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Sample records for 26th international geological

  1. The 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    It was a pleasure to welcome all delegates and accompanying persons to Adelaide for the 26th International Conference in Nuclear Physics, INPC2016. As the major meeting in our field, it was a wonderful opportunity to catch up with colleagues from around the world, learn about the very latest developments and share ideas. We were grateful for the support of the Commission on Nuclear Physics, C12, of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), which chose Adelaide to host this meeting. We were also honoured that the President of IUPAP, Prof. Bruce McKellar was present at the meeting to welcome delegates and participate in the proceedings. We acknowledge the financial support for the conference which was made available by a number of organisations. We were especially grateful to the major sponsors, the Adelaide Convention Bureau, the University of Adelaide, the Australian National University and ANSTO, as well as IUPAP, the ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale (CoEPP) and several of the world's major nuclear physics laboratories, BNL, GSI, JLab and TRIUMF. As a result of these contributions we were able to offer support to attend the conference to more than 50 international students. Not only did we have a superb scientific program but, consistent with IUPAP guidelines, more than 40% of the invited plenary talks were presented by women. In order to reach out to the local community, Cynthia Keppel (from JLab) presented a public lecture on Hadron Beam Therapy on Tuesday evening, September 13th. As presenting a talk is now often a condition for financial support to attend an international conference, there were 11 simultaneous parallel sessions with more than 350 presentations. We are especially grateful to the International Advisory Committee, the Program Committee and the Conveners whose advice and hard work made it possible for all this to come together. I would also like to acknowledge the work of the Local Organising

  2. 26th International Symposium on Ballistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-16

    Borvik 12048 - The Penetration Process of Jets and Long Rods in Water , Dr. Dan Yaziv, Israel; Meir Mayseless, Zvi Cooper, Yehiel Reifen, Eitan Hirsch...Defense Industrial Association EVENT #1210 SEPTEMBER 12-16, 2011 WWW.NDIA.ORG/MEETINGS/1210 HYATT REGENCY MIAMI u MIAMI, FLORIDA PROMOTING NATIONAL...Ballistics is jointly organized and supported by the International Ballistics Society (IBS), in conjunction with the National Defense Industrial

  3. 26TH International Conference on Soils, Sediment, Water and Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0076 26TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOILS, SEDIMENT, WATER AND ENERGER Paul Kostecki ASSOCIATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH... ASSOCIATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SCIENCES FOUNDATION, INC. 150 FEARING ST STE 21 AMHERST, MA 01002-1945 US 8.  PERFORMING ORGANIZATION      REPORT...Exhibitors Presented By The Association for Environmental Health & Sciences Foundation 2010 ConferenCe program www.UmassSoils.com DISTRIBUTION A

  4. Meeting report: 26th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony

    2013-10-01

    The 26th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in San Francisco, California from May 11 to 15, 2013. This article summarizes the principal invited lectures at the meeting. The opening symposium on the legacy of the late Antonín Holý included presentations on his pioneering work with nucleotide analogs, which led to the development of several antiviral drugs including tenofovir. This drug has transformed the treatment of HIV infection and has recently become the first-line therapy for chronic hepatitis B. The Gertrude Elion Award lecturer described the anti-HIV activities of the CCR5 inhibitor cenicriviroc and the reverse transcriptase inhibitor festinavir®, and also reviewed the evaluation of biodegradable nanoparticles with adjuvant activity. The William Prusoff Award winner reported on the creation of NAOMI, a computer model with 21 enzymes to predict the activity of nucleoside analogs against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Other invited lecturers discussed the development of countermeasures against severe dengue and the potential of RNA virus capping and repair enzymes as drug targets. Topics in the clinical symposium included the current status of the anti-HCV compounds sovaprevir, ACH-3102, miravirsen and ALS-2200; the evaluation of single-tablet regimens for HIV infection; and the investigation of cytomegalovirus resistance to CMX001. Two chemistry minisymposia examined strategies and tactics in drug design and the use of in drug discovery. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The 26th International Physics Olympiad: On top down under!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    photographed on the nest. We learnt about Wattles (Australia's national flower), Bottle brush trees and saw Kookaburras in the Botanic Gardens. Most of the students had time to visit the Science Museum. We were taken to Tidbinbilla Deep Space Tracking Station - in the week when Galileo's Jupiter probe was released - and Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve. We travelled across the Southern Tablelands and through dramatic mountain passes to the coast. Our students were happy with the 'cylinders falling in glycerol' experiment but not so sure that they had estimated the reduction in intensity correctly in the laser/diffraction experiment. Some of them felt that there had been less emphasis on practical work as they neared the end of their A-level courses. They would have appreciated some more preparation for this. There was a range of hospitality shown to us; receptions were held by the Deputy Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory and the Vice-Chancellor of Canberra University, and we were guests of the Rotary Club members in their own homes. Some students spent a day with an Australian family. The British High Commissioner took the British party out to dinner. All of this was much appreciated! Soon it was time to discuss the marking of the practical, and our students seemed to have held their positions. The formula for the medals is Gold for 90 Until the top mark was settled at an incredible 95 that they were happy with the scores we knew the results. Alan Bain and Richard Davies had tied with identical marks on each of the two papers and would receive Gold medals. They were about 19th out of the 255 students competing. The other three students were close together and gained Bronze medals, although Chris Webb was only two points away from a Silver! There was considerable discussion at the International meeting of Leaders about the mounting cost of hosting the International Physics Olympiad. The number of countries entering had increased and could potentially exceed 100

  6. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  7. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  8. PREFACE: 26th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuraica, Milorad; Mijatovic, Zoran

    2012-11-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the general invited lectures, topical invited lectures and progress reports presented at the 26th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases - SPIG 2012. The conference was held in Zrenjanin, Serbia, from 27-31 August. The SPIG conference has a 52 year long tradition. The structure of the papers in this volume cover the following sections: atomic collision processes, particle and laser beam interactions with solids, low temperature plasmas and general plasmas. As these four topics often overlap and merge in numerous fundamental studies and, more importantly applications, SPIG in general serves as a venue for exchanging ideas in the related fields. We hope that this volume will be an important source of information about progress in plasma physics and will be useful, first of all, for students, but also for plasma physics scientists. The Editors would like to thank the invited speakers for their participation at SPIG 2012 and for their efforts writing contributions for this volume. We also express our gratitude to the members of Scientific and Organizing committees for their efforts in organizing this SPIG. Especially we would like to thank the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia, Provincial Secretariat for Science and Techonological Development, Province of Vojvodina, Institute Français de Serbie and Biser Zrenjanin for financial support as well as the European Physical Society (EPS) for supporting the award for the best poster of a young scientist and American Elements, USA. Milorad Kuraica Zoran Mijatovic October 2012 Editors

  9. Bridging the Gap, Facing the Challenge-the 26(th) Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The joint venue of the 26(th) Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC) & Asia Pacific Heart Congress 2015 (APHC 2015) & International Congress Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 2015 (ICCPR 2015) were held from October 29 to November 01, 2015 at the China National Convention Center (CNCC), Beijing, China. This year's conference focused on cardiovascular disease prevention, health promotion, education and training, as well as disease management and rehabilitation.

  10. Bridging the Gap, Facing the Challenge—the 26th Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-01-01

    The joint venue of the 26th Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC) & Asia Pacific Heart Congress 2015 (APHC 2015) & International Congress Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 2015 (ICCPR 2015) were held from October 29 to November 01, 2015 at the China National Convention Center (CNCC), Beijing, China. This year’s conference focused on cardiovascular disease prevention, health promotion, education and training, as well as disease management and rehabilitation. PMID:26885499

  11. Proceedings of the 26th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference - International Cryogenic Material Conference 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, T. S.; Sharma, R. G.; Kar, S.

    2017-02-01

    International Conference ICEC 26 - ICMC 2016 was organized at New Delhi, India during March 7-11, 2016. Previous conference ICEC25-ICMC 2014 was held at the University of Twente, The Netherlands in July 2014. Next Conference ICEC 27- ICMC 2018 will be held at Oxford, UK during September 3-7, 2018 1. Introduction This is a biennial international conference on cryogenic engineering and cryogenics materials organized by the International Cryogenic Engineering Committee and the International Cryogenic Material Committee. For some years, the host country has been alternating between Europe and Asia. The present conference was held at the Manekshaw Convention Centre, New Delhi, India during March 7-11, 2016 and hosted jointly by the Indian Cryogenics Council (ICC) and the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi. Put all together as many as 547 persons participated in the conference. Out of these 218 were foreign delegates coming from 25 countries and the rest from India. 2. Inaugural Session & Course Lectures The pre conference short course lectures on “Cryocoolers” and “Superconducting Materials for Power Applications” were organized on 7th March. Cryocooler course was given jointly by Dr. Chao Wang from M/s. Cryomech, USA and Prof. Milind Atrey from IIT Bombay, India. The Course on Superconducting Materials was given by Prof. Venkat Selvamanickam from the University of Houston, USA. The conference was inaugurated in the morning of March 8th in a typical Indian tradition and in the presence of the Chief Guest, Dr. R Chidambaram (Principle Scientific Adviser to Govt. of India), Guest of Honour, Prof. H Devaraj (Vice Chairman University Grant Commission), Prof Marcel ter Brake ( Chair, ICEC Board), Prof. Wilfried Goldacker (Chair, ICMC board), Dr. D Kanjilal (Director IUAC), Dr R K Bhandari, (President, Indian Cryogenic Council ). Dr. T S Datta, Chair Local Organizing Committee coordinated the proceedings of the inaugural function. 3. Technical

  12. Support for 26th International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, Edward; Feldman, Gary

    2014-06-08

    The XXVI International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (Neutrino 2014) was held in Boston, U.S.A. from June 2 to 7, 2014. The Conference was co-­hosted by Boston University, Harvard University, M.I.T., and Tufts University. The Conference welcomed 549 registered participants from 33 countries. The Boston University Student Village offered an inexpensive housing option and was taken advantage of by 282 attendees. The lecture venue was the George Sherman Union at Boston University. There were 63 scientific presentations by speakers from 15 countries. The Conference held two poster sessions with a total of 287 posters. The Conference featured a reception at the M.I.T. Museum plus a multi-­week exhibition on neutrino physics capped by public presentations on the closing date of the conference. The banquet was a strolling buffet dinner held at the New England Aquarium.

  13. What Clinical Changes Can We Expect in the Next 5 Years? A Review of the 26th International Congress of The Transplantation Society.

    PubMed

    Gill, John S

    2016-12-01

    Scientific presentations at the 26th International Congress of The Transplantation Society held in Hong Kong from August 18 to 23, 2016, highlighted accomplishments, challenges and opportunities in contemporary clinical organ transplantation. With nearly 1600 original abstract submissions, this review summarizes notable presentations in addressing a diversity of issues including deceased and living organ donation, improving allograft survival and unmet clinical needs in organ transplantation.

  14. Environmental epidemiology: What's at stake: open issues and methodologies -- report from the 26th Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE).

    PubMed

    Carugno, Michele

    2015-01-09

    At the end of last August, the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle welcomed over 1,100 attendees at the 26th Annual ISEE Conference - "From Local to Global: Advancing Science for Policy in Environmental Health"...

  15. Geophysical and geologic surveys of the areas struck by the August 26th 2016 Central Italy earthquake: The study case of Pretare and Piedilama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imposa, S.; Panzera, F.; Grassi, S.; Lombardo, G.; Catalano, S.; Romagnoli, G.; Tortorici, G.

    2017-10-01

    A MW6.0 earthquake struck the Central Italian Apennines on August 24th 2016, followed by an important seismic sequence characterized by hundreds of aftershocks. The earthquake caused fatalities and partially destroyed several towns surrounding the epicentral area. In this context the Italian Centre for Seismic Microzonation and its applications was involved for the seismic characterization of the struck area. Using ambient vibrations spectral ratios at seventy-five sites and shear wave velocity profiles obtained through surface waves dispersion properties we assessed seismic site response properties in the Pretare and Piedilama villages located in the territory of Arquata del Tronto. The survey performed inside the valley in which the two villages are located set into evidence that the spectral ratios often show a predominant frequency ranging between 3.0 and 5.0 Hz or several peaks that can be related to some alternating layers with different velocities. Conversely, along the valley flanks, where the geological substratum outcrop, spectral ratios tend towards low amplitude values. The soft sediments inside the valley are characterized by shear wave velocity lower than 350 m/s, whereas the geological substratum has shear wave velocity ranging between 600 and 1200 m/s. The integrated interpretation of both geophysical and geological data, made possible to infer subsoil models of the investigated areas identifying the depth of the seismic bedrock and characterizing the buried morphology.

  16. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  17. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  18. The fifth International Geological Congress, Washington, 1891

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 5th International Geological Congress (IGC), the initial meeting in North America, was the first of the three IGCs that have been held in the United States of America (USA). Of the 538 registrants alive when the 5th IGC convened in Washington, 251 persons, representing fifteen countries, actually attended the meeting. These participants included 173 people from the USA, of whom forty-two represented the US Geological Survey (USGS). Fourteen of the US State geological surveys sent representatives to Washington. Eight participants came from other countries in the Western Hemisphere - Canada (3), Chile (1), Mexico (3), and Peru (1). The sixty-six European geologists and naturalists at the 5th IGC represented Austro-Hungary (3), Belgium (3), Britain (12), France (7), Germany (23), Norway (1), Romania (3), Russia (8), Sweden (4), and Switzerland (2). The USGS and the Columbian College (now the George Washington University) acted as the principal hosts. The American Association for the Advancement of Science and then the Geological Society of America (GSA) met in the Capital immediately before the Congress convened (26 August-1 September 1891). The 5th IGC's formal discussions treated the genetic classification of Pleistocene rocks, the chronological correlation of clastic rocks, and the international standardization of colors, symbols, and names used on geologic maps. The third of those topics continued key debates at the 1st through 4th IGCs. The GSA, the Korean Embassy, the Smithsonian Institution's US National Museum, the USGS, and one of the two Secretaries-General hosted evening receptions. Field excursions examined Paleozoic exposures in New York (18-25 August), Cretaceous-Pleistocene localities along the Potomac River south of Washington (30 August), and classic Precambrian-Pleistocene sequences and structures in the Great Plains, Yellowstone, Rocky Mountains, and Great Basin (2-26 September), with optional trips to the Grand Canyon (19-28 September) and Lake

  19. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  20. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-11-05

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity.

  1. 26th USDA interagency research forum on invasive species

    Treesearch

    Katherine A. McManus; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2015-01-01

    This meeting was the 26th in a series of annual USDA Interagency Research Forums that are sponsored by the Forest Service, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, and Agriculture Research Service. The Group's original goal of fostering communication and providing a forum for the overview of ongoing research among the...

  2. Introduction to the Highlights of the 26th ASIC Conference.

    PubMed

    Nehlig, Astrid

    2017-09-10

    The 26th ASIC Conference that was held in 2016 in Kunming, China has been marking the 50th anniversary of the creation of ASIC. The meeting in China was well attended by over 400 participants from all over the world and allowed fruitful exchanges among participants from all horizons of coffee science.

  3. Proceedings, 26th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.

    2007-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following topic headings: multiple-seam mining, surface subsidence, coal pillar, bunker and roadway/entry supports, mine design and highwall mining, longwall, roof bolting, stone and hardrock mining, rock mechanics and mine seal.

  4. Proceedings of the 26th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Progress made by the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project is described for the period July 1985 to April 1986. Included are reports on silicon sheet growth and characterization, silicon material, process development, high-efficienty cells, environmental isolation, engineering sciences, and reliability physics. Also included are technical and plenary presentations made at the 26th Project Integration Meeting (PIM) held on April 29 to 30 and May 1, 1986.

  5. Geologic Evidence of Internal Activity on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This six frame mosaic of Europa's surface shows a variety of interesting geologic features. The prominent 'X' near the center of the mosaic is the junction of two 'triplebands.' Triplebands are seen here to be made up of parallel sets of ridges, and can be traced for over 1,600 kilometers (off the image) across Europa's surface. Directly to the south of the 'X' is a 75 by 100 kilometer (km) area where the icy crust of Europa has been disrupted by activity from below. This activity could be motion in liquid water, convection in warm ice, or some other process. Many icy blocks, some as large as 10 km across, have been rafted from the edges of this zone. Also seen in this mosaic are various pits and domes that range in size from a few kilometers to nearly 20 km across. These geologic features provide evidence of thermal activity below Europa's surface at the time that the features formed.

    These images were obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its sixth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the picture, with the sun illuminating the scene from the right. The center of this mosaic is located near 10 degrees north latitude, 271 degrees west longitude. The image, which is about 300 by 300 km across, was acquired at a resolution of 180 meters per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  6. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD’s International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  7. Engineering Geology in International Dredging and Infrastructure: Keynote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasblom, Willem J.

    Engineering geology supports the execution of dredging works in all stages. An industry that takes the full profit of his knowledge is the international dredging contractor. Based on own experiences the importance of his work is emphasised in a number of cases. Finally, a number of future developments in which he shall play an important role are highlighted.

  8. The 16th International Geological Congress, Washington, 1933

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 1933, the International Geological Congress (IGC) returned to the United States of America (USA) for its sixteenth meeting, forty-two years after the 5th IGC convened in Washington. The Geological Society of America and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supplied the major part of the required extra-registration funding after the effects of the Great Depression influenced the 72th U.S. Congress not to do so. A reported 1, 182 persons or organizations, representing fifty-four countries, registered for the 16 th IGC and thirty-four countries sent 141 official delegates. Of the total number of registrants, 665 actually attended the meeting; 500 came from the USA; and fifteen had participated in the 5th IGC. The 16 th Meeting convened in the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Building from 22 to 29 July. The eighteen half-day scientific sections-orogenesis (four), major divisions of the Paleozoic (three), miscellaneous (three), batholiths and related intrusives (two), arid-region geomorphic processes and products (one), fossil man and contemporary faunas (one), geology of copper and other ore deposits (one), geology of petroleum (one), measuring geologic time (one), and zonal relations of metalliferous deposits (one)-included 166 papers, of which fifty (including several of the key contributions) appeared only by title. The Geological Society of Washington, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines hosted or contributed to evening presentations or receptions. Twenty-eight of the 16th IGC's thirty new guidebooks and one new USGS Bulletin aided eight pre-meeting, seven during-meeting, and four post-meeting field trips of local, regional, or national scope. The remaining two new guidebooks outlined the USA's structural geology and its stratigraphic nomenclature. The 16th IGC published a two-volume monograph on the world's copper resources (1935) and a two-volume report of its proceedings (1936).

  9. The 16th International Geological Congress, Washington, 1933

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 1933, the International Geological Congress (IGC) returned to the United States of America (USA) for its sixteenth meeting, forty-two years after the 5th IGC convened in Washington. The Geological Society of America and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supplied the major part of the required extra-registration funding after the effects of the Great Depression influenced the 72th U.S. Congress not to do so. A reported 1, 182 persons or organizations, representing fifty-four countries, registered for the 16 th IGC and thirty-four countries sent 141 official delegates. Of the total number of registrants, 665 actually attended the meeting; 500 came from the USA; and fifteen had participated in the 5th IGC. The 16 th Meeting convened in the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Building from 22 to 29 July. The eighteen half-day scientific sections-orogenesis (four), major divisions of the Paleozoic (three), miscellaneous (three), batholiths and related intrusives (two), arid-region geomorphic processes and products (one), fossil man and contemporary faunas (one), geology of copper and other ore deposits (one), geology of petroleum (one), measuring geologic time (one), and zonal relations of metalliferous deposits (one)-included 166 papers, of which fifty (including several of the key contributions) appeared only by title. The Geological Society of Washington, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines hosted or contributed to evening presentations or receptions. Twenty-eight of the 16th IGC's thirty new guidebooks and one new USGS Bulletin aided eight pre-meeting, seven during-meeting, and four post-meeting field trips of local, regional, or national scope. The remaining two new guidebooks outlined the USA's structural geology and its stratigraphic nomenclature. The 16th IGC published a two-volume monograph on the world's copper resources (1935) and a two-volume report of its proceedings (1936).

  10. INTRODUCTION: 26th EGAS Conference of the European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbalán, R.; Orriols, G.; Pi, F.

    1995-01-01

    The 26th conference of EGAS, the European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, was held in Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain, 12-15 July 1994. The conference was hosted by the Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, and brought together 216 participants from 29 countries. The program comprised 14 survey lectures by invited speakers and 230 contributed papers (45 oral and 185 posters). Applications of atomic spectroscopy are taking an increasingly important place in the EGAS conferences. This year a Symposium on Spectroscopy for Environmental Analysis was held during the meeting. Six of the survey lectures were presented at this Symposium. Thirteen of the invited lectures have been prepared for publication by the authors and are gathered in the present issue of Physica Scripta. The conference organizers thank all sponsors, especially the Spanish Direccción General de Investigación Científica y Técnica (DGICYT) and the Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT), the Direcció General de Recerca (DGR) of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the Fundació Catalana per la Recerca, the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya and the International Science Foundation (ISF), for supporting the 26th EGAS meeting.

  11. The 26th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of technical papers presented at the 26th Annual PTTI Applications and Planning Meeting. Papers are in the following categories: (1) Recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; (2) International and transnational applications of Precise Time and Time Interval technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunications; (3) Applications of Precise Time and Time Interval technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; (4) Applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and (5) Dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, LORAN, and synchronous communications satellites.

  12. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  13. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  14. Geological and environmental remote sensing for international petroleum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    Remote sensing allows the petroleum industry to make better and quicker interpretations of geological and environmental conditions in areas of present and future operations. Often remote sensing (including aerial photographs) is required because existing maps are out-of-date, too small of scale, or provide only limited information. Implementing remote sensing can lead to lower project costs and reduced risk. The same satellite and airborne data can be used effectively for both geological and environmental applications. For example, earth scientists can interpret new lithologic, structural, and geomorphic information from near-infrared and radar imagery in terrains as diverse as barren desert and tropical jungle. Environmental applications with these and other imagery include establishing baselines, assessing impact by documenting changes through time, and mapping land-use, habitat, and vegetation. Higher resolution sensors provide an up-to-date overview of onshore and offshore petroleum facilities, whereas sensors capable of oblique viewing can be used to generate topographic maps. Geological application in Yemen involved merging Landsat TM and SPOT imagery to obtain exceptional lithologic discrimination. In the Congo, a topographic map to plan field operations was interpreted from the overlapping radar strips. Landsat MSS and TM, SPOT, and Russian satellite images with new aerial photographs are being used in the Tengiz supergiant oil field of Kazakhstan to help establish an environmental baseline, generate a base map, locate wells, plan facilities, and support a geographical information system (GIS). In the Niger delta, Landsat TM and SPOT are being used to plan pipeline routes and seismic lines, and to monitor rapid shoreline changes and population growth. Accurate coastlines, facility locations, and shoreline types are being extracted from satellite images for use in oil spill models.

  15. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  16. Commencement of Geoparks, Geology day and International Earth Science Olympiad, IYPE in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukuda, Eikichi; Kodama, Kisaburo; Miyazaki, Teruki

    2010-05-01

    The GSJ is the main supporting organization of IYPE Japan, which is an implementation body of IYPE in Japan, serving as its secretariat. During the IYPE triennial activity, the GSJ has been supporting development of Geparks, establishment of "the Geology Day" and the Earth Science Olympiad activities with some academic societies, and has distributed geological maps with IYPE logo. The GSJ also established an outreach network "Geo-networks Tsukuba" as a local legacy of the IYPE, and has managed it with a local government, research organizations, nonprofit corporations and local media to increase geological and environmental literacy of public, especially among young people. The GSJ-AIST has also contributed internationally to IYPE by joining two international projects, OneGeology and the CCOP Book project. Geoparks in Japan are characterized by following features. The Japanese Islands and the surrounding seas are situated in the area of unique geologic features; the place where several tectonic plates meet and collide. This causes earthquakes and volcanic activities, and makes Japan one of most dynamic areas on the earth. The dynamics of the earth bring about not only geological hazards but also a lot of blessings. In August of 2009, three Geoparks, the Toya Caldera and Usu Volcano Geopark, the Itoigawa Geopark and the Unzen Volcanic Area Geopark, were accepted to join the Global Geopark Network from Japan for the first time. Since its launch in 2006, the GSJ has been playing a major role in promoting Geoparks in Japan together with Geological Society of Japan. The GSJ hosts the Japan Geopark Committee (JGC) for quality evaluation, serving as the information center of Geoparks in Japan. The Geology Day of Japan (10th of May) has been set up by the academic societies for geology in Japan and GSJ in 2007. The Geology Day is expected to provide the chances for the public to enjoy field trips and excursions and to understand the importance of geo-diversity. The Day

  17. International safeguards relevant to geologic disposal of high-level wastes and spent fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles placed in underground repositories have the potential to become attractive targets for diversion and/or theft because of their valuable material content and decreasing radioactivity. The first geologic repository in the US, as currently designed, will contain approximately 500 Mt of plutonium, 60,000 Mt of uranium and a host of other fissile and strategically important elements. This paper identifies some of the international safeguards issues relevant to the various proposed scenarios for disposing of the spent fuel. In the context of the US program for geologic disposal of spent fuels, this paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries, the Department of Energy, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before the geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality. Based on US spent fuel discharges, an example is presented to illustrate the enormity of the problem of verifying spent fuel inventories. The geologic disposal scenario for high-level wastes originating from defense facilities produced a practicably irrecoverable'' waste form. Therefore, safeguards issues for geologic disposal of high-level waste now in the US are less pressing. 56 refs. , 2 figs.

  18. 26th December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake: first insights from the summer 2005 Marion Dufresne cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, J.

    2005-12-01

    The 26th December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake is the second biggest earthquake (Mw=9.3) recorded during the past century. It initiated at a depth of 20-30 km, close to an indentation of the Indonesian fore-arc. The rupture propagated about 1200 km northward and terminated north of Andaman Islands. The "Sumatra Aftershocks" cruise performed on the French R/V Marion Dufresne started July 15 in Jakarta and ended August 9, 2005 in Colombo. We carried out a complete swath-bathymetric survey in a 370*75 km stripe located between northern Sumatra and the Indonesia/India boundary and from the trench to northeast of the Sumatra fault. 20 OBSs were deployed in the area and recorded about 2000 earthquakes during that period. Coring, heat-flow and piezometer measurements were also carried out. Offshore northern Sumatra, the Australia/Sundaland motion is 5 cm/yr in the N008° direction (Bock et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2003), which means that both strike-slip and normal components might occur along features parallel to the trench direction. However, focal mechanisms of the 26th December 2004 earthquake as well as co-seismic motions and 5-days post-seismic displacement field determined from GPS sites are essentially perpendicular to the trench direction (Vigny et al., Nature, 2005). There is consequently an apparent mismatch between deformations derived from plate motions and from co-seismic and immediate after-slip motions. This might suggest that long-term post-seismic motions might have also a significant component of strike-slip motion along features parallel to the trench direction. Between the trench and the backstop located southwest of the Aceh forearc basin, numerous trench parallel piggy back basins were mapped, suggesting the existence of numerous thrust faults. On the basis of morphology, coring and heat flow measurements, a major active thrust fault, which might correspond to an active splay fault, was identified southwest of the Aceh forearc basin. The

  19. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Francesca C; Benson, Jody; Hanson, Stephanie; Mark, Carol; Wetovsky, Marvin A

    2004-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. PREFACE: 26th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-26)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    26th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-26) Takayuki Watanabe The 26th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-26) was held in Fukuoka, Japan on September 23-24, 2013. SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. Plasma processing have attracted extensive attention due to their unique advantages, and it is expected to be utilized for a number of innovative industrial applications such as synthesis of high-quality and high-performance nanomaterials. The advantages of plasmas including high chemical reactivity in accordance with required chemical reactions are beneficial for innovative processing. In recent years, plasma materials processing with reactive plasmas has been extensively employed in the fields of environmental issues and biotechnology. This conference seeks to bring different scientific communities together to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues. The conference provides a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas by the contacts between science, technology, and industry. The conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations, and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 142 participants from 10 countries and 104 presentations, including 11 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that cover Plasma Medicine and Biotechnologies, Business and Academia Cooperation, Plasma with Liquids, Plasma Processes for Nanomaterials, together with Basic, Electronics, and Thermal Plasma sessions. This special issue presents 28

  1. Joint EM-NE-International Study of Glass Behavior over Geologic Time Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Joseph V.; Ebert, W. L.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-03-30

    Vitrification has been chosen as the best demonstrated available technology for waste immobilization worldwide. To date, the contributions of physical and chemical processes controlling the long-term glass dissolution rate in geologic disposal remain uncertain; leading to a lack of international consensus on a glass corrosion rate law. Existing rate laws have overcome the uncertainty through conservatism, but a thorough mechanistic understanding of waste form durability in geologic environments would improve public and regulator confidence, as well as lead to cost savings if it is possible to take credit for the true durability of the waste form itself in system evaluations. To this end, six nations have joined together to formulate a joint plan for collaborative research into the mechanisms controlling the long-term corrosion of glass. This report highlights the technical program plan behind the US portion of this effort, with an emphasis on the current understanding (and limitations) of several mechanistic theories for glass corrosion. Some recent results are presented to provide an example of the ongoing research.

  2. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  3. Complete Genome Characterisation of a Novel 26th Bluetongue Virus Serotype from Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Veronesi, Eva; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Bluetongue virus is the “type” species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Twenty four distinct bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have been recognized for decades, any of which is thought to be capable of causing “bluetongue” (BT), an insect-borne disease of ruminants. However, two further BTV serotypes, BTV-25 (Toggenburg orbivirus, from Switzerland) and BTV-26 (from Kuwait) have recently been identified in goats and sheep, respectively. The BTV genome is composed of ten segments of linear dsRNA, encoding 7 virus-structural proteins (VP1 to VP7) and four distinct non-structural (NS) proteins (NS1 to NS4). We report the entire BTV-26 genome sequence (isolate KUW2010/02) and comparisons to other orbiviruses. Highest identity levels were consistently detected with other BTV strains, identifying KUW2010/02 as BTV. The outer-core protein and major BTV serogroup-specific antigen “VP7” showed 98% aa sequence identity with BTV-25, indicating a common ancestry. However, higher level of variation in the nucleotide sequence of Seg-7 (81.2% identity) suggests strong conservation pressures on the protein of these two strains, and that they diverged a long time ago. Comparisons of Seg-2, encoding major outer-capsid component and cell-attachment protein “VP2” identified KUW2010/02 as 26th BTV, within a 12th Seg-2 nucleotype [nucleotype L]. Comparisons of Seg-6, encoding the smaller outer capsid protein VP5, also showed levels of nt/aa variation consistent with identification of KUW2010/02 as BTV-26 (within a 9th Seg-6 nucleotype - nucleotype I). Sequence data for Seg-2 of KUW2010/02 were used to design four sets of oligonucleotide primers for use in BTV-26, type-specific RT-PCR assays. Analyses of other more conserved genome segments placed KUW2010/02 and BTV-25/SWI2008/01 closer to each other than to other “eastern” or “western” BTV strains, but as representatives of two novel and distinct geographic groups (topotypes). Our analyses indicate that

  4. International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1979-01-01

    The International Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for international cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)

  5. Evolution of geological processes; International Geological Congress, Session, 28th, Washington, DC, July 9-19, 1989, Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianshin, A. L.

    Topics discussed include the initial stages in the evolution of lithosphere, the tectonic evolution of the lithosphere in the Precambrian and the Phanerozoic, the evolution of sedimentation and lithogenesis in the Precambrian and the Phanerozoic, the evolution of the paleoenvironment of the ocean, and the evolution of ore formation. Papers are presented on the evolution of granite-greenstone terrains according to Sm-Nd geochronometry; volcanic belts as indicators of the tectonic evolution of the eastern continental margin of Eurasia; and the role of the earth tides in the tectonic evolution of the earth. Attention is also given to the evolution of Alpine-type molasses, the phenomena of irreversibility and recurrence in ore-formation in the course of the earth's geological history, the main features in the evolution of volcanogenic ferroaccumulation in the Early Precambrian, and the evolution of hydrocarbon and ore formation in the sedimentary strata of platform regions.

