock into the 20S. These results can explain how these hexameric ATPases interact with and “wobble” on top of the heptameric 20S proteasome. PMID:21335235

  20. Subnormothermic Perfusion in the Isolated Rat Liver Preserves the Antioxidant Glutathione and Enhances the Function of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Alva, Norma; Sanchez-Nuño, Sergio; Dewey, Shannamar; Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of oxidative stress is suggested to be one of the main mechanisms to explain the benefits of subnormothermic perfusion against ischemic liver damage. In this study we investigated the early cellular mechanisms induced in isolated rat livers after 15 min perfusion at temperatures ranging from normothermia (37°C) to subnormothermia (26°C and 22°C). Subnormothermic perfusion was found to maintain hepatic viability. Perfusion at 22°C raised reduced glutathione levels and the activity of glutathione reductase; however, lipid and protein oxidation still occurred as determined by malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, and advanced oxidation protein products. In livers perfused at 22°C the lysosomal and ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) were both activated. The 26S chymotrypsin-like (β5) proteasome activity was significantly increased in the 26°C (46%) and 22°C (42%) groups. The increased proteasome activity may be due to increased Rpt6 Ser120 phosphorylation, which is known to enhance 26S proteasome activity. Together, our results indicate that the early events produced by subnormothermic perfusion in the liver can induce oxidative stress concomitantly with antioxidant glutathione preservation and enhanced function of the lysosomal and UPS systems. Thus, a brief hypothermia could trigger antioxidant mechanisms and may be functioning as a preconditioning stimulus. PMID:27800122

  1. Deimination of the myelin basic protein decelerates its proteasome-mediated metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kuzina, E S; Kudriaeva, A A; Glagoleva, I S; Knorre, V D; Gabibov, A G; Belogurov, A A

    2016-07-01

    Deimination of myelin basic protein (MBP) by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) prevents its binding to the proteasome and decelerates its degradation by the proteasome in mammalian cells. Potential anticancer drug tetrazole analogue of chloramidine 2, at concentrations greater than 1 µM inhibits the enzymatic activity of PAD in vitro. The observed acceleration of proteasome hydrolysis of MBP to antigenic peptides in the presence of PAD inhibitor may increase the efficiency of lesion of the central nervous system by cytotoxic lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis. We therefore suggest that clinical trials and the introduction of PAD inhibitors in clinical practice for the treatment of malignant neoplasms should be performed only after a careful analysis of their potential effect on the induction of autoimmune neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27599511

  2. Clinical activity of carfilzomib correlates with inhibition of multiple proteasome subunits: application of a novel pharmacodynamic assay.

    PubMed

    Lee, Susan J; Levitsky, Konstantin; Parlati, Francesco; Bennett, Mark K; Arastu-Kapur, Shirin; Kellerman, Lois; Woo, Tina F; Wong, Alvin F; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P; Niesvizky, Ruben; Badros, Ashraf Z; Vij, Ravi; Jagannath, Sundar; Siegel, David; Wang, Michael; Ahmann, Gregory J; Kirk, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    While proteasome inhibition is a validated therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma (MM), inhibition of individual constitutive proteasome (c20S) and immunoproteasome (i20S) subunits has not been fully explored owing to a lack of effective tools. We utilized the novel proteasome constitutive/immunoproteasome subunit enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ProCISE) assay to quantify proteasome subunit occupancy in samples from five phase I/II and II trials before and after treatment with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib. Following the first carfilzomib dose (15-56 mg/m(2) ), dose-dependent inhibition of c20S and i20S chymotrypsin-like active sites was observed [whole blood: ≥67%; peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): ≥75%]. A similar inhibition profile was observed in bone marrow-derived CD138(+) tumour cells. Carfilzomib-induced proteasome inhibition was durable, with minimal recovery in PBMCs after 24 h but near-complete recovery between cycles. Importantly, the ProCISE assay can be used to quantify occupancy of individual c20S and i20S subunits. We observed a relationship between MM patient response (n = 29), carfilzomib dose and occupancy of multiple i20S subunits, where greater occupancy was associated with an increased likelihood of achieving a clinical response at higher doses. ProCISE represents a new tool for measuring proteasome inhibitor activity in clinical trials and relating drug action to patient outcomes. PMID:27071340

  3. Dss1 associating with the proteasome functions in selective nuclear mRNA export in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Mannen, Taro; Andoh, Tomoko; Tani, Tokio

    2008-01-25

    Dss1p is an evolutionarily conserved small protein that interacts with BRCA2, a tumor suppressor protein, in humans. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain lacking the dss1{sup +} gene ({delta}dss1) shows a temperature-sensitive growth defect and accumulation of bulk poly(A){sup +} RNA in the nucleus at a nonpermissive temperature. In situ hybridization using probes for several specific mRNAs, however, revealed that the analyzed mRNAs were exported normally to the cytoplasm in {delta}dss1, suggesting that Dss1p is required for export of some subsets of mRNAs. We identified the pad1{sup +} gene, which encodes a component of the 26S proteasome, as a suppressor for the ts{sup -} phenotype of {delta}dss1. Unexpectedly, overexpression of Pad1p could suppress neither the defect in nuclear mRNA export nor a defect in proteasome function. In addition, loss of proteasome functions does not cause defective nuclear mRNA export. Dss1p seems to be a multifunctional protein involved in nuclear export of specific sets of mRNAs and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in fission yeast.

  4. ahg12 is a dominant proteasome mutant that affects multiple regulatory systems for germination of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shimpei; Hirayama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is fundamentally involved in myriad biological phenomena of eukaryotes. In plants, this regulated protein degradation system has a pivotal role in the cellular response mechanisms for both internal and external stimuli, such as plant hormones and environmental stresses. Information about substrate selection by the ubiquitination machinery has accumulated, but there is very little information about selectivity for substrates at the proteasome. Here, we report characterization of a novel abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive mutant named ABA hypersensitive germination12 (ahg12) in Arabidopsis. The ahg12 mutant showed a unique pleiotropic phenotype, including hypersensitivity to ABA and ethylene, and hyposensitivity to light. Map-based cloning identified the ahg12 mutation to cause an amino acid conversion in the L23 loop of RPT5a, which is predicted to form the pore structure of the 19S RP complex of the proteasome. Transient expression assays demonstrated that some plant-specific signaling components accumulated at higher levels in the ahg12 mutant. These results suggest that the ahg12 mutation led to changes in the substrate preference of the 26S proteasome. The discovery of the ahg12 mutation thus will contribute to elucidate the characteristics of the regulated protein degradation system. PMID:27139926

  5. ahg12 is a dominant proteasome mutant that affects multiple regulatory systems for germination of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shimpei; Hirayama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is fundamentally involved in myriad biological phenomena of eukaryotes. In plants, this regulated protein degradation system has a pivotal role in the cellular response mechanisms for both internal and external stimuli, such as plant hormones and environmental stresses. Information about substrate selection by the ubiquitination machinery has accumulated, but there is very little information about selectivity for substrates at the proteasome. Here, we report characterization of a novel abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive mutant named ABA hypersensitive germination12 (ahg12) in Arabidopsis. The ahg12 mutant showed a unique pleiotropic phenotype, including hypersensitivity to ABA and ethylene, and hyposensitivity to light. Map-based cloning identified the ahg12 mutation to cause an amino acid conversion in the L23 loop of RPT5a, which is predicted to form the pore structure of the 19S RP complex of the proteasome. Transient expression assays demonstrated that some plant-specific signaling components accumulated at higher levels in the ahg12 mutant. These results suggest that the ahg12 mutation led to changes in the substrate preference of the 26S proteasome. The discovery of the ahg12 mutation thus will contribute to elucidate the characteristics of the regulated protein degradation system. PMID:27139926

  6. Inhibition of all-trans-retinoic acid-induced proteasome activation potentiates the differentiating effect of retinoid in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanfen; Zhou, Xinglu; Lin, Meihua; Ying, Meidan; Luo, Peihua; Zhu, Difeng; Lou, Jianshu; Yang, Bo; He, Qiaojun

    2011-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is nowadays considered to be the sole efficient agent for differentiation-based therapy in leukemia; however, the mechanisms of ATRA's biological effects remain largely unknown. Here we first reported that ATRA-induced myeloid leukemia differentiation was accompanied with the increased level of ubiquitin-protein conjugates and the upregulation of proteasome activity. To explore the functional role of the activated proteasome in retinoic acid (RA) signaling, the effects of proteasome inhibitors on RA-induced cell differentiation were determined. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of ATRA-elevated proteasome activity obviously promoted the myeloid maturation program triggered by ATRA, suggesting that the overactivated proteasome is not beneficial for ATRA's effects. Further studies demonstrated that the synergistic differentiating effects of ATRA and proteasome inhibitors might be associated with the protection of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) from degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). Moreover, the accumulated RARα was able to enhance the transcription of its target gene, which might also contribute to the enhanced differentiation of leukemia cells. Together, by linking the UPP to ATRA-dependent signaling, our data provide a novel insight into studying the mechanisms of ATRA-elicited cellular effects and imply the possibility of combination of ATRA and proteasome inhibitors in leukemia therapy.

  7. The Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and Proteasome Maturation Protein Axis Mediate Bortezomib Resistance in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingzong; Fu, Jinxiang; Chen, Ping; Ge, Xueping; Li, Yali; Kuiatse, Isere; Wang, Hua; Wang, Huihan; Zhang, Xingding; Orlowski, Robert Z

    2015-12-11

    Resistance to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is an emerging clinical problem whose mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We considered the possibility that this could be associated with enhanced proteasome activity in part through the action of the proteasome maturation protein (POMP). Bortezomib-resistant myeloma models were used to examine the correlation between POMP expression and bortezomib sensitivity. POMP expression was then modulated using genetic and pharmacologic approaches to determine the effects on proteasome inhibitor sensitivity in cell lines and in vivo models. Resistant cell lines were found to overexpress POMP, and while its suppression in cell lines enhanced bortezomib sensitivity, POMP overexpression in drug-naive cells conferred resistance. Overexpression of POMP was associated with increased levels of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like (NRF2), and NRF2 was found to bind to and activate the POMP promoter. Knockdown of NRF2 in bortezomib-resistant cells reduced POMP levels and proteasome activity, whereas its overexpression in drug-naive cells increased POMP and proteasome activity. The NRF2 inhibitor all-trans-retinoic acid reduced cellular NRF2 levels and increased the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of bortezomib in resistant cells, while decreasing proteasome capacity. Finally, the combination of all-trans-retinoic acid with bortezomib showed enhanced activity against primary patient samples and in a murine model of bortezomib-resistant myeloma. Taken together, these studies validate a role for the NRF2/POMP axis in bortezomib resistance and identify NRF2 and POMP as potentially attractive targets for chemosensitization to this proteasome inhibitor.

  8. The proteasomal subunit Rpn6 is a molecular clamp holding the core and regulatory subcomplexes together

    PubMed Central

    Pathare, Ganesh Ramnath; Nagy, István; Bohn, Stefan; Unverdorben, Pia; Hubert, Agnes; Körner, Roman; Nickell, Stephan; Lasker, Keren; Sali, Andrej; Tamura, Tomohiro; Nishioka, Taiki; Förster, Friedrich; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Bracher, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Proteasomes execute the degradation of most cellular proteins. Although the 20S core particle (CP) has been studied in great detail, the structure of the 19S regulatory particle (RP), which prepares ubiquitylated substrates for degradation, has remained elusive. Here, we report the crystal structure of one of the RP subunits, Rpn6, and we describe its integration into the cryo-EM density map of the 26S holocomplex at 9.1 Å resolution. Rpn6 consists of an α-solenoid-like fold and a proteasome COP9/signalosome eIF3 (PCI) module in a right-handed suprahelical configuration. Highly conserved surface areas of Rpn6 interact with the conserved surfaces of the Pre8 (alpha2) and Rpt6 subunits from the alpha and ATPase rings, respectively. The structure suggests that Rpn6 has a pivotal role in stabilizing the otherwise weak interaction between the CP and the RP. PMID:22187461

  9. The proteasomal subunit Rpn6 is a molecular clamp holding the core and regulatory subcomplexes together.

    PubMed

    Pathare, Ganesh Ramnath; Nagy, István; Bohn, Stefan; Unverdorben, Pia; Hubert, Agnes; Körner, Roman; Nickell, Stephan; Lasker, Keren; Sali, Andrej; Tamura, Tomohiro; Nishioka, Taiki; Förster, Friedrich; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Bracher, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Proteasomes execute the degradation of most cellular proteins. Although the 20S core particle (CP) has been studied in great detail, the structure of the 19S regulatory particle (RP), which prepares ubiquitylated substrates for degradation, has remained elusive. Here, we report the crystal structure of one of the RP subunits, Rpn6, and we describe its integration into the cryo-EM density map of the 26S holocomplex at 9.1 Å resolution. Rpn6 consists of an α-solenoid-like fold and a proteasome COP9/signalosome eIF3 (PCI) module in a right-handed suprahelical configuration. Highly conserved surface areas of Rpn6 interact with the conserved surfaces of the Pre8 (alpha2) and Rpt6 subunits from the alpha and ATPase rings, respectively. The structure suggests that Rpn6 has a pivotal role in stabilizing the otherwise weak interaction between the CP and the RP.