  6. Intergovernmental Conference of Experts for Preparing an International Geological Correlation Programme (IGCP) (Paris, October 19-28, 1971). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A summary of the proceedings of the conference of experts convened by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and by the International Union of Geological Sciences introduces a discussion of the need for a standard terminology and for the collection of compatible global data to enable progress to be made in…

  7. Incorporating the International Polar Year Into Introductory Geology Laboratories at Ohio State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, S. A.; Wilson, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) provides an excellent opportunity for highlighting polar research in education. The ultimate goal of our outreach and education program is to develop a series of modules that are focused on societally-relevant topics being investigated in Antarctic earth science, while teaching basic geologic concepts that are standard elements of school curricula. For example, we envision a university-level, undergraduate, introductory earth science class with the entire semester/quarter laboratory program focused on polar earth science research during the period of the International Polar Year. To attain this goal, a series of modules will be developed, including inquiry-based exercises founded on imagery (video, digital photos, digital core scans), GIS data layers, maps, and data sets available from OSU research groups. Modules that highlight polar research are also suitable for the K-12 audience. Scaleable/grade appropriate modules that use some of the same data sets as the undergraduate modules can be outlined for elementary through high school earth science classes. An initial module is being developed that focuses on paleoclimate data. The module provides a hands-on investigation of the climate history archived in both ice cores and sedimentary rock cores in order to understand time scales, drivers, and processes of global climate change. The paleoclimate module also demonstrates the types of polar research that are ongoing at OSU, allowing students to observe what research the faculty are undertaking in their respective fields. This will link faculty research with student education in the classroom, enhancing learning outcomes. Finally, this module will provide a direct link to U.S. Antarctic Program research related to the International Polar Year, when new ice and sedimentary rock cores will be obtained and analyzed. As a result of this laboratory exercise, the students will be able to: (1) Define an ice core and a sedimentary rock core

  8. Overview of Internal Research on Geological Sequestration of CO2 at ORD

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is widely acknowledged that leakage through transmissive faults (and associated fractures) and well penetrations (operational, non-operational, and abandoned wells) are the most likely pathways for migration out of a storage formation at sites selected for geological sequestra...

  9. Overview of Internal Research on Geological Sequestration of CO2 at ORD

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is widely acknowledged that leakage through transmissive faults (and associated fractures) and well penetrations (operational, non-operational, and abandoned wells) are the most likely pathways for migration out of a storage formation at sites selected for geological sequestra...

  10. Selected Monographs from the Association for Experiential Education International Conference (26th, Incline Village, Nevada, November 5-9, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Experiential Education, Boulder, CO.

    This document contains 20 edited presentations, each in a two-page digest-like format, from the 1998 conference of the Association for Experiential Education (AEE). Presentations are: (1) "Adapting Equipment and Teaching Methods for Persons with Disabilities" (Cindy Dillenschneider); (2) "Adventure Programming and Facilitating When You Don't Know…

  11. Space Congress, 26th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Apr. 25-28, 1989, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of new programs in space research, including a new beginning for the manned space flight, a rebirth of expendable vehicles, and commercialization of space exploration. Topics discussed include the next generation of STS, national space programs, space enterprise development, commercial space transportation, technology benefits, and the international aspect of Space Station. Attention is also given to state initiatives in space, launch responsiveness, offshore space launch developments, and Shuttle and Space Station scientific payloads and their role in the next generation.

  12. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  13. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, Boris; Birkholzer, Jens; Persoff, Peter; Sassani, David; Swift, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Fifth Worldwide Review is to document evolution in the state-of-the-art of approaches for nuclear waste disposal in geological formations since the Fourth Worldwide Review that was released in 2006. The last ten years since the previous Worldwide Review has seen major developments in a number of nations throughout the world pursuing geological disposal programs, both in preparing and reviewing safety cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. The countries that are approaching implementation of geological disposal will increasingly focus on the feasibility of safely constructing and operating their repositories in short- and long terms on the basis existing regulations. The WWR-5 will also address a number of specific technical issues in safety case development along with the interplay among stakeholder concerns, technical feasibility, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. Preparation and publication of the Fifth Worldwide Review on nuclear waste disposal facilitates assessing the lessons learned and developing future cooperation between the countries. The Report provides scientific and technical experiences on preparing for and developing scientific and technical bases for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic repositories in terms of requirements, societal expectations and the adequacy of cases for long-term repository safety. The Chapters include potential issues that may arise as repository programs mature, and identify techniques that demonstrate the safety cases and aid in promoting and gaining societal confidence. The report will also be used to exchange experience with other fields of industry and technology, in which concepts similar to the design and safety cases are applied, as well to facilitate the public perception and understanding of the safety of the disposal approaches relative to risks that may increase over long times frames in the absence of a successful

  14. International Socio-Technical Challenges for Geological Disposal (InSOTEC): Project Aims and Preliminary Results - 12236

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmans, Anne; Schroeder, Jantine; Simmons, Peter; Barthe, Yannick; Meyer, Morgan; Sundqvist, Goeran; Martell, Merixell; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate

    2012-07-01

    InSOTEC is a social sciences research project which aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in radioactive waste management and, in particular, in the design and implementation of geological disposal. It currently investigates and analyses the most striking socio-technical challenges to implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste in 14 national programs. A focus is put on situations and issues where the relationship between the technical and social components is still unstable, ambiguous and controversial, and where negotiations are taking place in terms of problem definitions and preferred solutions. Such negotiations can vary from relatively minor contestation, over mild commotion, to strong and open conflicts. Concrete examples of socio-technical challenges are: the question of siting, introducing the notion of reversibility / retrievability into the concept of geological disposal, or monitoring for confidence building. In a second stage the InSOTEC partners aim to develop a fine-grained understanding of how the technical and the social influence, shape, build upon each other in the case of radioactive waste management and the design and implementation of geological disposal. How are socio-technical combinations in this field translated and materialized into the solutions finally adopted? With what kinds of tools and instruments are they being integrated? Complementary to providing better theoretical insight into these socio-technical challenges/combinations, InSOTEC aims to provide concrete suggestions on how to address these within national and international contexts. To this end, InSOTEC will deliver insights into how mechanisms for interaction between the technical community and a broad range of socio-political actors could be developed. (authors)

  15. 26th Thermophysics Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, J.A.; Rodriguez, E.; Slemp, W.S.; Stoyack, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal control coatings with high thermal emittance and low solar absorptance are needed for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic power module radiator (SDR) surfaces for efficient heat rejection. Additionally, these coatings must be durable to low earth orbital (LEO) environmental effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and deep thermal cycles which occur as a result of start-up and shut-down of the solar dynamic power system. Eleven candidate coatings were characterized for their solar absorptance and emittance before and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (200 to 400 nm), vacuum UV (VUV) radiation (100 to 200 nm) and atomic oxygen. Results indicated that the most durable and best performing coatings were white paint thermal control coatings Z-93, zinc oxide pigment in potassium silicate binder, and YB{sup -71}, zinc orthotitanate pigment in potassium silicate binder. Optical micrographs of these materials exposed to the individual environmental effects of atomic oxygen and vacuum thermal cycling showed that no surface cracking occurred.

  16. Historical review of the international water-resources program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1940-70

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.

    1976-01-01

    The review describes the history of the U.S. Geological Survey 's (USGS) activities in international water-resources investigations and institutional development as well as exchange in scientific and applied hydrology during 1940-70. The bulk of these activities has been carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development and its predecessors, the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and the regional intergovernmental agencies. The central objectives of the USGS ' international water-resources activities have been to strengthen the administrative, staff, and operational functions of counterpart governmental hydrological and water-resources agencies; to improve the skills and capabilities of host-country scientific, engineering, and technical personnel; to exchange research specialists and publications in the sharing of advances in hydrological knowledge and methodology; and to participate in mutually beneficial international organizations, symposia, conferences, seminars, and special programs dedicated to various aspects of scientific and applied hydrology. Between 1940 and 1970, USGS hydrogeologists, water chemists, engineers, and hydrologists completed 340 short- and long-term project-oriented international assignments in some 80 host countries. During the same time more than 428 water scientists, engineers, and technicians from 60 countries have received academic and in-service training through USGS water-resources facilities in the United States. Also in this period some 336 reports of a technical and scientific nature have resulted from water-resources projects in the U.S bilateral program. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (26th, Tarrytown, New York, March 23-24, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell-Carter, Marya, Ed.; Gonder, Jennifer, Ed.; Mushtaq, Zahra, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Included herein is the conference proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference on the Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations, sponsored by the Psychology Department of the State University of New York at Farmingdale. The conference theme for 2012 was: The value of an undergraduate degree in psychology: Why psychology--Why now?. The Conference…

  18. NEW DIRECTIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL ARTS, ADDRESSES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL ARTS ASSOCIATION (26TH, WASHINGTON, 1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    MOST OF THE IMPORTANT ADDRESSES GIVEN AT THE 26TH AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL ARTS ASSOCIATION CONVENTION ARE IN THIS REPORT. THEY INCLUDE (1) "INDUSTRIAL ARTS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH" BY E. MCCARTHY, (2) "THE MANPOWER PROBLEM--SOME CHALLENGES FOR ALL LEVELS OF EDUCATION" BY E. CLAGUE, (3) "NEW PRESSURES--AND OLD" BY H. BENJAMIN, (4) "IDENTIFYING THE…

  19. Geology for youth in Lithuania: International Year of Planet Earth-related and other activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Skrinskas, Skirmantas; Nemaniene, Jurgita

    2010-05-01

    A great number of Lithuanian secondary and high schools devoted a range of activities to Earth sciences on September 22 (autumn equinox), 2008 proclaimed by the Lithuanian National Committee for IYPE and Ministry of Education and Science of Lithuania as "Earth's day". Beforehand, the 11 IYPE brochures were translated, supplemented with relevant Lithuanian data and placed on the website www.zemesmetai.lt. The activities comprised lessons, competitions, performances, field trips, seminars, excursions to museums and nature sites, meetings with geologists and naturalists etc. In many schools the 10 scientific themes were expanded, transformed and included into different school programmes such as geography, chemistry, physics, biology, Lithuanian language etc. The other schools preferred to organise discussions, performances and concerts where children expressed their concern about future of the Earth and suggested ways to save it. Several schools invited geologists, ecologists or other representatives of Earth sciences or local authorities to provide with information on environmental and geological issues in Lithuania and their own surroundings. Several museums and nature sites were visited. The "Earth's day" was advertised and broadcasted on TV and radio, reflected in the press. The reports from schools were placed on the Lithuanian IYPE website. The Board acknowledged the best participants with special letter of thanks. It turned out that despite the provided information on different subjects of geology only few of them were chosen. School teachers encountered some problems relating the Earth's interior with its surface, recognising modern geological processes etc. They found some brochures to be too complicated for non-specialists. Biodiversity was much easier to explain and present as geodiversity. Nevertheless, everybody admitted the great importance of geosciences in society and insufficient knowledge, and greatly acknowledged the initiative of the IYPE. The

  20. U.S. Geological Survey disaster response and the International Charter for space and major disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stryker, Timothy S.; Jones, Brenda K.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, an international consortium of space agencies conceived and approved a mechanism to provide satellite information in support of worldwide disaster relief. This group came to be known as the 'International Charter?Space and Major Disasters' and has become an important resource for the use of satellite data to evaluate and provide support for response to natural and man-made disasters. From the Charter's formative days in 1999, its membership has grown to 10 space organizations managing more than 20 earth-observing satellites.

  1. The internal geology and emplacement history of the Renard 2 kimberlite, Superior Province, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, C. E.; Hetman, C. M.; Lepine, I.; Skelton, D. S.; McCandless, T. E.

    2009-11-01

    The Renard 2 kimberlite is located in the Otish Mountains region of Quebec, Canada and is one of the largest pipes in the Renard cluster. The cluster consists of nine kimberlite bodies and was discovered in 2001 by Ashton Mining of Canada Inc. and its joint venture partner SOQUEM Inc. Renard 2 was emplaced into Archean meta-greywacke derived migmatite, gneiss and granite of the Opinaca Subprovince of the eastern Superior Province at approximately 640.5 ± 2.8 Ma. An undetermined amount of erosion has occurred since emplacement with the present surface expression of the pipe estimated to be 0.75 ha. This kimberlite is interpreted as a steep-sided diatreme with minor irregularities in the external shape. The dominant infill is a massive volcaniclastic kimberlite (MVK) that is classified as tuffisitic kimberlite breccia (TKB) and is characterized by a high proportion of granitoid country rock xenoliths. A second dominant infill is a texturally complex, less diluted coherent kimberlite (CK) characterized locally by a transitional textures between CK and TKB. Surrounding the diatreme is a significant zone of variable width comprised of extensively brecciated country rock (+/-kimberlite) and referred to as marginal breccia. In addition to the two main rock types infilling the pipe, a number of hypabyssal kimberlite (HK) dykes and irregular shaped intrusions occur throughout the body, along the pipe contacts, within the marginal breccia and in the surrounding country rock. Geological features displayed by Renard 2 are similar to those described from Class 1 kimberlites of the Kimberley area of South Africa, the Gahcho Kué cluster of Canada and the Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field of Brazil. The economic evaluation of Renard 2 is in progress and to date has included extensive diamond and reverse circulation drilling as well as the collection of an underground bulk sample. Results from material sampled from Renard 2, including a 2449 tonne bulk sample, suggest Renard 2 has

  2. Travelogue of Konrad Keilhack (1858-1944), Geologist from Berlin, attending the International Geological Congress 1897 in St. Petersburg (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffl, Fritz A.; Dullo, Wolf-Christian

    2015-09-01

    Keilhack reported his impressions from his participation at the International Geological Congress in Russia in 1897 in several consecutive articles. In the more than 100 years since that time, a lot has changed. Apart from the totally different style of scientific presentations, with almost no illustrations, except maps, being shown during a talk, field trips were also a very special event, involving huge amounts of logistics. More than 200 people were transported to very remote areas of the European part of Russia. As well as organizing transportation by coaches and horses, places to stay overnight had to be found in large numbers and special regulations had to be issued by the government to allow access to various outcrops. Keilhacks visit of the oil-producing sites around Baku are of special interest, since they belonged obviously to the most productive ones on the globe at that time.

  3. Geologic and societal factors affecting the international oceanic transport of aggregate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregate, and together comprise approximately half the volume and tonnage of mined material in the United States. Natural aggregate is a bulky, heavy material without special or unique properties, and it is commonly used near its source of production to minimize haulage cost. However, remoteness is no longer an absolute disqualifier for the production of aggregate. Today interstate aggregate routinely is shipped hundreds of kilometers by rail and barge. In addition, during 1992, the United States imported 1,317,000 metric tons of aggregate from Canada and 1,531,000 metric tons from Mexico. A number of ports on the Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States receive imports of crushed stone from foreign sources for transport to various parts of the eastern United States. These areas either lack adequate supplies of aggregate or are augmenting their supplies because they have difficulties meeting current demand. These difficulties may include poor stone quality, environmental permitting problems, or transportation. Certain societal and geologic conditions of New York City and Philadelphia along the Atlantic Coast, and Tampa and New Orleans along the Gulf Coast, are discussed to demonstrate the different combinations of issues that contribute to the economic viability of importing crushed stone. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  4. PREFACE: XVIII International Scientific Symposium in Honour of Academician M. A. Usov: Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    XVIII International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' (for students and young scientists) was organized under the guidance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Being one of the oldest technical higher education institutions which trains specialists who contribute to scientific research in geosciences, The Institute of Natural Resources of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU INR) was chosen to hold the symposium. In 2014 The Institute of Natural Resources celebrated its 113th anniversary. It was founded in 1901 by V.A. Obruchev, the first geologist in Siberia, member of USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, and the first Laureate of the Lenin Prize. He was recognized all over the world as a prominent scientist in the area of geology. INR is the first institute of geological education and geosciences in the Asian part of Russia. Siberian Mining and Geological Schola, established by V.A. Obruchev and M.A. Usov, has been retaining its significance for discovery, exploration and development of mineral resources not only in Siberia, in the Far East and North-East of the country, but also in Central Asia. There are a lot of outstanding scientists, engineers and manufacturers among alumni of The Institute of Natural Resources. The institute is proud of M.A. Usov, the student and first postgraduate of V.A. Obruchev, first professor and academician in Siberia, whose name is associated with the development of the mining industry in Siberia; Academician K.I. Satpaev, the founder and first president of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan; Professor N.N. Urvantsev, the discoverer of the unique Norilsk ore deposits in the north of East Siberia and Professor M.K. Korovin, who considered West Siberia deposits to be prospective for oil-gas exploration. There are over 35 000 graduates of the institute and

  5. Integration of Field Geophysics and Geology in an International Setting: Multidisciplinary Geoscience Field Experience at the University of Western Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenders, A. J.; Banerjee, N.; Pratt, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    The pedagogical value of the field experience is unequaled: students, teaching assistants, and professors alike return with a renewed sense of purpose, community, and the context in which to place classroom education. It is widely regarded as valuable to personal development, and is required by the Canadian Council of Professional Geoscientists for professional registration. As part of our ongoing International Geoscience Field Experience Initiative, Earth Sciences students at the University of Western Ontario have the opportunity to enhance their education through a study abroad program. The focus is on a residential field experience to world-class localities, offered with the collaboration of internationally recognized academic researchers, government survey personnel, and industry leaders. Recent trips have included the Sn-W mineralization in the Cornwall district of the U.K., the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) in Portugal and Spain, and the metallogenic belts of Western Turkey. The integration of geological knowledge with geophysical data was one of the key organizing principles of our recent field trips to the IPB and Western Turkey. This integration is a foundation of modern Earth Sciences, and common practice in industry, it is relatively rare in classroom settings. Lectures before departure and evening exercises during the field trip supplemented the core undergraduate curriculum in geophysics, reviewing gravity, DC resistivity, induced polarization (IP), and magnetotelluric methods, focusing on application to mineral exploration. During our trip to the IPB, partnership with industry allowed students the opportunity to work with state of the art geophysical data, acquired on an exploration prospect visited during the field trip. Multi-parameter geophysical inversions of the IP and MT data produced cross-sections in depth - results interpretable by the students in the complex geological environment of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Although the students gained valuable

  6. Coastal Sedimentation And Risks Of Tsunami Associated With 26Th December 2004 In The Kanyakumari Coast Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, N.

    2007-05-01

    The Tsunami signatures were formulated from the field evidence from 26th December 2004 tsunami surge in the Kanyakumari coast. The impact of Tsunami can be identified form the preservation of geomorphic signatures and sedimentary deposits. The more common signature of Tsunami in the deposition of sand with thickness of 20cm towards landward and are sandwiched between finer material and debris on flat coastal plains. Black sands were transported by the strong Tsunami wave flow across the coastal vegetation and could be seen as deposits discontinuous pencil thin lenses in the landward. Thicker units were characterized by a series of lighter minerals fining upwards stacked one upon each other. Each unit indicates the single wave in the Tsunami wave train. Further the relative size of sediment in each site gives and indication of the magnitude of each Tsunami wave. Coarse marine sand mixed with pebbles in landward. tapering sheets was noticed. The Tsunami characteristics were heavily dependent upon the configuration of the coastline. Run up heights In the many locations were three times greater than the initial height of the wave at shore. The damage of concrete roof and Manakudi Bridge indicates the flow velocities and force of tsunami. The Tsunami deposited 15 to 20 can thick sand splays behind sand dunes of chothavilai, pallam and Azhikal coast were seen. The dump deposits were observed around obstacles and road erosion also occurred with formation of turbulent vortices around obstacles and in channelised backwash. Flow velocities were interpreted form these sediment features with those of structural and building damages. A careful observation in the fields indicate that the coast of Kanyakamari is more susceptible to tsunami run up, flooding and inundation. The type of offshore bathymetry and coastal setting are prone to tsunami. The tsunami flood across river inlet and offshore bathymetry is steep. The river mouth surfaces lying only a few metters above sea level

  7. Subsurface geology of Kansai International Airport: sequence related to global glacial - interglacial cycles and island tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, K.; Kitada, N.; Furudoi, T.; Nakaseko, K.

    2007-12-01

    Tectonic sedimentary basins aligned in the central part of Japan during Quaternary . Thick sediments deposited in these basins provide useful records of climatic changes and tectonics throughout Quaternary. The Osaka sedimentary basin including Osaka Bay and area of Kansai International Airport is one of them. The Quaternary Osaka sedimentary basin has developed at an eastern contractional bend of a major transcurrent fault system named the Median Tectonic Line, which divides the southwest Japan arc. The thickness of Pliocene - Pleistocene sediments reaches to ca 3500m at the deepest part. These sequences are called the Osaka Group and are distributed in the Osaka Bay and exposed in the surrounding mountain areas. The Osaka Group is characterized by alternating sequences of marine and nonmarine strata. The subsurface sediments of Kansai International Airport (KIA) is composed mainly of Pliocene - Pleistocene sediments, which is characterized by alternating sequences of marine and nonmarine strata related to glacial - interglacial cycles. . The stratigraphy at KIA was established by micropaleontological, tephrochronological and magnetostratigraphical method. The sedimentary sequence at KIX is divided into two main units (Kukojima and Sennanoki Formations in ascending order) with the uncomformity within two units. Although thick marine clay units are mainly of the subsurface sequence, characteristics of coarser sediment units have an important role of moving of water during construction of the reclaimed land.

  8. PREFACE: XIX International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    XIX International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' (for students and young scientists) was organized under the guidance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research within the National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (NR TPU). TPU is one of the oldest technical higher education institutions in Russia, training specialists in the domain of geoscience and enhancing their further research in this area. The Institute of Natural Resources, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (INR TPU) was chosen to hold the International Scientific Symposium. In 2015 the Institute of Natural Resources celebrated its 114th anniversary. It was founded by V.A. Obruchev in 1901, first Siberian geologist, member of USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, and first Laureate of the Lenin Prize. He was recognized as a prominent scientist in the area of geology all over the world. INR is the first institute of geological education and geosciences in Asian Russia. Even today the Siberian Mining and Geological School, established by V.A. Obruchev and M.A. Usov, has retained its significance in the discovery, exploration and development of mineral resources not only in Siberia, the Far East and North-East of Russia, but also in Central Asia. There are numerous outstanding scientists and engineers among alumni of The Institute of Natural Resources. The institute is proud of such outstanding people as: M.A. Usov, student and first postgraduate of V.A. Obruchev, first professor and academician in Siberia, whose name is associated with the mining industry in Siberia; Academician K.I. Satpaev, founder and first president of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan; Professor N.N. Urvantsev, discoverer of the unique Norilsk ore deposits in the North of East Siberia and Professor M.K. Korovin, who, in the 30s of the 20th century

  9. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiatives: Records management for deep and near surface geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, P.J.

    1996-09-01

    The international scientific community has long had an interest in determining methods by which information regarding nuclear waste repositories, and the inherent danger to humanity, could be passed from generation to generation and society to society. Because nuclear waste will remain radioactive for thousands of years future generations must be warned of the dangers thus eliminating intentional or inadvertent intrusion. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained so that this information remains accessible to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years; thus the retention of information continues beyond current societies, cultures and languages, and must be continually migrated to new retrieval technologies to assure access.

  10. Geodynamic evolution of eastern Dronning Maud Land: research highlights from an international geological-geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Joachim; Ehlburg, Marlina; Laeufer, Andreas; Clark, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka; Andersen, Tom; Mieth, Matthias; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole; Estrada, Solveig; Jokat, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    East Antarctica formed by amalgamation of a number of cratons along distinct Ediacaran mobile belts, including the ca. 600-500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen (EAAO) and the Kuunga Orogen that apparently converge in Dronning Maud Land (DML). In central DML, the major Forster Magnetic Anomaly separates rocks with Grenville-age protolith ages of ca. 1130-1000 Ma to the W, from rocks with Early Neoproterozic protolith ages, c. 1000-930 Ma, to the East. The Forster Magnetic Anomaly is therefore interpreted as a suture. New field-work during two recent international expeditions, Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica (GEA) I + II, and first geoscientic results reveal a complex tectonic architecture between Sør Rondane and central DML. East of the Forster anomaly, the magnetic anomaly pattern changes significantly and typical Maud type crust is not present any longer. GEA II targeted a range of nunataks between Sør Rondane and central DML that had never been visited previously (from Blåklettane and Bergekongen in the E to Urna and Sørsteinen in the W). These nunataks are dominated by medium- to high-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of possibly Neoproterozoic age, including abundant marble and graphite schists. Sør Rondane in eastern DML, is dominated by two distinct blocks separated by the dextral Main Shear Zone. The northwestern block appears as part of the EAAO or the Kuunga Orogen, where new SHRIMP zircon data from metamorphic rims provide ages of ca. 560 Ma. The southeastern block is made up of a TTG terrane, which provides 12 new zircon crystallistation ages ranging from 1000-930 Ma. The TTG terrane has predominantly oceanic affinities and the wide range of ages might indicate long-lasting accretionary tectonics. The TTG terrane shows in part limited tectonic overprint and could be the southeastern foreland of the EAAO or the Kuunga Orogen. Close to the contact of the two blocks, grey geisses and augen-gneisses gave zircon crystallization ages of

  11. Advances in research of Asian geology—A summary of 1:5M International Geological Map of Asia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jishun; Niu, Baogui; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xiaochi; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Renyan

    2013-08-01

    The International Geological Map of Asia at a 1:5,000,000 scale (IGMA5000) is the first digital Asian geological map under the standard of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). Major advances that have been achieved in compiling the map are manifested in the following understandings. Large amounts of Mesozoic volcanic rocks occurring in the eastern Asian coastal area are mainly Cretaceous instead of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous. Most of the Carboniferous-Permian volcanic rocks in Central Asia seem not to be arc volcanics, but the product of an extensional stage. The basal boundary of the Meso-Neoproterozoic Jixian section in China is not dated at 1.8 Ga as defined previously, but less than 1.68 Ga. The most significant Neoarchean tectono-thermal events in the Sino-Korean craton and the Indian craton took place at 2.5 Ga rather than at 2.7 Ga. The basement of the Yangtze craton was finally formed at 0.75-0.8 Ga, which is 0.2-0.3 Ga later than the Greenville orogenic cycle. Geologically, South China is identified to be an Early Paleozoic Caledonian foldbelt. The Qinling belt, where no oceanic basin was developed in Triassic times, is not an Indosinian collisional orogen, but a continental crust subduction one. When Pangea was formed, Indo-Australian Gondwana had been joined to Paleo-Asia and between them there was no oceanic basin, i.e. no Paleo-Tethys which continued from Paleozoic to Mesozoic. A huge Indosinian orogenic belt existed on the southern margin of Paleo-Asia to the north of the Zagros-Himalayas. Asia is a composite continent consisting of three major cratons—the Siberian, Indian and Arabian and three huge orogenic belts with a number of minor cratons and numerous microcontinents included. The main body of the Asian continent took its shape during the Mesozoic. The orogenic belts belong respectively to three global tectonic domains: the Paleo-Asian, Tethyan and Pacific. The small cratons, such as Sino-Korea, Yangtze, Tarim, and

  12. [Determination of Sb and Bi in 24 international geological reference materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhao-chu; Gao, Shan; Liu, Xiao-ming; Yuan, Hong-lin; Liu, Ye; Diwu, Chun-rong

    2007-12-01

    The authors studied in detail the memory effect of Bi, Sb, As and Te in ICP-MS. The produced memory effects of these element were in the order of Bi>Sb>Te>As. Bi was seriously adsorbed by the polypropylene sample storing bottle and the sample introduction system in the low nitric acid medium (0.01%-1% HNO3). The washout effect of 0.1% HF was found to be better than those of 6% HNO3 and 0.1% HClO4. Under the given experiment conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.001 and 0.0001 ng x mL(-1) for Sb and Bi, respectively. The authors report the determination of Sb and Bi in 24 international geological reference materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS (including AGV-2, BHVO-2, BCR-2, etc.). Most of the results were found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported values in the literature. The authors' determined values of Sb for GSR-1 (granite; 0.30 microg x g(-1)) and JP-1 (peridotite; 0.045 microg x g(-1)) are obviously higher than those reported values. This is attributed to the efficient pressurized acid digestion, which is generally much more efficient than conventional wet digestions for insoluble minerals.

  13. Results From an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist; D. Barr; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C. Zhang

    2006-08-02

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

  14. Success of the International Year of the Planet Earth through Targeted High-impact Programs at the American Geological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, P.

    2007-12-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) is one of the 12 founding partners of the International Year of the Planet Earth (IYPE) and as such AGI serves on its governing board. AGI is a nonprofit federation of 44 geoscientific and professional associations that represents more than 120,000 geologists, geophysicists, and other earth scientists. AGI provides information services to geoscientists, serves as a voice of shared interests in our profession, plays a major role in strengthening geoscience education, and strives to increase public awareness of the vital role the geosciences play in society's use of resources, resilience to natural hazards, and the health of the environment. The outreach and educational opportunities afforded by IYPE provide AGI with an international venue to promote the role of the geosciences in the daily life of society. AGI's successful release of the 4-part television series entitled Faces of Earth done in partnership with the Discovery Communications is a hallmark example of an outreach product that is technically accurate but designed to engage the non-scientific audience in the wonderment of our science. The series focuses on building the planet, shaping the planet, assembling America, and the human world. Custom short cuts have been produced for special purposes and one of these may be used as part of an IYPE-launch event in Europe. AGI's news magazine, Geotimes will highlight appropriate IYPE events to increase the awareness of the American geoscience community. In addition, Geotimes will promote IYPE by using its logo routinely and through publishing advertisements reminding its professional and public readership of the importance of the IYPE triennium. Similarly, as part of AGI's K-12 educational efforts and teacher training and through its development of Earth Science Week materials, the goals, accomplishments, and importance of IYPE will be incorporated into the targeted educational audiences. IYPE activities will be highlighted

  15. 9th Caribbean Geological Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Gren

    The ninth in a series of Caribbean Geological Conferences, which are held every 3 or 4 years, took place in Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic, from the 15th to 26th of August 1980. The conference, which was sponsored by the government of the Dominican Republic and the Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, was preceded by 2 days of field trips and was opened by President Antonio Guzman on the evening of the 17th of August. Generous support was provided by Alcoa Exploration Co., Falconbridge Dominicana, and Rosario Dominicana.Geologists and geophysicists from 25 countries presented about 130 papers on a wide variety of topics ranging from geophysics to paleontology. While the whole Caribbean area was discussed, there was special emphasis on the northern Caribbean and Hispaniola, as befitted the site of the conference. The contribution of workers from the Dirección General de Mineriá was particularly notable.

  16. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  17. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Science 2015 (AeroEarth 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 3rd International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospaces and Earth Sciences 2015 (AeroEarth 2015), was held at The DoubleTree Hilton, Jakarta, Indonesia during 26 - 27 September 2015. The 1st AeoroEarth was held succefully in Jakarta in 2013. The success continued to The 2nd AeroEarth 2014 that was held in Kuta Bali, Indonesia. The publications were published by EES IOP in http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/19/1 and http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/23/1 respectively. The AeroEarth 2015 conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. Through research and development, Earth's scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. The theme of AeroEarth 2015 is ''Earth and Aerospace Sciences : Challenges and Opportunities'' Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 78 papers and after rigorous review, 18 papers were accepted. The participants

  18. Geology Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  19. Cirrus cloud development in a mobile upper tropospheric trough: The November 26th FIRE cirrus case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1993-01-01

    The period from 18 UTC 26 Nov. 1991 to roughly 23 UTC 26 Nov. 1991 is one of the study periods of the FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Regional Experiment) 2 field campaign. The middle and upper tropospheric cloud data that was collected during this time allowed FIRE scientists to learn a great deal about the detailed structure, microphysics, and radiative characteristics of the mid latitude cirrus that occurred during that time. Modeling studies that range from the microphysical to the mesoscale are now underway attempting to piece the detailed knowledge of this cloud system into a coherent picture of the atmospheric processes important to cirrus cloud development and maintenance. An important component of the modeling work, either as an input parameter in the case of cloud-scale models, or as output in the case of meso and larger scale models, is the large scale forcing of the cloud system. By forcing we mean the synoptic scale vertical motions and moisture budget that initially send air parcels ascending and supply the water vapor to allow condensation during ascent. Defining this forcing from the synoptic scale to the cloud scale is one of the stated scientific objectives of the FIRE program. From the standpoint of model validation, it is also necessary that the vertical motions and large scale moisture budget of the case studies be derived from observations. It is considered important that the models used to simulate the observed cloud fields begin with the correct dynamics and that the dynamics be in the right place for the right reasons.