  10. An evolutionarily conserved pathway controls proteasome homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Adrien; Bertolotti, Anne

    2016-08-11

    The proteasome is essential for the selective degradation of most cellular proteins, but how cells maintain adequate amounts of proteasome is unclear. Here we show that there is an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway controlling proteasome homeostasis. Central to this pathway is TORC1, the inhibition of which induced all known yeast 19S regulatory particle assembly-chaperones (RACs), as well as proteasome subunits. Downstream of TORC1 inhibition, the yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mpk1, acts to increase the supply of RACs and proteasome subunits under challenging conditions in order to maintain proteasomal degradation and cell viability. This adaptive pathway was evolutionarily conserved, with mTOR and ERK5 controlling the levels of the four mammalian RACs and proteasome abundance. Thus, the central growth and stress controllers, TORC1 and Mpk1/ERK5, endow cells with a rapid and vital adaptive response to adjust proteasome abundance in response to the rising needs of cells. Enhancing this pathway may be a useful therapeutic approach for diseases resulting from impaired proteasomal degradation. PMID:27462806

  11. 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid attenuates proteasome inhibition-mediated programmed cell death in differentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Da Hee; Kim, Yun Jeong; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Sohn, Dong Suep; Lee, Min Sung; Lee, Chung Soo

    2014-08-01

    The dysfunction of the proteasome system is suggested to be implicated in neuronal degeneration. Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives have demonstrated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid on the neuronal cell death induced by proteasome inhibition has not been studied. Therefore, in the respect of cell death process, we assessed the effect of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid on the proteasome inhibition-induced programmed cell death using differentiated PC12 cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132 and MG115 induced a decrease in Bid, Bcl-2, and survivin protein levels, an increase in Bax, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases (-8, -9 and -3), and an increase in the tumor suppressor p53 levels. Treatment with 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid attenuated the proteasome inhibitor-induced changes in the programmed cell death-related protein levels, formation of reactive oxygen species, GSH depletion and cell death. The results show that 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid may attenuate the proteasome inhibitor-induced programmed cell death in PC12 cells by suppressing the activation of the mitochondrial pathway and the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways. The preventive effect of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid appears to be attributed to its inhibitory effect on the formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of GSH.

  12. Proteasome-mediated effects on amyloid precursor protein processing at the γ-secretase site

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Aβ (β-amyloid) peptides are found aggregated in the cortical amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. Inhibition of the proteasome alters the amount of Aβ produced from APP (amyloid precursor protein) by various cell lines in vitro. Proteasome activity is altered during aging, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, a human neuroblastoma cell line expressing the C-terminal 100 residues of APP (SH-SY5Y-SPA4CT) was used to determine the effect of proteasome inhibition, by lactacystin and Bz-LLL-COCHO (benzoyl-Leu-Leu-Leu-glyoxal), on APP processing at the γ-secretase site. Proteasome inhibition caused a significant increase in Aβ peptide levels in medium conditioned by SH-SY5Y-SPA4CT cells, and was also associated with increased cell death. APP is a substrate of the apoptosis-associated caspase 3 protease, and we therefore investigated whether the increased Aβ levels could reflect caspase activation. We report that caspase activation was not required for proteasome-inhibitor-mediated effects on APP (SPA4CT) processing. Cleavage of Ac-DEVD-AMC (N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin), a caspase substrate, was reduced following exposure of SH-SY5Y-SPA4CT cells to lactacystin, and co-treatment of cells with lactacystin and a caspase inhibitor [Z-DEVD-FMK (benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL-Asp-fluoromethylketone)] resulted in higher Aβ levels in medium, augmenting those seen with lactacystin alone. This study indicated that proteasome inhibition could increase APP processing specifically at the γ-secretase site, and increase release of Aβ, in the absence of caspase activation. This indicates that the decline in proteasome function associated with aging would contribute to increased Aβ levels. PMID:15473868

  13. Proteasome inhibition enhances the killing effect of BikDD gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Chang, Shih-Shin; Chang, Wei-Chao; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Hsu, Jennifer L; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    BikDD, a phosphorylation-mimic mutant of pro-apoptotic protein Bik, elicits strong apoptosis in cancer cells when introduced via an expression platform termed VP16-GAL4-WPRE integrated systemic amplifier (VISA) under the control of a cancer-specific promoter both in vitro and in vivo. C-VISA-BikDD expression plasmid encapsulated in liposomes is currently in the process to initiate a phase I clinical trial for pancreatic cancer. In this study, we report a potential combination approach of BikDD with proteasome inhibitors on the basis of our findings that exogenously expressed BikDD protein undergoes proteasome-mediated degradation via both ubiquitin-dependent and -independent pathways. Inhibition of proteasome increases the protein stability of BikDD, enhancing the apoptotic effect of BikDD. Hence, high proteasome activity may be a mechanism by which intrinsic and acquired resistance occurs in BikDD gene therapy, and a combination therapy with current clinically approved proteasome inhibitor may overcome resistance. PMID:25901200

  14. Inhibition of chymotryptic-like standard proteasome activity exacerbates doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in primary cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Spur, Eva-Margarete; Althof, Nadine; Respondek, Dorota; Klingel, Karin; Heuser, Arnd; Overkleeft, Hermen S; Voigt, Antje

    2016-04-15

    The anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer agent for multiple myeloma (MM). A major limitation of this drug is the induction of death in cardiomyocytes leading to heart failure. Here we report on the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) as a critical surveillance pathway for preservation of cell vitality counteracting DOX treatment. Since in addition to DOX also suppression of proteasome activity is a rational therapeutic strategy for MM, we examined how small molecular compounds with clinically relevant proteasome subunit specificity affect DOX cytotoxicity. We found that during DOX-treatment, the activity of the β5 standard proteasome subunit is crucial for limiting off-target cytotoxicity in primary cardiomyocytes. In contrast, we demonstrate that the β5 equivalent LMP7 of the immunoproteasome represents a safe target for subunit-specific inhibitors in DOX-exposed cardiomyocytes. Neither inhibition of LMP7 in primary cardiomyocytes nor genetic ablation of LMP7 in heart tissue influenced the development of DOX cardiotoxicity. Our results indicate that as compared to compounds like carfilzomib, which target both the β5 standard proteasome and the LMP7 immunoproteasome subunit, immunoproteasome-specific inhibitors with known anti-tumor capacity for MM cells might be advantageous for reducing cardiomyocyte death, when a combination therapy with DOX is envisaged.

  15. Participation of the sperm proteasome during in vitro fertilisation and the acrosome reaction in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Deppe, M; Schulz, M; Bravo, P; Villegas, J; Morales, P; Risopatrón, J

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we have investigated the role of the bovine sperm proteasome during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and the acrosome reaction (AR). Motile spermatozoa, obtained by a swim-up method in Sperm-Talp medium, were capacitated for 3.5 h and incubated in the presence or absence of the specific proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin for 30 and 60 min. Then, the spermatozoa were co-incubated with mature bovine cumulus oocytes and after 48 h the cleavage rate of inseminated oocytes was evaluated. In addition, we evaluated the participation of the sperm proteasome during the progesterone-induced AR. Capacitated spermatozoa were incubated for 30 min with or without epoxomicin, then progesterone was added and the ARs were evaluated using the dual fluorescent staining technique 'Hoechst and chlortetracycline'. The results indicate that the proteasome inhibitor decreased the cleavage rate of oocytes inseminated with treated spermatozoa. In addition, acrosomal exocytosis levels were statistically significantly higher in the samples treated with the AR inducer progesterone than in control samples in the absence of the inducer. However, the progesterone-induced AR was significantly reduced by previous treatment of the spermatozoa with epoxomicin (P < 0.001). These observations indicate that the bovine sperm proteasome participates in the IVF and AR processes.

  16. The regulation of glucose on milk fat synthesis is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lily; Jiang, Li; Ding, Xiang-dong; Liu, Jian-feng; Zhang, Qin

    2015-09-11

    Glucose as one of the nutrition factors plays a vital role in the regulation of milk fat synthesis. Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a vital proteolytic pathway in all eukaryotic cells through timely marking, recognizing and degrading the poly-ubiquitinated protein substrates. Previous studies indicated that UPS plays a considerable role in controlling the triglyceride (TG) synthesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to confirm the link between high-glucose and UPS and its regulation mechanism on milk fat synthesis in BMEC (bovine mammary epithelial cells). We incubated BMEC with normal (17.5 mm/L) and high-glucose (25 mm/L) with and without proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin and found that, compared with the control (normal glucose and without proteasome inhibitor), both high-glucose concentration and proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin could increase the accumulation of TG and poly-ubiquitinated proteins, and reduce significantly three proteasome activities (chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like). In addition, high-glucose concentration combined with proteasome inhibitor further enhanced the increase of the poly-ubiquitinated protein level and the decrease of proteasome activities. Our results suggest that the regulation of high-glucose on milk fat synthesis is mediated by UPS in BMEC, and high-glucose exposure could lead to a hypersensitization of BMEC to UPS inhibition which in turn results in increased milk fat synthesis.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of proteasome plasticity in aging

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl; Gaczynska, Maria; Osmulski, Pawel A.

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a crucial role in regulation of intracellular protein turnover. Proteasome, the central protease of the pathway, encompasses multisubunit assemblies sharing a common catalytic core supplemented by regulatory modules and localizing to different subcellular compartments. To better comprehend age-related functions of the proteasome we surveyed content, composition and catalytic properties of the enzyme in cytosolic, microsomal and nuclear fractions. obtained from mouse livers subjected to organismal aging. We found that during aging subunit composition and subcellular distribution of proteasomes changed without substantial alterations in the total level of core complexes. We observed that the general decline in proteasomes functions was limited to nuclear and cytosolic compartments. Surprisingly, the observed changes in activity and specificity were linked to the amount of the activator module and distinct composition of the catalytic subunits. In contrast, activity, specificity and composition of the microsomal-associated proteasomes remained mostly unaffected by aging; however their relative contribution to the total activity was substantially elevated. Unexpectedly, the nuclear proteasomes were affected most profoundly by aging possibly triggering significant changes in cellular signaling and transcription. Collectively, the data indicate an age-related refocusing of proteasome from the compartment specific functions towards general protein maintenance. PMID:20080121

  18. Inhibition of 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases by metal-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ningning; Huang, Hongbiao; Dou, Q Ping; Liu, Jinbao

    2015-01-01

    Copper and gold complexes have clinical activity in several diseases including cancer. Recently, we have reported that the anti-cancer activity of copper (II) pyrithione CuPT and gold (I) complex auranofin is associated with targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs), UCHL5 and USP14. Here we discuss metal DUB inhibitors in treating cancer and other diseases. (from Editor). Several copper and gold complexes have clinical activity in treating some human diseases including cancer. Recently, we have reported that the anti-cancer activity of copper (II) pyrithione CuPT and gold (I) complex auranofin is tightly associated with their ability to target and inhibit the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs), UCHL5 and USP14. In this article we review small molecule inhibitors of DUBs and 19S proteasome-associated DUBs. We then describe and discuss the ubique nature of CuPT and auranofin, which is inhibition of 19S proteasome-associated UCHL5 and USP14. We finally suggest the potential to develop novel, specific metal-based DUB inhibitors for treating cancer and other diseases. PMID:26097878

  19. Inhibition of 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases by metal-containing compounds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ningning; Huang, Hongbiao; Ping Dou, Q.; Liu, Jinbao

    2015-01-01

    Copper and gold complexes have clinical activity in several diseases including cancer. Recently, we have reported that the anti-cancer activity of copper (II) pyrithione CuPT and gold (I) complex auranofin is associated with targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs), UCHL5 and USP14. Here we discuss metal DUB inhibitors in treating cancer and other diseases. (from Editor). Several copper and gold complexes have clinical activity in treating some human diseases including cancer. Recently, we have reported that the anti-cancer activity of copper (II) pyrithione CuPT and gold (I) complex auranofin is tightly associated with their ability to target and inhibit the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs), UCHL5 and USP14. In this article we review small molecule inhibitors of DUBs and 19S proteasome-associated DUBs. We then describe and discuss the ubique nature of CuPT and auranofin, which is inhibition of 19S proteasome-associated UCHL5 and USP14. We finally suggest the potential to develop novel, specific metal-based DUB inhibitors for treating cancer and other diseases PMID:26097878

  20. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Osmulski, Pawel A; Pierce, Anson; Weintraub, Susan T; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-11-01

    The naked mole-rat maintains robust proteostasis and high levels of proteasome-mediated proteolysis for most of its exceptional (~31years) life span. Here, we report that the highly active proteasome from the naked mole-rat liver resists attenuation by a diverse suite of proteasome-specific small molecule inhibitors. Moreover, mouse, human, and yeast proteasomes exposed to the proteasome-depleted, naked mole-rat cytosolic fractions, recapitulate the observed inhibition resistance, and mammalian proteasomes also show increased activity. Gel filtration coupled with mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy indicates that these traits are supported by a protein factor that resides in the cytosol. This factor interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity. Although Heat shock protein 72 kDa (HSP72) and Heat shock protein 40 kDa (Homolog of bacterial DNAJ1) (HSP40(Hdj1)) are among the constituents of this factor, the observed phenomenon, such as increasing peptidase activity and protecting against inhibition cannot be reconciled with any known chaperone functions. This novel function may contribute to the exceptional protein homeostasis in the naked mole-rat and allow it to successfully defy aging.

  1. Effect of proteasome inhibition on toxicity and CYP3A23 induction in cultured rat hepatocytes: Comparison with arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Noreault-Conti, Trisha L.; Jacobs, Judith M.; Trask, Heidi W.; Wrighton, Steven A.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F.; Nichols, Ralph C. . E-mail: ralph.c.nichols@dartmouth.edu

    2006-12-15

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that acute exposure of primary rat hepatocyte cultures to non-toxic concentrations of arsenite causes major decreases in the DEX-mediated induction of CYP3A23 protein, with minor decreases in CYP3A23 mRNA. To elucidate the mechanism for these effects of arsenite, the effects of arsenite and proteasome inhibition, separately and in combination, on induction of CYP3A23 protein were compared. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, inhibited proteasome activity, but also decreased CYP3A23 mRNA and protein. Lactacystin, another proteasome inhibitor, decreased CYP3A23 protein without affecting CYP3A23 mRNA at a concentration that effectively inhibited proteasome activity. This result, suggesting that the action of lactacystin is similar to arsenite and was post-transcriptional, was confirmed by the finding that lactacystin decreased association of DEX-induced CYP3A23 mRNA with polyribosomes. Both MG132 and lactacystin inhibited total protein synthesis, but did not affect MTT reduction. Arsenite had no effect on ubiquitination of proteins, nor did arsenite significantly affect proteasomal activity. These results suggest that arsenite and lactacystin act by similar mechanisms to inhibit translation of CYP3A23.