  20. Geologic report and recommendations for the cobalt mission to Morocco sponsored by The Trade and Development Program of the International Development Cooperation Agency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Rossman, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    A mission sponsored by the Trade and Development Program (TDP) of the International Development Cooperation Agency (IDCA) went to Morocco to evaluate the possibility of finding additional sources of cobalt in that country, as well as other types of mineralization. Information obtained during this trip shows Morocco to be a country for which much geologic information is available and in which there are many favorable target areas for future exploration. Work in the Bou Azzer district (Morocco's principal cobalt district) shows that much excellent geologic work has been done in searching for additional deposits. However, a number of useful approaches to locate cobalt have not been tried, and their use might be successful. The potential for undiscovered deposits in the Bou Azzer region seems very high. The cobalt mineralization in the Siroua uplift is different from that in the Bou Azzer district. However, geologic similarities between the two areas suggest that a genetic link may exist between the two types of mineralization. This further indicates that cobalt deposits of the Bou Azzer types might be present in the Siroua region. Examination of the Bleida copper mine shows it to be a well-exposed volcanic hosted stratabound copper deposit. Large unexplored areas containing similar rocks occur near this deposit and may contain as yet undiscovered copper mineralization.

  1. Contributions to the American Meteorological Society’s 26th International Conference on Radar Meteorology at Norman, Oklahoma, on May 24-28, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Ms~ns~ ~ Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration. Documient Is available to dhe public through the National Technical Inforination Service ...detecton iultipe Dopplr aniealy, adjoint iethd Trminal Dopplr Inie.t i, Trmina, ’ ,,thr Temiial Ar , S or,, .ili National Technical Information Service ...Period Covered Department of Transportation Project Report Federal Aviation Administration Systems Research and Development Service 14. Sponsoring Agency

  2. Imagery and Visual Literacy: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (26th, Tempe, Arizona, October 12-16, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Darrell G.; And Others

    This document contains selected conference papers all relating to visual literacy. The topics include: process issues in visual literacy; interpreting visual statements; what teachers need to know; multimedia presentations; distance education materials for correctional use; visual culture; audio-visual interaction in desktop multimedia; the…

  3. Interfaces between transport and geologic disposal systems for high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel: A new international guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Baekelandt, L.; Hoorelbeke, J.M.; Han, K.W.; Pollog, T.; Blackman, D.; Villagran, J.E.

    1994-04-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Document (TECDOC) has been developed and will be published by the IAEA. The TECDOC addresses the interfaces between the transport and geologic disposal systems for, high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The document is intended to define and assist in discussing, at both the domestic and the international level, regulatory, technical, administrative, and institutional interfaces associated with HLW and SNF transport and disposal systems; it identifies and discusses the interfaces and interface requirements between the HLW and SNF, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the HLW/SNF disposal facility. It provides definitions and explanations of terms; discusses systems, interfaces and interface requirements; addresses alternative strategies (single-purpose packages and multipurpose packages) and how interfaces are affected by the strategies; and provides a tabular summary of the requirements.

  4. Relations of plasma polyunsaturated Fatty acids with blood pressures during the 26th and 28th week of gestation in women of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-03-01

    Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension.We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids.Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [-0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, -0.89 to -0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [-0.52 (CI -0.92 to -0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs-blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07).Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension in Asian women

  5. Relations of Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids With Blood Pressures During the 26th and 28th Week of Gestation in Women of Chinese, Malay, and Indian Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension. We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [−0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, −0.89 to −0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [−0.52 (CI −0.92 to −0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs–blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07). Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy

  6. 26th National Neurotrauma Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-31

    SPINAL CORD INJURY Therapeutic Intervention, Cellular-Molecular Signaling Pathways SCI Chen -Guang Yu University of Kentucky Yu Chen -Guang, Yezierski...Simon Sakina G. Thawer Kyle Fink Lai Yee Leung Wei Jin Qin Chen Anders Hanell Eugene Park Cassie Mitchell Yong Jiang Alexander Tuchman Laura...months or even years after blast exposure. People with BINT can show memory loss for events before and after the explosion, confusion, headache

  7. Anammox moving bed biofilm reactor pilot at the 26th Ward wastewater treatment plants in Brooklyn, New York: start-up, biofilm population diversity and performance optimization.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, M; Park, H; Ramalingam, K; Fillos, J; Beckmann, K; Deur, A; Chandran, K

    2014-01-01

    New York City Environmental Protection in conjunction with City College of New York assessed the application of the anammox process in the reject water treatment using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) located at the 26th Ward wastewater treatment plant, in Brooklyn, NY. The single-stage nitritation/anammox MBBR was seeded with activated sludge and consequently was enriched with its own 'homegrown' anammox bacteria (AMX). Objectives of this study included collection of additional process kinetic and operating data and assessment of the effect of nitrogen loading rates on process performance. The initial target total inorganic nitrogen removal of 70% was limited by the low alkalinity concentration available in the influent reject water. Higher removals were achieved after supplementing the alkalinity by adding sodium hydroxide. Throughout startup and process optimization, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were used for monitoring the relevant species enriched in the biofilm and in the suspension. Maximum nitrogen removal rate was achieved by stimulating the growth of a thick biofilm on the carriers, and controlling the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the bulk flow and the nitrogen loading rates per surface area; all three appear to have contributed in suppressing nitrite-oxidizing bacteria activity while enriching AMX density within the biofilm.

  8. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  9. Internal standards in fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy1 1 Publication authorized by the Director, U.S. Geological Survey.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adler, I.; Axelrod, J.M.

    1955-01-01

    The use of internal standards in the analysis of ores and minerals of widely-varying matrix by means of fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy is frequently the most practical approach. Internal standards correct for absorption and enhancement effects except when an absorption edge falls between the comparison lines or a very strong emission line falls between the absorption edges responsible for the comparison lines. Particle size variations may introduce substantial errors. One method of coping with the particle size problem is grinding the sample with an added abrasive. ?? 1955.

  10. Integrating seismic reflection and geological data and interpretations across an internal basement massif: The southern Appalachian Pine Mountain window, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.; Hatcher, R.D.; Stephenson, W.J.; Hooper, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The southern Appalachian Pine Mountain window exposes 1.1 Ga Grenvillian basement and its metasedimentary Paleozoic(?) cover through the allochthonous Inner Piedmont. The issue of whether the crustal block inside the window was either transported above the master Appalachian (late Alleghanian) de??collement or is an autochthonous block that was overridden by the de??collement has been debated for some time. New detrital zircon geochronologic data from the cover rocks inside the window suggest this crustal block was derived from Gondwana but docked with Laurentia before the Alleghanian event. Reprocessed deep seismic reflection data from west-central Georgia (pre- and poststack noise reduction, amplitude variation analysis, and prestack depth migration) indicate that a significant band of subhorizontal reflections occurs almost continuously beneath the window collinear with the originally recognized de??collement reflections north of the window. A marked variation in the de??collement image, from strong and coherent north of the window to more diffuse directly beneath the window, is likely a partial consequence of the different geology between the Inner Piedmont and the window. The more diffuse image beneath the window may also result from imaging problems related to changes in topography and fold of cover (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). Two alternative tectonic models for the Pine Mountain window can partially account for the observed variation in the de??collement reflectivity. (1) The Pine Mountain block could be truncated below by a relatively smooth continuation of the de??collement. The window would thus expose an allochthonous basement duplex or horse-block thrust upward from the south along the Late Proterozoic rifted continental margin. (2) The window represents localized exhumation of autochthonous basement and cover along a zone of distributed intrabasement shearing directly beneath the window. Either model is viable if only reflector geometry is

  11. 26th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: developing mechanistic data for incorporation into cancer and genetic risk assessments: old problems and new approaches.

    PubMed

    Preston, R Julian

    2003-07-01

    The theme that runs through this 26th Taylor Lecture is the question of how can data on the mechanism of induction of genetic alterations by radiations and chemicals be used to support the development of risk estimates, particularly at low exposure levels. The premise is that chromosomal alterations are involved in the development of tumors and birth defects, and that data generated for genetic alterations can be interpreted in terms of these adverse health outcomes. The general conclusions are that chromosomal alterations can be induced by ionizing radiations by a single energy loss event in a target of the size of a DNA molecule and that aberrations generally result from misrepair or failure to repair the induced lesions (generally assumed to be double-strand breaks). Chromosomal alterations induced by chemicals are produced almost exclusively by replication errors on a damaged DNA template. Thus, cell cycle stage and DNA repair and replication fidelity will be influential on overall sensitivity to aberration induction. These same features are also important in considerations of genetic susceptibility-alterations in cell cycle control or DNA repair or replication fidelity can alter sensitivity. The differences in mechanism of induction of chromosomal aberrations by ionizing radiation and chemicals is most important when considering cells at risk and comparative sensitivities among species and cell types. Models of cancer induction have gradually evolved from initiation, promotion, and progression models to multistep genetic models to the most recent one of six acquired characteristics. This evolution has passed the level of concentration of research from single gene, single cell to multiple genes (pathways), and whole tissues. The latter areas of concentration are ideal for addressing with the new genomics, proteomics, and computational modeling approaches. The attention is still on the role of genetic alterations in cancer and hereditary effects and the

  12. A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We compiled available news and internet accounts of damage and other effects from the 26th January, 2001, Bhuj earthquake, and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities at over 200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are used to map the intensity distribution using a simple mathematical interpolation method. The maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated towards the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sediment-induced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium such as mud flats and salt pans. In addition we use fault rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard rock ground motion parameters to MMI using a relationship (derived from internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-2 units than those estimated from news accounts. This discrepancy is generally consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors such as a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than the average effects. Our modeling results also suggest, however, that the Bhuj earthquake generated more high-frequency shaking than is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude in California, and may therefore have been especially damaging.

  13. Engineering Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering geology activities in government and the private sector are highlighted. Also highlighted are conferences in this field, awards presented at conferences (including an award to an undergraduate geology student), and a new publication "Geotechnology in Massachusetts." (JN)

  14. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James R.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses ways that geologic techniques can be used to help evaluate our environment, make economic realities and environmental requirements more compatible, and expand the use of geology in environmental analyses. (MLH)

  15. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  16. Archeological Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, George

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)

  17. Archeological Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, George

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)

  18. INVOGE (International Geological Masters in Volcanology and geotechniques): a strategy to train and maintain globally mobile geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Bion, P.; Rose, W. I.; Tibaldi, A.; Calder, E.; Wooten, K.; Sealing, C.; Menassian, S.

    2012-04-01

    INVOGE is an EU-US bilateral cooperation programme funded by the EACEA (EU) and FIPSE (US). The partner universities are Blaise Pascal ( UBP, Clermont-Ferrand, France), University of Milan-Bicocca (Italy), Michigan Technological University (US) and the University at Buffalo (US). Students spend one academic year on the opposing side of the Atlantic and a shorter time on mobility at the secondary European partner. The project is a partial merger of four masters programmes that have similar fields of study, but widely differing speciality courses and great cultural and linguistic differences. The partner universities also have major implantations in developing nations, in Latin America and South East Asia, areas from which are drawn a both students and staff. In this presentation we show how we are creating a sustainable structure to train internationally mobile, multilingual geoscientists in both developed and developing nations both within the present INVOGE master and in associated programmes. For example at UBP the newly created CLERVOLC 'laboratoire d'excelence' programme associates research in several domains with the international outreach associated with the Institute for Research and Development (IRD) into the international Masters programme, seamlessly coupling research and education into projects such as INVOGE. The other partner universities are developing similar internconnected international projects. We also will detail the problems related to moving students from widely different backgrounds around culturally and linguistically diverse universities and will discuss how we are tackling such problems, with internet-based courses, language and cultural training for students and staff training, curriculum changes, close student - staff integration into project development and the creation of alumni organisations.

  19. Global sedimentary geology program

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.

    1986-07-01

    The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

  20. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  1. Geological gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1988-08-01

    The geological gyrocompass is an accurate, portable instrument useful for geologic mapping and surveying which employs an aircraft gyrocompass, strike reference bars, a pair of sights and levelling devices for horizontally levelling the instrument. A clinometer graduated in degrees indicates the dip of the surface being measured.

  2. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  3. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  4. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  5. Results from an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal,Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes near Geological NuclearWaste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q.-S; Oda, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhang, C.-Y.

    2007-10-23

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

  6. Exploring Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.

    2008-09-01

    I am willing to bet a nice bottle of chardonnay that much of the Eos readership has lugged around, fondled, and fumbled through an introductory physical geology textbook of some form or another, once upon a time. Mine, in 1970, was Physical Geology, by Longwell, Flint, and Sanders, which I still have, by the way. Most of us know how ``classical'' physical geology textbooks have been organized: first, a broad overview of Earth processes, then several sections devoted to groups of more specific subjects (e.g., mineralogy, sedimentary rocks, and environments, with one chapter per subject), then several sections devoted to a synthesis of geologic processes in the context of plate tectonics, and finally, typically, a discussion of Earth resources and environment- related issues. Some relatively new textbooks have ventured into new pedagogical formats, for example, emphasizing how we know what we know (e.g., How Does Earth Work: Physical Geology and the Process of Science by Smith and Pun).

  7. Geologic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, William L.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth is very old 4 1/2 billion years or more according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

  8. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  9. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  10. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  11. Geology, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  12. The International Association for Mathematical Geology WWW/FTP site: an analysis of the first five years and some thoughts for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunsky, E. C.

    2000-07-01

    The International Association for Mathematical Geology (IAMG) has been operating an Internet site since 1994. The site was initially started as an FTP service for computer program code published in Computers & Geosciences followed by the establishment of a WWW site. The establishment of the FTP site required consideration for operating system support and data archive standards support. The implementation of the WWW site enabled the IAMG to provide information and services for all Internet users. Analysis of the access logs for both the FTP and WWW services have shown that there has been a steady increase in access to the programs and IAMG information. Long-term archival issues include dealing with programs available only in binary (executable) form and long-term support of compression formats (i.e. zip, tar). As computer programming environments become increasingly sophisticated the journal is faced with the challenge of insuring that the computer program code is useful to geoscientists. The Internet programming environment is becoming increasingly popular as a means of creating program code that is independent of user platform type and also allows programmers to maintain control over the use and development of their code on one site. As this type of environment develops the IAMG FTP site has started to create URL links to the program source sites. Computers viruses are an issue which requires the attention of all IAMG users. The Computers & Geosciences Silver CD project has been started which will contain all program code (raster or ASCII text) form for volumes 1-25. Future services on the IAMG web site will include a searchable membership database, list servers for special interest groups within the IAMG and constant updating of useful services and links to the IAMG membership.

  13. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  14. Performance of Vitek 2 for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with Vitek 2 (2009 FDA) and CLSI M100S 26th Edition Breakpoints

    PubMed Central

    Bobenchik, April M.; Deak, Eszter; Hindler, Janet A.; Charlton, Carmen L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The performances of Vitek 2 AST-GN69 and AST-XN06 cards were compared to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference broth microdilution (BMD) for 99 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 26 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, and 11 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates. In total, 15 antimicrobials were evaluated, with 11 for P. aeruginosa, 14 for A. baumannii, and 2 for S. maltophilia. Categorical agreement (CA) was assessed using both Vitek 2 breakpoints and 2016 CLSI M100S 26th edition breakpoints. The essential agreement values for P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and S. maltophilia were 99.5%, 99.2%, and 100%, respectively. The CA values for P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and S. maltophilia were 94.1%, 92.7%, and 95.5%, respectively, by the Vitek 2 breakpoints, and 93.4%, 92.3%, and 95.5%, respectively, by the CLSI breakpoints. Overall, the Vitek 2 performance was comparable to that of BMD using both Vitek 2 breakpoints and 2016 CLSI M100S 26th edition breakpoints. Improved performance was noted for the reformulated piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem found on the AST-GN69 card, with no very major or major errors noted when using the CLSI breakpoints. PMID:27881616

  15. Performance of Vitek 2 for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with Vitek 2 (2009 FDA) and CLSI M100S 26th Edition Breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Bobenchik, April M; Deak, Eszter; Hindler, Janet A; Charlton, Carmen L; Humphries, Romney M

    2017-02-01

    The performances of Vitek 2 AST-GN69 and AST-XN06 cards were compared to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference broth microdilution (BMD) for 99 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 26 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, and 11 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates. In total, 15 antimicrobials were evaluated, with 11 for P. aeruginosa, 14 for A. baumannii, and 2 for S. maltophilia Categorical agreement (CA) was assessed using both Vitek 2 breakpoints and 2016 CLSI M100S 26th edition breakpoints. The essential agreement values for P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and S. maltophilia were 99.5%, 99.2%, and 100%, respectively. The CA values for P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and S. maltophilia were 94.1%, 92.7%, and 95.5%, respectively, by the Vitek 2 breakpoints, and 93.4%, 92.3%, and 95.5%, respectively, by the CLSI breakpoints. Overall, the Vitek 2 performance was comparable to that of BMD using both Vitek 2 breakpoints and 2016 CLSI M100S 26th edition breakpoints. Improved performance was noted for the reformulated piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem found on the AST-GN69 card, with no very major or major errors noted when using the CLSI breakpoints. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  17. Geological Gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1990-10-01

    The invention relates to a new and improved geologic mapping and surveying apparatus for providing accurate, dependable, and portable measurement of attitudes of planar surfaces in situations where magnetic compasses will not work. The invention provides a unique arrangement of the gyrocompass and power supply in a portable carrying case. A gyroscope is not dependent on the earth's magnetic field for a reference as is a magnetic compass. Therefore, the invention of a geological gyrocompass is immune to disturbances in the earth's magnetic field and nearly duplicates the Brunton compass accuracy but does not require an environment free of magnetic anomalies.

  18. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  19. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  20. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  1. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  2. Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Lincoln R.; Stocking, Hobart E.; Smith, Harriet B.

    1956-01-01

    Within the boundaries of the United States abnormal amounts of uranium have been found in rocks of nearly all geologic ages and lithologic types. Distribution of ore is more restricted. On the Colorado Plateau, the Morrison formation of Jurassic age yields 61.4 percent of the ore produced in the United States, and the Chinle conglomerate and Shinarump formation of Triassic age contribute 26.0 and 5.8 percent, respectively. Clastic, carbonaceous, and carbonate sedimentary rocks of Tertiary, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic ages and veins of Tertiary age are the source of the remaining 6.8 percent.

  3. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Fourth Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, San Francisco, CA, April 1-4, 1985, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    State of the art applications of remote sensing in geological exploration programs are discussed along with research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology for exploration geology. The topics considered include: technical issues in the state of the art; regional exploration models; remote sensing applications for hydrocarbon exploration; commercialization of remote sensing satellites; and data integration. Also addressed are: remote sensing applications for mineral exploration; geobotanical and environmental remote sensing; image processing techniques and applications; advanced sensors, radar, and airborne systems; and engineering, logistics, and marine applications.

  4. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Fourth Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, San Francisco, CA, April 1-4, 1985, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    State of the art applications of remote sensing in geological exploration programs are discussed along with research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology for exploration geology. The topics considered include: technical issues in the state of the art; regional exploration models; remote sensing applications for hydrocarbon exploration; commercialization of remote sensing satellites; and data integration. Also addressed are: remote sensing applications for mineral exploration; geobotanical and environmental remote sensing; image processing techniques and applications; advanced sensors, radar, and airborne systems; and engineering, logistics, and marine applications.

  5. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Fourth Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, San Francisco, CA, April 1-4, 1985, Proceedings. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    State of the art applications of remote sensing in geological exploration programs are discussed along with research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology for exploration geology. The topics considered include: technical issues in the state of the art; regional exploration models; remote sensing applications for hydrocarbon exploration; commercialization of remote sensing satellites; and data integration. Also addressed are: remote sensing applications for mineral exploration; geobotanical and environmental remote sensing; image processing techniques and applications; advanced sensors, radar, and airborne systems; and engineering, logistics, and marine applications.

  6. Geology team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Evaluating of the combined utility of narrowband and multispectral imaging in both the infrared and visible for the lithologic identification of geologic materials, and of the combined utility of multispectral imaging in the visible and infrared for lithologic mapping on a global bases are near term recommendations for future imaging capabilities. Long term recommendations include laboratory research into methods of field sampling and theoretical models of microscale mixing. The utility of improved spatial and spectral resolutions and radiometric sensitivity is also suggested for the long term. Geobotanical remote sensing research should be conducted to (1) separate geological and botanical spectral signatures in individual picture elements; (2) study geobotanical correlations that more fully simulate natural conditions; and use test sites designed to test specific geobotanical hypotheses.

  7. International Project - Atlas of Geological Maps of Central Asia and Adjacent Territories 1:2 500 000 Scale - the Status and the Development Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, Y.; Petrov, O. V.; Dong, S.; Morozov, A.; Shokalsky, S.; Pospelov, I.; Erinchek, Y.; Milshteyn, E.

    2011-12-01

    This project is launched by geological surveys of Russia, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and the Republic of Korea with participation of National Academies of Sciences under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World since 2004. The project goal is the compilation and subsequent monitoring of the set of digital geological maps for the large part of the Asian continent (20 million km2). Each country finances its own part of the project while all the issues concerning methods and technologies are discussed collectively during annual meetings and joint filed excursions. At the 33d IGC, were shown 4 digital maps of the Atlas at 1: 2,5M - geological, tectonic, metallogenic and energy resources. Geological and energy resources maps were compiled and published by the Chinese part while tectonic and metallogenic maps by Russian side (VSEGEI, Saint-Petersburg). The geological map was also used as the base for the compilation of the other maps of the Atlas. On the tectonic map colours indicate several stages of the continental crust consolidation within fold belts, their tectonic reworking and rifting. The map also shows rock complexes-indicators of geodynamic settings. In the platform areas, the colour reflects the time of beginning of the sedimentary cover formation while its shades reflect the thickness of the sediments. The metallogenic map of the Atlas depicts 1380 objects of metallogenic zoning (from super-provinces to ore clusters) and is accompanied with a database (more than 5000 ore deposits). The map of energy resources with the database contains information on the of coal- and oil-and-gas-bearing basins and main coal and hydrocarbon deposits. In 2009 the study area was extended to the North, East and South in order to embrace bigger territory with ore-bearing Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic belts of the Asian continent's Pacific margin. According to nearest plans, discussed with the head of Rosnedra Dr. Anatoliy Ledovskikh and the director of the

  8. International Conference on Education. Final Report (43rd, Geneva, Switzerland, September 14-19, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Paris (France).

    The forty-third session of the International Conference on Education was convened by the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), in conformity with Resolution 1.2 adopted by the General Assembly at its 26th session. The Conference examined the following points: "The Contribution of…

  9. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  10. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  11. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  12. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Third Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, Colorado Springs, CO, April 16-19, 1984, Proceedings. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A photogeologic and remote sensing model of porphyry type mineral sytems is considered along with a Landsat application to development of a tectonic model for hydrocarbon exploration of Devonian shales in west-central Virginia, remote sensing and the funnel philosophy, Landsat-based tectonic and metallogenic synthesis of the southwest United States, and an evolving paradigm for computer vision. Attention is given to the neotectonics of the Tibetan plateau deduced from Landsat MSS image interpretation, remote sensing in northern Arizona, the use of an airborne laser system for vegetation inventories and geobotanical prospecting, an evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for hydrocarbon exploration in low-relief basins, and an evaluation of the information content of high spectral resolution imagery. Other topics explored are related to a major source of new radar data for exploration research, the accuracy of geologic maps produced from Landsat data, and an approach for the geometric rectification of radar imagery.

  13. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Third Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, Colorado Springs, CO, April 16-19, 1984, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A photogeologic and remote sensing model of porphyry type mineral sytems is considered along with a Landsat application to development of a tectonic model for hydrocarbon exploration of Devonian shales in west-central Virginia, remote sensing and the funnel philosophy, Landsat-based tectonic and metallogenic synthesis of the southwest United States, and an evolving paradigm for computer vision. Attention is given to the neotectonics of the Tibetan plateau deduced from Landsat MSS image interpretation, remote sensing in northern Arizona, the use of an airborne laser system for vegetation inventories and geobotanical prospecting, an evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for hydrocarbon exploration in low-relief basins, and an evaluation of the information content of high spectral resolution imagery. Other topics explored are related to a major source of new radar data for exploration research, the accuracy of geologic maps produced from Landsat data, and an approach for the geometric rectification of radar imagery.

  14. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  15. Geology of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  16. Geology of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  17. National Test and Evaluation Conference (26th)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-04

    From user to theatre level Sustainment Automation Systems STAMIS SAAS PBUSE SAMS-E ULLS-AE SARSS Command and Control BCS3/CPOF Transportation MTS...TC-AIMS II Personnel IPPS-A Finance GFEBS FMTP Medical MC4 PBUSE ULLS-A(E) SAMS-E SAMS-IE  SAAS -MOD SARSS-1 SARSS-2AC/B SARSS-GW LIW LMP (2003...Enterprise Path to one integrated logistics enterprise… SPBS-R ULLS-S4 ULLS-A ULLS-G SAMS-1 SAMS-2 SAMS-I/TDA  SAAS -MOD SARSS-1 SARSS-2AD SARSS-2AC

  18. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  19. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  20. On JALT 2000--Towards the New Millennium. Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching & Learning and Educational Materials Expo (26th, Shizuoka City, Japan, November 2-5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Robert, Ed.; van Troyer, Gene, Ed.; Lane, Keith, Ed.; Swanson, Malcom, Ed.

    These conference proceedings address the following six topics: (1) "Change and the Future" (e.g., English language education in Japan, sociolinguistics in Hong Kong, and Esperanto); (2) "Children and Language Education" (e.g. a short-term language immersion case study, virtual classrooms for bilingual students, and the role of…

  1. Regionalization in geology by multivariate classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harff, Jan; Davis, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of multivariate classification of "geological objects" can be combined with the concept of regionalized variables to yield a procedure for typification of geological objects, such as rock units, well records, or samples. Numerical classification is followed by subdivision of the area of investigation, and culminates in a regionalization or mapping of the classification onto the plane. Regions are subdivisions of the map area which are spatially contiguous and relatively homogeneous in their geological properties. The probability of correct classification of each point within a region as being part of that region can be assessed in terms of Bayesian probability as a space-dependent function. The procedure is applied to subsurface data from western Kansas. The geologic properties used are quantitative variables, and relationships are expressed by Mahalanobis' distances. These functions could be replaced by other metrics if qualitative or binary data derived from geological descriptions or appraisals were included in the analysis. ?? 1990 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  2. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  3. Permo-Carboniferous and early Miocene geological evolution of the internal zones of the Maghrebides - New insights on the western Mediterranean evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Laure; Bosch, Delphine; Bruguier, Olivier; Hammor, Dalila; Caby, Renaud; Monié, Patrick; Arnaud, Nicolas; Toubal, Abder; Galland, Béatrice; Douchet, Chantal

    2016-05-01

    , occurred synchronously at 16.94 ± 0.10 Ma (2σ) and 17.02 ± 0.19 Ma (2σ) respectively. This study documents a further example of the complex history recorded by rocks of the Peri-Mediterranean area that contains an imbrication of geological units, witnesses of a protracted history related to Permo-Carboniferous and Miocene events.

  4. Geology of northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, Arthur J.

    1919-01-01

    A large region in northeastern Montana has never been thoroughly explored by geologists, owing to the fact that it is a part of the Great Plains and the belief that it is too monotonous and uninteresting to tempt anyone to turn aside from the pronounced geologic features a little farther west, for which Montana is noted. This region includes parts of Sheridan, Valley, Phillips, and Blaine counties. Its investigation was begun by Smith in 1908, when he made a geologic survey of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Beekly explored a strip of land along the Montana-North Dakota line from Missouri River to the international boundary, and Bauer examined the townships in which Plentywood and Scobey are situated. Their results are here included with those of the writer, who during the field seasons of 1915 and 1916 was engaged in an investigation of the lignite resources of the remainder of this region, which extends from a line within 12 miles of the Montana-North Dakota boundary westward about 200 miles.

  5. OneGeology: Making the World’s Geological Map Data Accessible Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, H.; Jackson, I.; Robida, F.; Thorleifson, H.

    2009-12-01

    OneGeology (http://onegeology.org) is a successful international initiative of the geological surveys of the world and the flagship project of the ‘International Year of Planet Earth’. Its aim is to provide dynamic web access to geological map data covering the world, creating a focus for accessing geological information for everyone. Thanks to the enthusiasm and support of participating nations the initiative has progressed rapidly and geological surveys and the many users of their data are excited about this ground-breaking project. Currently 10 international geoscience organizations have endorsed the initiative and more than 109 countries have agreed to participate. OneGeology works with whatever digital format is available in each country. The target scale is 1:1 million, but the project is pragmatic and accepts a range of scales and the best available data. The initiative recognizes that different nations have differing abilities to participate and transfer of know-how to those who need it is a key aspect of the approach. A key contributor to the success of OneGeology has been its utilization of the latest new web technology and an emerging data exchange standard for geological map data called GeoSciML. GeoSciML (GeoScience Markup Language) is a schema written in GML (Geography Markup Language) for geological data. GeoSciML has the ability to represent both the geography (geometries e.g. polygons, lines and points) and geological attribution in a clear and structured format. OneGeology was launched March 2007 at the inaugural workshop in Brighton England. At that workshop the 43 participating nations developed a declaration of a common objective and principles called the “Brighton Accord” (http://onegeology.org/what_is/accord.html) . Work was initiated immediately and the resulting OneGeology Portal was launched at the International Geological Congress in Oslo in August 2008 by Simon Winchester, author of “The Map that Changed the World”. Since the

  6. Milestone M4FT-13LL0807071: International Collaboration - Radionuclide Interactions and Transport in Geologic Repository Environments - Pu Interaction with Bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Begg, J D; Zavarin, M; Kersting, A B

    2013-11-13

    The focus of this project is to investigate radionuclide interactions with natural and engineered materials, specifically the mineral bentonite that will be used in EU repositories and possibly in US high-level waste repository designs. These experiments are designed to develop a mechanistic understanding of Pu interactions with representative mineral substrates under granitic chemical conditions. The sorption/desorption experiments cover a large range of Pu concentrations and will be compared to sorption/desorption experiment with montmorillonite. The experiments are being coordinated with the Colloid Formation and Migration (CFM) international project led by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and located at the Grimsel Test Site underground research laboratory in Switzerland. Experiments will be completed by 8/15/2014. Milestone M4FT-13LL0807071 is a progress report on this effort. The research is addressing the following FEPs/needs identified in the R&D Roadmap: 2.2.09.05 - radionuclide speciation and solubility in host rock; 2.2.09.55 - sorption of dissolved radionuclides in host rock; 2.2.09.59 - colloidal transport in host rock.

  7. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  8. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  9. Geology for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Describes environmental geology as including planning to avoid natural hazards, acquire natural resources, and use land wisely. Describes philosophy and strategies for developing interdisciplinary, environmental geology education at the high school, college, professional graduate, and doctoral research levels. (PR)

  10. Historical sketch: Radar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.

    1980-01-01

    A chronological assessment is given of the broad spectra of technology associated with radar geology. Particular attention is given to the most recent developments made in the areas of microwave Earth resources applications and geologic remote sensing from aircraft and satellite. The significance of space derived radar in geologic investigations is discussed and the scientific basis for exploiting the sensitivity of radar signals to various aspects of geologic terrain is given.