  2. Unconventional secretion of misfolded proteins promotes adaptation to proteasome dysfunction in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Gu; Takahama, Shokichi; Zhang, Guofeng; Tomarev, Stanislav I; Ye, Yihong

    2016-07-01

    To safeguard proteomic integrity, cells rely on the proteasome to degrade aberrant polypeptides, but it is unclear how cells remove defective proteins that have escaped degradation owing to proteasome insufficiency or dysfunction. Here we report a pathway termed misfolding-associated protein secretion, which uses the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated deubiquitylase USP19 to preferentially export aberrant cytosolic proteins. Intriguingly, the catalytic domain of USP19 possesses an unprecedented chaperone activity, allowing recruitment of misfolded proteins to the ER surface for deubiquitylation. Deubiquitylated cargos are encapsulated into ER-associated late endosomes and secreted to the cell exterior. USP19-deficient cells cannot efficiently secrete unwanted proteins, and grow more slowly than wild-type cells following exposure to a proteasome inhibitor. Together, our findings delineate a protein quality control (PQC) pathway that, unlike degradation-based PQC mechanisms, promotes protein homeostasis by exporting misfolded proteins through an unconventional protein secretion process. PMID:27295555

  3. The ubiquitin-proteasomal system is critical for multiple myeloma: implications in drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Biyin; Mao, Xinliang

    2011-01-01

    Bortezomib is a specific inhibitor of proteasomes, the most important protease complexes in protein degradation. Bortezomib can induce apoptosis of a variety of cancer cells, including leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, breast cancers, prostate cancers, lung cancers, and so on. However, extensive studies and overall evaluation suggested that multiple myeloma is the most sensitive and the best responsive disease which was later approved by Food and Drug Administration for bortezomib treatment. Because proteasomes are an essential component in the ubiquitin-proteasomal protein degradation pathway, the discovery of bortezomib implicates that the UPS is critical for myeloma pathophysiology. The UPS also contains ubiquitin, ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2), ubiquitin ligases (E3) and deubiquitinases (Dubs). In this review, we examined and analyzed the recent advancements of the UPS components in multiple myeloma and its implications in drug discovery for myeloma treatment. PMID:22432065

  4. Breast cancer cells: Modulation by melatonin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system--a review.

    PubMed

    Vriend, Jerry; Reiter, Russel J

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin inhibits human breast cancer cells stimulated with estrogen. This antiproliferative action depends on the presence of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the human MCF-7 cell line and is strictly dose-dependent. Since researchers concerned with melatonin and breast cancer have not considered the relevance of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to this research in this review we do so. The fact that the first breast cancer susceptibility gene to be identified, Brca1, functions as a ubiquitin ligase indicates that the ubiquitin-proteasome system has a role in regulating susceptibility to breast cancer. While mutations of this gene increase the incidence of breast cancer, the wild type gene suppresses estrogen-dependent transcriptional events relying on the estrogen receptor ERα. Three other ubiquitin ligases, SCF(Skp2), E6AP and APC, interact directly with ERα at the ERE and AP-1 promoters of ERα target genes. Melatonin, like proteasome inhibitors, decreases estrogen-induced gene transcription. Indeed, it has been reported that melatonin specifically inhibits estrogen-induced transcription mediated by ERα at the ERE and AP1 gene promoters. Herein, we present a model in which the inhibitory action of melatonin on MCF-7 cells is mediated, directly or indirectly, by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this model ERα, apoptotic proteins, and cell cycle proteins, all influenced by melatonin, are substrates of key ubiquitin ligases including SCF(Skp2), E6AP, and SCF(B-TrCP). Since dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is a risk factor for breast cancer, this model provides a context in which to test the clinical potential, and limitations, of melatonin and proteasome inhibitors. PMID:26363225

  5. Mitochondrial Malfunctioning, Proteasome Arrest and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells by Focused Intracellular Generation of Oxygen Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Postiglione, Ilaria; Chiaviello, Angela; Barra, Federica; Roscetto, Emanuela; Soriano, Amata A.; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Photofrin/photodynamic therapy (PDT) at sub-lethal doses induced a transient stall in proteasome activity in surviving A549 (p53+/+) and H1299 (p53−/−) cells as indicated by the time-dependent decline/recovery of chymotrypsin-like activity. Indeed, within 3 h of incubation, Photofrin invaded the cytoplasm and localized preferentially within the mitochondria. Its light activation determined a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a reversible arrest in proteasomal activity. A similar result is obtained by treating cells with Antimycin and Rotenone, indicating, as a common denominator of this effect, the ATP decrease. Both inhibitors, however, were more toxic to cells as the recovery of proteasomal activity was incomplete. We evaluated whether combining PDT (which is a treatment for killing tumor cells, per se, and inducing proteasome arrest in the surviving ones) with Bortezomib doses capable of sustaining the stall would protract the arrest with sufficient time to induce apoptosis in remaining cells. The evaluation of the mitochondrial membrane depolarization, residual proteasome and mitochondrial enzymatic activities, colony-forming capabilities, and changes in protein expression profiles in A549 and H1299 cells under a combined therapeutic regimen gave results consistent with our hypothesis. PMID:26343643

  6. Proteasome inhibition improves the muscle of laminin α2 chain-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Carmignac, Virginie; Quéré, Ronan; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2011-02-01

    Muscle atrophy, a significant characteristic of congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin α2 chain deficiency (also known as MDC1A), occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a key role in protein degradation in skeletal muscle cells. In order to identify new targets for drug therapy against MDC1A, we have investigated whether increased proteasomal degradation is a feature of MDC1A. Using the generated dy(3K)/dy(3K) mutant mouse model of MDC1A, we studied the expression of members of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in laminin α2 chain-deficient muscle, and we treated dy(3K)/dy(3K) mice with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. We show that members of the UPS are upregulated and that the global ubiquitination of proteins is raised in dystrophic limb muscles. Also, phosphorylation of Akt is diminished in diseased muscles. Importantly, proteasome inhibition significantly improves the dystrophic dy(3K)/dy(3K) phenotype. Specifically, treatment with MG-132 increases lifespan, enhances locomotive activity, enlarges muscle fiber diameter, reduces fibrosis, restores Akt phosphorylation and decreases apoptosis. These studies promote better understanding of the disease process in mice and could lead to a drug therapy for MDC1A patients.

  7. Native structure of rat liver immune proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, A A; Lyupina, Yu V; Sharova, N P; Erokhov, P A

    2016-05-01

    Native structure of active forms of rat liver immune proteasomes has been studied by two-dimensional electrophoresis method modified for analysis of unpurified protein fractions. The developed method allowed revealing the proteasome immune subunits LMP7 and LMP2 in 20S subparticles and in the structures bound to one or two PA28αβ activators, but not to the PA700 activator, which is involved in the hydrolysis of ubiquitinated proteins. The results obtained indicate the participation of the immune proteasomes in delicate regulatory mechanisms based on the production of biologically active peptides and exclude their participation in processes of crude degradation of "rotated" ubiquitinated proteins. PMID:27417720

  8. Synthetic and structural studies on syringolin A and B reveal critical determinants of selectivity and potency of proteasome inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Clerc, Jérôme; Groll, Michael; Illich, Damir J.; Bachmann, André S.; Huber, Robert; Schellenberg, Barbara; Dudler, Robert; Kaiser, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Syrbactins, a family of natural products belonging either to the syringolin or glidobactin class, are highly potent proteasome inhibitors. Although sharing similar structural features, they differ in their macrocyclic lactam core structure and exocyclic side chain. These structural variations critically influence inhibitory potency and proteasome subsite selectivity. Here, we describe the total synthesis of syringolin A and B, which together with enzyme kinetic and structural studies, allowed us to elucidate the structural determinants underlying the proteasomal subsite selectivity and binding affinity of syrbactins. These findings were used successfully in the rational design and synthesis of a syringolin A-based lipophilic derivative, which proved to be the most potent syrbactin-based proteasome inhibitor described so far. With a Ki′ of 8.65 ± 1.13 nM for the chymotryptic activity, this syringolin A derivative displays a 100-fold higher potency than the parent compound syringolin A. In light of the medicinal relevance of proteasome inhibitors as anticancer compounds, the present findings may assist in the rational design and development of syrbactin-based chemotherapeutics. PMID:19359491

  9. Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of the E6 proteins of human papillomavirus types 11 and 18.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Deborah; Kazemi, Shirin; Li, Suiyang; Massimi, Paola; Banks, Lawrence; Koromilas, Antonis E; Matlashewski, Greg

    2004-06-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are aetiological agents for genital warts and cervical cancer, the different pathologies of which are dependent on the type of HPV infection. Oncogenic HPV types associated with cancer are carcinogens by virtue of their oncogene products, which target key regulators of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The viral E6 protein from oncogenic HPV types plays a central role in carcinogenesis by exploiting the cellular proteasome degradation pathway in order to mediate the degradation of cellular proteins, most notably the prototype tumour suppressor protein p53. Much less is known about the cellular targets of E6 from the non-oncogenic HPV types associated with genital warts. It is also unclear what factors influence the level and stability of the viral E6 proteins in cells. This report demonstrates that both oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV E6 proteins (from types 18 and 11, respectively) are ubiquitinated and targeted for degradation by the 26S proteasome. E6 domains required for the induction of p53 or DLG degradation, or E6AP binding, are not involved in proteasome-mediated degradation of HPV-18 E6. These results provide insight into the cellular modulation of E6 protein levels from both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. PMID:15166424

  10. Survival of mycobacteria depends on proteasome-mediated amino acid recycling under nutrient limitation

    PubMed Central

    Elharar, Yifat; Roth, Ziv; Hermelin, Inna; Moon, Alexandra; Peretz, Gabriella; Shenkerman, Yael; Vishkautzan, Marina; Khalaila, Isam; Gur, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular protein degradation is an essential process in all life domains. While in all eukaryotes regulated protein degradation involves ubiquitin tagging and the 26S-proteasome, bacterial prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) tagging and proteasomes are conserved only in species belonging to the phyla Actinobacteria and Nitrospira. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the Pup-proteasome system (PPS) is important for virulence, yet its physiological role in non-pathogenic species has remained an enigma. We now report, using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a model organism, that the PPS is essential for survival under starvation. Upon nitrogen limitation, PPS activity is induced, leading to accelerated tagging and degradation of many cytoplasmic proteins. We suggest a model in which the PPS functions to recycle amino acids under nitrogen starvation, thereby enabling the cell to maintain basal metabolic activities. We also find that the PPS auto-regulates its own activity via pupylation and degradation of its components in a manner that promotes the oscillatory expression of PPS components. As such, the destructive activity of the PPS is carefully balanced to maintain cellular functions during starvation. PMID:24986881

  11. Genome wide transcriptional profiling in breast cancer cells reveals distinct changes in hormone receptor target genes and chromatin modifying enzymes after proteasome inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kinyamu, H. Karimi; Collins, Jennifer B.; Grissom, Sherry F.; Hebbar, Pratibha B.; Archer, Trevor K.

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors, like glucocorticoid (GR) and estrogen receptors (ER), are master regulators of genes that control many biological processes implicated in health and disease. Gene expression is dependent on receptor levels which are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous studies have shown that proteasome inhibition increases GR, but decreases ER-mediated gene expression. At the gene expression level this divergent role of the proteasome in receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation is not well understood. We have used a genomic approach to examine the impact of proteasome activity on GR and ER-mediated gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or 17β-estradiol (E2), the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (MG) or MG132 and either hormone (MD or ME2) for 24h. Transcript profiling reveals that inhibiting proteasome activity modulates gene expression by GR and ER in a similar manner in that several GR and ER target genes are up-regulated and down-regulated after proteasome inhibition. In addition, proteasome inhibition modulates receptor-dependent genes involved in the etiology of a number of human pathological states, including multiple myeloma, leukemia, breast/prostate cancer, HIV/AIDS and neurodegenerative disorders. Importantly, our analysis reveals that a number of transcripts encoding histone and DNA modifying enzymes, prominently histone/DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, are altered after proteasome inhibition. As proteasome inhibitors are currently in clinical trials as therapy for multiple myeloma, HIV/AIDs and leukemia, the possibility that some of the target molecules are hormone regulated and by chromatin modifying enzymes is intriguing in this era of epigenetic therapy. PMID:18381591

  12. Black tea polyphenols inhibit tumor proteasome activity.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Taskeen; Dou, Q Ping

    2012-01-01

    Tea is a widely consumed beverage and its constituent polyphenols have been associated with potential health benefits. Although black tea polyphenols have been reported to possess potent anticancer activities, the effect of its polyphenols, theaflavins on the tumor's cellular proteasome function, an important biological target in cancer prevention, has not been carefully studied. Here black tea extract (T5550) enriched in theaflavins inhibited the chymotrypsin-like (CT) activity of the proteasome and proliferation of human multiple myeloma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Also an isolated theaflavin (TF-1) can bind to, and inhibit the purified 20S proteasome, accompanied by suppression of tumor cell proliferation, suggesting that the tumor proteasome is an important target whose inhibition is at least partially responsible for the anticancer effects of black tea.

  13. Cryo-EM reveals the conformation of a substrate analogue in the human 20S proteasome core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Morris, Edward P.

    2015-07-01

    The proteasome is a highly regulated protease complex fundamental for cell homeostasis and controlled cell cycle progression. It functions by removing a wide range of specifically tagged proteins, including key cellular regulators. Here we present the structure of the human 20S proteasome core bound to a substrate analogue inhibitor molecule, determined by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis at a resolution of around 3.5 Å. Our map allows the building of protein coordinates as well as defining the location and conformation of the inhibitor at the different active sites. These results open new prospects to tackle the proteasome functional mechanisms. Moreover, they also further demonstrate that cryo-EM is emerging as a realistic approach for general structural studies of protein-ligand interactions.

  14. Cryo-EM reveals the conformation of a substrate analogue in the human 20S proteasome core.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Paula C A; Morris, Edward P

    2015-07-02

    The proteasome is a highly regulated protease complex fundamental for cell homeostasis and controlled cell cycle progression. It functions by removing a wide range of specifically tagged proteins, including key cellular regulators. Here we present the structure of the human 20S proteasome core bound to a substrate analogue inhibitor molecule, determined by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis at a resolution of around 3.5 Å. Our map allows the building of protein coordinates as well as defining the location and conformation of the inhibitor at the different active sites. These results open new prospects to tackle the proteasome functional mechanisms. Moreover, they also further demonstrate that cryo-EM is emerging as a realistic approach for general structural studies of protein-ligand interactions.

  15. Molecular characterization of NbPAF encoding the alpha6 subunit of the 20S proteasome in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonil; Yang, Kyoung-Sil; Kim, Yu-Kyung; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2003-02-28

    The 26S proteasome involved in degradation of proteins covalently modified with polyubiquitin consists of the 20S proteasome and 19S regulatory complex. The NbPAF gene encoding the alpha6 subunit of the 20S proteasome was identified from Nicotiana benthamiana. NbPAF exhibits high sequence homology with the corresponding genes from Arabidopsis, human and yeast. The deduced amino acid sequence of NbPAF reveals that this protein contains the proteasome alpha-type subunits signature and nuclear localization signal at the N-terminus. The genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that the N. benthamiana genome contains one copy of NbPAF. The NbPAF mRNA was detected abundantly in flowers and weakly in roots and stems, but it was almost undetectable in mature leaves. In response to stresses, accumulation of the NbPAF mRNA was stimulated by methyl jasmonate, NaCl and salicylic acid, but not by abscisic acid and cold treatment in leaves. The NbPAF-GFP fusion protein was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:12661772

  16. Troxerutin inhibits 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47)-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by restoring proteasome function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Feng; Shan, Qun; Zhuang, Juan; Zhang, Yan-Qiu; Wang, Xin; Fan, Shao-Hua; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Yuan-Lin

    2015-03-18

    Proteasome dysfunction has been associated with the pathogeneses of a variety of diseases and with the neurotoxicities of environmental chemicals; however, whether proteasome dysfunction plays a role in the cellular toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has not been investigated to date. Emerging evidence suggests that antioxidants exhibit evident beneficial effects on the cellular toxicity associated with PBDEs. In the present study, we investigated whether troxerutin attenuates BDE-47-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by restoring proteasome function and explored the mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results revealed that proteasome dysfunction was involved in the BDE-47-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in the mouse liver. Furthermore, our results revealed that troxerutin effectively inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis by restoring oxidative stress-mediated proteasome dysfunction in BDE-47-treated mice. Consequently, troxerutin markedly suppressed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the livers of the BDE-47-treated mice. The inhibitory effects of troxerutin on ER stress and apoptotic pathways were markedly blunted by treatment with epoxomicin (a selective inhibitor of proteasome). Ultimately, troxerutin dramatically blocked TRAF2-ASK1-JNK signaling and CHOP-mediated apoptosis signaling in the BDE-47-treated mouse livers. This study provides novel mechanistic insights into the toxicity of BDE-47 and indicates that troxerutin might be a candidate for the prevention of and therapy for BDE-47-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25639565

  17. Troxerutin inhibits 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47)-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by restoring proteasome function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Feng; Shan, Qun; Zhuang, Juan; Zhang, Yan-Qiu; Wang, Xin; Fan, Shao-Hua; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Yuan-Lin

    2015-03-18

    Proteasome dysfunction has been associated with the pathogeneses of a variety of diseases and with the neurotoxicities of environmental chemicals; however, whether proteasome dysfunction plays a role in the cellular toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has not been investigated to date. Emerging evidence suggests that antioxidants exhibit evident beneficial effects on the cellular toxicity associated with PBDEs. In the present study, we investigated whether troxerutin attenuates BDE-47-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by restoring proteasome function and explored the mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results revealed that proteasome dysfunction was involved in the BDE-47-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in the mouse liver. Furthermore, our results revealed that troxerutin effectively inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis by restoring oxidative stress-mediated proteasome dysfunction in BDE-47-treated mice. Consequently, troxerutin markedly suppressed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the livers of the BDE-47-treated mice. The inhibitory effects of troxerutin on ER stress and apoptotic pathways were markedly blunted by treatment with epoxomicin (a selective inhibitor of proteasome). Ultimately, troxerutin dramatically blocked TRAF2-ASK1-JNK signaling and CHOP-mediated apoptosis signaling in the BDE-47-treated mouse livers. This study provides novel mechanistic insights into the toxicity of BDE-47 and indicates that troxerutin might be a candidate for the prevention of and therapy for BDE-47-induced hepatotoxicity.

  18. Disease-proportional proteasomal degradation of missense dystrophins.

    PubMed

    Talsness, Dana M; Belanto, Joseph J; Ervasti, James M

    2015-10-01

    The 427-kDa protein dystrophin is expressed in striated muscle where it physically links the interior of muscle fibers to the extracellular matrix. A range of mutations in the DMD gene encoding dystrophin lead to a severe muscular dystrophy known as Duchenne (DMD) or a typically milder form known as Becker (BMD). Patients with nonsense mutations in dystrophin are specifically targeted by stop codon read-through drugs, whereas out-of-frame deletions and insertions are targeted by exon-skipping therapies. Both treatment strategies are currently in clinical trials. Dystrophin missense mutations, however, cause a wide range of phenotypic severity in patients. The molecular and cellular consequences of such mutations are not well understood, and there are no therapies specifically targeting this genotype. Here, we have modeled two representative missense mutations, L54R and L172H, causing DMD and BMD, respectively, in full-length dystrophin. In vitro, the mutation associated with the mild phenotype (L172H) caused a minor decrease in tertiary stability, whereas the L54R mutation associated with a severe phenotype had a more dramatic effect. When stably expressed in mammalian muscle cells, the mutations caused steady-state decreases in dystrophin protein levels inversely proportional to the tertiary stability and directly caused by proteasomal degradation. Both proteasome inhibitors and heat shock activators were able to increase mutant dystrophin to WT levels, establishing the new cell lines as a platform to screen for potential therapeutics personalized to patients with destabilized dystrophin. PMID:26392559

  19. Disease-proportional proteasomal degradation of missense dystrophins

    PubMed Central

    Talsness, Dana M.; Belanto, Joseph J.; Ervasti, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The 427-kDa protein dystrophin is expressed in striated muscle where it physically links the interior of muscle fibers to the extracellular matrix. A range of mutations in the DMD gene encoding dystrophin lead to a severe muscular dystrophy known as Duchenne (DMD) or a typically milder form known as Becker (BMD). Patients with nonsense mutations in dystrophin are specifically targeted by stop codon read-through drugs, whereas out-of-frame deletions and insertions are targeted by exon-skipping therapies. Both treatment strategies are currently in clinical trials. Dystrophin missense mutations, however, cause a wide range of phenotypic severity in patients. The molecular and cellular consequences of such mutations are not well understood, and there are no therapies specifically targeting this genotype. Here, we have modeled two representative missense mutations, L54R and L172H, causing DMD and BMD, respectively, in full-length dystrophin. In vitro, the mutation associated with the mild phenotype (L172H) caused a minor decrease in tertiary stability, whereas the L54R mutation associated with a severe phenotype had a more dramatic effect. When stably expressed in mammalian muscle cells, the mutations caused steady-state decreases in dystrophin protein levels inversely proportional to the tertiary stability and directly caused by proteasomal degradation. Both proteasome inhibitors and heat shock activators were able to increase mutant dystrophin to WT levels, establishing the new cell lines as a platform to screen for potential therapeutics personalized to patients with destabilized dystrophin. PMID:26392559

  20. The 19S proteasome activator promotes human cytomegalovirus immediate early gene expression through proteolytic and nonproteolytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Laura L; Kalejta, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    Proteasomes are large, multisubunit complexes that support normal cellular activities by executing the bulk of protein turnover. During infection, many viruses have been shown to promote viral replication by using proteasomes to degrade cellular factors that restrict viral replication. For example, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pp71 protein induces the proteasomal degradation of Daxx, a cellular transcriptional repressor that can silence viral immediate early (IE) gene expression. We previously showed that this degradation requires both the proteasome catalytic 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The 19S RP associates with the 20S CP to facilitate protein degradation but also plays a 20S CP-independent role promoting transcription. Here, we present a nonproteolytic role of the 19S RP in HCMV IE gene expression. We demonstrate that 19S RP subunits are recruited to the major immediate early promoter (MIEP) that directs IE transcription. Depletion of 19S RP subunits generated a defect in RNA polymerase II elongation through the MIE locus during HCMV infection. Our results reveal that HCMV commandeers proteasome components for both proteolytic and nonproteolytic roles to promote HCMV lytic infection. Importance: Proteasome inhibitors decrease or eliminate 20S CP activity and are garnering increasing interest as chemotherapeutics. However, an increasing body of evidence implicates 19S RP subunits in important proteolytic-independent roles during transcription. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of the 20S CP as a means to modulate proteasome function toward therapeutic effect is an incomplete capitalization on the potential of this approach. Here, we provide an additional example of nonproteolytic 19S RP function in promoting HCMV transcription. These data provide a novel system with which to study the roles of different proteasome components during transcription, a rationale for previously described shifts in 19S RP subunit localization during

  1. Gel-based chemical cross-linking analysis of 20S proteasome subunit-subunit interactions in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai; Xiong, Hua; Che, Jing; Xi, Qing-Song; Huang, Liu; Xiong, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a pivotal role in breast tumorigenesis by controlling transcription factors, thus promoting cell cycle growth, and degradation of tumor suppressor proteins. However, breast cancer patients have failed to benefit from proteasome inhibitor treatment partially due to proteasome heterogeneity, which is poorly understood in malignant breast neoplasm. Chemical crosslinking is an increasingly important tool for mapping protein three-dimensional structures and proteinprotein interactions. In the present study, two cross-linkers, bis (sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)) and its water-insoluble analog disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), were used to map the subunit-subunit interactions in 20S proteasome core particle (CP) from MDA-MB-231 cells. Different types of gel electrophoresis technologies were used. In combination with chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry, we applied these gel electrophoresis technologies to the study of the noncovalent interactions among 20S proteasome subunits. Firstly, the CP subunit isoforms were profiled. Subsequently, using native/SDSPAGE, it was observed that 0.5 mmol/L BS(3) was a relatively optimal cross-linking concentration for CP subunit-subunit interaction study. 2-DE analysis of the cross-linked CP revealed that α1 might preinteract with α2, and α3 might pre-interact with α4. Moreover, there were different subtypes of α1α2 and α3α4 due to proteasome heterogeneity. There was no significant difference in cross-linking pattern for CP subunits between BS(3) and DSS. Taken together, the gel-based characterization in combination with chemical cross-linking could serve as a tool for the study of subunit interactions within a multi-subunit protein complex. The heterogeneity of 20S proteasome subunit observed in breast cancer cells may provide some key information for proteasome inhibition strategy. PMID:27465334

  2. 1,10-Phenanthroline promotes copper complexes into tumor cells and induces apoptosis by inhibiting the proteasome activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Bi, Caifeng; Schmitt, Sara M; Fan, Yuhua; Dong, Lili; Zuo, Jian; Dou, Q Ping

    2012-12-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-propionic acid, two potent natural plant growth hormones, have attracted attention as promising prodrugs in cancer therapy. Copper is known to be a cofactor essential for tumor angiogenesis. We have previously reported that taurine, L-glutamine, and quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde Schiff base copper complexes inhibit cell proliferation and proteasome activity in human cancer cells. In the current study, we synthesized two types of copper complexes, dinuclear complexes and ternary complexes, to investigate whether a certain structure could easily carry copper into cancer cells and consequently inhibit tumor proteasome activity and induce apoptosis. We observed that ternary complexes binding with 1,10-phenanthroline are more potent proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers than dinuclear complexes in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, the ternary complexes potently inhibit proteasome activity before induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, but not in nontumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Our results suggest that copper complexes binding with 1,10-phenanthroline as the third ligand could serve as potent, selective proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in tumor cells, and that the ternary complexes may be good potential anticancer drugs.

  3. 1,10-Phenanthroline promotes copper complexes into tumor cells and induces apoptosis by inhibiting the proteasome activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Bi, Caifeng; Schmitt, Sara M; Fan, Yuhua; Dong, Lili; Zuo, Jian; Dou, Q Ping

    2012-12-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-propionic acid, two potent natural plant growth hormones, have attracted attention as promising prodrugs in cancer therapy. Copper is known to be a cofactor essential for tumor angiogenesis. We have previously reported that taurine, L-glutamine, and quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde Schiff base copper complexes inhibit cell proliferation and proteasome activity in human cancer cells. In the current study, we synthesized two types of copper complexes, dinuclear complexes and ternary complexes, to investigate whether a certain structure could easily carry copper into cancer cells and consequently inhibit tumor proteasome activity and induce apoptosis. We observed that ternary complexes binding with 1,10-phenanthroline are more potent proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers than dinuclear complexes in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, the ternary complexes potently inhibit proteasome activity before induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, but not in nontumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Our results suggest that copper complexes binding with 1,10-phenanthroline as the third ligand could serve as potent, selective proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in tumor cells, and that the ternary complexes may be good potential anticancer drugs. PMID:23053530

  4. Phosphorylation-dependent targeting of cAMP response element binding protein to the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway in hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Cormac T.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Synnestvedt, Kristin; Colgan, Sean P.