  11. Geologic investigations of outer planets satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Four tests are examined: (1) investigation of volcanism on Io; Interim results of thermal and structural modeling of volcanism on Io are presented, (2) a study of the ancient heavily cratered regions on Ganymede, (3) a geologic comparison of the cratering record on Ganymede and Callisto, and (4) a geological and chemical investigation of internal resurfacing processes on the Saturnian satellites. Tasks 2, 3, and 4 utilize Voyager imaging data.

  12. Geological Survey research 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Geological Survey research 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1976-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  15. Origin, Physical, and Mineralogical Nature of Red Clays: The Pacific Ocean Basin as a Model. (Geo-Marine Letters, An International Journal of Marine Geology. Volume 8, Number 4, 1988)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    California Continental Borderland : Structure and Quaternary basins. Geological Society America Special Paper 109, 142 pp Shepard FP, Dill RF (1966...A. Cacchlone U.S. Geological Survey. Menlo Park. California . USA Robert M. Carter James Cook University of North Queensland. Townsville... California , USA Alberto G. de Flgueiredo Lab. Geologia Marinha. Universidude Federal Fluminense. Niteroi. Brazil Larry J. Doyle University of South

  16. Soviet books and publications on geological and chemical oceanography, hydrology, and other subjects acquired during the second international oceanographic congress, Moscow, June 1966: titles and some translated contents and notes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1966-01-01

    The listed publications represent a selection, by no means complete, of recent Soviet work in geological and chemical oceanography. Some works on hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the continents, as well as a few publications on other subjects, such as geology, geophysics, and biology, also are included.

  17. Geologic mapping of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W.; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central

  18. Complex Geologic History of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Part of the complex geologic history of icy Triton, Neptune's largest satellite, is shown in this Voyager 2 photo, which has a resolution of 900 meters (2,700 feet) per picture element. The photo was received as part of a Triton-mapping sequence between 3:30 and 5:30 a.m. (PDT). This view is about 500 kilometers (300 miles) across. It encompasses two depressions, possibly old impact basins, that have been extensively modified by flooding, melting, faulting, and collapse. Several episodes of filling and partial removal of material appear to have occurred. The rough area in the middle of the bottom depression probably marks the most recent eruption of material. Only a few impact craters dot the area, which shows the dominance of internally driven geologic processes on Triton.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  19. Complex Geologic History of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Part of the complex geologic history of icy Triton, Neptune's largest satellite, is shown in this Voyager 2 photo, which has a resolution of 900 meters (2,700 feet) per picture element. The photo was received as part of a Triton-mapping sequence between 3:30 and 5:30 a.m. (PDT). This view is about 500 kilometers (300 miles) across. It encompasses two depressions, possibly old impact basins, that have been extensively modified by flooding, melting, faulting, and collapse. Several episodes of filling and partial removal of material appear to have occurred. The rough area in the middle of the bottom depression probably marks the most recent eruption of material. Only a few impact craters dot the area, which shows the dominance of internally driven geologic processes on Triton.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  20. OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized

  1. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  2. Geological Survey research 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress.

  3. PHOTOMICROPHOTOGRAPHY- GEOLOGY ( SEM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-10-13

    PHOTOMICROPHOTOGRAPHY -GEOLOGY (SEM) High magnification and resolution views of lunar, meteorite and terrestrial materials using the Scanning Electron MIcroscope (SEM), Bldg. 31 Planetary and Earth Science Laboratory.

  4. Alaska geology revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  5. Geology explorer: virtual geologic mapping and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini-Eidukat, Bernhardt; Schwert, Donald P.; Slator, Brian M.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing internet-based freeware for virtual mapping and geologic interpretation. This takes the form of a synthetic, virtual world, Planet Oit, where students are given the means and the equipment to carry out geologic investigation and interpretation as a geologist would in the field. The environment is designed to give students an authentic experience that includes elements of: (1) exploration of a spatially oriented, virtual, world; (2) practical, field oriented, expedition planning and decision-making; and (3) scientific problem solving (i.e. a "hands on" approach to mapping, geologic investigation, data acquisition, and interpretation). The game-like environment is networked, multi-player, and simulation-based. Planet Oit can be visited on the Internet at http://oit.cs.ndsu.nodak.edu/

  6. Volcanic and geologic database projects of the Geological Survey of Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, S.; Nakano, S.; Hoshizumi, H.; Itoh, J.; Urai, M.; Nishiki, K.

    2009-12-01

    Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) is presently implementing the GEO-DB project, which aims to integrate all kinds of geological information in GSJ. GSJ published more than 50 CD-ROM series and established more than 20 databases at the Research Information Database (RIO-DB) of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Presently, four volcanic databases are open to the public: (1) Quaternary volcano database (RIO-DB), (2) Active volcano database (RIO-DB), and (3) ASTER satellite image database of major volcanoes. The Quaternary volcano database contains information such as volcanic type, history, age and pictures of more than 300 Quaternary volcanoes in Japan. More detailed volcanic information will be added to the database in the near future. The active volcano database contains information of active volcanoes in Japan such as the catalog of eruptive events during the last 10,000 years and geological maps of active volcanoes. The ASTER satellite image database provides sequential ASTER satellite image datasets of major volcanoes in the world. Collaboration between Quaternary and active volcano databases and the VOGRIPA project is the next important activity at the Geological Survey of Japan. The Geological Survey of Japan introduced the Integrated Geological Map Database (GeoMapDB) in 2006. The GeoMapDB is based on a WebGIS technology, which makes it possible to browse, overlay and search geological maps online. The database contains geological maps with scales ranging from 1:2 million to 1:25,000. Links to aforementioned volcanic database and active fault database in RIO-DB are also available. OneGeology is an international initiative of the geological surveys of the world and a flagship project of the ‘International Year of Planet Earth’. It aims to create dynamic geological map of the world available at the world wide web. Geological Surveys from 109 countries of the world are participating in this project. The Geological

  7. Geology's Impact on Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  8. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  9. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  10. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  11. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  12. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  13. Interpreting Urban Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannibal, Joseph Timothy; Schmidt, Mark Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Describes field trips to urban locations for geological instruction. The program was developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Authors claim these field trips have been an effective and enjoyable way of conveying a wide variety of geological information to participants at all levels and backgrounds and have created favorable publicity.…

  14. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  15. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  16. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  17. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  18. Geologic remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, A.F.H.; Rowan, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques are now being used routinely in geologic interpretation for mineral and energy exploration, plant siting, waste disposal, and the development of models for regional and continental tectonics. New spaceborne methods and associated technologies are being developed to produce data from which geologic information about large areas can be derived much more rapidly than by conventional techniques. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  19. Women in Early Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Eleanor S.

    1982-01-01

    Biographical sketches are given for several women who made early contributions to the science of geology. A short biography of Inge Lehmann is also included as a more recent example of a woman who has made a notable contribution to the geological field. (Author)

  20. Geological education of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Several developments cause that field practice of students becomes minimized in most countries. The most important reasons are, direct or indirect, financial short-sightedness, an ever increasing population pressure, vandalism, and counterproductive legislature. The diminishing field experience forms a threat for the capability of future generations of earth scientists to optimize exploration of all kinds of natural resources, thus also threatening society. As it is unlikely that the present-day tendency of diminishing availability of excursion points and areas for field work will come to an end, measures should be taken timely to preserve sites that are of educational (or scientific) value. National measures and international cooperation aimed at preserving our geological heritage, like realized already in, for instance, the US by the National Park Service and in Europe by ProGeo, form a step in the good direction. Dependency on such preserves will, however, change the education of earth scientists fundamentally. However unfortunate such a development may be, it is better than a future where geological education becomes impossible because essential parts of our geological heritage have been lost forever.

  1. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  2. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  3. Geologic Map of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crafford, A. Elizabeth Jones

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Geologic Map of Nevada is to provide an integrated set of digital geologic information that can be used for regional geologic and rigorous spatial analysis. Two components of this map represent new information that has not been published in this form before. The new geology layer was created by merging into a single file individual digital Nevada county geologic maps (Hess and Johnson, 1997), published at a scale of 1:250,000. A new regional interpretation was created to unify all of the different county rock units, and then appropriate edits and modifications were made to the file to reflect additional geologic information and more current geologic interpretations. All possible sources of information were not utilized in the scope of this project, but rather the goal was to create a consistent Statewide 1:250,000-scale map that would facilitate regional geologic interpretation and be a foundation for future spatial analyses of digital data. Secondly, a new database of conodont biostratigraphic data compiled and analyzed by Anita Harris is also incorporated into the map. Information about many, but not all, of these conodont samples have been published separately elsewhere over the years, but they have not been presented together in a single digital database. Other previously published data layers are used in this map to enhance the usefulness of the geologic information. These layers include mineral deposit locations, oil well locations, and cartographic layers such as county boundaries, roads, towns, cities, rivers, water bodies, township, range and section grids, quadrangle grids, and topography. A summary of these components is given below, and complete descriptions of each layer are provided in the digital metadata.

  4. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  5. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  6. Formation evaluation: Geological procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

  7. Geology of caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  8. Glossary of Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julia A.

    The Glossary has expanded coverage particularly in such active fields as carbonate sedimentology, environmental geology and geophysics, GIS, GPS, hydrology and hydraulics, marine and coastal geology, organic geochemistry, paleoecology, seismology, stratigraphic nomenclature, speleology and karst, and structural geology and tectonics. Many definitions provide a syllabification guide and background information. Thus a reader will learn the difference between look-alike pairs, such as sylvanite (a mineral) and sylvinite (a rock); the origin of terms; the meaning of abbreviations and acronyms common in the geosciences vocabulary; the dates many terms were first used; the meaning of certain prefixes; and the preferred term of two or more synonyms.

  9. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  10. Economic Geology and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Presents tabulated data of questionnaire responses from 207 colleges. More than 30 groups of data are included relating to various aspects of geology programs including enrollment, student and faculty data and courses. (PR)

  11. Experiencing Structural Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, George H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate structural geology course that incorporates field lab time and research. Lectures, outside readings, and in-class experimentation are coordinated with the field work to prepare a scientific report. (MA)

  12. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  13. Geologic evolution of Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Penny, J.P.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Seven years in the making, the 35 papers in this volume summarize the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic evolution of Arizona from Precambrian through Quaternary time. Intended as a compendium of current knowledge of Arizona geology, the papers synthesize previous work with new data, ideas, and concepts as well as identifying unresolved problems for future research. Emphasis is placed on the geologic evolution of the state as a whole rather than specific local areas. The papers are organized in terms of geologic eras: Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. The concluding section offers topical studies in the areas of geophysics, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas, geothermal resources, hydrogeology, and environmental geology. California readers will find much of interest in this research volume because many of the tectonic processes that formed Arizona also affected the development of this state.

  14. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  15. Scaling the Geologic Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerritts, Mary

    1975-01-01

    Describes construction of a Geologic Time Scale on a 100 foot roll of paper and suggests activities concerning its use. Includes information about fossils and suggestions for conducting a fossil field trip with students. (BR)

  16. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  17. Geologic exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    The scientific objectives and methods involved in a geologic exploration of Mars from a manned outpost are discussed. The constraints on outpost activities imposed by the limited crew size, limited amount of time available for science, the limited diversity of scientific expertise, and the competition between scientific disciplines are addressed. Three examples of possible outpost locations are examined: the Olympus Mons aureole, Mangala Valles/Daedalia Planum, and Candor Chasma. The geologic work that could be done at each site is pointed out.

  18. Geologic map of the Republic of Armenia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Castellanos, Esther S.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product that resulted from a project by the U.S. Agency for International Development (Participating Agency Service Agreement No. CCN-0002-P-ID-3097-00) to conduct an evaluation of coal and other fossil fuels in the Republic of Armenia. The original map has been translated to English from Russian (Marlen Satian, Academy of Sciences, Armenian Institute of Geological Sciences, written commun., 1994), digitized, and slightly modified in some areas. The original format has been modified to follow the U.S. Geological Survey's format. The map projection is not known. Latitude and longitude tics are approximately located.

  19. OneGeology - Access to geoscience for all

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, Marko; Lee, Kathryn; Robida, Francois

    2014-05-01

    OneGeology is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) around the globe that dates back to Brighton, UK in 2007. Since then OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using a new international standard - a geological exchange language known as 'GeoSciML'. Increased use of this new language allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet with other organisations. One of very important goals of OneGeology was a transfer of valuable know-how to the developing world, hence shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making its structure more official, its operability more flexible and its membership more open where in addition to GSO also to other type of organisations that manage geoscientific data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative will hence be focused into increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource on the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative information on hazards and minerals will help to prevent natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale. With this new stage also renewed OneGeology objectives were defined and these are 1) to be the provider of geoscience data globally, 2) to ensure exchange of know-how and skills so all can participate, and 3) to use the global profile of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professional and general public. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscientific data and OneGeology Portal (portal.onegeology.org) is the place to find them.

  20. Proceedings of the eighth thematic conference on geologic remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Eighth Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing. This meeting was held April 29-May 2, 1991, in Denver, Colorado, USA. The conference was organized by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, in Cooperation with an international program committee composed primarily of geologic remote sensing specialists. The meeting was convened to discuss state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing as well as research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The presentations in these volumes address the following topics: Spectral Geology; U.S. and International Hydrocarbon Exploration; Radar and Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing; Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology; Minerals Exploration; Remote Sensing for Marine and Environmental Applications; Image Processing and Analysis; Geobotanical Remote Sensing; Data Integration and Geographic Information Systems.

  1. Divisions of Geologic Time - Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Effective communication in the geosciences requires consistent uses of stratigraphic nomenclature, especially divisions of geologic time. A geologic time scale is composed of standard stratigraphic divisions based on rock sequences and calibrated in years (Harland and others, 1982). Over the years, the development of new dating methods and refinement of previous ones have stimulated revisions to geologic time scales. Since the mid-1990s, geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, academia, and other organizations have sought a consistent time scale to be used in communicating ages of geologic units in the United States. Many international debates have occurred over names and boundaries of units, and various time scales have been used by the geoscience community.

  2. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in

  4. Geologic map of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  5. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  6. The geology of Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  7. The geology of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  8. Geological fakes and frauds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  9. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.

    1989-01-01

    In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  10. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  11. Planetary geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2014-11-01

    In this introduction to planetary geology, we review the major geologic processes affecting the solid bodies of the solar system, namely volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion. We illustrate the interplay of these processes in different worlds, briefly reviewing how they affect the surfaces of the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, then focusing on two very different worlds: Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the solar system, and Saturn's moon Titan, where the interaction between a dense atmosphere and the surface make for remarkably earth-like landscapes despite the great differences in surface temperature and composition.

  12. OneGeology- A Global Geoscience Data Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, M.; Komac, M.; Duffy, T.; Robida, F.; Allison, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    OneGeology (1G) is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSOs) around the globe that dates back to 2007. Since then, OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using GeoSciML- an international interoperability standard for the exchange of geological data. Increased use of this new standard allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet among organisations. One of the goals of OneGeology is an exchange of know-how with the developing world, shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making it more transparent, its operation more sustainable and its membership more open where in addition to GSOs, other types of organisations that create and use geoscience data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative is focused on increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource about the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative geoscience information will help to mitigate natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale with the aim of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professionals and general public- to be part of the solution. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscience data and the OneGeology Portal (portal.onegeology.org) is the place to find them.

  13. OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech

  14. Geologic controls on radon

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.E.; Gundersen, L.C.S.

    1992-01-01

    This text provides a review of recent research on geological controls of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in soil gas in relation to the problem of high indoor radon concentrations in houses. The importance of the subject matter is highlighted in the preface by the observation that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 15,000 to 25,000 deaths result from radon-induced lung cancer each year in the United States. The text contains 8 Chapters: (1) Geology of radon in the United States; (2) Sensitivity of soil radon to geology and the distribution of radon and uranium in the Hylas Zone Area, Virginia; (3) Geologic and environmental implications of high soil-gas radon concentrations in The Great Valley, Jefferson and Berkeley Counties, West Virginia; (4) Soil radon distribution in glaciated areas: an example from the New Jersey Highlands; (5) Radon in the coastal plain of Texas, Alabama, and New Jersey; (6) Effects of weather and soil characteristics on temporal variations in soil-gas radon concentrations; (7) A theoretical model for the flux of radon from rock to ground water; (8) The influence of season, bedrock, overburden, and house construction on airborne levels of radon in Maine homes. The individual chapters are written by different authors in the form of self-contained research papers, each of which is followed by a comprehensive list of references.

  15. Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age."…

  16. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the…

  17. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  18. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  19. Life on Guam: Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Gail

    This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

  20. Geological processes and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, J.W.; Greeley, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Hartmann, W.K.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Masson, P.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.E.; Carr, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Geological mapping and establishment of stratigraphic relationships provides an overview of geological processes operating on Mars and how they have varied in time and space. Impact craters and basins shaped the crust in earliest history and as their importance declined, evidence of extensive regional volcanism emerged during the Late Noachian. Regional volcanism characterized the Early Hesperian and subsequent to that time, volcanism was largely centered at Tharsis and Elysium, continuing until the recent geological past. The Tharsis region appears to have been largely constructed by the Late Noachian, and represents a series of tectonic and volcanic centers. Globally distributed structural features representing contraction characterize the middle Hesperian. Water-related processes involve the formation of valley networks in the Late Noachian and into the Hesperian, an ice sheet at the south pole in the middle Hesperian, and outflow channels and possible standing bodies of water in the northern lowlands in the Late Hesperian and into the Amazonian. A significant part of the present water budget occurs in the present geologically young polar layered terrains. In order to establish more firmly rates of processes, we stress the need to improve the calibration of the absolute timescale, which today is based on crater count systems with substantial uncertainties, along with a sampling of rocks of unknown provenance. Sample return from carefully chosen stratigraphic units could calibrate the existing timescale and vastly improve our knowledge of Martian evolution.

  1. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  2. Apollo 11 Geology training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-05

    S69-25944 (25 Feb. 1969) --- These two Apollo 11 crew astronauts study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Neil A. Armstrong (in background) is the Apollo 11 commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. is the lunar module pilot.

  3. Geological impacts on nutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  4. Geological Field Trip Guidebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Harriet E.

    1978-01-01

    Geological field trip guidebooks, developed for use during a field trip or field conference, are considered ephemeral publications by their compilers and publishers. Too few copies are printed and little attention is paid to bibliographic format and information. These difficulties are discussed and recommendations are made to alleviate the…

  5. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  6. Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Included are a teacher's guidebook and two filmstrips, "Geology of Wisconsin," and associated materials. The following are described: outline of objectives; suggested use of the filmstrips and guidebook; outline of the filmstrip content; four pages of illustrations suitable for duplication; a test for each filmstrip; and a list of…

  7. Geology 12. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication, developed by the Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia, Canada, is a teaching guide for the Geology 12 course. The course is intended to provide secondary school students with the background and desire to investigate their earth, its materials and its processes. The guide consists of the following four sections: (1)…

  8. Geology en Espanol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGehee, Richard V.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in which an introductory geology class was conducted in Spanish at Western Michigan University. Although difficulties were encountered, the author evaluated the program as a great success, and a valuable experience for the person who wants to be effectively bilingual in his profession. (JR)

  9. Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age."…

  10. Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Included are a teacher's guidebook and two filmstrips, "Geology of Wisconsin," and associated materials. The following are described: outline of objectives; suggested use of the filmstrips and guidebook; outline of the filmstrip content; four pages of illustrations suitable for duplication; a test for each filmstrip; and a list of…

  11. Public perceptions of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  12. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the…

  13. Geologic provinces of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Northcutt, R.A.; Campbell, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    The geologic provinces of Oklahoma are mainly the product of tectonics and attendant sedimentation of Pennsylvanian age. Most boundaries are structural; thus, the provinces map is a generalized tectonic map. Permian and post-Paleozoic strata tend to mask those structures, but most of those strata have been removed by erosion, except in the Anadarko Basin and the Wichita Uplift provinces. The location of most of Oklahoma`s oil and gas resources are either influenced by, or are the direct result of Pennsylvanian tectonics and sedimentation patterns. Therefore, the present study also defines provinces in the subsurface on the basis of geological criteria. The authors have attempted to use the originally published names for the recognized provinces. However, we have also used the most geologically correct names, i.e., Nemaha Uplift, Nemaha Fault Zone, and Central Oklahoma Fault, in lieu of Nemaha {open_quotes}Ridge.{close_quotes} Oklahoma is separated into five major uplifts and five major basins. The Gulf Coastal Plain is not included in this study because it is a veneer of Cretaceous cover that masks significant structures. Faults are the most common boundary element. Although their precise age commonly is known only approximately, their geographic location is less controversial, except in detail. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries are based on less precise geological information. The major example of a surface stratigraphic/structural boundary is the southwestern limit of the Ozark Uplift in eastern Oklahoma. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries in the subsurface are commonly based on structural or isopachous contours from well or geophysical data, or on a structural trend, as well as the experience of the authors. Basement structure is preferred. An example is the boundary that separates the Marietta Basin from adjacent geologic elements.

  14. Conversion of Geologic Quadrangle Maps to Geologic Coverages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    HARMON CREEK 30 NW WOOLWORTH 39 NW 8 Conversion of Geologic Guadrangle Maps to Geologic Coverages Table 1. Completed geologic coverages for Tennessee...40 WINDLE 19 WOLF PIT RIDGE 35 WOODBURY 22 WOOLWORTH 29 YOUNGVILLE 17 YUMA 78 NE 328 NE 19 SW 316 SW 43 NE 153 SE 305 SW 145 SW 307 SE

  15. Vesta: A Geological Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated

  16. Geologic Map Database of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

  17. Geologic Mapping of V-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P.; Stofan, E. R.; Guest, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A geologic map of the Sedna Planitia (V-19) quadrangle is being completed at the 1:5,000,000 scale as part of the NASA Planetary Geologic Mapping Program, and will be submitted for review by September 2009.

  18. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  19. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  20. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  1. Internet-based information system of digital geological data providing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuon, Egor; Soukhanov, Mikhail; Markov, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    One of the Russian Federal аgency of mineral resources problems is to provide the geological information which was delivered during the field operation for the means of federal budget. This information should be present in the current, conditional form. Before, the leading way of presenting geological information were paper geological maps, slices, borehole diagrams reports etc. Technologies of database construction, including distributed databases, technologies of construction of distributed information-analytical systems and Internet-technologies are intensively developing nowadays. Most of geological organizations create their own information systems without any possibility of integration into other systems of the same orientation. In 2012, specialists of VNIIgeosystem together with specialists of VSEGEI started the large project - creating the system of providing digital geological materials with using modern and perspective internet-technologies. The system is based on the web-server and the set of special programs, which allows users to efficiently get rasterized and vectorised geological materials. These materials are: geological maps of scale 1:1M, geological maps of scale 1:200 000 and 1:2 500 000, the fragments of seamless geological 1:1M maps, structural zoning maps inside the seamless fragments, the legends for State geological maps 1:200 000 and 1:1 000 000, full author's set of maps and also current materials for international projects «Atlas of geological maps for Circumpolar Arctic scale 1:5 000 000» and «Atlas of Geologic maps of central Asia and adjacent areas scale 1:2 500 000». The most interesting and functional block of the system - is the block of providing structured and well-formalized geological vector materials, based on Gosgeolkart database (NGKIS), managed by Oracle and the Internet-access is supported by web-subsystem NGKIS, which is currently based on MGS-Framework platform, developed by VNIIgeosystem. One of the leading elements

  2. Environmental aspects of engineering geological mapping in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, Dorothy H.

    1979-01-01

    Many engineering geological maps at different scales have been prepared for various engineering and environmental purposes in regions of diverse geological conditions in the United States. They include maps of individual geological hazards and maps showing the effect of land development on the environment. An approach to assessing the environmental impact of land development that is used increasingly in the United States is the study of a single area by scientists from several disciplines, including geology. A study of this type has been made for the National Petroleum Reserve in northern Alaska. In the San Francisco Bay area, a technique has been worked out for evaluating the cost of different types of construction and land development in terms of the cost of a number of kinds of earth science factors. ?? 1979 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  3. Conflation and integration of archived geologic maps and associated uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Old, archived geologic maps are often available with little or no associated metadata. This creates special problems in terms of extracting their data to use with a modern database. This research focuses on some problems and uncertainties associated with conflating older geologic maps in regions where modern geologic maps are, as yet, non-existent as well as vertically integrating the conflated maps with layers of modern GIS data (in this case, The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey). Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri was chosen as the test area. It is covered by six archived geologic maps constructed in the years between 1928 and 1994. Conflating these maps results in a map that is internally consistent with these six maps, is digitally integrated with hydrography, elevation and orthoimagery data, and has a 95% confidence interval useful for further data set integration.

  4. Geological Survey research, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1975-01-01

    'Geological Survey Research 1975 ' is the 16th annual synopsis of the results of U.S. Geological Survey investigations. These studies are largely directed toward the development of knowledge that will assist the Nation to use and conserve the land and its physical resources wisely. They are wide ranging in scope and deal with almost every facet of solid-earth science and fact finding. Many of the studies are continuations of investigations that have been in progress for several years. But others reflect the increased attention being given to problems that have assumed greater importance in recent years--problems relating to mineral fuels and mineral resources, water quality, environmental impact of mineral resources, land-use analysis, earthquake hazards reduction, subsidence, and the applications of LANDSAT data, to cite a few examples. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  6. Geology of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N.T.; Scanlon, K.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1987-01-01

    The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey

  7. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... No: 2012-7479] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283, amaher@usgs.gov ). Registrations are due...

  8. Environmental Trends in Geologic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestrong, Raymond

    1970-01-01

    Considers strategies for developing college level introductory environmental geology courses, emphasizing relevance to local surroundings, Considers graduate studies in this field, but does not recommend the establishment of an environmental geology department at this time. Reviews the responsibilities the geology department has to the community…

  9. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  10. Decoding a Geological Message

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    A close-up image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of a recent 150-meter diameter impact crater near Amazonis Mensa and Medusae Fossae is another great example of geologic complexity of Mars. The spider web-like texture of this crater is intriguing. But what does it mean? On Earth, we have many geologic mechanisms that embrace the surface of the planet in an almost constant state of metamorphosis. Although Mars is not nearly as geologically active as Earth, it is still a host to many processes that shape its surface even today (e.g., aeolian modification, periglacial processes, recent impacts, etc.). The appearance of the ejecta of this crater is likely a combination of both the characteristics of the target material it was deposited on, and processes that modified and degraded it over time. When we look to other images in this region we find a similar texture. This texture is referred to as “yardangs” by scientists who study wind erosion. Yardangs are streamlined ridge-and-trough patterns formed by the erosion of wind dominating from a specific direction; in this particular case, from the southeast to the northwest. The specific direction of the winds is supported by regional context images that show many craters in the region have wind streak "tails" that points to the northwest. Craters of this size have been observed to form recently on Mars, so the fact that this crater is modified speaks volumes, and gives us a chance to decode some geological messages from Mars. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21759

  11. Borehole geological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuck, W. H., III (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are discussed for performing geological assessments of a formation located along a borehole, and a boring tool that bores a pair of holes into the walls of the borehole and into the surrounding strata along with a pair of probes which are installed in the holes. One of the probes applies an input such as a current or pressured fluid, and the other probe senses a corresponding input which it receives from the strata.

  12. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  13. OneGeology - improving access to geoscience globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Ian; Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnès.; Komac, Marko; Demicheli, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The OneGeology concept originated in early 2006. With the potential stimulus of the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE) very much in mind, the challenge was: could we use IYPE to begin the creation of an interoperable digital geological dataset of the planet? Fourteen months later on the concept was unanimously endorsed by 83 representatives of the international geoscience community at a meeting in Brighton, UK, and goals were set to for a global launch at the 33rd IGC in Oslo in August 2008. The goals that the Brighton meeting agreed for OneGeology were deceptively simple. They were to: • improve the accessibility of geological map data • exchange know-how and skills so that all nations could participate • accelerate interoperability in the geosciences and the take up of a new "standard" (GeoSciML) At the time of writing (January 2010) there are 113 countries participating in OneGeology, more than 40 of which are serving data using a web map portal and protocols, registries and technology to "harvest" and serve data from around the world. An essential part of the development of OneGeology has been the exchange of know-how and provision of guidance and support so that any geological survey can participate and serve their data. The team have also moved forward and raised the profile of a crucial data model and interoperability standard - GeoSciML, which will allow geoscience data to be shared across the globe. OneGeology is coordinated through a two-part "hub" - a Secretariat based at the British Geological Survey (BGS), and the portal technology and servers provided by the French geological survey (BRGM). The "hub" is guided and supported by two international groups - the Operational Management Group (OMG) and the Technical Working Group (TWG). A Steering Group to provide strategic guidance for OneGeology and comprising geological survey directors representing the six continents was formed at the end of 2008. The Steering Group are now looking at

  14. Integrating geology and perforating

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, P.F. de; Souza Padilha, S.T.C. de

    1997-02-01

    Perforating is a very common well completion operation. Usually, it is considered to be as simple as making holes in casing. Actually, perforating is one of the most critical tasks for establishing a path from reservoir rock to borehole form which hydrocarbons can flow to surface. The objective of this article is to relate perforating technology with geological aspects and completion type to determine the best shooting equipment (gun type, charge and differential pressure) to perform the most efficient perforating job. Several subjects related to formation geology are taken into account for a shooting job, such as: compressive strength, reservoir pressure and thickness, lithology type, porosity and permeability, ratio between horizontal and vertical permeabilities, and fluid type. Gun geometry used in the oil industry incorporates several parameters, including shot density, hole entrance diameter, gun phase and jet penetration. API tests are done on perforating guns to define applicability and performance. A new geometrical parameter is defined as the relative angle of the jet, which is the angle between the jet tunnel and formation dip. GEOCAN is a methodology which relates geology to gun geometry and type to define the most efficient gun system for perforated completions. It uses the intelligent perforating technique with the SPAN (Schlumberger Perforating Analysis) program to confirm optimum gun choice.

  15. The Geology of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  16. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robida, François; Wächter, Joachim; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Geological data and models are important assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS will be designed and implemented in an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP) . The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and on the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: digitised geological maps, borehole data, geophysical data (seismic data, borehole log data), archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals, and Geological models (3D, 4D). The services will be implemented on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will subsequently support the integrated analysis and characterization of complex subsurface structures and their inherent dynamic processes. This will in turn aid in the overall understanding of complex multi-scale geo-scientific questions. This TCS will work alongside other EPOS TCSs to create an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the Earth Sciences in Europe.

  17. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robida, François; Wächter, Joachim; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo; Morel, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Geological data and models are important assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS is being designed and will be implemented in an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP/IODP). The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and of the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: geological maps, borehole data, geophysical data (seismic data, borehole log data), archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals, and Geological models (3D, 4D). The services will be implemented on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will subsequently support the integrated analysis and characterization of complex subsurface structures and their inherent dynamic processes. This will in turn aid in the overall understanding of complex multi-scale geo-scientific questions. This TCS will work alongside other EPOS TCSs to create an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the Earth Sciences in Europe.

  18. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  19. Goddard Summer Interns: Andy Ryan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Andy Ryan is an intern staff assistant with the Lunar and Planetary Science Academy. This summer the LPSA traveled to the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington to study and map the geology of t...

  20. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  1. The emerging Medical and Geological Association.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Centeno, J.A.; Selinus, O.

    2005-01-01

    The impact on human health by natural materials such as water, rocks, and minerals has been known for thousands of years but there have been few systematic, multidisciplinary studies on the relationship between geologic materials and processes and human health (the field of study commonly referred to as medical geology). In the past few years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in medical geology. Geoscientists working with medical researchers and public health scientists have made important contributions to understanding novel exposure pathways and causes of a wide range of environmental health problems such as: exposure to toxic levels of trace essential and non-essential elements such as arsenic and mercury; trace element deficiencies; exposure to natural dusts and to radioactivity; naturally occurring organic compounds in drinking water; volcanic emissions, etc. By linking with biomedical/public health researchers geoscientists are finally taking advantage of this age-old opportunity to help mitigate environmental health problems. The International Medical Geology Association has recently been formed to support this effort.