    2000-01-01

    Hypoxia activates a number of gene products through degradation of the transcriptional coactivator cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Other transcriptional regulators (e.g., β-catenin and NF-κB) are controlled through phosphorylation-targeted proteasomal degradation, and thus, we hypothesized a similar degradative pathway for CREB. Differential display analysis of mRNA derived from hypoxic epithelia revealed a specific and time-dependent repression of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a serine phosphatase important in CREB dephosphorylation. Subsequent studies identified a previously unappreciated proteasomal-targeting motif within the primary structure of CREB (DSVTDS), which functions as a substrate for PP1. Ambient hypoxia resulted in temporally sequential CREB serine phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation (in vitro and in vivo). HIV-tat peptide-facilitated loading of intact epithelia with phosphopeptides corresponding to this proteasome targeting motif resulted in inhibition of CREB ubiquitination. Further studies revealed that PP1 inhibitors mimicked hypoxia-induced gene expression, whereas proteasome inhibitors reversed the hypoxic phenotype. Thus, hypoxia establishes conditions that target CREB to proteasomal degradation. These studies may provide unique insight into a general mechanism of transcriptional regulation by hypoxia. PMID:11035795

  5. Syrbactin Structural Analog TIR-199 Blocks Proteasome Activity and Induces Tumor Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, André S; Opoku-Ansah, John; Ibarra-Rivera, Tannya R; Yco, Lisette P; Ambadi, Sudhakar; Roberts, Christopher C; Chang, Chia-En A; Pirrung, Michael C

    2016-04-15

    Multiple myeloma is an aggressive hematopoietic cancer of plasma cells. The recent emergence of three effective FDA-approved proteasome-inhibiting drugs, bortezomib (Velcade®), carfilzomib (Kyprolis®), and ixazomib (Ninlaro®), confirms that proteasome inhibitors are therapeutically useful against neoplastic disease, in particular refractory multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. This study describes the synthesis, computational affinity assessment, and preclinical evaluation of TIR-199, a natural product-derived syrbactin structural analog. Molecular modeling and simulation suggested that TIR-199 covalently binds each of the three catalytic subunits (β1, β2, and β5) and revealed key interaction sites. In vitro and cell culture-based proteasome activity measurements confirmed that TIR-199 inhibits the proteasome in a dose-dependent manner and induces tumor cell death in multiple myeloma and neuroblastoma cells as well as other cancer types in the NCI-60 cell panel. It is particularly effective against kidney tumor cell lines, with >250-fold higher anti-tumor activities than observed with the natural product syringolin A. In vivo studies in mice revealed a maximum tolerated dose of TIR-199 at 25 mg/kg. The anti-tumor activity of TIR-199 was confirmed in hollow fiber assays in mice. Adverse drug reaction screens in a kidney panel revealed no off-targets of concern. This is the first study to examine the efficacy of a syrbactin in animals. Taken together, the results suggest that TIR-199 is a potent new proteasome inhibitor with promise for further development into a clinical drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma and other forms of cancer.

  6. Ubiquitin/proteasome pathway regulates levels of retinoic acid receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor alpha in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, M; Wang, Z; Voorhees, J J; Fisher, G J

    2000-04-15

    Repeated exposure of human skin to solar UV radiation leads to premature aging (photoaging) and skin cancer. UV-induced skin damage can be ameliorated by all-trans retinoic acid treatment. The actions of retinoic acid in skin keratinocytes are mediated primarily by nuclear retinoic acid receptor gamma (RARgamma) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha). We found that exposure of cultured primary human keratinocytes to UV irradiation (30 mJ/cm2) substantially reduced (50-90%) RARgamma and RXRalpha mRNA and protein within 8 h. The rates of disappearance of RARgamma and RXRalpha proteins after UV exposure or treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide were similar. UV irradiation did not increase the rate of breakdown of RARgamma or RXRalpha but rather reduced their rate of synthesis. The addition of proteasome inhibitors MG132 and LLvL, but not the lysosomal inhibitor E64, prevented loss of RARgamma and RXRalpha proteins after exposure of keratinocytes to either UV radiation or cycloheximide. Soluble extracts from nonirradiated or UV-irradiated keratinocytes possessed similar levels of proteasome activity that degraded RARgamma and RXRalpha proteins in vitro. Furthermore, RARgamma and RXRalpha were polyubiquitinated in intact cells. RXRalpha was found to contain two proline, glutamate/aspartate, serine, and threonine (PEST) motifs, which confer rapid turnover of many short-lived regulatory proteins that are degraded by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. However, the PEST motifs in RXRalpha did not function to regulate its stability, because deletion of the PEST motifs individually or together did not alter ubiquitination or proteasome-mediated degradation of RXRalpha. These results demonstrate that loss of RARgamma and RXRalpha proteins after UV irradiation results from degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Taken together, the data here indicate that ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated breakdown is an important mechanism regulating the levels of

  7. Identification of proteasome subunit beta type 2 associated with deltamethrin detoxification in Drosophila Kc cells by cDNA microarray analysis and bioassay analyses.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Jiao, Dongxu; Xu, Qin; Ying, Xiaoli; Liu, Wei; Chi, Qingping; Ye, Yuting; Li, Xueyu; Cheng, Luogen

    2016-05-10

    Insecticide deltamethrin resistance has presented a difficult obstacle for pest control and the resistance development is complex and associated with many genes. To better understand the possible molecular mechanisms involved in DM stress, in this study, cDNA microarray analysis was employed. 448 differentially expressed genes with at least a 2-fold expression difference were identified in Drosophila cells after DM exposure. Moreover, some genes were confirmed with qPCR, which yielded results consistent with the microarray analysis. Three members of the ubiquitin-proteasome system were significantly elevated in DM-stressed cells, suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may play an important role in DM detoxification. The proteasome beta2 subunit (Prosbeta2) is a member of 20S proteasome subunit family, which forms the proteolytic core of 26S proteasome. Whether Prosbeta2 participates in DM detoxification requires further study. RNAi and heterologous expression were conducted to investigate the contribution of Prosbeta2 in DM detoxification. The results revealed Prosbeta2 knockdown significantly reduce the level of DM detoxification in RNAi-treated cells after 48 h. Overexpression of Prosbeta2 increased cellular viability. These detoxification results represent the first evidence that Prosbeta2 plays a role in the detoxification of DM, which may provide new idea and target for studying the molecular mechanisms of insect resistance.

  8. Novel strategies to target the ubiquitin proteasome system in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lub, Susanne; Maes, Ken; Menu, Eline; De Bruyne, Elke; Vanderkerken, Karin; Van Valckenborgh, Els

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). The success of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in the treatment of MM highlights the importance of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in this particular cancer. Despite the prolonged survival of MM patients, a significant amount of patients relapse or become resistant to therapy. This underlines the importance of the development and investigation of novel targets to improve MM therapy. The UPS plays an important role in different cellular processes by targeted destruction of proteins. The ubiquitination process consists of enzymes that transfer ubiquitin to proteins targeting them for proteasomal degradation. An emerging and promising approach is to target more disease specific components of the UPS to reduce side effects and overcome resistance. In this review, we will focus on different components of the UPS such as the ubiquitin activating enzyme E1, the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2, the E3 ubiquitin ligases, the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) and the proteasome. We will discuss their role in MM and the implications in drug discovery for the treatment of MM. PMID:26695547

  9. Proteasome activity influences UV-mediated subnuclear localization changes of NPM.

    PubMed

    Moore, Henna M; Bai, Baoyan; Matilainen, Olli; Colis, Laureen; Peltonen, Karita; Laiho, Marikki

    2013-01-01

    UV damage activates cellular stress signaling pathways, causes DNA helix distortions and inhibits transcription by RNA polymerases I and II. In particular, the nucleolus, which is the site of RNA polymerase I transcription and ribosome biogenesis, disintegrates following UV damage. The disintegration is characterized by reorganization of the subnucleolar structures and change of localization of many nucleolar proteins. Here we have queried the basis of localization change of nucleophosmin (NPM), a nucleolar granular component protein, which is increasingly detected in the nucleoplasm following UV radiation. Using photobleaching experiments of NPM-fluorescent fusion protein in live human cells we show that NPM mobility increases after UV damage. However, we show that the increase in NPM nucleoplasmic abundance after UV is independent of UV-activated cellular stress and DNA damage signaling pathways. Unexpectedly, we find that proteasome activity affects NPM redistribution. NPM nucleolar expression was maintained when the UV-treated cells were exposed to proteasome inhibitors or when the expression of proteasome subunits was inhibited using RNAi. However, there was no evidence of increased NPM turnover in the UV damaged cells, or that ubiquitin or ubiquitin recycling affected NPM localization. These findings suggest that proteasome activity couples to nucleolar protein localizations in UV damage stress.

  10. Proteasome inhibition by new dual warhead containing peptido vinyl sulfonyl fluorides.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Arwin J; Herrero Álvarez, Natalia; Ciaffoni, Adriano; van de Langemheen, Helmus; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2016-08-15

    The success of inhibition of the proteasome by formation of covalent bonds is a major victory over the long held-view that this would lead to binding the wrong targets and undoubtedly lead to toxicity. Great challenges are now found in uncovering ensembles of new moieties capable of forming long lasting ties. We have introduced peptido sulfonyl fluorides for this purpose. Tuning the reactivity of this electrophilic trap may be crucial for modulating the biological action. Here we describe incorporation of a vinyl moiety into a peptido sulfonyl fluoride backbone, which should lead to a combined attack of the proteasome active site threonine on the double bond and the sulfonyl fluoride. Although this led to strong proteasome inhibitors, in vitro studies did not unambiguously demonstrate the formation of the proposed seven-membered ring structure. Possibly, formation of a seven-membered covalent adduct with the proteosomal active site threonine can only be achieved within the context of the enzyme. Nevertheless, this dual warhead concept may provide exclusive possibilities for duration and selectivity of proteasome inhibition. PMID:27316540

  11. The Ubiquitin–Proteasome System Regulates the Stability of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Khosrow; Teng, Yanfen

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a key event for protein degradation by the proteasome system, membrane protein internalization, and protein trafficking among cellular compartments. Few data are available on the role of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) in the trafficking of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Experiments conducted in neuron-like differentiated rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) show that the α3, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits are ubiquitinated and that their ubiquitination is necessary for degradation. A 24-h treatment with the proteasome inhibitor PS-341 increased the total levels of α3 and the two β subunits in both whole cell lysates and fractions enriched for the ER/Golgi compartment. nAChR subunit upregulation was also detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions. Inhibition of the lysosomal degradation machinery by E-64 had a significantly smaller effect on nAChR turnover. The present data, together with previous results showing that the α7 nAChR subunit is a target of the UPS, point to a prominent role of the proteasome in nAChR trafficking. PMID:19693707

  12. Proteasome inhibition in skeletal muscle cells unmasks metabolic derangements in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalili, Lubna; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Ostling, Jörgen; Massart, Julie; Cuesta, Pablo Garrido; Osler, Megan E; Katayama, Mutsumi; Nyström, Ann-Christin; Oscarsson, Jan; Zierath, Juleen R

    2014-11-01

    Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE)-based proteome analysis has revealed intrinsic insulin resistance in myotubes derived from type 2 diabetic patients. Using 2-D DIGE-based proteome analysis, we identified a subset of insulin-resistant proteins involved in protein turnover in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting aberrant regulation of the protein homeostasis maintenance system underlying metabolic disease. We then validated the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in myotubes to investigate whether impaired proteasome function may lead to metabolic arrest or insulin resistance. Myotubes derived from muscle biopsies obtained from people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or type 2 diabetes were exposed to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ; Velcade) without or with insulin. BZ exposure increased protein carbonylation and lactate production yet impaired protein synthesis and UPS function in myotubes from type 2 diabetic patients, marking the existence of an insulin-resistant signature that was retained in cultured myotubes. In conclusion, BZ treatment further exacerbates insulin resistance and unmasks intrinsic features of metabolic disease in myotubes derived from type 2 diabetic patients. Our results highlight the existence of a confounding inherent abnormality in cellular protein dynamics in metabolic disease, which is uncovered through concurrent inhibition of the proteasome system.

  13. Intracellular Dynamics of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome-System.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Maisha; Enenkel, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major degradation pathway for short-lived proteins in eukaryotic cells. Targets of the ubiquitin-proteasome-system are proteins regulating a broad range of cellular processes including cell cycle progression, gene expression, the quality control of proteostasis and the response to geno- and proteotoxic stress. Prior to degradation, the proteasomal substrate is marked with a poly-ubiquitin chain. The key protease of the ubiquitin system is the proteasome. In dividing cells, proteasomes exist as holo-enzymes composed of regulatory and core particles. The regulatory complex confers ubiquitin-recognition and ATP dependence on proteasomal protein degradation. The catalytic sites are located in the proteasome core particle. Proteasome holo-enzymes are predominantly nuclear suggesting a major requirement for proteasomal proteolysis in the nucleus. In cell cycle arrested mammalian or quiescent yeast cells, proteasomes deplete from the nucleus and accumulate in granules at the nuclear envelope (NE) / endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. In prolonged quiescence, proteasome granules drop off the NE / ER membranes and migrate as stable organelles throughout the cytoplasm, as thoroughly investigated in yeast. When quiescence yeast cells are allowed to resume growth, proteasome granules clear and proteasomes are rapidly imported into the nucleus. Here, we summarize our knowledge about the enigmatic structure of proteasome storage granules and the trafficking of proteasomes and their substrates between the cyto- and nucleoplasm. Most of our current knowledge is based on studies in yeast. Their translation to mammalian cells promises to provide keen insight into protein degradation in non-dividing cells which comprise the majority of our body's cells. PMID:26339477

  14. Proteasome activity and proteasome subunit transcripts in human spermatozoa separated by a discontinuous Percoll gradient.

    PubMed

    Rosales, O; Opazo, C; Diaz, E S; Villegas, J V; Sanchez, R; Morales, P

    2011-04-01

    Human semen is composed of a heterogeneous population of spermatozoa with varying degrees of structural and functional differentiation and normality, which result in subpopulations of different quality. Using a discontinuous Percoll gradient, we separated three subsets of spermatozoa (65/45%, 90/65% and 90% fractions) from normozoospermic semen samples from healthy donors and proceeded to characterise their morphology, viability, motility and proteasome activity. In addition, the presence of proteasome subunit transcripts was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results obtained showed significant differences in sperm motility, viability and morphology between the cells collected from each of the fractions. In particular, normal sperm morphology was 4.5 times higher in the 90% pellet in comparison with the 65/45% interface. In addition, there were significant differences in proteasomal activity between spermatozoa recovered from the 90% pellet and spermatozoa recovered from the 65/45% interface. Finally, there was a positive correlation between sperm proteasomal enzymatic activity and sperm motility and normal morphology after separation by a discontinuous Percoll gradient. The results of the RT-PCR revealed the presence of transcripts for the proteasome subunits β1, β2 and β5 in the human spermatozoa analysed. In conclusion, poor quality spermatozoa isolated from a Percoll gradient display an intrinsic proteasome activity deficiency, which may be associated with their low fertilising potential.

  15. Proteasome as a Molecular Target of Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Zhang, Li; Shi, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome degrades proteins in eukaryotic cells. As such, the proteasome is crucial in cell cycle and function. This study proved that microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which is a toxic by-product of algal bloom, can target cellular proteasome and selectively inhibit proteasome trypsin-like (TL) activity. MC-LR at 1 nM can inhibit up to 54% of the purified 20S proteasome TL activity and 43% of the proteasome TL activity in the liver of the cyprinid rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). Protein degradation was retarded in GFP-CL1-transfected PC-3 cells because MC-LR inhibited the proteasome TL activity. Docking studies indicated that MC-LR blocked the active site of the proteasome β2 subunit; thus, the proteasome TL activity was inhibited. In conclusion, MC-LR can target proteasome, selectively inhibit proteasome TL activity, and retard protein degradation. This study may be used as a reference of future research on the toxic mechanism of MC-LR. PMID:26090622

  16. Dynamic recruitment of active proteasomes into polyglutamine initiated inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Schipper-Krom, Sabine; Juenemann, Katrin; Jansen, Anne H; Wiemhoefer, Anne; van den Nieuwendijk, Rianne; Smith, Donna L; Hink, Mark A; Bates, Gillian P; Overkleeft, Hermen; Ovaa, Huib; Reits, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease are hallmarked by neuronal intracellular inclusion body formation. Whether proteasomes are irreversibly recruited into inclusion bodies in these protein misfolding disorders is a controversial subject. In addition, it has been proposed that the proteasomes may become clogged by the aggregated protein fragments, leading to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here, we show by fluorescence pulse-chase experiments in living cells that proteasomes are dynamically and reversibly recruited into inclusion bodies. As these recruited proteasomes remain catalytically active and accessible to substrates, our results challenge the concept of proteasome sequestration and impairment in Huntington's disease, and support the reported absence of proteasome impairment in mouse models of Huntington's disease.

  17. Arabidopsis RPT2a, 19S proteasome subunit, regulates gene silencing via DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Sako, Kaori; Maki, Yuko; Kanai, Tomoyuki; Kato, Eriko; Maekawa, Shugo; Yasuda, Shigetaka; Sato, Takeo; Watahiki, Masaaki K; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin/proteasome pathway plays a crucial role in many biological processes. Here we report a novel role for the Arabidopsis 19S proteasome subunit RPT2a in regulating gene activity at the transcriptional level via DNA methylation. Knockout mutation of the RPT2a gene did not alter global protein levels; however, the transcriptional activities of reporter transgenes were severely reduced compared to those in the wild type. This transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) was observed for transgenes under control of either the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or the cold-inducible RD29A promoter. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that both the transgene and endogenous RD29A promoter regions were hypermethylated at CG and non-CG contexts in the rpt2a mutant. Moreover, the TGS of transgenes driven by the CaMV 35S promoters was released by treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, but not by application of the inhibitor of histone deacetylase Trichostatin A. Genetic crosses with the DNA methyltransferase met1 single or drm1drm2cmt3 triple mutants also resulted in a release of CaMV 35S transgene TGS in the rpt2a mutant background. Increased methylation was also found at transposon sequences, suggesting that the 19S proteasome containing AtRPT2a negatively regulates TGS at transgenes and at specific endogenous genes through DNA methylation. PMID:22615900

  18. Reciprocal regulation of cilia and autophagy via the MTOR and proteasome pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shixuan; Livingston, Man J; Su, Yunchao; Dong, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Primary cilium is an organelle that plays significant roles in a number of cellular functions ranging from cell mechanosensation, proliferation, and differentiation to apoptosis. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular function in biology and indispensable for cellular homeostasis. Both cilia and autophagy have been linked to different types of genetic and acquired human diseases. Their interaction has been suggested very recently, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. We examined autophagy in cells with suppressed cilia and measured cilium length in autophagy-activated or -suppressed cells. It was found that autophagy was repressed in cells with short cilia. Further investigation showed that MTOR activation was enhanced in cilia-suppressed cells and the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin could largely reverse autophagy suppression. In human kidney proximal tubular cells (HK2), autophagy induction was associated with cilium elongation. Conversely, autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) as well as bafilomycin A1 (Baf) led to short cilia. Cilia were also shorter in cultured atg5-knockout (KO) cells and in atg7-KO kidney proximal tubular cells in mice. MG132, an inhibitor of the proteasome, could significantly restore cilium length in atg5-KO cells, being concomitant with the proteasome activity. Together, the results suggest that cilia and autophagy regulate reciprocally through the MTOR signaling pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  19. Replication of the rotavirus genome requires an active ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    López, Tomás; Silva-Ayala, Daniela; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

    2011-11-01

    Here we show that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is required for the efficient replication of rotavirus RRV in MA104 cells. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 decreased the yield of infectious virus under conditions where it severely reduces the synthesis of not only viral but also cellular proteins. Addition of nonessential amino acids to the cell medium restored both viral protein synthesis and cellular protein synthesis, but the production of progeny viruses was still inhibited. In medium supplemented with nonessential amino acids, we showed that MG132 does not affect rotavirus entry but inhibits the replication of the viral genome. It was also shown that it prevents the efficient incorporation into viroplasms of viral polymerase VP1 and the capsid proteins VP2 and VP6, which could explain the inhibitory effect of MG132 on genome replication and infectious virus yield. We also showed that ubiquitination is relevant for rotavirus replication since the yield of rotavirus progeny in cells carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme was reduced at the restrictive temperature. In addition, overexpression of ubiquitin in MG132-treated MA104 cells partially reversed the effect of the inhibitor on virus yield. Altogether, these data suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome (UP) system has a very complex interaction with the rotavirus life cycle, with both the ubiquitination and proteolytic activities of the system being relevant for virus replication.

  20. LPS-Induced Formation of Immunoproteasomes: TNF-α and Nitric Oxide Production are Regulated by Altered Composition of Proteasome-Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Julia; Guan, Xiu Qin; Kisselev, Alexei F.; Papasian, Christopher J.; Qureshi, Asaf A.; Morrison, David C.; Van Way, Charles W.; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulation of mouse macrophages with LPS leads to tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) secretion and nitric oxide (NO) release at different times through independent signaling pathways. While the precise regulatory mechanisms responsible for these distinct phenotypic responses have not been fully delineated, results of our recent studies strongly implicate the cellular cytoplasmic ubiquitin–proteasome pathway as a key regulator of LPS-induced macrophage inflammatory responses. Our objective in this study was to define the relative contribution of specific proteasomal active-sites in induction of TNF-α and NO after LPS treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages using selective inhibitors of these active sites. Our data provide evidence that LPS stimulation of mouse macrophages triggers a selective increase in the levels of gene and protein expression of the immunoproteasomes, resulting in a modulation of specific functional activities of the proteasome and a corresponding increase in NO production as compared to untreated controls. These findings suggest the LPS-dependent induction of immunoproteasome. In contrast, we also demonstrate that TNF-α expression is primarily dependent on both the chymotrypsin- and the trypsin-like activities of X, Y, Z subunits of the proteasome. Proteasome-associated post-acidic activity alone also contributes to LPS-induced expression of TNF-α. Taken together; our results indicate that LPS-induced TNF-α in macrophages is differentially regulated by each of the three proteasome activities. Since addition of proteasome inhibitors to mouse macrophages profoundly affects the degradation of proteins involved in signal transduction, we conclude that proteasome-specific degradation of several signaling proteins is likely involved in differential regulation of LPS-dependent secretion of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:21455682

  1. Evaluation of copper-dependent proteasome-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of novel pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate analogues.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiyong; Wang, Fei; Milacic, Vesna; Li, Xiaofeng; Cui, Qiuzhi Cindy; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing; Dou, Q Ping

    2007-12-01

    Apoptosis has a central role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, one of which is cancer. One of the most important strategies to regulate apoptosis is via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. It has been shown that inhibition of proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity is a strong apoptosis-inducing stimulus and that actively proliferating cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than normal or untransformed cells. Dithioscarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. We reported previously that certain members of dithiocarbamates, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), diethyldithiocarbamate and disulfiram, are able to bind with tumor cellular copper, forming an active complex with proteasome-inhibitory, apoptosis-inducing and anti-cancer activities. In the current study, we synthesized eight PDTC analogues with substitutions made to the pyrrolidine ring and studied their structure-activity relationships. We found that substitution of the pyrrolidine ring with piperidine had almost no effect on their proteasome-inhibitory and anti-proliferative potencies in human breast cancer cells. However, after the pyrrolidine ring was substituted with morpholine, the activity of the mixtures slightly decreased but was completely lost when piperazine with the attached ethyl group was used for the substitution. This structure-activity relationship was confirmed by the results generated with the corresponding copper complexes. Our data further support the novel concept of using accumulated copper in human cancer cells as a selective approach for chemotherapy. PMID:17982703

  2. Bacterial Proteasome Activator Bpa (Rv3780) Is a Novel Ring-Shaped Interactor of the Mycobacterial Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Delley, Cyrille L.; Laederach, Juerg; Ziemski, Michal; Bolten, Marcel; Boehringer, Daniel; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of the proteasome in bacteria is limited to the phylum of actinobacteria, where it is maintained in parallel to the usual bacterial compartmentalizing proteases. The role it plays in these organisms is still not fully understood, but in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the proteasome supports persistence in the host. In complex with the ring-shaped ATPase Mpa (called ARC in other actinobacteria), the proteasome can degrade proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup. Unlike for the eukaryotic proteasome core particle, no other bacterial proteasome interactors have been identified to date. Here we describe and characterize a novel bacterial proteasome activator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis we termed Bpa (Rv3780), using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods. Bpa features a canonical C-terminal proteasome interaction motif referred to as the HbYX motif, and its orthologs are only found in those actinobacteria encoding the proteasomal subunits. Bpa can inhibit degradation of Pup-tagged substrates in vitro by competing with Mpa for association with the proteasome. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we show that Bpa forms a ring-shaped homooligomer that can bind coaxially to the face of the proteasome cylinder. Interestingly, Bpa can stimulate the proteasomal degradation of the model substrate β-casein, which suggests it could play a role in the removal of non-native or damaged proteins. PMID:25469515

  3. Assaying Proteasomal Degradation in a Cell-free System in Plants

    PubMed Central

    García-Cano, Elena; Zaltsman, Adi; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for protein degradation has emerged as one of the most important mechanisms for regulation of a wide spectrum of cellular functions in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. Specifically, in plants, the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (UPS) regulates protein degradation and contributes significantly to development of a wide range of processes, including immune response, development and programmed cell death. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that numerous plant pathogens, such as Agrobacterium, exploit the host UPS for efficient infection, emphasizing the importance of UPS in plant-pathogen interactions. The substrate specificity of UPS is achieved by the E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts in concert with the E1 and E2 ligases to recognize and mark specific protein molecules destined for degradation by attaching to them chains of ubiquitin molecules. One class of the E3 ligases is the SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein) complex, which specifically recognizes the UPS substrates and targets them for ubiquitination via its F-box protein component. To investigate a potential role of UPS in a biological process of interest, it is important to devise a simple and reliable assay for UPS-mediated protein degradation. Here, we describe one such assay using a plant cell-free system. This assay can be adapted for studies of the roles of regulated protein degradation in diverse cellular processes, with a special focus on the F-box protein-substrate interactions. PMID:24747194

  4. Design Principles Involving Protein Disorder Facilitate Specific Substrate Selection and Degradation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System.

    PubMed

    Guharoy, Mainak; Bhowmick, Pallab; Tompa, Peter

    2016-03-25

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) regulates diverse cellular pathways by the timely removal (or processing) of proteins. Here we review the role of structural disorder and conformational flexibility in the different aspects of degradation. First, we discuss post-translational modifications within disordered regions that regulate E3 ligase localization, conformation, and enzymatic activity, and also the role of flexible linkers in mediating ubiquitin transfer and reaction processivity. Next we review well studied substrates and discuss that substrate elements (degrons) recognized by E3 ligases are highly disordered: short linear motifs recognized by many E3s constitute an important class of degrons, and these are almost always present in disordered regions. Substrate lysines targeted for ubiquitination are also often located in neighboring regions of the E3 docking motifs and are therefore part of the disordered segment. Finally, biochemical experiments and predictions show that initiation of degradation at the 26S proteasome requires a partially unfolded region to facilitate substrate entry into the proteasomal core.