  2. The Emerging Medical and Geological Association

    PubMed Central

    Finkelman, Robert B; Centeno, Jose A; Selinus, Olle

    2005-01-01

    The impact on human health by natural materials such as water, rocks, and minerals has been known for thousands of years but there have been few systematic, multidisciplinary studies on the relationship between geologic materials and processes and human health (the field of study commonly referred to as medical geology). In the past few years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in medical geology. Geoscientists working with medical researchers and public health scientists have made important contributions to understanding novel exposure pathways and causes of a wide range of environmental health problems such as: exposure to toxic levels of trace essential and non-essential elements such as arsenic and mercury; trace element deficiencies; exposure to natural dusts and to radioactivity; naturally occurring organic compounds in drinking water; volcanic emissions, etc. By linking with biomedical/public health researchers geoscientists are finally taking advantage of this age-old opportunity to help mitigate environmental health problems. The International Medical Geology Association has recently been formed to support this effort. PMID:16555612

  3. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed

  4. Spatial Visualization in Introductory Geology Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    Visualization is critical to solving most geologic problems, which involve events and processes across a broad range of space and time. Accordingly, spatial visualization is an essential part of undergraduate geology courses. In such courses, students learn to visualize three-dimensional topography from two-dimensional contour maps, to observe landscapes and extract clues about how that landscape formed, and to imagine the three-dimensional geometries of geologic structures and how these are expressed on the Earth's surface or on geologic maps. From such data, students reconstruct the geologic history of areas, trying to visualize the sequence of ancient events that formed a landscape. To understand the role of visualization in student learning, we developed numerous interactive QuickTime Virtual Reality animations to teach students the most important visualization skills and approaches. For topography, students can spin and tilt contour-draped, shaded-relief terrains, flood virtual landscapes with water, and slice into terrains to understand profiles. To explore 3D geometries of geologic structures, they interact with virtual blocks that can be spun, sliced into, faulted, and made partially transparent to reveal internal structures. They can tilt planes to see how they interact with topography, and spin and tilt geologic maps draped over digital topography. The GeoWall system allows students to see some of these materials in true stereo. We used various assessments to research the effectiveness of these materials and to document visualization strategies students use. Our research indicates that, compared to control groups, students using such materials improve more in their geologic visualization abilities and in their general visualization abilities as measured by a standard spatial visualization test. Also, females achieve greater gains, improving their general visualization abilities to the same level as males. Misconceptions that students carry obstruct

  5. The encyclopedia of applied geology

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    This compendium of engineering geology data includes contributions by experts from many countries. Topics center around the field of engineering geology, with special focus on landscapes, earth materials, and the ''management'' of geological processes. How to use geology to serve man is given particular attention. More than 80 entries deal with hydrology, rock structure monitoring, soil mechanics, and engineering geology. Facts are provided on earth science information and sources, electrokinetics, forensic geology, geogryology, nuclear plant siting, photogrammetry, tunnels and tunneling, urban geomorphology, and well data systems. This guide explains the geology of alluvial plains, arid lands, beaches and coasts, delataic plains, cold regions, glacial landscapes, and urban environments. Detailed analyses are given of the geotechnical properties of caliche, clay, duricrust, soil, laterite, marine sediments, and rocks.

  6. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  7. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  8. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  9. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  10. 3D Geological modelling - towards a European level infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.

    2013-04-01

    The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving 3D geological models and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate models at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative model delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering 3D geological model data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring 3D geological models? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large

  11. Geology of kilauea volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower cast rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. ?? 1993.

  12. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. . Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. . Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Geologic Mapping of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Katherine H.

    1998-05-01

    Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

  14. Petroleum geology of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.

    1988-02-01

    Kuwait is located in the Arabian platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the Zagros Mountains of complex folding and faulting history, on the east. The sedimentary cover in Kuwait consists of a complete succession 25,000 ft (7,600 m) thick on top of the basement and ranges in age from Paleozoic to Holocene. The relative geologic stability and homogeneity over virtually all its depositional history resulted in an extraordinary areal continuity of reservoirs, seals, and source rocks, giving rise to the accumulation of the largest concentration of the hydrocarbon reserves in the world in giant and super-giant oil and gas fields. The structures are very large, gentle with modest closure. The seals are very efficient. Because of the wide extent of the lithologic units and only gentle tectonic deformation, large-scale horizontal migration is very efficient and the large structures have great storage capacity.

  15. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  16. Structural Geology and Map Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helper, Mark A.

    1998-06-01

    Geological maps lay flat the three-dimensional architecture of a region's rock record. In doing so, they reveal and document geometrical relationships and geological histories that would otherwise be difficult, if not impossible, to visualize. They are a primary data source for a wide range of practical applications, from civil engineering, mining, and energy resource exploration to urban planning and geologic hazard mitigation, and are literally the "ground truth" for understanding environments and processes of the Earth's past. Their utility resides not only in a plan-view portrayal of surface geology, but in the geometrical information they contain that allows projection of surface geology to the subsurface, or into regions where surface control is lacking. Understanding this predictive capacity and being able to read and truly appreciate a geological map's three-dimensional character are among the most unique and important skills a geologist masters. These same skills are unfortunately among the most difficult for students to learn.

  17. 26th annual offshore technology conference, 1994 proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four Proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest, with relative sessions included in each volume. This Volume 3 contains information relative to offshore platforms and marine system designs. It describes both the installation and decommissioning of offshore platforms, retrofitting platforms to meet current safety standards, and technology assessments for both drilling and platform designs. Papers are also provided which describe maintenance and repair technologies for damages to platform.

  18. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. This conference is divided into four volumes with this volume containing conference papers relative to offshore drilling and well completion information. Papers also deal with construction specifications for marine risers and pipelines, along with any relevant installation and performance information.

  19. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference represents the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest with this volume containing papers relative to design of offshore platforms and marine riser systems. Papers deal with design, installation, fabrication, transport systems, mooring devices, repair methods, and development of satellite production facilities. Case histories on various offshore oil and gas fills are discussed along with economics of some applications and designs.

  20. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report (26th) (1989)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    and allowed deionized water ad libitum. Animals were sacrificed using CO2. Blood samples were obtained from the inferior vena cava using a 10-cc...perfused organ groups each were described explicitly by mass balance equations. Also included were the diffusion limitation between blood and liver and...the trimer and tetramer oligomers in organs and blood . Blood 26 V- samples were taken immediately after the animals were removed from the exposure

  1. Annual National Logistics Conference and Exhibition (26th) (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-15

    From user to theatre level Sustainment Automation Systems STAMIS SAAS PBUSE SAMS-E ULLS-AE SARSS Command and Control BCS3/CPOF Transportation MTS...TC-AIMS II Personnel IPPS-A Finance GFEBS FMTP Medical MC4 PBUSE ULLS-A(E) SAMS-E SAMS-IE  SAAS -MOD SARSS-1 SARSS-2AC/B SARSS-GW LIW LMP (2003...Enterprise Path to one integrated logistics enterprise… SPBS-R ULLS-S4 ULLS-A ULLS-G SAMS-1 SAMS-2 SAMS-I/TDA  SAAS -MOD SARSS-1 SARSS-2AD SARSS-2AC

  2. 26TH AFOSR Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review FY81.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 Stabilization of Acrylic Fibers 0. R. Uhlmann and Microstructure of Carbon- Department of Materials...dependence on the nature of the anion. These results, along with the published x-ray fiber repeat distances and steric considerations, are best fit by...properties and environmental resistance from polymers which are compatible with those now being obtained from fiber -reinforced composites, but without the use

  3. 26th Pezcoller symposium: cancers driven by hormones.

    PubMed

    Brown, Myles; Chinnaiyan, Arul; Farsetti, Antonella; Livingston, David M; Loda, Massimo; Schuele, Roland; Mihich, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    This symposium was held in Trento, Italy, on June 19-21, 2014, and was focused on advances in biology, physiology, and pathology of neoplasms affected by hormones, especially breast and prostate cancers. The stem cell function, the genetic and epigenetic interactions with hormones, the mechanisms of estrogen receptor transcription, biochemical markers and therapeutic targets in breast cancer, promotion of breast cancer carcinogenesis by progesterone, the basis for prostate cancer progression and the relevance of DNA repair processes, androgen receptor programming during prostate carcinogenesis, the metabolic stress role in tumor survival, and the diagnostic use of imaging in prostate cancer were discussed. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Geology of Hadley Rille

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, K. A.; Head, J. W.; Swann, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The regional setting, external and internal shape, and materials of Hadley Rille near the Apollo 15 landing site are described. The petrography presented includes lithologies, regolith, talus, and outcrops. The stratigraphy exposed on the rille wall is also considered.

  5. Geologic map of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  6. Geologic report for the Beaufort Sea planning area, Alaska: regional geology, petroleum geology, environmental geology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, J.D.; Sherwood, K.W.; Johnson, P.P.

    1985-12-01

    The 192-page report provides a summary of the geologic framework, hydrocarbon potential, and physical environment of the offshore area tentatively scheduled for Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 97. The geologic interpretation is based on high-quality, gridded seismic reflection data and publicly available exploration wells. Seven regional seismic lines, released by Western Geophysical Company for this report, illustrate the geology of the petroleum provinces within the planning area. Hydrocarbon play concepts for large, untested areas of the continental margin off northern Alaska are developed from a detailed analysis of the structural and stratigraphic evolution. Environmental geology is described along with implications for future offshore petroleum activities.

  7. Geology of National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  8. Geological consequences of superplumes

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvania-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.

  9. Quantitative Geophysics and Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Clark R.

    Most college instructors of geophysics are on the lookout for new textbooks. This is especially the case for instructors of survey courses at the upper division or graduate level, where choices are limited and opinions differ as to what ought be included and the level of detail. As one of those instructors, I was eager to review Quantitative Geophysics and Geology. Its title seemed to fit several courses taught at my institution. But upon reading the book, I found it was not useful for most of our courses.The variety of geophysical topics is so vast that an orderly exposition simply is not possible for all. The book's strong point is that a number of chapters provide succinct and readable reviews of traditional topics, which makes it well suited for an introduction or review at the graduate level.

  10. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  11. Geology and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The geologic limitations for building sites of some areas can be overcome, in part, by skilled engineering and expensive construction practices. But the costs can be prohibitively high, and the solutions are not always completely effective. In "earthquake country," history has shown that costs are highest and risk factors most uncertain in a few easily recognized settings: unstable hill sloped, land at the edge of rapidly eroding sea cliffs, lowlands underlain by saturated estuarine mud of ill, and areas near faults capable of producing magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes. Safety immediately after an earthquake is also a concern in these places, for extreme damage and ground distortion may impede or prevent timely access by emergency equipment. 

  12. Geology Exchange Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Because geology professors cannot bring ore deposits from around the globe into their classrooms, the next best thing is to take their students to the deposits, according to David Norman, an associate professor of geochemistry at New Mexico Tech and Angus Moore of the Royal School of Mines. They organized a new exchange program between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro, N.M., and the Royal School of Mines in London, England. In May, 14 students from England toured deposits in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado; in the photograph, Norman (on the right) describes a rock from a New Mexico ore deposit to some of the visitors from England. In early June a contingency from New Mexico Tech began studying deposits in England, Spain, and Portugal. Norman and Moore say that the exchange program may be expanded next year.

  13. Geological terrain models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    The initial phase of a program to determine the best interpretation strategy and sensor configuration for a radar remote sensing system for geologic applications is discussed. In this phase, terrain modeling and radar image simulation were used to perform parametric sensitivity studies. A relatively simple computer-generated terrain model is presented, and the data base, backscatter file, and transfer function for digital image simulation are described. Sets of images are presented that simulate the results obtained with an X-band radar from an altitude of 800 km and at three different terrain-illumination angles. The simulations include power maps, slant-range images, ground-range images, and ground-range images with statistical noise incorporated. It is concluded that digital image simulation and computer modeling provide cost-effective methods for evaluating terrain variations and sensor parameter changes, for predicting results, and for defining optimum sensor parameters.

  14. The Geology of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Krohn, K.; Otto, K.; Stephan, K.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D.

    2013-09-01

    The Dawn spacecraft collected over 28,000 images and a wealth of spectral data of Vesta's surface. These data enable analysis of Vesta's diverse geology including impact craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, a variety of ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes [1,2,3]. Two large impact basins, Veneneia underlying the larger Rheasilvia basin dominate the south polar region [1,4]. The depression surrounding Vesta's south pole was formed by two giant impacts about one billion and two billion years ago [4,5]. Vesta's global tectonic patterns (two distinct sets of large troughs orthogonal to the axes of the impacts) strongly correlate with the locations of the two south polar impact basins, and were likely created by their formation [1,6]. Numerous unusual asymmetric impact craters and ejecta indicate the strong influence of topographic slope in cratering on Vesta [1]. One type of gully in crater walls is interpreted to form by dry granular flow, but another type is consistent with transient water flow [7]. Very steep topographic slopes near to the angle of repose are common; slope failures make resurfacing due to impacts and their associated gravitational slumping and seismic effects an important geologic process on Vesta [1]. Clusters of pits in combination with impact melt [8] suggest the presence of volatile materials underlying that melt in some crater floors. Relatively dark material of uncertain origin is intermixed in the regolith layers and partially excavated by younger impacts yielding dark outcrops, rays and ejecta [1,9]. Vesta's surface is reworked by intense impacts and thus much younger than the formation of its crust [2,5].

  15. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    SciTech Connect

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  16. Geological Survey data as a support for EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, Francois; Harrison, Matthew; Bogaard, Paul; Pedersen, Mikael

    2015-04-01

    The National Geological Surveys of Europe have through many years collaborated on making their large possessions of geological data available for researchers, the general public and decision makers at all levels. Numerous projects have been carried out with the aim of harmonizing data across national boundaries and making data interoperable by delivering them according to international standards like those defined by INSPIRE, OGC, CGI and others. In 2012 - 2014 an EU co-funded study was carried out with the title of EGDI-Scope. The study showed how an integrated European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI) can be established so that all sorts of geological data form the Geological Surveys can be accessed in a common way by the relevant stakeholders. The establishment of such an EGDI is a cornerstone of the strategy of the organization of the Geological Surveys of Europe, EuroGeoSurveys, and the organization has decided to start implementing the infrastructure and establishing an organization which will ensure that this will be sustained. One of the most obvious user groups for the geological information is EPOS, the European Plate Observing System, which will be implemented in the coming years. The EPOS implementation project therefore contains a specific workpackage to establish the connection between the Geological Survey data and the rest of EPOS. A Thematic Core Service (TCS) for geological data and modeling will be built for making the data available for the Integrated Core Services of EPOS. The TCS will deal with borehole data, digital geological maps, geophysical data like seismics and borehole logs, archived physical geological material like samples and cores, geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soil and minerals as well as with 3D and 4D geological models of the subsurface. Great emphasis will be put on making the system sustainable and with easy access and the idea is also to further develop and promote the international standards for data exchange

  17. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  18. Spaceborne imaging radar - Geologic and oceanographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.

  19. Photomicrography in the Geological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the conversion of a standard biological brightfield microscope for examination of thin sections and characterize, in detail, the use of both black and white and color photomicrography in the geological sciences. Several illustrative examples on the use of transmitted and reflected polarized-light microscopy to solve geological problems…

  20. Creationism, Uniformitarianism, Geology and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Points out that the most basic of creationist attacks of geology, their claim that uniformitarianism is an unreliable basis for interpreting the past, fail because the uniformitarianism they describe is no longer a part of geology. Indicates that modern uniformitarianism is merely the philosophical principle of simplicity. (Author/JN)

  1. Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

  2. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  3. Divisions of geologic time (Bookmark)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-05-03

    DescriptionThis bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the second USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  4. Creationism, Uniformitarianism, Geology and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Points out that the most basic of creationist attacks of geology, their claim that uniformitarianism is an unreliable basis for interpreting the past, fail because the uniformitarianism they describe is no longer a part of geology. Indicates that modern uniformitarianism is merely the philosophical principle of simplicity. (Author/JN)

  5. Computer Assisted Instruction in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepp, Henry

    The development of a computer self-test program in geology at Macalester College, Minnesota, is described. Based on the philosophy that tests, particularly those involving no grading, are useful study devices, computers are used to make tests available to students. Ten lessons have been developed on different topics in geology, and the computer…

  6. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  7. Photomicrography in the Geological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the conversion of a standard biological brightfield microscope for examination of thin sections and characterize, in detail, the use of both black and white and color photomicrography in the geological sciences. Several illustrative examples on the use of transmitted and reflected polarized-light microscopy to solve geological problems…

  8. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  9. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  10. The Geology of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    Titan, the largest and most complex satellite in the solar system exhibits an organic dominated surface chemistry and shares surface features with other large icy satellites as well as the terrestrial planets. It is subject to tidal stresses, and its surface appears to have been modified tectonically. Cassini's global observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as local investigations by the instruments on the Huygens probe has revealed that Titan has the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system apart from Earth, and that its active hydrological cycle is analogous to that of Earth, but with methane replacing water. The surface of Titan exhibits morphological features of different sizes and origins created by geological processes that span the entire dynamic range of aeolian, fluvial and tectonic activities, with likely evidence that cryovolcanism might exists where liquid water, perhaps in concert with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide, makes its way to the surface from the interior [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Extended dune fields, lakes, mountainous terrain, dendritic erosion patterns and erosional remnants indicate dynamic surface processes. Valleys, small-scale gullies and rounded cobbles require erosion by extended energetic flow of liquids. There is strong evidence that liquid hydrocarbons are ponded on the surface in lakes, predominantly, but not exclusively, at high northern latitudes. A variety of features including extensive flows and caldera-like constructs are interpreted to be cryovolcanic in origin. Chains and isolated blocks of rugged terrain rising from smoother areas are best described as mountains and might be related to tectonic processes. Impact craters form on all solid bodies in the solar system, and have been detected on Titan. But very few have been observed so they must be rapidly destroyed or buried by other geologic processes The morphologies of the impact

  11. The geology of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary geologic map of 34.8 percent of the surface of Io has been compiled using best-resolution Voyager 1 images. Nine volcanic units are identified, including materials of mountains, plains, flows, cones, and crater vents, in addition to six types of structural features. Photogeologic evidence indicates a dominantly silicate composition for the mountain material. Sulfur flows of diverse viscosity and sulfur-silicate mixtures may compose the extensive plans. Pit-crater and shield-crater vent-wall scarps reach heights of over two km, and layered-plains boundary scarps have estimated heights of 150 to 1700 m, indicating a material with considerable strength. A cumulative size-frequency distribution plot for 170 volcanic craters with diameters over 14 km is similar to the curves for impact craters on other bodies in the solar system, attesting to a similar nonrandom distribution of crater diameters and a surplus of small craters. A total of 151 lineaments and grabens forming two nearly orthogonal sets is recognized.

  12. The geology of Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaber, G. G.

    A preliminary geologic map of 34.8 percent of the surface of Io has been compiled using best-resolution Voyager 1 images. Nine volcanic units are identified, including materials of mountains, plains, flows, cones, and crater vents, in addition to six types of structural features. Photogeologic evidence indicates a dominantly silicate composition for the mountain material. Sulfur flows of diverse viscosity and sulfur-silicate mixtures may compose the extensive plans. Pit-crater and shield-crater vent-wall scarps reach heights of over two km, and layered-plains boundary scarps have estimated heights of 150 to 1700 m, indicating a material with considerable strength. A cumulative size-frequency distribution plot for 170 volcanic craters with diameters over 14 km is similar to the curves for impact craters on other bodies in the solar system, attesting to a similar nonrandom distribution of crater diameters and a surplus of small craters. A total of 151 lineaments and grabens forming two nearly orthogonal sets is recognized.

  13. Geologic Sequestration Software Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Gary; Bonneville, PNNL Alain; Sivaramakrishnan, PNNL Chandrika; Purohit, PNNL Sumit; White, PNNL Signe; Lansing, PNNL Carina; Gosink, PNNL Luke; Guillen, PNNL Zoe; Moeglein, PNNL William; Gorton, PNNL Ian; PNNL,

    2013-11-04

    GS3 is the bundling of the Geological Sequestration Software Suite domain tools with the Velo wiki user interface, rich client interface, and data store. Velo is an application domain independent collaborative user environment for modeling and simulation. Velo has a web browser based wiki interface integrated with a sophisticated content management system supporting data and knowledge management required for large-scale scientific modeling projects. GS3 adds tools and capability specifically in the area of modeling subsurface reservoirs for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Velo is a core software framework to create scientific domain user environments. Velo is not tied to a specific domain although it provides novel capability needed by many application areas. A well-defined Velo integration layer allows custom applications such as GS3 to leverage the core Velo components to reduce development cost/time and ultimately provide a more capable software product. Compared with previous efforts like ECCE and SALSSA, Velo is a major advancement being a web browser based interface, having a more comprehensive data management architecture, and having intrinsic support for collaboration through the wiki. GS3 adds specific domain tools for looking at site data, developing conceptual and numerical models, building simulation input files, launching and monitoring the progress of those simulations and being able to look at and interpret simulation output.

  14. 78 FR 57877 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ....S. Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program (NGGDPP) Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey....-5 p.m. Mountain Standard Time. The Advisory Committee, comprising representatives from...

  15. Geologic Controls of Sand Boil Formation at Buck Chute, Mississippi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    information system (GIS), researchers concluded that the thin blanket associated with point bar deposits, abandoned channel deposits causing a blocked...Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA). 2013. The international levee handbook. London, UK: Construction Industry Research and...Information Association . Fisk, H.N. 1944. Geologic investigations of the alluvial valley of the Lower Mississippi River. Vicksburg, MS: Mississippi River

  16. The Essence of Urban Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Garry D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Provides 60 quotations relating to urban geology, geologic hazards, engineering aspects of land use, urban resources, and geology and regional planning which have proven useful in developing central themes for lecture topics and student projects. (SL)

  17. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit...

  18. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit...

  19. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit...

  20. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit...

  1. Geological Survey Research 1966, Chapter B

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1966-01-01

    This collection of 43 short papers is the first published chapter of 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Conservation, Geologic, Topographic, and Water Resources Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Chapter A, to be published later in the year, will present a summary of significant results of work done during fiscal year 1966, together with lists of investigations in progress, reports published, cooperating agencies, and Geological Survey offices. 'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh volume of the annual series Geological Survey Research. The six volumes already published are listed below, with their series designations. Geological Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Geological Survey Research 1961-Prof. Paper 424 Geological Survey Research 1962-Prof. Paper 450 Geological Survey Research 1963-Prof. Paper 475 Geological Survey Research 1964-Prof. Paper 501 Geological Survey Research 1965-Prof. Paper 525

  2. Geology of Brunei deltas, exploration status updated

    SciTech Connect

    Schreurs, J.

    1997-08-04

    This article summarizes the petroleum geology of Negara Brunei Darussalam, the smallest but oil and gas richest country in Northwest Borneo. The paper describes the exploration history, Brunei geology, structural geology, main hydrocarbon reservoirs, seals, formation pressures, and current exploration.

  3. 77 FR 38318 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ....S. Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological.... Geological Survey on planning and implementation of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs. The... Geological Mapping Act of 1992; the Federal, State, and education components of the NCGMP; and the National...

  4. Geologic investigation :an update of subsurface geology on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hart, Dirk

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a revised geologic model of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) incorporating the geological and geophysical data produced since the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project (SWHC) of 1994 and 1995. Although this report has certain stand-alone characteristics, it is intended to complement the previous work and to serve as a status report as of late 2002. In the eastern portion of KAFB (Lurance Canyon and the Hubbell bench), of primary interest is the elevation to which bedrock is buried under a thin cap of alluvium. Elevation maps of the bedrock top reveal the paleodrainage that allows for the interpretation of the area's erosional history. The western portion of KAFB consists of the eastern part of the Albuquerque basin where bedrock is deeply buried under Santa Fe Group alluvium. In this area, the configuration of the down-to-the-west, basin-bounding Sandia and West Sandia faults is of primary interest. New geological and geophysical data and the reinterpretation of old data help to redefine the location and magnitude of these elements. Additional interests in this area are the internal stratigraphy and structure of the Santa Fe Group. Recent data collected from new monitoring wells in the area have led to a geologic characterization of the perched Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater system and have refined the known limits of the Ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments within the Santa Fe Group. Both the reinterpretation of the existing data and a review of the regional geology have shown that a segment of the boundary between the eastern and western portions of KAFB is a complicated early Tertiary (Laramide) wrench-fault system, the Tijeras/Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area/Hubbell Spring system. A portion of this fault zone is occupied by a coeval ''pull-apart'' basin filled with early Tertiary conglomerates, whose exposures form the ''Travertine Hills''.

  5. Integral description of the geological heritage of Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jose teodoro, S. G.; Gonzalez, C.; Estrada, F.; Moncayo, R.; Cruz, G.

    2013-12-01

    Geological heritage studies are among the most recent research areas incorporated into the geological sciences. These represent a new understanding of man's relationship with earth. Particularly, the Geosites Global Project was structured as an international initiative aimed to establish the geological heritage. Similarly, UNESCO in 1996 launched the Geoparks Program, in order to register in confined areas peculiar aspects for scientific research, uniqueness and beauty that could perpetuate the geological history and the processes that formed them. This initiative includes the global geological record, which selects the most representative and illustrative places. The analysis of the geological heritage can be approached in different ways, either through cataloging, valuation, preservation or disclosure, all of these activities, together, provide an integrated management model. In a first step, we addressed the first two approaches for the north-central portion of the state of Michoacan Mexico. The Paricutin and Jorullo volcanoes, the overlapping tectonic sequences Tzitzio-Huetamo, and the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Belt, are just some examples. We pretend to focus the inventory and valuation activities, to formulate protection schemes and management strategies as cultural resources.

  6. Venus Geological History: Current Perspectives, Unknowns, and Opportunities for the Modeling Community.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.

    2017-05-01

    The geological record yields multiple major modeling challenges: internal structure-evolution, mantle convection, thermal evolution, geodynamic, geochemical, petrogenetic, atmospheric origin-evolution, ionosphere, solar system formation-evolution.

  7. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  8. Rotating Globe of Ganymede Geology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    This is a frame from an animation of a rotating globe of Jupiter moon Ganymede, with a geologic map superimposed over a global color mosaic, incorporating the best available imagery from NASA Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, and Galileo spacecraft.

  9. Geological mapping of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.; Trifonov, V. G.; Florenskiy, P. V.; Shkerin, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Compilation and labelling of geological and morphological charts on a scale of 1:1,000,000 are discussed with emphasis on the regions of Maria Tranquilitatis, Crisium, Fecunditatis, Humorum and Nukium as well as certain prominent craters.

  10. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Schultz, P. H. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  11. Geology in Our Everyday Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirsky, Arthur

    1989-01-01

    Discusses methods to help the public recognize the geologic aspect of societal problems. Suggests using methods that will arouse immediate interest and demonstrate relevance in direct and personal ways. (MVL)

  12. Perspectives in geology. Circular 525

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

  13. Carbon Capture and Geologic Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, Larry R.

    2008-09-01

    This paper will briefly discuss carbon capture and storage options, mechanisms and costs. Risks from geologic storage risks will be addressed and the need for monitoring. Some current field studies will be described.

  14. Tethys geology and tectonics revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Tethys, a medium sized icy satellite of Saturn, was imaged by both Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft at sufficiently high resolution to allow some geologic analysis. One fairly complete and several brief descriptions of Tethys' geology have been given. Partial results are given herein of a new analysis of Tethys' geology done as part of a comparative tectonic and cryovolcanic study of the saturnian satellites. A new geologic sketch map of Tethys' north polar area is given. This map is based on a sequence of images transformed to a polar stereographic projection at the same scale. The images present the same area under different illuminations, each of which brings out different features. A new global map is in progress.

  15. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

  16. Central American geologic map project

    SciTech Connect

    Dengo, G.

    1986-07-01

    During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

  17. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  18. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.

  19. Q&A: Geological historian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witze, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    The first geological map of a nation was made 200 years ago by British surveyor William Smith; the rediscovery of a first-edition copy in the archives of the Geological Society of London was announced last month (see go.nature.com/oogpht). As researchers gather for a conference to celebrate the anniversary of the 1815 chart of England and Wales, John Henry, chair of the society's history group, talks about the map and its pioneering creator.

  20. Geological myths and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ostřihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní Hůrka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating

  1. Titan's global geologic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaska, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Williams, David A.; Solomonidou, Anezina; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Soderblom, Jason M.; Neish, Catherine; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2016-10-01

    We have mapped the Cassini SAR imaged areas of Saturn's moon Titan in order to determine the geological properties that modify the surface [1]. We used the SAR dataset for mapping, but incorporated data from radiometry, VIMS, ISS, and SARTopo for terrain unit determination. This work extends our analyses of the mid-latitude/equatorial Afekan Crater region [2] and in the southern and northern polar regions [3]. We placed Titan terrains into six broad terrain classes: craters, mountain/hummocky, labyrinth, plains, dunes, and lakes. We also extended the fluvial mapping done by Burr et al. [4], and defined areas as potential cryovolcanic features [5]. We found that hummocky/mountainous and labyrinth areas are the oldest units on Titan, and that lakes and dunes are among the youngest. Plains units are the largest unit in terms of surface area, followed by the dunes unit. Radiometry data suggest that most of Titan's surface is covered in high-emissivity materials, consistent with organic materials, with only minor exposures of low-emissivity materials that are consistent with water ice, primarily in the mountain and hummocky areas and crater rims and ejecta [6, 7]. From examination of terrain orientation, we find that landscape evolution in the mid-latitude and equatorial regions is driven by aeolian processes, while polar landscapes are shaped by fluvial, lacrustine, and possibly dissolution or volatilization processes involving cycling organic materials [3, 8]. Although important in deciphering Titan's terrain evolution, impact processes play a very minor role in the modification of Titan's landscape [9]. We find no evidence for large-scale aqueous cryovolcanic deposits.References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C. et al. (2010) Icarus, 205, 540-558. [2] Malaska, M.J. et al. (2016) Icarus, 270, 130-161. [3] Birch et al., in revision. [4] Burr et al. (2013) GSA Bulletin 125, 299-321. [5] Lopes et al. JGR: Planets, 118, 1-20. [6] Janssen et al., (2009) Icarus, 200, 222-239. [7] Janssen

  2. Geologic effects of hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coch, Nicholas K.

    1994-08-01

    Hurricanes are intense low pressure systems of tropical origin. Hurricane damage results from storm surge, wind, and inland flooding from heavy rainfall. Field observations and remote sensing of recent major hurricanes such as Hugo (1989), Andrew (1992) and Iniki (1992) are providing new insights into the mechanisms producing damage in these major storms. Velocities associated with hurricanes include the counterclockwise vortex winds flowing around the eye and the much slower regional winds that steer hurricane and move it forward. Vectorial addition of theseof these two winds on the higher effective wind speed than on the left side. Coast-parallel hurricane tracks keep the weaker left side of the storm against the coast, whereas coast-normal tracks produce a wide swath of destruction as the more powerful right side of the storm cuts a swath of destruction hundreds of kilometers inland. Storm surge is a function of the wind speed, central pressure, shelf slope, shoreline configuration, and anthropogenic alterations to the shoreline. Maximum surge heights are not under the eye of the hurricane, where the pressure is lowest, but on the right side of the eye at the radius of maximum winds, where the winds are strongest. Flood surge occurs as the hurricane approaches land and drives coastal waters, and superimposed waves, across the shore. Ebb surge occurs when impounded surface water flows seaward as the storm moves inland. Flood and ebb surge damage have been greatly increased in recent hurricanes as a result of anthropogenic changes along the shoreline. Hurricane wind damage occurs on three scales — megascale, mesoscale and microscale. Local wind damage is a function of wind speed, exposure and structural resistance to velocity pressure, wind drag and flying debris. Localized extreme damage is caused by gusts that can locally exceed sustained winds by a factor of two in areas where there is strong convective activity. Geologic changes occuring in hurricanes

  3. Quaternary geologic map of Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of Minnesota is a compilation based both on the unique characteristics of satellite imagery and on the results of previous field investigations, both published and unpublished. The use of satellite imagery has made possible the timely and economical construction of this map. LANDSAT imagery interpretation proved more useful than expected. Most of the geologic units could be identified by extrapolating from specific sites where the geology had been investigated into areas where little was known. The excellent geographic registry coupled with the multi-spectral record of these images served to identify places where the geologic materials responded to their ecological environment and where the ecology responded to the geologic materials. Units were well located on the map at the scale selected for the study. Contacts between till units could be placed with reasonable accuracy. The reference points that were used to project delineations between units (rivers, lakes, hills, roads and other features), which had not been accurately located on early maps, could be accurately located with the help of the imagery. The tonal and color contrasts, the patterns reflecting geologic change and the resolution of the images permitted focusing attention on features which could be represented at the final scale of the map without distraction by other interesting but site-specific details.