  5. Pupylation-dependent and -independent proteasomal degradation in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Imkamp, Frank; Ziemski, Michal; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2015-08-01

    Bacteria make use of compartmentalizing protease complexes, similar in architecture but not homologous to the eukaryotic proteasome, for the selective and processive removal of proteins. Mycobacteria as members of the actinobacteria harbor proteasomes in addition to the canonical bacterial degradation complexes. Mycobacterial proteasomal degradation, although not essential during normal growth, becomes critical for survival under particular environmental conditions, like, for example, during persistence of the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis in host macrophages or of environmental mycobacteria under starvation. Recruitment of protein substrates for proteasomal degradation is usually mediated by pupylation, the post-translational modification of lysine side chains with the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup. This substrate recruitment strategy is functionally reminiscent of ubiquitination in eukaryotes, but is the result of convergent evolution, relying on chemically and structurally distinct enzymes. Pupylated substrates are recognized by the ATP-dependent proteasomal regulator Mpa that associates with the 20S proteasome core. A pupylation-independent proteasome degradation pathway has recently been discovered that is mediated by the ATP-independent bacterial proteasome activator Bpa (also referred to as PafE), and that appears to play a role under stress conditions. In this review, mechanistic principles of bacterial proteasomal degradation are discussed and compared with functionally related elements of the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system. Special attention is given to an understanding on the molecular level based on structural and biochemical analysis. Wherever available, discussion of in vivo studies is included to highlight the biological significance of this unusual bacterial degradation pathway. PMID:26352358

  6. Extended ubiquitin species are protein-based DUB inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Krutauz, Daria; Reis, Noa; Nakasone, Mark A.; Siman, Peter; Zhang, Daoning; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.; Gygi, Steven P.; Brik, Ashraf; Fushman, David; Glickman, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    A frame-shift mutation in the transcript of the ubiquitin-B gene leads to a C-terminally extended ubiquitin, UBB+1. UBB+1 has been considered to inhibit proteasomes, and as such to be the underlying cause for toxic protein buildup correlated with certain neuropathological conditions. We demonstrated that expression of extended ubiquitin variants led to accumulation of heterogeneously-linked polyubiquitin conjugates indicating a pervasive effect on ubiquitin-dependent turnover. 20S proteasomes selectively proteolysed ubiquitin extensions, yet no evidence for inhibition of 26S holoenzymes was found. However, among susceptible targets for inhibition was Ubp6, the primary enzyme responsible for disassembly of lysine-48 linkages at 26S proteasomes. Processing of lysine-48 and lysine-63 linkages by other deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) was also inhibited. Disruption of ubiquitin-dependent degradation by extended ubiquitin variants may therefore be attributed to their inhibitory effect on select DUBs, thus shifting research efforts related to protein accumulation in neurodegenerative processes from proteasomes to DUBs. PMID:24997605

  7. The ubiquitin+proteasome protein degradation pathway as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of solid tumor malignancies.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, James J; Minter, Alex; Driscoll, Daniel A; Burris, Jason K

    2011-02-01

    A concept that currently steers the development of cancer therapies has been that agents directed against specific proteins that facilitate tumorigenesis or maintain a malignant phenotype will have greater efficacy, less toxicity and a more sustained response relative to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. The clinical success of the targeted agent Imatinib mesylate as an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase associated with the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson oncogene locus (BCR-ABL) in the treatment of Philadelphia-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has served as a paradigm. While intellectually gratifying, the selective targeting of a single driver event by a small molecule, e.g., kinase inhibitor, to dampen a tumor-promoting pathway in the treatment of solid tumors is limited by many factors. Focus can alternatively be placed on targeting fundamental cellular processes that regulate multiple events, e.g., protein degradation, through the Ubiquitin (Ub)+Proteasome System (UPS). The UPS plays a critical role in modulating numerous cellular proteins to regulate cellular processes such as signal transduction, growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Clinical success with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib revolutionized treatment of B-cell lineage malignancies such as Multiple Myeloma (MM). However, many patients harbor primary resistance and do not respond to bortezomib and those that do respond inevitably develop resistance (secondary resistance). The lack of clinical efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of solid tumors may be linked mechanistically to the resistance detected during treatment of hematologic malignancies. Potential mechanisms of resistance and means to improve the response to proteasome inhibitors in solid tumors are discussed.

  8. mTOR drives its own activation via SCFβ-TRCP-dependent degradation of the mTOR inhibitor DEPTOR

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Daming; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Tan, Meng-Kwang Marcus; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Locasale, Jason W.; Liu, Pengda; Wan, Lixin; Zhai, Bo; Chin, Y. Rebecca; Shaik, Shavali; Lyssiotis, Costas A.; Gygi, Steven P.; Toker, Alex; Cantley, Lewis C.; Asara, John M.; Harper, J. Wade; Wei, Wenyi

    2011-01-01

    Summary The activities of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are negatively regulated by their endogenous inhibitor, DEPTOR. As such, the abundance of DEPTOR is a critical determinant in the activity status of the mTOR network. DEPTOR stability is governed by the 26S-proteasome through a largely unknown mechanism. Here we describe an mTOR-dependent phosphorylation-driven pathway for DEPTOR destruction via SCFβ-TRCP. DEPTOR phosphorylation by mTOR in response to growth signals, and in collaboration with casein kinase I (CKI), generates a phosphodegron that binds β-TRCP. Failure to degrade DEPTOR through either degron mutation or β-TRCP depletion leads to reduced mTOR activity, reduced S6 kinase activity, and activation of autophagy to reduce cell growth. This work expands the current understanding of mTOR regulation by revealing a positive feedback loop involving mTOR and CKI-dependent turnover of its inhibitor, DEPTOR, suggesting that misregulation of the DEPTOR destruction pathway might contribute to aberrant activation of mTOR in disease. PMID:22017875

  9. Involvement of proteasomal subunits zeta and iota in RNA degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Petit, F; Jarrousse, A S; Dahlmann, B; Sobek, A; Hendil, K B; Buri, J; Briand, Y; Schmid, H P

    1997-01-01

    We have identified two distinct subunits of 20 S proteasomes that are associated with RNase activity. Proteasome subunits zeta and iota, eluted from two-dimensional Western blots, hydrolysed tobacco mosaic virus RNA, whereas none of the other subunits degraded this substrate under the same conditions. Additionally, proteasomes were dissociated by 6 M urea, and subunit zeta, containing the highest RNase activity, was isolated by anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Purified subunit zeta migrated as a single spot on two-dimensional PAGE with a molecular mass of approx. 28 kDa. Addition of anti-(subunit zeta) antibodies led to the co-precipitation of this proteasome subunit and nuclease activity. This is the first evidence that proteasomal alpha-type subunits are associated with an enzymic activity, and our results provide further evidence that proteasomes may be involved in cellular RNA metabolism. PMID:9337855

  10. Substrate Ubiquitination Controls the Unfolding Ability of the Proteasome.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Eden L; Chirico, Giavanna G; Dewey, William J; Nassif, Nicholas D; Bard, Katelyn E; Millas, Nickolas E; Kraut, Daniel A

    2016-08-26

    In eukaryotic cells, proteins are targeted to the proteasome for degradation by polyubiquitination. These proteins bind to ubiquitin receptors, are engaged and unfolded by proteasomal ATPases, and are processively degraded. The factors determining to what extent the proteasome can successfully unfold and degrade a substrate are still poorly understood. We find that the architecture of polyubiquitin chains attached to a substrate affects the ability of the proteasome to unfold and degrade the substrate, with K48- or mixed-linkage chains leading to greater processivity than K63-linked chains. Ubiquitin-independent targeting of substrates to the proteasome gave substantially lower processivity of degradation than ubiquitin-dependent targeting. Thus, even though ubiquitin chains are removed early in degradation, during substrate engagement, remarkably they dramatically affect the later unfolding of a protein domain. Our work supports a model in which a polyubiquitin chain associated with a substrate switches the proteasome into an activated state that persists throughout the degradation process. PMID:27405762

  11. A conserved role for the 20S proteasome and Nrf2 transcription factor in oxidative stress adaptation in mammals, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Andrew M.; Staab, Trisha A.; Tower, John; Sieburth, Derek; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In mammalian cells, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced adaptation to oxidative stress is strongly dependent on an Nrf2 transcription factor-mediated increase in the 20S proteasome. Here, we report that both Caenorhabditis elegans nematode worms and Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies are also capable of adapting to oxidative stress with H2O2 pre-treatment. As in mammalian cells, this adaptive response in worms and flies involves an increase in proteolytic activity and increased expression of the 20S proteasome, but not of the 26S proteasome. We also found that the increase in 20S proteasome expression in both worms and flies, as in mammalian cells, is important for the adaptive response, and that it is mediated by the SKN-1 and CNC-C orthologs of the mammalian Nrf2 transcription factor, respectively. These studies demonstrate that stress mechanisms operative in cell culture also apply in disparate intact organisms across a wide biological diversity. PMID:23038734

  12. Inhibition of Proteasome Activity by Low-dose Bortezomib Attenuates Angiotensin II-induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Apo E−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hualiang; Li, Fangda; Tian, Cui; Nie, Hao; Wang, Lei; Li, Hui-Hua; Zheng, Yuehong

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a leading cause of sudden death in aged people. Activation of ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a critical role in the protein quality control and various diseases. However, the functional role of UPS in AAA formation remains unclear. In this study, we found that the proteasome activities and subunit expressions in AAA tissues from human and angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused apolipoprotein E knockout (Apo E−/−) mice were significantly increased. To investigate the effect of proteasome activation on the AAA formation, Apo E−/− mice were cotreated with bortezomib (BTZ) (a proteasome inhibitor, 50 μg/kg, 2 times per week) and Ang II (1000 ng/kg/min) up to 28 days. Ang II infusion significantly increased the incidence and severity of AAA in Apo E−/− mice, whereas BTZ treatment markedly inhibited proteasome activities and prevented AAA formation. Furthermore, BTZ treatment significantly reduced the inflammation, inhibited the metal matrix metalloprotease activity, and reversed the phenotypic SMC modulation in AAA tissue. In conclusion, these results provide a new evidence that proteasome activation plays a critical role in AAA formation through multiple mechanisms, and suggest that BTZ might be a novel therapeutic target for treatment of AAA formation. PMID:26508670

  13. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Controls Lung Proteasomal Degradation and Nuclear Factor-κB Activity in Conditions of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Boncoeur, Emilie; Roque, Telma; Bonvin, Elise; Saint-Criq, Vinciane; Bonora, Monique; Clement, Annick; Tabary, Olivier; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra; Jacquot, Jacky

    2008-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a lethal inherited disorder caused by mutations in a single gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, resulting in progressive oxidative lung damage. In this study, we evaluated the role of CFTR in the control of ubiquitin-proteasome activity and nuclear factor (NF)-κB/IκB-α signaling after lung oxidative stress. After a 64-hour exposure to hyperoxia-mediated oxidative stress, CFTR-deficient (cftr−/−) mice exhibited significantly elevated lung proteasomal activity compared with wild-type (cftr+/+) animals. This was accompanied by reduced lung caspase-3 activity and defective degradation of NF-κB inhibitor IκB-α. In vitro, human CFTR-deficient lung cells exposed to oxidative stress exhibited increased proteasomal activity and decreased NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity compared with CFTR-sufficient lung cells. Inhibition of the CFTR Cl− channel by CFTRinh-172 in the normal bronchial immortalized cell line 16HBE14o− increased proteasomal degradation after exposure to oxidative stress. Caspase-3 inhibition by Z-DQMD in CFTR-sufficient lung cells mimicked the response profile of increased proteasomal degradation and reduced NF-κB activity observed in CFTR-deficient lung cells exposed to oxidative stress. Taken together, these results suggest that functional CFTR Cl− channel activity is crucial for regulation of lung proteasomal degradation and NF-κB activity in conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:18372427

  14. ADD66, a Gene Involved in the Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation of α-1-Antitrypsin-Z in Yeast, Facilitates Proteasome Activity and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Craig M.; Kruse, Kristina B.; Schmidt, Béla Z.; Perlmutter, David H.; McCracken, Ardythe A.

    2007-01-01

    Antitrypsin deficiency is a primary cause of juvenile liver disease, and it arises from expression of the “Z” variant of the α-1 protease inhibitor (A1Pi). Whereas A1Pi is secreted from the liver, A1PiZ is retrotranslocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and degraded by the proteasome, an event that may offset liver damage. To better define the mechanism of A1PiZ degradation, a yeast expression system was developed previously, and a gene, ADD66, was identified that facilitates A1PiZ turnover. We report here that ADD66 encodes an ∼30-kDa soluble, cytosolic protein and that the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome is reduced in add66Δ mutants. This reduction in activity may arise from the accumulation of 20S proteasome assembly intermediates or from qualitative differences in assembled proteasomes. Add66p also seems to be a proteasome substrate. Consistent with its role in ER-associated degradation (ERAD), synthetic interactions are observed between the genes encoding Add66p and Ire1p, a transducer of the unfolded protein response, and yeast deleted for both ADD66 and/or IRE1 accumulate polyubiquitinated proteins. These data identify Add66p as a proteasome assembly chaperone (PAC), and they provide the first link between PAC activity and ERAD. PMID:17634286

  15. Proteasomes and protein conjugation across domains of life

    PubMed Central

    Maupin-Furlow, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Like other energy-dependent proteases, proteasomes, which are found across the three domains of life, are self-compartmentalized and important in the early steps of proteolysis. Proteasomes degrade improperly synthesized, damaged or misfolded proteins and hydrolyse regulatory proteins that must be specifically removed or cleaved for cell signalling. In eukaryotes, proteins are typically targeted for proteasome-mediated destruction through polyubiquitylation, although ubiquitin-independent pathways also exist. Interestingly, actinobacteria and archaea also covalently attach small proteins (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) and small archaeal modifier proteins (Samps), respectively) to certain proteins, and this may serve to target the modified proteins for degradation by proteasomes. PMID:22183254

  16. Isolation and purification of proteasomes from primary cells.

    PubMed

    Steers, Nicholas J; Peachman, Kristina K; Alving, Carl R; Rao, Mangala

    2014-11-03

    Proteasomes play an important role in cell homeostasis and in orchestrating the immune response by systematically degrading foreign proteins and misfolded or damaged host cell proteins. We describe a protocol to purify functionally active proteasomes from human CD4(+) T cells and dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The purification is a three-step process involving ion-exchange chromatography, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. This method can be easily adapted to purify proteasomes from cell lines or from organs. Methods to characterize and visualize the purified proteasomes are also described.

  17. Regulation of Cardiac Proteasomes by Ubiquitination, Sumoylation, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ziyou; Scruggs, Sarah B.; Gilda, Jennifer E.; Ping, Peipei; Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the major intracellular degradation system, and its proper function is critical to the health and function of cardiac cells. Alterations in cardiac proteasomes have been linked to several pathological phenotypes, including cardiomyopathies, ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and hypertrophy. Defects in proteasome-dependent cellular protein homeostasis can be causal for the initiation and progression of certain cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that the UPS can specifically target proteins that govern pathological signaling pathways for degradation, thus altering downstream effectors and disease outcomes. Alterations in UPS-substrate interactions in disease occur, in part, due to direct modifications of 19S, 11S or 20S proteasome subunits. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are one facet of this proteasomal regulation, with over 400 known phosphorylation sites, over 500 ubiquitination sites and 83 internal lysine acetylation sites, as well as multiple sites for caspase cleavage, glycosylation (such as O-GlcNAc modification), methylation, nitrosylation, oxidation, and sumoylation. Changes in cardiac proteasome PTMs, which occur in ischemia and cardiomyopathies, are associated with changes in proteasome activity and proteasome assembly; however several features of this regulation remain to be explored. In this review, we focus on how some of the less common PTMs affect proteasome function and alter cellular protein homeostasis. PMID:24140722

  18. Potential role of 20S proteasome in maintaining stem cell integrity of human bone marrow stromal cells in prolonged culture expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Li; Song, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Xue-Qin; Zhu, Qian; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Yang, Gui-Jiao; Li, Ang; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prolonged culture expansion retards proliferation and induces senescence of hBMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduced 20S proteasomal activity and expression potentially contribute to cell aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132-mediated 20S proteasomal inhibition induces senescence-like phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA stimulates proteasomal activity and restores replicative senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA retains differentiation without affecting stem cell characterizations. -- Abstract: Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) could be used in clinics as precursors of multiple cell lineages following proper induction. Such application is impeded by their characteristically short lifespan, together with the increasing loss of proliferation capability and progressive reduction of differentiation potential after the prolonged culture expansion. In the current study, we addressed the possible role of 20S proteasomes in this process. Consistent with prior reports, long-term in vitro expansion of hBMSCs decreased cell proliferation and increased replicative senescence, accompanied by reduced activity and expression of the catalytic subunits PSMB5 and PSMB1, and the 20S proteasome overall. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 produced a senescence-like phenotype in early passages, whereas treating late-passage cells with 18{alpha}-glycyrrhetinic acid (18{alpha}-GA), an agonist of 20S proteasomes, delayed the senescence progress, enhancing the proliferation and recovering the capability of differentiation. The data demonstrate that activation of 20S proteasomes assists in counteracting replicative senescence of hBMSCs expanded in vitro.

  19. Inhibition of TRIP1/S8/hSug1, a component of the human 19S proteasome, enhances mitotic apoptosis induced by spindle poisons.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroshi Y; Gorbsky, Gary J

    2006-01-01

    Mitotic spindle poisons (e.g., Taxol and vinblastine), used as chemotherapy drugs, inhibit mitotic spindle function, activate the mitotic spindle checkpoint, arrest cells in mitosis, and then cause cell death by mechanisms that are poorly understood. By expression cloning, we identified a truncated version of human TRIP1 (also known as S8, hSug1), an AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family ATPase subunit of the 19S proteasome regulatory complex, as an enhancer of spindle poison-mediated apoptosis. Stable expression of the truncated TRIP1/S8/hSug1 in HeLa cells [OP-TRIP1(88-406)] resulted in a decrease of measurable cellular proteasome activity, indicating that OP-TRIP1(88-406) had a dominant-negative effect on proteasome function. OP-TRIP1(88-406) revealed an increased apoptotic response after treatment with spindle poisons or with proteasome inhibitors. The increased apoptosis coincided with a significant decrease in expression of BubR1, a kinase required for activation and maintenance of the mitotic spindle checkpoint in response to treatment with spindle poisons. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRIP1/S8/hSug1 resulted in a reduction of general proteasome activity and an increase in mitotic index. The siRNA treatment also caused increased cell death after spindle poison treatment. These results indicate that inhibition of TRIP1/S8/hSug1 function by expression of a truncated version of the protein or by siRNA-mediated suppression enhances cell death in response to spindle poison treatment. Current proteasome inhibitor drugs in trial as anticancer agents target elements of the 20S catalytic subcomplex. Our results suggest that targeting the ATPase subunits in 19S regulatory complex in the proteasome may enhance the antitumor effects of spindle poisons.

  20. Fundamental reaction pathway and free energy profile for proteasome inhibition by syringolin A (SylA)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Donghui; Tang, Mingsheng; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy (QM/MM-FE) calculations have been performed to uncover the fundamental reaction pathway of proteasome with a representative inhibitor syringolin A (SylA). The calculated results reveal that the reaction process consists of three steps. The first step is a proton transfer process, activating Thr1-Oγ directly by Thr1-Nz to form a zwitterionic intermediate. The next step is nucleophilic attack on the olefin carbon of SylA by the negatively charged Thr1-Oγ atom. The last step is a proton transfer from Thr1-Nz to another olefin carbon of SylA to complete the inhibition reaction process. The calculated free energy profile demonstrates that the second step should be the rate-determining step and has the highest free energy barrier of 24.6 kcal/mol, which is reasonably close to the activation free energy (∼22.4 – 23.0 kcal/mol) derived from available experimental kinetic data. In addition, our computational results indicate that no water molecule can assist the rate-determining step, since the second step is not involved a proton transfer process. The obtained mechanistic insights should be valuable for understanding the inhibition process of proteasome by SylA and structurally related inhibitors at molecular level, and thus provide a solid mechanistic base and valuable clues for future rational design of novel, more potent inhibitors of proteasome. PMID:26018983

  1. Regulation of energy homeostasis by the ubiquitin-independent REGγ proteasome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lianhui; Fan, Guangjian; Shan, Peipei; Qiu, Xiaoying; Dong, Shuxian; Liao, Lujian; Yu, Chunlei; Wang, Tingting; Gu, Xiaoyang; Li, Qian; Song, Xiaoyu; Cao, Liu; Li, Xiaotao; Cui, Yongping; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Chuangui

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of energy homeostasis is essential for cell survival. Here, we report that the ATP- and ubiquitin-independent REGγ-proteasome system plays a role in maintaining energy homeostasis and cell survival during energy starvation via repressing rDNA transcription, a major intracellular energy-consuming process. Mechanistically, REGγ-proteasome limits cellular rDNA transcription and energy consumption by targeting the rDNA transcription activator SirT7 for ubiquitin-independent degradation under normal conditions. Moreover, energy starvation induces an AMPK-directed SirT7 phosphorylation and subsequent REGγ-dependent SirT7 subcellular redistribution and degradation, thereby further reducing rDNA transcription to save energy to overcome cell death. Energy starvation is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Our report also shows that REGγ knockdown markedly improves the anti-tumour activity of energy metabolism inhibitors in mice. Our results underscore a control mechanism for an ubiquitin-independent process in maintaining energy homeostasis and cell viability under starvation conditions, suggesting that REGγ-proteasome inhibition has a potential to provide tumour-starving benefits. PMID:27511885

  2. Regulation of SUMO2 target proteins by the proteasome in human cells exposed to replication stress.

    PubMed

    Bursomanno, Sara; McGouran, Joanna F; Kessler, Benedikt M; Hickson, Ian D; Liu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    In human cells, SUMO2 is predominantly conjugated to target proteins in response to cellular stress. Previous studies suggested that proteins conjugated to SUMO2, but not to SUMO1, could be regulated by the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome system. Hence, we set out to understand the role of the proteasome in determining the fate of proteins conjugated to SUMO2 when cells are treated with DNA replication stress conditions. We conducted a quantitative proteomic analysis in a U2OS cell line stably expressing SUMO2(Q87R) tagged with StrepHA in the presence or absence of epoxomicin (EPOX), a proteasome inhibitor. We identified subgroups of putative SUMO2 targets that were either degraded or stabilized by EPOX upon SUMO2 conjugation in response to replication stress. Interestingly, the subgroup of proteins degraded upon SUMO2 conjugation was enriched in proteins playing roles in DNA damage repair and replication, while the proteins stabilized upon SUMOylation were mainly involved in chromatin maintenance. In addition, we identified 43 SUMOylation sites in target proteins, of which 17 are located in the proximity of phosphorylated residues. Considering that DNA replication stress is a major source of genome instability, which is suggested to drive tumorigenesis and possibly aging, our data will facilitate future functional studies in the fields of DNA metabolism and cancer biology. PMID:25748227

  3. VRK1 regulates Cajal body dynamics and protects coilin from proteasomal degradation in cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cantarero, Lara; Sanz-García, Marta; Vinograd-Byk, Hadar; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Lazo, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Cajal bodies (CBs) are nuclear organelles associated with ribonucleoprotein functions and RNA maturation. CBs are assembled on coilin, its main scaffold protein, in a cell cycle dependent manner. The Ser-Thr VRK1 (vaccinia-related kinase 1) kinase, whose activity is also cell cycle regulated, interacts with and phosphorylates coilin regulating assembly of CBs. Coilin phosphorylation is not necessary for its interaction with VRK1, but it occurs in mitosis and regulates coilin stability. Knockdown of VRK1 or VRK1 inactivation by serum deprivation causes a loss of coilin phosphorylation in Ser184 and of CBs formation, which are rescued with an active VRK1, but not by kinase-dead VRK1. The phosphorylation of coilin in Ser184 occurs during mitosis before assembly of CBs. Loss of coilin phosphorylation results in disintegration of CBs, and of coilin degradation that is prevented by proteasome inhibitors. After depletion of VRK1, coilin is ubiquitinated in nuclei, which is partly mediated by mdm2, but its proteasomal degradation occurs in cytosol and is prevented by blocking its nuclear export. We conclude that VRK1 is a novel regulator of CBs dynamics and stability in cell cycle by protecting coilin from ubiquitination and degradation in the proteasome, and propose a model of CB dynamics. PMID:26068304

  4. Regulation of energy homeostasis by the ubiquitin-independent REGγ proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lianhui; Fan, Guangjian; Shan, Peipei; Qiu, Xiaoying; Dong, Shuxian; Liao, Lujian; Yu, Chunlei; Wang, Tingting; Gu, Xiaoyang; Li, Qian; Song, Xiaoyu; Cao, Liu; Li, Xiaotao; Cui, Yongping; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Chuangui

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of energy homeostasis is essential for cell survival. Here, we report that the ATP- and ubiquitin-independent REGγ-proteasome system plays a role in maintaining energy homeostasis and cell survival during energy starvation via repressing rDNA transcription, a major intracellular energy-consuming process. Mechanistically, REGγ-proteasome limits cellular rDNA transcription and energy consumption by targeting the rDNA transcription activator SirT7 for ubiquitin-independent degradation under normal conditions. Moreover, energy starvation induces an AMPK-directed SirT7 phosphorylation and subsequent REGγ-dependent SirT7 subcellular redistribution and degradation, thereby further reducing rDNA transcription to save energy to overcome cell death. Energy starvation is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Our report also shows that REGγ knockdown markedly improves the anti-tumour activity of energy metabolism inhibitors in mice. Our results underscore a control mechanism for an ubiquitin-independent process in maintaining energy homeostasis and cell viability under starvation conditions, suggesting that REGγ-proteasome inhibition has a potential to provide tumour-starving benefits. PMID:27511885

  5. Regulation of energy homeostasis by the ubiquitin-independent REGγ proteasome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lianhui; Fan, Guangjian; Shan, Peipei; Qiu, Xiaoying; Dong, Shuxian; Liao, Lujian; Yu, Chunlei; Wang, Tingting; Gu, Xiaoyang; Li, Qian; Song, Xiaoyu; Cao, Liu; Li, Xiaotao; Cui, Yongping; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Chuangui

    2016-08-11

    Maintenance of energy homeostasis is essential for cell survival. Here, we report that the ATP- and ubiquitin-independent REGγ-proteasome system plays a role in maintaining energy homeostasis and cell survival during energy starvation via repressing rDNA transcription, a major intracellular energy-consuming process. Mechanistically, REGγ-proteasome limits cellular rDNA transcription and energy consumption by targeting the rDNA transcription activator SirT7 for ubiquitin-independent degradation under normal conditions. Moreover, energy starvation induces an AMPK-directed SirT7 phosphorylation and subsequent REGγ-dependent SirT7 subcellular redistribution and degradation, thereby further reducing rDNA transcription to save energy to overcome cell death. Energy starvation is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Our report also shows that REGγ knockdown markedly improves the anti-tumour activity of energy metabolism inhibitors in mice. Our results underscore a control mechanism for an ubiquitin-independent process in maintaining energy homeostasis and cell viability under starvation conditions, suggesting that REGγ-proteasome inhibition has a potential to provide tumour-starving benefits.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships within Cornus (Cornaceae) based on 26S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Fan, C

    2001-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the dogwood genus Cornus have been highly controversial due to the great morphological heterogeneity. Earlier phylogenetic analyses of Cornus using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) data (including rbcL and matK sequences, as well as restriction sites) and morphological characters suggested incongruent relationships within the genus. The present study generated sequence data from the nuclear gene 26S rDNA for Cornus to test the phylogenetic hypotheses based on cpDNA and morphological data. The 26S rDNA sequence data obtained represent 16 species, 13 from Cornus and three from outgroups, having an aligned length of 3380 bp. Both parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of these sequences were conducted. Trees resulting from these analyses suggest relationships among subgroups of Cornus consistent with those inferred from cpDNA data. That is, the dwarf dogwood (subg. Arctocrania) and the big-bracted dogwood (subg. Cynoxylon and subg. Syncarpea) clades are sisters, which are, in turn, sister to the cornelian cherries (subg. Cornus and subg. Afrocrania). This red-fruited clade is sister to the blue- or white-fruited dogwoods (subg. Mesomora, subg. Kraniopsis, and subg. Yinquania). Within the blue- or white-fruited clade, C. oblonga (subg. Yinquania) is sister to the remainder, and subg. Mesomora is sister to subg. Kraniopsis. These relationships were also suggested by the combined 26S rDNA and cpDNA data, but with higher bootstrap and Bremer support in the combined analysis. The 26S rDNA sequence data of Cornus consist of 12 expansion segments spanning 1034 bp. These expansion segments evolve approximately four times as fast as the conserved core regions. The study provides an example of phylogenetic utility of 26S rDNA sequences below the genus level. PMID:11410478

  7. Structure of a Proteasome Pba1-Pba2 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Stadtmueller, Beth M.; Kish-Trier, Erik; Ferrell, Katherine; Petersen, Charisse N.; Robinson, Howard; Myszka, David G.; Eckert, Debra M.; Formosa, Tim; Hill, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The 20S proteasome is an essential, 28-subunit protease that sequesters proteolytic sites within a central chamber, thereby repressing substrate degradation until proteasome activators open the entrance/exit gate. Two established activators, Blm10 and PAN/19S, induce gate opening by binding to the pockets between proteasome α-subunits using C-terminal HbYX (hydrophobic-tyrosine-any residue) motifs.