  4. Global Geologic Map of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Hare, T.; Kolb, E.; Mullins, K.; Senske, D.; Tanaka, K.; Weiser, S.

    2008-01-01

    Europa, with its indications of a sub-ice ocean, is of keen interest to astrobiology and planetary geology. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step for the synthesis of data from the Galileo mission, and for the planning of future missions to the satellite. The first geologic map of Europa was produced at a hemisphere scale with low resolution Voyager data. Following the acquisition of higher resolution data by the Galileo mission, researchers have identified surface units and determined sequences of events in relatively small areas of Europa through geologic mapping using images at various resolutions acquired by Galileo's Solid State Imaging camera. These works provided a local to subregional perspective and employed different criteria for the determination and naming of units. Unified guidelines for the identification, mapping and naming of Europan geologic units were put forth by and employed in regional-to-hemispheric scale mapping which is now being expanded into a global geologic map. A global photomosaic of Galileo and Voyager data was used as a basemap for mapping in ArcGIS, following suggested methodology of all-stratigraphy for planetary mapping. The following units have been defined in global mapping and are listed in stratigraphic order from oldest to youngest: ridged plains material, Argadnel Regio unit, dark plains material, lineaments, disrupted plains material, lenticulated plains material and Chaos material.

  5. Quaternary geologic map of Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of Minnesota is a compilation based both on the unique characteristics of satellite imagery and on the results of previous field investigations, both published and unpublished. The use of satellite imagery has made possible the timely and economical construction of this map. LANDSAT imagery interpretation proved more useful than expected. Most of the geologic units could be identified by extrapolating from specific sites where the geology had been investigated into areas where little was known. The excellent geographic registry coupled with the multi-spectral record of these images served to identify places where the geologic materials responded to their ecological environment and where the ecology responded to the geologic materials. Units were well located on the map at the scale selected for the study. Contacts between till units could be placed with reasonable accuracy. The reference points that were used to project delineations between units (rivers, lakes, hills, roads and other features), which had not been accurately located on early maps, could be accurately located with the help of the imagery. The tonal and color contrasts, the patterns reflecting geologic change and the resolution of the images permitted focusing attention on features which could be represented at the final scale of the map without distraction by other interesting but site-specific details.

  6. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  7. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  8. Information Rich but Knowledge Poor? Emerging Issues for Schools and Libraries Worldwide. Research and Professional Papers Presented at the Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship Held in Conjunction with the Association for Teacher-Librarianship in Canada (26th, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, July 6-11, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lighthall, Lynne, Ed.; Haycock, Ken, Ed.

    Papers presented at this conference were grouped under the following seven broad themes: "Thinking Skills: The Bridge Between Data and Knowledge"; "From Today to Tomorrow: Bridging the Future"; "Cultural Understanding: Bridging Diverse Culture"; "Cultural Expression: Creating Bridges of Meaning"; "Access to Information: Narrowing the Gap"; "Mass…

  9. The U. S. Geological Survey Geologic Hazards Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    In 1879, Congress established the U.S Geological Survey for "the classification of the public lands and the examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain." Throughout the past 103 years, the Survey has successfully fulfilled these responsibilities, but it has also been responsive to changing national needs. This responsiveness is well exemplified by the development of the agency's natural hazard programs. Our orignial mision has been expanded to include formal investigations of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground failures, and flood hazards. 

  10. Geologic field-trip guide to Long Valley Caldera, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2017-07-26

    This guide to the geology of Long Valley Caldera is presented in four parts: (1) An overview of the volcanic geology; (2) a chronological summary of the principal geologic events; (3) a road log with directions and descriptions for 38 field-trip stops; and (4) a summary of the geophysical unrest since 1978 and discussion of its causes. The sequence of stops is arranged as a four-day excursion for the quadrennial General Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI), centered in Portland, Oregon, in August 2017. Most stops, however, are written freestanding, with directions that allow each one to be visited independently, in any order selected.

  11. Geological calculations with SANGRE and MANTLE: Recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, L. M.; Goldman, P.; Anderson, C. A.

    1984-08-01

    Q-13 has two finite-element calculational efforts involving geological studies, both two dimensional and both with extensive graphics output. The SANGRE code was developed at Los Alamos as an extension of TSAAS. Recent code developments include introduction of pore pressure, which has made possible some calculations with geologic folds that show the behavior of fluid during the geological fold process. The code has recently been linked to the STRAP code for graphical output--results will be shown. The MANTLE code work has continued in collaboration with Gerald Schubert of UCLA. Modeling efforts include slabs extending into the fluid region, with and without initial slab motion. Coupled calculations are made of temperature and creep. Graphics are internal to the code and show velocities, pressures, temperatures, stream functions, etc.

  12. [Mentally ill and dangerous: civil commitment or internment? The Belgian judicial framework].

    PubMed

    Smets, H; Verelst, R; Vandenberghe, J

    2009-01-01

    There are two important Belgian laws referring to psychiatric disturbances that may prove dangerous. The Civil Code includes the law relating to the protection of the mentally ill person, dated 26th June 1990, better known as the law of civil commitment of the mentally ill. Since April, 2007, the Penal Code has contained a new law on the internment of people with a psychiatric disorder; this new law replaces the old law of the 1st July, 1964, meant to protect the society. Although the two laws apply to different fields, in clinical practice there are sometimes 'grey areas' where it is not immediately evident which legal framework is applicable. Starting from a case study in which the civil judge ordered the civil commitment of a detainee, we explore these 'grey areas' and compare the two legal frameworks. We base our study on the new law on internment, clarify it and sketch the legal history of internment in Belgium.

  13. Acoustic fluidization - A new geologic process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A number of geologic processes, particularly seismic faulting, impact crater slumping, and long runout landslides, require the failure of geologic materials under differential stresses much smaller than expected on the basis of conventional rock mechanics. This paper proposes that the low strengths apparent in these phenomena are due to a state of 'acoustic fluidization' induced by a transient strong acoustic wave field. The strain rates possible in such a field are evaluated, and it is shown that acoustically fluidized debris behaves as a newtonian fluid with a viscosity in the range 100,000 to 10,000,000 P for plausible conditions. Energy gains and losses in the acoustic field are discussed, and the mechanism is shown to be effective if internal dissipation in the field gives a Q approximately greater than 100. Whether such values for Q are realized is not known at present. However, acoustic fluidization provides a qualitatively correct description of the failure of rock debris under low differential stresses in the processes of faulting, crater slumping, and long runout landslides. Acoustic fluidization thus deserves serious consideration as a possible explanation of these phenomena.

  14. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  15. Sketch-based geologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, M. P.; Jackson, M.; Hampson, G.; Brazil, E. V.; de Carvalho, F.; Coda, C.; Sousa, M. C.; Zhang, Z.; Geiger, S.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) maps and cross-sections, and 3D conceptual models, are fundamental tools for understanding, communicating and modeling geology. Yet geologists lack dedicated and intuitive tools that allow rapid creation of such figures and models. Standard drawing packages produce only 2D figures that are not suitable for quantitative analysis. Geologic modeling packages can produce 3D models and are widely used in the groundwater and petroleum communities, but are often slow and non-intuitive to use, requiring the creation of a grid early in the modeling workflow and the use of geostatistical methods to populate the grid blocks with geologic information. We present an alternative approach to rapidly create figures and models using sketch-based interface and modelling (SBIM). We leverage methods widely adopted in other industries to prototype complex geometries and designs. The SBIM tool contains built-in geologic rules that constrain how sketched lines and surfaces interact. These rules are based on the logic of superposition and cross-cutting relationships that follow from rock-forming processes, including deposition, deformation, intrusion and modification by diagenesis or metamorphism. The approach allows rapid creation of multiple, geologically realistic, figures and models in 2D and 3D using a simple, intuitive interface. The user can sketch in plan- or cross-section view. Geologic rules are used to extrapolate sketched lines in real time to create 3D surfaces. Quantitative analysis can be carried our directly on the models. Alternatively, they can be output as simple figures or imported directly into other modeling tools. The software runs on a tablet PC and can be used in a variety of settings including the office, classroom and field. The speed and ease of use of SBIM enables multiple interpretations to be developed from limited data, uncertainty to be readily appraised, and figures and models to be rapidly updated to incorporate new data or concepts.

  16. Publications of the Western Geologic Mapping Team 1997-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Powell, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Western Geologic Mapping Team (WGMT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Division (USGS, GD), conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis currently include southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, the Las Vegas urban corridor, and selected National Park lands. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WGMT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WGMT released in calendar years 1997 and 1998. Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WGMT staff. However, the list also includes some publications authored by formal non-USGS cooperators with the WGMT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WGMT in cooperation with WGMT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Most of these Web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. For these, the bibliographic citation refers specifically to an explanatory pamphlet containing information about the content and accessibility of the database, not to the actual map or related information comprising the database itself.

  17. Learning Geology by Writing about the History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Jill Stephanie

    1991-01-01

    Author describes her first-year seminar in history of geology where students are given writing assignments asking them to summarize, describe, explain, be convincing to reader. Students review their written work through frequent revision, peer review, collaborative writing assignments. Assignments require students to examine scientific principles…

  18. Geology of the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldridge, W. Scott

    2004-06-01

    Scott Baldridge presents a concise guide to the geology of the Southwestern U.S. Two billion years of Earth history are represented in the rocks and landscape of the Southwest U.S., creating natural wonders such as the Grand Canyon, Monument Valley, and Death Valley. This region is considered a geologist's "dream", attracting a large number of undergraduate field classes and amateur geologists. The volume will prove invaluable to students and will also appeal to anyone interested in the geology and landscape of the region's National Parks.

  19. Framing a bilateral US-Russian geologic repository initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    1998-09-08

    This document summarizes a framework for the development of a bilateral United States-Russian geologic repository initiative to enable cooperative work on the science and technology of geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes and fissile-containing materials. Three different types of integrated technical activities in Russia are employed to focus and organize a Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) FY00 initiative. We have specified the items for initial negotiations with the Russians for start-up activities in FY99 and early FY00. These first interactions will generate other activities which, by utilizing Russia's unique capabilities, may assist us in the development and validation of the US geologic repository program. The current International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) cooperative study of 30years of heat effects on underground hardrock rock media at the closed city of Krasnoyarsk-26 (Zheleznorgorsk) is but one example of such a Russian geologic repository analogue project that may assist the US geologic repository program.

  20. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  1. A geological view of drumlins in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, A. M.; Dardis, G. F.

    Facies modelling of the internal structure of drumlins has resulted in recognition of five major facies associations within the Irish drumlin belt. The facies associations are linked with a sequence of depositional events during the last deglacial phase (ca. 20-16 ka BP). Drumlin sediments were formed by basal till deposition, subglacial fluvial-lacustrine sedimentation, sheet flow, debris flow and subglacial cavity deposition. Subglacial deposition was initiated by the infilling and blocking of subglacial networks which caused a reduction in hydraulic transmissibility at the base of the ice sheet prior to drumlinisation. Drumlins then formed as subglacial erosional forms during surge-type events when subglacial hydraulic transportational processes were active and sediment fluxes to the ice margins were high. It is argued on geologic evidence that basal boundary conditions of this type coupled with high rates of ice wastage by calving at the ice margin contributed to rapid disintegration of the last ice sheet in western Britain.

  2. Geological mysteries on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

    The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  3. Geology of 243 Ida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R.; Greeley, R.; Pappalardo, R.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, J. M.; Morrison, D.; Belton, M. J. S.; Carr, M.; Chapman, C. R.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.; Granahan, James; Head, J. W., III; Kirk, R.; McEwen, A.; Lee, P.; Thomas, P. C.; Veverka, J.

    1996-03-01

    The surface of 243 Ida is dominated by the effects of impacts. No complex crater morphologies are observed. A complete range of crater degradation states is present, which also reveals optical maturation of the surface (darkening and reddening of materials with increasing exposure age). Regions of bright material associated with the freshest craters might be ballistically emplaced deposits or the result of seismic disturbance of loosely-bound surface materials. Diameter/depth ratios for fresh craters on Ida are ∼1:6.5, similar to Gaspra results, but greater than the 1:5 ratios common on other rocky bodies. Contributing causes include rim degradation by whole-body “ringing,” relatively thin ejecta blankets around crater rims, or an extended strength gradient in near-surface materials due to low gravitational self-packing. Grooves probably represent expressions in surface debris of reactivated fractures in the deeper interior. Isolated positive relief features as large as 150 m are probably ejecta blocks related to large impacts. Evidence for the presence of debris on the surface includes resolved ejecta blocks, mass-wasting scars, contrasts in color and albedo of fresh crater materials, and albedo streaks oriented down local slopes. Color data indicate relatively uniform calcium abundance in pyroxenes and constant pyroxene/olivine ratio. A large, relatively blue unit across the northern polar area is probably related to regolith processes involving ejecta from Azzurra rather than representing internal compositional heterogeneity. A small number of bluer, brighter craters are randomly distributed across the surface, unlike on Gaspra where these features are concentrated along ridges. This implies that debris on Ida is less mobile and/or consistently thicker than on Gaspra. Estimates of the average depth of mobile materials derived from chute depths (20-60 m), grooves (≥30 m), and shallowing of the largest degraded craters (20-50 m minimum, ∼100 m maximum

  4. Geological mysteries on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

    The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  5. Geology of 243 Ida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, R.; Greeley, R.; Pappalardo, R.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Morrison, D.; Belton, M.J.S.; Carr, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.; Granahan, J.; Head, J. W.; Kirk, R.; McEwen, A.; Lee, P.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.

    1996-01-01

    The surface of 243 Ida is dominated by the effects of impacts. No complex crater morphologies are observed. A complete range of crater degradation states is present, which also reveals optical maturation of the surface (darkening and reddening of materials with increasing exposure age). Regions of bright material associated with the freshest craters might be ballistically emplaced deposits or the result of seismic disturbance of loosely-bound surface materials. Diameter/depth ratios for fresh craters on Ida are ???1:6.5, similar to Gaspra results, but greater than the 1:5 ratios common on other rocky bodies. Contributing causes include rim degradation by whole-body "ringing," relatively thin ejecta blankets around crater rims, or an extended strength gradient in near-surface materials due to low gravitational self-packing. Grooves probably represent expressions in surface debris of reactivated fractures in the deeper interior. Isolated positive relief features as large as 150 m are probably ejecta blocks related to large impacts. Evidence for the presence of debris on the surface includes resolved ejecta blocks, mass-wasting scars, contrasts in color and albedo of fresh crater materials, and albedo streaks oriented down local slopes. Color data indicate relatively uniform calcium abundance in pyroxenes and constant pyroxene/olivine ratio. A large, relatively blue unit across the northern polar area is probably related to regolith processes involving ejecta from Azzurra rather than representing internal compositional heterogeneity. A small number of bluer, brighter craters are randomly distributed across the surface, unlike on Gaspra where these features are concentrated along ridges. This implies that debris on Ida is less mobile and/or consistently thicker than on Gaspra. Estimates of the average depth of mobile materials derived from chute depths (20-60 m), grooves (???30 m), and shallowing of the largest degraded craters (20-50 m minimum, ???100 m maximum

  6. Teaching Geology in Situ: Modern Approaches and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmenkulova, I. F.

    2014-12-01

    Geology and Geophysics Department of Novosibirsk State University (GGD NSU) is famous not only because of its specific location in Academgorodok (Novosibirsk, Russia) but because of its unique traditions: - conception of permanent geology education (starting from school to scientific research for postgraduate programs) - flexible curricula allowing students to be involved in research from the second year of study - field trips covering not only famous geologic objects in Siberia (Baikal, Siberian Traps, Altay, etc.), but places all over the world. GGD students traditionally participate in the following field trips: Altay (after the first year of study), Shira (Krasnoyarsk Krai) (after the second year of study). Further field trips are real research projects and cover various places in Siberia, Russia and other countries (China, Africa, USA, Mongolia, etc.). Shira field camp is of specific interest not only because of its various geology and interesting location (it is located in the resort area surrounded by beautiful landscapes, fresh and salt lakes of various salinity) but infrastructure. This year the Top 100 Project allows the department to upgrade the camp and therefore use it not only for field trips, but for other various purposes including international conferences, research projects, geo- and ecotourism. GGD NSU is ready to be involved into research, exchange educational programs and other projects (both domestically and internationally) based on the renewed Shira field camp.

  7. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  8. Briefing on geological sequestration (Tulsa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  9. Infrared Analysis of Geological Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Clark, E. Roy

    1980-01-01

    Describes the infrared analysis of geological specimens which can form the basis of a laboratory exercise, allowing some minerals to be identified by "fingerprint" technique. Students can gain insight into the concept of symmetry and environment around an atom. (Author/SA)

  10. Briefing on geological sequestration (Tulsa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  11. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  12. Neutron Absorption in Geological Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Andersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal neutron absorption cross section of geological samples is determined with the steady state neutron source method. Cross section measurements of North Sea sediments demonstrate that also materials with high contents of clay minerals may be investigated with the steady state method.

  13. Infrared Analysis of Geological Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Clark, E. Roy

    1980-01-01

    Describes the infrared analysis of geological specimens which can form the basis of a laboratory exercise, allowing some minerals to be identified by "fingerprint" technique. Students can gain insight into the concept of symmetry and environment around an atom. (Author/SA)

  14. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  15. Introductory Geology: Aspects and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John E.; And Others

    Included are essays presenting diversified views on questions related to problems, procedures and the impact of the Introductory Course Program (ICP) in geology. The papers of this issue deal with such factors as the financial survival in curricular design and introductory course options, the problems of transfer of majors which may place…

  16. Geology in the Junior School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Norm

    1979-01-01

    Suggested is that geology can contribute significantly to the general education of our students from the point of view of relevance and increasing understanding of the planet we inhabit which should be learned as a series of interacting processes involving a time dimension. Several curriculum projects are outlined. (Author/DS)

  17. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GEOLOGICAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERG, J. ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    ARTICLES ABOUT GEOLOGICAL EDUCATION WRITTEN DURING THE PERIOD 1919-62 ARE INCLUDED IN THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. RECOMMENDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL EDUCATORS AND PROFESSIONAL GROUPS FOR THE UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE PREPARATION OF GEOLOGISTS ARE CONTAINED IN MOST OF THE ITEMS. THE ARTICLES WERE ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN PROFESSIONAL JOURNALS OR…

  18. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  19. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  20. Geologic hazards in Navarin Basin Province, Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Paul R.; Karl, Herman A.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Edwards, Brian D.

    Navarin Basin, scheduled for leasing in 1984 (OCS sale 83), may contain vast accumulations of oil and gas. Several geologic and oceanographic processes that may be active in and around Navarin Basin province could be hazardous to commercial development. These potential hazards include submarine slides; sea-floor instability resulting from disturbance of gas-charged sediment; sediment transport and erosion caused by storm waves, tsunamis, internal waves, or bottom currents; pack ice; and active faults and ground motion.

  1. Conference Highlights of the 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses, 26–30 June 2013, Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses was held in Montreal, Québec from June 26th to June 30th, 2013 and was therefore hosted by a Canadian city for the first time. The major topic of the meeting was human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) and was covered through distinct oral and poster presentation sessions: clinical research, animal models, immunology, molecular and cellular biology, human endogenous and emerging exogenous retroviruses and virology. In this review, highlights of the meeting are provided by different experts for each of these research areas. PMID:24558960

  2. Conference highlights of the 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses, 26-30 June 2013, Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Benoit; Hiscott, John; Bazarbachi, Ali; Carvalho, Edgar; Jones, Kathryn; Martin, Fabiola; Matsuoka, Masao; Murphy, Edward L; Ratner, Lee; Switzer, William M; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2014-02-24

    The 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses was held in Montreal, Québec from June 26th to June 30th, 2013 and was therefore hosted by a Canadian city for the first time. The major topic of the meeting was human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) and was covered through distinct oral and poster presentation sessions: clinical research, animal models, immunology, molecular and cellular biology, human endogenous and emerging exogenous retroviruses and virology. In this review, highlights of the meeting are provided by different experts for each of these research areas.

  3. Geostatistical applications in petroleum geology and sedimentary geology

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Statistical tools can aid the geologist in understanding geologic data, and in the solution of real-world problems. This thesis examines several tools, concentrating on techniques with wide applicability in sedimentary and petroleum geology. A case study presents the use of geostatistics for mapping hydrocarbon pore volume and risk assessment in an area surrounding Amos Draw field in the northern Powder River basin of Wyoming. The study used sequential Gaussian and indicator simulation techniques, and documents the ability of indicator simulation to incorporate correlated secondary data. Reservoir characterization requires the generation of numerical grids of geologic properties. Because those properties differ for each rock type, one should first simulate the distribution of rock types, and then the distribution of the reservoir properties. This thesis proposes two multivariate statistical techniques, discriminant function analysis and cluster analysis, for the identification of petrophysical rock types in the Muddy Formation at Amos Draw. The geology of those rock types is discussed using core descriptions, thin-sections, and well log data. The rock types were simulated in three dimensions using indicator principal component simulation. The study also used simulated annealing for post-processing of the simulations, incorporating information from the wells on the transition frequencies between the rock types. The third case study used runs analysis for the identification of patterns in bed thickness and grain size in turbidites. Upward-thickening and thinning patterns have been used to assign turbidite sequences to depositional environments, although there has been disagreement on their identification. Runs analysis was applied to a turbidite section in the Sites Formation at Cache Creek, in northern California.

  4. The commensurability of environmental geology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Argen, R.J.

    1990-05-01

    Environmental geology and petroleum geology are practical applications of pure geology. These two applied sciences differ with respect to their philosophical and ethical mandates. A good petroleum geologist finds hydrocarbons, but the role of a good environmental geologist is not well defined. If the good environmental geologist's role is not simply to protect the environment from the good petroleum geologist then how do the mandates of these geologists differ, yet remain compatible If the mandate of a good environmental geologist were to protect every natural resource from all managed use, then the good environmental geologist and the good petroleum geologist would forever be at war. This mandate provides no framework for agreement because it assumes the inherent worth of each natural resource is discoverable. If the mandate of a good environmental geologist is to discover how to maximize the long-term benefits of the managed use of natural resource, then both the good environmental geologist and the good petroleum geologist would agree that no natural resource has inherent worth. The value of a natural resource is not determined by what it is, but by how it enhances the quality of life for a particular class of sentient creatures. An instrumental theory of value will provide a medium for interim disagreement on how to enhance the quality of life for sentient creatures, and also will provide the means for a long-term agreement that the managed use of natural resources enhances the long-term quality of life for sentient creatures.

  5. Teaching Geology in a Penitentiary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, William N.

    1986-01-01

    Describes geology teaching in a penal institution, considering class offerings, teaching structure, teaching schedule, security, cheating, student characteristics, women prisoners in geology classes, and outside field trips. Sample laboratory schedule is included. (JN)

  6. Teaching Geology in a Penitentiary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, William N.

    1986-01-01

    Describes geology teaching in a penal institution, considering class offerings, teaching structure, teaching schedule, security, cheating, student characteristics, women prisoners in geology classes, and outside field trips. Sample laboratory schedule is included. (JN)

  7. The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H. (Editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

  8. Planetary geology in the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic aspects of solar system studies are defined and the goals of planetary geology are discussed. Planetary geology is the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of matter condensed in the form of planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. It is a multidisciplinary effort involving investigators with backgrounds in geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geodesy, cartography, and other disciplines concerned with the solid planets. The report is primarily restricted to the kinds of experiments and observations made through unmanned missions.

  9. Stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Guest, John E.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic evolution of Mercury based on the Mariner-10 mission data is discussed. As reconstructed through photogeological analysis of global geologic relations of rock-stratigraphic units, Mercury's geologic history is shown to involve intensive early impact bombardment and widespread resurfacing by volcanic lavas. Evidence is presented to indicate that this volcanic activity essentially ended as much as 3 Gyr ago, with most of the major geologic events being completed within the first 1 to 1.5 Gyr of Mercurian history.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Sequestration Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, P. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Brennan, S.; Corum, M.; Merrill, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geological storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in consultation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State geological surveys. To conduct the assessment, the USGS developed a probability-based assessment methodology that was extensively reviewed by experts from industry, government and university organizations (Brennan et al., 2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127). The methodology is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales and it identifies storage assessment units (SAUs) that are based on two depth categories below the surface (1) 3,000 to 13,000 ft (914 to 3,962 m), and (2) 13,000 ft (3,962 m) and greater. In the first category, the 3,000 ft (914 m) minimum depth of the storage reservoir ensures that CO2 is in a supercritical state to minimize the storage volume. The depth of 13,000 ft (3,962 m) represents maximum depths that are accessible with average injection pressures. The second category represents areas where a reservoir formation has potential storage at depths below 13,000 ft (3,962 m), although they are not accessible with average injection pressures; these are assessed as a separate SAU. SAUs are restricted to formation intervals that contain saline waters (total dissolved solids greater than 10,000 parts per million) to prevent contamination of protected ground water. Carbon dioxide sequestration capacity is estimated for buoyant and residual storage traps within the basins. For buoyant traps, CO2 is held in place in porous formations by top and lateral seals. For residual traps, CO2 is contained in porous formations as individual droplets held within pores by capillary forces. Preliminary geologic models have been developed to estimate CO2 storage capacity in approximately 40 major sedimentary basins within the United States. More than

  11. Computer image processing: Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Computer image processing of digital data was performed to support several geological studies. The specific goals were to: (1) relate the mineral content to the spectral reflectance of certain geologic materials, (2) determine the influence of environmental factors, such as atmosphere and vegetation, and (3) improve image processing techniques. For detection of spectral differences related to mineralogy, the technique of band ratioing was found to be the most useful. The influence of atmospheric scattering and methods to correct for the scattering were also studied. Two techniques were used to correct for atmospheric effects: (1) dark object subtraction, (2) normalization of use of ground spectral measurements. Of the two, the first technique proved to be the most successful for removing the effects of atmospheric scattering. A digital mosaic was produced from two side-lapping LANDSAT frames. The advantages were that the same enhancement algorithm can be applied to both frames, and there is no seam where the two images are joined.

  12. Geology of central Lake Michigan.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, R.J.; Paull, R.A.; Wolosin, C.A.; Friedel, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The geology beneath central Lake Michigan is interpreted from a synthesis of 1,700 km of continuous seismic reflection profile data, bathymetry, grab samples, and onshore surface and subsurface information. The map of unconsolidated sediment (primarily Pleistocene) shows thicknesses ranging from 180 m in a steep- walled, northeast-trending valley to less than 10 m over a mid-lake topographic high. These are the dominant features developed on the gently eastward-dipping Paleozoic rocks along this part of the western flank of the Michigan basin. Two structural-stratigraphic cross sections of the study area were constructed. The cross sections, grab samples and other information were used to construct a Paleozoic geologic map. Speculations are made about the petroleum potential beneath Lake Michigan. -from Authors

  13. Geology of the reading prong

    SciTech Connect

    Schutz, D.

    1987-03-01

    For over a billion years the geological terrain now called New Jersey has been the site of unusually high uranium concentrations. Although the highest of these concentrations occurs in the Reading Prong, the area is itself only part of a larger geologic province extending to the northeast and southwest. The rocks in the Reading Prong are not uniformly radioactive. High uranium concentrations tend to be associated with magnetite deposits - metamorphic equivalents of iron-rich formations - and with pegmatites - rocks formed by precipitation from mineralizing solutions in the late phases of granite emplacement. Because of the way they were formed, the uranium-bearing magnetite and pegmatite bodies tend to be long and narrow, and the resulting patterns of radon occurrence can be expected to be the same. This may explain why, in some places, adjacent houses have very different radon concentrations.

  14. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  15. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  16. Geologic periodicities and the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    New geologic and astronomical developments are reviewed that have recently led to the proposal of various Galactic theories to explain the temporal pattern of impact craters on earth. Linear and harmonic time series analyses have revealed that two dominant periodicities about equal to 33 + or - 3 Myr and 260 + or - 25 Myr underlie the geologic record of terrestrial impact cratering and global tectonic phenomena. It is argued that purely terrestrial mechanisms cannot account for the cratering cycles as being preservational artifacts; cratering rather appears to influence tectonism, possibly through perturbations of mantle convection. Galactic models proposed to explain the two long-term periodicities are reviewed critically. The most likely explanation for the 33 Myr cycle involves the comparatively stable half period of vertical oscillation of the solar system about the Galactic plane. The 260 Myr cycle may be related to rare encounters with Galactic spiral arms during the revolution of the solar system around the Galactic center.

  17. Engineering Geological Structures of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, V. T.; Averkina, T. I.

    The term "engineering geological structure" has been defined. Contents, causes, and distinguishing features and hierarchic classification of these structures and the logical set of engineering geological structures of the globe are also discussed. The regularities of spatial distribution of engineering geological super-, mega-, macro-, and meso-structures of the Earth and its continents have been described.

  18. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of potentially...

  19. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of potentially...

  20. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of potentially...

  1. State Geological Surveys and Geoscience Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Meredith Eggers

    1991-01-01

    State geological surveys have a significant role in geologic education. They are the principal gatherers, evaluators, and distributors of geologic information within their states; and they are in daily contact with the public through state, government, industry, and educator contacts. Many surveys are attempting to disseminate information through…

  2. Measuring Student Understanding of Geological Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-01-01

    There have been few discoveries in geology more important than "deep time"--the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology,…

  3. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  4. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  5. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  6. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  7. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  8. Learning Geologic Time in the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method used to teach the concept of geologic time to introductory geology students using an inquiry-based approach. Students work in teams to obtain rock samples that are used to interpret the geologic history of a region. (SAH)

  9. Learning Geologic Time in the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method used to teach the concept of geologic time to introductory geology students using an inquiry-based approach. Students work in teams to obtain rock samples that are used to interpret the geologic history of a region. (SAH)

  10. U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) at Stennis Space Center is a unique high-tech facility that provides hydrologic instrumentation support to the U. S. Geological Survey and other federal agencies worldwide. The HIF has the responsibility for warehousing, testing, evaluating, designing, repairing, and calibrating numerous pieces of hydrologic instrumentation, which is used in studying water on the surface, in the soil, and in the atmosphere of the Earth.

  11. Geological exploration from orbital altitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badgley, Peter C.; Fischer, William A.; Lyon, Ronald J. P.

    1965-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration is planning geologic exploration from orbiting spacecraft. For that purpose it is evaluating new and refined exploration tools, often called remote sensors, including devices that are sensitive to force fields, such as gravity gradient systems, and devices that record the reflection or emission of electromagnetic energy. Both passive electromagnetic sensors (those that rely on natural sources of illumination, such as the Sun) and active electromagnetic sensors (which use an artificial source of illumination) are being considered.

  12. Geological mapping in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, S.L. . Dept. of Geology); Kulander, B.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Lessing, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Geological mapping at 1:24,000 scale in the Valley and Ridge province of West Virginia is an ongoing program to up-date 75-year old 1:62,500 scale county geological maps. Large-scale topographic maps, remote-sensing imagery, geophysical data, well-log data, and advances in structural concepts provide information leading to thin-skinned tectonic interpretations. The five maps displayed (22 7.5-minute quadrangles) illustrate the complex deformational styles in the Paleozoic section of the Massanutten/Blue Ridge, Waynesboro, and Martinsburg sheets. Detailed field mapping reveals that many previously mapped anticlines, such as Great North Mountain and Adams run, are complex anticlinoria and that large expanses of Lower Mississippian clastics were overlooked in the Sector and Lost River State Park quadrangles. Furthermore, prevalent thrust and strike-slip faulting in the Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates of the Great Valley and extensive folding, faulting, and pre-fold layer-parallel shortening have occurred in the upper sheet to an extent not previously reported. Finally, imbrication of the underlying Waynesboro sheet forms a duplex that defines major anticlinoria and synclinoria in the Valley and Ridge. Complete maps have proven beneficial to government and the public. Examples are the siting of high-yield water wells, delineation of wellheat protection areas, and providing maps suitable for GIS systems. The maps have also been used to organize regional and local field trips and have served as the basis for the further structural and stratigraphic investigations. The West Virginia Geological Survey places high priority on detailed geological mapping. However, continuation of the program is dependent upon adequate funding.

  13. Global geologic map of Ganymede

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Geoffrey C.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Head, James W.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louise M.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.; Kay, Johnathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Ganymede is the largest satellite of Jupiter, and its icy surface has been formed through a variety of impact cratering, tectonic, and possibly cryovolcanic processes. The history of Ganymede can be divided into three distinct phases: an early phase dominated by impact cratering and mixing of non-ice materials in the icy crust, a phase in the middle of its history marked by great tectonic upheaval, and a late quiescent phase characterized by a gradual drop in heat flow and further impact cratering. Images of Ganymede suitable for geologic mapping were collected during the flybys of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 (1979), as well as during the Galileo Mission in orbit around Jupiter (1995–2003). This map represents a synthesis of our understanding of Ganymede geology after the conclusion of the Galileo Mission. We summarize the properties of the imaging dataset used to construct the map, previously published maps of Ganymede, our own mapping rationale, and the geologic history of Ganymede. Additional details on these topics, along with detailed descriptions of the type localities for the material units, may be found in the companion paper to this map (Patterson and others, 2010).

  14. Geologic mapping using thermal images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Kahle, A. B.; Palluconi, F. D.; Schieldge, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal radiance data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite has been used to measure surface reflectance data and to provide additional material composition information through remote sensing. The primary goal was to investigate the utility of HCMM data for geologic applications. Three techniques were used for displaying and combining thermal and visible near infrared (VNIR) data for two desert areas in southern California (Trona and Pisgah): color additive composites (CAC) for day and night IR and day VNIR, principal components, and calculation of thermal inertia images. The HCMM thermal data were more effective than Landsat data in producing separation of compositionally different areas including volcanic and intrusive rocks. The satellite CAC data produced an image for a 1 x 2 degree area, and the color picture was enlarged to a scale of 1:250,000. Playa composition, moisture content, presence of standing water, and vegetation cover were displayed in a variety of colors according to physical characteristics. Areas such as sand dunes were not distinguishable because of the coarse 500-mm HCMM resolution. HCMM thermal data have shown a new dimension to geologic remote sensing, and future satellite missions should allow the continued development of the thermal infrared data for geology.

  15. Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, George E.

    2004-01-01

    Geological mapping and topical studies, primarily in the southern Acidalia Planitia/Cydonia Mensae region of Mars is presented. The overall objective was to understand geologic processes and crustal history in the northern lowland in order to assess the probability that an ocean once existed in this region. The major deliverable is a block of 6 1:500,000 scale geologic maps that will be published in 2004 as a single map at 1:1,000,000 scale along with extensive descriptive and interpretive text. A major issue addressed by the mapping was the relative ages of the extensive plains of Acidalia Planitia and the knobs and mesas of Cydonia Mensae. The mapping results clearly favor a younger age for the plains. Topical studies included a preliminary analysis of the very abundant small domes and cones to assess the possibility that their origins could be determined by detailed mapping and remote-sensing analysis. We also tested the validity of putative shorelines by using GIs to co-register full-resolution MOLA altimetry data and Viking images with these shorelines plotted on them. Of the 3 proposed shorelines in this area, one is probably valid, one is definitely not valid, and the third is apparently 2 shorelines closely spaced in elevation. Publications supported entirely or in part by this grant are included.

  16. Dione's spectral and geological properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.; Wagner, R.; Clark, R.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Roatsch, T.; Hoffmann, H.; Brown, R.H.; Filiacchione, G.; Buratti, B.J.; Hansen, G.B.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Baines, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the variations in spectral properties across the surface of Saturn's satellite Dione using Cassini/VIMS data and their relationships to geological and/or morphological characteristics as seen in the Cassini/ISS images. This analysis focuses on a local region on Dione's anti-saturnian hemisphere that was observed by VIMS with high spatial resolution during orbit 16 in October 2005. The results are incorporated into a global context provided by VIMS data acquired within Cassini's first 50 orbits. Our results show that Dione's surface is dominated by at least one global process. Bombardment by magnetospheric particles is consistent with the concentration of dark material and enhanced CO2 absorption on the trailing hemisphere of Dione independent of the geology. Local regions within this terrain indicate a special kind of resurfacing that probably is related to large-scale impact process. In contrast, the enhanced ice signature on the leading side is associated with the extended ejecta of the fresh impact crater Creusa (???49??N/76??W). Although no geologically active regions could be identified, Dione's tectonized regions observed with high spatial resolution partly show some clean H2O ice implying that tectonic processes could have continued into more recent times. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pennsylvania's contribution to petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, P.A.

    1989-09-01

    John F. Carll of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania laid the foundations of both petroleum geology and reservoir engineering. J. P. Lesley, director of the Second Survey, had introduced structure contours when he was working in the anthracite fields. He pointed out that the great oil fields of Pennsylvania were in the only part of the state where there were no anticlines. I. C. White, another geologist with the Second Survey, emphasized the anticlinal theory adopted as a method of prospecting until the discovery of the Cushing field in Oklahoma in 1912. George Ashley, state geologist of Pennsylvanian in the 1930s and 1940s, said that after the gas companies had drilled all the anticlines there would still be the synclines. David White in 1915 noticed the relation between the metamorphosis (rank) of coal and the occurrence of oil and gas. This method (vitrinite reflectance) is now widely applied in the evaluation of basins. In the late 1930s, the resurvey of the Pennsylvania oil regions showed that the reservoirs were shoreline sands, probably barrier islands. In the 1950s the AAPG recommended a study of the recent sediments of the Mississippi delta by Scripps Institute of Oceanography. The ability to recognize depositional environments has caused a revolution in petroleum geology, and recently has been recognized by petroleum engineers as the key to reservoir characterization.

  18. Geologic mapping using thermal images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Kahle, A. B.; Palluconi, F. D.; Schieldge, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal radiance data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite has been used to measure surface reflectance data and to provide additional material composition information through remote sensing. The primary goal was to investigate the utility of HCMM data for geologic applications. Three techniques were used for displaying and combining thermal and visible near infrared (VNIR) data for two desert areas in southern California (Trona and Pisgah): color additive composites (CAC) for day and night IR and day VNIR, principal components, and calculation of thermal inertia images. The HCMM thermal data were more effective than Landsat data in producing separation of compositionally different areas including volcanic and intrusive rocks. The satellite CAC data produced an image for a 1 x 2 degree area, and the color picture was enlarged to a scale of 1:250,000. Playa composition, moisture content, presence of standing water, and vegetation cover were displayed in a variety of colors according to physical characteristics. Areas such as sand dunes were not distinguishable because of the coarse 500-mm HCMM resolution. HCMM thermal data have shown a new dimension to geologic remote sensing, and future satellite missions should allow the continued development of the thermal infrared data for geology.

  19. 77 FR 6580 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ....S. Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program (NGGDPP) Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey... Standard Time. The Committee will hear updates on progress of the NCGMP toward fulfilling the purposes...

  20. Geologic Landforms and Processes on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    During the first reconaissence of the satellites of the outer solar system conducted by the Voyager missions (1979-1989), a surprising diversity of unusual geologic landforms were observed, in some cases with bewildering complexity (e.g., Triton). Impact features were certainly expected but the variety of volcanic, diapiric, tectonic, impact, and erosional landforms was only remotely suggested by some early theoretical works. These diagnostic features are manifestations of the internal composition, thermal history, and dynamical evolution of these bodies. It is the job of the geologist to interpret the morphology, stratigraphy, and composition of these deposits and structures to ascertain what materials were mobilized in the interior, in what amount, and the mechanism and cause of their mobilization. In this chapter, we review what is know about these features and what constraints can be placed on composition and thermal history. Particular emphasis is placed on volcanic features, as these are most directly related to satellite composition and thermal history. The surface spectra, high albedos, and low bulk densities of the satellites of the outer solar system indicate that water and other ices are abundant on these bodies, particularly on their surfaces. Ices, particularly water ice, are less dense than silicates and will tend to float and form crusts during differentiation or partial melting of the interior. Ices therefore take the place of silicates as 'crust-forming' minerals and dominate geologic processes on icy satellites. Melted ices form magma bodies, and sometimes are extruded as lavas, an unusual but still valid perspective for terrestrial geologists. The unusual properties of some ices, including their low melting temperatures, and low strengths (as well as the decrease in density on the freezing of water ice), will ultimately be very important in interpreting this record.

  1. Geologic Landforms and Processes on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    During the first reconaissence of the satellites of the outer solar system conducted by the Voyager missions (1979-1989), a surprising diversity of unusual geologic landforms were observed, in some cases with bewildering complexity (e.g., Triton). Impact features were certainly expected but the variety of volcanic, diapiric, tectonic, impact, and erosional landforms was only remotely suggested by some early theoretical works. These diagnostic features are manifestations of the internal composition, thermal history, and dynamical evolution of these bodies. It is the job of the geologist to interpret the morphology, stratigraphy, and composition of these deposits and structures to ascertain what materials were mobilized in the interior, in what amount, and the mechanism and cause of their mobilization. In this chapter, we review what is know about these features and what constraints can be placed on composition and thermal history. Particular emphasis is placed on volcanic features, as these are most directly related to satellite composition and thermal history. The surface spectra, high albedos, and low bulk densities of the satellites of the outer solar system indicate that water and other ices are abundant on these bodies, particularly on their surfaces. Ices, particularly water ice, are less dense than silicates and will tend to float and form crusts during differentiation or partial melting of the interior. Ices therefore take the place of silicates as 'crust-forming' minerals and dominate geologic processes on icy satellites. Melted ices form magma bodies, and sometimes are extruded as lavas, an unusual but still valid perspective for terrestrial geologists. The unusual properties of some ices, including their low melting temperatures, and low strengths (as well as the decrease in density on the freezing of water ice), will ultimately be very important in interpreting this record.

  2. OneGeology-Europe and the new EC Directive INSPIRE - A matter of semantic subtlety?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, K.

    2009-04-01

    approach should we adopt to hypabyssal rocks? There are many more to approach and of course already existing vocabulararies, definitions and classifications need to be taken into account. Compounding these questions is the fact that in the absence of accepted international standards, almost every national geological survey has adopted different standards; standards which they are reluctant to concede. This presentation will outline the issues and challenges facing the geological community to define the geological classification of the OneGeology-Europe project while considering the future requirements of the EC INSPIRE Directive and provides an update on the progress in meeting those challenges.

  3. The international lithosphere program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinn, Edward A.

    The International Lithosphere Program is a new international interdisciplinary research program in the solid earth sciences that has been established by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) at the joint request of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). Its goal is a better understanding of the development of the earth, particularly those aspects upon which human society depends for its well-being.The International Lithosphere Program (ILP) is a natural sequel to a series of international cooperative projects in the geosciences that began with the International Geophysical Year in 1957-58 and continued with the Upper Mantle Project in the 1960's and the International Geodynamics Project (IGP) in the 1970's. In 1977, IUGG and IUGS established an inter-union task group to consider the possibility of a successor to the IGP for the 1980's. The task group, under cochairmen Carl Kisslinger (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado), foreign secretary of the American Geophysical Union, and J. Henning Illies (Geophysical Institute, University of Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany), invited suggestions and comments from the two unions and the national committees in the member countries. Their report, which was completed late in 1978, proposed a new project on the dynamics, origin, and evolution of the lithosphere. This proposal was approved by the IUGS Executive Committee in December 1979 and by the IUGS Council in June 1980. An inter-union steering committee, established in 1979 under the joint chairmanship of Kisslinger and Illies, developed the organizational framework and constitution of the new program. These were approved by resolution of the ICSU Governing Board in September 1980, and the Inter-Union Commission on the Lithosphere (ICL) was established to implement the program. National members of ICSU were urged to establish

  4. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levich, R.A.; Stuckless, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  5. Crater numbers and geological histories of Iapetus, Enceladus, Tethys and Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Boyce, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The surfaces of the Saturn satellites Tethys, Iapetus and Encedalus display surfaces which indicate active geological processes and therefore suggest a degree of internal evolution. By contrast, the Saturn satellite Hyperion and the coorbitals 1980S1 and 1980S3 show no trace of geological activity and may be fragments of once-larger bodies. Activity on Iapetus appears to have been confined to the dark terrain, and offers no clue as to its timing and extent. The widest terrain type and crater number variations are those of Encedalus, which indicate the most prolonged period of geological activity of any of the satellites studied.

  6. Geologic Map of Loudoun County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Burton, William C.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Froelich, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The geology of Loudoun County, Va., was mapped from 1988 through 1991 under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Loudoun County Office of Mapping and Geographic Information. This geologic map was compiled in 1993 from a series of detailed published and unpublished field investigations at scales of 1:12,000 and 1:24,000. Some of these same data were compiled as a digital geologic map at 1:100,000 scale (Burton and others, 1992a) and were the basis for a cost-benefit analysis of the societal value of geologic maps (Bernknopf and others, 1993).

  7. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  8. Mapping the Surficial Geology of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Jakobsson, M.; Gebhardt, C.; Mayer, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Surficial geologic mapping of the Arctic Ocean was undertaken to provide a basis for understanding different geologic environments in this polar setting. Mapping was based on data acquired from numerous icebreaker and submarine missions to the polar region. The intent was to create a geologic layer overlying the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean. Analysis of subbottom profiler and multibeam bathymetric data in conjunction with sediment cores and the regional morphology rendered from the IBCAO data were used to map different surficial geologic units. For a relatively small ocean basin, the Arctic Ocean reveals a plethora of margin and basin types reflecting both the complex tectonic origins of the basin and its diverse sedimentation history. Broad and narrow shelves were subjected to a complex ice-margin history in the Quaternary, and bear the sediment types and morphological features as a result. Some shelfal areas are heavily influenced by rivers. Extensive deep water ridges and plateaus are isolated from coastal input and have a long history of hemipelagic deposition. An active spreading ridge and regions of recent volcanism have volcani-clastic and heavily altered sediments. Some regions of the Arctic Ocean are proposed to have been influenced by bolide impact. The flanks of the basins demonstrate complex sedimentation patterns resulting from mass failures and ice-margin outflow. The deep basins of the Arctic Ocean are filled with turbidites resulting from these mass-flows and are interbedded with hemiplegic deposits.

  9. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  10. Intergas `95: International unconventional gas symposium. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The International Unconventional Gas Symposium was held on May 14--20, 1995 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama where 52 reports were presented. These reports are grouped in this proceedings under: geology and resources; mine degasification and safety; international developments; reservoir characterization/coal science; and environmental/legal and regulatory. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey data used in a U.S. Geological Survey regional geologic framework study along the Delmarva Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Brothers, Laura L.; Thieler, E. Robert; Danforth, William W.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey obtained raw Reson multibeam data files from Science Applications International Corporation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for 20 hydrographic surveys and extracted backscatter data using the Fledermaus Geocoder Toolbox from Quality Positioning Service. The backscatter mosaics produced by the U.S. Geological Survey for the inner continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data increased regional geophysical surveying efficiency, collaboration among government agencies, and the area over which geologic data can be interpreted by the U.S. Geological Survey. This report describes the methods by which the backscatter data were extracted and processed and includes backscatter mosaics and interpolated bathymetric surfaces.

  12. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  13. Porphyry copper deposit tract definition - A global analysis comparing geologic map scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, G.L.; Connors, K.A.; Chorlton, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic maps are a fundamental data source used to define mineral-resource potential tracts for the first step of a mineral resource assessment. Further, it is generally believed that the scale of the geologic map is a critical consideration. Previously published research has demonstrated that the U.S. Geological Survey porphyry tracts identified for the United States, which are based on 1:500,000-scale geology and larger scale data and published at 1:1,000,000 scale, can be approximated using a more generalized 1:2,500,000-scale geologic map. Comparison of the USGS porphyry tracts for the United States with weights-of-evidence models made using a 1:10,000,000-scale geologic map, which was made for petroleum applications, and a 1:35,000,000-scale geologic map, which was created as context for the distribution of porphyry deposits, demonstrates that, again, the USGS US porphyry tracts identified are similar to tracts defined on features from these small scale maps. In fact, the results using the 1:35,000,000-scale map show a slightly higher correlation with the USGS US tract definition, probably because the conceptual context for this small-scale map is more appropriate for porphyry tract definition than either of the other maps. This finding demonstrates that geologic maps are conceptual maps. The map information shown in each map is selected and generalized for the map to display the concepts deemed important for the map maker's purpose. Some geologic maps of small scale prove to be useful for regional mineral-resource tract definition, despite the decrease in spatial accuracy with decreasing scale. The utility of a particular geologic map for a particular application is critically dependent on the alignment of the intention of the map maker with the application. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2007.

  14. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  15. Petroleum geology of southwestern Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Sitler, G.

    1987-09-01

    Approximately 250 wells have been drilled in the 22-county area comprising southwestern Ohio. Despite numerous shows from various zones, no sustained commercial production has been established. Live oil and gas shows have been reported from surface exposures of outcropping Silurian carbonates down to, and including, the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone. Several wells have been completed and actually produced hydrocarbons for a short period, but were subsequently abandoned. Despite the lack of established production, the area holds considerable promise as a potential oil and natural gas producing region. Gravity, magnetics, seismic, surface and source rock geochemistry, linear trace analysis, and subsurface computer mapping have all been used to study the structure, stratigraphy, and petroleum geology of the area. Basement geology is complex and has affected sedimentation patterns in the overlying Cambrian rocks. The Grenville-Central Province contact is present in the area and exhibits faulting, mineralization, and possibly plutonism. The Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the area is relatively simple, with clastics at the base, carbonates in the middle, and a thick shale capping the sequence. Several major facies changes are evident within the section. Structural geology is also fairly simple. However, local discontinuities are apparent and include Precambrian doming and faulting, reactivated faulting, and Knox unconformable surfaces. Potential reservoirs in the area include the Utica Shale, Trenton Limestone, St. Peter Sandstone, Rose Run sandstone, Knox dolomites, Kerbel sandstone, Eau Claire Sandstone, and Mount Simon Sandstone. Favorable source rock geochemistry and the abundance of hydrocarbon shows suggest favorable source rocks to be present. Many different types of traps have been observed.

  16. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the

  17. Ore metals through geologic history.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C

    1985-03-22

    The ores of chromite, nickel, copper, and zinc show a wide distribution over geologic time, but those of iron, titanium, lead, uranium, gold, silver, molybdenum, tungsten, and tin are more restricted. Many of the limitations to specific time intervals are probably imposed by the evolving tectonic history of Earth interacting with the effects of the biomass on the evolution of the earth's s surface chemistry. Photosynthetic generation of free oxygen and "carbon" contributes significantlly to the diversity of redox potentials in both sedimentary and igneous-related processes of ore formation, influencing the selection of metals at the source, during transport, and at the site of ore deposition.

  18. Applications of ISES for geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The principal applications for onboard data processing and real-time data transmission in the geological sciences are the detection of early warning signs of potential catastrophic events and the rapid assessment of impact and damage following major events. Also, the opportunity for quick look and supporting data during field investigations should not be disregarded. The Eos platforms are ideal for these applications because of the variety of earth sensing instruments and their differing modes of operation. Further study is required to define the role for each instrument and to assess how they can aid each other in establishing an improved output product.

  19. Herding Cats: The Challenges of Collaboratively Defining the Geology of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, K.

    2009-04-01

    The EC INSPIRE Directive which came into force in May 2007 set out how the Member States of the European Union would describe, discover and provide access to spatial environmental data in a harmonised way. Amongst the data sets specified in INSPIRE is geology. A fundamental question is just what is meant by ‘geology'? The question must be answered, and in some detail, if the intentions of the INSPIRE Directive to provide consistency of access are to be realised The Directive itself provides very little constraint on this definition. In it geology is described as "Geology characterised according to composition and structure. Includes bedrock, aquifers and geomorphology". The challenge for the EC and its Member States - more specifically for the geological survey community - is to convert this single line into a precise and practical specification that will deliver the outcomes intended by INSPIRE. The geological survey community is attempting to develop this specification through two complementary routes. Theme Working Groups - a generic procedure adopted by the EC that will start in May 2009 - and a new EC eContentplus project, OneGeology-Europe. Within OneGeology-Europe is a Work Package whose task is to deliver a specification of "geology" at 1:1 million scale. While the initial reaction of some would be to question whether defining geology at this scale poses any significant challenges the reality is somewhat differentand raises fundamental issues in describing the geology of Europe that onl ycan be solved in cooperation across political boundaries. Not only scientific questions are to be considered but also political, diplomatical and logistical ones. In addition, in the absence of accepted international standards, almost every national geological survey has adopted different standards; standards which they are reluctant to concede. Thi sneeds to be tackled. This presentation will outline the issues and challenges facing the geological community in taking

  20. Efficient Geological Modelling of Large AEM Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Torben; Martlev Pallesen, Tom; Jørgensen, Flemming; Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Combining geological expert knowledge with geophysical observations into a final 3D geological model is, in most cases, not a straight forward process. It typically involves many types of data and requires both an understanding of the data and the geological target. When dealing with very large areas, such as modelling of large AEM surveys, the manual task for the geologist to correctly evaluate and properly utilise all the data available in the survey area, becomes overwhelming. In the ERGO project (Efficient High-Resolution Geological Modelling) we address these issues and propose a new modelling methodology enabling fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. The vision of the project is to build a user friendly expert system that enables the combination of very large amounts of geological and geophysical data with geological expert knowledge. This is done in an "auto-pilot" type functionality, named Smart Interpretation, designed to aid the geologist in the interpretation process. The core of the expert system is a statistical model that describes the relation between data and geological interpretation made by a geological expert. This facilitates fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. It will enable the construction of models with high resolution as the system will "learn" the geology of an area directly from interpretations made by a geological expert, and instantly apply it to all hard data in the survey area, ensuring the utilisation of all the data available in the geological model. Another feature is that the statistical model the system creates for one area can be used in another area with similar data and geology. This feature can be useful as an aid to an untrained geologist to build a geological model, guided by the experienced geologist way of interpretation, as quantified by the expert system in the core statistical model. In this project presentation we provide some examples of the problems we are aiming to address in the project

  1. The British Geological Survey and the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chesher, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    The British Geological Survey is the UK`s national centre for earth science information with a parallel remit to operate internationally. The Survey`s work covers the full geoscience spectrum in energy, mineral and groundwater resources and associated implications for land use, geological hazards and environmental impact. Much of the work is conducted in collaboration with industry and academia, including joint funding opportunities. Activities relating directly to hydrocarbons include basin analysis, offshore geoscience mapping, hazard assessment, fracture characterization, biostratigraphy, sedimentology, seismology, geomagnetism and frontier data acquisition techniques, offshore. The BGS poster presentation illustrates the value of the collaborative approach through consortia support for regional offshore surveys, geotechnical hazard assessments and state-of-the-art R & D into multicomponent seismic imaging techniques, among others.

  2. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  3. Geology of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.

    1946-01-01

    A brief summary of the geography, climate, and geomorphology is given. Streams develop slowly after the extinction of a volcano because of the high permeability of the rock. Once established they cut rapidly because of the steep slopes and fractured condition of the rock. Stream erosion varies enormously on different slopes of the same mountain due to the great differences in rainfall and to other causes. Six reasons are given for the development of amphitheater-headed valleys. Marine erosion has formed cliffs as much as 1,000 feet high on the leeward side and 3,000 feet high on the windward side of some of the domes. The islands have undergone a complex series of emergences and submergences leaving marine fossiliferous limestone up to 1,070 feet above sea level and valleys drowned more than 1,200 feet. Twelve terrace levels are recognized. Some are definitely eustatic.A synopsis is given of the present knowledge of the geology of each volcanic mountain, as well as a table of the rock units, and geologic maps of all major islands. The volcanoes pass through four major phases between birth and extinction and are built around one minor and two major rift zones. The volcanoes began their history above sea level in the Tertiary. Most of them became dormant either before or during the early Quaternary. Activity was renewed in the late Quaternary. Mauna Kea was glaciated in the late Pleistocene. The character of each islet in the archipelago is tabulated.

  4. Geology of central Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Wold, R.J.; Paull, R.A.; Wolosin, C.A.; Friedel, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    The geology beneath Lake Michigan between 43/sup 0/00' and 44/sup 0/00'N and between 86/sup 0/30' and 87/sup 0/40' W is interpreted from a synthesis of 1,700 km of continuous seismic reflection profile data, bathymetry, grab samples, and onshore surface and subsurface information. The continuous seismic reflection profiles and bathymetry provided information for maps of unconsolidated sediment thickness and Paleozoic bedrock topography. Two structural-stratigraphic cross sections of the study area were constructed by utilizing a composite subsurface-surface section for eastern Wisconsin and two control wells in western Michigan. The cross sections, grab samples previously described in the literature, the bedrock topographic map, and published maps were used to construct a Paleozoic geologic map for central Lake Michigan. Rocks from Middle Silurian through Early Mississippian age form subcrops beneath the study area, whereas rocks of Early Silurian, Ordovician, and Late Cambrian age are present at greater depth. The Upper Cambrian rocks unconformably overlie Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks. The structural-stratigraphic cross sections also allow speculation about the petroleum potential beneath Lake Michigan. The possibility of oil occurrences within the Silurian is enhanced by major east-west facies changes, and other horizons with promise are present in Devonian and Ordovician rocks. Although Michigan and Wisconsin laws currently prohibit petroleum exploration in Lake Michigan, it is an area with future potential.

  5. Geology of the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, S. K.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A geological analysis of six of the Uranus satellites observed in detail by Voyager 2 is presented. All of the satellites except the smallest, Puck, show evidence of cryovolcanic resurfacing: global on the largest four satellites, local in the spectacular coronae on Miranda. The cryovolcanic materials exhibit a range of albedos and morphologies, which are interpreted to reflect a variety of compositions and conditions of eruption at least as complex as those which occur on earth. Eruptions are predominantly large fissure flows that produce extensive flood deposits. Possible evidence of small circular vents and cryoclastic volcanic activity is seen on Miranda and Ariel. All of the satellites except Puck also have extensive sets of grabens and riftlike canyons that show remarkable similarity of pattern: intersection sets trending roughly NW-SW and NE-SW in the low latitudes grading into E-W trends near the poles. As a group, the Uranian satellites are somewhat more active geologically than similarly sized Saturnian satellites.

  6. Field Geology for Environment Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrez, Marilia

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this project is to show the scientific and educational potential of natural environment of Lisbon region through increase of excitement for plate tectonics subjects to high school students. It is expected the students be able to understand the main concepts of the plate tectonics, stratigraphy, paleontology and paleoenvironmental interpretations, explain in the field nearby Lisbon. The richness of Guincho beach geodiversity and "Sintra Syenite Complex" valuate the geological patrimony. Combining these entities and educational purposes will raise awareness to sustainable attitudes favoring the preservation of natural patrimony by the students. The subjects approached in the project are based on the inspection of several outcrops related to the evolution of the Iberian Plate at early Mesozoic period, at several places of geological interest. The landscape of Guincho is dominated by Mesozoic formations that show good conditions paleoenvironmental and geodynamic interpretations associated to the opening of the North Atlantic. Moreover it reveals the environment linked to the magmatic intrusion of the "Sintra Alcaline Complex" at the end of Cretaceous. It is believed the contact with field is crucial to the awareness of young people to subjects that are not daily matters, however important when presented in the light of an urgent society problem such as environment preservation, at all levels by all people.

  7. Global Geological Mapping of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow-Willard, Emma; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2010-10-01

    Global geological mapping of Enceladus highlights 3 distinct tectonized regions, which we term trailing hemisphere terrain (THT), leading hemisphere terrain (LHT), and south polar terrain (SPT). All three terrains are framed by curvilinear terrain units, and all have comparable areal extent with the south polar terrain being the smallest. In its central region, the THT contains a unit consisting of smooth materials and long shallow troughs, which is nearly identical to materials of the SPT just northward of the "tiger stripes” and with similar orientation of SPT troughs. This suggests that these shallow troughs may have formed in a similar manner to the SPT fractures. In contrast to the SPT, the THT contains a ridged unit of large dorsa, cross-cutting a striated plains unit, all within the THT's frame of curvilinear terrain. The LHT contains a disorganized network of troughs similar to parts of the SPT. The LHT also has units with polygons of sub-parallel troughs suggesting shearing. Heavily cratered terrain reaches around the saturnian and anti-saturnian sides of the satellite, abutting the south polar terrain. We recognize a total of 13 different geological units within the three tectonized regions and the cratered terrain of Enceladus. Differences in the local terrains might be explained by combinations of local diapiric uplift, collapse, and satellite reorientation to form the tectonized terrains, tied to episodic localized heat flow related to tidal stresses.

  8. Geological mounds and their seismic expression

    SciTech Connect

    Swarbrick, R.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Mound geometry (convex upward structure developed above a subhorizontal surface) is common in many geological environments and frequently observed in 2-dimensions on seismic sections. Seismic mounds are typically associated with deep-water clastic sediments, e.g. submarine fans and slumps, and with a variety of carbonate depositional settings, e.g., reefs and banks, but also exist in other depositional settings. Recognition will be dependent on mound dimension, velocity contrast, amplitude strength, and the resolution of the seismic data. Since mounds can represent an important exploration target and recognition of porous, hydrocarbon-bearing section is all-important, careful restitution of the original depositional morphology from the seismic data is required. Details of present velocity distribution are critical, along with a realistic concept of any post-depositional modification, such as compaction, which may have taken place during burial. Where differential compaction is taking place, for example between sand and shale, seismic expression of morphology will be continually modified during progressive burial. Analysis of structure at the top and base of the mound can provide support for lithological interpretation based on other criteria, such as seismic facies analysis based on internal and external reflections. Modeling, using parameters from mounds in a variety of known depositional settings, illustrates many of the interpretational problems associated with seismic mounds and provides some objective criteria for analysis of mound morphology. Comparison is made with real data, principally from northwest Europe and North America.

  9. Geologic Map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    Crater Lake partly fills one of the most spectacular calderas of the world, an 8-by-10-km basin more than 1 km deep formed by collapse of the volcano known as Mount Mazama (fig. 1) during a rapid series of explosive eruptions about 7,700 years ago. Having a maximum depth of 594 m, Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States. Crater Lake National Park, dedicated in 1902, encompasses 645 km2 of pristine forested and alpine terrain, including the lake itself, virtually all of Mount Mazama, and most of the area of the geologic map. The geology of the area was first described in detail by Diller and Patton (1902) and later by Williams (1942), whose vivid account led to international recognition of Crater Lake as the classic collapse caldera. Because of excellent preservation and access, Mount Mazama, Crater Lake caldera, and the deposits formed by the climactic eruption constitute a natural laboratory for study of volcanic and magmatic processes. For example, the climactic ejecta are renowned among volcanologists as evidence for systematic compositional zonation within a subterranean magma chamber. Mount Mazama's climactic eruption also is important as the source of the widespread Mazama ash, a useful Holocene stratigraphic marker throughout the Pacific Northwest, adjacent Canada, and offshore. A detailed bathymetric survey of the floor of Crater Lake in 2000 (Bacon and others, 2002) provides a unique record of postcaldera eruptions, the interplay between volcanism and filling of the lake, and sediment transport within this closed basin. Knowledge of the geology and eruptive history of the Mount Mazama edifice, greatly enhanced by the caldera wall exposures, gives exceptional insight into how large volcanoes of magmatic arcs grow and evolve. Lastly, the many smaller volcanoes of the High Cascades beyond the limits of Mount Mazama are a source of information on the flux of mantle-derived magma through the region. General principles of magmatic and eruptive

  10. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  11. Geologic Mapping in Southern Margaritifer Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III; Grant, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Margaritifer Terra records a complex geologic history [1-5], and the area from Holden crater through Ladon Valles, Ladon basin, and up to Morava Valles is no exception [e.g., 6-13]. The 1:500,000 geologic map of MTM quadrangles -15027, -20027, -25027, and -25032 (Figs. 1 and 2 [14]) identifies a range of units that delineate the history of water-related activity and regional geologic context.

  12. County digital geologic mapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.; dePolo, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to create quality-county wide digital 1:250,000-scale geologic maps from existing published 1:250,000-scale Geologic and Mineral Resource Bulletins published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG). An additional data set, based on current NBMG research, Major and Significant Quaternary and Suspected Quaternary Faults of Nevada, at 1:250,000 scale has also been included.

  13. The First International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of articles that have been accepted for presentation at the First International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration. Articles about the geology of the Martian Polar regions were presented, and analogs from Earth's geology were also presented. Presentations also were given about the probable contents of the Martian polar caps

  14. Provincial geology and the Industrial Revolution.

    PubMed

    Veneer, Leucha

    2006-06-01

    In the early nineteenth century, geology was a new but rapidly growing science, in the provinces and among the gentlemen scientists of London, Oxford and Cambridge. Industry, particularly mining, often motivated local practical geologists, and the construction of canals and railways exposed the strata for all to see. The most notable of the early practical men of geology was the mineral surveyor William Smith; his geological map of England and Wales, published in 1815, was the first of its kind. He was not alone. The contributions of professional men, and the provincial societies with which they were connected, are sometimes underestimated in the history of geology.

  15. DIGITAL GEOLOGIC MAP OF THE UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    The geologic map of the United States was published in 1974 by the U. S. Geological Survey. This major publication contains an enormous amount of information on the surficial geology of the United States. Many geologists have used this map as a research tool. Most have needed information from only specific parts of the map, and have manually extracted data from these areas. These data have then been combined with other geological information, much of which - especially that concerning minerals and energy - either is already in machine-readable computer files or is rapidly being converted to that form.

  16. Geologic review. Better regulation through interagency cooperation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, John E.; Rives, James D.; Soileau, David M.

    1989-01-01

    The Geologic Review procedure was developed by the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS) in 1982 for the Louisiana Coastal Management Division. It consists of a thorough review of oil and gas well applications involving impact to environmentally sensitive areas such as wetlands. The applicant attends a meeting with a geologist and a petroleum engineer from the LGS who review the relevant geologic, engineering and economic data and make a recommendation as to the technical and economic feasibility of reducing or avoiding environmental impact by either moving the well to a geologically equivalent location, directionally drilling the well, or accessing the proposed location by a different access route or methodology than that proposed.

  17. Introduction to the 1st International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (ISPMF 2015).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yafeng; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-03-30

    The 1st International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (ISPMF 2015) was held in Shanghai, China, from June 26th to 29th, 2015. The 1st ISPMF was organized by the Phytochemical Society of Europe (PSE) and the Phytochemical Society of Asia (PSA). More than 270 scientists from 48 countries attended this meeting. The program of ISPMF 2015 consisted of 12 plenary lectures, 20 invited talks, and 55 short oral presentations in 16 sessions, including phytochemistry, phytomedicine, pharmacology, and application of phytochemicals in medicine and food. The 1st ISPMF has obtained support from Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Food Chemistry, Phytochemistry Reviews, and Nutrients. As supported by Prof. Thomas F. Hofmann, a special issue on Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS) for the 1st ISPMF was initiated in January 2015.

  18. Geologic research at The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Moore, J.N.; Nielson, D.L.

    1996-04-10

    Geologic research at The Geysers vapor-dominated geothermal field during the past year has yielded new information on the nature of steam-reservoir porosity and permeability; the origin of the caprock; mechanisms of lateral sealing; the evolution of The Geysers hydrothermal system; and specific reservoir controls in and immediately above {open_quotes}the felsite{close_quotes}, an hypabyssal, batholith-sized pluton largely responsible for The Geysers` existence. Our research has shown that (1) fluid conduits above the felsite may be dominantly vuggy, high-angle hydrothermal veins; (2) latest-stage hydrothermal calcite in such veins may seal them at the margins of the steam reservoir; mixed-layer clays are probably the corresponding seals in the caprock; (3) steam entries in the felsite are concentrated along the top of the youngest intrusive phase in the pluton - a 1 m.y.-old granodiorite; (4) steam entries in the felsite show a negative correlation with massive borosilicate enrichments.

  19. Symmetries in geology and geophysics.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, D L; Newman, W I

    1996-12-10

    Symmetries have played an important role in a variety of problems in geology and geophysics. A large fraction of studies in mineralogy are devoted to the symmetry properties of crystals. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on scale-invariant (fractal) symmetries. The earth's topography is an example of both statistically self-similar and self-affine fractals. Landforms are also associated with drainage networks, which are statistical fractal trees. A universal feature of drainage networks and other growth networks is side branching. Deterministic space-filling networks with side-branching symmetries are illustrated. It is shown that naturally occurring drainage networks have symmetries similar to diffusion-limited aggregation clusters.

  20. Geology of the Bighorn Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darton, N.H.

    1906-01-01

    There are extensive, forests in the mountains, which are now included in a Government forest reserve, but their timber is not of great value. Much of the area below timber line contains an abundance of luxuriant grasses and other plants, which afford excellent pasturage for stock, and large herds of sheep and cattle are ranged in the region during the short summer season. Game is moderately abundant, and most of the streams contain large numbers of trout. The region is one of great interest geologically on account of its variety of sedimentary rocks, interesting structure, and remarkably instructive glacial features. The central area, with its high peaks, presents alpine scenery of notable character. Doubtless in the future the region will be extensively visited by tourists, hunters, and geologists.

  1. Measuring Geologic Time on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Recent images from Mars show compelling evidence of near-surface flowing water, aeolian activity slope processes, and ice cap evolution that underscores the dynamic geologic history of the planet. Establishing an accurate chronology for Martian planetary features is critical for addressing fundamental questions about the evolution of the planet's surface and atmosphere and the differentiation of its interior. For example, how long was standing water on the surface? If life did evolve on Mars, did it occur before or after the evolution of life on Earth? These are arguably some of the most profound questions currently being asked by the planetary science community. Yet answers will not be forthcoming without an absolute chronology of Mars history, enabling the construction of a timescale comparable to Earth's. Discussion of methods for establishing such a chronology is particularly timely in light of new missions to Mars that are being planned to return in situ measurements or samples to Earth.

  2. Geologic mapping using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegal, B. S.; Abrams, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of automated classification for lithologic mapping with LANDSAT digital data was evaluated using three classification algorithms. The two supervised algorithms analyzed, a linear discriminant analysis algorithm and a hybrid algorithm which incorporated the Parallelepiped algorithm and the Bayesian maximum likelihood function, were comparable in terms of accuracy; however, classification was only 50 per cent accurate. The linear discriminant analysis algorithm was three times as efficient as the hybrid approach. The unsupervised classification technique, which incorporated the CLUS algorithm, delineated the major lithologic boundaries and, in general, correctly classified the most prominent geologic units. The unsupervised algorithm was not as efficient nor as accurate as the supervised algorithms. Analysis of spectral data for the lithologic units in the 0.4 to 2.5 microns region indicated that a greater separability of the spectral signatures could be obtained using wavelength bands outside the region sensed by LANDSAT.

  3. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  4. Homo Sapiens as Geological Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Caldeira, K.; Rosenzweig, C.; Kelley, G.; Rosenzweig, C.; Caldeira, K.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Holloway, T.; Purdy, J. S.; Vince, G.; Syvitski, J. A.; Bondre, N. R.; Kelly, J.; Vince, G.; Seto, K. C.; Steffen, W.; Oreskes, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the 18th and 19th centuries, earth scientists came to understand the magnitude and power of geological and geophysical processes. In comparison, the activities of humans seemed paltry if not insignificant. With the development of radiometric dating in the 20th century, scientists realized that human history was but a miniscule part of Earth history. Metaphors to this effect abounded, and filled textbooks: If Earth history were a 24-hour day, human history would not occupy even the final second. If Earth history were a yardstick, the human portion would not even be visible to the naked eye. Generations of scientists were taught that one of the principal contributions of geology, qua science, was the demonstration of our insignificance. The Anthropocene concept disrupts this. To affirms its existence is to insist that human activities compete in scale and significance with other Earth processes, and may threaten to overwhelm them. It also inverts our relation to normative claims. For more than a century earth scientists and evolutionary biologists insisted that their theories were descriptive and not normative—that there was no moral conclusion to be drawn from either planetary or human evolution. Now, we confront the suggestion that there is a moral component to our new paradigm: we can scarcely claim that humans are disrupting the climate, destroying biodiversity, and acidifying the oceans without implying that there is something troubling about these developments. Thus, the Anthropocene concept suggests both a radical redefinition of the scope of Earth science, and a radical reconsideration of the place of normative judgments in scientific work.

  5. Petroleum geology of western Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Antarctica's geology is mostly obscured by thick, moving ice that covers 95% of the land and continental shelf. Reconnaissance investigations of outcrops, shallow boreholes, and geophysical surveys are limited and peripheral owing to ice coverage. However, it is possible to outline substantial elements of the regional geology. Further insight is gained by comparison to analogous sedimentary provinces, especially provinces once adjoined within the framework of the Gondwana supercontinent until middle Cretaceous. The petroleum potential of Antarctica, as in the case of the other related high-standing Gondwana continental fragments, is in Early Cretaceous rifts associated with the Gondwana breakup and with the Pacific convergence in the west Antarctica back arc. The Pacific-facing western Antarctica includes two structural provinces: (1) the Cretaceous and younger interior rift system on the east side of the Weddell and Ross Sea embayment, which contain aulacogens that form the boundary with East Antarctica and (2) the back-arc and fore-arc basins adjoining the Antarctica Peninsula and extending into Marie Byrd Land and the Bellingshausen Sea which are associated with the eastward convergence of the Pacific plate. The petroleum potential of the rifts may be assessed by analogies with related rifts of Australia, India, and South Africa; assessment of the convergent basins of western Antarctica depends upon analogy with similar basins of South America, New Zealand, and Indonesia. An estimate of the petroleum potential of western Antarctica generally is comparable with oil and gas occurrences (both in overall quantity and in field sizes) in the other Gondwana continental fragments. However, in view of the thict moving ice cover, the remote locale, and severe climate, petroleum production is largely beyond technology at this time and probably is economically unfeasible.

  6. CASP: Geological exploration and research

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.I.M.; Scott, R.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Cambridge Arctic Shelf Programme (CASP) is an independent, non-profit-making geological research organization based in the University of Cambridge. It originated in 1948 as Cambridge Spitsbergen Expeditions, and was incorporated as CASP in 1975. Initially, support came from companies with an interest in Svalbard and the Barents Shelf. Since then, CASP has greatly increased its scope, diversifying to new areas of research outside the Arctic and to new methods of data presentation. CASP now offers a unique programme of research, specialising in field- and literature-based studies of remote areas. Projects are currently being undertaken in the Arctic, Russia, China, East Greenland and Eastern Europe; all projects involve fieldwork and ail involve collaboration with research groups in other institutions. Most projects are oriented towards sedimentology, stratigraphy, tectonics, basin analysis and regional geology. CASP has a unique status: it shares elements in common with universities (undertaking long-term research programmes for eventual publication), consultancies (carrying out applied projects oriented towards hydrocarbon exploration and production) and national surveys (compiling and managing large datasets). Individual projects are funded by annual subscription from interested companies, with research material being supplied on a non-exclusive basis. Input and feedback from subscribers is welcomed, and an annual consortium meeting is organised for each project. As a non-profit-making Organization with low overheads, all additional income raised for a project is used to develop the research programme. CASP projects are supported by an outstanding library/information centre and linguistic expertise (Russian and Chinese), and these facilities are available to subscribing companies.

  7. Geologic Mapping of V-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Paula; Stofan, E. R.; Guest, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    A geologic map of the Sedna Planitia (V-19) quadrangle is being completed at 1:5,000,000 scale as part of the NASA Planetary Geologic Mapping Program, and will be submitted for review by September 2010. Overview: The Sedna Planitia quadrangle (V-19) extends from 25 N - 50 N latitude, 330 - 0 longitude. The quadrangle contains the northernmost portion of western Eistla Regio and the Sedna Planitia lowlands. Sedna Planitia consists of low-lying plains units, with numerous small volcanic edifices including shields, domes and cones. The quadrangle also contains several tholi, the large flowfield Neago Fluctus, the Manzan-Gurme Tesserae, and Zorile Dorsa and Karra-mahte Fossae which run NW-SE through the southwestern part of the quadrangle. There are six coronae in the quadrangle (Table 1), the largest of which is Nissaba (300 km x 220 km), and there are fourteen impact craters (Table 2). The V-19 quadrangle contains a variety of mappable volcanic landforms including two shield volcanoes (Evaki Tholus and Toci Tholus) and the southern portion of a large flow field (Neago Fluctus). A total of sixteen units associated with volcanoes have been mapped in this quadrangle, with multiple units mapped at Sif Mons, Sachs Patera and Neago Fluctus. An oddly textured, radarbright flow is also mapped in the Sedna plains, which appears to have originated from a several hundred kilometer long fissure. The six coronae within V-19 have a total of eighteen associated flow units. Several edifice fields are also mapped, in which the small volcanic edifices both predate and postdate the other units. Impact crater materials are also mapped.

  8. Geological Mapping Uses Landsat 4-5TM Satellite Data in Manlai Soum of Omnogovi Aimag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norovsuren, B.

    2014-12-01

    Author: Bayanmonkh N1, Undram.G1, Tsolmon.R2, Ariunzul.Ya1, Bayartungalag B31 Environmental Research Information and Study Center 2NUM-ITC-UNESCO Space Science and Remote Sensing International Laboratory, National University of Mongolia 3Geology and Hydrology School, Korea University KEY WORDS: geology, mineral resources, fracture, structure, lithologyABSTRACTGeologic map is the most important map for mining when it does exploration job. In Mongolia geological map completed by Russian geologists which is done by earlier technology. Those maps doesn't satisfy for present requirements. Thus we want to study improve geological map which includes fracture, structural map and lithology use Landsat TM4-5 satellite data. If we can produce a geological map from satellite data with more specification then geologist can explain or read mineralogy very easily. We searched all methodology and researches of every single element of geological mapping. Then we used 3 different remote sensing methodologies to produce structural and lithology and fracture map based on geographic information system's softwares. There can be found a visible lithology border improvement and understandable structural map and we found fracture of the Russian geological map has a lot of distortion. The result of research geologist can read mineralogy elements very easy and discovered 3 unfound important elements from satellite image.

  9. Digitization of a geologic map for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine global geoscience transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce E.; Stewart, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine was digitized and combined with digital geologic data for Quebec and the Gulf of Maine for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine Geologic Transect Project. This map is being combined with digital geophysical data to produce three-dimensional depictions of the subsurface geology and to produce cross sections of the Earth's crust. It is an essential component of a transect that stretches from the craton near Quebec City, Quebec, to the Atlantic Ocean Basin south of Georges Bank. The transect is part of the Global Geosciences Transect Project of the International Lithosphere Program. The Digital Line Graph format is used for storage of the digitized data. A coding scheme similar to that used for base category planimetric data was developed to assign numeric codes to the digitized geologic data. These codes were used to assign attributes to polygon and line features to describe rock type, age, name, tectonic setting of original deposition, mineralogy, and composition of igneous plutonic rocks, as well as faults and other linear features. The digital geologic data can be readily edited, rescaled, and reprojected. The attribute codes allow generalization and selective retrieval of the geologic features. The codes allow assignment of map colors based on age, lithology, or other attribute. The Digital Line Graph format is a general transfer format that is supported by many software vendors and is easily transferred between systems.

  10. Introduction to Regional Geology, Tectonics, and Metallogenesis of Northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Obolenskiy, Alexander O.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan

    2007-01-01

    introduction is based on publications of the major international collaborative studies of the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that were led by the U.S. Geological Survey. These studies have produced two broad types of publications. One type is a series of regional geologic, mineral deposit, and metallogenic belt maps and companion descriptions for the regions. Examples of major publications of this type are Obolenskiy and others (2003a, b, 2004), Parfenov and others (2003, 2004a, b), Nokleberg and others (2004), Rodionov and others (2004), and Naumova and others (2006). The other type is a suite of metallogenic and tectonic analyses of these same regions. Examples of major publications of this type are Rodionov and others (2004), Nokleberg and others (2000, 2004, 2005), and Naumova and others (2006). The Northeast Asia project area consists of eastern Russia (most of Siberia and most of the Russian Far East), Mongolia, Northern China, South Korea, Japan, and adjacent offshore areas. This area is approximately bounded by 30 to 82? N. latitude and 75 to 144? E. longitude. The major participating agencies are the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academy of Sciences of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), VNIIOkeangeologia and Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Mongolian National University, Jilin University, Changchun, China, the China Geological Survey, the Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, the Geological Survey of Japan/AIST, University of Texas Arlington, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Northeast Asia project extends and build on data and interpretations from a previous project on the Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that was conducted by the USGS, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys,

  11. Proterozoic geology and ore deposits of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlstrom, Karl E.

    1991-01-01

    Proterozoic rocks in Arizona have been the focus of interest for geologists since the late 1800's. Early investigations, led by the U.S. Geological Survey, focused on the extensive ore deposits hosted by Proterozoic rocks. By the 1960's, these studies, combined with theses from academic institutions and the efforts of the Arizona Geological Survey, had produced a rich data base of geologic maps, primarily of the central part of the Transition Zone. The chronological significance of these maps became much better known with the application of U-Pb geochronology by L.Y. Silver and his students starting in the 1960's. The 1970's and early 1980's were marked by numerous contributions from Masters and Ph.D students at a variety of academic institutions, and continued work by the U.S. Geological Survey. Interest in ore deposits persisted and there was an increasing interest in interpretation of the tectonic history of Proterozoic rocks in terms of plate tectonic models, as summarized in papers by Phillip Anderson, Ed DeWitt, Clay Conway, Paul Lindberg, and J.L Anderson in the 1989 Arizona Geological Society Digest 17: "Geologic Evolution of Arizona". The present volume: "Proterozoic Geology and Ore deposits of Arizona" builds upon A.G.S. Digest 17, and presents the results of geologic investigations from the latter part of the 1980's. A number of the papers are condensed versions of MS theses done by students at Northern Arizona University. These papers are based upon 1:10,000 mapping and structural analysis of several areas in Arizona. The geologic maps from each of these studies are available separately as part of the Arizona Geological Survey Contributed Map Series. These detailed maps, plus the continuing mapping efforts of the U.S.G.S. and students at other academic institutions, form an ever improving data base for continuing attempts to understand the Proterozoic geology and ore deposits of Arizona

  12. Processing-optimised imaging of analog geological models by electrical capacitance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Alemán, C.; Espíndola-Carmona, A.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.; Orozco Del Castillo, MG

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) technique is applied in monitoring internal deformation of geological analog models, which are used to study structural deformation mechanisms, in particular for simulating migration and emplacement of allochtonous salt bodies. A rectangular ECT sensor was used for internal visualization of analog geologic deformation. The monitoring of analog models consists in the reconstruction of permittivity images from the capacitance measurements obtained by introducing the model inside the ECT sensor. A simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is used as a reconstruction method, and is optimized by taking full advantage of some special features in a linearized version of this inverse approach. As a second part of this work our SA image reconstruction algorithm is applied to synthetic models, where its performance is evaluated in comparison to other commonly used algorithms such as linear back-projection and iterative Landweber methods. Finally, the SA method is applied to visualise two simple geological analog models. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of the quality of the reconstructed images, as interfaces corresponding to main geological units in the analog model were clearly distinguishable in them. We found reliable results quite useful for real time non-invasive monitoring of internal deformation of analog geological models.

  13. Survey on Undergraduate Education in Geology. Higher Education Surveys Report, Survey Number 15--Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Patricia E.; Lewis, Laurie L.

    In 1991, a survey questionnaire concerning undergraduate education in geology was sent to a nationally representative sample of 597 four-year colleges and universities. Of these, 275 had an undergraduate geology department or a department with a geology program, and met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Responses were received from 262 of…

  14. Geology of the Phase II System

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, R.; Laughlin, A. William

    1980-11-19

    This is a report on the analysis of EE-2 cuttings and thin sections, geologic characterization of the Phase II system, comparison with Phase 1, and geologic speculations and recommendations concerning Phase II. The EE-2 litholog has been included in the pocket.

  15. Terrain Models in Field Geology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittecar, G. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Describes a terrain model for geologic mapping which, when combined with exercises in rock description, Brunton compass manipulation, orienteering, and geologic report writing, allows students to refine skills needed for summer field camp. Advantages and limitations of the model and its use in a field course are also discussed. (BC)

  16. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  17. American Geological Education in the Eighteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corgan, James X.

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the study of geology and geological education in the United States during the 1700's. Addresses the influences of world travel, agriculture, and medicine on the inclusion of earth science into college curricula and self-instruction "civility books." (TW)

  18. Status of geologic/environmental characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-08

    Studies within the NWTS program directed ultimately at siting one or more radioactive waste repositories consist principally of geologic and environmental characterizations. A draft criteria document has been developed which addresses both geologic and environmental characteristics of any potential site. Several media have been identified as having generic features that could make them acceptable as host media for geologic repositories. Evaluations of these media are being carried out by relating them to the draft criteria document and are currently in various stages of the screening process. The end result will be the identification of at least four sites within the contiguous United States which would be suitable for construction of a repository. The following nine presentations were made: (1) Status of Geologic/Environmental Characterization Studies of Gulf Coast Interior Salt Dome Basins; (2) Status of Geological/Environmental Characterization Studies in the Parodox Basin; (3) Nuclear Waste Isolation Studies of the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins, Texas Panhandle, FY 1980; (4) Geologic Investigations for Nuclear Waste Repository Sites in Columbia River Basalt - Hanford Site; (5) Method for Screening for Repository Locations on and Contiguous to the Nevada Test Site; (6) Nationwide Review of Shales and Other Argillaceous Strata; (7) Geological Survey Program for Identification of Suitable Geohydrologic Environments for the Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste; (8) National Geologic/Environmental Screening for Repositories; (9) States of Characterizations.

  19. Abstracts for the Planetary Geology Field Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Black, D.

    1977-01-01

    The conference was to foster a better understanding of the volcanic history of the planets through the presentation of papers and through field trips to areas on the basalt plains of Idaho that appear to be analogous to some planetary surfaces. Papers include discussions of the volcanic geology of the Snake River Plain, general volcanic geology, and aspects of volcanism on the terrestrial planets.

  20. A Graphical Approach to Quantitative Structural Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paor, Declan G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how computer graphic methods can be used in teaching structural geology. Describes the design of a graphics workstation for the Apple microcomputer. Includes a listing of commands used with software to plot structures in a digitized form. Argues for the establishment of computer laboratories for structural geology classes. (TW)

  1. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persits, Feliks M.; Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah

    1997-01-01

    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  2. Miranda Geologic History Variety of Terrain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    Miranda reveals a complex geologic history in this view, acquired by NASA's Voyager 2 on Jan. 24, 1986, around its close approach to the Uranian moon. At least three terrain types of different age and geologic style are evident. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00141

  3. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  4. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  5. Geologic maps of Pacific basin and rim

    SciTech Connect

    Craddock, C.

    1986-07-01

    A major component of the Circum-Pacific Map Project is to compile five regional geologic maps at a scale of 1:10 million and a final map of the Pacific Ocean basin at a scale of 1:17 million. The Geologic Map of the Northeast Quadrant was published in 1983, and the Geologic Map of the Southeast Quadrant in 1985. The Geologic Maps of the Northwest Quadrant, the Southwest Quadrant, and the Antarctic Region are expected to reach publication during 1986. The Geologic Map of the Pacific Basin, with energy and mineral resources, is scheduled for publication in 1989. Each geologic map is a synthesis of a large amount of information. The land areas portray rock types by patterns and ages by colors; major faults are shown if they form the boundaries for map units. The oceanic areas include bathymetric contours, 13 sea-floor sediment types, all Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) sites, selected DSDP columns, and selected sites of pre-Quaternary bedrock or sediment recovery. A correlation diagram on each map shows stratigraphic columns for the five regional maps, map units, geologic ages, and a time scale. An inset map shows presently active tectonic plates. The principal information sources for each sheet are given in a reference list, and each map is accompanied by explanatory notes. This map series represents the first integrated set of geologic maps of the entire Pacific Ocean basin and rim, including the Antarctic continent- altogether more than half the surface area of planet Earth.

  6. Terrain Models in Field Geology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittecar, G. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Describes a terrain model for geologic mapping which, when combined with exercises in rock description, Brunton compass manipulation, orienteering, and geologic report writing, allows students to refine skills needed for summer field camp. Advantages and limitations of the model and its use in a field course are also discussed. (BC)

  7. GEOLOGICAL AND THERMODYNAMIC ASPECTS OF LUNAR ROCKS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Geological and themodynamic spects of lunar rocks are studied. Several basic problems of lunar geology are examined with the main purpose of...emphasis on probable composition. Important problems related to the structural pattern of the Moon are discussed. A special study is devoted to the

  8. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Work conducted in the Planetary Geology program is summarized. The following categories are presented: outer solar system satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; cratering processes and landform development; volcanic processes and landforms; aolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes and landform development; periglacial and permafrost processes; structure, tectonics and stratigraphy; remote sensing and regolith studies; geologic mapping, cartography and geodesy.

  9. American Geological Education in the Eighteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corgan, James X.

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the study of geology and geological education in the United States during the 1700's. Addresses the influences of world travel, agriculture, and medicine on the inclusion of earth science into college curricula and self-instruction "civility books." (TW)

  10. Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

  11. The Earth's Gravity and Its Geological Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the earth's gravity and its geological significance. Variations of gravity around the earth can be produced by a great variety of possible distributions of density within the earth. Topics discussed include isostasy, local structures, geological exploration, change of gravity in time, and gravity on the moon and planets. (DS)

  12. Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

  13. Geology Highlights for Ride the Rockies 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slate, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The author provides a brief description of the geology along the route for each day of the ride, from June 14 through June 19, 2009. Ride the Rockies begins and ends in Glenwood Springs, with stops in Hotchkiss, Gunnison, Salida, Leadville, Aspen, and back to Glenwood Springs, Colorado. A small, generalized geologic map also is shown.

  14. Geology highlights for Ride the Rockies 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slate, J.L.; Hess, Amber; Van Sistine, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The author provides a brief description of the geology along the route for each day of the ride, from June 13 through June 19, 2010. Ride the Rockies begins in Grand Junction, with stops in Delta, Ouray, Durango, Pagosa Springs, Alamosa, and ends in Salida, Colorado. A small, generalized geologic map also is shown.

  15. Geology highlights, Ride the Rockies 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slate, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The author provides a brief description of the geology along the route for each day of the ride, from June 12 through June 17, 2011. Ride the Rockies begins in Crested Butte, Colorado, with stops in Buena Vista, Edwards, Steamboat Springs, Granby, and Georgetown. A small, generalized geologic map also is shown.

  16. The Earth's Gravity and Its Geological Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the earth's gravity and its geological significance. Variations of gravity around the earth can be produced by a great variety of possible distributions of density within the earth. Topics discussed include isostasy, local structures, geological exploration, change of gravity in time, and gravity on the moon and planets. (DS)

  17. New York State Geological Survey crystalline rock project. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Presented is a preliminary geologic map of the West-Central Adirondack Region, based on mapping by members of the New York State Geological Survey and participants from several universities during the 1984 field season. The area mapped comprises portions of the West Canada Lakes, Old Forge, McKeever, Number Four, Big Moose and Raquette Lake 15 minute quadrangles. The geology of the area is dominated by two major groups of hornblende-granulite facies rocks: (a) a supracrustal sequence locally showing internal stratigraphy, including quartzofeldspathic leucogneiss, kinzigite, marble, calcsilicate granulite and amphibolite, and (b) granitic and charnockitic gneisses of both plutonic and supracrustal origin, which are widespread and often occur as elliptical domes and lenses, as well as being interstratified with the metasedimentary sequence. Clear intrusive relationships are few. In addition to these rocks, minor intrusions of meta-anorthosite and metagabbro are locally present. At least three phases of folding are present. The first is expressed by regional foliation development. The second generation is tight to isoclinal and overturned with axial trends ranging from east to northeast. The third generation is open folds with north to northwest axial trends. Good correlation exists between photogeology, aeromagnetics, and field observations.

  18. Spacecraft-aided research discussed at geology Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, N.; Shchevyakov, Y.

    1984-11-01

    A presentation of the Space Geological Map of the USSR turned out to be one of the highlights of the 27th International Geological Congress. A discussion of problems of satellite aided geology and comparative planetology was included in the program. B. N. Mozhayev, general director of the Aerogeologiya association, discussed achievements in this field. He said that structures whose existence could only be suspected by geologists in the past become visible on the Earth's surface from the altitude of an orbital flight. This pertains primarily to ring shaped structures hundreds of kilometers in diameter, and to linear transcontinental faults of the Earth's crust which are thousands of kilometers long. More than 4,000 structures have been detected from space on the territory of the USSR and entered on maps. Soviet orbiting stations, Soyuz spaceships and satellites of the Meteor and Kosmos series are equipped with photographic and scanning instruments. MKF-6 cameras, for example, are capable not only of distinguishing details only 15 kilometers in size in a locality; they also can determine the chemical composition of rocks on the basis of remote spectrograms.

  19. North Dakota geology school receives major gift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Petroleum geology and related areas of study at the University of North Dakota (UND) received a huge financial boost with the announcement on 24 September of $14 million in private and public partnership funding. The university announced the naming of the Harold Hamm School of Geology and Geological Engineering, formerly a department within the College of Engineering and Mines, in recognition of $10 million provided as a gift by oilman Harold Hamm and Continental Resources, Inc. Hamm is the chair and chief executive officer of Continental, the largest leaseholder in the Bakken Play oil formation in North Dakota and Montana, and he is also an energy policy advisor to Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. UND also received $4 million from the Oil and Gas Research Program of the North Dakota Industrial Commission to support geology and geological engineering education and research.

  20. The topology of geology 1: Topological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Samuel T.; Jessell, Mark W.; Lindsay, Mark; Ogarko, Vitaliy; Wellmann, J. Florian; Pakyuz-Charrier, Evren

    2016-10-01

    Topology has been used to characterise and quantify the properties of complex systems in a diverse range of scientific domains. This study explores the concept and applications of topological analysis in geology. We have developed an automatic system for extracting first order 2D topological information from geological maps, and 3D topological information from models built with the Noddy kinematic modelling system, and equivalent analyses should be possible for other implicit modelling systems. A method is presented for describing the spatial and temporal topology of geological models using a set of adjacency relationships that can be expressed as a topology network, thematic adjacency matrix or hive diagram. We define three types of spatial topology (cellular, structural and lithological) that allow us to analyse different aspects of the geology, and then apply them to investigate the geology of the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia.