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Sample records for 2790-055 boott hydropower

  1. 75 FR 51258 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Eldred L Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Eldred L Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust; Notice... No.: 2790-055. c. Date Filed: July 6, 2010. d. Applicant: Boott Hydropower, Inc. and Eldred L Field... Hydropower, Inc., One Tech Drive, Suite 220, Andover, MA 01810. Tel: (978) 681-1900 Ext 809. i. FERC...

  2. 76 FR 58262 - Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List or Section 106 Consultation; Boott Hydropower Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...; Boott Hydropower Inc.; Eldred L. Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust; Lowell Hydroelectric Project... installation of pneumatic crest gates at the Lowell Hydroelectric Project. Boott Hydropower, Inc. and Eldred L..., Boott Hydropower, Inc., Eldred L. Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust, One Tech Drive, Suite 220,...

  3. 77 FR 27451 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Section 106 Consultation Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Section 106 Consultation Meeting On May 24... Preservation Officer, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Boott Hydropower, Inc., and any...

  4. 76 FR 80924 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and ] the Federal...

  5. 76 FR 35208 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy...

  6. 77 FR 31348 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Consulting Parties and Agenda for Section 106 Consultation Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Consulting Parties and Agenda for Section... implementing regulations of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the following are consulting parties... party for the section 106 consultation process in this proceeding. This request is denied....

  7. Hydropower Projects

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  8. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  9. 2014 Hydropower Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Uria-Martinez, Rocio; O'Connor, Patrick W.; Johnson, Megan M.

    2015-04-30

    The U.S. hydropower fleet has been providing clean, reliable power for more than a hundred years. However, no systematic documentation exists of the U.S. fleet and the trends influencing it in recent years. This first-ever Hydropower Market Report seeks to fill this gap and provide industry and policy makers with a quantitative baseline on the distribution, capabilities, and status of hydropower in the United States.

  10. Hydropower annual report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Hunt, Richard T.; Sale, Michael J.; Sommers, Garold L.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes hydropower activities supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2003 (October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003). Background on the program, FY03 accomplishments, and future plans are presented in the following sections.

  11. Hydropower research and development

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  12. Developing hydropower overseas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.B. )

    1991-10-01

    This article examines how the National Hydropower Association (NHA) has found ways to support its members who desire to expand their business programs to foreign markets through participation in a wide range of government programs. The topics of the article include the market in developing countries, the certificate of review, products and services, and domestic and international competition.

  13. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations. PMID:27626943

  14. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations. PMID:27626943

  15. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations.

  16. Assessing Hydropower in the West

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Megan M.; Uria Martinez, Rocio

    2015-06-01

    On April 27, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) released the 2014 Hydropower Market Report, which provides a quantitative baseline on the distribution, capabilities, and status of hydropower in the United States. Although the report shows many interesting trends and figures, this article focuses on those related to the western region.

  17. Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, Alison Marie; Francfort, James Edward

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service's National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

  18. Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A M; Francfort, J E

    1999-07-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service's National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

  19. Hydropower: Partnership with the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This brochure provides useful information on types of hydroelectric facilities as well as general information on capacity, generation, environmental issues, and advanced conventional hydropower technology within the United States.

  20. Harnessing Hydropower: The Earth's Natural Resource

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-01

    This document is a layman's overview of hydroelectric power. It includes information on: History of Hydropower; Nature’s Water Cycle; Hydropower Plants; Turbines and Generators; Transmission Systems; power dispatching centers; and Substations. It goes on to discuss The Power Grid, Hydropower in the 21st Century; Energy and the Environment; and how hydropower is useful for Meeting Peak Demands. It briefly addresses how Western Area Power Administration is Responding to Environmental Concerns.

  1. Small Hydropower in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Johnson, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  2. National Hydropower Plant Dataset, Version 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; O'Connor, Patrick

    2016-09-30

    The 2016 National Hydropower Plant Dataset, Version 1, includes geospatial point-level locations and key characteristics of online existing hydropower plants in the United States that are currently licensed, exempt, or awaiting relicensing. These data are a subset extracted from NHAAP’s Existing Hydropower Assets (EHA) internal database, which is a cornerstone of NHAAP’s EHA effort that has supported multiple U.S. hydropower R&D research initiatives related to market acceleration, environmental impact reduction, technology-to-market activities, and climate change impact assessment. For more information on NHAAP’s EHA effort, please visit the project web page at: http://nhaap.ornl.gov/existing-hydropower.

  3. US hydropower resource assessment for Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1996-09-01

    US DOE is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model developed by INEL for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was tested using hydropower information and data provided by Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the PC user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes, and generate reports. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Hawaii.

  4. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling, Version 2

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Patrick W.

    2015-09-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  5. Conventional Hydropower Technologies Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This factsheet gives a description of the U.S. Department of Energy Water Power Program's efforts to increase generating capacity and efficiency at existing hydroelectric facilities, add hydroelectric generating capacity to non-powered dams, and reduce the environmental effects of hydropower.

  6. Report on modular hydropower demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Pelton, F.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes an Energy Authority project to demonstrate the use of modular small hydropower systems at two sites. The project demonstrated that 'off-the-shelf' components can be used to construct a functionally reliable, cost-effective hydropower system at a significant savings over custom-designed systems. A key feature of the modular system is the replacement of the conventional hydroelectric turbine with a pump operated in reverse. Also, the construction of a water-intake system in the dam is replaced with a siphon penstock. Further cost and time savings are gained from the use of a prefabricated powerhouse and automated control equipment. The project demonstrated that modular systems are an attractive option for sites with capacities from under 100 to 500 kilowatts. The modular concept is applicable at about 250 sites Statewide, with a combined capacity of up to 400 MW.

  7. US hydropower resource assessment for South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    A total of 33 sites have been identified and assessed for their hydropower potential. Information as to the potential megawatts of capacity for 4 of the sites was not available; however, these sites have been identified as having hydropower potential and are included in the group of 33. The Hydropower Evaluation Software results for site capacities range from 35 kilowatts to 234 megawatts. Most of the sites have potential capacities of under 1 megawatts. The unadjusted hydropower potential for South Dakota was identified as being 1,124 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software results lower this estimate 38% to 695 megawatts. The greatest reduction in undeveloped potential occurs at developed sites with current power production. These sites have a Hydropower Evaluation Software estimated capacity of 285 megawatts, a 50% reduction in capacity. The number of sites does not change, only the identified capacity is reassessed.

  8. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  9. Hydropower, Adaptive Management, and Biodiversity

    PubMed

    WIERINGA; MORTON

    1996-11-01

    / Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is followed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man's activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. KEY WORDS: Adaptive management; Biodiversity; Hydropower; Glen Canyon Dam; Ecology

  10. Virtual Hydropower Prospecting – Searching for Hydropower Gold

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2007-12-01

    The availability of geographic information system (GIS) tools and analytical modeling of natural streams has made it possible to perform virtual “river inventories” that were formerly done using topographic maps, stream flow estimates, and physical reconnaissance. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) virtually assessed the gross power potential of all natural streams in the United States of America and identified feasible potential project sites and estimated their developable power potential. The results of this virtual prospecting have been incorporated into a GIS application called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector that is available for public use on the Internet.

  11. US Hydropower Resource Assessment for Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  12. US hydropower resource assessment for Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Wyoming.

  13. US hydropower resource assessment for Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Utah.

  14. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  15. US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Iowa.

  16. US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

  17. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

  18. US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

  19. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  20. US hydropower resource assessment for North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of North Dakota.

  1. US hydropower resource assessment for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Texas.

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  3. US hydropower resource assessment for Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Indiana.

  4. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Georgia.

  5. US hydropower resource assessment for New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Hampshire.

  6. US hydropower resource assessment for Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

  7. Hydropower, adaptive management, and biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Wieringa, M.J.; Morton, A.G.

    1996-11-01

    Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is allowed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man`s activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Hydropower: Setting a Course for Our Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    Hydropower is an annual publication that provides an overview of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program. The mission of the program is to conduct research and development that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower and provide cost-competitive technologies that enable the development of new and incremental hydropower capacity.

  9. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  10. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-09

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  11. 78 FR 14528 - Mayo Hydropower, LLC, Avalon Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mayo Hydropower, LLC, Avalon Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On November 20, 2012, Mayo Hydropower, LLC (transferor) and Avalon Hydropower, LLC (transferee) filed an application for transfer of...

  12. Uniform criteria for US Hydropower Resource Assessment. Hydropower evaluation software status report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Moore, K.M.

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy is estimating the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The Hydropower Evaluation Software estimates the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a DBASE, menu-driven software application. Hydropower Evaluation Software allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This status report details Hydropower Evaluation Software`s development, its data requirements, and its application to the 12 states assessed to date. This report does not discuss or present the various user-friendly menus of the Hydropower Evaluation Software. One is referred to the User`s Manual for specifics. This report focuses on data derivation, summarization of the 12 states (Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming) extracted into the software to date, and plans for future assessments.

  13. Development of the hydropower and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chusheng Cao

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, I illustrate with some hydropower projects existing or under construction in China such as Panjiakou and Three Gorges Project. The completion of a good hydropower plant is usually an important and favorable complement to the environment. It reconstructs and improves the water environment. Since the completion of Panjiakou Water and Hydropower and Pumped Storage Project, the condition of water supply, electricity generation and flood protection of Tianjin and Tangshan district have been greatly improved. It is recognized that the Panjiakou Project becomes a portion of the environment of this district. This paper also described how to limit and diminish the unfavorable impact caused by the project including the related reservoir. At last it is emphasized that the environment protection and reconstruction must include the hydropower project itself.

  14. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  15. Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    This document summarizes the opportunities and challenges for low-cost renewable hydrogen production from wind and hydropower. The Workshop on Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower was held September 9-10, 2003.

  16. New Stream-Reach Hydropower Development (NSD) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-25

    This fact sheet explores the more than 65 gigawatts (GW) of sustainable hydropower potential in U.S. stream-reaches, according to the hydropower resource assessment funded by DOE and executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  17. Hydropower potential of the New York State barge canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A. S.; Brown, R. S.

    1980-09-01

    The physical characteristics of the canal system as it relates to hydropower development were studied. The hydropower potential of the canal system was determined, including an inventory of existing and proposed hydropower plants. The remaining unrealized potential of the canal system was evaluated. Various sites were selected for further investigation on the basis of the unrealized potential of the barge canal system. Preliminary estimates of the engineering and economic feasibility of developing hydropower at these sites were also studied.

  18. 75 FR 16456 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments March 26, 2010.... c. Date filed: July 22, 2009. d. Applicant: Inglis Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Inglis Hydropower Project. f. Location: The proposed project would be located at the existing Inglis Bypass...

  19. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  20. 75 FR 65012 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar October 13, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will host a Small/Low- Impact Hydropower Webinar on November 10, 2010, from 12 noon to 1 p.m. Eastern Time. The...

  1. 76 FR 30937 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) will host a Small/ Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar on June 22, 2011, from 12 noon to 1 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. The webinar will be...

  2. 76 FR 81929 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will host a Small/Low- Impact Hydropower Webinar on January 25, 2012, from 12:00 noon to 1:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. The webinar...

  3. Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock.

  4. Climate impacts on hydro-power development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meili; Ye, Qian; Liu, Zhihui

    2005-09-01

    Viewing hydropower as a clean energy source and an important part of overall energy strategy in the years ahead, China has put priority on hydroelectric projects as part of its sustainable development strategy to reduce pollution as well as CO2 emission resulting from burning coal. Although China's hydropower exploitation potential ranks first in the world, its utilization ratio is very low at 24% by comparing with as high as 80% in developed countries. Although the economic importance of hydropower plants cannot be underestimated, their construction also has brought inevitable negative effects on the environment. Moreover, because the efficiency of operating hydropower plants is heavily dependent on precipitation condition which is very sensitive to climate variation and climate change, and the reservoirs built for hydropower plants are also discovered as one of greenhouse gases sources, the climate impact on developing mega-hydropower projects needs to be studied.

  5. 75 FR 67993 - Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities-Draft Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities--Draft Report... Bureau of Reclamation has made available for public review and comment the ``Hydropower Resource... and technical potential for hydropower development at existing Bureau of Reclamation...

  6. Effect of ice cover on hydropower production

    SciTech Connect

    Yapa, P.D.; Shen H.T.

    1984-09-01

    For hydropower developments in northern regions, the annual occurrence of river ice cover presents various problems of operation and management. The existence of an ice cover can lead to a substantial loss in power production. This loss in power due to the presence of ice cover, however, can be minimized with appropriate ice control measures. In this technical note, a quantitative analysis of power loss is carried out for the St. Lawrence Power Project. Major factors that affect the magnitude of power loss are examined to provide some information for future ice-related hydropower operations. The St. Lawrence River, which conveys water from the Great Lakes Basin to the Atlantic Ocean, has been utilized for hydroelectric power production since the early 1900's. The St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project, constructed in 1954-58, developed the hydropower potential of the upper St. Lawrence River. The Moses-Saunders Power Dam is located about 100 miles downstream of the outlet of Lake Ontario. Since the development of this power project, the regulation of flow through the dam in relation to the ice conditions has been an important element in its winter operation. The existence of an ice cover reduces the power production capability of the river significantly.

  7. Enhancing water quality in hydropower system operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Donald F.; Labadie, John W.; Sanders, Thomas G.; Brown, Jackson K.

    1998-03-01

    The quality of impounded waters often degrades over time because of thermal stratification, sediment oxygen demands, and accumulation of pollutants. Consequently, reservoir releases impact water quality in tailwaters, channels, and other downstream water bodies. Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Cumberland River below Old Hickory dam result from stratification of upstream reservoirs and seasonally low release rates. Operational changes in upstream hydropower reservoirs may be one method to increase DO levels without substantially impacting existing project purposes. A water quality model of the upper Cumberland basin is integrated into an optimal control algorithm to evaluate water quality improvement opportunities through operational modifications. The integrated water quantity/quality model maximizes hydropower revenues, subject to various flow and headwater operational restrictions for satisfying multiple project purposes, as well as maintenance of water quality targets. Optimal daily reservoir release policies are determined for the summer drawdown period which increase DO concentrations under stratification conditions with minimal impact on hydropower production and other project purposes. Appendixes A-D available with entire article on microfiche. Order by mail from AGU, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by phone at 800-966-2481; $2.50. Document W97-003. Payment must accompany order.

  8. Chinese experiences in mini-hydropower generation. Small Hydropower Series No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ruizhang, G.

    1985-06-01

    The study describes Chinese experiences in the field. It deals with policies and measures, economic issues, technical problems of exploitation and design, production of machines and equipment, promotion of research and development, manpower training, and other important aspects of the promotion and implementation of mini-hydropower projects.

  9. Hydropower-ecologic Tradeoff Analysis for Operation of Cascade Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongnan, L.

    2015-12-01

    The operation of cascade reservoirs involves multiple objectives, including flood control, hydropower generation and ecosystem protection. For many reservoirs with the main objective of hydropower generation, environmental flow is usually an important constraint. In this paper we take the cascade reservoirs of the Lancang River, i.e., the Nuozadu reservoir, Jinghong reservoir and Ganlanba reservoir, as a case to develop a cascade reservoir operation model for hydropower-environmental flow tradeoff analysis. The results show that there exists a clear competition relationship between the maximizing of hydropower generation and the minimizing of environmental flow alteration. With the increase of hydropower generation, the alteration of environmental inflow increases, and vice versa. The competition relationship between them shows significant nonlinear characteristics. When the environmental flow alteration index, ɛ, ranges from 0.3 to 0.4, small change of ɛ results in significant change of hydropower generation, which shows that this is a sensitive window to balance the tradeoff between hydropower generation and environmental flow. Additionally, compared with the natural river flow regime, hydropower operation changes the frequency of high flow pulse and small flood, which can be improved by increasing artificial flood in operation rules.

  10. Editorial: Time for green certification for all hydropower?

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-04-10

    While accrediting a large hydropower facility is intrinsically more complex and potentially controversial, it is time to review the progress made in understanding the environmental impacts of large hydropower and the development of environmentally friendly hydropower systems. Over the last two decades, many in-field, laboratory, and modeling technologies have been developed or improved to better understand the mechanisms of fish injury and mortality and to identify turbine design and operation alternatives to reduce such impacts. In 2010, representatives of DOE and the US Department of Interior, and USACE signed a memorandum of understanding to work more closely to develop sustainable hydropower. One of their major objectives is to increase hydropower generation using low-impact and environmentally sustainable approaches. Given the recent scientific and technological advances that have decreased the environmental impact of hydropower and the need to aggressively facilitate development of low impact hydropower, we think it is indeed time to initiate a science-based green certification program that includes rigorous criteria for environmental protection but does not exclude hydropower based on size only.

  11. 77 FR 2286 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting a. Date and Time of... Hydropower, LLC to discuss potentially moving the powerhouse location for the Brandon Road Project No....

  12. Global hydropower potential during recent droughts and under changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Sheffield, Justin; Wiberg, David; Wood, Eric F.

    2015-04-01

    There is a strong dependency of world's electricity sector on available water resources for hydropower generation. Recent droughts showed the vulnerability of the electricity sector to surface water constraints with reduced potentials for hydropower generation in different regions worldwide. Using a global modelling framework consisting of the VIC hydrological model and a hydropower model, we assess the impacts of recent droughts and future climate change on hydropower generation potentials worldwide. Our hydrological-electricity modelling framework was optimized and evaluated for 1981-2010, showing a realistic representation of observed streamflow and hydropower generation. We assessed the impacts of recent droughts and future climate change for more than 25,000 hydropower plants worldwide. Our results show that hydropower production potentials were significantly reduced during severe recent streamflow droughts (including e.g. summer of 2003 in Europe and 2007 in the United States). Model simulations with bias-corrected CMIP5 general circulation model output indicate that in several regions considerable reductions in hydropower production potentials are projected due to declines in streamflow during parts of the year. Considering these impacts and the long design life of power plant infrastructure, adaptation options should be included in today's planning and strategies to meet the growing electricity demand in the 21st century.

  13. Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

  14. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Pennsylvania.

  15. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

  16. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, Alison M.; Francfort, James E.; Rinehart, Ben N.

    1998-12-01

    To provide a more accurate assessment of the domestic undeveloped hydropower capacity, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hydropower Program developed a computer model, Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental, legal, and institutional attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the development of HES, its data requirements, and its application to each state assessment; in addition, it summarizes the data derivation process and data for the states. Modeling of the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States, based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints, has identified 5,677 sites that have a total undeveloped capacity of about 30,000 megawatts.

  17. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Conner; J. E. Francfort; B. N. Rinehart

    1998-12-01

    To provide a more accurate assessment of the domestic undeveloped hydropower capacity, the US Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed a computer model, Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental, legal, and institutional attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the development of HES, its data requirements, and its application to each state assessment; in addition, it summarizes the data derivation process and data for the states. Modeling of the undeveloped hydropower resources in the US, based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints, has identified 5,677 sites that have a total undeveloped capacity of about 30,000 megawatts.

  18. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nebraska.

  19. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alaska.

  20. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Arizona.

  1. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Idaho.

  2. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Oregon.

  3. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. To assist in providing this estimate, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) computer model. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of South Carolina.

  4. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

  5. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of North Carolina.

  6. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alabama.

  7. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Connecticut.

  8. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Florida.

  9. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New Mexico.

  10. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

  11. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Tennessee.

  12. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Maryland.

  13. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Michigan.

  14. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Ohio.

  15. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of West Virginia.

  16. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Mississippi.

  17. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Kentucky.

  18. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Minnesota.

  19. China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 109 m3 (Gm3), or 22% of China’s total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm3 yr-1 or 3.6 m3 of water to produce a GJ (109 J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  20. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Garold L. Sommers; R. T. Hunt

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on advanced hydropower technology through its hydropower program, which is organized under the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2002. The program=s current focus is on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research is to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these are now being tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners to modifications of existing designs. Biological design criteria for these new turbines have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria are being combined with computational tools to locate and eliminate areas inside turbine systems that are damaging to fish. Through the combination of laboratory, field, and computational studies, new solutions are being found to environmental problems at hydropower projects. The diverse program activities continue to make unique contributions to clean energy production in the U.S. By working toward technology improvements that can reduce environmental problems, the program is helping to reposition hydropower as an acceptable, renewable, domestic energy choice.

  1. China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 109 m3 (Gm3), or 22% of China’s total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm3 yr−1 or 3.6 m3 of water to produce a GJ (109 J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  2. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level

  3. Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The operations of hydropower systems were analyzed with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept outlined.

  4. Optimal sequencing of development for hydropower stations in cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. ); Huang ); Marino, M.A. . Dept. of Water Science and Engineering)

    1989-05-01

    The sequencing problem for hydropower station development is a multidimensional problem involving space-time decisions. In this paper, a mathematical model that uses a combination of dynamic programming and mixed-integer programming is developed, and an efficient algorithm for its use in optimal sequencing problems is presented. This model is applied to the preliminary planning of hydropower stations on the Wujiang River in the southwestern region of China, and the results are described.

  5. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, M. J.; Cada, G. F.; Dauble, D. D.; Rinehart, B. N.; Sommers, G. L.; Flynn, J. V.; Brookshier, P. A.

    2001-04-17

    This report describes the activities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2000 (October 1, 1999, to September 30, 2000). Background, current activities, and future plans are presented in the following sections for all components of the Program. Program focus for FY 2000 was on (1) advanced turbine development, (2) basic and applied R&D, (3) environmental mitigation, (4) low head/low power hydropower technology, and (5) technology transfer.

  6. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-01

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated. PMID:23909506

  7. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-01

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  8. Projecting changes in annual hydropower generation using regional runoff data: An assessment of the United States federal hydropower plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih -Chieh; Sale, Michael J.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Kaiser, Dale Patrick; Wei, Yaxing; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2014-12-18

    Federal hydropower plants account for approximately half of installed US conventional hydropower capacity, and are an important part of the national renewable energy portfolio. Utilizing the strong linear relationship between the US Geological Survey WaterWatch runoff and annual hydropower generation, a runoff-based assessment approach is introduced in this study to project changes in annual and regional hydropower generation in multiple power marketing areas. Future climate scenarios are developed with a series of global and regional climate models, and the model output is bias-corrected to be consistent with observed data for the recent past. Using this approach, the median decrease in annual generation at federal projects is projected to be less than –2 TWh, with an estimated ensemble uncertainty of ±9 TWh. Although these estimates are similar to the recently observed variability in annual hydropower generation, and may therefore appear to be manageable, significantly seasonal runoff changes are projected and it may pose significant challenges in water systems with higher limits on reservoir storage and operational flexibility. Lastly, future assessments will be improved by incorporating next-generation climate models, by closer examination of extreme events and longer-term change, and by addressing the interactions among hydropower and other water uses.

  9. Projecting changes in annual hydropower generation using regional runoff data: An assessment of the United States federal hydropower plants

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Shih -Chieh; Sale, Michael J.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Kaiser, Dale Patrick; Wei, Yaxing; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2014-12-18

    Federal hydropower plants account for approximately half of installed US conventional hydropower capacity, and are an important part of the national renewable energy portfolio. Utilizing the strong linear relationship between the US Geological Survey WaterWatch runoff and annual hydropower generation, a runoff-based assessment approach is introduced in this study to project changes in annual and regional hydropower generation in multiple power marketing areas. Future climate scenarios are developed with a series of global and regional climate models, and the model output is bias-corrected to be consistent with observed data for the recent past. Using this approach, the median decrease inmore » annual generation at federal projects is projected to be less than –2 TWh, with an estimated ensemble uncertainty of ±9 TWh. Although these estimates are similar to the recently observed variability in annual hydropower generation, and may therefore appear to be manageable, significantly seasonal runoff changes are projected and it may pose significant challenges in water systems with higher limits on reservoir storage and operational flexibility. Lastly, future assessments will be improved by incorporating next-generation climate models, by closer examination of extreme events and longer-term change, and by addressing the interactions among hydropower and other water uses.« less

  10. a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied

  11. Recent DOE-sponsored hydropower engineering research

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of DOE Engineering Development research activity since Waterpower 1981. General results of about 11 projects that have been completed since Waterpower 1981 are presented and compared. Continuing efforts are also described briefly. DOE has sponsored four projects dealing with the use of pumps as turbines. This approach results in capital cost savings, shorter time for completing a hydropower plant, wider variety of off-the-shelf equipment available, and better maintenance services. Results are summarized for feasibility studies, laboratory tests, and in-the-field experience surveys of the use of pumps as turbines. Other projects discussed include microhydropower plants (less than 100 kW in capacity), head augmentation devices, Schneider engines, the use of marine thrusters as turbines, low cost cross-flow turbines made of plastic, variable speed constant frequency generators, hydraulic air compressors, scroll motor turbines and modular float-in powerhouses. The paper also discusses some of the technologies where future research may prove fruitful.

  12. Recreation and hydropower: A partnership deserving attention

    SciTech Connect

    Morhardt, S.S. )

    1991-04-01

    Recreation is an important consideration in hydroelectric project planning and licensing from both the regulatory and public relations perspectives. During licensing and relicensing, an applicant is required to address recreation issues, and may need to provide recreational opportunities as part of the hydro project. The developer or owner with a thorough understanding of recreational uses and opportunities at a project is in a better position to meet these requirements, and thus to ensure a balance between hydropower production and use of the non-power resources at the site. Addressing recreational issues is also a good way to gain public support for a project. Many people correlate the value of hydro projects with recreation opportunities at the site. Therefore, when recreation issues are treated as a meaningful part of project planning, there is an opportunity to develop public support. In order for applicants to select appropriate recreation plans and demonstrate equal consideration for power production and non-power values, a comprehensive planning approach that begins early in the licensing process is needed.

  13. 75 FR 7469 - Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution; Notice Extending Filing Date...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution; Notice... Resolution February 4, 2010. On October 20, 2009, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission... in the Commission's hydropower integrated licensing process (ILP) study dispute resolution...

  14. 77 FR 47619 - Alcoa Power Generating Inc.; Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alcoa Power Generating Inc.; Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC... 31, 2012, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (transferor) and Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower...

  15. 76 FR 6459 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On December 30, 2010, Mahoning Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  16. 75 FR 8320 - Coastal Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coastal Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On November 5, 2009, Coastal Hydropower LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit,...

  17. 76 FR 7838 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On December 30, 2010, Mahoning Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  18. 77 FR 52016 - Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC's application...

  19. Cumulative biophysical impact of small and large hydropower development in Nu River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibler, Kelly M.; Tullos, Desiree D.

    2013-06-01

    Support for low-carbon energy and opposition to new large dams encourages global development of small hydropower facilities. This support is manifested in national and international energy and development policies designed to incentivize growth in the small hydropower sector while curtailing large dam construction. However, the preference of small to large dams assumes, without justification, that small hydropower dams entail fewer and less severe environmental and social externalities than large hydropower dams. With the objective to evaluate the validity of this assumption, we investigate cumulative biophysical effects of small (<50 MW) and large hydropower dams in China's Nu River basin, and compare effects normalized per megawatt of power produced. Results reveal that biophysical impacts of small hydropower may exceed those of large hydropower, particularly with regard to habitat and hydrologic change. These results indicate that more comprehensive standards for impact assessment and governance of small hydropower projects may be necessary to encourage low-impact energy development.

  20. 78 FR 38027 - Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC; Notice of..., Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC (transferor) and Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC (transferee) filed...

  1. Best Practices Implementation for Hydropower Efficiency and Utilization Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brennan T; Zhang, Qin Fen; March, Patrick; Cones, Marvin; Dham, Rajesh; Spray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    By using best practices to manage unit and plant efficiency, hydro owner/operators can achieve significant improvements in overall plant performance, resulting in increased generation and profitability and, frequently, reduced maintenance costs. The Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated by the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with standard methodology, based on the best practices of operations, maintenance and upgrades; to identify the improvement opportunities at existing hydropower facilities; and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The HAP facility assessment includes both quantitative condition ratings and data-based performance analyses. However, this paper, as an overview document for the HAP, addresses the general concepts, project scope and objectives, best practices for unit and plant efficiency, and process and methodology for best practices implementation for hydropower efficiency and utilization improvement.

  2. Organizing Environmental Flow Frameworks to Meet Hydropower Mitigation Needs.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Brewer, Shannon K; Jager, Henriette I; Troia, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.

  3. Organizing environmental flow frameworks to meet hydropower mitigation needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.

  4. Organizing Environmental Flow Frameworks to Meet Hydropower Mitigation Needs.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Brewer, Shannon K; Jager, Henriette I; Troia, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments. PMID:27344163

  5. Organizing Environmental Flow Frameworks to Meet Hydropower Mitigation Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette I.; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-09-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.

  6. Estimation of economic parameters of U.S. hydropower resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Hunt, Richard T.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Carroll, Greg R.

    2003-06-01

    Tools for estimating the cost of developing and operating and maintaining hydropower resources in the form of regression curves were developed based on historical plant data. Development costs that were addressed included: licensing, construction, and five types of environmental mitigation. It was found that the data for each type of cost correlated well with plant capacity. A tool for estimating the annual and monthly electric generation of hydropower resources was also developed. Additional tools were developed to estimate the cost of upgrading a turbine or a generator. The development and operation and maintenance cost estimating tools, and the generation estimating tool were applied to 2,155 U.S. hydropower sites representing a total potential capacity of 43,036 MW. The sites included totally undeveloped sites, dams without a hydroelectric plant, and hydroelectric plants that could be expanded to achieve greater capacity. Site characteristics and estimated costs and generation for each site were assembled in a database in Excel format that is also included within the EERE Library under the title, “Estimation of Economic Parameters of U.S. Hydropower Resources - INL Hydropower Resource Economics Database.”

  7. 78 FR 61987 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-09

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 23, 2013, Corbett Water District filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  8. 76 FR 7835 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental... River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric... hydropower structure consisting of 30 turbine bays, located about 100 feet downstream of the existing dam;...

  9. 78 FR 69080 - Houtama Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Houtama Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., 2013, Houtama Hydropower LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of... Contact: Mr. William C. Hampton, CEO, Houtama Hydropower ] LLC, 1044 NW 12th Drive, Pendleton, OR...

  10. 78 FR 2990 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Juneau Hydropower, Inc., filed an application for a successive preliminary permit, pursuant to...: Duff Mitchell, Business Manager, Juneau Hydropower, Inc. P.O. Box 22775, Juneau, AK 99802; email:...

  11. 75 FR 24937 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Brandon Road Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: U.S... Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue, Joliet, IL 60435, (312) 320-1610. i....

  12. 75 FR 62518 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for....: 12717-002. c. Date filed: May 27, 2009. d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of...). h. Applicant Contact: Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue,...

  13. 77 FR 75630 - New England Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New England Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... December 7, 2012, the New England Hydropower Company, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... privately owned. Applicant Contact: Mr. Michael C. Kerr, New England Hydropower Company, LLC, P.O. Box...

  14. 78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On November 5, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  15. 78 FR 61958 - New England Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New England Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... August 20, 2013, the New England Hydropower Company, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit.... Michael C. Kerr, New England Hydropower Company, LLC, P.O. Box 5524, Beverly Farms, Massachusetts...

  16. 78 FR 55251 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Workshop The Federal... process for the issuance of a license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

  17. 78 FR 62351 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 3, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  18. 76 FR 19765 - Toutant Hydropower Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Toutant Hydropower Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing... Hydropower Inc. e. Name of Project: M.S.C. (Toutant) Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The project is..., 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Roland Toutant, Toutant Hydropower, Inc., 80 Bungay...

  19. 77 FR 58375 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., Inglis Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of a hydropower project located at the...

  20. 77 FR 63301 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Draft License Application and Preliminary Draft Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Draft License Application and Preliminary...: August 31, 2012. d. Applicant: Juneau Hydropower, Inc. e. Name of Project: Sweetheart Lake Hydroelectric... Hydropower, Inc., P.O. Box 22775, Juneau, AK 99802; 907-789-2775, email: duff.mitchell@juneauhydro.com ....

  1. 78 FR 64493 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Subsequent Draft License Application (DLA) and Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Subsequent Draft License Application (DLA..., 2013. d. Applicant: Juneau Hydropower, Inc. e. Name of Project: Sweetheart Lake Hydroelectric Project.... Applicant Contact: Duff Mitchell, Business Manager, Juneau Hydropower, Inc., P.O. Box 22775, Juneau,...

  2. 78 FR 71601 - KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit... the applicant to KC Small Hydro LLC. (KCS Hydro). On November 5, 2013, Advanced Hydropower, Inc... the feasibility of a hydropower project to be located at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers'...

  3. 78 FR 28838 - New England Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New England Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 29, 2013, the New England Hydropower Company, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit...: Mr. Michael C. Kerr, New England Hydropower Company, LLC, P.O. Box 5524, Beverly Farms,...

  4. 75 FR 59707 - Coastal Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coastal Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., 2010. On February 9, 2010, and supplemented on July 16, 2010, Coastal Hydropower, LLC filed an...-hours. Applicant Contact: Neil Anderson, Coastal Hydropower, LLC, Key Centre, 601 108th Avenue,...

  5. 75 FR 18193 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Dresden Island Project. f. Location: U.S. Army Corps... Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue, Joliet, IL 60435, (312) 320-1610. i....

  6. 78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On August 29, 2013, City of Barre, Vermont filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  7. 78 FR 58535 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of... two-year process for the issuance of a license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory...

  8. 78 FR 12050 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Juneau Hydropower, Inc., filed an application for a successive preliminary permit, pursuant to...: Duff Mitchell, Business Manager, Juneau Hydropower, Inc. P.O. Box 22775, Juneau, AK 99802; email:...

  9. 18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. 141.14 Section 141.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Hydropower Development Recreation Report. The form of the report, Licensed Hydropower Development...

  10. 18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. 141.14 Section 141.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Hydropower Development Recreation Report. The form of the report, Licensed Hydropower Development...

  11. 18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. 141.14 Section 141.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Hydropower Development Recreation Report. The form of the report, Licensed Hydropower Development...

  12. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Key, T.

    2013-02-01

    The report summarizes a 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. The study looked at existing large hydropower operations in the U.S., models for different electricity futures, markets, costs of existing and new technologies as well as trends related to hydropower investments in other parts of the world.

  13. [Impacts of large hydropower station on benthic algal communities].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xing-Huan; Jiang, Wan-Xiang; Li, Feng-Qing; Tang, Tao; Duan, Shu-Gui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the impacts of large hydropower station in Gufu River on benthic algae, monthly samplings were conducted from September 2004 to June 2007 at the site GF04 which was impacted by the hydropower station, with the site GL03 in Gaolan River as reference. During sampling period, no significant differences were observed in the main physicochemical variables between GF04 and GL03, but the hydrodynamics differed significantly. GL03 was basically at a status of slow flow; while GF04, owing to the discharging from the reservoir, was at a riffle status during more than 60% of the sampling period. Such a difference in hydrodynamics induced significant differences in the community similarity of benthic algae and the relative abundance of unattached diatoms, erect diatoms, and stalked diatoms between GF04 and GL03, which could better reflect the impacts of irregular draw-off by large hydropower station on river eco-system.

  14. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a

  15. Hydropower generation and whitewater recreation: Finding the common ground

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, B.; Kessler, J.

    1995-12-31

    Many hydropower projects are located (or are proposed for location) along rivers that either support or have the potential to support whitewater recreation. The issue of balancing hydropower operations with non power benefits such as whitewater recreation, has become more prevalent in the last few years due to the passage of the Electric Consumers Protection Act in 1986, and increased public demands for river-oriented recreation. Balancing potentially competing resource values has created a number of new challenges for the hydropower industry, the regulatory agencies, and the public. This paper will concentrate on one aspect of the balancing act - balancing power generation with downstream whitewater recreation. It will discuss specific issues and challenges and describe several examples where licensees and whitewater enthusiasts have worked together to identify specific needs, discover common ground, and develop sensible approaches to sharing the resource.

  16. Projected impacts of climate change on hydropower potential in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Voisin, Nathalie; Cui, Huijuan

    2016-08-01

    Hydropower is an important renewable energy source in China, but it is sensitive to climate change, because the changing climate may alter hydrological conditions (e.g., river flow and reservoir storage). Future changes and associated uncertainties in China's gross hydropower potential (GHP) and developed hydropower potential (DHP) are projected using simulations from eight global hydrological models (GHMs), including a large-scale reservoir regulation model, forced by five general circulation models (GCMs) with climate data under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). Results show that the estimation of the present GHP of China is comparable to other studies; overall, the annual GHP is projected to change by -1.7 to 2 % in the near future (2020-2050) and increase by 3 to 6 % in the late 21st century (2070-2099). The annual DHP is projected to change by -2.2 to -5.4 % (0.7-1.7 % of the total installed hydropower capacity (IHC)) and -1.3 to -4 % (0.4-1.3 % of total IHC) for 2020-2050 and 2070-2099, respectively. Regional variations emerge: GHP will increase in northern China but decrease in southern China - mostly in south central China and eastern China - where numerous reservoirs and large IHCs currently are located. The area with the highest GHP in southwest China will have more GHP, while DHP will reduce in the regions with high IHC (e.g., Sichuan and Hubei) in the future. The largest decrease in DHP (in %) will occur in autumn or winter, when streamflow is relatively low and water use is competitive. Large ranges in hydropower estimates across GHMs and GCMs highlight the necessity of using multimodel assessments under climate change conditions. This study prompts the consideration of climate change in planning for hydropower development and operations in China, to be further combined with a socioeconomic analysis for strategic expansion.

  17. The influence of climate change on Tanzania's hydropower sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Boehlert, Brent; Meijer, Karen; Schellekens, Jaap; Magnell, Jan-Petter; Helbrink, Jakob; Kassana, Leonard; Liden, Rikard

    2015-04-01

    Economic costs induced by current climate variability are large for Tanzania and may further increase due to future climate change. The Tanzanian National Climate Change Strategy addressed the need for stabilization of hydropower generation and strengthening of water resources management. Increased hydropower generation can contribute to sustainable use of energy resources and stabilization of the national electricity grid. To support Tanzania the World Bank financed this study in which the impact of climate change on the water resources and related hydropower generation capacity of Tanzania is assessed. To this end an ensemble of 78 GCM projections from both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 datasets was bias-corrected and down-scaled to 0.5 degrees resolution following the BCSD technique using the Princeton Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset as a reference. To quantify the hydrological impacts of climate change by 2035 the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was set-up for Tanzania at a resolution of 3 minutes and run with all 78 GCM datasets. From the full set of projections a probable (median) and worst case scenario (95th percentile) were selected based upon (1) the country average Climate Moisture Index and (2) discharge statistics of relevance to hydropower generation. Although precipitation from the Princeton dataset shows deviations from local station measurements and the global hydrological model does not perfectly reproduce local scale hydrographs, the main discharge characteristics and precipitation patterns are represented well. The modeled natural river flows were adjusted for water demand and irrigation within the water resources model RIBASIM (both historical values and future scenarios). Potential hydropower capacity was assessed with the power market simulation model PoMo-C that considers both reservoir inflows obtained from RIBASIM and overall electricity generation costs. Results of the study show that climate change is unlikely to negatively affect the

  18. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Acker, Thomas L.; Carlson, Thomas; Dauble, Dennis D.; Hall, Douglas G.

    2006-07-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications); and (4) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology).

  19. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Sommers, Garold L.; Hunt, Richard T.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Carlson, Thomas; Ahlgrimm, James; Acker, Tomas L.

    2005-02-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2004 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications); and (4) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology).

  20. Memorandum of Understanding for Hydropower Two-Year Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-01

    On March 24, 2010, the Department of the Army (DOA) through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps), the Department of Energy, and the Department of the Interior signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower. The purpose of the MOU is to “help meet the nation’s needs for reliable, affordable, and environmentally sustainable hydropower by building a long-term working relationship, prioritizing similar goals, and aligning ongoing and future renewable energy development efforts.” This report documents efforts so far.

  1. Balancing hydropower production and river bed incision in operating a run-of-river hydropower scheme along the River Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denaro, Simona; Dinh, Quang; Bizzi, Simone; Bernardi, Dario; Pavan, Sara; Castelletti, Andrea; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation, and flood risk mitigation. Reservoir operations are commonly planned in order to maximize these objectives. However reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes causing sediment deficit downstream, altering the flow regime, leading, often, to process of river bed incision: for instance the variations of river cross sections over few years can notably affect hydropower production, flood mitigation, water supply strategies and eco-hydrological processes of the freshwater ecosystem. The river Po (a major Italian river) has experienced severe bed incision in the last decades. For this reason infrastructure stability has been negatively affected, and capacity to derive water decreased, navigation, fishing and tourism are suffering economic damages, not to mention the impact on the environment. Our case study analyzes the management of Isola Serafini hydropower plant located on the main Po river course. The plant has a major impact to the geomorphic river processes downstream, affecting sediment supply, connectivity (stopping sediment upstream the dam) and transport capacity (altering the flow regime). Current operation policy aims at maximizing hydropower production neglecting the effects in term of geomorphic processes. A new improved policy should also consider controlling downstream river bed incision. The aim of this research is to find suitable modeling framework to identify an operating policy for Isola Serafini reservoir able to provide an optimal trade-off between these two conflicting objectives: hydropower production and river bed incision downstream. A multi-objective simulation-based optimization framework is adopted. The operating policy is parameterized as a piecewise linear function and the parameters optimized using an interactive response surface approach. Global and local

  2. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J; Cada, Glenn F; Acker, Thomas L.; Carlson, Thomas; Dauble, Dennis D.; Hall, Douglas G.

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program is part of the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Program's mission is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower. The Department's Hydropower Program activities are conducted by its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and by a number of industry, university, and federal research facilities. Programmatically, DOE Hydropower Program R&D activities are conducted in two areas: Technology Viability and Technology Application. The Technology Viability area has two components: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices) and (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis). The Technology Application area also has two components: (1) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications) and (2) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology). This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 under all four program areas. Major accomplishments include the following: Conducted field testing of a Retrofit Aeration System to increase the dissolved oxygen content of water discharged from the turbines of the Osage Project in Missouri. Contributed to the installation and field testing of an advanced, minimum gap runner turbine at the Wanapum Dam project in Washington. Completed

  3. Water Energy Resource Data from Idaho National Laboratory's Virtual Hydropower Prospector

    DOE Data Explorer

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hydropower Program is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will improve the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower and provide cost-competitive technologies that enable the development of new and incremental hydropower capacity, adding diversity to the nation's energy supply. The Virtual Hydropower Prospector is a GIS application to locate and evaluate natural stream water energy resources. In the interactive data map the U.S. is divided into 20 hydrologic regions. The Prospector tool applies an analytical process to determine the gross power potential of these regions and helps users to site potential hydropower projects.

  4. Will the Commission's hydropower program revive in the '90s

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, G.C.

    1993-01-01

    Prior to the enactment of the Electric Consumer Protection Act of 1986 (ECPA), the Commission for 66 years oversaw the nation's water power potential with uncompromising authority. Since ECPA, the Commission has been very slow and tentative in its approach to licensing hydropower projects under Part I of the Federal Power Act. In that time, the hydropower industry has found itself in an almost impossible situation. It has been burdened with heavy regulatory requirements laden with a consulation process that frequently engenders adversarial conflicts with public interest groups and state and federal agencies. The process leads to a license with too much uncertainty to generally proceed with construction of the proposed project. This article assesses the current status of the hydropower industry so that the industry's future may be realistically assessed. The analysis begins in 1978 when Congress enacted landmark energy legislation that initiated, among other things, a [open quotes]hydro gold rush.[close quotes] What immediately follows is a historical review of this period, which includes a discussion of the response of the environmental community and the consequent legal battles fought in the 1980s. The analysis concludes with some comments on how the Energy Policy Act of 1992 affects the prospects of hydropower continuing as a viable energy source in the next century.

  5. Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qin Fen; Smith, Brennan T; Cones, Marvin; March, Patrick; Dham, Rajesh; Spray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

  6. 75 FR 40816 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting July 7, 2010. a. Date and Time of Meeting: Thursday, July 22, 2010 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. CDT. b. Place: Illinois...

  7. 77 FR 64506 - Robert D. Willis Hydropower Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Register, (77 FR 40609), of the proposed rate increase for the Willis project. Southwestern provided a 30... proposed Willis power rate were announced by a Federal Register notice published on July 10, 2012 (77 FR... Southwestern Power Administration Robert D. Willis Hydropower Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power...

  8. The social side of hydropower: Forging a new alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Cernea, M.M.

    1997-03-01

    Social issues raised by hydropower development and approaches to addressing them are discussed. The primary social problem discussed is that of population relocation. Alliances between project developers and socioeconomics experts to address this and other issues are described. Such alliances can guide appropriate social actions in developing countries which lack formal policies and legislated frameworks for resettlement.

  9. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Hydropower

    SciTech Connect

    Sam Baldwin, Gilbert Bindewald, Austin Brown, Charles Chen, Kerry Cheung, Corrie Clark, Joe Cresko,

    2015-10-07

    Hydropower has provided reliable and flexible base and peaking power generation in the United States for more than a century, contributing on average 10.5% of cumulative U.S. power sector net generation over the past six and one-half decades (1949–2013). It is the nation’s largest source of renewable electricity, with 79 GW of generating assets and 22 GW of pumped-storage assets in service, with hydropower providing half of all U.S. renewable power-sector generation (50% in 2014). In addition to this capacity, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has identified greater than 80 GW of new hydropower resource potential: at least 5 GW from rehabilitation and expansion of existing generating assets, up to 12 GW of potential at existing dams without power facilities, and over 60 GW of potential low-impact new development (LIND) in undeveloped stream reaches. However, despite this growth potential, hydropower capacity and production growth have stalled in recent years, with existing assets even experiencing decreases in capacity and production from lack of sustaining investments in infrastructure and increasing constraints on water use.

  10. Operating multireservoir hydropower systems for downstream water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hydropower reservoir operations often impact tailwater quality and water quality in the stream or river below the impoundment for many miles. Determining optimal operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs involves solving a highly dimensional nonlinear, nonconvex optimization problem. This research adds the additional complexities of downstream water quality considerations within the optimization formulation to determine operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs operating in series (tandem) or parallel. The formulation was used to determine operating strategies for six reservoirs of the upper Cumberland river basin in Tennessee and Kentucky. Significant dissolved oxygen (DO) violations occur just upstream of Nashville, Tennessee below Old Hickory dam during the months of August and September. Daily reservoir releases were determined for the period of June through September which would produce the maximum hydropower revenue while meeting downstream water quality objectives. Optimal releases for three operational strategies were compared to historical operations for the years 1985, 1986, and 1988. These strategies included: spilling as necessary to meet water quality criteria, near normal operation (minimal spills), and drawdown of reservoirs as necessary to meet criteria without spills. Optimization results showed an 8% to 15% hydropower loss may be necessary to meet water quality criteria through spills and a 2% to 9% improvement in DO below Old Hickory may be possible without significant spills. Results also showed that substantial increases in initial headwater elevations would be necessary to meet daily DO criteria and avoid spills. The optimal control theory algorithm used to solve the problem proved to be an efficient and robust solver of this large optimization problem.

  11. Organizing environmental flow frameworks to meet hydropower mitigation needs

    DOE PAGES

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette I.; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-06-25

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow sciencemore » due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Here, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. In conclusion, our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. As a result, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.« less

  12. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in

  13. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and

  14. Appendix L: GPRA05 Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program documentation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The wind energy component of the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program seeks to reduce the cost and improve the performance of wind technology, and to reduce barriers to its use. The GPRA benefits are based primarily on model projections of the market share for wind technologies, based on their economic characteristics. This document describes the assumptions that are used by the models to calculate those benefits.

  15. When and how to activate large new hydropower reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geressu, Robel; Harou, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Water resources system planners are increasingly required to address multiple long and short-term management objectives and the trade-offs these imply. Expansion planning in hydropower reservoir systems, where assets either temporarily or permanently reduce each other's performance, is a complex and potentially conflictual task requiring attention to multiple impacts. This paper proposes a multi-criteria scheduling approach considering many objectives and their associated uncertainties. The method considers the coordination and flexibility of reservoir operation in different expansion stages. The impact of abstraction (i.e., during filling of new reservoirs) and regulation of inflows by upstream reservoirs, is represented by simultaneously optimizing the storage size of reservoirs. Sensitivity analysis of performance given financial uncertainty and hydrological variability reveals which expansion schedules are robust to a wide range of future conditions. This informs how alternative designs compare in multiple performance dimensions and can serve stakeholders with differing attitudes towards risk and opportunity. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile hydropower reservoirs to find efficient new dam activation schedules considering energy revenues, downstream release requirements, and energy generation during reservoir filling periods. Results take the form of Pareto-optimal trade-offs where each point on the curve or surface represents asset choices, size, activation date, and filling period reservoir operating rules. The results help explore the complex planning and management issues involved in the Blue Nile and demonstrate a possible approach to negotiate the design, filling and coordinated use of hydropower reservoirs.

  16. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  17. Fuzzy multiobjective models for optimal operation of a hydropower system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.; Ferreira, André R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2013-06-01

    Optimal operation models for a hydropower system using new fuzzy multiobjective mathematical programming models are developed and evaluated in this study. The models use (i) mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) with binary variables and (ii) integrate a new turbine unit commitment formulation along with water quality constraints used for evaluation of reservoir downstream impairment. Reardon method used in solution of genetic algorithm optimization problems forms the basis for development of a new fuzzy multiobjective hydropower system optimization model with creation of Reardon type fuzzy membership functions. The models are applied to a real-life hydropower reservoir system in Brazil. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are used to (i) solve the optimization formulations to avoid computational intractability and combinatorial problems associated with binary variables in unit commitment, (ii) efficiently address Reardon method formulations, and (iii) deal with local optimal solutions obtained from the use of traditional gradient-based solvers. Decision maker's preferences are incorporated within fuzzy mathematical programming formulations to obtain compromise operating rules for a multiobjective reservoir operation problem dominated by conflicting goals of energy production, water quality and conservation releases. Results provide insight into compromise operation rules obtained using the new Reardon fuzzy multiobjective optimization framework and confirm its applicability to a variety of multiobjective water resources problems.

  18. EERE Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program Technology Review (Deep Dive) for Under Secretaries Johnson and Koonin

    SciTech Connect

    McCluer, Megan

    2009-09-04

    September 4, 2009 presentation highlighting the Wind and Hydropower Program, addressing program goals and objectives, budgets, technology pathways, breakthroughs, and DOE solutions to market barriers.

  19. EERE Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program Technology Review (Deep Dive) for Under Secretaries Johnson and Koonin

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-01

    September 4, 2009 presentation highlighting the Wind and Hydropower Program, addressing program goals and objectives, budgets, technology pathways, breakthroughs, and DOE solutions to market barriers.

  20. Sensitivity of Regional Hydropower Generation to the Projected Changes in Future Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, S. C.; Naz, B. S.; Gangrade, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower is a key contributor to the renewable energy portfolio due to its established development history and the diverse benefits it provides to the electric power systems. With the projected change in the future watershed hydrology, including shift of snowmelt timing, increasing occurrence of extreme precipitation, and change in drought frequencies, there is a need to investigate how the regional hydropower generation may change correspondingly. To evaluate the sensitivity of watershed storage and hydropower generation to future climate change, a lumped Watershed Runoff-Energy Storage (WRES) model is developed to simulate the annual and seasonal hydropower generation at various hydropower areas in the United States. For each hydropower study area, the WRES model use the monthly precipitation and naturalized (unregulated) runoff as inputs to perform a runoff mass balance calculation for the total monthly runoff storage in all reservoirs and retention facilities in the watershed, and simulate the monthly regulated runoff release and hydropower generation through the system. The WRES model is developed and calibrated using the historic (1980-2009) monthly precipitation, runoff, and generation data, and then driven by a large set of dynamically- and statistically-downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections to simulate the change of watershed storage and hydropower generation under different future climate scenarios. The results among different hydropower regions, storage capacities, emission scenarios, and timescales are compared and discussed in this study.

  1. Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.

    PubMed

    McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

    2009-07-01

    Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water

  2. Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.

    PubMed

    McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

    2009-07-01

    Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water

  3. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I.; Brandimarte, L.; Perera, M. S. U.; Peviani, M.

    2012-04-01

    La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which are having fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB) and makes an analysis of the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historic available data while future energy production is deduced from the maximum available water in the catchment, whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin, were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970-2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called Vapidro-Aste released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering that first the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served and than hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

  4. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I.; Brandimarte, L.; Perera, M. S. U.; Peviani, M.

    2012-08-01

    La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years), whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970-2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

  5. "Fish Friendly" Hydropower Turbine Development and Deployment. Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of a collaborative research project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and hydropower industry partners with the objective of completing the remaining developmental engineering required for a “fish-friendly” hydropower turbine called the Alden turbine.

  6. 76 FR 75542 - Porcupine Dam Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Porcupine Dam Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... Dam Hydropower Project to be located on the East Fork of the Little Bear River near the town of...

  7. 75 FR 8321 - Coastal Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 13619-000 Coastal Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... February 18, 2010. On November 5, 2009, Coastal Hydropower LLC filed an application for a...

  8. 75 FR 62516 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for....: 12626-002. c. Date filed: March 31, 2009. d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of... Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791 (a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois...

  9. 77 FR 4290 - Conway Ranch Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Conway Ranch Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Conway Ranch Hydropower...

  10. 78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-09

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 24, 2013, City of Astoria, Oregon (Astoria) filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the...

  11. 78 FR 79433 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, Ohio, Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Commission's (Commission or FERC) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Mahoning Hydropower, LLC's application for a license to construct, operate... Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, Ohio, Notice of Availability of...

  12. 75 FR 40801 - Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...: Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: W. Kerr Scott Hydropower Project. f. Location:...

  13. 77 FR 51551 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... comments on the collection of information was published on May 22, 2012 (77 FR 30308). No comments were... Office of the Secretary Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Alternatives Process in Hydropower... information for Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing. This collection request has been forwarded...

  14. Valuing trade-offs of river ecosystem services in large hydropower development in Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Xu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower development can be considered as a kind of trade-offs of ecosystem services generated by human activity for their economic and energy demand, because it can increase some river ecosystem services but decrease others. In this context, an ecosystem service trade-off framework in hydropower development was proposed in this paper. It aims to identify the ecological cost of river ecosystem and serve for the ecological compensation during hydropower development, for the hydropower services cannot completely replace the regulating services of river ecosystem. The valuing trade-offs framework was integrated by the influenced ecosystem services identification and ecosystem services valuation, through ecological monitoring and ecological economic methods, respectively. With a case study of Pondo hydropower project in Tibet, China, the valuing trade-offs of river ecosystem services in large hydropower development was illustrated. The typical ecological factors including water, sediment and soil were analyzed in this study to identify the altered river ecosystem services by Pondo hydropower project. Through the field monitoring and valuation, the results showed that the Lhasa River ecosystem services value could be changed annually by Pondo hydropower project with the increment of 5.7E+8CNY, and decrement of 5.1E+7CNY. The ecological compensation for river ecosystem should be focus on water and soil conservation, reservoir dredging and tributaries habitat protection.

  15. Hydropower Ambitions of South Asian Nations: Ganges and Brahmaputra River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizanur Rahaman, Muhammad

    2010-05-01

    This paper analyses the current status of hydropower development in two major river basins in South Asia, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. The total drainage area of the basins is about 1660,000 km2 shared by China, Nepal, India, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. The basins are blessed with ample water resources and huge hydropower potential. Hydropower development is strongly linked with the overall development framework of the region. The abundant hydropower potential of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra can help give riparian countries a safer energy future that is the key driving force behind the prospect of potential cooperation in the field of water. Based on four years research studies (2005-2009), this paper analyse the hydropower development plans and ambitions of riparian nations with special focus on China and India. The finding suggests that it is essential to develop an integrated hydropower development approach involving all riparian nations intended to foster regional development and overcome the prospect of severe conflict because of unilateral hydropower ambitions of China and India. The hydropower development cooperation between China and India could also become the positive turning point in the integration of South and South-East Asia.

  16. An optimal hydropower contract load determination method considering both human and riverine ecosystem needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xin'an; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Cailing; Zhao, Yanwei

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a new method is developed to determine the optimal contract load for a hydropower reservoir, which is achieved by incorporating environmental flows into the determination process to increase hydropower revenues, while mitigating the negative impacts of hydropower generation on riverine ecosystems. In this method, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint of hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximization of mean annual revenue is set as the optimization objective. The contract load in each month and the associated reservoir operating parameters were simultaneously optimized by a genetic algorithm. The proposed method was applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The new method offers two advantages over traditional studies. First, it takes into account both the economic benefits and the ecological needs of riverine systems, rather than only the economic benefits, as in previous methods. Second, although many measures have been established to mitigate the negative ecological impacts of hydropower generation, few have been applied to the hydropower planning stage. Thus, since the contract load is an important planning parameter for hydropower generation, influencing both economic benefits and riverine ecosystem protection, this new method could provide guidelines for the establishment of river protection measures at the hydropower planning stage.

  17. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review: Hydropower Technologies, Compiled Presentations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Hydropower Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  18. 77 FR 30308 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Process in Hydropower Licensing, OMB Control Number 1094-0001. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: To request... collect the information covered by 1094-0001. Under FPA section 33, the Secretary of the Department... Part 221; the Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing. OMB Control Number: 1094-0001....

  19. 78 FR 62322 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year Licensing Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year... issuance of a license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013. The...

  20. 76 FR 51022 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Scoping Meeting and Site Visit and Soliciting Scoping Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Scoping Meeting and Site Visit and.... Applicant: Juneau Hydropower, Inc. d. Name of Project: Sweetheart Lake Hydroelectric Project. e. Location.... 791(a)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Duff Mitchell, Business Manager, Juneau Hydropower, Inc.,...

  1. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek... No.: 9690-109. c. Date Filed: June 19, 2012. d. Applicants: Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC; Eagle Creek... President-- Operations, Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  2. 77 FR 75628 - STS Hydropower, Ltd., Dan River, Inc., and City of Danville, VA; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission STS Hydropower, Ltd., Dan River, Inc., and City of Danville, VA; Notice of..., 2012, Jeoffrey L. Burtch, as Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Trustee for Dan River, Inc. and STS Hydropower, Ltd... the license for the Schoolfield Hydroelectric Project from Dan River, Inc. and STS Hydropower, Ltd....

  3. 75 FR 45106 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With...: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric...' Lock & Dam No. 21, and would consist of the following facilities: (1) A new hydropower...

  4. 77 FR 6552 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application.... b. Project No.: P-13954-001. c. Date Filed: December 7, 2011. d. Submitted By: Mahoning Hydropower.... Potential Applicant Contact: Anthony Marra, Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, 11365 Normandy Lane, Chagrin Falls,...

  5. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Hunt, Richard T.; Sale, Michael J.; Sommers, Garold L.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2003 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Testing of the Alden/NREC pilot scale runner, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Biological Design Criteria, Computer and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Wind/Hydro Integration Studies and Technical Support and Outreach); and (4) Engineering and Analysis (Innovative Technology Characterization).

  6. Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    This is a formal Department of Energy report to Congress. It outlines the findings of an assessment directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities.

  7. LCOE Uncertainty Analysis for Hydropower using Monte Carlo Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Patrick W; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Kao, Shih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) is an important metric to evaluate the cost and performance of electricity production generation alternatives, and combined with other measures, can be used to assess the economics of future hydropower development. Multiple assumptions on input parameters are required to calculate the LCOE, which each contain some level of uncertainty, in turn affecting the accuracy of LCOE results. This paper explores these uncertainties, their sources, and ultimately the level of variability they introduce at the screening level of project evaluation for non-powered dams (NPDs) across the U.S. Owing to site-specific differences in site design, the LCOE for hydropower varies significantly from project to project unlike technologies with more standardized configurations such as wind and gas. Therefore, to assess the impact of LCOE input uncertainty on the economics of U.S. hydropower resources, these uncertainties must be modeled across the population of potential opportunities. To demonstrate the impact of uncertainty, resource data from a recent nationwide non-powered dam (NPD) resource assessment (Hadjerioua et al., 2012) and screening-level predictive cost equations (O Connor et al., 2015) are used to quantify and evaluate uncertainties in project capital and operations & maintenance costs, and generation potential at broad scale. LCOE dependence on financial assumptions is also evaluated on a sensitivity basis to explore ownership/investment implications on project economics for the U.S. hydropower fleet. The results indicate that the LCOE for U.S. NPDs varies substantially. The LCOE estimates for the potential NPD projects of capacity greater than 1 MW range from 40 to 182 $/MWh, with average of 106 $/MWh. 4,000 MW could be developed through projects with individual LCOE values below 100 $/MWh. The results also indicate that typically 90 % of LCOE uncertainty can be attributed to uncertainties in capital costs and energy production; however

  8. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J.; Shih-Chieh, Kao; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Kaiser, Dale P.; Martinez, Rocio; Webb, Cindy; Wei, Yaxing

    2012-10-01

    As directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities. This Oak Ridge National Laboratory report, referred to as the “9505 Assessment,” describes the technical basis for the report to Congress that was called for in the SECURE Water Act.

  9. User's Guide Virtual Hydropower Prospector Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall; Sera E. White; Julie A. Brizzee; Randy D. Lee

    2005-11-01

    The Virtual Hydropower Prospector is a web-based geographic information system (GIS) application for displaying U.S. water energy resource sites on hydrologic region maps. The application assists the user in locating sites of interest and performing preliminary, development feasibility assessments. These assessments are facilitated by displaying contextual features in addition to the water energy resource sites such as hydrograpy, roads, power infrastructure, populated places, and land use and control. This guide provides instructions for operating the application to select what features are displayed and the extent of the map view. It also provides tools for selecting features of particular interest and displaying their attribute information.

  10. The role of glaciers for Swiss hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In Switzerland, hydropower represents over 50% of the total annual electricity production. Given the Alpine setting of the country, this hydropower production (HPP) strongly relies on the natural storage of discharge in form of ice and snow over months to decades. The sensitivity of glacier-fed HPP systems with respect to climate change depends on how the today's production and the infrastructure design relies on the seasonal streamflow delay expected from the natural storage effect of snow and ice. For low-head run-of-river HPP plants built on large lowland rivers, the ongoing glacier retreat (resulting in strong summer melt) currently sustains higher flows during summer months, an effect that will certainly be reduced once the glaciers will have reached a critical size. This effect will also modify the inflow to the large storage HPP plants that have been designed to shift large amounts of meltwater inflows from summer to winter. The management of these reservoirs will certainly have to be adapted to future inflow patterns. An interesting case are high-head run-of-river plants (with heads from 100 to 1100 m) that short-circuit a given river reach. Future regime shifts with less sustained summer flow and more concentrated spring melt flows might critically reduce the annual production due to intake overflow during spring and reduced flow during summer. In this work, we discuss the role of glaciers for these different HPP types in detail, including an overview of how glacier retreat might influence their production. This comprehensive study synthesizes up-to-date estimations of glacier mass change since the 1980s and its influence on high Alpine discharge regimes and state-of-the art simulations of potential future glacier discharge regimes. We also attempt an extrapolation to the country level based on a hydropower GIS database that has been developed for economic purposes. Ongoing Swiss research on sediment production and management might complete this picture

  11. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1996-1997 (with an updated annotated bibliography)

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L.; Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    This report, the latest in a series of biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1996 and 1997. The report discusses the activities in the six areas of the hydropower program: advanced hydropower turbine systems; environmental research; hydropower research and development; renewable Indian energy resources; resource assessment; and technology transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  12. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on downstream flow, stage, and sediment transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, S.C.L.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Williams, G.; McCoy, J.; Palmer, C.

    1996-11-01

    Hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in Utah, can produce rapid downstream changes in flow and stage. These changes can in turn affect sediment transport and ecologic resources below the dam. To evaluate these effects, four hydropower operational scenarios with varying degrees of hydropower-release fluctuations were examined. This study demonstrates that the combined use of river-flow routing, water-surface profile, and sediment-transport models can provide useful information for evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower-operations on ecological and other resources downstream of the dam. Study results show that flow fluctuations may or may not persist for a long distance, depending on the initial magnitude of fluctuation and the duration of hydropower peaking. Stage fluctuations depend not only on flow fluctuations but also on river channel characteristics, such as channel width and longitudinal slope.

  13. Spatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basins

    DOE PAGES

    Jager, Henriëtte I.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Opperman, Jeff J.; Kelly, Michael R.

    2015-02-27

    How can dams be arranged within a river basin such that they benefit society? Recent interest in this question has grown in response to the worldwide trend toward developing hydropower as a source of renewable energy in Asia and South America, and the movement toward removing unnecessary dams in the US. Environmental and energy sustainability are important practical concerns, and yet river development has rarely been planned with the goal of providing society with a portfolio of ecosystem services into the future. We organized a review and synthesis of the growing research in sustainable river basin design around four spatialmore » decisions: Is it better to build fewer mainstem dams or more tributary dams? Should dams be clustered or distributed among distant subbasins? Where should dams be placed along a river? At what spatial scale should decisions be made? We came up with the following design principles for increasing ecological sustainability: (i) concentrate dams within a subset of tributary watersheds and avoid downstream mainstems of rivers, (ii) disperse freshwater reserves among the remaining tributary catchments, (iii) ensure that habitat provided between dams will support reproduction and retain offspring, and (iv) formulate spatial decision problems at the scale of large river basins. Based on our review, we discuss trade-offs between hydropower and ecological objectives when planning river basin development. We hope that future testing and refinement of principles extracted from our review will define a path toward sustainable river basin design.« less

  14. Spatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basins

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Henriëtte I.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Opperman, Jeff J.; Kelly, Michael R.

    2015-02-27

    How can dams be arranged within a river basin such that they benefit society? Recent interest in this question has grown in response to the worldwide trend toward developing hydropower as a source of renewable energy in Asia and South America, and the movement toward removing unnecessary dams in the US. Environmental and energy sustainability are important practical concerns, and yet river development has rarely been planned with the goal of providing society with a portfolio of ecosystem services into the future. We organized a review and synthesis of the growing research in sustainable river basin design around four spatial decisions: Is it better to build fewer mainstem dams or more tributary dams? Should dams be clustered or distributed among distant subbasins? Where should dams be placed along a river? At what spatial scale should decisions be made? We came up with the following design principles for increasing ecological sustainability: (i) concentrate dams within a subset of tributary watersheds and avoid downstream mainstems of rivers, (ii) disperse freshwater reserves among the remaining tributary catchments, (iii) ensure that habitat provided between dams will support reproduction and retain offspring, and (iv) formulate spatial decision problems at the scale of large river basins. Based on our review, we discuss trade-offs between hydropower and ecological objectives when planning river basin development. We hope that future testing and refinement of principles extracted from our review will define a path toward sustainable river basin design.

  15. DOE/PSU Graduate Student Fellowship Program for Hydropower

    SciTech Connect

    Cimbala, John M.

    2014-03-30

    The primary objective of this project is to stimulate academic interest in the conventional hydropower field by supplying research support for at least eight individual Master of Science (MS) or Doctoral (PhD) level research projects, each consisting of a graduate student supervised by a faculty member. We have completed many of the individual student research projects: 2 PhD students have finished, and 4 are still working towards their PhD degree. 4 MS students have finished, and 2 are still working towards their MS degree, one of which is due to finish this April. In addition, 4 undergraduate student projects have been completed, and one is to be completed this April. These projects were supervised by 7 faculty members and an Advisory/Review Panel. Our students and faculty have presented their work at national or international conferences and have submitted several journal publications. Three of our graduate students (Keith Martin, Dan Leonard and Hosein Foroutan) have received HRF Fellowships during the course of this project. All of the remaining students are anticipated to be graduated by the end of Fall Semester 2014. All of the tasks for this project will have been completed once all the students have been graduated, although it will be another year or two until all the journal publications have been finalized based on the work performed as part of this DOE Hydropower project.

  16. The impact study of a dam in a hydropower project

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, G.J.; Wu, S.J.; Huang, C.Y.

    1995-12-31

    Due to the steepness in terrain and the non-uniform distribution of rainfall, the development of water resources is always an important issue in Taiwan. Large number of dams, reservoirs and mobile barrages have been implemented in rivers for water resources and hydropower development, which will require a similar tendency in the future aspect. These hydraulic structures make more or less environmental and ecological impacts to the regions, due to few concerns about environmental impact assessment prior to the construction of these structures. In order to mitigate or reduce the environmental impacts caused by these projects, quantitative assessment of the impacts and environmental protection facilities are essential. A case study, which is a dam built for the purpose of hydropower generation and water supply, is presented in this paper. The construction of this dam will cause the discontinuity of sediment transport in the corresponding river and will also form an obstruction to migratory fishes from migrating to upstream for spawning or breeding. A quantitative impact assessment of the sediment problem is performed by numerical flow simulations as well as hydraulic model test. A passing facility for fish migration is also provided in this dam for the purpose of mitigating environmental impact.

  17. Application procedures for hydropower licenses, exemptions, and preliminary permits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This document provides essential information regarding the FERC's regulations and procedures for filing an application with the Commission for hydropower licenses, exemptions and preliminary permits. Each section is page numbered with a roman numeral followed by consecutive arabic numbering. The appendices are page numbered with an alphabetical prefix and consecutve page numbering within each section. The first section of this book contains background descriptions of the Commission's authority and regulations and serves as an introduction to the Commission's hydropower licensing program. Two general tables follow this introductory text and provide a quick reference to the types of applications and the relationship between the Commission's orders and regulations. Following the introduction are sections which include the Commission's regulations by application type: preliminary permits; licenses; and exemptions. Each section contains an introduction describing application procedures by type of action requested. There are two appendices provided contain information on the consultation process and lists of agencies to be consulted and a section by section analyses of the Commission's orders.

  18. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this

  19. EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines: Technical Papers

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-12-01

    The EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines was a component of a larger project. The goal of the overall project was to conduct the final developmental engineering required to advance the commercialization of the Alden turbine. As part of this effort, the conference provided a venue to disseminate information on the status of the Alden turbine technology as well as the status of other advanced turbines and research on environmentally-friendly hydropower turbines. The conference was also a product of a federal Memorandum of Understanding among DOE, USBR, and USACE to share technical information on hydropower. The conference was held in Washington, DC on May 19 and 20, 2011 and welcomed over 100 attendees. The Conference Organizing Committee included the federal agencies with a vested interest in hydropower in the U.S. The Committee collaboratively assembled this conference, including topics from each facet of the environmentally-friendly conventional hydropower research community. The conference was successful in illustrating the readiness of environmentally-enhanced hydropower technologies. Furthermore, the topics presented illustrated the need for additional deployment and field testing of these technologies in an effort to promote the growth of environmentally sustainable hydropower in the U.S. and around the world.

  20. Portfolio optimisation for hydropower producers that balances riverine ecosystem protection and producer needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.; Liu, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, hydropower portfolio design has become an essential task for producers. The previous research on hydropower portfolio optimisation focused mainly on the maximisation of profits but did not take into account riverine ecosystem protection. Although profit maximisation is the major objective for producers in deregulated markets, protection of riverine ecosystems must be incorporated into the process of hydropower portfolio optimisation, especially against a background of increasing attention to environmental protection and stronger opposition to hydropower generation. This research seeks mainly to remind hydropower producers of the requirement of river protection when they design portfolios and help shift portfolio optimisation from economically oriented to ecologically friendly. We establish a framework to determine the optimal portfolio for a hydropower reservoir, accounting for both economic benefits and ecological needs. In this framework, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint on hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximisation of mean annual revenue is set as the optimisation objective. The electricity volumes assigned in different electricity sub-markets are optimised by the noisy genetic algorithm. The proposed framework is applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The results show that the new framework could help to design eco-friendly portfolios that can ensure a planned profit and reduce alteration of the natural flow regime.

  1. Portfolio optimisation for hydropower producers that balances riverine ecosystem protection and producer needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.; Liu, C. L.

    2014-04-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, hydropower portfolio design has become an essential task for producers. The previous research on hydropower portfolio optimisation focused mainly on the maximisation of profits but did not take into account riverine ecosystem protection. Although profit maximisation is the major objective for producers in deregulated markets, protection of riverine ecosystems must be incorporated into the process of hydropower portfolio optimisation, especially against a background of increasing attention to environmental protection and stronger opposition to hydropower generation. This research seeks mainly to remind hydropower producers of the requirement of river protection when they design portfolios and help shift portfolio optimisation from economically oriented to ecologically friendly. We establish a framework to determine the optimal portfolio for a hydropower reservoir, accounting for both economic benefits and ecological needs. In this framework, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint on hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximisation of mean annual revenue is set as the optimisation objective. The electricity volumes assigned in different electricity submarkets are optimised by the noisy genetic algorithm. The proposed framework is applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The results show that the new framework could help to design eco-friendly portfolios that can ensure a planned profit and reduce alteration of the natural flow regime.

  2. Identifying high energy density stream-reaches through refined geospatial resolution in hydropower resource assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yang, Majntxov; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Saetern, Sen; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Smith, Brennan T.

    2016-01-07

    Benefited from the rapid development of multiple geospatial data sets on topography, hydrology, and existing energy-water infrastructures, the reconnaissance level hydropower resource assessment can now be conducted using geospatial models in all regions of the US. Furthermore, the updated techniques can be used to estimate the total undeveloped hydropower potential across all regions, and may eventually help identify further hydropower opportunities that were previously overlooked. To enhance the characterization of higher energy density stream-reaches, this paper explored the sensitivity of geospatial resolution on the identification of hydropower stream-reaches using the geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) model. GMM-HRAmore » model simulation was conducted with eight different spatial resolutions on six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 8-digit hydrologic units (HUC8) located at three different terrains; Flat, Mild, and Steep. The results showed that more hydropower potential from higher energy density stream-reaches can be identified with increasing spatial resolution. Both Flat and Mild terrains exhibited lower impacts compared to the Steep terrain. Consequently, greater attention should be applied when selecting the discretization resolution for hydropower resource assessments in the future study.« less

  3. Influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on global hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Jia Yi; Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower contributes significantly to meeting the world's energy demand, accounting for at least 16% of total electrical output. Its role as a mature and cost competitive renewable energy source is expected to become increasingly important as the world transits to a low-carbon economy. A key component of hydropower production is runoff, which is highly dependent on precipitation and other climate variables. As such, it becomes critical to understand how the drivers of climate variability impact hydropower production. One globally-important driver is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). While it is known that ENSO influences hydrological processes, the potential value of its associated teleconnection in design related tasks has yet to be explored at the global scale. Our work seeks to characterize the impact of ENSO on global hydropower production so as to quantify the potential for increased production brought about by incorporating climate information within reservoir operating models. We study over 1,500 hydropower reservoirs - representing more than half the world's hydropower capacity. A historical monthly reservoir inflow time series is assigned to each reservoir from a 0.5 degree gridded global runoff dataset. Reservoir operating rules are designed using stochastic dynamic programming, and storage dynamics are simulated to assess performance under the climate conditions of the 20th century. Results show that hydropower reservoirs in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, and Eastern China are strongly influenced by ENSO episodes. Statistically significant lag correlations between ENSO indicators and hydropower production demonstrate predictive skill with lead times up to several months. Our work highlights the potential for using these indicators to increase the contribution of existing hydropower plants to global energy supplies.

  4. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1992--1993 (with an updated annotated bibliography)

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.; Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental research; resource assessment; research coat shared with industry; and technology transfer. The report also offers an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by persons in Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  5. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1990--1991 (with updated annotated bibliography)

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, J.R.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. ); Sale, M.J. )

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydropower Program for fiscal years 1990 and 1991, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Hydropower Program is organized as follows: background (including Technology Development and Engineering Research and Development); Resource Assessment; National Energy Strategy; Technology Transfer; Environmental Research; and, the bibliography discusses reports written by both private and non-Federal Government sectors. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L.; Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  7. Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Havsapian, R.; Koritarov, V.

    2015-04-06

    Hydropower is the largest producer of renewable energy in the U.S. More than 60% of the total renewable generation comes from hydropower. There is also approximately 22 GW of pumped storage hydropower (PSH). Conventional PSH uses a synchronous generator, and thus the rotational speed is constant at synchronous speed. This work details a hydrodynamic model and generator/power converter dynamic model. The optimization of the hydrodynamic model is executed by the hydro-turbine controller, and the electrical output real/reactive power is controlled by the power converter. All essential controllers to perform grid-interface functions and provide ancillary services are included in the model.

  8. Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the operations of hydropower systems, with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can effectively increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined in detail to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results were used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept was outlined.

  9. Stage 2 hydropower study: Cagles Mill Lake, Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The principle planning objective was the development of a renewable resource energy production facility for Cagles Mill Lake and the surrounding study area to be of benefit for a 100-year period of analysis. All plans studied are economically infeasible due primarily to the cost of the conveyance system needed to deliver the water to the powerhouse. The maximum capability of a house power unit in the center gate opening of the control tower is almost 250 KW. It is recommended that the study of the feasibility of small scale hydropower at Cagles Mill Lake, Indiana be terminated. It is recommended that a small station power unit, having an installed capacity of about 250 KW, be designed and installed in the existing tower at the earliest possible date to provide power for project facilities.

  10. Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

  11. Project SHARE Sustainable Hydropower in Alpine Rivers Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammoliti Mochet, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    SHARE - Sustainable Hydropower in Alpine Rivers Ecosystems is a running project early approved and co funded by the European regional development fund in the context of the European Territorial Cooperation Alpine Space programme 2007 - 2013: the project is formally ongoing from August 2009 and it will end July 2012. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for electricity production in alpine areas: it has advantages for the global CO2 balance but creates serious environmental impacts. RES-e Directives require renewable electricity enhance but, at the same time, the Water Framework Directive obliges member States to reach or maintain a water bodies "good" ecological status, intrinsically limiting the hydropower exploitation. Administrators daily face an increasing demand of water abstraction but lack reliable tools to rigorously evaluate their effects on mountain rivers and the social and economical outputs on longer time scale. The project intends to develop, test and promote a decision support system to merge on an unprejudiced base, river ecosystems and hydropower requirements. This approach will be led using existing scientific tools, adjustable to transnational, national and local normative and carried on by permanent panel of administrators and stakeholders. Scientific knowledge related to HP & river management will be "translated" by the communication tools and spent as a concrete added value to build a decision support system. In particular, the Multicriteria Analysis (MCA) will be applied to assess different management alternatives where a single-criterion approach (such as cost-benefit analysis) falls short, especially where environmental, technical, economic and social criteria can't be quantified by monetary values. All the existing monitoring databases will be used and harmonized with new information collected during the Pilot case studies. At the same time, all information collected will be available to end users and actors of related

  12. Outlook for hydropower in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. )

    1993-02-01

    In the last two decades, the Latin America/Carribean region has become increasingly dependent on electricity to meet growing demands for energy. Hydropower is the prevailing source for meeting this need. Hydroelectric generation increased at an annual average rate of nearly 9% between 1971 and 1989. HYdro now provides more than two-thirds of total electric power generated in Latin America and the Caribbean. The only other predominant source used for electric generation is fossil fuels. In this region there are several trends developing. They include: developing more small hydro facilities, opportunities for sharing water resources, an interest in changing the approach to water use regulation, and possibilities for more participation by the private sector. Overall, hydro appears to have a favorable competitive position in the power industry in the Latin America/Caribbean region.

  13. Classification of US hydropower dams by their modes of operation

    DOE PAGES

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Oigbokie, II, Clement O.; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S.

    2016-02-19

    A key challenge to understanding ecohydrologic responses to dam regulation is the absence of a universally transferable classification framework for how dams operate. In the present paper, we develop a classification system to organize the modes of operation (MOPs) for U.S. hydropower dams and powerplants. To determine the full diversity of MOPs, we mined federal documents, open-access data repositories, and internet sources. W then used CART classification trees to predict MOPs based on physical characteristics, regulation, and project generation. Finally, we evaluated how much variation MOPs explained in sub-daily discharge patterns for stream gages downstream of hydropower dams. After reviewingmore » information for 721 dams and 597 power plants, we developed a 2-tier hierarchical classification based on 1) the storage and control of flows to powerplants, and 2) the presence of a diversion around the natural stream bed. This resulted in nine tier-1 MOPs representing a continuum of operations from strictly peaking, to reregulating, to run-of-river, and two tier-2 MOPs, representing diversion and integral dam-powerhouse configurations. Although MOPs differed in physical characteristics and energy production, classification trees had low accuracies (<62%), which suggested accurate evaluations of MOPs may require individual attention. MOPs and dam storage explained 20% of the variation in downstream subdaily flow characteristics and showed consistent alterations in subdaily flow patterns from reference streams. Lastly, this standardized classification scheme is important for future research including estimating reservoir operations for large-scale hydrologic models and evaluating project economics, environmental impacts, and mitigation.« less

  14. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  15. Improving the global efficiency in small hydropower practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razurel, P.; Gorla, L.; Crouzy, B.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    The global increase in energy production from renewable sources has seen river exploitation for small hydropower plants to also grow considerably in the last decade. River intakes used to divert water from the main course to the power plant are at the base of such practice. A key issue concern with finding innovative concepts to both design and manage such structures in order to improve classic operational rules. Among these, the Minimal Flow Release (MFR) concept has long been used in spite of its environmental inconsistency.In this work, we show that the economical and ecological efficiency of diverting water for energy production in small hydropower plants can be improved towards sustainability by engineering a novel class of flow-redistribution policies. We use the mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to define non-proportional dynamic flow-redistribution rules, which broadens the spectrum of dynamic flow releases based on proportional redistribution. The theoretical background as well as the economic interpretation is presented and applied to three case studies in order to systematically test the global performance of such policies. Out of numerical simulations, a Pareto frontier emerges in the economic vs environmental efficiency plot, which show that non-proportional distribution policies improve both efficiencies with respect to those obtained from some traditional MFR and proportional policies. This picture is shown also for long term climatic scenarios affecting water availability and the natural flow regime.In a time of intense and increasing exploitation close to resource saturation, preserving natural river reaches requires to abandon inappropriate static release policies in favor of non-proportional ones towards a sustainable use of the water resource.

  16. 75 FR 65620 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Hydropower Project. f. Location: The project would be located at the existing Inglis bypass channel and... project would consist of: (1) A 45-foot-long, 100-foot-wide intake conveying water from the bypass...

  17. Data-Based Performance Assessments for the DOE Hydropower Advancement Project

    SciTech Connect

    March, Patrick; Wolff, Dr. Paul; Smith, Brennan T; Zhang, Qin Fen; Dham, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy s Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated to characterize and trend hydropower asset conditions across the U.S.A. s existing hydropower fleet and to identify and evaluate the upgrading opportunities. Although HAP includes both detailed performance assessments and condition assessments of existing hydropower plants, this paper focuses on the performance assessments. Plant performance assessments provide a set of statistics and indices that characterize the historical extent to which each plant has converted the potential energy at a site into electrical energy for the power system. The performance metrics enable benchmarking and trending of performance across many projects in a variety contexts (e.g., river systems, power systems, and water availability). During FY2011 and FY2012, assessments will be performed on ten plants, with an additional fifty plants scheduled for FY2013. This paper focuses on the performance assessments completed to date, details the performance assessment process, and describes results from the performance assessments.

  18. 76 FR 1613 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications January 4,...

  19. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on U.S. Hydropower Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues ...

  20. 76 FR 11446 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, LP; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, LP; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing..., Recommendations, Terms and Conditions, and Fishway Prescriptions Take notice that the following...

  1. SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peviani, Maximo; Alterach, Julio; Danelli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but creates ecological impacts on a local scale. If on one hand, hydroelectric production has to be maintained and likely increased following the demand trend and RES-e Directive, on the other hand, hydropower utilisation often involves severe hydrological changes, damages the connectivity of water bodies and injures river ecosystems. The project gives a strong contribution to the integration between the Water Frame and the RES-e Directives in the involved countries. The SEE HYDROPOWER project promotes the optimal use of water, as multiple natural resources, in order to face the increasing regional electrical-energy demand. Furthermore, SEE HYDROPOWER defines specific needs and test methodologies & tools, in order to help public bodies to take decisions about planning and management of water and hydropower concessions, considering all multi-purposes uses, taking into account the environmental sustainability of natural resources and flooding risks. Investigations is carried on to define common strategies & methods for preserving river with particular concerns to aquatic ecosystems, considering the required Minimum Environmental Flow, macro-habitat quality, migratory fishes and related environmental issues. Other problem addressed by the Project is the contrast between Public Administration and Environmental associations on one side and the Hydropower producers on the other side, for the exploitation of water bodies. Competition between water users (for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, power generation, etc.) is becoming a serious

  2. Climate change effects on high-elevation hydropower system in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani Larijani, Kaveh

    The high-elevation hydropower system in California, composed of more than 150 hydropower plants and regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), supplies 74 percent of in-state hydropower. The system has modest reservoir capacities and has been designed to take advantage of snowpack. The expected shift of runoff peak from spring to winter as a result of climate warming, resulting in snowpack reduction and earlier snowmelt, might have important effects on hydropower operations. Estimation of climate warming effects on such a large system by conventional simulation or optimization methods would be tedious and expensive. This dissertation presents a novel approach for modeling large hydropower systems. Conservation of energy and energy flows are used as the basis for modeling high-elevation high-head hydropower systems in California. The unusual energy basis for reservoir modeling allows for development of hydropower operations models to estimate large-scale system behavior without the expense and time needed to develop traditional streamflow and reservoir volume-based models in absence of storage and release capacity, penstock head, and efficiency information. An Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) is developed to facilitate a practical climate change study based on the historical generation data high-elevation hydropower plants in California. Employing recent historical hourly energy prices, energy generation in California is explored for three climate warming scenarios (dry warming, wet warming, and warming-only) over 14 years, representing a range of hydrologic conditions. Currently, the high-elevation hydropower plants in California have to renew their FERC licenses. A method based on cooperative game theory is developed to explore FERC relicensing process, in which dam owners negotiate over the available instream water with other interest groups downstream. It is discussed how the lack of incentive for cooperation results in long

  3. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliver, John S.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  4. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  5. A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole M; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine L

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  6. A new fuzzy self-tuning PD load frequency controller for micro-hydropower system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach for controlling the secondary load bank of a micro-hydropower system using a fuzzy self-tuning proportional-derivative (PD) controller. This technology is designed in order to optimize the micro-hydropower system in a resort island located in the South China Sea. Thus, this technology will be able to mitigate the diesel fuel consumption and cost of electricity supply on the island. The optimal hydropower generation for this system depends on the available stream flow at the potential sites. At low stream flow, both the micro-hydropower system and the currently installed diesel generators are required to feed the load. However, when the hydropower generation exceeds the load demand, the diesel generator is shut down. Meanwhile, the system frequency is controlled by a secondary load bank that absorbs the hydropower which exceeds the consumer demand. The fuzzy rules were designed to automatically tune the PD gains under dynamic frequency variations. Performances of the fuzzy self-tuning PD controller were compared with the conventional PD controller. The result of the controller implementation shows the viability of the proposed new controller in achieving a higher performance and more robust load frequency control than the conventional PD controller.

  7. Disappearing rivers — The limits of environmental assessment for hydropower in India

    SciTech Connect

    Erlewein, Alexander

    2013-11-15

    The mountain rivers of the Indian Himalaya possess a vast potential for hydropower generation. After decades of comparatively modest development recent years have seen a major intensification in the construction of new hydropower dams. Although increasingly portrayed as a form of renewable energy generation, hydropower development may lead to extensive alterations of fluvial systems and conflicts with resource use patterns of local communities. To appraise and reduce adverse effects is the purpose of statutory Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and corresponding mitigation plans. However, in the light of ambitious policies for hydropower expansion conventional approaches of environmental assessment are increasingly challenged to keep up with the intensity and pace of development. This paper aims to explore the systemic limitations of environmental assessment for hydropower development in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Based on a qualitative methodology involving interviews with environmental experts, document reviews and field observations the study suggests that the current practice of constraining EIAs to the project level fails to address the larger effects of extensive hydropower development. Furthermore, it is critically discussed as to what extent the concept of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) might have the potential to overcome existing shortcomings.

  8. An improved method for evaluating ecological suitability of hydropower development by considering water footprint and transportation connectivity in Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guannan; Wang, Xuan; Xu, Linyu; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Ecological suitability evaluation for hydropower development is effective in locating the most suitable area for construction and emphasizes a clear direction for water resources governance. In this paper, water footprints and transportation connectivity were introduced to improve the existing ecological suitability evaluation application for hydropower development by revising the defects of the traditional indicator system. The following conclusions were reached. (1) Tibet was in a state of water use surplus; the prospect of further hydropower development is positive. (2) Chamdo, Lhasa and Nyingchi excelled in water use efficiency, and Ali was placed last. Nakchu was slightly superior to Ali, but it lagged behind the southern regions. Lhasa, Chamdo, Nyingchi, Xigaze and Shannan were suitable for hydropower development, which could further meet local needs and benefit other regions of China. (3) The evaluation results were in accordance with the actual eco-environmental conditions of the built hydropower projects, indicating that current hydropower development planning was basically reasonable.

  9. Temporospatial Patterns of Manganese Concentrations in a Hydropower Dam Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, Z.; Schreiber, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of manganese (Mn) downstream of a hydropower dam are strongly influenced by seasonal reservoir dynamics. During warm months reservoirs experience stratification that results in the depletion of dissolved oxygen at depth and the concurrent release of dissolved Mn from the sediment into the water column. After being released from the dam these Mn rich waters are mixed with oxygenated river water and the Mn may become oxidized and removed from the water column over time. Previous studies have largely focused on patterns of Mn distribution within the first 20 km or less downstream of a dam. However, water quality issues at our field site extend much further downstream. The primary goal of our work was to investigate how seasonal dynamics in the reservoir couple with heterogeneity at the watershed scale to drive temporal and spatial patterns across large distances. Mn concentrations were monitored downstream of a hydropower dam in southwest Virginia over a two year period that covered the Roanoke River between Leesville Dam and a water treatment plant 150 km downstream. Data that we have collected over the past two years show that Mn concentrations are highest near the dam during reservoir stratification in late summer and fall and decrease with distance downstream. A mass balance of the first 19 km downstream from the dam suggests loss of Mn via sedimentation and filtering of particulates. Mn concentrations appear to reach a consistent minimum at 50 km downstream. However, after the 50 km inflection, Mn concentrations increase with distance downstream. Along the downstream reach (>50 km), Mn concentrations in the river also exhibit a better correlation with stream discharge and the suspended particle load. Tributaries to this reach are also characterized by higher concentrations of Mn than observed in the first 50 km which appear to be driving these increases in concentration. These results provide new insights into the temporospatial patterns of Mn

  10. The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

    2010-05-01

    River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial

  11. Regional assessment of the hydropower potential of rivers in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, Harald; Stanzel, Philipp; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) face a constant shortage of energy supply, which limits sustained economic growth. Currently there are about 50 operational hydropower plants and about 40 more are under construction or refurbishment. The potential for future hydropower development - especially for small-scale plants in rural areas - is assumed to be large, but exact data are missing. This study supports the energy initiatives of the "ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency" (ECREEE) by assessing the hydropower potential of all rivers in West Africa. For more than 500,000 river reaches the hydropower potential was computed from channel slope and mean annual discharge. In large areas there is a lack of discharge observations. Therefore, an annual water balance model was used to simulate discharge. The model domain covers 5 Mio km², including e.g. the Niger, Volta, and Senegal River basins. The model was calibrated with observed data of 410 gauges, using precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data as inputs. Historic variations of observed annual discharge between 1950 and 2010 are simulated well by the model. As hydropower plants are investments with a lifetime of several decades we also assessed possible changes in future discharge due to climate change. To this end the water balance model was driven with bias-corrected climate projections of 15 Regional Climate Models for two emission scenarios of the CORDEX-Africa ensemble. The simulation results for the river network were up-scaled to sub-areas and national summaries. This information gives a regional quantification of the hydropower potential, expected climate change impacts, as well as a regional classification for general suitability (or non-suitability) of hydropower plant size - from small-scale to large projects.

  12. Scenario Analysis on Global Hydropower Development Paths and Their Contribution to GHG Mitigation Utilizing a Dynamic CGE Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Z.; Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, hydropower accounts for 16% of the worldwide electricity power supply and 86% of the total renewable electricity energy source due to its low cost, low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and relatively high reliability. It is well known that the global hydropower has not yet been fully developed, but the future paths of development and corresponding contribution to GHG mitigation in each region combined with socioeconomic activities are less known. Here we investigated following three questions. How much will hydropower generation increase in the future? Will hydropower generation reach the economically exploitable capability (EEC)? If this will be the case, when and where will it occur? How much GHG emission will be reduced by adding new hydropower? In order to address these questions, we used the AIM/CGE model, a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to quantify the global hydropower development paths and corresponding GHG mitigation contribution for 17 regions in the world associated with a socio-economic scenario termed SSP2. We compared two scenarios with different assumptions on EEC. One is BAU which takes EEC from the report of "World Energy Resources", the other is FIX_BAU which fix EEC at the current hydropower generation amount throughout the research period (2005-2100) or no additional installation of hydropower plants. The comparison between two scenarios indicated that promoting hydropower development contributed to GHG emission reduction globally but the magnitude varied by region. For example we found that in North Africa, hydropower development grew fast because of the rapid economic development, but it reached EEC as soon as in 2040 because of limitation in EEC due to its climatic and geographical conditions. Conversely, in Brazil, it grew steadily and did not reach its abundant EEC. Consequently, GHG mitigation contribution of North Africa is far less than Brazil. This research provides important information for policy makers to

  13. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Key, T.; Rogers, L.; Brooks, D.; Tuohy, A.

    2012-12-31

    The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms

  14. Value of ecosystem hydropower service and its impact on the payment for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Fu, B; Wang, Y K; Xu, P; Yan, K; Li, M

    2014-02-15

    Hydropower is an important service provided by ecosystems. We surveyed all the hydropower plants in the Zagunao River Basin, Southwest China. Then, we assessed the hydropower service by using the InVEST (The Integrated Value and Tradeoff of Ecosystem Service Tools) model. Finally, we discussed the impact on ecological compensation. The results showed that: 1) hydropower service value of ecosystems in the Zagunao River Basin is 216.29 Euro/hm(2) on the average, of which the high-value area with more than 475.65 Euro/hm(2) is about 750.37 km(2), accounting for 16.12% of the whole watershed, but it provides 53.47% of the whole watershed service value; 2) ecosystem is an ecological reservoir with a great regulation capacity. Dams cannot completely replace the reservoir water conservation function of ecosystems, and has high economic and environmental costs that must be paid as well. Compensation for water conservation services should become an important basis for ecological compensation of hydropower development. 3) In the current PES cases, the standard of compensation is generally low. Cascade development makes the value of upstream ecosystem services become more prominent, reflecting the differential rent value, and the value of ecosystem services should be based on the distribution of differentiated ecological compensation.

  15. A synthesis of environmental and recreational mitigation requirements at hydropower projects in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Schramm, Michael P.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Chris R.

    2016-04-11

    Environmental mitigation plays an important role in the environmentally sustainable development of hydropower resources. However, comprehensive data on mitigation required by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) at United States (US) hydropower projects is lacking. Therefore, our objective was to create a comprehensive database of mitigation required at non-federal hydropower projects and provide a synthesis of available mitigation data. Mitigation data was collated for over 300 plants licensed or relicensed from 1998 through 2013. We observed that the majority of FERC mitigation requirements deal with either hydrologic flows or recreation and that hydropower plants in the Pacific Northwest had themore » highest number of requirements. Our data indicate opportunities exist to further explore hydropower mitigation in the areas of environmental flows, fish passage, and water quality. Lastly, connecting these data with ecological outcomes, actual flow data, and larger landscape level information will be necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation and ultimately inform regulators, managers, and planners.« less

  16. Estimating the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower and Power Marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Wei, Yaxing

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently preparing an assessment of the effects of climate change on federal hydropower, as directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the Secure Water Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-11). This paper describes the assessment approach being used in a Report to Congress currently being prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The 9505 assessment will examine climate change effects on water available for hydropower operations and the future power supplies marketed from federal hydropower projects. It will also include recommendations from the Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) on potential changes in operation or contracting practices that could address these effects and risks of climate change. Potential adaption and mitigation strategies will also be identified. Federal hydropower comprises approximately half of the U.S. hydropower portfolio. The results from the 9505 assessment will promote better understanding among federal dam owners/operators of the sensitivity of their facilities to water availability, and it will provide a basis for planning future actions that will enable adaptation to climate variability and change. The end-users of information are Congressional members, their staff, the PMAs and their customers, federal dam owners/operators, and the DOE Water Power Program.

  17. 76 FR 66710 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. (dba Brookfield Renewable Power). e. Name of Projects: Oswego...

  18. 75 FR 51451 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Intent To File License..., 2010. d. Submitted By: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. e. Name of Project: Chasm Hydroelectric...

  19. Application of operations research in automatic generation control of hydropower plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Wu, Y.; Zhou, C. )

    1989-09-01

    Automatic generation control (AGC) of hydropower plants includes determination of the optimal number of operating units and which units ought to operate, economic dispatching of load among generators and load-frequency control (LFC). AGC must satisfy not only the economic requirements but also the safety requirements. The latter is very important for real-time control. Direct use of dynamic programming suffers from serious disadvantages, such as difficulty in considering the safety requirements, long time of calculation, large required computer memory, etc. This paper presents a new approach to solve the problem stage by stage, using in each stage different method of operations research (OR) : dynamic programming, 0-1 integer programming, principle of equal incremental. The new algorithm has been used in several hydropower plants, and good results have been achieved. This paper briefly describes the realization of AGC in the Left Powerhouse of Gezhouba Hydropower Plant. This algorithm is suitable for real-time AGC.

  20. State control over the destiny of hydropower development: PUD No. 1 v. Washington Department of Ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    The debate over hydropower development exemplifies an apparent environmental unrest as proponents of hydroelectric power generation battle advancing arguments about the omnipresent potential such development has on watershed hydraulics and the environment. However, most would agree that the debate over hydropower development revolves around jurisdictional distribution and the authority to regulate development. For all practical purposes, hydroelectric licensing has been the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC`s or Commission`s) exclusive domain. The prevailing assumption after the Supreme Court`s interpretation of the Federal Power Act (FPA) in First Iowa Hydro-Electric Cooperative v. FPC was that the Federal Power Commission (FPC), now FERC, possessed ultimate authority over the regulation of hydropower development. This presumption was reaffirmed in California v. FERC (Rock Creek), decided almost forty years later.

  1. A methodology to quantify and optimize time complementarity between hydropower and solar PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougias, Ioannis; Szabó, Sándor; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Huld, Thomas; Bódis, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower and solar energy are expected to play a major role in achieving renewable energy sources' (RES) penetration targets. However, the integration of RES in the energy mix needs to overcome the technical challenges that are related to grid's operation. Therefore, there is an increasing need to explore approaches where different RES will operate under a synergetic approach. Ideally, hydropower and solar PV systems can be jointly developed in such systems where their electricity output profiles complement each other as much as possible and minimize the need for reserve capacities and storage costs. A straightforward way to achieve that is by optimizing the complementarity among RES systems both over time and spatially. The present research developed a methodology that quantifies the degree of time complementarity between small-scale hydropower stations and solar PV systems and examines ways to increase it. The methodology analyses high-resolution spatial and temporal data for solar radiation obtained from the existing PVGIS model (available online at: http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/) and associates it with hydrological information of water inflows to a hydropower station. It builds on an exhaustive optimization algorithm that tests possible alterations of the PV system installation (azimuth, tilt) aiming to increase the complementarity, with minor compromises in the total solar energy output. The methodology has been tested in several case studies and the results indicated variations among regions and different hydraulic regimes. In some cases a small compromise in the solar energy output showed significant increases of the complementarity, while in other cases the effect is not that strong. Our contribution aims to present these findings in detail and initiate a discussion on the role and gains of increased complementarity between solar and hydropower energies. Reference: Kougias I, Szabó S, Monforti-Ferrario F, Huld T, Bódis K (2016). A methodology for

  2. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  3. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2014-11-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  4. Alpine hydropower in a low carbon economy: Assessing the local implication of global policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the global transition towards a more efficient and low-carbon economy, renewable energy plays a major role in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In Europe, Variable Renewable Sources (VRS), such as wind and solar power sources, are becoming a relevant share of the generation portfolios in many countries. Beside the indisputable social and environmental advantages of VRS, on the short medium term the VRS-induced lowering energy prices and increasing price's volatility might challenge traditional power sources and, among them, hydropower production, because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. In this study, we focus on the Swiss hydropower sector analysing how different low-carbon targets and strategies established at the Swiss and European level might affect energy price formation and thus impact - through hydropower operation - water availability and ecosystems services at the catchment scale. We combine a hydrological model to simulate future water availability and an electricity market model to simulate future evolution of energy prices based on official Swiss and European energy roadmaps and CO2 price trends in the European Union. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design alternative hydropower reservoir operation strategies, aiming to maximise the hydropower companies' income or to provide reliable energy supply with respect to the energy demand. This integrated model allows analysing to which extent global low-carbon policies impact reservoir operation at the local scale, and to gain insight on how to prioritise compensation measures and/or adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of VRS on hydropower companies in increasingly water constrained settings. Numerical results are shown for a real-world case study in the Swiss Alps.

  5. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Witt, Adam M.; Stewart, Kevin M.; Bonnet Acosta, Marisol; Mobley, Miles

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley

  6. Operation of hydropower generation systems in the Alps under future climate and socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are an important source of renewable energy for many countries in Europe. In Switzerland, for instance, they represent the most important domestic source of renewable energy (around 55%). However, future hydropower production may be threatened by unprecedented challenges, such as a decreasing water availability, due to climate change (CC) and associated glacier retreat, and uncertain operating conditions, such as future power needs and highly fluctuating demand on the energy market. This second aspect has gained increasingly relevance since the massive introduction of solar and wind generating systems in the portfolios of many European countries. Because hydropower systems have the potential to provide backup storage of energy to compensate for fluctuations that are typical, for instance, of solar and wind generation systems, it is important to investigate how the increased demand for flexible operation, together with climate change challenge and fluctuating markets, can impact their operating policies. The Swiss Competence Center on Supply of Electricity (www.sccer-soe.ch) has been recently established to explore new potential paths for the development of future power generation systems. In this context, we develop modelling and optimization tools to design and assess new operation strategies for hydropower systems to increase their reliability, flexibility, and robustness to future operation conditions. In particular, we develop an advanced modelling framework for the integrated simulation of the operation of hydropower plants, which accounts for CC-altered streamflow regimes, new demand and market conditions, as well as new boundary conditions for operation (e.g., aquatic ecosystem conservation). The model construction consists of two primary components: a physically based and spatially distributed hydrological model, which describes the relevant hydrological processes at the basin scale, and an agent based decision model, which

  7. Evaluating run of the river hydropower feasibility and efficiency under climate change for UK study sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten-Zapata, Ernesto; Moggridge, Helen; Jones, Julie

    2015-04-01

    As renewable energy generation has been encouraged by the UK Government, hydropower importance has also been highlighted. Moreover, the UK Environment Agency has mapped feasible run of the river (ROR) hydropower sites within England and Wales and small hydropower schemes have been provided with economic grants by the Government to support their initial operation. However, ROR hydropower schemes depend on the available river flow volumes and are therefore vulnerable to variations in river regimes. Therefore, an analysis of the impacts of climate change towards existing and feasible run of the river schemes is important and required. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on river regimes and its implications to installed and feasible ROR hydropower operations by analyzing four study sites distributed across the UK. Study sites present different characteristics accounting for diverse properties of hydropower schemes including: catchment characteristics (topography, land use, climate, etc.), turbine type, turbine efficiency and head. Both feasible and currently operating schemes will be included in the analysis. Operating sites will be analysed according to their installed turbine type, hands off flow and maximum generation. On the other hand, feasible sites will be analysed considering different possible turbine types and changes in river flow that could affect the hands off flow and maximum generation thresholds. Future climate is simulated based on the temperature and precipitation outputs from Global Climate Models. Due to their relatively coarse resolution, output from these models will be downscaled, bias corrected and coupled to previously calibrated and validated hydrological models for each of the study catchments (linked to poster in session CL5.5/CR3.7/HS4.8/SSS12.14). By coupling model simulations of future climate change and hydrological models, future river flow volumes will be estimated and used as inputs for

  8. Hydropower: A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.

    1992-12-01

    The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

  9. Hydropower : A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.

    1992-12-01

    The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

  10. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 1: Issues, Impacts, and Economics of Wind and Hydropower Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  11. Examination of methane ebullition in a Swiss hydropower reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelSontro, T.; Ostrovsky, I.; Eugster, W.; McGinnis, D. F.; Wehrli, B.

    2012-04-01

    Ebullition is one of the most important methane emission pathways from inland water bodies, yet the stochastic nature of ebullition complicates its monitoring. Therefore, a bubble-calibrated 120 kHz split-beam echosounder (Simrad EK60, Kongsberg Maritime) was utilized to survey the active ebullition area of a small temperate hydropower reservoir (Lake Wohlen, Switzerland), which is known for intense methane bubble release in summer. The performed bubble size calibration agreed well with the literature and the presented hydroacoustic technique to estimate methane bubble flux in the presence of non-bubble targets was determined to be the most appropriate post-processing method for this reservoir. The acoustically-determined average methane ebullition flux from the sediment to the water column from seven campaigns was 580 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (range, 130 to 1450). Bubble size distribution, which mostly included 1 to 20 mm diameter bubbles, was strongly related to the magnitude of sediment ebullition flux. The bubble size distribution is an important consideration when calculating the resulting surface efflux using a bubble dissolution model. Using the Sauter mean diameter to represent the volume to surface area to volume ratio of the bubble size distribution in the bubble model resulted in an average atmospheric emission of 490 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. The spatially-averaged data and the standard deviation from seven sampling campaigns revealed areas of 'high' and 'low' ebullition fluxes that seemed to correlate to geomorphology of the reservoir, which still contains the former river channel. The hydroacoustic flux estimates were compared with other methods of methane flux assessments used simultaneously: the traditional chamber method and the eddy covariance technique combined with spectrometer methane measurements (Fast Methane Analyzer, Los Gatos Research). Chamber measurements on all but one day were higher than the hydroacoustic survey results (but within the same order of

  12. 78 FR 63176 - Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The 22 kW Orchard City Water Treatment Plant Hydroelectric Project would utilize Orchard City's water intake pipeline that delivers water to its water treatment plant, and it would be located in Delta County, Colorado. Applicant Contact: Mike Morgan,...

  13. 75 FR 81643 - Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities-Draft Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 67993). The public review period was originally to end on December 6, 2010. DATES: Submit... Bureau of Reclamation Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities--Draft Report AGENCIES: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Reopening of comment period for review of the...

  14. Development of an ergonomics device for maintenance of hydraulic generators of Tucuruí hydropower plant.

    PubMed

    Batista, I C; Gomes, G J C; Teles, C S; Oliveira, P F; Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B; V, B; Pardauil, A A

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present an ergonomic device to assist in the maintenance of the units of Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The development of this ergonomic device made possible to reduce maintenance time, reduce losses caused by billing, improve performance and reduce the physical strain for labors during the execution of services.

  15. 76 FR 46287 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy...

  16. 76 FR 65717 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Commission's (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of...

  17. 78 FR 61999 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop As announced in the Notices issued on September 3, 2013 and September 18, 2013, the Federal...

  18. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    PubMed

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  19. 76 FR 40719 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Commission (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Availability of...

  20. Surface Flow Outlets to Protect Juvenile Salmonids Passing through Hydropower Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2006-10-27

    We reviewed results of research conducted by engineers and biologists over the past 50 years related to development of surface flow outlets (SFOs) for juvenile salmonids that migrate downstream past hydropower dams. An SFO is a non-turbine, water-efficient passage route with an overflow structure through which flow and fish pass over a dam. Our review covered 69 SFOs in Europe and North America. We identified five main types of SFOs ? low-flow bypass/sluices, high-flow sluices, forebay collectors, powerhouse retrofits, and surface spills. Most low-flow bypass/sluices are sited in Europe and on the east coast of North America, where mean annual project discharge and hydropower production for the dams we reviewed were 95 m3/s and 15 MW, respectively. The other four SFO types are found at dams on the west coast of North America with 2184 m3/s mean annual discharge and 788 MW mean output. A conceptual framework based on fish behavior and hydraulics for different regions of a hydropower project was developed to evaluate SFO performance. For all SFO types, fish collection efficiency averaged 54%, with an average effectiveness ratio of 17:1 (fish to inflow). Surface flow outlet technology can meet the goal of concurrent anadromous fish protection and hydropower generation.

  1. 18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. 141.14 Section 141.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... existing and potential recreational use at developments within projects under major and minor license,...

  2. 18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. 141.14 Section 141.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... existing and potential recreational use at developments within projects under major and minor license,...

  3. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES...

  4. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES...

  5. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES...

  6. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    PubMed

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests. PMID:23671098

  7. 76 FR 12103 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting Comments Take notice that the following Settlement Agreement has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection....

  8. New energy geographics: Powershed politics and hydropower decision making in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Darrin L.

    This study analyzes decision making related to large-scale hydropower in China's Yunnan Province. The study has five aims: to contribute empirical knowledge about hydropower development on the Lancang (upper Mekong) and Nu (upper Salween) Rivers; to explain the institutional, legal, and political economic factors affecting decisions about large-scale hydropower; to use the peculiarities of water to complicate models of center-local and interprovincial relations; to underscore the importance of geographic constructs in framing and legitimizing certain development patterns; and to contribute to debates on China's "civil society." After reviewing literature in political ecology, China geography and area studies, and scale theory, I develop an analytical framework called a powershed. Like a watershed, a powershed reflects a space over which a resource is collected. It also has political meaning: first, as a way of understanding how policies and investments are deployed to facilitate electric power transfers from Yunnan to Guangdong; and second, as a means for signaling the importance of geographic constructs in legitimizing certain discourses, actions, actors, and policies while de-legitimizing others. Most importantly, it provides a dynamic, context-specific analytical framework that enables us to trace the processes of hydropower development. Next, I provide details of Lancang and Nu hydropower and of the energy geographies to which the projects belong. My analysis picks apart decision flows from blueprint to dam, identifying two distinctly different perspectives. I conclude by arguing first that supra-provincial institutions such as watershed commissions, hydropower companies, and grid companies are important in shaping relations between Guangdong and Yunnan vis-a-vis electricity production, distribution, and consumption. A corollary is that reforms in the electricity and water sectors have created overlapping responsibilities and unclear jurisdiction among

  9. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  10. How run-of-river operation affects hydropower generation and value.

    PubMed

    Jager, Henriette I; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is "run-of-river" (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  11. Detecting the effects of cascade hydropower reservoirs on eco-flow metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T.; Zhao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Over evolutionary time, the natural hydrological events of floods and droughts have become an integral component of riverine ecosystems. However, human activities, particularly reservoir operations, can greatly alter the natural flow regime and pose great impacts on riverine ecosystems. This study analyses the effects of cascade hydropower reservoir operation on eco-flow metrics based on inflow and release data of reservoirs in southwest China, with a focus on the Xiaowan reservoir (upper reservoir with multi-annual storage capacity) and the Jinghong reservoir (lower reservoir with weekly storage capacity). For the upper Xiaowan Reservoir, the analysis results show that the eco-surplus and eco-deficit (Vogel, et al, 2007; Gao, et al., 2009 ) can capture its impacts of hydropower operation on eco-flow metrics very well. However, comparative analysis of the lower Jinghong reservoir based on daily and hourly data shows that eco-surplus and eco-deficit measured with flow duration curve of daily and hourly flow data are not sensitive indices, which is attributed to the small regulating capacity of the Jinghong reservoir. It is shown that the negative impacts of hydropower operation of the Jinghong reservoir can be characterized by the changing rate of flow. These results indicate that eco-surplus and eco-deficit are good representative indices for evaluating seasonal reservoir operation, but more attention should be paid to the changing rate of flow for short term hydropower reservoir operation. This study implies that coordination of cascade reservoirs can be an effective way to mitigate the negative impacts of hydropower operation on ecosystem.

  12. Exploring current and projected tradeoffs between hydropower profitability and reliability of supply in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    The recent spreading of renewable energy across Europe and the associated production variability and uncertainty are emerging challenges for hydropower system operation. Widely distributed and highly intermittent solar and wind power generation systems, along with feed-in-tariffs, at which they are remunerated, are threating the operation of traditional hydropower systems. For instance, in countries where the transition to a larger production by means of renewable power systems is a novel process, e.g. Switzerland, many hydropower companies are operating their reservoirs with low or no profits, claiming for a revision of the entire energy market system. This situation goes along with the problem of ensuring energy supply both nowadays and in the future, with changing energy demand and available water resources. In this work, we focus on a hydropower system in the Swiss Alps to explore how different operating policies can cope with both adequate energy supply and profitable operation under current and future climate and socio-economic conditions. We investigate the operation of the Mattmark reservoir in South-West Switzerland. Mattmark is a pumped reservoir of 98 106 m3 fed by a natural catchment of 37 km2 and contributing catchments, summing up to 51 km2, connected by several diversion channels. The hydrological regime, snow- and ice-melt dominated, has already experienced changes in the last decades due to glacier retreat and is expected to be strongly impacted by climate change in the future. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to explore current tradeoffs between profitability and secure supply. We then investigate how tradeoffs may evolve in time under different climate change projections and energy market scenarios. Results inform on the co-evolution of climate- and socio-economic induced variations, thus unveiling potential co-benefit situations to hydropower generation and providing insights to future energy market design.

  13. Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

    2011-12-01

    About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also

  14. 21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Primary energy demand in China and India has increased fivefold since 1980. To avoid power shortages and blackouts, the hydropower infrastructure in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region is seeing massive development, a strategy supported by the policy of the World Bank and in harmony with the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. The targeted investments in clean energy from water resources, however, may trigger far-reaching impacts to downstream communities given that hydropower projects are planned and constructed in close vicinity to glaciated areas. We hypothesize that the location of these new schemes may be subject to higher exposure to a broad portfolio of natural hazards that proliferate in the steep, dissected, and tectonically active topography of the Himalayas. Here we focus on the hazard from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF), and offer an unprecedented regional analysis for the Hindu Kush-Himalaya orogen. We compiled a database of nearly 4,000 proglacial lakes that we mapped from satellite imagery; and focus on those as potential GLOF sources that are situated above several dozen planned and existing hydropower plants. We implemented a scenario-based flood-wave propagation model of hypothetic GLOFs, and compared thus simulated peak discharges with those of the local design floods at the power plants. Multiple model runs confirm earlier notions that GLOF discharge may exceed meteorological, i.e. monsoon-fed, flood peaks by at least an order of magnitude throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. We further show that the current trend in hydropower development near glaciated areas may lead to a >15% increase of projects that may be impacted by future GLOFs. At the same time, the majority of the projects are to be sited where outburst flood modelling produces its maximum uncertainty, highlighting the problem of locating minimum risk sites for hydropower. Exposure to GLOFs is not uniformly distributed in the Himalayas, and is particularly high in rivers draining the Mt

  15. 78 FR 68044 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and Soliciting Scoping Comments Take notice that the following...

  16. Low-head hydropower assessment of the Brazilian State of São Paulo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artan, Guleid A.; Cushing, William Matthew; Mathis, Melissa; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This study produced a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of hydropower potential available in the streams that drain watersheds entirely within the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Because a large part of the contributing area is outside of São Paulo, the main stem of the Paraná River was excluded from the assessment. Potential head drops were calculated from the Digital Terrain Elevation Data,which has a 1-arc-second resolution (approximately 30-meter resolution at the equator). For the conditioning and validation of synthetic stream channels derived from the Digital Elevation Model datasets, hydrography data (in digital format) supplied by the São Paulo State Department of Energy and the Agência Nacional de Águas were used. Within the study area there were 1,424 rain gages and 123 streamgages with long-term data records. To estimate average yearly streamflow, a hydrologic regionalization system that divides the State into 21 homogeneous basins was used. Stream segments, upstream areas, and mean annual rainfall were estimated using geographic information systems techniques. The accuracy of the flows estimated with the regionalization models was validated. Overall, simulated streamflows were significantly correlated with the observed flows but with a consistent underestimation bias. When the annual mean flows from the regionalization models were adjusted upward by 10 percent, average streamflow estimation bias was reduced from -13 percent to -4 percent. The sum of all the validated stream reach mean annual hydropower potentials in the 21 basins is 7,000 megawatts (MW). Hydropower potential is mainly concentrated near the Serra do Mar mountain range and along the Tietê River. The power potential along the Tietê River is mainly at sites with medium and high potentials, sites where hydropower has already been harnessed. In addition to the annual mean hydropower estimates, potential hydropower estimates with flow rates with exceedance probabilities of 40

  17. A Methodology for Protective Vibration Monitoring of Hydropower Units Based on the Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Nässelqvist, Mattias; Gustavsson, Rolf; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2013-07-01

    It is important to monitor the radial loads in hydropower units in order to protect the machine from harmful radial loads. Existing recommendations in the standards regarding the radial movements of the shaft and bearing housing in hydropower units, ISO-7919-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005, "ISO 7919-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Rotating Shafts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland) and ISO-10816-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2000, "ISO 10816-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-Rotating Parts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland), have alarm levels based on statistical data and do not consider the mechanical properties of the machine. The synchronous speed of the unit determines the maximum recommended shaft displacement and housing acceleration, according to these standards. This paper presents a methodology for the alarm and trip levels based on the design criteria of the hydropower unit and the measured radial loads in the machine during operation. When a hydropower unit is designed, one of its design criteria is to withstand certain loads spectra without the occurrence of fatigue in the mechanical components. These calculated limits for fatigue are used to set limits for the maximum radial loads allowed in the machine before it shuts down in order to protect itself from damage due to high radial loads. Radial loads in hydropower units are caused by unbalance, shape deviations, dynamic flow properties in the turbine, etc. Standards exist for balancing and manufacturers (and power plant owners) have recommendations for maximum allowed shape deviations in generators. These standards and recommendations determine which loads, at a maximum, should be allowed before an alarm is sent that the machine needs maintenance. The radial

  18. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  19. Valuing the effects of hydropower development on watershed ecosystem services: Case studies in the Jiulong River Watershed, Fujian Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guihua; Fang, Qinhua; Zhang, Luoping; Chen, Weiqi; Chen, Zhenming; Hong, Huasheng

    2010-02-01

    Hydropower development brings many negative impacts on watershed ecosystems which are not fully integrated into current decision-making largely because in practice few accept the cost and benefit beyond market. In this paper, a framework was proposed to valuate the effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development. Watershed ecosystem services were classified into four categories of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services; then effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development were identified to 21 indicators. Thereafter various evaluation techniques including the market value method, opportunity cost approach, project restoration method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method were determined and the models were developed to valuate these indicators reflecting specific watershed ecosystem services. This approach was applied to three representative hydropower projects (Daguan, Xizaikou and Tiangong) of Jiulong River Watershed in southeast China. It was concluded that for hydropower development: (1) the value ratio of negative impacts to positive benefits ranges from 64.09% to 91.18%, indicating that the negative impacts of hydropower development should be critically studied during its environmental administration process; (2) the biodiversity loss and water quality degradation (together accounting for 80-94%) are the major negative impacts on watershed ecosystem services; (3) the average environmental cost per unit of electricity is up to 0.206 Yuan/kW h, which is about three quarters of its on-grid power tariff; and (4) the current water resource fee accounts for only about 4% of its negative impacts value, therefore a new compensatory method by paying for ecosystem services is necessary for sustainable hydropower development. These findings provide a clear picture of both positive and negative effects of hydropower development for decision-makers in the monetary term, and also provide a

  20. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also

  1. Stream-reach Identification for New Run-of-River Hydropower Development through a Merit Matrix Based Geospatial Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Wei, Yaxing; Smith, Brennan T

    2014-01-01

    Even after a century of development, the total hydropower potential from undeveloped rivers is still considered to be abundant in the United States. However, unlike evaluating hydropower potential at existing hydropower plants or non-powered dams, locating a feasible new hydropower plant involves many unknowns, and hence the total undeveloped potential is harder to quantify. In light of the rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets for topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics, a merit matrix based geospatial algorithm is proposed to help identify possible hydropower stream-reaches for future development. These hydropower stream-reaches sections of natural streams with suitable head, flow, and slope for possible future development are identified and compared using three different scenarios. A case study was conducted in the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) hydrologic subregions. It was found that a merit matrix based algorithm, which is based on the product of hydraulic head, annual mean flow, and average channel slope, can help effectively identify stream-reaches with high power density and small surface inundation. The identified stream-reaches can then be efficiently evaluated for their potential environmental impact, land development cost, and other competing water usage in detailed feasibility studies . Given that the selected datasets are available nationally (at least within the conterminous US), the proposed methodology will have wide applicability across the country.

  2. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A

  3. Projecting hydropower production under future climates: a review of modelling challenges and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefli, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower is a pillar for renewable electricity production in almost all world regions. The planning horizon of major hydropower infrastructure projects stretches over several decades and consideration of evolving climatic conditions plays an ever increasing role. This review of model-based climate change impact assessments provides a synthesis of the wealth of underlying modelling assumptions, highlights the importance of local factors and attempts to identify the most urgent open questions. Based on existing case studies, it critically discusses whether current hydro-climatic modelling frameworks are likely to provide narrow enough water scenario ranges to be included into economic analyses for end-to-end climate change impact assessments including electricity market models. This will be completed with an overview of not or indirectly climate-related boundary conditions, such as economic growth, legal constraints, national subsidy frameworks or growing competition for water, which might locally largely outweigh any climate change impacts.

  4. Sustainable hydropower in Lower Mekong Countries: Technical assessment and training travel report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Witt, Adam M.

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), through their partnership with the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), requested the support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide specialized technical assistance as part of the Smart Infrastructure for the Mekong (SIM) Program in Thailand. Introduced in July 2013 by U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, SIM is a U.S. Government Inter-Agency program that provides Lower Mekong partner countries with targeted, demand-driven technical and scientific assistance to support environmentally sound, climate conscious and socially equitable infrastructure, clean energy development, and water resources optimization. The U.S. Government is committed to supporting sustainable economic development within the region by providing tools, best practices, technical assistance, and lessons learned for the benefit of partner countries. In response to a request from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), a SIM project was developed with two main activities: 1) to promote hydropower sustainability and efficiency through technical assessment training at two existing hydropower assets in Thailand, and 2) the design and implementation of one national and two or three regional science and policy workshops, to be co-hosted with EGAT, to build common understanding of and commitment to environmental and social safeguards for Mekong Basin hydropower projects. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is leading the technical assessment (Activity 1), and has contracted ORNL to provide expert technical assistance focused on increasing efficiency at existing projects, with the goal of increasing renewable energy generation at little to no capital cost. ORNL is the leading national laboratory in hydropower analysis, with a nationally recognized and highly qualified team of scientists addressing small to large-scale systems (basin-, regional-, and national-scale) energy generation optimization analysis for DOE. The

  5. Climate change impacts on hydropower in the Swiss and Italian Alps.

    PubMed

    Gaudard, Ludovic; Romerio, Franco; Dalla Valle, Francesco; Gorret, Roberta; Maran, Stefano; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Stoffel, Markus; Volonterio, Michela

    2014-09-15

    This paper provides a synthesis and comparison of methodologies and results obtained in several studies devoted to the impact of climate change on hydropower. By putting into perspective various case studies, we provide a broader context and improved understanding of climate changes on energy production. We also underline the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches used as far as technical, physical and economical aspects are concerned. Although the catchments under investigation are located close to each other in geographic terms (Swiss and Italian Alps), they represent a wide variety of situations which may be affected by differing evolutions for instance in terms of annual runoff. In this study, we also differentiate between run-of-river, storage and pumping-storage power plants. By integrating and comparing various analyses carried out in the framework of the EU-FP7 ACQWA project, this paper discusses the complexity as well as current and future issues of hydropower management in the entire Alpine region.

  6. Hydraulic transients in the long diversion-type hydropower station with a complex differential surge tank.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theory of hydraulic transients and the method of characteristics (MOC), a mathematic model of the differential surge tank with pressure-reduction orifices (PROs) and overflow weirs for transient calculation is proposed. The numerical model of hydraulic transients is established using the data of a practical hydropower station; and the probable transients are simulated. The results show that successive load rejection is critical for calculating the maximum pressure in spiral case and the maximum rotating speed of runner when the bifurcated pipe is converging under the surge tank in a diversion-type hydropower station; the pressure difference between two sides of breast wall is large during transient conditions, and it would be more serious when simultaneous load rejections happen after load acceptance; the reasonable arrangement of PROs on breast wall can effectively decrease the pressure difference.

  7. Hydraulic Transients in the Long Diversion-Type Hydropower Station with a Complex Differential Surge Tank

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theory of hydraulic transients and the method of characteristics (MOC), a mathematic model of the differential surge tank with pressure-reduction orifices (PROs) and overflow weirs for transient calculation is proposed. The numerical model of hydraulic transients is established using the data of a practical hydropower station; and the probable transients are simulated. The results show that successive load rejection is critical for calculating the maximum pressure in spiral case and the maximum rotating speed of runner when the bifurcated pipe is converging under the surge tank in a diversion-type hydropower station; the pressure difference between two sides of breast wall is large during transient conditions, and it would be more serious when simultaneous load rejections happen after load acceptance; the reasonable arrangement of PROs on breast wall can effectively decrease the pressure difference. PMID:25133213

  8. Hydraulic transients in the long diversion-type hydropower station with a complex differential surge tank.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theory of hydraulic transients and the method of characteristics (MOC), a mathematic model of the differential surge tank with pressure-reduction orifices (PROs) and overflow weirs for transient calculation is proposed. The numerical model of hydraulic transients is established using the data of a practical hydropower station; and the probable transients are simulated. The results show that successive load rejection is critical for calculating the maximum pressure in spiral case and the maximum rotating speed of runner when the bifurcated pipe is converging under the surge tank in a diversion-type hydropower station; the pressure difference between two sides of breast wall is large during transient conditions, and it would be more serious when simultaneous load rejections happen after load acceptance; the reasonable arrangement of PROs on breast wall can effectively decrease the pressure difference. PMID:25133213

  9. Bridging the Information Gap: Remote Sensing and Micro Hydropower Feasibility in Data-Scarce Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Marc Francois

    Access to electricity remains an impediment to development in many parts of the world, particularly in rural areas with low population densities and prohibitive grid extension costs. In that context, community-scale run-of-river hydropower---micro-hydropower---is an attractive local power generation option, particularly in mountainous regions, where appropriate slope and runoff conditions occur. Despite their promise, micro hydropower programs have generally failed to have a significant impact on rural electrification in developing nations. In Nepal, despite very favorable conditions and approximately 50 years of experience, the technology supplies only 4% of the 10 million households that do not have access to the central electricity grid. These poor results point towards a major information gap between technical experts, who may lack the incentives or local knowledge needed to design appropriate systems for rural villages, and local users, who have excellent knowledge of the community but lack technical expertise to design and manage infrastructure. Both groups suffer from a limited basis for evidence-based decision making due to sparse environmental data available to support the technical components of infrastructure design. This dissertation draws on recent advances in remote sensing data, stochastic modeling techniques and open source platforms to bridge that information gap. Streamflow is a key environmental driver of hydropower production that is particularly challenging to model due to its stochastic nature and the complexity of the underlying natural processes. The first part of the dissertation addresses the general challenge of Predicting streamflow in Ungauged Basins (PUB). It first develops an algorithm to optimize the use of rain gauge observations to improve the accuracy of remote sensing precipitation measures. It then derives and validates a process-based model to estimate streamflow distribution in seasonally dry climates using the stochastic

  10. Stream Classification Tool User Manual: For Use in Applications in Hydropower-Related Evironmental Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Troia, Matthew J.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Samu, Nicole M.

    2016-01-01

    Stream classifications are an inventory of different types of streams. Classifications help us explore similarities and differences among different types of streams, make inferences regarding stream ecosystem behavior, and communicate the complexities of ecosystems. We developed a nested, layered, and spatially contiguous stream classification to characterize the biophysical settings of stream reaches within the Eastern United States (~ 900,000 reaches). The classification is composed of five natural characteristics (hydrology, temperature, size, confinement, and substrate) along with several disturbance regime layers, and each was selected because of their relevance to hydropower mitigation. We developed the classification at the stream reach level using the National Hydrography Dataset Plus Version 1 (1:100k scale). The stream classification is useful to environmental mitigation for hydropower dams in multiple ways. First, it creates efficiency in the regulatory process by creating an objective and data-rich means to address meaningful mitigation actions. Secondly, the SCT addresses data gaps as it quickly provides an inventory of hydrology, temperature, morphology, and ecological communities for the immediate project area, but also surrounding streams. This includes identifying potential reference streams as those that are proximate to the hydropower facility and fall within the same class. These streams can potentially be used to identify ideal environmental conditions or identify desired ecological communities. In doing so, the stream provides some context for how streams may function, respond to dam regulation, and an overview of specific mitigation needs. Herein, we describe the methodology in developing each stream classification layer and provide a tutorial to guide applications of the classification (and associated data) in regulatory settings, such as hydropower (re)licensing.

  11. Optimizing Hydropower Day-Ahead Scheduling for the Oroville-Thermalito Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselka, T. D.; Mahalik, M.

    2012-12-01

    Under an award from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Water Power Program, a team of national laboratories is developing and demonstrating a suite of advanced, integrated analytical tools to assist managers and planners increase hydropower resources while enhancing the environment. As part of the project, Argonne National Laboratory is developing the Conventional Hydropower Energy and Environmental Systems (CHEERS) model to optimize day-ahead scheduling and real-time operations. We will present the application of CHEERS to the Oroville-Thermalito Project located in Northern California. CHEERS will aid California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) schedulers in making decisions about unit commitments and turbine-level operating points using a system-wide approach to increase hydropower efficiency and the value of power generation and ancillary services. The model determines schedules and operations that are constrained by physical limitations, characteristics of plant components, operational preferences, reliability, and environmental considerations. The optimization considers forebay and afterbay implications, interactions between cascaded power plants, turbine efficiency curves and rough zones, and operator preferences. CHEERS simultaneously considers over time the interactions among all CDWR power and water resources, hydropower economics, reservoir storage limitations, and a set of complex environmental constraints for the Thermalito Afterbay and Feather River habitats. Power marketers, day-ahead schedulers, and plant operators provide system configuration and detailed operational data, along with feedback on model design and performance. CHEERS is integrated with CDWR data systems to obtain historic and initial conditions of the system as the basis from which future operations are then optimized. Model results suggest alternative operational regimes that improve the value of CDWR resources to the grid while

  12. Managing Sustainable Development Conflicts: The Impact of Stakeholders in Small-Scale Hydropower Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkin, Laura Jane; Kemp, Paul S.; Williams, Ian D.; Harwood, Ian A.

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the environment and its management has simultaneously emphasized the benefits of hydroelectric power and its environmental costs. In a changing policy climate, giving importance to renewable energy development and environmental protection, conflict potential between stakeholders is considerable. Navigation of conflict determines the scheme constructed, making sustainable hydropower a function of human choice. To meet the needs of practitioners, greater understanding of stakeholder conflict is needed. This paper presents an approach to illustrate the challenges that face small-scale hydropower development as perceived by the stakeholders involved, and how they influence decision-making. Using Gordleton Mill, Hampshire (UK), as an illustrative case, soft systems methodology, a systems modeling approach, was adopted. Through individual interviews, a range of problems were identified and conceptually modeled. Stakeholder bias towards favoring economic appraisal over intangible social and environmental aspects was identified; costs appeared more influential than profit. Conceptual evaluation of the requirements to meet a stakeholder-approved solution suggested a complex linear systems approach, considerably different from the real-life situation. The stakeholders introduced bias to problem definition by transferring self-perceived issues onto the project owner. Application of soft systems methodology caused a shift in project goals away from further investigation towards consideration of project suitability. The challenge of sustainable hydropower is global, with a need to balance environmental, economic, and social concerns. It is clear that in this type of conflict, an individual can significantly influence outcomes; highlighting the need for more structured approaches to deal with stakeholder conflicts in sustainable hydropower development.

  13. Scenario tree reduction in stochastic programming with recourse for hydropower operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Zhong, Ping-An; Zambon, Renato C.; Zhao, Yunfa; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2015-08-01

    A stochastic programming with recourse model requires the consequences of recourse actions be modeled for all possible realizations of the stochastic variables. Continuous stochastic variables are approximated by scenario trees. This paper evaluates the impact of scenario tree reduction on model performance for hydropower operations and suggests procedures to determine the optimal level of scenario tree reduction. We first establish a stochastic programming model for the optimal operation of a cascaded system of reservoirs for hydropower production. We then use the neural gas method to generate scenario trees and employ a Monte Carlo method to systematically reduce the scenario trees. We conduct in-sample and out-of-sample tests to evaluate the impact of scenario tree reduction on the objective function of the hydropower optimization model. We then apply a statistical hypothesis test to determine the significance of the impact due to scenario tree reduction. We develop a stochastic programming with recourse model and apply it to real-time operation for hydropower production to determine the loss in solution accuracy due to scenario tree reduction. We apply the proposed methodology to the Qingjiang cascade system of reservoirs in China. The results show: (1) the neural gas method preserves the mean value of the original streamflow series but introduces bias to variance, cross variance, and lag-one covariance due to information loss when the original tree is systematically reduced; (2) reducing the scenario number by as much as 40% results in insignificant change in the objective function and solution quality, but significantly reduces computational demand.

  14. Definitional mission report on U. S. hydropower sector international competitiveness. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, E.L.

    1992-06-01

    The report assesses the U.S. hydropower sector's technological competitiveness in major equipment categories such as turbines/generators, switch gears, transformers, etc. for the full range of hydroelectric power plants, that is, from small plants of 50MW or less to large plants such as Guayabo-Siquirres. The subject has three interwoven threads, each affecting the others but subject to individual discussion. They are technological ability; productivity and the state of industrial plant; and management and sales methods.

  15. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  16. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; McGrath, David G.; Dias, Livia C. P.; Rodrigues, Hermann O.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations’ energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local “direct” effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional “indirect” effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world’s largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4–8% and 10–12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6–36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry’s own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests. PMID:23671098

  17. Managing sustainable development conflicts: the impact of stakeholders in small-scale hydropower schemes.

    PubMed

    Watkin, Laura Jane; Kemp, Paul S; Williams, Ian D; Harwood, Ian A

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the environment and its management has simultaneously emphasized the benefits of hydroelectric power and its environmental costs. In a changing policy climate, giving importance to renewable energy development and environmental protection, conflict potential between stakeholders is considerable. Navigation of conflict determines the scheme constructed, making sustainable hydropower a function of human choice. To meet the needs of practitioners, greater understanding of stakeholder conflict is needed. This paper presents an approach to illustrate the challenges that face small-scale hydropower development as perceived by the stakeholders involved, and how they influence decision-making. Using Gordleton Mill, Hampshire (UK), as an illustrative case, soft systems methodology, a systems modeling approach, was adopted. Through individual interviews, a range of problems were identified and conceptually modeled. Stakeholder bias towards favoring economic appraisal over intangible social and environmental aspects was identified; costs appeared more influential than profit. Conceptual evaluation of the requirements to meet a stakeholder-approved solution suggested a complex linear systems approach, considerably different from the real-life situation. The stakeholders introduced bias to problem definition by transferring self-perceived issues onto the project owner. Application of soft systems methodology caused a shift in project goals away from further investigation towards consideration of project suitability. The challenge of sustainable hydropower is global, with a need to balance environmental, economic, and social concerns. It is clear that in this type of conflict, an individual can significantly influence outcomes; highlighting the need for more structured approaches to deal with stakeholder conflicts in sustainable hydropower development.

  18. Managing sustainable development conflicts: the impact of stakeholders in small-scale hydropower schemes.

    PubMed

    Watkin, Laura Jane; Kemp, Paul S; Williams, Ian D; Harwood, Ian A

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the environment and its management has simultaneously emphasized the benefits of hydroelectric power and its environmental costs. In a changing policy climate, giving importance to renewable energy development and environmental protection, conflict potential between stakeholders is considerable. Navigation of conflict determines the scheme constructed, making sustainable hydropower a function of human choice. To meet the needs of practitioners, greater understanding of stakeholder conflict is needed. This paper presents an approach to illustrate the challenges that face small-scale hydropower development as perceived by the stakeholders involved, and how they influence decision-making. Using Gordleton Mill, Hampshire (UK), as an illustrative case, soft systems methodology, a systems modeling approach, was adopted. Through individual interviews, a range of problems were identified and conceptually modeled. Stakeholder bias towards favoring economic appraisal over intangible social and environmental aspects was identified; costs appeared more influential than profit. Conceptual evaluation of the requirements to meet a stakeholder-approved solution suggested a complex linear systems approach, considerably different from the real-life situation. The stakeholders introduced bias to problem definition by transferring self-perceived issues onto the project owner. Application of soft systems methodology caused a shift in project goals away from further investigation towards consideration of project suitability. The challenge of sustainable hydropower is global, with a need to balance environmental, economic, and social concerns. It is clear that in this type of conflict, an individual can significantly influence outcomes; highlighting the need for more structured approaches to deal with stakeholder conflicts in sustainable hydropower development. PMID:22525992

  19. Impact of Alternative Environmental Flow Prescriptions on Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellarin, A.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Galeati, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognized to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyze the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  20. Impact of alternative environmental flow prescriptions on hydropower production and fish habitat suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Pugliese, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Galeati, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognised to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyse the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  1. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  2. Development of biological criteria for the design of advanced hydropower turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Coutant, Charles C.; Whitney, Richard R.

    1997-03-01

    A review of the literature related to turbine-passage injury mechanisms suggests the following biological criteria should be considered in the design of new turbines: (1) pressure; (2) cavitation; (3) shear and turbulence; and (4) mechanical injury. Based on the study’s review of fish behavior in relation to hydropower facilities, it provides a number of recommendations to guide both turbine design and additional research.

  3. Influence of Speed Governors of Hydropower Stations on Frequency Stabilization of Fixed-Speed Wind Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL Jowder, Fawzi A. Rahman

    2013-05-01

    This paper uses a small power system, consisting of two hydropower stations and a fixed-speed wind farm as sources of power, to study the influence of type of speed governor of hydropower stations on the frequency stabilization of the fixed-speed wind farm. As an example, two types of speed governors are selected which are (1) mechanical-hydraulic speed governor and (2) electrical-hydraulic speed governor. Rest of the speed governors can be also examined following the same methodology presented in the research. Two transfer functions, which correspond to the two speed governors, are developed for each hydropower station. The overall transfer function of the test power system is developed, and different study cases are presented. The frequency response analysis of the different transfer functions is used to compare the two speed governors based on their ability to stabilize the frequency deviation of the fixed-speed wind resulting from electrical or mechanical disturbances in the power systems. Time-domain simulations under a mechanical disturbance, represented by a wind gust, and an electrical disturbance, represented by three-phase to ground fault, are performed to validate the results of the frequency response analysis.

  4. The Future of Hydropower: Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change, Energy Prices and New Storage Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudard, Ludovic; Madani, Kaveh; Romerio, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The future of hydropower depends on various drivers, and in particular on climate change, electricity market evolution and innovation in new storage technologies. Their impacts on the power plants' profitability can widely differ in regards of scale, timing, and probability of occurrence. In this respect, the risk should not be expressed only in terms of expected revenue, but also of uncertainty. These two aspects must be considered to assess the future of hydropower. This presentation discusses the impacts of climate change, electricity market volatility and competing energy storage's technologies and quantifies them in terms of annual revenue. Our simulations integrate a glacio-hydrological model (GERM) with various electricity market data and models (mean reversion and jump diffusion). The medium (2020-50) and long-term (2070-2100) are considered thanks to various greenhouse gas scenarios (A1B, A2 and RCP3PD) and the stochastic approach for the electricity prices. An algorithm named "threshold acceptance" is used to optimize the reservoir operations. The impacts' scale, and the related uncertainties are presented for Mauvoisin, which is a storage-hydropower plant situated in the Swiss Alps, and two generic pure pumped-storage installations, which are assessed with the prices of 17 European electricity markets. The discussion will highlight the key differences between the impacts brought about by the drivers.

  5. Sustainable Reservoir Operation: Can we Generate Hydropower and Preserve Ecosystem Values?

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Smith, Brennan T

    2008-01-01

    Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generations while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modeling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

  6. Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

  7. Comparing effects of oligotrophication and upstream hydropower dams on plankton and productivity in perialpine lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David; Schmid, Martin; Wüest, Alfred

    2007-12-01

    In recent decades, many perialpine lakes have been affected by oligotrophication due to efficient sewage treatment and by altered water turbidity due to upstream hydropower operations. Such simultaneous environmental changes often lead to public debate on the actual causes of observed productivity reductions. We evaluate the effects of those two changes by a combined approach of modeling and data interpretation for a case study on Lake Brienz (Switzerland), a typical oligotrophic perialpine lake, located downstream of several hydropower reservoirs. A physical k-ɛ scheme and a biogeochemical advection-diffusion-reaction model were implemented and applied for several hypothetical scenarios with different nutrient loads and different particle input dynamics. The simulation results are compared to long-term biotic data collected from 1999 to 2004. The analysis shows that enhanced nutrient supply increases the nutritious value of algae, stimulating zooplankton growth, while phytoplankton growth is limited by stronger top-down control. Annually integrated productivity is only slightly influenced by altered turbidity, as phosphorous limitation prevails. Simulations indicate that the spring production peak is delayed because of increased turbidity in winter caused by upstream hydropower operation. As a consequence, the entire nutrient cycle is seasonally delayed, creating an additional stress for zooplankton and fish in the downstream lake.

  8. Microseismic monitoring of columnar jointed basalt fracture activity: a trial at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Li, Qing-Peng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Guang-Liang; Hu, Lian-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Severe stress release has occurred to the surrounding rocks of the typically columnar jointed basalt after excavation at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, Jinsha River, China, where cracking, collapse, and other types of failure may take place occasionally due to relaxation fracture. In order to understand the relaxation fracture characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt in the entire excavation process at the diversion tunnel of the Baihetan Hydropower Station, real-time microseismic monitoring tests were performed. First, the applicability of a geophone and accelerometer was analyzed in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel, and the results show that the accelerometer was more applicable to the cracking monitoring of the columnar jointed basalt. Next, the waveform characteristics of the microseismic signals were analyzed, and the microseismic signals were identified as follows: rock fracture signal, drilling signal, electrical signal, heavy vehicle passing signal, and blast signal. Then, the attenuation characteristics of the microseismic signals in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel were studied, as well as the types and characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt fracture. Finally, location analysis was conducted on the strong rock fracture events, in which four or more sensors were triggered, to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the columnar jointed basalt relaxation fracture after excavation. The test results are not only of important reference value to the excavation and support of diversion tunnel at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, but also of great referential significance and value to the conduction of similar tests.

  9. Integrated Basin Scale Hydropower and Environmental Opportunity Assessment in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, N.; Geerlofs, S. H.; Vail, L. W.; Ham, K. D.; Tagestad, J. D.; Hanrahan, T. P.; Seiple, T. E.; Coleman, A. M.; Stewart, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Deschutes River Basin in Oregon, USA, is home to a number of diverse groups of stakeholders that rely upon the complex snowmelt and groundwater-dominated river system to support their needs, livelihoods, and interests. Basin system operations that vary across various temporal and spatial scales often must balance an array of competing demands including maintaining adequate municipal water supply, recreation, hydropower generation, regulations related to environmental flows, mitigation programs for salmon returns, and in-stream and storage rights for irrigation water supplied by surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Basin-scale Opportunity Assessment initiative is taking a system-wide approach to identifying opportunities and actions to increase hydropower and enhance environmental conditions while sustaining reliable supply for other uses. Opportunity scenarios are analyzed in collaboration with stakeholders, through nested integrated modeling and visualization software to assess tradeoffs and system-scale effects. Opportunity assessments are not intended to produce decisional documents or substitute for basin planning processes; assessments are instead intended to provide tools, information, and a forum for catalyzing conversation about scenarios where both environmental and hydropower gains can be realized within a given basin. We present the results of the nested integrated modeling approach and the modeling scenarios in order to identify and explore opportunities for the system.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Arthur J; Mosher, Jennifer J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Fortner, Allison M; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  11. Trade-offs of water use for hydropower generation and biofuel production in the Zambezi basin in Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanzel, Philipp; Kling, Harald; Nicholson, Kit

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower is the most important energy source in Mozambique, as in many other southern African countries. In the Zambezi basin, it is one of the major economic resources, and substantial hydropower development is envisaged for the next decades. In Mozambique, the extension of the large Cahora Bassa hydropower plant and the construction of several new facilities downstream are planned. Irrigated agriculture currently plays a minor role, but has a large potential due to available land and water resources. Irrigation development, especially for the production of biofuels, is an important government policy goal in Mozambique. This contribution assesses interrelations and trade-offs between these two development options with high dependence on water availability. Potential water demand for large-scale irrigated agriculture is estimated for a mix of possible biofuel crops in three scenarios with different irrigated area sizes. Impacts on river discharge and hydropower production in the Lower Zambezi and its tributaries under two projected future climates are simulated with a hydrological model and a reservoir operation and hydropower model. Trade-offs of increasing biofuel production with decreasing hydropower generation due to diminished discharge in the Zambezi River are investigated based on potential energy production, from hydropower and biofuels, and resulting gross revenues and net benefits. Results show that the impact of irrigation withdrawal on hydropower production is rather low due to the generally high water availability in the Zambezi River. In simulations with substantial irrigated areas, hydropower generation decreases by -2% as compared to a scenario with only small irrigated areas. The economic analyses suggest that the use of water for cultivation of biofuel crops in the Zambezi basin can generate higher economic benefits than the use of water for hydroelectric power production. If world oil prices stay at more than about 80 USD/barrel, then the

  12. Assessing Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitat Connectivity to Guide River Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddendorf, Bas; Geris, Josie; Malcolm, Iain; Wilkinson, Mark; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity in riverine ecosystems has led to a substantial divergence from the natural state of many rivers globally. Many of Scotland's rivers have been regulated for hydropower with increasing intensity since the 1890s. At the same time they sustain substantial populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), which have a range of requirements in terms of flow and access to habitat, depending on the different life-stages. River barriers for hydropower regulation can change the spatial and temporal connectivity within river networks, the impacts of which on salmon habitat are not fully understood. Insight into such changes in connectivity, and the link with the distribution and accessibility of suitable habitat and areas of high productivity, are essential to aid restoration and/or conservation efforts. This is because they indicate where such efforts might have a higher chance of being successful in terms of providing suitable habitat and increasing river productivity. In this study we applied a graph theory approach to assess historic (natural) and contemporary (regulated) in-stream habitat connectivity of the River Lyon, an important UK salmon river that is moderately regulated for hydropower. Historic maps and GIS techniques were used to construct the two contrasting river networks (i.e., natural vs. regulated). Subsequently, connectivity metrics were used to assess the impacts of hydropower infrastructure on upstream and downstream migration possibilities for adults and juveniles, respectively. A national juvenile salmon production model was used to weight the importance of reaches for juvenile salmon production. Results indicate that the impact of barriers in the Lyon on the connectivity indices depends on the type of barrier and its location within the network, but is generally low for both adults and juveniles, and that compared to the historic river network the reduction in the amount of suitable habitat and juvenile production is most marked

  13. Examining the economic impacts of hydropower dams on property values using GIS.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Curtis; Lewis, Lynne Y

    2009-07-01

    While the era of dam building is largely over in the United States, globally dams are still being proposed and constructed. The articles in this special issue consider many aspects and impacts of dams around the world. This paper examines dam removal and the measurement of the impacts of dams on local community property values. Valuable lessons may be found. In the United States, hundreds of small hydropower dams will come up for relicensing in the coming decade. Whether or not the licenses are renewed and what happens to the dams if the licenses expires is a subject of great debate. Dams are beginning to be removed for river restoration and fisheries restoration and these "end-of-life" decisions may offer lessons for countries proposing or currently building small (and large) hydropower dams. What can these restoration stories tell us? In this paper, we examine the effects of dams along the Penobscot River in Maine (USA) on residential property values. We compare the results to findings from a similar (but ex post dam removal) data set for properties along the Kennebec river in Maine, where the Edwards Dam was removed in 1999. The Penobscot River Restoration Project, an ambitious basin-wide restoration effort, includes plans to remove two dams and decommission a third along the Penobscot River. Dam removal has significant effects on the local environment, and it is reasonable to anticipate that environmental changes will themselves be reflected in changes in property values. Here we examine historical real estate transaction data to examine whether landowners pay a premium or penalty to live near the Penobscot River or near a hydropower generating dam. We find that waterfront landowners on the Penobscot or other water bodies in our study area pay approximately a 16% premium for the privilege of living on the water. Nevertheless, landowners pay LESS to live near the Penobscot River than they do to live further away, contrary to the expectation that bodies of water

  14. Tapping hidden hydropower potential in Swiss Alpine catchments in the context of the planned nuclear power phase out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ana Clara; Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Schleiss, Anton; Portela, Maria Manuela; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In its Energy Strategy 2050, Switzerland is revising its energy perspectives with a strong focus on renewable sources of energy and in particular hydropower. In this context, the Swiss Government funded a number of competence centers for energy research (SCCERs), including one on the Supply of Energy (SCCER-SoE), which develops fundamental research and innovative solutions in geoenergies and hydropower . Hydropower is already the major energy source in Switzerland, corresponding to approximately 55% of the total national electricity production (which was 69 TWh in 2014). The Energy Strategy 2050 foresees at least a net increase by 1.53 TWh/year in average hydrological conditions, in a context were almost all major river systems are already exploited and a straightforward application of recent environmental laws will impact (reduce) current hydropower production. In this contribution, we present the roadmap of the SCCER-SoE and an overview of our strategy to unravel currently non-exploited hydropower potential, in particular in river systems that are already used for hydropower production. The aim is hereby to quantify non-exploited natural flows, unnecessary water spills or storage volume deficits, whilst considering non-conventional approaches to water resources valuation and management. Such a better understanding of the current potential is paramount to justify future scenarios of adaptation of the existing hydropower infrastructure combining the increase of storage capacity with new connections between existing reservoirs, heightening or strengthening existing dams, increasing the operational volume of natural lakes (including new glacier lakes), or by building new dams. Tapping hidden potential shall also require operational changes to benefit from new flow patterns emerging under an evolving climate and in particular in the context of the ongoing glacier retreat. The paper shall present a broad view over the mentioned issues and first conclusions of ongoing

  15. Exploring the impact of co-varying water availability and energy price on productivity and profitability of Alpine hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Botter, Martina; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are experiencing dramatic changes both from the point of view of hydrological conditions, e.g., water availability and frequency of extremes events, and of energy market conditions, e.g., partial or total liberalization of the market and increasing share of renewable power sources. Scientific literature has, so far, mostly focused on the analysis of climate change impacts and associated uncertainty on hydropower operation, underlooking the consequences that socio-economic changes, e.g., energy demand and/or price changes, can have on hydropower productivity and profitability. In this work, we analyse how hydropower reservoir operation is affected by changes in both water availability and energy price. We consider stochastically downscaled climate change scenarios of precipitation and temperature to simulate reservoir inflows using a physically explicit hydrological model. We consider different scenarios of energy demand and generation mix to simulate energy prices using an electricity market model, which includes different generation sources, demand sinks, and features of the transmission lines. We then use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design the operation of hydropower reservoirs for different purposes, e.g. maximization of revenue and/or energy production. The objective of the work is to assess how the tradeoffs between the multiple operating objectives evolve under different co-varying climate change and socio-economic scenarios and to assess the adaptive capacity of the system. The modeling framework is tested on the real-world case study of the Mattmark reservoir in Switzerland.

  16. Predicting environmental mitigation requirements for hydropower projects through the integration of biophysical and socio-political geographies.

    PubMed

    DeRolph, Christopher R; Schramm, Michael P; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    Uncertainty about environmental mitigation needs at existing and proposed hydropower projects makes it difficult for stakeholders to minimize environmental impacts. Hydropower developers and operators desire tools to better anticipate mitigation requirements, while natural resource managers and regulators need tools to evaluate different mitigation scenarios and order effective mitigation. Here we sought to examine the feasibility of using a suite of multi-faceted explanatory variables within a spatially explicit modeling framework to fit predictive models for future environmental mitigation requirements at hydropower projects across the conterminous U.S. Using a database comprised of mitigation requirements from more than 300 hydropower project licenses, we were able to successfully fit models for nearly 50 types of environmental mitigation and to apply the predictive models to a set of more than 500 non-powered dams identified as having hydropower potential. The results demonstrate that mitigation requirements are functions of a range of factors, from biophysical to socio-political. Project developers can use these models to inform cost projections and design considerations, while regulators can use the models to more quickly identify likely environmental issues and potential solutions, hopefully resulting in more timely and more effective decisions on environmental mitigation. PMID:27280379

  17. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  18. Predicting environmental mitigation requirements for hydropower projects through the integration of biophysical and socio-political geographies

    DOE PAGES

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.

    2016-06-06

    Uncertainty about environmental mitigation needs at existing and proposed hydropower projects makes it difficult for stakeholders to minimize environmental impacts. Hydropower developers and operators desire tools to better anticipate mitigation requirements, while natural resource managers and regulators need tools to evaluate different mitigation scenarios and order effective mitigation. Here we sought to examine the feasibility of using a suite of multidisciplinary explanatory variables within a spatially explicit modeling framework to fit predictive models for future environmental mitigation requirements at hydropower projects across the conterminous U.S. Using a database comprised of mitigation requirements from more than 300 hydropower project licenses, wemore » were able to successfully fit models for nearly 50 types of environmental mitigation and to apply the predictive models to a set of more than 500 non-powered dams identified as having hydropower potential. The results demonstrate that mitigation requirements have been a result of a range of factors, from biological and hydrological to political and cultural. Furthermore, project developers can use these models to inform cost projections and design considerations, while regulators can use the models to more quickly identify likely environmental issues and potential solutions, hopefully resulting in more timely and more effective decisions on environmental mitigation.« less

  19. Predicting environmental mitigation requirements for hydropower projects through the integration of biophysical and socio-political geographies.

    PubMed

    DeRolph, Christopher R; Schramm, Michael P; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    Uncertainty about environmental mitigation needs at existing and proposed hydropower projects makes it difficult for stakeholders to minimize environmental impacts. Hydropower developers and operators desire tools to better anticipate mitigation requirements, while natural resource managers and regulators need tools to evaluate different mitigation scenarios and order effective mitigation. Here we sought to examine the feasibility of using a suite of multi-faceted explanatory variables within a spatially explicit modeling framework to fit predictive models for future environmental mitigation requirements at hydropower projects across the conterminous U.S. Using a database comprised of mitigation requirements from more than 300 hydropower project licenses, we were able to successfully fit models for nearly 50 types of environmental mitigation and to apply the predictive models to a set of more than 500 non-powered dams identified as having hydropower potential. The results demonstrate that mitigation requirements are functions of a range of factors, from biophysical to socio-political. Project developers can use these models to inform cost projections and design considerations, while regulators can use the models to more quickly identify likely environmental issues and potential solutions, hopefully resulting in more timely and more effective decisions on environmental mitigation.

  20. Impact of Different Time Series Streamflow Data on Energy Generation of a Run-of-River Hydropower Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.; Cetinkaya, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global issues such as population increase, power supply crises, oil prices, social and environmental concerns have been forcing countries to search for alternative energy sources such as renewable energy to satisfy the sustainable development goals. Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy in the world. Hydropower does not require any fuel, produces relatively less pollution and waste and it is a reliable energy source with relatively low operating cost. In order to estimate the average annual energy production of a hydropower plant, sufficient and dependable streamflow data is required. The goal of this study is to investigate impact of streamflow data on annual energy generation of Balkusan HEPP which is a small run-of-river hydropower plant at Karaman, Turkey. Two different stream gaging stations are located in the vicinity of Balkusan HEPP and these two stations have different observation periods: one from 1986 to 2004 and the other from 2000 to 2009. These two observation periods show different climatic characteristics. Thus, annual energy estimations based on data from these two different stations differ considerably. Additionally, neither of these stations is located at the power plant axis, thus streamflow observations from these two stream gaging stations need to be transferred to the plant axis. This requirement introduces further errors into energy estimations. Impact of different streamflow data and transfer of streamflow observations to plant axis on annual energy generation of a small hydropower plant is investigated in this study.

  1. A micro-hydropower system model with PD load frequency controller for Resort Islands in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Jidin, Razali

    2016-03-01

    A model of high-penetration micro-hydropower system with no storage is presented in this paper. This technology is designed in order to reduce the diesel fuel consumption and cost of electricity supply in a resort island located in the South China Sea. The optimal hydropower generation for this system depends on the available stream flow at the potential sites. At low stream flow, both the micro-hydropower system and the currently installed diesel generators are required to feed the load. However, when the hydropower generation exceeds the load demand, the diesel generator is shut down. Meanwhile, the system frequency is controlled by a secondary load bank that absorbs the hydropower which exceeds the consumer demand. This paper also presents a discrete frequency control system using proportional-derivative (PD) controller. The controller is employed in order to manipulate the system frequency by controlling the secondary load system. The simulation results indicate that a variety of load conditions can be satisfactorily controlled by the PD controller. Hence, this particular type of controller is suitable to be implemented in micro-grid systems for remote areas that require low cost and easy-to- maintain controllers.

  2. Using Conventional Hydropower to Help Alleviate Variable Resource Grid Integration Challenges in the Western U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L.

    2011-12-01

    Integrating high penetration levels of wind and solar energy resources into the power grid is a formidable challenge in virtually all interconnected systems due to the fact that supply and demand must remain in balance at all times. Since large scale electricity storage is currently not economically viable, generation must exactly match electricity demand plus energy losses in the system as time unfolds. Therefore, as generation from variable resources such as wind and solar fluctuate, production from generating resources that are easier to control and dispatch need to compensate for these fluctuations while at the same time respond to both instantaneous change in load and follow daily load profiles. The grid in the Western U.S. is not exempt to grid integration challenges associated with variable resources. However, one advantage that the power system in the Western U.S. has over many other regional power systems is that its footprint contains an abundance of hydropower resources. Hydropower plants, especially those that have reservoir water storage, can physically change electricity production levels very quickly both via a dispatcher and through automatic generation control. Since hydropower response time is typically much faster than other dispatchable resources such as steam or gas turbines, it is well suited to alleviate variable resource grid integration issues. However, despite an abundance of hydropower resources and the current low penetration of variable resources in the Western U.S., problems have already surfaced. This spring in the Pacific Northwest, wetter than normal hydropower conditions in combination with transmission constraints resulted in controversial wind resource shedding. This action was taken since water spilling would have increased dissolved oxygen levels downstream of dams thereby significantly degrading fish habitats. The extent to which hydropower resources will be able to contribute toward a stable and reliable Western grid is

  3. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  4. Improving real-time inflow forecasting into hydropower reservoirs through a complementary modelling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gragne, A. S.; Sharma, A.; Mehrotra, R.; Alfredsen, K.

    2015-08-01

    Accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasts is instrumental for maximizing the value of water resources and benefits gained through hydropower generation. Improving hourly reservoir inflow forecasts over a 24 h lead time is considered within the day-ahead (Elspot) market of the Nordic exchange market. A complementary modelling framework presents an approach for improving real-time forecasting without needing to modify the pre-existing forecasting model, but instead formulating an independent additive or complementary model that captures the structure the existing operational model may be missing. We present here the application of this principle for issuing improved hourly inflow forecasts into hydropower reservoirs over extended lead times, and the parameter estimation procedure reformulated to deal with bias, persistence and heteroscedasticity. The procedure presented comprises an error model added on top of an unalterable constant parameter conceptual model. This procedure is applied in the 207 km2 Krinsvatn catchment in central Norway. The structure of the error model is established based on attributes of the residual time series from the conceptual model. Besides improving forecast skills of operational models, the approach estimates the uncertainty in the complementary model structure and produces probabilistic inflow forecasts that entrain suitable information for reducing uncertainty in the decision-making processes in hydropower systems operation. Deterministic and probabilistic evaluations revealed an overall significant improvement in forecast accuracy for lead times up to 17 h. Evaluation of the percentage of observations bracketed in the forecasted 95 % confidence interval indicated that the degree of success in containing 95 % of the observations varies across seasons and hydrologic years.

  5. A fish-eye view of riverine hydropower systems. Understanding the biological response to turbine passage

    DOE PAGES

    Pracheil, Brenda M.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    One-way connectivity maintained by fish passing through hydropower turbines in fragmented rivers can be important to population dynamics, but can introduce a new and significant source of mortality due to turbine-associated mortality. Sources of mortality during downstream turbine passage can come from several sources including blade strike, shear forces, cavitation, or pressure decreases, and parsing the contributions of these individual forces is important for advancing and deploying turbines that minimize these impacts to fishes. We used a national hydropower database and conducted a systematic review of the literature to accomplish three goals: (1) report on the spatial distribution of turbinemore » types and generation capacities in the USA, (2) determine fish mortality rates among turbine types and fish species and (3) examine relationships between physical forces similar to those encountered during fish turbine passage and fish injury and mortality. We found that while Francis turbines generate 56% of all US hydropower and have the highest associated fish mortality of any turbine type, these turbines are proportionally understudied compared to less-common and less injury-associated Kaplan turbines, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. While juvenile salmonid species in actual or simulated Kaplan turbine conditions were the most commonly studied, the highest mortality rates were reported in percid fishes passing through Francis turbines. Also, although there are several mechanisms of turbine-associated injury, barotrauma was the most commonly studied with swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, eye gas bubbles, and prolapsed cloaca being the most serious symptoms associated with rapid pressure decreases. Future studies should focus on understanding which species are most at-risk to turbine passage mortality and, subsequently, increasing the diversity of taxonomy and turbine types in evaluations of turbine mortality.« less

  6. A fish-eye view of riverine hydropower systems. Understanding the biological response to turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Pracheil, Brenda M.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    One-way connectivity maintained by fish passing through hydropower turbines in fragmented rivers can be important to population dynamics, but can introduce a new and significant source of mortality due to turbine-associated mortality. Sources of mortality during downstream turbine passage can come from several sources including blade strike, shear forces, cavitation, or pressure decreases, and parsing the contributions of these individual forces is important for advancing and deploying turbines that minimize these impacts to fishes. We used a national hydropower database and conducted a systematic review of the literature to accomplish three goals: (1) report on the spatial distribution of turbine types and generation capacities in the USA, (2) determine fish mortality rates among turbine types and fish species and (3) examine relationships between physical forces similar to those encountered during fish turbine passage and fish injury and mortality. We found that while Francis turbines generate 56% of all US hydropower and have the highest associated fish mortality of any turbine type, these turbines are proportionally understudied compared to less-common and less injury-associated Kaplan turbines, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. While juvenile salmonid species in actual or simulated Kaplan turbine conditions were the most commonly studied, the highest mortality rates were reported in percid fishes passing through Francis turbines. Also, although there are several mechanisms of turbine-associated injury, barotrauma was the most commonly studied with swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, eye gas bubbles, and prolapsed cloaca being the most serious symptoms associated with rapid pressure decreases. Future studies should focus on understanding which species are most at-risk to turbine passage mortality and, subsequently, increasing the diversity of taxonomy and turbine types in evaluations of turbine mortality.

  7. Citizen Hydrology and Compressed-Air Hydropower for Rural Electrification in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    At the present time, only one in eight residents of Haiti has access to electricity. Two recent engineering and statistical innovations have the potential for vastly reducing the cost of installation of hydropower in Haiti and the rest of the developing world. The engineering innovation is that wind, solar and fluvial energy have been used to compress air for generation of electricity for only 20 per megawatt-hour, in contrast to the conventional World Bank practice of funding photovoltaic cells for 156 per megawatt-hour. The installation of hydropower requires a record of stream discharge, which is conventionally obtained by installing a gaging station that automatically monitors gage height (height of the water surface above a fixed datum). An empirical rating curve is then used to convert gage height to stream discharge. The multiple field measurements of gage height and discharge over a wide range of discharge values that are required to develop and maintain a rating curve require a manpower of hydrologic technicians that is prohibitive in remote and impoverished areas of the world. The statistical innovation is that machine learning has been applied to the USGS database of nearly four million simultaneous measurements of gage height and discharge to develop a new classification of rivers so that a rating curve can be developed solely from the stream slope, channel geometry, horizontal and vertical distances to the nearest upstream and downstream confluences, and two pairs of discharge - gage height measurements. The objective of this study is to organize local residents to monitor gage height at ten stream sites in the northern peninsula of Haiti over a one-year period in preparation for installation of hydropower at one of the sites. The necessary baseline discharge measurements and channel surveying are being carried out for conversion of gage height to discharge. Results will be reported at the meeting.

  8. Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts.

  9. New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih-Chieh; McManamay, Ryan A; Stewart, Kevin M; Samu, Nicole M; Hadjerioua, Boualem; DeNeale, Scott T; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Oubeidillah, Abdoul A; Smith, Brennan T

    2014-04-01

    The rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets related to topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics in the past decade have provided new opportunities for the refinement of hydropower resource potential from undeveloped stream-reaches. Through 2011 to 2013, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program to evaluate the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential for more than 3 million US streams. A methodology was designed that contains three main components: (1) identification of stream-reaches with high energy density, (2) topographical analysis of stream-reaches to estimate inundated surface area and reservoir storage, and (3) environmental attribution to spatially join information related to the natural ecological systems, social and cultural settings, policies, management, and legal constraints to stream-reaches of energy potential. An initial report on methodology (Hadjerioua et al., 2013) was later reviewed and revised based on the comments gathered from two peer review workshops. After implementing the assessment across the entire United States, major findings were summarized in this final report. The estimated NSD capacity and generation, including both higher-energy-density (>1 MW per reach) and lower-energy-density (<1 MW per reach) stream-reaches is 84.7 GW, around the same size as the existing US conventional hydropower nameplate capacity (79.5 GW; NHAAP, 2013). In terms of energy, the total undeveloped NSD generation is estimated to be 460 TWh/year, around 169% of average 2002 2011 net annual generation from existing conventional hydropower plants (272 TWh/year; EIA, 2013). Given the run-of-river assumption, NSD stream-reaches have higher capacity factors (53 71%), especially compared with conventional larger-storage peaking-operation projects that usually have capacity factors of around 30%. The highest potential is identified in the Pacific Northwest

  10. Managing Mekong Mud and its Impact on Fish, Hydropower and People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Loucks, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Lancang/Mekong River flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the Upper Mekong Basin in China (where it is called the Lancang Jiang) to the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) in Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, before discharging into the South China Sea. The river has remained largely unaltered for much of its history, but today hydropower reservoirs are being designed and developed at a rapid pace. Some 60 million people living in the basin have depended on the basin's ecosystems to produce much of their food and income. The health and productivity of the ecosystems are dependent upon the river's natural flow and sediment regimes, both of which could be significantly altered by the rapid construction of dams. This presentation focuses on the potential impacts of dam development and alternative sediment management options, where feasible, including flushing, sluicing, bypassing, and density current venting. We evaluate whether these techniques can improve reservoir sediment outflows without damaging the environmental system we are attempting to preserve. We also evaluate the accompanying losses in hydropower production necessary to achieve the improved sediment passage. This study focuses on dams in China, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, both on the mainstream Mekong River and on its tributaries. A sediment simulation model was developed specifically to conduct these evaluations. This model implements a daily time-step mass-balance simulation of flow and sediment to predict the spatial and temporal accumulation, depletion, and distribution of sediment in river reaches and in reservoirs under different flow and sediment management policies. Results of simulations suggest that more benign (with regard to sediment) alternatives to the currently proposed locations and designs of dams exist and should be considered. While sediment management alternatives have the potential to increase sediment loads discharged downstream, careful attention must be paid to the

  11. HEPS4Power - Extended-range Hydrometeorological Ensemble Predictions for Improved Hydropower Operations and Revenues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Konrad; Monhart, Samuel; Liniger, Mark; Spririg, Christoph; Jordan, Fred; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    In recent years large progresses have been achieved in the operational prediction of floods and hydrological drought with up to ten days lead time. Both the public and the private sectors are currently using probabilistic runoff forecast in order to monitoring water resources and take actions when critical conditions are to be expected. The use of extended-range predictions with lead times exceeding 10 days is not yet established. The hydropower sector in particular might have large benefits from using hydro meteorological forecasts for the next 15 to 60 days in order to optimize the operations and the revenues from their watersheds, dams, captions, turbines and pumps. The new Swiss Competence Centers in Energy Research (SCCER) targets at boosting research related to energy issues in Switzerland. The objective of HEPS4POWER is to demonstrate that operational extended-range hydro meteorological forecasts have the potential to become very valuable tools for fine tuning the production of energy from hydropower systems. The project team covers a specific system-oriented value chain starting from the collection and forecast of meteorological data (MeteoSwiss), leading to the operational application of state-of-the-art hydrological models (WSL) and terminating with the experience in data presentation and power production forecasts for end-users (e-dric.ch). The first task of the HEPS4POWER will be the downscaling and post-processing of ensemble extended-range meteorological forecasts (EPS). The goal is to provide well-tailored forecasts of probabilistic nature that should be reliable in statistical and localized at catchment or even station level. The hydrology related task will consist in feeding the post-processed meteorological forecasts into a HEPS using a multi-model approach by implementing models with different complexity. Also in the case of the hydrological ensemble predictions, post-processing techniques need to be tested in order to improve the quality of the

  12. Water balance estimation with the Budyko method to assess the hydropower potential of rivers in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, Harald; Stanzel, Philipp; Fuchs, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Small and medium hydropower has a large potential for future development in West Africa, a region that is facing a constant shortage of energy supply and thereby limiting economic growth. The river reaches suitable for small and medium hydropower development are usually located in headwater areas. Mean annual discharge (along with slope) is a key variable for assessing the hydropower potential of a river reach. As discharge gauges are typically located at larger, downstream rivers a regionalization of flow is required. In this study we use the Budyko method to establish the spatially distributed mean annual water balance for whole West Africa (appr. 5 Mio km²), including the basins of e.g. Niger, Volta, and Senegal rivers. The spatially distributed inputs of mean annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are used to compute actual evapotranspiration and thus runoff. Runoff is aggregated along the river network to compute discharge. Due to the impact of different soils and vegetation cover the Budyko curve is calibrated with observed discharge data of about 100 basins covering a wide range of humid to semi-arid conditions. A framework is developed to properly account for the distinctive decadal variations of rainfall (and discharge) in West Africa. Specific challenges are (a) apparently biased discharge measurements at some gauges and (b) uncertainties in the precipitation data (station-based and satellite-based). The results of this study will give (1) an overview about the hydropower potential in each West African country and (2) the theoretical hydropower potential of about 100,000 river reaches. The results will be published on a website with interactive maps to enable the selection of regions of interest for further, detailed assessment of small and medium hydropower development.

  13. Demonstrating a new framework for the comparison of environmental impacts from small- and large-scale hydropower and wind power projects.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Aase, Anne Guri; Hagen, Dagmar; Sundt, Håkon; Barton, David N; Lujala, Päivi

    2014-07-01

    Climate change and the needed reductions in the use of fossil fuels call for the development of renewable energy sources. However, renewable energy production, such as hydropower (both small- and large-scale) and wind power have adverse impacts on the local environment by causing reductions in biodiversity and loss of habitats and species. This paper compares the environmental impacts of many small-scale hydropower plants with a few large-scale hydropower projects and one wind power farm, based on the same set of environmental parameters; land occupation, reduction in wilderness areas (INON), visibility and impacts on red-listed species. Our basis for comparison was similar energy volumes produced, without considering the quality of the energy services provided. The results show that small-scale hydropower performs less favourably in all parameters except land occupation. The land occupation of large hydropower and wind power is in the range of 45-50 m(2)/MWh, which is more than two times larger than the small-scale hydropower, where the large land occupation for large hydropower is explained by the extent of the reservoirs. On all the three other parameters small-scale hydropower performs more than two times worse than both large hydropower and wind power. Wind power compares similarly to large-scale hydropower regarding land occupation, much better on the reduction in INON areas, and in the same range regarding red-listed species. Our results demonstrate that the selected four parameters provide a basis for further development of a fair and consistent comparison of impacts between the analysed renewable technologies. PMID:24726970

  14. Demonstrating a new framework for the comparison of environmental impacts from small- and large-scale hydropower and wind power projects.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Aase, Anne Guri; Hagen, Dagmar; Sundt, Håkon; Barton, David N; Lujala, Päivi

    2014-07-01

    Climate change and the needed reductions in the use of fossil fuels call for the development of renewable energy sources. However, renewable energy production, such as hydropower (both small- and large-scale) and wind power have adverse impacts on the local environment by causing reductions in biodiversity and loss of habitats and species. This paper compares the environmental impacts of many small-scale hydropower plants with a few large-scale hydropower projects and one wind power farm, based on the same set of environmental parameters; land occupation, reduction in wilderness areas (INON), visibility and impacts on red-listed species. Our basis for comparison was similar energy volumes produced, without considering the quality of the energy services provided. The results show that small-scale hydropower performs less favourably in all parameters except land occupation. The land occupation of large hydropower and wind power is in the range of 45-50 m(2)/MWh, which is more than two times larger than the small-scale hydropower, where the large land occupation for large hydropower is explained by the extent of the reservoirs. On all the three other parameters small-scale hydropower performs more than two times worse than both large hydropower and wind power. Wind power compares similarly to large-scale hydropower regarding land occupation, much better on the reduction in INON areas, and in the same range regarding red-listed species. Our results demonstrate that the selected four parameters provide a basis for further development of a fair and consistent comparison of impacts between the analysed renewable technologies.

  15. Use of the Legal-Institutional Analysis Model to assess hydropower licensing negotiations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Lamb, B.L.; Garcia de Jalon, D.; Sabaton, C.; Souchon, Y.; Tamai, N.; Robinette, H.R.; Waddle, T.J.; Brinson, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is responsible for issuing or renewing licenses for hydropower projects owned and operated by power companies. During the licensing process, these companies are required to consult with agencies and other parties that are affected by project operating regimes. Typical participants include state and federal fish and wildlife agencies, environmental interest groups, and the FERC. One of the most difficult tasks facing participants is to reach agreement about what kinds of environmental conditions should be placed on license. Researchers at the United States Geological Survey developed a model to analyze the institutional context of natural resource disputes. The Legal-Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) is a computerized model that allows an analyst to determine the likely behavior of each organization in a conflict. The model also analyzes the types and levels of negotiating power held by each organization. Researchers at the USGS have used the model in several cases involving hydropower license applications. To use the model, they facilitate workshops for stakeholder groups in order to develop a shared understanding of the likely obstacles and opportunities for successful resolution of the issues. This allows a systematic workshop analyses to develop strategies for successful negotiations, because they are able to better understand the negotiation problem and work more effectively with both their allies and their competitors.

  16. Uncertainty analysis in geospatial merit matrix–based hydropower resource assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Saetern, Sen; Yang, Majntxov; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Smith, Brennan T.

    2016-03-30

    Hydraulic head and mean annual streamflow, two main input parameters in hydropower resource assessment, are not measured at every point along the stream. Translation and interpolation are used to derive these parameters, resulting in uncertainties. This study estimates the uncertainties and their effects on model output parameters: the total potential power and the number of potential locations (stream-reach). These parameters are quantified through Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) linking with a geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) Model. The methodology is applied to flat, mild, and steep terrains. Results show that the uncertainty associated with the hydraulic head ismore » within 20% for mild and steep terrains, and the uncertainty associated with streamflow is around 16% for all three terrains. Output uncertainty increases as input uncertainty increases. However, output uncertainty is around 10% to 20% of the input uncertainty, demonstrating the robustness of the GMM-HRA model. Hydraulic head is more sensitive to output parameters in steep terrain than in flat and mild terrains. Furthermore, mean annual streamflow is more sensitive to output parameters in flat terrain.« less

  17. Microseismic Monitoring of Strainburst Activities in Deep Tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, N. W.; Li, T. B.; Dai, F.; Zhang, R.; Tang, C. A.; Tang, L. X.

    2016-03-01

    Rockbursts were frequently encountered during the construction of deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, Southwest China. Investigations of the possibility of rockbursts during tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drilling and blasting (D&B) advancement are necessary to guide the construction of tunnels and to protect personnel and TBM equipment from strainburst-related accidents. A real-time, movable microseismic monitoring system was installed to forecast strainburst locations ahead of the tunnel faces. The spatiotemporal distribution evolution of microseismic events prior to and during strainbursts was recorded and analysed. The concentration of microseismic events prior to the occurrence of strainbursts was found to be a significant precursor to strainbursts in deep rock tunnelling. During a 2-year microseismic investigation of strainbursts in the deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, a total of 2240 strainburst location forecasts were issued, with 63 % correctly forecasting the locations of strainbursts. The successful forecasting of strainburst locations proved that microseismic monitoring is essential for the assessment and mitigation of strainburst hazards, and can be used to minimise damage to equipment and personnel. The results of the current study may be valuable for the construction management and safety assessment of similar underground rock structures under high in situ stress.

  18. Ergonomics program management in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant using TPM methodology.

    PubMed

    Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B M; Miguez, S A; Pardauil, A A

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present the benefits achieved in the ergonomics process management with the use of the TPM methodology (Total Productive Maintenance) in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The methodology is aligned with the corporate guidelines, moreover with the Strategic Planning of the company, it is represented in the TPM Pillars including the Health Pillar in which is inserted the ergonomics process. The results of the ergonomic actions demonstrated a 12% reduction over the absenteeism rate due to musculoskeletal disorders, solving 77,0% of ergonomic non-conformities, what favored the rise of the Organizational Climate in 44,8%, impacting on the overall performance of the company. Awards confirmed the success of the work by the achievement of the Award for TPM Excellence in 2001, Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment in 2009 and more recently the Special Award for TPM Achievement, 2010. The determination of the high rank administration and workers, allied with the involvement/dynamism of Pillars, has assured the success of this management practice in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant.

  19. Managing Tradeoffs between Hydropower and the Environment in the Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loucks, Daniel P.; Wild, Thomas B.

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower dams are being designed and constructed at a rapid pace in the Mekong/Lancang River basin in Southeast Asia. These reservoirs are expected to trap significant amounts sediment, decreasing much of the river's capability to transport nutrients and maintain its geomorphology and habitats. We apply a simulation model for identifying and evaluating alternative dam siting, design and operating policy (SDO) options that could help maintain more natural sediment regimes downstream of dams and for evaluating the effect of these sediment-focused SDO strategies on hydropower production and reliability. We apply this approach to the planned reservoirs that would prevent a significant source of sediment from reaching critical Mekong ecosystems such as Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong delta in Vietnam. Model results suggest that various SDO modifications could increase sediment discharge from this site by 300-450% compared to current plans, but a 30-55% loss in short-term annual energy production depending on various configurations of upstream reservoirs. Simulation results also suggest that sediment management-focused reservoir operating policies could cause ecological damage if they are not properly implemented.

  20. Operational constraints and hydrologic variability limit hydropower in supporting wind integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.; Blumsack, Seth A.; Reed, Patrick M.

    2013-06-01

    Climate change mitigation will require rapid adoption of low-carbon energy resources. The integration of large-scale wind energy in the United States (US) will require controllable assets to balance the variability of wind energy production. Previous work has identified hydropower as an advantageous asset, due to its flexibility and low-carbon emissions production. While many dams currently provide energy and environmental services in the US and globally, we find that multi-use hydropower facilities would face significant policy conflicts if asked to store and release water to accommodate wind integration. Specifically, we develop a model simulating hydroelectric operational decisions when the electric facility is able to provide wind integration services through a mechanism that we term ‘flex reserves’. We use Kerr Dam in North Carolina as a case study, simulating operations under two alternative reservoir policies, one reflecting current policies and the other regulating flow levels to promote downstream ecosystem conservation. Even under perfect information and significant pricing incentives, Kerr Dam faces operational conflicts when providing any substantial levels of flex reserves while also maintaining releases consistent with other river management requirements. These operational conflicts are severely exacerbated during periods of drought. Increase of payments for flex reserves does not resolve these operational and policy conflicts.

  1. Short-Term Stochastic Optimization of Hydropower Production and Marketing under Meteorological Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanenberg, D.; Naumann, S.; Allen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric power systems are characterized by variability and uncertainty in yield and water resources obligations. Market volatility and the growing number of operational constraints for flood control, navigation, environmental obligations and ancillary services (including load balancing requirements for renewable resources) further the need to quantify sources of uncertainty. This research presents an integrated framework to handle several sources of uncertainty. Main focus is on the meteorological forecast uncertainty represented by a probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP), its consistent propagation through load and streamflow forecasts, and the generation of scenario trees with multi-dimensional distance metrics. The short-term management approach adapts to this forecast uncertainty and its resolution by the use of multi-stage stochastic optimization. The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), managed by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, serves as a large-scale test case for the application of the new framework. It is used to quantify the operational flexibility of the hydropower system and to propagate the forecast uncertainty through the system. Objectives and constraints enable the operating staff to shape and direct the system such that variability remains in the hydropower system or gets absorbs by the energy market.

  2. Reservoir release patterns for hydropower operations at the Aspinall Unit on the Gunnison River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, S.C.L.; McCoy, J.J.; Sedlacek, J.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the development of reservoir release patterns for the Aspinall Unit, which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs on the Gunnison River in Colorado. Release patterns were assessed for two hydropower operational scenarios--seasonally adjusted steady flows and seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flows--and three representative hydrologic years--moderate (1987), dry (1989), and wet (1983). The release patterns for the operational scenarios were developed with the aid of monthly, daily, and hourly reservoir operational models, which simulate the linked operation of the three Aspinall Unit reservoirs. Also presented are reservoir fluctuations and downstream water surface elevations corresponding to the reservoir release patterns. Both of the hydropower operational scenarios evaluated are based on the ecological research flows proposed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service for the Aspinall Unit. The first operational scenario allows only seasonally adjusted steady flows (no hourly fluctuations at any dam within one day), whereas the second scenario permits high fluctuating flows from Blue Mesa and Morrow Point Reservoirs during certain times of the year. Crystal Reservoir would release a steady flow within each day under both operational scenarios.

  3. Comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are: (1) blockage of fish migration routes; (2) water level fluctuations; (3) instream flows, (4) water quality; (5) dredging and dredged material disposal; and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

  4. Ergonomics program management in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant using TPM methodology.

    PubMed

    Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B M; Miguez, S A; Pardauil, A A

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present the benefits achieved in the ergonomics process management with the use of the TPM methodology (Total Productive Maintenance) in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The methodology is aligned with the corporate guidelines, moreover with the Strategic Planning of the company, it is represented in the TPM Pillars including the Health Pillar in which is inserted the ergonomics process. The results of the ergonomic actions demonstrated a 12% reduction over the absenteeism rate due to musculoskeletal disorders, solving 77,0% of ergonomic non-conformities, what favored the rise of the Organizational Climate in 44,8%, impacting on the overall performance of the company. Awards confirmed the success of the work by the achievement of the Award for TPM Excellence in 2001, Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment in 2009 and more recently the Special Award for TPM Achievement, 2010. The determination of the high rank administration and workers, allied with the involvement/dynamism of Pillars, has assured the success of this management practice in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. PMID:22317147

  5. A New Tool for Environmental and Economic Optimization of Hydropower Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Hayse, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers from Argonne, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the development of an integrated toolset to enhance hydropower operational decisions related to economic value and environmental performance. As part of this effort, we developed an analytical approach (Index of River Functionality, IRF) and an associated software tool to evaluate how well discharge regimes achieve ecosystem management goals for hydropower facilities. This approach defines site-specific environmental objectives using relationships between environmental metrics and hydropower-influenced flow characteristics (e.g., discharge or temperature), with consideration given to seasonal timing, duration, and return frequency requirements for the environmental objectives. The IRF approach evaluates the degree to which an operational regime meets each objective and produces a score representing how well that regime meets the overall set of defined objectives. When integrated with other components in the toolset that are used to plan hydropower operations based upon hydrologic forecasts and various constraints on operations, the IRF approach allows an optimal release pattern to be developed based upon tradeoffs between environmental performance and economic value. We tested the toolset prototype to generate a virtual planning operation for a hydropower facility located in the Upper Colorado River basin as a demonstration exercise. We conducted planning as if looking five months into the future using data for the recently concluded 2012 water year. The environmental objectives for this demonstration were related to spawning and nursery habitat for endangered fishes using metrics associated with maintenance of instream habitat and reconnection of the main channel with floodplain wetlands in a representative reach of the river. We also applied existing mandatory operational constraints for the

  6. 76 FR 59682 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Dispute Resolution Panel Meeting and Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Dispute Resolution Panel Meeting..., 2011, convened a single three-person Dispute Resolution Panel (Panel) pursuant to 18 CFR 5.14(d)....

  7. Natural gas price uncertainty and the cost-effectiveness of hedging against low hydropower revenues caused by drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jordan D.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Foster, Benjamin T.

    2015-04-01

    Prolonged periods of low reservoir inflows (droughts) significantly reduce a hydropower producer's ability to generate both electricity and revenues. Given the capital intensive nature of the electric power industry, this can impact hydropower producers' ability to pay down outstanding debt, leading to credit rating downgrades, higher interests rates on new debt, and ultimately, greater infrastructure costs. One potential tool for reducing the financial exposure of hydropower producers to drought is hydrologic index insurance, in particular, contracts structured to payout when streamflows drop below a specified level. An ongoing challenge in developing this type of insurance, however, is minimizing contracts' "basis risk," that is, the degree to which contract payouts deviate in timing and/or amount from actual damages experienced by policyholders. In this paper, we show that consideration of year-to-year changes in the value of hydropower (i.e., the cost of replacing it with an alternative energy source during droughts) is critical to reducing contract basis risk. In particular, we find that volatility in the price of natural gas, a key driver of peak electricity prices, can significantly degrade the performance of index insurance unless contracts are designed to explicitly consider natural gas prices when determining payouts. Results show that a combined index whose value is derived from both seasonal streamflows and the spot price of natural gas yields contracts that exhibit both lower basis risk and greater effectiveness in terms of reducing financial exposure.

  8. Predicted effects of hydropower uprate on trout habitat in the Cumberland River, Downstream of Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Gore, J.A.; Curtis, L.T.; Martin, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The US Army Engineer District, Nashville (ORN), regulates flows in the Cumberland River at Wolf Creek Dam to provide for hydropower generation and flood control. The ORN is considering uprating the Wolf Creek Dam powerhouse to meet future demands for power in the region by replacing existing turbines with new units having higher capacity. With the proposed new units, maximum hydropower discharge will increase with a concomitant decrease in duration of generation. This report describes and quantifies the effects of hydropower uprating on downstream habitat of adult rainbow trout, juvenile brown trout, and adult brown trout using Instream Flow Incremental Methodology concepts. The relative downstream habitat impacts of hydropower uprate are assessed by contrasting existing and uprate release schedules under the following three hydrologic conditions: low flow (90% exceedance), average flow (50% exceedance), and high flow (10% exceedance). In general, predicted habitat availability for adult rainbow trout and adult brown trout decreases under uprate release schedules for low- and average-flow hydrologic conditions. Under high-flow conditions, habitat availability for the adult-life stages increases. Habitat for juvenile brown trout is generally negligible under both existing and uprate release schedules, and consistent patterns were not observed.

  9. Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of biological condition below hydropower dams on west slope Sierra Nevada streams, California, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 50 hydropower dams in California will undergo relicensing by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in the next 15 years. An interpretive framework for biological data collected by relicensing studies is lacking. This study developed a multi-metric index of biotic...

  10. 75 FR 71122 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review November 15, 2010. Commission staff will be conducting two public scoping meetings and...

  11. A two stage Bayesian stochastic optimization model for cascaded hydropower systems considering varying uncertainty of flow forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Peng, Yong; Fu, Guangtao; Zhou, Huicheng

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new Two Stage Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming (TS-BSDP) model for real time operation of cascaded hydropower systems to handle varying uncertainty of inflow forecasts from Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts. In this model, the inflow forecasts are considered as having increasing uncertainty with extending lead time, thus the forecast horizon is divided into two periods: the inflows in the first period are assumed to be accurate, and the inflows in the second period assumed to be of high uncertainty. Two operation strategies are developed to derive hydropower operation policies for the first and the entire forecast horizon using TS-BSDP. In this paper, the newly developed model is tested on China's Hun River cascade hydropower system and is compared with three popular stochastic dynamic programming models. Comparative results show that the TS-BSDP model exhibits significantly improved system performance in terms of power generation and system reliability due to its explicit and effective utilization of varying degrees of inflow forecast uncertainty. The results also show that the decision strategies should be determined considering the magnitude of uncertainty in inflow forecasts. Further, this study confirms the previous finding that the benefit in hydropower generation gained from the use of a longer horizon of inflow forecasts is diminished due to higher uncertainty and further reveals that the benefit reduction can be substantially mitigated through explicit consideration of varying magnitudes of forecast uncertainties in the decision-making process.

  12. 78 FR 43188 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... Relicensing and a Deadline for Submission of Final Amendments Take notice that the following...

  13. 78 FR 62348 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests Take notice that the following...

  14. 78 FR 15602 - Annual Update to Fee Schedule for the Use of Government Lands by Hydropower Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... fees by county (or other geographic area) for use of government lands by hydropower licensees. DATES... Charges for the Use of Government Lands, Order No. 774, 78 FR 5256 (January 25, 2013), FERC Stats. & Regs... County Fee/acre/Yr Alabama Autauga $53.06 Baldwin 89.12 Barbour 48.00 Bibb 61.16 Blount 87.24 Bullock...

  15. 76 FR 4097 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... License. b. Project No.: 2713-082. c. Date Filed: December 30, 2010. d. Applicant: Erie Boulevard... Contact: Jon Elmer, Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P, 800 Starbuck Ave., Suite 802, Watertown, New York... generation, while the Heuvelton and Eel Weir developments typically operate in a run-of-river mode. With...

  16. New Stream-reach Development (NSD): A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih-Chieh

    2014-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory with evaluating the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential of more than 3 million U.S. streams in order to help individuals and organizations evaluate the feasibility of developing new hydropower sources in the United States.

  17. 78 FR 62348 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Establishing Procedural Schedule for Licensing and Deadline for Submission of Final Amendments Take notice that...

  18. Assessing the hydropower potential of ungauged watersheds in Iceland using hydrological modeling and satellite retrieved snow cover images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David

    2015-04-01

    About 80% of the domestic energy production in Iceland comes from renewable energies. Hydropower accounts for about 20% this production, representing about 75% of the total electricity production in Iceland. In 2008 total electricity production from hydropower was about 12.5 TWh a-1, making Iceland a worldwide leader in hydropower production per capita. Furthermore, the total potential of hydroelectricity in Iceland is estimated to amount up to 220 TWh a-1. In this regard, hydrological modelling is an essential tool to adapt a sustainable management of water resources and estimate the potential of possible new sites for hydropower production. We used the conceptual lumped Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning model (HBV) to estimate the potential of hydropower production in two remote areas in north-eastern Iceland (Leirdalshraun, a 274 km2 area above 595 m asl and Hafralónsá, a 946 km2 area above 235 m asl). The model parameters were determined by calibrating the model with discharge data from gauged sub catchments. Satellite snow cover images were used to constrain melt parameters of the model and assure adequate modelling of snow melt in the ungauged areas. This was particularly valuable to adequately estimate the contribution of snow melt, rainfall runoff and groundwater intrusion from glaciers outside the topographic boundaries of the selected watersheds. Runoff from the entire area potentially used for hydropower exploitation was estimated using the parameter sets of the gauged sub-catchments. Additionally, snow melt from the ungauged areas was validated with satellite based snow cover images, revealing a robust simulation of snow melt in the entire area. Based on the hydrological modelling the total amount of snow melt and rainfall runoff available in Leirdalshraun and Hafralónsá amounts up to 700 M m3 a-1 and 1000 M m3 a-1, respectively. These results reveal that the total hydropower potential of the two sites amounts up to 1.2 TWh a-1

  19. Short-term Hydropower Reservoir Operations in Chile's Central Interconnected System: Tradeoffs between Hydrologic Alteration and Economic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Hydropower accounts for about 50% of the installed capacity in Chile's Central Interconnected System (CIS) and new developments are envisioned in the near future. Large projects involving reservoirs are perceived negatively by the general public. In terms of operations, hydropower scheduling takes place at monthly, weekly, daily and hourly intervals, and operations at each level affect different environmental processes. Due to its ability to quickly and inexpensively respond to short-term changes in demand, hydropower reservoirs often are operated to provide power during periods of peak demand. This operational scheme, known as hydropeaking, changes the hydrologic regime by altering the rate and frequency of changes in flow magnitude on short time scales. To mitigate impacts on downstream ecosystems, operational constraints -typically minimum instream flows and maximum ramping rates- are imposed on hydropower plants. These operational restrictions limit reduce operational flexibility and can reduce the economic value of energy generation by imposing additional costs on the operation of interconnected power systems. Methods to predict the degree of hydrologic alteration rely on statistical analyses of instream flow time series. Typically, studies on hydrologic alteration use historical operational records for comparison between pre- and post-dam conditions. Efforts to assess hydrologic alteration based on future operational schemes of reservoirs are scarce. This study couples two existing models: a mid-term operations planning and a short-term economic dispatch to simulate short-term hydropower reservoir operations under different future scenarios. Scenarios of possible future configurations of the Chilean CIS are defined with emphasis on the introduction of non-conventional renewables (particularly wind energy) and large hydropower projects in Patagonia. Both models try to reproduce the actual decision making process in the Chilean Central Interconnected System

  20. Impact of climate change and water use policies on hydropower potential in the south-eastern Alpine region.

    PubMed

    Majone, Bruno; Villa, Francesca; Deidda, Roberto; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is expected to cause alterations of streamflow regimes in the Alpine region, with possible relevant consequences for several socio-economic sectors including hydropower production. The impact of climate change on water resources and hydropower production is evaluated with reference to the Noce catchment, which is located in the Southeastern Alps, Italy. Projected changes of precipitation and temperature, derived from an ensemble of 4 climate model (CM) runs for the period 2040-2070 under the SRES A1B emission scenario, have been downscaled and bias corrected before using them as climatic forcing in a hydrological model. Projections indicate an increase of the mean temperature of the catchment in the range 2-4K, depending on the climate model used. Projections of precipitation indicate an increase of annual precipitation in the range between 2% and 6% with larger changes in winter and autumn. Hydrological simulations show an increase of water yield during the period 2040-2070 with respect to 1970-2000. Furthermore, a transition from glacio-nival to nival regime is projected for the catchment. Hydrological regime is expected to change as a consequence of less winter precipitation falling as snow and anticipated melting in spring, with the runoff peak decreasing in intensity and anticipating from July to June. Changes in water availability reflect in the Technical Hydropower Potential (THP) of the catchment, with larger changes projected for the hydropower plants located at the highest altitudes. Finally, the impacts on THP of water use policies such as the introduction of prescriptions for minimum ecological flow (MEF) have been analyzed. Simulations indicate that in the lower part of the catchment reduction of the hydropower production due to MEF releases from the storage reservoirs counterbalances the benefits associated to the projected increases of inflows as foreseen by simulations driven only by climate change.

  1. Simulation of Climate Change Effects on Hydropower Lake Inflows in a Mountain Basin, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, B. S.; Newton, S.; King, R.; Zammit, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric power is a valuable renewable energy resource and the primary source of electricity in New Zealand, but climate change is predicted to have varying effects on mountain rivers and hydropower in the future due to strong topographic, precipitation, and temperature gradients over space. This study models climate change impacts on river inflows to three headwaters hydropower lakes (Pukaki, Tekapo, and Ohau) in the Upper Waitaki Basin of the central South Island using the TopNet hydrological model based on the 1990s (baseline), 2040s, and 2090s periods. The IPCC 4th assessment report A1B emissions scenario and average temperature and precipitation results of 12 Global Circulation Models with statistical downscaling were used as input to TopNet. Indicators of hydrologic alteration were used to estimate and compare 63 flow metrics across the full flow regime based on TopNet output. Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to evaluate significant differences between metrics among the three periods. Implications for hydropower operations, other water resources management needs, and braided river flows and ecology were also evaluated. Results show that annual and cumulative inflows increase for future climate periods for all three lakes. However, seasonal effects cause flows to generally increase in winter and early spring and decrease slightly in summer due to warmer temperatures with more winter rain and less snow. The number of inflow metrics with statistically significant changes is greatest for Lake Pukaki, with the most glacierized catchment, and least for Lake Ohau. High flows and floods generally increase, and low flows/extreme low flows decrease. Overall these changes may be beneficial for hydropower and some braided river floodplain ecological features, but the seasonal shifts will result in greater flood risk in winter and spring, more drought risk in summer and autumn, and additional challenges managing water volumes in these mountain hydropower lakes.

  2. Impact of climate change and water use policies on hydropower potential in the south-eastern Alpine region.

    PubMed

    Majone, Bruno; Villa, Francesca; Deidda, Roberto; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is expected to cause alterations of streamflow regimes in the Alpine region, with possible relevant consequences for several socio-economic sectors including hydropower production. The impact of climate change on water resources and hydropower production is evaluated with reference to the Noce catchment, which is located in the Southeastern Alps, Italy. Projected changes of precipitation and temperature, derived from an ensemble of 4 climate model (CM) runs for the period 2040-2070 under the SRES A1B emission scenario, have been downscaled and bias corrected before using them as climatic forcing in a hydrological model. Projections indicate an increase of the mean temperature of the catchment in the range 2-4K, depending on the climate model used. Projections of precipitation indicate an increase of annual precipitation in the range between 2% and 6% with larger changes in winter and autumn. Hydrological simulations show an increase of water yield during the period 2040-2070 with respect to 1970-2000. Furthermore, a transition from glacio-nival to nival regime is projected for the catchment. Hydrological regime is expected to change as a consequence of less winter precipitation falling as snow and anticipated melting in spring, with the runoff peak decreasing in intensity and anticipating from July to June. Changes in water availability reflect in the Technical Hydropower Potential (THP) of the catchment, with larger changes projected for the hydropower plants located at the highest altitudes. Finally, the impacts on THP of water use policies such as the introduction of prescriptions for minimum ecological flow (MEF) have been analyzed. Simulations indicate that in the lower part of the catchment reduction of the hydropower production due to MEF releases from the storage reservoirs counterbalances the benefits associated to the projected increases of inflows as foreseen by simulations driven only by climate change. PMID:25980972

  3. Environmental and water-quality operational studies. Prey selection and feeding patterns of fish in a Southern United States hydropower tailwater. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barwick, D.; Hudson, P.L.; Nestler, J.M.

    1985-10-01

    The downstream effects of peaking hydropower generation at Lake Hartwell Georgia-South Carolina, on the diel prey selection and feeding of four species of fish-silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum), redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), green sunfish (L. cyanellus), and bluegill (L. macrochirus)--were determined. Aquatic insects (primarily dipterans, ephemeropterans, and trichopterans), crayfish, and terrestrial organisms (primarily insects) composed most of the food eaten. These fish fed primarily during daylight, before daily hydropower generation began, and little or no feeding occurred during generation. Consequently, few organisms entrained from the reservoir or displaced from the tailwater during hydropower generation were eaten by these fish.

  4. Integrating hydropower and intermittent climate-related renewable energies: a call for hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Baptiste; Anquetin, Sandrine; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Engeland, Kolbjorn; Favre, Anne-Catherine; Hingray, Benoit; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Raynaud, Damien; Renard, Benjamin; Sauquet, Eric; Sauterleute, Julian-Friedrich; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the debate about the role of hydropower as energy storage and balancing energy source in context of high intermittency and variability of solar and wind energy exposes hydrologists to new challenges. There is a common consensus that a high penetration of wind and solar energies can only be achieved if the issues to their intermittent power outputs are solved - issues which can be at least partially approached by means of hydropower systems. Indeed, unlike wind and solar energies which are only produced when wind and sun are available, hydro resources can be stored in reservoirs for later use. Finally, the energy production should balance the energy demand which is to a large degree, controlled by weather variables, especially temperature. However, despite substantial work on the space-time variability of each individual hydro-meteorological variable, advances on the joint analysis of the processes that are underlying this integration are more limited. In this commentary, we analyze three specific challenges dedicated to the hydrological community. They aim to improve the integration of hydropower with solar and wind energy sources to make more effective the use of renewable energy and water resources. These challenges are: i) the need to provide a new hydro-meteorological framework for the analysis of the space-time co-fluctuations between runoff regimes and solar, wind and temperature variables; ii) understanding how processes like land-use and climate change affect the nature of these co-fluctuations; and iii) the need to develop means for a quantitative analysis of interactions between the use of water for power generation and other water uses including the preservation of aquatic ecosystems. In some way, the success of climate change mitigation policies based on high intermittent energy integration will depend on how these different challenges have been achieved by hydrologist community. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX

  5. Modeling Alpine hydropower reservoirs management to study the water-energy nexus under change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Fumagalli, E.; Weber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change and growing population are expected to severely affect freshwater availability by the end of 21th century. Many river basins, especially in the Mediterranean region, are likely to become more prone to periods of reduced water supply, risking considerable impacts on the society, the environment, and the economy, thus emphasizing the need to rethink the way water resources are distributed, managed, and used at the regional and river basin scale. This paradigm shift will be essential to cope with the undergoing global change, characterized by growing water demands and by increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes. Most of the literature traditionally focused on predicting the impacts of climate change on water resources, while our understanding of the human footprint on the hydrological cycle is limited. For example, changes in the operation of the Alpine hydropower reservoirs induced by socio-economic drivers (e.g., development of renewable energy) were already observed over the last few years and produced relevant impacts on multiple water uses due to the altered distribution of water volumes in time and space. Modeling human decisions as well as the links between society and environmental systems becomes key to develop reliable projections on the co-evolution of the coupled human-water systems and deliver robust adaptation strategies This work contributes a preliminary model-based analysis of the behaviour of hydropower operators under changing energy market and climate conditions. The proposed approach is developed for the San Giacomo-Cancano reservoir system, Italy. The identification of the current operating policy is supported by input variable selection methods to select the most relevant hydrological and market based drivers to explain the observed release time series.. The identified model is then simulated under a set of future scenarios, accounting for both climate and socio-economic change (e.g. expansion of the electric vehicle sector, load

  6. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  7. Rock Mass Classification of Karstic Terrain in the Reservoir Slopes of Tekeze Hydropower Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailemariam Gugsa, Trufat; Schneider, Jean Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Hydropower reservoirs in deep gorges usually experience slope failures and mass movements. History also showed that some of these projects suffered severe landslides, which left lots of victims and enormous economic loss. Thus, it became vital to make substantial slope stability studies in such reservoirs to ensure safe project development. This study also presents a regional scale instability assessment of the Tekeze Hydropower reservoir slopes. Tekeze hydropower project is a newly constructed double arch dam that completed in August 2009. It is developed on Tekeze River, tributary of Blue Nile River that runs across the northern highlands of Ethiopia. It cuts a savage gorge 2000m deep, the deepest canyon in Africa. The dam is the highest dam in Ethiopia at 188m, 10 m higher than China's Three Gorges Dam. It is being developed by Chinese company at a cost of US350M. The reservoir is designed at 1140 m elevation, as retention level to store more than 9000 million m3 volume of water that covers an area of 150 km2, mainly in channel filling form. In this study, generation of digital elevation model from ASTER satellite imagery and surface field investigation is initially considered for further image processing and terrain parameters' analyses. Digitally processed multi spectral ASTER ortho-images drape over the DEM are used to have different three dimensional perspective views in interpreting lithological, structural and geomorphological features, which are later verified by field mapping. Terrain slopes are also delineated from the relief scene. A GIS database is ultimately developed to facilitate the delineation of geotechnical units for slope rock mass classification. Accordingly, 83 geotechnical units are delineated and, within them, 240 measurement points are established to quantify in-situ geotechnical parameters. Due to geotechnical uncertainties, four classification systems; namely geomorphic rock mass strength classification (RMS), slope mass rating (SMR

  8. The performance of the Hydromorphological Index of Diversity (HMID) in a hydropower affected meandering river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähly, Severin; Bourqui, Pierre; Franca, Mario J.; Robinson, Christopher; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2016-04-01

    More than half of the Swiss electricity is produced by hydropower. Large price fluctuations cause severe hydropeaking flow regimes due to corresponding production fluctuations, which undisputedly have a negative impact on aquatic biota. Water diversion due to dams on the other hand imposes downstream residual flow regimes. The absence of flood events and regular sediment supply disrupts sediment dynamics and disconnects floodplains, which are habitats of high value, from its main channel. The residual-flow controlled reach at the Sarine river in western Switzerland is the subject of the present study. The Sarine meanders strongly and the river reach under analysis has a bed incision of locally more than 100 m. Its incision provokes the isolation of the river which is consequently minimally touched by human structures and shows a natural geomorphology. Since the construction of a dam upstream this reach in 1948, aiming at the water abstraction to hydropower, vegetation could establish and the active floodplain decreased its area, as airborne images show. Nevertheless, it is classified as a floodplain of national importance and it has been under protection since 1992. It is supposed to be a valuable habitat for a wide range of organisms. The Hydromorphological Index of Diversity (HMID) is a simple tool for quantifying the habitat richness in a river reach, taking into account the mean values and the variation of water depth and flow velocity. For channelized rivers, HMID values from up to 5 are expected, while morphological pristine sites with a high spatial variability of water depth and velocity show values of 9 or higher. For the residual flow of the Sarine River, flow depth and velocity were measured using ADCP and ADV. The results are compared with a nearby natural reference river and the outcome of a 2D numerical simulation. Finally, the behaviour and limitations of the HMID, in a hydropower affected river, are discussed. In the close future an artificial flood

  9. Desire to bargain and negotiation success: lessons about the need to negotiate from six hydropower disputes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, Nina; Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the notion that successful negotiations require that all parties to the dispute must have a desire to bargain. This desire is most likely to be present when the dispute exhibits ripeness and each party believes a bargained solution is the most cost-effective way to resolve differences. Structured interviews of participants in six Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hydropower licensing consultations were conducted to determine the level of need to negotiate for each party. The findings indicate that a need to negotiate is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for success. Several factors were associated with a need to negotiate: a weak BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement); a salient issue; participants’ sense of efficacy; a sense of inevitability; professional roles encouraging negotiation; and disputes about facts as opposed to disputes about values. Participants’ need to negotiate fluctuated throughout the process and intensified when questions were ripe: i.e., critical issues were debated or the regulatory process required action.

  10. Benthic community of the Savannah River below a peaking hydropower station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1986-01-01

    The Savannah River below Hartwell Dam, on the South Carolina-Georgia border, contains at least 206 benthic invertebrate taxa, even though this tailwater undergoes substantial daily fluctuations in water flow, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Oligochaetes, chironomids, and amphipods dominate the community immediately below the dam. Farther downstream, larger organisms (i.e., Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, etc.) dominate the benthic community. The high diversity of this system is primarily attributed to the intensive effort we expended to identify invertebrates to species level. We conclude that tailwaters associated with peaking hydropower stations may in fact have the diverse community assemblages found in natural streams and that this has not been recognized by other investigators because the bulk of the fauna is made up of small forms that are easily overlooked. Comparisons of tailwater fauna communities with those in control areas should be limited to rivers of similar size.

  11. Influence of hydropower dams on the composition of the suspended and riverbank sediments in the Danube.

    PubMed

    Klaver, Gerard; van Os, Bertil; Negrel, Philippe; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle

    2007-08-01

    Large hydropower dams have major impacts on flow regime, sediment transport and the characteristics of water and sediment in downstream rivers. The Gabcikovo and Iron Gate dams divide the studied Danube transect (rkm 1895-795) into three parts. In the Gabcikovo Reservoir (length of 40km) only a part of the incoming suspended sediments were deposited. Contrary to this, in the much larger Iron Gate backwater zone and reservoir (length of 310km) all riverine suspended sediments were deposited within the reservoir. Subsequently, suspended sediments were transported by tributaries into the Iron Gate backwater zone. Here they were modified by fractional sedimentation before they transgressed downstream via the dams. Compared with undammed Danube sections, Iron Gate reservoir sediment and suspended matter showed higher clay contents and different K/Ga and Metal/Ga ratios. These findings emphasize the importance of reservoir-river sediment-fractionation.

  12. VIRTUAL HYDROPOWER PROSPECTING: A FOUNDATION FOR WATER ENERGY RESOURCE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Lee; Sera White; Julie Brizzee; Shane Cherry; Douglas Hall

    2008-06-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the gross power potential of the natural stream water energy resources of the United States was performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models (DEMs) and geographic information system (GIS) tools. Water energy resource sites (stream segments) assessed in the basic resource assessment were further evaluated to identify which can be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of each site was refined to determine its developable hydropower potential using a set of development criteria corresponding to a damless low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) project. The methodologies for performing the basic resource assessment and subsequent feasibility assessment are described and the summary results for the nation are presented.

  13. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  14. Research on Darrieus-type hydraulic turbine for extra-low head hydropower utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, A.; Watanabe, S.; Okuma, K.

    2012-11-01

    A Darrieus-type turbine has been investigated for extra-low head hydropower utilization. In the present paper, authors'research on Darrieus-type hydraulic turbine is briefly reviewed. The working principle of Darrieus turbine is explained with advantage of its simple structure, at first. Then the fluid-dynamic difference between rotating and linear motions of a blade in a uniform flow is clarified with guiding principle of high performance design of Darrieus turbine. Cavitation problem is also described. Next, effects of duct-casing, consisting of an intake, runner section and draft tube, are discussed and a simplified structure of Darrieus turbine is shown by installing the inlet nozzle. Finally, in the practical use, an adjustment of inlet nozzle section by lowering the inlet nozzle height is proposed when flow rate is varied temporally and seasonally.

  15. Squeezing Every Drop of Value from Federal Hydropower under a Continually Challenging Changing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriss, L.

    2011-12-01

    Western Area Power Administration sells and delivers hydropower from 56 plants at Federal dams as far east as the Missouri River to the San Juaquin River in California. Between these bookends lies the most litigated river in the nation-the Colorado and its tributaries. This river-now dammed and controlled-features vast recreational facilities and wildlife habitat scattered along its length. The river also sustains irrigated agricultural and provides water and power for 3.5 million people. The Upper Basin powerplants include Flaming Gorge on the Green in Wyoming, the Aspinall cascade on the Gunnison in western Colorado and Glen Canyon on the Utah-Arizona border. The three Federal dams in the lower basin are Hoover in southern Nevada and Parker and Davis on the Arizona-California border. Western's nearly 800 customers include municipalities, cooperatives, public utility and irrigation districts, state and Federal agencies and Federally recognized tribes. Western's goal in serving these communities across its 15-state territory is to maximize the value of that hydropower while providing least-cost service and facilitating widespread use of this Federal resource. As one of six Federal agencies charged with balancing the use of the Colorado's resources, Western must work with its Federal partners the seven basin states and a variety of stakeholders to protect the Federal hydropower resource while seeking to maximize its value as a clean, renewable, emission-free, reliable, low-cost source of electricity. These competing needs, uses and priorities include: 1. Providing streamflows and water quality sufficient to restore self-sustaining populations of four native endangered fish 2. Provide environments that support world class trout fisheries immediately below several of the Federal dams 3. Using river flows to retain sediment and shape sediment resources that provide camping beaches for river recreationists and habitat for riverine plant and animal communities 4

  16. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin. PMID:22393001

  17. Design and Implementation of a new Autonomous Sensor Fish to Support Advanced Hydropower Development

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Lu, Jun; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Tian, Chuan; Morris, Scott J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Zhou, Da; Hou, Hongfei

    2014-11-04

    Acceleration in development of additional conventional hydropower requires tools and methods to perform laboratory and in-field validation of turbine performance and fish passage claims. The new-generation Sensor Fish has been developed with more capabilities to accommodate a wider range of users over a wider range of turbine designs and operating environments. It provides in situ measurements of three dimensional (3D) accelerations, 3D rotational velocities, 3D orientation, pressure, and temperature at a sampling frequency of 2048 Hz. It also has an automatic floatation system and built-in radio frequency transmitter for recovery. The relative errors of the pressure, acceleration and rotational velocity were within ±2%, ±5%, and ±5%, respectively. The accuracy of orientation was within ±4° and accuracy of temperature was ±2°C. It is being deployed to evaluate the biological effects of turbines or other hydraulic structures in several countries.

  18. Modeling alternatives for basin-level hydropower development: 1. Optimization methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Railsback, Steven F.; Sale, Michael J.

    1992-10-01

    Development of multiple hydroelectric projects at navigation dams on large river systems can result in a number of environmental impacts, including potential reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. This study presents a method for generating hydropower development alternatives for evaluation by planners by quantifying the trade-offs between water quality and power generation. This method employs a Streeter-Phelps model to simulate DO and the bounded implicit enumeration algorithm to solve an optimization model formulated to maximize hydroelectric energy production. A portion of the upper Ohio River basin was selected to illustrate the methodology. The results indicate that various alternatives that meet the specified DO constraints can be generated efficiently. These alternatives are nearly optimal solutions with respect to the modeled objectives but are different with respect to decision variables.

  19. Corporate social responsibility: Benefits for youth in hydropower development in Laos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparkes, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    The role of the state as regulator combined with policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that go beyond legal requirements to establishing programmes that promote development and good international business practice is an emerging new paradigm. In this paper, the example of a state-owned company, Statkraft A.S. of Norway, and its recent hydropower investment in central Laos illustrates how policy, implementation and follow-up can lead to benefits for local communities in the impacted area of the Theun-Hinboun Expansion Project (THXP). Programmes include both support for and improvement of existing government education programmes, employment opportunities and specific programmes for youth. They have been designed to mitigate possible negative effects of the influx of workers and rapid socio-economic change in the affected area. Young people continue to have a central role in the implementation of these programmes as peer educators under the supervision of project staff and non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  20. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A

    2012-04-10

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin.

  1. Optimizing water supply and hydropower reservoir operation rule curves: An imperialist competitive algorithm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Abbas; Emami Skardi, Mohammad J.; Masoumi, Fariborz

    2015-09-01

    Efficient reservoir management requires the implementation of generalized optimal operating policies that manage storage volumes and releases while optimizing a single objective or multiple objectives. Reservoir operating rules stipulate the actions that should be taken under the current state of the system. This study develops a set of piecewise linear operating rule curves for water supply and hydropower reservoirs, employing an imperialist competitive algorithm in a parameterization-simulation-optimization approach. The adaptive penalty method is used for constraint handling and proved to work efficiently in the proposed scheme. Its performance is tested deriving an operation rule for the Dez reservoir in Iran. The proposed modelling scheme converged to near-optimal solutions efficiently in the case examples. It was shown that the proposed optimum piecewise linear rule may perform quite well in reservoir operation optimization as the operating period extends from very short to fairly long periods.

  2. Downstream effects of hydropower production on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two rivers in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Ulloa, Ramsa; Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that little is known about the consequences of hydropower production in tropical areas, many large dams (> 15 m high) are currently under construction or consideration in the tropics. We researched the effects of large hydroelectric dams on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two Costa Rican rivers. We measured physicochemical characteristics and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates from March 2003 to March 2004 in two dammed rivers, Peñas Blancas and San Lorenzo, as well as in the undammed Chachagua River. Sites above and below the dam had differences in their physicochemical variables, with wide variation and extreme values in variables measured below the dam in the San Lorenzo River. Sites below the dams had reduced water discharges, velocities, and depths when compared with sites above the dams, as well as higher temperatures and conductivity. Sites above dams were dominated by collector-gatherer-scrapers and habitat groups dominated by swimmer-clingers, while sites below dams had a more even representation of groups. In contrast, a comparison between two sites at different elevation in the undammed river maintained a similar assemblage composition. Tributaries might facilitate macroinvertebrate recovery above the turbine house, but the assemblage below the turbine house resembled the one below the dam. A massive sediment release event from the dam decreased the abundance per sample and macroinvertebrate taxa below the dam in the Peñas Blancas River. Our study illustrates the effects of hydropower production on neotropical rivers, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure for assessing this type of environmental impact.

  3. Local Economic Development and Hydropower Along the Brahmaputra River Basin in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large dams have long been controversial. They offer benefits, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, energy security, and local development, yet produce negative social and ecological impact, such as wildlife habitat destruction, human displacement, and the disruption of downstream fishing or agricultural industries. In the past decade, the Indian government has signed Memoranda of Understanding with hydroelectric power companies for the building of over 130 large dams on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. These dams can generate 43% of India's assessed hydropower potential to sustain India's growing economy. In addition, the Indian government claims that these dams will bring local development with needed jobs. However, local Arunachali people have protested and temporarily halted hydropower projects because of the impact of dams on their existing livelihoods. Using the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation's (NEEPCO) Ranganadi Hydroelectric Project as a case study, our project examined whether dams in Northeast India provide jobs for local people, and whether distance from the dam or work colony to a worker's hometown affects the type of job the worker received. Survey data from residents at NEEPCO's work colony in Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, was analyzed using SPSS (n = 18). Our research found that 100% of workers at the dam originally resided in Northeast India, with 33% from Arunachal Pradesh, and 67% from the nearby states of Assam, and Tripura. Further, our analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the distance to a worker's hometown and job type (p = .609). Where workers come from did not affect the type of job they received. More research using a larger sample size and additional hydroelectric project case studies is needed to further explore the relationship between worker home location and their job types.

  4. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-strike Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-01-04

    In the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon were listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making those hydroelectric facilities more ecologically friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for re-licensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to the newly installed turbine and an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live fish survival study and a sensor fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experiment results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, there was no statistical evidence that suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines and the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal or better than that through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  5. Improving the flow representation in a stochastic programming model for hydropower operations in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Y.; Olivares, M. A.; Vargas, X.

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to improve the representation of stochastic water inflows to hydropower plants used in a grid-wide, power production scheduling model in central Chile. The model prescribes the operation of every plant in the system, including hydropower plants located in several basins, and uses stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) with possible inflow scenarios defined from historical records. Each year of record is treated as a sample of weekly inflows to power plants, assuming this intrinsically incorporates spatial and temporal correlations, without any further autocorrelation analysis of the hydrological time series. However, standard good practice suggests the use of synthetic flows instead of raw historical records.The proposed approach generates synthetic inflow scenarios based on hydrological modeling of a few basins in the system and transposition of flows with other basins within so-called homogeneous zones. Hydrologic models use precipitation and temperature as inputs, and therefore this approach requires producing samples of those variables. Development and calibration of these models imply a greater demand of time compared to the purely statistical approach to synthetic flows. This approach requires consideration of the main uses in the basins: agriculture and hydroelectricity. Moreover a geostatistical analysis of the area is analyzed to generate a map that identifies the relationship between the points where the hydrological information is generated and other points of interest within the power system. Consideration of homogeneous zones involves a decrease in the effort required for generation of information compared with hydrological modeling of every point of interest. It is important to emphasize that future scenarios are derived through a probabilistic approach that incorporates the features of the hydrological year type (dry, normal or wet), covering the different possibilities in terms of availability of water resources. We present

  6. New Small Hydropower Technology to be Deployed in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Opsahl, Egil; Gordon, Jim; Bishop, Norm

    2012-01-01

    Earth By Design Inc, (EBD), in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Knight Pi sold and Co., and CleanPower AS, has responded to a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) published by the Department of Energy (DOE) in April 2011. EBD submitted a proposal to install an innovative, small hydropower technology, the Turbinator, a Norwegian technology from CleanPower. The Turbinator combines an axial flow, fixed-blade Kaplan turbine and generator in a compact and sealed machine. This makes it a very simple and easy technology to be deployed and installed. DOE has awarded funding for this two-year project that will be implemented in Culver, Oregon. ORNL with the collaboration of CleanPower, will assess and evaluate the technology before and during the manufacturing phase and produce a full report to DOE. The goal of this phase-one report is to provide DOE Head Quarters (HQ), water power program management, a report with findings about the performance, readiness, capability, strengths and weakness, limitation of the technology, and potential full-scale deployment and application in the United States. Because of the importance of this information to the conventional hydropower industry and regulators, preliminary results will rapidly be distributed in the form of conference presentations, ORNL/DOE technical reports (publically available online, and publications in the peer-reviewed, scientific literature. These reports will emphasize the relevance of the activities carried out over the two-year study (i.e., performance, robustness, capabilities, reliability, and cost of the Turbinator). A final report will be submitted to a peer-reviewed publication that conveys the experimental findings and discusses their implications for the Turbinator application and implementation. Phase-two of the project consists of deployment, construction, and project operations. A detailed report on assessment and the performance of the project will be presented and communicated

  7. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arntzen, E. V.; Miller, B.

    2012-12-01

    Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes in Eastern Washington on the Snake and Columbia Rivers by sampling tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas for N2O, CH4, and CO2 during winter and summer, 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, dissolved gases within the surface water column, ebullition within shallow embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate net GHG emissions from hydropower. Emissions of N2O and CH4 were greatest within embayments, ranging up to 6.8 mg/l and 78 mg/l, respectively. Carbon dioxide tended to be greater in embayments and in forebay environments of the hydroelectric projects, exceeding 1800 mg/l and 5,900 mg/l in these areas, respectively. Concentrations of N2O and CH4 tended to be greatest in samples that were collected directly from hyporheic pore-water, while CO2 was most prevalent within the surface water column.

  8. Improving inflow forecasting into hydropower reservoirs through a complementary modelling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gragne, A. S.; Sharma, A.; Mehrotra, R.; Alfredsen, K.

    2014-10-01

    Accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasts is instrumental for maximizing the value of water resources and benefits gained through hydropower generation. Improving hourly reservoir inflow forecasts over a 24 h lead-time is considered within the day-ahead (Elspot) market of the Nordic exchange market. We present here a new approach for issuing hourly reservoir inflow forecasts that aims to improve on existing forecasting models that are in place operationally, without needing to modify the pre-existing approach, but instead formulating an additive or complementary model that is independent and captures the structure the existing model may be missing. Besides improving forecast skills of operational models, the approach estimates the uncertainty in the complementary model structure and produces probabilistic inflow forecasts that entrain suitable information for reducing uncertainty in the decision-making processes in hydropower systems operation. The procedure presented comprises an error model added on top of an un-alterable constant parameter conceptual model, the models being demonstrated with reference to the 207 km2 Krinsvatn catchment in central Norway. The structure of the error model is established based on attributes of the residual time series from the conceptual model. Deterministic and probabilistic evaluations revealed an overall significant improvement in forecast accuracy for lead-times up to 17 h. Season based evaluations indicated that the improvement in inflow forecasts varies across seasons and inflow forecasts in autumn and spring are less successful with the 95% prediction interval bracketing less than 95% of the observations for lead-times beyond 17 h.

  9. Performance assessment of deterministic and probabilistic weather predictions for the short-term optimization of a tropical hydropower reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Alvarado, Rodolfo; Assis dos Reis, Alberto; Naumann, Steffi; Collischonn, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower is the most important electricity source in Brazil. During recent years, it accounted for 60% to 70% of the total electric power supply. Marginal costs of hydropower are lower than for thermal power plants, therefore, there is a strong economic motivation to maximize its share. On the other hand, hydropower depends on the availability of water, which has a natural variability. Its extremes lead to the risks of power production deficits during droughts and safety issues in the reservoir and downstream river reaches during flood events. One building block of the proper management of hydropower assets is the short-term forecast of reservoir inflows as input for an online, event-based optimization of its release strategy. While deterministic forecasts and optimization schemes are the established techniques for the short-term reservoir management, the use of probabilistic ensemble forecasts and stochastic optimization techniques receives growing attention and a number of researches have shown its benefit. The present work shows one of the first hindcasting and closed-loop control experiments for a multi-purpose hydropower reservoir in a tropical region in Brazil. The case study is the hydropower project (HPP) Três Marias, located in southeast Brazil. The HPP reservoir is operated with two main objectives: (i) hydroelectricity generation and (ii) flood control at Pirapora City located 120 km downstream of the dam. In the experiments, precipitation forecasts based on observed data, deterministic and probabilistic forecasts with 50 ensemble members of the ECMWF are used as forcing of the MGB-IPH hydrological model to generate streamflow forecasts over a period of 2 years. The online optimization depends on a deterministic and multi-stage stochastic version of a model predictive control scheme. Results for the perfect forecasts show the potential benefit of the online optimization and indicate a desired forecast lead time of 30 days. In comparison, the use of

  10. Lock and Dam Number 8 hydropower study; Mississippi River near Lacrosse, Wisconsin. supplement. Technical report Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of constructing hydropower facilities at Lock and Dam no. 8, located on the Mississippi River, near La Crosse, Wisconsin. Several alternative powerhouse schemes were investigated. The 8.75 megawatt, 10-unit plant indicated in the 1981 reconnaissance is now considered economically infeasible. Two alternate developments using tubular generating units were selected for this new study. Because of relatively low overhead, the powerhouse costs are proportionally high and project feasibility falls below unity.

  11. Towards Optimization of Reservoir Operations for Hydropower Production in East Africa: Application of Seasonal Climate Forecasts and Remote Sensing Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, S. S.; Gebremichael, M.; Hopson, T. M.; Riddle, E. E.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric generation and interconnections are the major priority areas of infrastructure development in Africa. A number of hydropower projects are currently being developed in East Africa in order to meet the energy demands of the fast growing economy in sustainable and climate-resilient manner. However, the performance efficiency of existing hydropower systems in Africa is much lower (about 30% in some cases) than their design capacity. This study proposes a decision support system (DSS) that integrates climate forecasts and remote sensing products into modeling and optimization of the hydropower systems in order to achieve reliable reservoir operations and enhance hydropower production efficiency. The DSS has three main components; climate system, hydrologic and water resources system, and optimization system. The climate system comprises of tools and interfaces for accessing, customizing and integrating climate forecasts and remote sensing data. The North America Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal retrospective forecasts for the East Africa Power Pool (EAPP) region are compared with the TRMM rainfall estimates and the CPC unified gauged rainfall data. The errors of the NMME seasonal forecasts have portrayed significant spatial and temporal variability in the EAPP region. The root mean square errors of the seasonal forecasts are relatively higher for wetter locations and months. However, the skills of the NMME seasonal forecasts are not significantly depreciating with lead time for the study region. The seasonal forecast errors vary from one model to another. Here, we present the skills of NMME seasonal forecasts, the physical factors and mechanisms that affect the skills. In addition, we discuss our methodology that derives the best seasonal forecasts for the study region from the NMME seasonal forecasts, and show how the climate forecast errors propagate through hydrologic models into hydrological forecasting.

  12. The Water - Energy Nexus Of Hydropower. Are The Trade-Offs Between Electricity Generation And Water Supply Negligible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower ranks first among renewable sources of power production and provides globally about 16% of electricity. While it is praised for its low greenhouse gas emissions, it is accused of its large water consumption which surpasses that of all conventional and most renewable energy sources (except for bioenergy) by far. Previous studies mostly applied a gross evaporation approach where all the current evaporation from the plant's reservoir is allocated to hydropower. In contrast, we only considered net evaporation as the difference between current evaporation and actual evapotranspiration before the construction of the reservoir. In addition, we take into account local water stress, its monthly fluctuations and storage effects of the reservoir in order to assess the impacts on water availability for other users. We apply the method to a large dataset of almost 1500 globally distributed hydropower plants (HPPs), covering ~43% of global annual electricity generation, by combining reservoir information from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database with information on electricity generation from the CARMA database. While we can confirm that the gross water consumption of hydropower is generally large (production-weighted average of 97 m3/GJ), other users are not necessarily deprived of water. In contrast, they also benefit in many cases from the reservoir because water is rather stored in the wet season and released in the dry season, thereby alleviating water stress. The production-weighted water scarcity footprint of the analyzed HPPs amounts to -41 m3 H2Oe/GJ. It has to be noted that the impacts among individual plants vary a lot. Larger HPPs generally consume less water per unit of electricity generated, but also the benefits related to alleviating water scarcity are lower. Overall, reservoirs promote both, energy and water security. Other environmental impacts such as flow alterations and social impacts should, however, also be considered, as they can be

  13. Examining the Vulnerability of Hydropower Production in Meso-Scale Snowmelt-Runoff Basins Under Different Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, P.; Kampf, S. K.; Lanini, J.; Dozier, A.

    2010-12-01

    Hydropower forms a large fraction of the energy production in the Pacific Northwest, and this energy sector is potentially vulnerable to climate-induced changes in streamflow. Many of the Pacific Northwest’s hydropower-producing dams are located in mountainous basins. The steep topographic gradients in these basins often result in climate behaviors that are not resolved by GCMs and not easily derived through GCM downscaling. We present a new approach for examining hydropower vulnerability to climate change in which we use a low-parameter conceptual hydrologic model to generate ensembles of possible streamflow under a broad range of possible climate scenarios. This approach is designed for meso-scale (1,000-10,000 km2) snowmelt-runoff basins, with a focus on the Clearwater Basin in central Idaho. The hydrologic model simulates the dominant processes observed in snowmelt-driven basins, and it can be forced with stochastically generated temperature and precipitation time series to create large streamflow ensembles. Compared with distributed hydrologic models, it can quickly generate an ensemble using limited computer resources. We apply the model to sub-basins above and near Dworshak Reservoir within the Clearwater Basin under climate scenarios that incorporate different assumptions about future precipitation and temperature trends. Streamflow ensembles generated by the model are then used to drive a decision-support reservoir operations model. The operations model represents the management objectives of Dworshak Reservoir such as flood control and in-stream flows for fisheries on a weekly time step. Within this multi-objective context, we examine both the negative and positive effects of different future climate scenarios on hydropower production given current constraints on reservoir operations.

  14. Economic efficiency of environmental legislation as it affects small hydropower development at existing dams in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Meardon, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Small hydropower development at existing dams is affected by a number of pieces of Federal environmental legislation. Such legislation typically does not differentiate between large and small hydropower projects and their relative environmental impacts. Small hydropower development at existing dams is generally thought to have few or minor adverse impacts. The benefits of the environmental legislation may thus be small relative to its costs. This study assesses the economic efficiency (broadly defined to include nonmarket values) of eight major pieces of Federal environmental legislation: the Clean Water Act, the Coastal Zone Management Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, the National Historic Preservation Act, the National Wildlife Refuge Act, and the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, and the Wilderness Act. The costs examined are real resource costs and lost power production costs. The benefits examined are avoided adverse impacts and improvement in environmental quality. A data base of 152 existing dams in North Carolina was used from which 48 dams were identified as being developed in the absence of the legislation. The effects of the legislation on these dams were then identified, and the costs and benefits estimated. Under the basecase analysis, none of the legislation was found to be economically efficient.

  15. Application of Global-Scale Precipitation and Hydrologic Datasets for the Development of Small-Scale Hydropower Resource Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, A. W.; Fung, J.; Wiley, M.; Westrick, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Small-scale hydropower (SSH) development proceeds around the world in a context of insufficient information. Where streamflow and meteorological observations are sparse, the state of the practice for hydropower resource prospecting and assessment relies heavily on regionalization of statistical relationships between in situ measurements of streamflow and precipitation, and on directly surveyed or remotely sensed land surface (watershed) characteristics. Prior studies have either been project-specific or, at the largest extent, country-specific, and are therefore difficult to generalize into an SSH resource assessment having continental or global coverage. In an effort to create a global assessment having a uniform framework, we evaluate as a baseline the use of global-scale alternatives to the local data sources. We use a gage-corrected satellite precipitation datasets together with global-extent hydrologic simulations and the NASA SRTM-1 DEM to produce an assessment of run-of-river hydropower potential at a 9 arc-second spatial resolution for all global land areas excepting Antartica. The dataset variables include mean annual flow, gross potential head, mean annual potential stream power, and flow frequency curve estimates. This presentation illustrates the resulting dataset and comments on the strengths and weaknesses of the approach, and on potential improvements.

  16. EMTA’s Evaluation of the Elastic Properties for Fiber Polymer Composites Potentially Used in Hydropower Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua

    2010-08-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.

  17. Stability analysis of a run-of-river diversion hydropower plant with surge tank and spillway in the head pond.

    PubMed

    Sarasúa, José Ignacio; Elías, Paz; Martínez-Lucas, Guillermo; Pérez-Díaz, Juan Ignacio; Wilhelmi, José Román; Sánchez, José Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Run-of-river hydropower plants usually lack significant storage capacity; therefore, the more adequate control strategy would consist of keeping a constant water level at the intake pond in order to harness the maximum amount of energy from the river flow or to reduce the surface flooded in the head pond. In this paper, a standard PI control system of a run-of-river diversion hydropower plant with surge tank and a spillway in the head pond that evacuates part of the river flow plant is studied. A stability analysis based on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is carried out and a practical criterion for tuning the gains of the PI controller is proposed. Conclusions about the head pond and surge tank areas are drawn from the stability analysis. Finally, this criterion is applied to a real hydropower plant in design state; the importance of considering the spillway dimensions and turbine characteristic curves for adequate tuning of the controller gains is highlighted.

  18. Analyzing tradeoffs between hydropower production and hydrological alteration to support water resources planning in large river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micotti, Marco; Pianosi, Francesca; Bizzi, Simone; Mason, Emanuele; Weber, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    In many countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. In this study, we analyze the case of the Red River Vietnam, a large basin of 169.000 kmq where the storing capacity, mainly targeted at hydropower production, has steadily increased since from the Eighties through the construction of a number of reservoirs (Hoa Binh completed in 1994, Tuyen Quang in 2008, Son La in 2012), which nowadays account for the 15% of the national electric power production. On the other hand, reservoir operation dramatically alters downstream river hydrology, geomorphological processes and riverine ecosystems. In this work, we focus in particular on the alteration of the hydrological regime downstream of the Hoa Binh reservoir and explore re-operation options to mitigate the hydrological alteration while guaranteeing reasonable hydropower production. To reach this goal we (i) define an index of hydrological alteration starting from the well established set of Indicators of Hydrological Alteration and applying a novel selection and aggregation procedure; (ii) embed such an index into a multi-objective optimization process, to design reservoir operating policies that represent Pareto-optimal solutions between maximization of hydropower production and minimization of hydrological alteration. This work demonstrates the potential of multi-objective optimization and simulation tools to analyze tradeoffs between conflicting needs and thus support the evaluation and planning of sustainable energy production programs.

  19. Stability Analysis of a Run-of-River Diversion Hydropower Plant with Surge Tank and Spillway in the Head Pond

    PubMed Central

    Sarasúa, José Ignacio; Elías, Paz; Wilhelmi, José Román; Sánchez, José Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Run-of-river hydropower plants usually lack significant storage capacity; therefore, the more adequate control strategy would consist of keeping a constant water level at the intake pond in order to harness the maximum amount of energy from the river flow or to reduce the surface flooded in the head pond. In this paper, a standard PI control system of a run-of-river diversion hydropower plant with surge tank and a spillway in the head pond that evacuates part of the river flow plant is studied. A stability analysis based on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is carried out and a practical criterion for tuning the gains of the PI controller is proposed. Conclusions about the head pond and surge tank areas are drawn from the stability analysis. Finally, this criterion is applied to a real hydropower plant in design state; the importance of considering the spillway dimensions and turbine characteristic curves for adequate tuning of the controller gains is highlighted. PMID:25405237

  20. Stability analysis of a run-of-river diversion hydropower plant with surge tank and spillway in the head pond.

    PubMed

    Sarasúa, José Ignacio; Elías, Paz; Martínez-Lucas, Guillermo; Pérez-Díaz, Juan Ignacio; Wilhelmi, José Román; Sánchez, José Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Run-of-river hydropower plants usually lack significant storage capacity; therefore, the more adequate control strategy would consist of keeping a constant water level at the intake pond in order to harness the maximum amount of energy from the river flow or to reduce the surface flooded in the head pond. In this paper, a standard PI control system of a run-of-river diversion hydropower plant with surge tank and a spillway in the head pond that evacuates part of the river flow plant is studied. A stability analysis based on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is carried out and a practical criterion for tuning the gains of the PI controller is proposed. Conclusions about the head pond and surge tank areas are drawn from the stability analysis. Finally, this criterion is applied to a real hydropower plant in design state; the importance of considering the spillway dimensions and turbine characteristic curves for adequate tuning of the controller gains is highlighted. PMID:25405237

  1. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on flow and stage in the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, S.C.L.; Cho, H.E.; McCoy, J.J.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the development of Flaming Gorge Reservoir release patterns and resulting downstream flows and stages for four potential hydropower operational scenarios. The release patterns were developed for three representative hydrologic years: moderate, dry, and wet. Computer models were used to estimate flows and stages in the Green River resulting from these release patterns for the moderate water year. The four hydropower operational scenarios for Flaming Gorge Dam were year-round high fluctuating flows, seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flows, seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuating flows, and seasonally adjusted steady flows. The year-round high fluctuating flow scenario assumes that the monthly total reservoir releases would be the same as historical releases. The remaining seasonally adjusted flow scenarios would comply with the 1992 Biological Opinion of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, which requires high flows in the spring and limited hourly fluctuations, especially in summer and autumn releases, to protect endangered fish. Within one year, the maximum daily river stage fluctuations resulting from hydropower operations under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flow scenario would be similar to the maximum daily fluctuations under the year-round high fluctuating flow scenario. However, reduced or no fluctuations would occur in some time periods under the former scenario. The maximum daily river stage fluctuations under the seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuating flow scenario would be about half of those under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flow scenario.

  2. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  3. Managing flow, sediment, and hydropower regimes in the Sre Pok, Se San, and Se Kong Rivers of the Mekong basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Thomas B.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2014-06-01

    The Lancang/Mekong River Basin is presently undergoing a period of rapid hydropower development. In its natural undeveloped state, the river transports about 160 million metric tons of sediment per year, maintaining the geomorphologic features of the basin, sustaining habitats, and transporting the nutrients that support ecosystem productivity. Despite the importance of sediment in the river, currently little attention is being paid to reservoir sediment trapping. This study is devoted to assessing the potential for managing sediment and its impact on energy production in the Se San, Sre Pok, and Se Kong tributaries of the Mekong River. These tributaries drain a set of adjacent watersheds that are important with respect to biodiversity and ecological productivity, and serve as a significant source of flow and sediment to the mainstream Mekong River. A daily sediment transport model is used to assess tradeoffs among energy production and sediment and flow regime alteration in multiple reservoir systems. This study finds that eventually about 40%-80% of the annual suspended sediment load may be trapped in reservoirs. Clearly, these reservoirs will affect the rivers' sediment regimes. However, even after 100 years of simulated sedimentation, reservoir storage capacities and hydropower production at most reservoir sites are not significantly reduced. This suggests that the strongest motivation for implementing measures to reduce trapped sediment is their impact not on hydropower production but on fish migration and survival and on sediment-dependent ecosystems such as the Vietnam Delta and Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake.

  4. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  5. Valuing year-to-go hydrologic forecast improvements for a peaking hydropower system in the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinheimer, David E.; Bales, Roger C.; Oroza, Carlos A.; Lund, Jay R.; Viers, Joshua H.

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the potential value of hydrologic forecasting improvements for a snow-dominated high-elevation hydropower system in the Sierra Nevada of California, using a hydropower optimization model. To mimic different forecasting skill levels for inflow time series, rest-of-year inflows from regression-based forecasts were blended in different proportions with representative inflows from a spatially distributed hydrologic model. The statistical approach mimics the simpler, historical forecasting approach that is still widely used. Revenue was calculated using historical electricity prices, with perfect price foresight assumed. With current infrastructure and operations, perfect hydrologic forecasts increased annual hydropower revenue by 0.14 to 1.6 million, with lower values in dry years and higher values in wet years, or about $0.8 million (1.2%) on average, representing overall willingness-to-pay for perfect information. A second sensitivity analysis found a wider range of annual revenue gain or loss using different skill levels in snow measurement in the regression-based forecast, mimicking expected declines in skill as the climate warms and historical snow measurements no longer represent current conditions. The value of perfect forecasts was insensitive to storage capacity for small and large reservoirs, relative to average inflow, and modestly sensitive to storage capacity with medium (current) reservoir storage. The value of forecasts was highly sensitive to powerhouse capacity, particularly for the range of capacities in the northern Sierra Nevada. The approach can be extended to multireservoir, multipurpose systems to help guide investments in forecasting.

  6. Assessing the Value of Improved Hydrologic Forecasting for Hydropower in the Sierra Nevada at Multiple Spatial Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinheimer, D. E.; Bales, R. C.; Lund, J. R.; Viers, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Increased accuracy of snowpack measurements can potentially greatly improve planning for rest-of-year water allocations, particularly when coupled with improvements in hydrologic modeling skill. In California, the degree to which investments in improved hydrologic information systems, such as wireless sensor networks, is worth the cost remains poorly quantified. We conducted a numerical study to assess the value of improvements in snowpack measurements and hydrologic prediction for a single representative hydropower system in the Sierra Nevada considering different measurement and prediction accuracy levels and prediction intervals. Additionally, we examined the value of these improvements for a range of different infrastructure, operational, and hydrologic characteristics, such as reservoir capacity, hydropower capacity, electricity demand, instream flow requirements, and hydrologic regime. Operations were represented with a linear programming model using hydrologic information inaccuracy mimicked by perturbing assumed known hydrologic conditions. Results demonstrate that under current system physical and operational characteristics, improved snowpack estimation and hydrologic prediction generally improve optimal hydropower management compared to current estimation capabilities, particularly in drier years. However, improvements vary by infrastructure characteristics, as well as by management and hydrologic assumptions, such as energy demand and hydrologic stationarity. This approach and the specific results presented will help resource managers understand where investments in hydrologic sensor network and prediction systems will be most beneficial.

  7. Ensemble hydro-meteorological forecasting for early warning of floods and scheduling of hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solvang Johansen, Stian; Steinsland, Ingelin; Engeland, Kolbjørn

    2016-04-01

    Running hydrological models with precipitation and temperature ensemble forcing to generate ensembles of streamflow is a commonly used method in operational hydrology. Evaluations of streamflow ensembles have however revealed that the ensembles are biased with respect to both mean and spread. Thus postprocessing of the ensembles is needed in order to improve the forecast skill. The aims of this study is (i) to to evaluate how postprocessing of streamflow ensembles works for Norwegian catchments within different hydrological regimes and to (ii) demonstrate how post processed streamflow ensembles are used operationally by a hydropower producer. These aims were achieved by postprocessing forecasted daily discharge for 10 lead-times for 20 catchments in Norway by using EPS forcing from ECMWF applied the semi-distributed HBV-model dividing each catchment into 10 elevation zones. Statkraft Energi uses forecasts from these catchments for scheduling hydropower production. The catchments represent different hydrological regimes. Some catchments have stable winter condition with winter low flow and a major flood event during spring or early summer caused by snow melting. Others has a more mixed snow-rain regime, often with a secondary flood season during autumn, and in the coastal areas, the stream flow is dominated by rain, and the main flood season is autumn and winter. For post processing, a Bayesian model averaging model (BMA) close to (Kleiber et al 2011) is used. The model creates a predictive PDF that is a weighted average of PDFs centered on the individual bias corrected forecasts. The weights are here equal since all ensemble members come from the same model, and thus have the same probability. For modeling streamflow, the gamma distribution is chosen as a predictive PDF. The bias correction parameters and the PDF parameters are estimated using a 30-day sliding window training period. Preliminary results show that the improvement varies between catchments depending

  8. Hydrological Uncertainty and Hydro-power: New Methods to Optimize the Performance of the Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Valigi, Daniela; Casadei, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological uncertainty due to daily flow variability and to the effect of climate change on water resources is a critical topic in the feasibility evaluations of hydro-power projects, especially for run-of-river power plants. The effect produced by these factors on the annual energy output of such type of plant was investigated. New methods for improving the performance of the plant are proposed, which enable the choice of the most suitable design flow (Qd) according to the hydrological features of the river, the frequency of dry and wet years in the basin and the target energy production. The flow data of fifteen catchment basins of the Umbria Region (Italy) were processed in the form of Flow Duration Curve (FDC) and the slope of each FDC was used as an indicator of the flow regime. The values of the power developed by hypothetical plants were calculated and relationships between the flow regime of the rivers and the performance of the plants (i.e., the Capacity Factor - CF) were searched for. Results showed that CF is analytically linked to the regime flow and it depends to a great extent on it. In particular, CF decreases from a constant run-off regime to a torrential one and the greater the Qd, the greater the rate of this decrease. A procedure was developed on the basis of the equations found, which allows for the identification of the optimal Qd only using the slope of the FDC. Since no other information is required, this approach also enables hydroelectric evaluations in ungauged basins, through the use of regionalized FDCs. The validation of the procedure indicates that it provides reliable results whatever the flow regime of the river and the turbine installed at the station. Additional analysis showed that the effect of extreme weather years on energy production is not the same for all basins and it depends on design choices. Manipulation of the data obtained by the FDCs of the driest and wettest year with a 20-year return period showed that the

  9. Trade-offs Between Electricity Production from Small Hydropower Plants and Ecosystem Services in Alpine River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Philipp; Schwemmle, Robin; Viviroli, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The need for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the decision to phase out nuclear power plants in Switzerland and Germany increases pressure to develop the remaining hydropower potential in Alpine catchments. Since most of the potential for large reservoirs is already exploited, future development focusses on small run-of-the-river hydropower plants (SHP). Being considered a relatively environment-friendly electricity source, investment in SHP is promoted through subsidies. However, SHP can have a significant impact on riverine ecosystems, especially in the Alpine region where residual flow reaches tend to be long. An increase in hydropower exploitation will therefore increase pressure on ecosystems. While a number of studies assessed the potential for hydropower development in the Alps, two main factors were so far not assessed in detail: (i) ecological impacts within a whole river network, and (ii) economic conditions under which electricity is sold. We present a framework that establishes trade-offs between multiple objectives regarding environmental impacts, electricity production and economic evaluation. While it is inevitable that some ecosystems are compromised by hydropower plants, the context of these impacts within a river network should be considered when selecting suitable sites for SHP. From an ecological point of view, the diversity of habitats, and therefore the diversity of species, should be maintained within a river basin. This asks for objectives that go beyond lumped parameters of hydrological alteration, but also consider habitat diversity and the spatial configuration. Energy production in run-of-the-river power plants depends on available discharge, which can have large fluctuations. In a deregulated electricity market with strong price variations, an economic valuation should therefore be based on the expected market value of energy produced. Trade-off curves between different objectives can help decision makers to define policies

  10. Role of slope stability in cumulative impact assessment of hydropower development: North Cascades, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1993-08-01

    Two environmental assessments considered the potential cumulative environmental impacts resulting from the development of eight proposed hydropower projects in the Nooksack River Basin and 11 proposed projects in the Skagit River Basin, North Cascades, Washington, respectively. While not identified as a target resource, slope stability and the alteration of sediment supply to creeks and river mainstems significantly affect other resources. The slope stability assessment emphasized the potential for cumulative impacts under disturbed conditions (e.g., road construction and timber harvesting) and a landslide-induced pipeline rupture scenario. In the case of small-scale slides, the sluicing action of ruptured pipeline water on the fresh landslide scarp was found to be capable of eroding significantly more material than the original landslide. For large-scale landslides, sluiced material was found to be a small increment of the original landslide. These results predicted that hypothetical accidental pipeline rupture by small-scale landslides may result in potential cumulative impacts for 12 of the 19 projects with pending license applications in both river basins. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Current and Future Environmental Balance of Small-Scale Run-of-River Hydropower.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, John; Styles, David; McNabola, Aonghus; Williams, A Prysor

    2015-05-19

    Globally, the hydropower (HP) sector has significant potential to increase its capacity by 2050. This study quantifies the energy and resource demands of small-scale HP projects and presents methods to reduce associated environmental impacts based on potential growth in the sector. The environmental burdens of three (50-650 kW) run-of-river HP projects were calculated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The global warming potential (GWP) for the projects to generate electricity ranged from 5.5-8.9 g CO2 eq/kWh, compared with 403 g CO2 eq/kWh for UK marginal grid electricity. A sensitivity analysis accounted for alternative manufacturing processes, transportation, ecodesign considerations, and extended project lifespan. These findings were extrapolated for technically viable HP sites in Europe, with the potential to generate 7.35 TWh and offset over 2.96 Mt of CO2 from grid electricity per annum. Incorporation of ecodesign could provide resource savings for these HP projects: avoiding 800 000 tonnes of concrete, 10 000 tonnes of steel, and 65 million vehicle miles. Small additional material and energy contributions can double a HP system lifespan, providing 39-47% reductions for all environmental impact categories. In a world of finite resources, this paper highlights the importance of HP as a resource-efficient, renewable energy system. PMID:25909899

  12. Succession and physiological health of freshwater microalgal fouling in a Tasmanian hydropower canal.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kathryn J; Andrewartha, Jessica M; McMinn, Andrew; Cook, Suellen S; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2010-08-01

    Freshwater microalgal biofouling in hydropower canals in Tarraleah, Tasmania, is dominated by a single diatom species, Gomphonema tarraleahae. The microfouling community is under investigation with the aim of reducing its impact on electricity generation. Species succession was investigated using removable glass slides. Fouled slides were examined microscopically and for chlorophyll a biomass. Chl a biomass increased steeply after 8 weeks (0.09-0.87 mg m(-2)), but increased much earlier on slides surrounded by a biofouled inoculum. Succession began with low profile diatoms such as Tabellaria flocculosa, progressing to stalked diatoms such as Gomphonema spp. and Cymbella aspera. Few chlorophytes and no filamentous algae were present. Pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry was used to measure the physiological health of fouling on the canal wall. Maximum quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) measurements were consistently <0.18, indicating that the fouling mat consisted of dead or dying algae. The succession and physiological health of cells in the fouling community has broad implications for mitigation techniques used.

  13. Extreme methane emissions from a Swiss hydropower reservoir: contribution from bubbling sediments.

    PubMed

    Delsontro, Tonya; McGinnis, Daniel F; Sobek, Sebastian; Ostrovsky, Ilia; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Methane emission pathways and their importance were quantified during a yearlong survey of a temperate hydropower reservoir. Measurements using gas traps indicated very high ebullition rates, but due to the stochastic nature of ebullition a mass balance approach was crucial to deduce system-wide methane sources and losses. Methane diffusion from the sediment was generally low and seasonally stable and did not account for the high concentration of dissolved methane measured in the reservoir discharge. A strong positive correlation between water temperature and the observed dissolved methane concentration enabled us to quantify the dissolved methane addition from bubble dissolution using a system-wide mass balance. Finally, knowing the contribution due to bubble dissolution, we used a bubble model to estimate bubble emission directly to the atmosphere. Our results indicated that the total methane emission from Lake Wohlen was on average >150 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), which is the highest ever documented for a midlatitude reservoir. The substantial temperature-dependent methane emissions discovered in this 90-year-old reservoir indicate that temperate water bodies can be an important but overlooked methane source.

  14. Current and Future Environmental Balance of Small-Scale Run-of-River Hydropower.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, John; Styles, David; McNabola, Aonghus; Williams, A Prysor

    2015-05-19

    Globally, the hydropower (HP) sector has significant potential to increase its capacity by 2050. This study quantifies the energy and resource demands of small-scale HP projects and presents methods to reduce associated environmental impacts based on potential growth in the sector. The environmental burdens of three (50-650 kW) run-of-river HP projects were calculated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The global warming potential (GWP) for the projects to generate electricity ranged from 5.5-8.9 g CO2 eq/kWh, compared with 403 g CO2 eq/kWh for UK marginal grid electricity. A sensitivity analysis accounted for alternative manufacturing processes, transportation, ecodesign considerations, and extended project lifespan. These findings were extrapolated for technically viable HP sites in Europe, with the potential to generate 7.35 TWh and offset over 2.96 Mt of CO2 from grid electricity per annum. Incorporation of ecodesign could provide resource savings for these HP projects: avoiding 800 000 tonnes of concrete, 10 000 tonnes of steel, and 65 million vehicle miles. Small additional material and energy contributions can double a HP system lifespan, providing 39-47% reductions for all environmental impact categories. In a world of finite resources, this paper highlights the importance of HP as a resource-efficient, renewable energy system.

  15. Desire to Bargain and Negotiation Success: Lessons About the Need to Negotiate from Six Hydropower Disputes.

    PubMed

    BURKARDT; LAMB; TAYLOR

    1998-11-01

    / We investigated the notion that successful negotiations require that all parties to the dispute must have a desire to bargain. This desire is most likely to be present when the dispute exhibits ripeness and each party believes a bargained solution is the most cost-effective way to resolve differences. Structured interviews of participants in six Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hydropower licensing consultations were conducted to determine the level of need to negotiate for each party. The findings indicate that a need to negotiate is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for success. Several factors were associated with a need to negotiate: a weak BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement); a salient issue; participants' sense of efficacy; a sense of inevitability; professional roles encouraging negotiation; and disputes about facts as opposed to disputes about values. Participants' need to negotiate fluctuated throughout the process and intensified when questions were ripe: i.e., critical issues were debated or the regulatory process required action.KEY WORDS: Alternative dispute resolution; Federal licenses; Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Instream flow; Environmental planning

  16. [Influence of cascaded exploitation of small hydropower on phytoplankton in Xiangxi River].

    PubMed

    Wu, Nai-cheng; Tang, Tao; Zhou, Shu-chan; Fu, Xiao-cheng; Jiang, Wan-xiang; Li, Feng-qing; Cai, Qing-hua

    2007-05-01

    With the five small hydropowers (SHPs) from up- to downstream of Xiangxi River as test objects, this paper studied the influence of SHPs cascaded exploitation on the phytoplankton in the river. The results showed that phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by diatoms, occupying 95.54% of the total number of species. Achnanthes linearis, A. lanceolata var. elliptica and Cocconeis placentula were the most abundant species, with the relative abundance being 23.96%, 18.62% and 12.48%, respectively. The average algal density at 25 sampling sites was 6.29 x 10(5) ind x L(-1), with the maximum of 1.81 x 10(6) ind x L(-1) and the minimum of 2.35 x 10(5) ind x L(-1). Two-way ANOVA indicated that water flow velocity was the main factor affecting the phytoplankton. The establishment of the cascaded SHPs on the river made the habitat of lower reach has a significant difference with the others, resulting in a dramatic change of many parameters including Margalef diversity index, species richness, generic richness, taxonomic composition, and the percentage of diatoms.

  17. Design and implementation of a new autonomous sensor fish to support advanced hydropower development.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z D; Lu, J; Myjak, M J; Martinez, J J; Tian, C; Morris, S J; Carlson, T J; Zhou, D; Hou, H

    2014-11-01

    Acceleration in development of additional conventional hydropower requires tools and methods to perform laboratory and in-field validation of turbine performance and fish passage claims. The new-generation Sensor Fish has been developed with more capabilities to accommodate a wider range of users over a broader range of turbine designs and operating environments. It provides in situ measurements of three-dimensional (3D) linear accelerations, 3D rotational velocities, 3D orientation, pressure, and temperature at a sampling frequency of 2048 Hz. It also has an automatic floatation system and built-in radio-frequency transmitter for recovery. The relative errors of the pressure, acceleration, and rotational velocity were within ±2%, ±5%, and ±5%, respectively. The accuracy of orientation was within ±4° and accuracy of temperature was ±2 °C. The new-generation Sensor Fish is becoming a major technology and being deployed for evaluating the conditions for fish passage of turbines or other hydraulic structures in both the United States and several other countries. PMID:25430138

  18. Extreme methane emissions from a Swiss hydropower reservoir: contribution from bubbling sediments.

    PubMed

    Delsontro, Tonya; McGinnis, Daniel F; Sobek, Sebastian; Ostrovsky, Ilia; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Methane emission pathways and their importance were quantified during a yearlong survey of a temperate hydropower reservoir. Measurements using gas traps indicated very high ebullition rates, but due to the stochastic nature of ebullition a mass balance approach was crucial to deduce system-wide methane sources and losses. Methane diffusion from the sediment was generally low and seasonally stable and did not account for the high concentration of dissolved methane measured in the reservoir discharge. A strong positive correlation between water temperature and the observed dissolved methane concentration enabled us to quantify the dissolved methane addition from bubble dissolution using a system-wide mass balance. Finally, knowing the contribution due to bubble dissolution, we used a bubble model to estimate bubble emission directly to the atmosphere. Our results indicated that the total methane emission from Lake Wohlen was on average >150 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), which is the highest ever documented for a midlatitude reservoir. The substantial temperature-dependent methane emissions discovered in this 90-year-old reservoir indicate that temperate water bodies can be an important but overlooked methane source. PMID:20218543

  19. Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

  20. Design and implementation of a new autonomous sensor fish to support advanced hydropower development.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z D; Lu, J; Myjak, M J; Martinez, J J; Tian, C; Morris, S J; Carlson, T J; Zhou, D; Hou, H

    2014-11-01

    Acceleration in development of additional conventional hydropower requires tools and methods to perform laboratory and in-field validation of turbine performance and fish passage claims. The new-generation Sensor Fish has been developed with more capabilities to accommodate a wider range of users over a broader range of turbine designs and operating environments. It provides in situ measurements of three-dimensional (3D) linear accelerations, 3D rotational velocities, 3D orientation, pressure, and temperature at a sampling frequency of 2048 Hz. It also has an automatic floatation system and built-in radio-frequency transmitter for recovery. The relative errors of the pressure, acceleration, and rotational velocity were within ±2%, ±5%, and ±5%, respectively. The accuracy of orientation was within ±4° and accuracy of temperature was ±2 °C. The new-generation Sensor Fish is becoming a major technology and being deployed for evaluating the conditions for fish passage of turbines or other hydraulic structures in both the United States and several other countries.

  1. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  2. Real-Time Control of a System of Large Hydropower Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Dennis; Velasco, Horacio L.

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a real-time optimal control approach for operating a system of large hydropower reservoirs. The operating objective is to track specified power output targets, subject to a variety of physical constraints. The constraints describe the hydrologie behavior of the tributary watershed and the dynamics of the reservoir system. The decision variables are monthly average releases from each of the system reservoirs. These releases are derived in real time, as functions of available measurements of reservoir storage and tributary inflow. Inflow and measurement uncertainty are explicitly included in the state and measurement equations. The stochastic operations problem is first formulated in general terms and then simplified to allow the use of classical linear-quadratic stochastic control concepts. The solution to the simplified control problem is implemented by combining a linear deterministic control law with a linear estimation algorithm. The resulting stochastic controller is applied to a two-reservoir system in the Caroni River basin of Venezuela. Preliminary tests indicate that the controller performs well in this application, even when some of its underlying assumptions are violated.

  3. Real-time control of a system of large hydropower reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D.; Velasco, H.L. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a real-time optimal control approach for operating a system of large hydropower reservoirs. The operating objective is to track specified power output targets, subject to a variety of physical constraints. The constraints describe the hydrologic behavior of the tributary watershed and the dynamics of the reservoir system. The decision variables are monthly average releases from each of the system reservoirs. These releases are derived in real time, as functions of available measurements of reservoir storage and tributary inflow. Inflow and measurement uncertainty are explicitly included in the state and measurement equations. The stochastic operations problem is first formulated in general terms and then simplified to allow the use of classical linear-quadratic stochastic control concepts. The solution to the simplified control problem is implemented by combining a linear deterministic control law with a linear estimation algorithm. The resulting stochastic controller is applied to a two-reservoir system in the Caroni River basin of Venezuela. Preliminary tests indicate that the controller performs well in this application, even when some of its underlying assumptions are violated.

  4. Technical clarity in inter-agency negotiations: Lessons from four hydropower projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, Nina; Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.; Waddle, Terry J.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of technical clarity on success in multi-party negotiations in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) licensing process. Technical clarity is the shared understanding of dimensions such as the geographic extent of the project, range of flows to be considered, important species and life stages, and variety of water uses considered. The results of four hydropower licensing consultations are reported. Key participants were interviewed to ascertain the level of technical clarity present during the consultations and the degree to which the consultations were successful. Technical clarity appears to be a prerequisite for successful outcomes. Factors that enhance technical clarity include simple project design, new rather than existing projects, precise definition of issues, a sense of urgency to reach agreement, a sense of fairness among participants, and consistency in participation. Negotiators should not neglect the critical pre-negotiation steps of defining technical issues and determining appropriate studies, deciding how to interpret studies, and agreeing on responses to study results.

  5. Desire to Bargain and Negotiation Success: Lessons About the Need to Negotiate from Six Hydropower Disputes.

    PubMed

    BURKARDT; LAMB; TAYLOR

    1998-11-01

    / We investigated the notion that successful negotiations require that all parties to the dispute must have a desire to bargain. This desire is most likely to be present when the dispute exhibits ripeness and each party believes a bargained solution is the most cost-effective way to resolve differences. Structured interviews of participants in six Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hydropower licensing consultations were conducted to determine the level of need to negotiate for each party. The findings indicate that a need to negotiate is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for success. Several factors were associated with a need to negotiate: a weak BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement); a salient issue; participants' sense of efficacy; a sense of inevitability; professional roles encouraging negotiation; and disputes about facts as opposed to disputes about values. Participants' need to negotiate fluctuated throughout the process and intensified when questions were ripe: i.e., critical issues were debated or the regulatory process required action.KEY WORDS: Alternative dispute resolution; Federal licenses; Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Instream flow; Environmental planning PMID:9732517

  6. Environmental Effects of Storage Preservation Practices: Controlled Flushing of Fine Sediment from a Small Hydropower Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espa, Paolo; Castelli, Elena; Crosa, Giuseppe; Gentili, Gaetano

    2013-07-01

    Sediment flushing may be effective in mitigating loss of reservoir storage due to siltation, but flushing must be controlled to limit the impact on the downstream environment. A reliable prediction of the environmental effects of sediment flushing is hindered by the limited scientific information currently available. Consequently, there may be some controversy as regards to management decisions, planning the work, and monitoring strategies. This paper summarizes the main results of a monitoring campaign on the stream below a small alpine hydropower reservoir subjected to annual flushing between 2006 and 2009. The removed sediment was essentially silt, and the suspended solid concentration (SSC) of the discharged water was controlled to alleviate downstream impact. Control was achieved through hydraulic regulation and mechanical digging, alternating daytime sediment evacuation, and nocturnal clear water release. The four operations lasted about two weeks each and had an average SSC of about 4 g L-1. Maximum values of SSC were generally kept below 10 g L-1. Downstream impact was quantified through sampling of fish fauna (brown trout) and macroinvertebrate in the final reach of the effluent stream. The benthic community was severely impaired by the flushing operations, but recovered to pre-flushing values in a few months. As expected, the impact on brown trout was heavier on juveniles. While data biasing due to fish removal and re-stocking cannot be ruled out, the fish community seems to have reached a state of equilibrium characterized by a lower density than was measured before the flushing operations.

  7. Environmental effects of storage preservation practices: controlled flushing of fine sediment from a small hydropower reservoir.

    PubMed

    Espa, Paolo; Castelli, Elena; Crosa, Giuseppe; Gentili, Gaetano

    2013-07-01

    Sediment flushing may be effective in mitigating loss of reservoir storage due to siltation, but flushing must be controlled to limit the impact on the downstream environment. A reliable prediction of the environmental effects of sediment flushing is hindered by the limited scientific information currently available. Consequently, there may be some controversy as regards to management decisions, planning the work, and monitoring strategies. This paper summarizes the main results of a monitoring campaign on the stream below a small alpine hydropower reservoir subjected to annual flushing between 2006 and 2009. The removed sediment was essentially silt, and the suspended solid concentration (SSC) of the discharged water was controlled to alleviate downstream impact. Control was achieved through hydraulic regulation and mechanical digging, alternating daytime sediment evacuation, and nocturnal clear water release. The four operations lasted about two weeks each and had an average SSC of about 4 g L(-1). Maximum values of SSC were generally kept below 10 g L(-1). Downstream impact was quantified through sampling of fish fauna (brown trout) and macroinvertebrate in the final reach of the effluent stream. The benthic community was severely impaired by the flushing operations, but recovered to pre-flushing values in a few months. As expected, the impact on brown trout was heavier on juveniles. While data biasing due to fish removal and re-stocking cannot be ruled out, the fish community seems to have reached a state of equilibrium characterized by a lower density than was measured before the flushing operations.

  8. Diffusive emission of methane and carbon dioxide from two hydropower reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, A A; Santos, M A; Xavier, V L; Bezerra, C S; Silva, C R O; Amorim, M A; Rodrigues, R P; Rogerio, J P

    2015-05-01

    The role of greenhouse gas emissions from freshwater reservoirs and their contribution to increase greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere is currently under discussion in many parts of the world. We studied CO2 and CH4 diffusive fluxes from two large neotropical hydropower reservoirs with different climate conditions. We used floating closed-chambers to estimate diffusive fluxes of these gaseous species. Sampling campaigns showed that the reservoirs studied were sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, the CH4 emissions ranged from 0.530 to 396.96 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and CO2 emissions ranged from -1,738.33 to 11,166.61 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and in Três Marias Reservoir the CH4 fluxes ranged 0.720 to 2,578.03 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and CO2 emission ranged from -3,037.80 to 11,516.64 to mg.m(-2).d(-1). There were no statistically significant differences of CH4 fluxes between the reservoirs, but CO2 fluxes from the two reservoirs studied were significantly different. The CO2 emissions measured over the periods studied in Serra da Mesa showed some seasonality with distinctions between the wet and dry transition season. In Três Marias Reservoir the CO2 fluxes showed no seasonal variability. In both reservoirs, CH4 emissions showed a tendency to increase during the study periods but this was not statistically significant. These results contributed to increase knowledge about the magnitude of CO2 and CH4 emission in hydroelectric reservoirs, however due to natural variability of the data future sampling campaigns will be needed to better elucidate the seasonal influences on the fluxes of greenhouse gases.

  9. Diffusive emission of methane and carbon dioxide from two hydropower reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, A A; Santos, M A; Xavier, V L; Bezerra, C S; Silva, C R O; Amorim, M A; Rodrigues, R P; Rogerio, J P

    2015-05-01

    The role of greenhouse gas emissions from freshwater reservoirs and their contribution to increase greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere is currently under discussion in many parts of the world. We studied CO2 and CH4 diffusive fluxes from two large neotropical hydropower reservoirs with different climate conditions. We used floating closed-chambers to estimate diffusive fluxes of these gaseous species. Sampling campaigns showed that the reservoirs studied were sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, the CH4 emissions ranged from 0.530 to 396.96 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and CO2 emissions ranged from -1,738.33 to 11,166.61 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and in Três Marias Reservoir the CH4 fluxes ranged 0.720 to 2,578.03 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and CO2 emission ranged from -3,037.80 to 11,516.64 to mg.m(-2).d(-1). There were no statistically significant differences of CH4 fluxes between the reservoirs, but CO2 fluxes from the two reservoirs studied were significantly different. The CO2 emissions measured over the periods studied in Serra da Mesa showed some seasonality with distinctions between the wet and dry transition season. In Três Marias Reservoir the CO2 fluxes showed no seasonal variability. In both reservoirs, CH4 emissions showed a tendency to increase during the study periods but this was not statistically significant. These results contributed to increase knowledge about the magnitude of CO2 and CH4 emission in hydroelectric reservoirs, however due to natural variability of the data future sampling campaigns will be needed to better elucidate the seasonal influences on the fluxes of greenhouse gases. PMID:26132015

  10. Sharing the opportunity cost among power companies to support hydropower-to-environment water transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Among the environmental impacts caused by dams, the alteration of flow regimes is one of the most critical to river ecosystems given its influence in long river reaches and its continuous pattern. Provided it is technically feasible, the reoperation of hydroelectric reservoir systems can, in principle, mitigate the impacts on degraded freshwater ecosystems by recovering some of the natural flow regime. The typical approach to implement hydropower-to-environment water transfers focuses on the reoperation of the dam located immediately upstream of the environmentally sensitive area, meaning that only one power station will bear the brunt of the benefits forgone for the power sector. By ignoring the contribution of upstream infrastructures to the alteration of the flow regime, the opportunity cost associated with the restoration of a flow regime is not equitably distributed among the power companies in the river basin, therefore slowing the establishment of environmental flow programs. Yet, there is no criterion, nor institutional mechanisms, to ensure a fair distribution of the opportunity cost among power stations. This paper addresses this issue by comparing four rules to redistribute the costs faced by the power sector when environmental flows must be implemented in a multireservoir system. The rules are based on the the installed capacity of the power plants, the live storage capacity of the reservoirs, the ratio between the incremental flows and the live storage capacity, and the extent of the storage services; that is, the volume of water effectively transferred by each reservoir. The analysis is carried out using the Parana River Basin (Brazil) as a case study.

  11. Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

    2013-07-01

    Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

  12. Survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts through a hydropower complex.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Bailey, M M; Zydlewski, J D

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt survival through the lower Penobscot River, Maine, U.S.A., and characterized relative differences in proportional use and survival through the main-stem of the river and an alternative migration route, the Stillwater Branch. The work was conducted prior to removal of two main-stem dams and operational changes in hydropower facilities in the Stillwater Branch. Survival and proportional use of migration routes in the lower Penobscot were estimated from multistate (MS) models based on 6 years of acoustic telemetry data from 1669 smolts and 2 years of radio-telemetry data from 190 fish. A small proportion (0·12, 95% c.i. = 0·06-0·25) of smolts used the Stillwater Branch, and mean survival through the two operational dams in this part of the river was relatively high (1·00 and 0·97). Survival at Milford Dam, the dam that will remain in the main-stem of the Penobscot River, was relatively low (0·91), whereas survival through two dams that were removed was relatively high (0·99 and 0·98). Smolt survival could decrease in the Stillwater Branch with the addition of two new powerhouses while continuing to meet fish passage standards. The effects of removing two dams in the main-stem are expected to be negligible for smolt survival based on high survival observed from 2005 to 2012 at those locations. Survival through Milford Dam was been well below current regulatory standards, and thus improvement of passage at this location offers the best opportunity for improving overall smolt survival in the lower river.

  13. Survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts through a hydropower complex.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Bailey, M M; Zydlewski, J D

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt survival through the lower Penobscot River, Maine, U.S.A., and characterized relative differences in proportional use and survival through the main-stem of the river and an alternative migration route, the Stillwater Branch. The work was conducted prior to removal of two main-stem dams and operational changes in hydropower facilities in the Stillwater Branch. Survival and proportional use of migration routes in the lower Penobscot were estimated from multistate (MS) models based on 6 years of acoustic telemetry data from 1669 smolts and 2 years of radio-telemetry data from 190 fish. A small proportion (0·12, 95% c.i. = 0·06-0·25) of smolts used the Stillwater Branch, and mean survival through the two operational dams in this part of the river was relatively high (1·00 and 0·97). Survival at Milford Dam, the dam that will remain in the main-stem of the Penobscot River, was relatively low (0·91), whereas survival through two dams that were removed was relatively high (0·99 and 0·98). Smolt survival could decrease in the Stillwater Branch with the addition of two new powerhouses while continuing to meet fish passage standards. The effects of removing two dams in the main-stem are expected to be negligible for smolt survival based on high survival observed from 2005 to 2012 at those locations. Survival through Milford Dam was been well below current regulatory standards, and thus improvement of passage at this location offers the best opportunity for improving overall smolt survival in the lower river. PMID:25130320

  14. Reduced Spill at Hydropower Dams: Opportunities for More Generation and Increased Fish Population

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, Charles C; Mann, Roger; Sale, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    This report indicates that reduction of managed spill at hydropower dams can speed implementation of technologies for fish protection and achieve economic goals. Spill of water over spillways is managed in the Columbia River basin to assist downstream-migrating juvenile salmon, and is generally believed to be the most similar to natural migration, benign and effective passage route; other routes include turbines, intake screens with bypasses, and surface bypasses. However, this belief may be misguided, because spill is becoming recognized as less than natural, with deep intakes below normal migration depths, and likely causing physical damages from severe shear on spillways, high turbulence in tail waters, and collisions with baffle blocks that lead to disorientation and predation. Some spillways induce mortalities comparable to turbines. Spill is expensive in lost generation, and controversial. Fish-passage research is leading to more fish-friendly turbines, screens and bypasses that are more effective and less damaging, and surface bypasses that offer passage of more fish per unit water volume than does spill (leaving more water for generation). Analyses by independent economists demonstrated that goals of increased fish survival over the long term and net gain to the economy can be obtained by selectively reducing spill and diverting some of the income from added power generation to research, development, and installation of fish-passage technologies. Such a plan would selectively reduce spill when and where least damaging to fish, increase electricity generation using the water not spilled and use innovative financing to direct monetary gains to improving fish passage.

  15. Fish behavior in relation to modeling fish passage through hydropower turbines: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.; Whitney, R.R.

    1997-06-01

    We evaluated the literature on fish behavior as it relates to passage of fish near or through hydropower turbines. The goal was to foster compatibility of engineered systems with the normal behavior patterns of fish species and life stages such that entrainment into turbines and injury in passage are minimized. We focused on aspects of fish behavior that could be used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of fish trajectories through turbine systems. Downstream-migrating salmon smolts are generally surface oriented and follow flow. Smolts orient to the ceilings of turbine intakes but are horizontally distributed more evenly, except as affected by intake-specific turbulence and vortices. Smolts often enter intakes oriented head-upstream. Non-salmonids are entrained episodically, suggesting accidental capture of schools (often of juveniles or in cold water) and little behavioral control during turbine passage. Models of fish trajectories should not assume neutral buoyancy throughout the time a fish passes through a turbine, largely because of pressure effects on swim bladders. Fish use their lateral line system to sense obstacles and change their orientation, but this sensory-response system may not be effective in the rapid passage times of turbine systems. A Effects of pre-existing stress levels on fish performance in turbine passage are not well known but may be important. There are practical limits of observation and measurement of fish and flows in the proximity of turbine runners that may inhibit development of information germane to developing a more fish-friendly turbine. We provide recommendations for CFD modelers of fish passage and for additional research. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Ecological consequences of hydropower development in Central America: Impacts of small dams and water diversion on neotropical stream fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small dams for hydropower have caused widespread alteration of Central American rivers, yet much of recent development has gone undocumented by scientists and conservationists. We examined the ecological effects of a small hydropower plant (Dona Julia Hydroelectric Center) on two low-order streams (the Puerto Viejo River and Quebradon stream) draining a mountainous area of Costa Rica. Operation of the Dona Julia plant has dewatered these streams, reducing discharge to ~ 10% of average annual flow. This study compared fish assemblage composition and aquatic habitat upstream and downstream of diversion dams on two streams and along a ~ 4 km dewatered reach of the Puerto Viejo River in an attempt to evaluate current instream flow recommendations for regulated Costa Rican streams. Our results indicated that fish assemblages directly upstream and downstream of the dam on the third order Puerto Viejo River were dissimilar, suggesting that the small dam (< 15 in high) hindered movement of fishes. Along the ~ 4 km dewatered reach of the Puerto Viejo River, species count increased with downstream distance from the dam. However, estimated species richness and overall fish abundance were not significantly correlated with downstream distance from the dam. Our results suggested that effects of stream dewatering may be most pronounced for a subset of species with more complex reproductive requirements, classified as equilibrium-type species based on their life-history. In the absence of changes to current operations, we expect that fish assemblages in the Puerto Viejo River will be increasingly dominated by opportunistic-type, colonizing fish species. Operations of many other small hydropower plants in Costa Rica and other parts of Central America mirror those of Doha Julia; the methods and results of this study may be applicable to some of those projects.

  17. Habitat suitability mapping of Anopheles darlingi in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant reservoir, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zeilhofer, Peter; Santos, Emerson Soares dos; Ribeiro, Ana LM; Miyazaki, Rosina D; Santos, Marina Atanaka dos

    2007-01-01

    Background Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazil's electricity generation, but the country's reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to extract additional spatial layers of land use, distance maps, and relief characteristics for spatial model building. Results Logistic regression analysis and ROC curves indicate significant relationships between the environment and presence of An. darlingi. Probabilities of presence strongly vary as a function of land cover and distance from the lake shoreline. Vector presence was associated with spatial proximity to reservoir and semi-deciduous forests followed by Cerrado woodland. Vector absence was associated with open vegetation formations such as grasslands and agricultural areas. We suppose that non-significant differences of vector incidences between rainy and dry seasons are associated with the availability of anthropogenic breeding habitat of the reservoir throughout the year. Conclusion Satellite image classification and multitemporal shoreline simulations through DEM-based GIS-analyses consist in a valuable tool for spatial modeling of A. darlingi habitats in the studied hydropower reservoir area. Vector presence is significantly increased in forested areas near reservoirs in bays protected from wind and wave action. Construction of new reservoirs under the tropical, sub-humid climatic conditions should therefore be accompanied by entomologic studies to predict the risk of malaria epidemics. PMID:17343728

  18. Multi-Model CIMP5 projected impacts of increased greenhouse gases on the Niger basin and implications for hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Climate change could potentially have large impacts on water availability in West Africa and the predictions are accrued with high uncertainties in this region. Countries in the Niger River basin (West Africa) plan the investment of 200 million in the installation of an additional 400MW of hydropower in the nearest future, adding to the existing 685MW. With the impacts of climate change in the basin already occurring, there is a need for comprehending the influence of future hydro-climatic changes on water resources and hydro-power generation in the basin. This study uses a hydrological model to simulate river flow under present and future conditions and evaluates the impacts of potential changes on electricity production of the largest hydroelectric dam (Kainji) in the Niger Basin. The Kainji reservoir produces 25 per cent of the current energy needs of Nigeria and was subject to large fluctuations in energy production as a result of variable inflow and operational reasons. Inflow into the reservoir was simulated using hydroclimatic data from a set of 7 regional climate models (RCM) with two emission scenarios from the CORDEX-Africa regional downscaling experiment, driven with CMIP5 data. Based on observations of inflow, water level in the reservoir, and energy production we developed a simple hydroelectricity production model to simulate future energy production for the reservoir. Results suggest increases in river flow for the majority of RCM data as a result of increases in precipitation in the headwaters of the basin around 2050 and slightly decreasing trends for low emission scenarios by the end of the century. Despite this consistent increase, shifts in timing of river flow can challenge the reliable production of energy. This analysis could help assess the planning of hydropower schemes in the basin for a sustainable production of hydroelectricity in the future.

  19. Quantifying eco-sustainable water releases from small hydropower plants by means of the Principle of Marginal Utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, L.; Characklis, G.; Perona, P.

    2012-04-01

    Water use for hydropower production is increasing in mountain regions, as is an awareness of the importance of generating sustainable water releases for riparian ecosystems. Traditionally, hydropower releases have been regulated by minimum flow release policies, but these can have a number of shortcomings. Perona and Dürrenmatt propose a method of determining releases that is based on the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU), which considers the environment as a (non-traditional) water user that is in full competition with other uses. Although simple, this model suggests a way of generating quasi-natural flow releases at diversion nodes while maximizing the aggregate economic benefit of all uses, including environmental. In this paper we demonstrate the implementation of the method of Perona and Dürrenmatt for several real-cases in Switzerland, evaluating the long term performances of various release policies from both an ecological and economic point of view. The model is implemented by proposing some simple environmental utility functions, followed by an examination of: i) the statistics of the flow releases predicted by the model using the "Range of Variability Approach" originally proposed by Richter et al. (1997); ii) the meaning of environmental benefits, through use of a parametric analysis which evaluates the best allocation strategy; iii) the implicit economic valuation of ecosystem health underlying each simulated alternative. This last point is evaluated assuming that allocating a unit of water to the environment and not to hydropower means assigning a higher economic value to the environment. The long term mean of the ratio between the allocated flows may be used as a suitable engineering parameter, which allows for a comparison of the environmental value of water with other uses over the system lifetime. Results are used to explore the idea that the balance between cumulative financial value, loss of biodiversity and the future costs of

  20. A parametric study of the value of hydrological information for irrigation and hydropower management of the Feather River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzler, E.; Sand, F.; Stevenson, P.; Putnam, M.

    1975-01-01

    A case study analysis is presented of the relationships between improvements in the accuracy, frequency, and timeliness of information used in making hydrological forecasts and economic benefits in the areas of hydropower and irrigation. The area chosen for the case study is the Oroville Dam and Reservoir. Emphasis is placed on the use of timely and accurate mapping of the aerial extent of snow in the basin by earth resources survey systems such as LANDSAT. The subject of benefits resulting from improved runoff forecasts is treated in a generalized way without specifying the source of the improvements.

  1. Hydropower computerized reconnaissance package version 2. 0. [HYDRO-CAL, PAPER-ECON, and HYDRO-ECON

    SciTech Connect

    Broadus, C.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Hydropower Computerized Reconnaissance (HCR) Package is a computerized preliminary engineering and economic study package for small hydroelectric projects which consists of three programs developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. One engineering program evaluates the flow characteristics of a site and determines the energy generated for various turbine configurations and two economic programs provide two levels of economic studies depending upon the amount of site-specific information available. An Apple II computer is utilized to provide a quick-turnaround capability. The models and methods used in the HCR package are described, and information is provided on program application, sample run sessions, program outputs, and listings of the main programs.

  2. Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Coutant, Charles C

    2006-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used

  3. Predicting future wind power generation and power demand in France using statistical downscaling methods developed for hydropower applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najac, Julien

    2014-05-01

    For many applications in the energy sector, it is crucial to dispose of downscaling methods that enable to conserve space-time dependences at very fine spatial and temporal scales between variables affecting electricity production and consumption. For climate change impact studies, this is an extremely difficult task, particularly as reliable climate information is usually found at regional and monthly scales at best, although many industry oriented applications need further refined information (hydropower production model, wind energy production model, power demand model, power balance model…). Here we thus propose to investigate the question of how to predict and quantify the influence of climate change on climate-related energies and the energy demand. To do so, statistical downscaling methods originally developed for studying climate change impacts on hydrological cycles in France (and which have been used to compute hydropower production in France), have been applied for predicting wind power generation in France and an air temperature indicator commonly used for predicting power demand in France. We show that those methods provide satisfactory results over the recent past and apply this methodology to several climate model runs from the ENSEMBLES project.

  4. Model based hydropower gate operation for mitigation of CSO impacts by means of river base flow increase.

    PubMed

    Achleitner, S; De Toffol, S; Engelhard, C; Rauch, W

    2005-01-01

    In river stretches being subjected to flow regulation, usually for the purpose of energy production (e.g. Hydropower) or flood protection (river barrage), a special measure can be taken against the effect of combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The basic idea is the temporal increase of the river base flow (during storm weather) as an in-stream measure for mitigation of CSO spilling. The focus is the mitigation of the negative effect of acute pollution of substances. The measure developed can be seen as an application of the classic real time control (RTC) concept onto the river system. Upstream gate operation is to be based on real time monitoring and forecasting of precipitation. The main objective is the development of a model based predictive control system for the gate operation, by modelling of the overall wastewater system (incl. the receiving water). The main emphasis is put on the operational strategy and the appropriate short-term forecast of spilling events. The potential of the measure is tested for the application of the operational strategy and its ecological and economic feasibility. The implementation of such an in-stream measure into the hydropower's operational scheme is unique. Advantages are (a) the additional in-stream dilution of acute pollutants entering the receiving water and (b) the resulting minimization of the required CSO storage volume.

  5. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  6. Assessment of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival through the Federal Hydropower Projects in the Main-Stem Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Eppard, M. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2014-07-11

    High survival through hydropower projects is an essential element in the recovery of salmonid populations in the Columbia River. It is also a regulatory requirement under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) established under the Endangered Species Act. It requires dam passage survival to be ≥0.96 and ≥0.93 for spring and summer outmigrating juvenile salmonids, respectively, and estimated with a standard error ≤ 0.015. An innovative virtual/paired-release design was used to estimate dam passage survival, defined as survival from the face of a dam to the tailrace mixing zone. A coordinated four-dam study was conducted during the 2012 summer outmigration using 14,026 run-of-river subyearling Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic micro-transmitter (AMT) tags released at 9 different locations, and monitored on 14 different detection arrays. Each of the four estimates of dam passage survival exceeded BiOp requirements with values ranging from 0.9414 to 0.9747 and standard errors, 0.0031 to 0.0114. Two consecutive years of survival estimates must meet BiOp standards in order for a hydropower project to be in compliance with recovery requirements for a fish stock.

  7. Analysis on the Dynamics of Burst Debris Flood at the Inclined Pressure-Shaft of Svandalsflona Hydropower Project, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, K. K.

    2014-05-01

    Long-term stability of the waterway system of the hydropower plants is crucial and should not be underestimated. The compromise may result in severe economic consequences related to revenue loss caused by the plant closedown for needed repair, extra resources and time required for repair work, and third party loss related to industries and societies at large. In addition, possible contractual disputes between the clients and the contractors may arise in some occasions. Serious accidents may happen during repair and construction work with loss of life, since engineering geological environment (conditions) in the rock mass changed once under water for long period. This article focuses on one of the recent shaft collapse that happened in Norway in 2008. The article discusses and analyses the dynamics of burst debris flood that took place on 9 May 2009, while removing the slide rock mass deposited in the 45° inclined shaft of the Svandalsflona hydropower plant located at the Southern Norway. Careful review on the geological conditions inside the shaft, evaluation on the course of events, investigations on the inspections and inspections reports, assessment on the temperature and precipitation conditions have been carried out to come to the conclusion on what might have triggered the sudden burst flood.

  8. CO2 is dominant greenhouse gas emitted from six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States during peak summer emissions

    DOE PAGES

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Stewart, Aurthur J.; Fortner, Allison M.; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Mosher, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-06

    During August-September 2012, we sampled six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States. for CO2 and CH4 emissions via three pathways: diffusive emissions from water surface; ebullition in the water column; and losses from dam tailwaters during power generation. Average total emission rates of CO2 for the six reservoirs ranged from 1,127 to 2,051 mg m-2 d-1, which is low to moderate compared to CO2 emissions rates reported for tropical hydropower reservoirs and boreal ponds and lakes, and similar to rates reported for other temperate reservoirs. Similar average rates for CH4 were also relatively low, ranging from 5 to 83 mgmore » m-2 d-1. On a whole-reservoir basis, total emissions of CO2 ranged nearly 10-fold, from ~51,000 kg per day for Fontana to ~486,000 kg per day for Guntersville, and total emissions of CH4 ranged nearly 20-fold, from ~5 kg per day for Fontana to ~83 kg per day for Allatoona. Emissions through the tailwater pathway varied among reservoirs, comprising from 20 to 50% of total CO2 emissions and 0 to 90% of CH4 emissions, depending on the reservoir. Furthermore, several explanatory factors related to reservoir morphology and water quality were considered for observed differences among reservoirs.« less

  9. Neuro-fuzzy controller of low head hydropower plants using adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system

    SciTech Connect

    Djukanovic, M.B.; Calovic, M.S.; Vesovic, B.V.; Sobajic, D.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an attempt of nonlinear, multivariable control of low-head hydropower plants, by using adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The new design technique enhances fuzzy controllers with self-learning capability for achieving prescribed control objectives in a near optimal manner. The controller has flexibility for accepting more sensory information, with the main goal to improve the generator unit transients, by adjusting the exciter input, the wicket gate and runner blade positions. The developed ANFIS controller whose control signals are adjusted by using incomplete on-line measurements, can offer better damping effects to generator oscillations over a wide range of operating conditions, than conventional controllers. Digital simulations of hydropower plant equipped with low-head Kaplan turbine are performed and the comparisons of conventional excitation-governor control, state-feedback optimal control and ANFIS based output feedback control are presented. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme and the robustness of the acquired neuro-fuzzy controller, the controller has been implemented on a complex high-order non-linear hydrogenerator model.

  10. Neural-net based coordinated stabilizing control for the exciter and governor loops of low head hydropower plants

    SciTech Connect

    Djukanovic, M.; Novicevic, M.; Dobrijevic, D.; Babic, B.; Sobajic, D.J.; Pao, Y.H. |

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a design technique of a new adaptive optimal controller of the low head hydropower plant using artificial neural networks (ANN). The adaptive controller is to operate in real time to improve the generating unit transients through the exciter input, the guide vane position and the runner blade position. The new design procedure is based on self-organization and the predictive estimation capabilities of neural-nets implemented through the cluster-wise segmented associative memory scheme. The developed neural-net based controller (NNC) whose control signals are adjusted using the on-line measurements, can offer better damping effects for generator oscillations over a wide range of operating conditions than conventional controllers. Digital simulations of hydropower plant equipped with low head Kaplan turbine are performed and the comparisons of conventional excitation-governor control, state-space optimal control and neural-net based control are presented. Results obtained on the non-linear mathematical model demonstrate that the effects of the NNC closely agree with those obtained using the state-space multivariable discrete-time optimal controllers.

  11. Republic of Bulgaria Sreden Iskar Cascade hydropower development. Application for participation under the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Interest in water resources and hydropower has been low in Bulgaria for over 20 years and only about 33% of the potential hydropower available to the Country are currently being utilized. This is due in part to past design practices that utilized large reservoirs to regulate runoff and create the necessary head. The Iskar River does not allow for the typical design. However, in recent years, technical advancement in machinery design and more efficient turbine-generators has led to the development of low-head hydro projects. Studies determined that the Iskar Cascade can support low-head hydro development and could provide as much as 93 MW of capacity. This project will initially consist of the construction of three hydroelectric facilities along a 120-km section of the Iskar river in western Bulgaria. Each facility will consist of a powerhouse (housing a turbine and generator), an embankment dam, a concrete spillway with regulating gates, a fish passage, and associated transformers and switchgear. This report gives a description of the project, its sources of funding for specific measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions with and without these specific measures, and other environmental considerations.

  12. Trade-off Assessment of Simplified Routing Models for Short-Term Hydropower Reservoir Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issao Kuwajima, Julio; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Alvardo Montero, Rodolfo; Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Assis dos Reis, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Short-term reservoir optimization, also referred to as model predictive control, integrates model-based forecasts and optimization algorithms to meet multiple management objectives such as water supply, navigation, hydroelectricity generation, environmental obligations and flood protection. It is a valuable decision support tool to handle water-stress conditions or flooding events, and supports decision makers to minimize their impact. If the reservoir management includes downstream control, for example for mitigation flood damages in inundation areas downstream of the operated dam, the flow routing between the dam and the downstream inundation area is of major importance. The unsteady open channel flow in river reaches can be described by the one-dimensional Saint-Venant equations. However, owing to the mathematical complexity of those equations, some simplifications may be required to speed up the computation within the optimization procedure. Another strategy to limit the model runtime is a schematization on a course computational grid. In particular the last measure can introduce significant numerical diffusion into the solution. This is a major drawback, in particular if the reservoir release has steep gradients which we often find in hydropower reservoirs. In this work, four different routing models are assessed concerning their implementation in the predictive control of the Três Marias Reservoir located at the Upper River São Francisco in Brazil: i) a fully dynamic model using the software package SOBEK; ii) a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model with Muskingum-Cunge routing for the flow reaches of interest, the MGB-IPH (Modelo Hidrológico de Grandes Bacias - Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas); iii) a reservoir routing approach; and iv) a diffusive wave model. The last two models are implemented in the RTC-Tool toolbox. The overall model accuracy between the simplified models in RTC-Tools (iii, iv) and the more sophisticated SOBEK model (i) are

  13. Unconventional Impacts from Unconventional Hydropower Devices: The Environmental Effects of Noise, Electromagnetic Fields, and other Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelhimer, M.; Cada, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional dam-based hydropower production produces a variety of environmental stressors that have been debated and confronted for decades. In-current hydrokinetic devices present some of the same or analogous stressors (e.g., changes in sediment transport and deposition, interference with animal movements and migrations, and strike by rotor blades) and some potentially new stressors (e.g., noise during operation, emission of electromagnetic fields [EMF], and toxicity of paints, lubricants, and antifouling coatings). The types of hydrokinetic devices being proposed and tested are varied, as are the locations where they could be deployed, i.e., coastal, estuarine, and big rivers. Differences in hydrology, device type, and the affected aquatic community (marine, estuarine, and riverine) will likely result in a different suite of environmental concerns for each project. Studies are underway at the U.S. Department of Energy's national laboratories to characterize the level of exposure to these stressors and to measure environmental response where possible. In this presentation we present results of studies on EMF, noise, and benthic habitat alteration relevant to hydrokinetic device operation in large rivers. In laboratory studies we tested the behavioral response of a variety of fish and invertebrate organisms to exposure to DC and AC EMF. Our findings suggest that lake sturgeon may be susceptible to EMF like that emitted from underwater cables, but most other species tested are not. Based on recordings of various underwater noise sources, we will show how the spectral density of noises created by hydrokinetic devices compares to that from other anthropogenic sources and natural sources. We will also report the results of hydroacoustic surveys that show how sediments are redistributed behind pilings like those that could be used for mounting hydrokinetic devices. The potential effects of these stressors will be discussed in the context of possible fish population

  14. Assessing Stochastic Optimization for Rio Tinto Alcan's Hydropower System in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, P.; Latraverse, M.; Leconte, R.; Larouche, B.

    2012-04-01

    Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) is a multinational aluminium producer with smelters in Quebec, Canada. RTA also owns and operates power houses on Péribonka and Saguenay Rivers. The system, which is run by RTA's Quebec Power Operations Division, consists of 6 generating stations and 3 major reservoirs, for an installed capacity of 2900 MW. One of the significant issues that had to be resolved for effective operation of this system was to determine the volume of water release per week for all generating stations. Several challenges had to be dealt with before a suitable solution could be found. Last year, RTA started a five year R&D project for improving the management of the hydropower system. This project includes data monitoring, Hydrological Ensemble Prediction (HEP) and stochastic optimization (SO) methods. Development of SO methods is particularly interesting for RTA since, until now, the decision making process has been based on a deterministic solver even if it is impossible to predict naturally contributed volumes with any accuracy beyond a few days. Moreover, the production at the generating stations follows a non-linear, non-convex function of turbine flow rates and water head. Both of these factors have the effect of requiring that the decision should be based upon solving a non-linear and non-convex stochastic optimization problem. The following presentation describes the first part of the SO project and aims to assess the value of using a stochastic solver instead of a deterministic solver. Two different SO approaches were evaluated: lag-1 Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) and Sampling Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SSDP) algorithms. HEP are used to capture the spatio-temporal variability of the inflows. Scenarios are generated using a hydrological model (HM) by initialising the HM with the same initial conditions (hydrologic state variables). These hydrologic variables are estimated using real-time observations available for the catchment area. Inter

  15. Operational value of ensemble streamflow forecasts for hydropower production: A Canadian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Tremblay, Denis; Luc, Perreault; François, Anctil

    2010-05-01

    Ensemble and probabilistic forecasts have many advantages over deterministic ones, both in meteorology and hydrology (e.g. Krzysztofowicz, 2001). Mainly, they inform the user on the uncertainty linked to the forecast. It has been brought to attention that such additional information could lead to improved decision making (e.g. Wilks and Hamill, 1995; Mylne, 2002; Roulin, 2007), but very few studies concentrate on operational situations involving the use of such forecasts. In addition, many authors have demonstrated that ensemble forecasts outperform deterministic forecasts in terms of performance (e.g. Jaun et al., 2005; Velazquez et al., 2009; Laio and Tamea, 2007). However, such performance is mostly assessed on the basis of numerical scoring rules, which compare the forecasts to the observations, and seldom in terms of management gains. The proposed case study adopts an operational point of view, on the basis that a novel forecasting system has value only if it leads to increase monetary and societal gains (e.g. Murphy, 1994; Laio and Tamea, 2007). More specifically, Environment Canada operational ensemble precipitation forecasts are used to drive the HYDROTEL distributed hydrological model (Fortin et al., 1995), calibrated on the Gatineau watershed located in Québec, Canada. The resulting hydrological ensemble forecasts are then incorporated into Hydro-Québec SOHO stochastic management optimization tool that automatically search for optimal operation decisions for the all reservoirs and hydropower plants located on the basin. The timeline of the study is the fall season of year 2003. This period is especially relevant because of high precipitations that nearly caused a major spill, and forced the preventive evacuation of a portion of the population located near one of the dams. We show that the use of the ensemble forecasts would have reduced the occurrence of spills and flooding, which is of particular importance for dams located in populous area, and

  16. Operational value of ensemble streamflow forecasts for hydropower production: A Canadian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Tremblay, Denis; Luc, Perreault; François, Anctil

    2010-05-01

    Ensemble and probabilistic forecasts have many advantages over deterministic ones, both in meteorology and hydrology (e.g. Krzysztofowicz, 2001). Mainly, they inform the user on the uncertainty linked to the forecast. It has been brought to attention that such additional information could lead to improved decision making (e.g. Wilks and Hamill, 1995; Mylne, 2002; Roulin, 2007), but very few studies concentrate on operational situations involving the use of such forecasts. In addition, many authors have demonstrated that ensemble forecasts outperform deterministic forecasts in terms of performance (e.g. Jaun et al., 2005; Velazquez et al., 2009; Laio and Tamea, 2007). However, such performance is mostly assessed on the basis of numerical scoring rules, which compare the forecasts to the observations, and seldom in terms of management gains. The proposed case study adopts an operational point of view, on the basis that a novel forecasting system has value only if it leads to increase monetary and societal gains (e.g. Murphy, 1994; Laio and Tamea, 2007). More specifically, Environment Canada operational ensemble precipitation forecasts are used to drive the HYDROTEL distributed hydrological model (Fortin et al., 1995), calibrated on the Gatineau watershed located in Québec, Canada. The resulting hydrological ensemble forecasts are then incorporated into Hydro-Québec SOHO stochastic management optimization tool that automatically search for optimal operation decisions for the all reservoirs and hydropower plants located on the basin. The timeline of the study is the fall season of year 2003. This period is especially relevant because of high precipitations that nearly caused a major spill, and forced the preventive evacuation of a portion of the population located near one of the dams. We show that the use of the ensemble forecasts would have reduced the occurrence of spills and flooding, which is of particular importance for dams located in populous area, and

  17. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1995-05-01

    Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation.

  18. The bedrock and structural geology of Tuckerman Ravine and Boott Spur in the Presidential Range, N. H

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.H.; Maconochie, J.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Detailed mapping has been done of the polydeformed, lower sillimanite grade, Silurian and Devonian metasedimentary rocks in the southeast part of the Presidential Range, N.H. These rocks are part of the cover sequence in the Central Maine Terrane of the northern Appalachians. Folding and associated metamorphism is thought to be related to the Acadian and Alleghanian( ) orogenics. The Silurian Rangeley Formation, the oldest unit, is a schist and quartzite which has been subdivided into two members based on the presence or absence of calc-silicate pods. In places it is highly migmitized due to the intrusion of the Glen Boulder granite in the southern section of the field area. The Silurian Smalls Falls Formation, a rusty schist, highly susceptible to weathering, overlies the Rangeley Formation. Overlying this is the Silurian Madrid Formation, a well layered calc-silicate granofels. On top of the sequence lies a thick section of schists and quartzites of varying thicknesses and relative abundances. This section has been sub-divided into ten members that collectively form the lower Devonian Littleton Formation. The area has undergone three phases of deformation. Field data and structural analysis indicate that an early macroscopic fold, F1, dominates the area and has an average trend of 325[degree] and plunge of 25[degree]. The axial surface, S1, strikes north and dips moderately west. This fold exposes inverted beds in the northwest limb and up-right beds in the southeast limb. Asymmetric, east vergent, F2 folds are abundant. These folds have an average trend of 112[degree] and plunge of 53[degree], with associated axial planar cleavage, S2, striking north and dipping moderately to the west. Pegmatite veins are folded by F2 indicating that they and similar igneous bodies likely predate F2 folding. Evidence for later stage F3 folding also exists.

  19. Enhanced genetic algorithm optimization model for a single reservoir operation based on hydropower generation: case study of Mosul reservoir, northern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqeeli, Yousif H; Lee, T S; Abd Aziz, S

    2016-01-01

    Achievement of the optimal hydropower generation from operation of water reservoirs, is a complex problems. The purpose of this study was to formulate and improve an approach of a genetic algorithm optimization model (GAOM) in order to increase the maximization of annual hydropower generation for a single reservoir. For this purpose, two simulation algorithms were drafted and applied independently in that GAOM during 20 scenarios (years) for operation of Mosul reservoir, northern Iraq. The first algorithm was based on the traditional simulation of reservoir operation, whilst the second algorithm (Salg) enhanced the GAOM by changing the population values of GA through a new simulation process of reservoir operation. The performances of these two algorithms were evaluated through the comparison of their optimal values of annual hydropower generation during the 20 scenarios of operating. The GAOM achieved an increase in hydropower generation in 17 scenarios using these two algorithms, with the Salg being superior in all scenarios. All of these were done prior adding the evaporation (Ev) and precipitation (Pr) to the water balance equation. Next, the GAOM using the Salg was applied by taking into consideration the volumes of these two parameters. In this case, the optimal values obtained from the GAOM were compared, firstly with their counterpart that found using the same algorithm without taking into consideration of Ev and Pr, secondly with the observed values. The first comparison showed that the optimal values obtained in this case decreased in all scenarios, whilst maintaining the good results compared with the observed in the second comparison. The results proved the effectiveness of the Salg in increasing the hydropower generation through the enhanced approach of the GAOM. In addition, the results indicated to the importance of taking into account the Ev and Pr in the modelling of reservoirs operation.

  20. Enhanced genetic algorithm optimization model for a single reservoir operation based on hydropower generation: case study of Mosul reservoir, northern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqeeli, Yousif H; Lee, T S; Abd Aziz, S

    2016-01-01

    Achievement of the optimal hydropower generation from operation of water reservoirs, is a complex problems. The purpose of this study was to formulate and improve an approach of a genetic algorithm optimization model (GAOM) in order to increase the maximization of annual hydropower generation for a single reservoir. For this purpose, two simulation algorithms were drafted and applied independently in that GAOM during 20 scenarios (years) for operation of Mosul reservoir, northern Iraq. The first algorithm was based on the traditional simulation of reservoir operation, whilst the second algorithm (Salg) enhanced the GAOM by changing the population values of GA through a new simulation process of reservoir operation. The performances of these two algorithms were evaluated through the comparison of their optimal values of annual hydropower generation during the 20 scenarios of operating. The GAOM achieved an increase in hydropower generation in 17 scenarios using these two algorithms, with the Salg being superior in all scenarios. All of these were done prior adding the evaporation (Ev) and precipitation (Pr) to the water balance equation. Next, the GAOM using the Salg was applied by taking into consideration the volumes of these two parameters. In this case, the optimal values obtained from the GAOM were compared, firstly with their counterpart that found using the same algorithm without taking into consideration of Ev and Pr, secondly with the observed values. The first comparison showed that the optimal values obtained in this case decreased in all scenarios, whilst maintaining the good results compared with the observed in the second comparison. The results proved the effectiveness of the Salg in increasing the hydropower generation through the enhanced approach of the GAOM. In addition, the results indicated to the importance of taking into account the Ev and Pr in the modelling of reservoirs operation. PMID:27390638

  1. The necessity of field research in prescription of Environmental Flows - A case of the hydropower dominated Middle Zambezi Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwelwa, Elenestina; Crosato, Alessandra; Wright, Nigel; Beevers, Lindsay

    2013-04-01

    The research work in the Middle Zambezi sub-catchment has the key objective to investigate the state of the river and its flood plain in terms of flow variation, river and flood plain morphological variation for both the pre and post hydropower schemes. From the rich biodiversity that this area supports, both Zambia and Zimbabwe has established National Parks with Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore safari areas being designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984. The habitat sustenance depend on the river channels and the associated morphological features with the flood and recession interaction whose modification can lead to negative environmental consequences. The research findings on the state of the sub-catchment flows and morphology will be outlined. Highlights will be given on the following findings: dominance of hydropower regulation in the water balance of the river reach, historical map analysis and related rates of river channel morphology changes associated to dam operating events and, bed load sediment characterisation and distribution. With the use of SOBEK-Rural (1D/2D) model, analysis of future state of the sub-catchment will be outlined, taking into account the following scenarios: no dam state of the river reach; continue with current water regulation and operations; modification in water regulation to take into account favorable changes and; climate related variation of droughts. The research deductions and implications for maintaining the current dam operation practices will be outline as relates to the sustainability of the hydro-morphology and ecosystem of the catchment which support a rich wildlife habitat. The research observed critical water needs form the basis for environmental flows prescription and recommendation. Whereas the restoration of regular flooding has been identified to be important, the most critical need however is the timing of flood gate regulation which has been observed as a trigger to loss of islands and bars

  2. Hydropower licensing and evolving climate: climate knowledge to support risk assessment for long-term infrastructure decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Walker, S. H.; Trainor, S. F.; Cherry, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation focuses on linking climate knowledge to the complicated decision process for hydropower dam licensing, and the affected parties involved in that process. The U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission issues of licenses for nonfederal hydroelectric operations, typically 30-50 year licenses, and longer infrastructure lifespan, a similar time frame as the anticipated risks of changing climate and hydrology. Resources managed by other federal and state agencies such as the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service may be affected by new or re-licensed projects. The federal Integrated Licensing Process gives the opportunity for affected parties to recommend issues for consultative investigation and possible mitigation, such as impacts to downstream fisheries. New or re-licensed projects have the potential to "pre-adapt" by considering and incorporating risks of climate change into their planned operations as license terms and conditions. Hundreds of hydropower facilities will be up for relicensing in the coming years (over 100 in the western Sierra Nevada alone, and large-scale water projects such as the proposed Lake Powell Pipeline), as well as proposed new dams such as the Susitna project in Alaska. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive guidance on delivering climate analysis to support understanding of risks of hydropower projects to other affected resources, and decisions on licensing. While each project will have a specific context, many of the questions will be similar. We also will discuss best practices for the use of climate science in water project planning and management, and how creating the best and most appropriate science is also still a developing art. We will discuss the potential reliability of that science for consideration in long term planning, licensing, and mitigation planning for those projects. For science to be "actionable," that science must be understood and accepted by the potential users. This process is a negotiation

  3. Identifying and Evaluating Options for Improving Sediment Management and Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Reed, P. M.; Loucks, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia is undergoing intensive and pervasive hydropower development to satisfy demand for increased energy and income to support its growing population of 60 million people. Just 20 years ago this river flowed freely. Today some 30 large dams exist in the basin, and over 100 more are being planned for construction. These dams will alter the river's natural water, sediment and nutrient flows, thereby impacting river morphology and ecosystems, and will fragment fish migration pathways. In doing so, they will degrade one of the world's most valuable and productive freshwater fish habitats. For those dams that have not yet been constructed, there still exist opportunities to modify their siting, design and operation (SDO) to potentially achieve a more balanced set of tradeoffs among hydropower production, sediment/nutrient passage and fish passage. We introduce examples of such alternative SDO opportunities for Sambor Dam in Cambodia, planned to be constructed on the main stem of the Mekong River. To evaluate the performance of such alternatives, we developed a Python-based simulation tool called PySedSim. PySedSim is a daily time step mass balance model that identifies the relative tradeoffs among hydropower production, and flow and sediment regime alteration, associated with reservoir sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing, bypassing, density current venting and dredging. To date, there has been a very limited acknowledgement or evaluation of the significant uncertainties that impact the evaluation of SDO alternatives. This research is formalizing a model diagnostic assessment of the key assumptions and parametric uncertainties that strongly influence PySedSim SDO evaluations. Using stochastic hydrology and sediment load data, our diagnostic assessment evaluates and compares several Sambor Dam alternatives using several performance measures related to energy production, sediment trapping and regime alteration, and

  4. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2013-03-15

    Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to –262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of –117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 × 10-6 and –5.6 × 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reach–and CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations

  5. On the effect of operation of the hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossel, V.; De La Fuente, A.

    2013-12-01

    Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs is a common problem in systems with high incoming loads of nutrients. The consequent algae bloom related to the eutrophication alters the water quality and generates an incompatibility with the tourist and recreational activities. This study is focused on Rapel reservoir: an old, dentritic and monomictic reservoir, located in central Chile (34°S, 71.6°W), that has experienced numerous algae bloom events in the past years produced by high loads of nutrients, sediments and metals. This reservoir was originally constructed in 1968 for hydropower generation without environmental restrictions on its operation. Rapel is part of Chile's Central Interconnected System (SIC), and is controlled by an independent system operator (ISO) that decides the optimal allocation of water by minimizing the SIC's operation cost. As a result of this framework, Rapel reservoir operates based on a hydropeaking scheme, thus producing energy few hours a day while zero outflows are observed the remaining hours, impacting on Rapel river located downstream the reservoir. However, previous research showed that this hydropeaking has important effects on the hydrodynamic of the reservoir as well. Particularly, it enhances vertical mixing nears the dam, and reduces horizontal dispersion. Furthermore, hydropeaking defines the outflows water temperature, and the temperature profile near the dam. As a consequence of this role of hydropeaking on the hydrodynamics and mixing of Rapel reservoir, it is expected to be a link between hydropeaking and water quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of the operation of hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, for which the reservoir system is modeled using the three dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM. Field data to validate the results and to define boundary and initial conditions are available for the austral summer period of 2009-2010. Different scenarios of

  6. Hydropower and water supply: competing water uses under a future drier climate modeling scenarios for the Tagus River basin, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Carmona Rodrigues, António; João Cruz, Maria; Grosso, Nuno

    2014-05-01

    Climate change in the Mediterranean region is expected to affect existing water resources, both in quantity and quality, as decreased mean annual precipitation and more frequent extreme precipitation events are likely to occur. Also, energy needs tend to increase, together with growing awareness that fossil fuels emissions are determinately responsible for global temperature rise, enhancing renewable energy use and reinforcing the importance of hydropower. When considered together, these facts represent a relevant threat to multipurpose reservoir operations. Great Lisbon main water supply (for c.a. 3 million people), managed by EPAL, is located in Castelo de Bode Reservoir, in the Tagus River affluent designated as Zêzere River. Castelo de Bode is a multipurpose infrastructure as it is also part of the hydropower network system of EDP, the main power company in Portugal. Facing the risk of potential climate change impacts on water resources availability, and as part of a wider project promoted by EPAL (designated as ADAPTACLIMA), climate change impacts on the Zêzere watershed where evaluated based on climate change scenarios for the XXI century. A sequential modeling approach was used and included downscaling climate data methodologies, hydrological modeling, volume reservoir simulations and water quality modeling. The hydrological model SWAT was used to predict the impacts of the A2 and B2 scenarios in 2010-2100, combined with changes in socio-economic drivers such as land use and water demands. Reservoir storage simulations where performed according to hydrological modeling results, water supply needs and dam operational requirements, such as minimum and maximum operational pool levels and turbine capacity. The Ce-Qual-W2 water quality model was used to assess water quality impacts. According to climate scenarios A2 and B2, rainfall decreases between 10 and 18% are expected by 2100, leading to drier climatic conditions and increased frequency and magnitude of

  7. Sediment dynamics in the Mekong Delta: impacts of planned hydropower development, climate change and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Manh, Nguyen; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    The Mekong Delta is under threat due to human activities endangering the livelihood of millions of people. Hydropower development, climate change and the combined effects of sea level rise and deltaic subsidence are the main drivers impacting future flow regimes, sedimentation patterns and erosion in the Mekong Delta. In order to estimate the individual and combined impacts of the different drivers sensitivity-based scenario simulations were performed. The hydraulic processes and the sediment transport and deposition in the Mekong delta including the Tonle Sap Lake was simulated with a quasi-2D hydrodynamic for a baseline (2000-2010) and a future (2050-2060) period. For each driver a plausible range of future states was determined based on existing literature and studies. The ranges were discretized into different levels, resulting in 216 combinations of driver combinations. The results thus cover all plausible future pathways of sediment dynamics in the delta based on current knowledge. The results indicate that hydropower development dominates the changes in floodplain sediment dynamics of the Mekong Delta, while sea level rise has the smallest effect. The floodplains of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta are much more sensitive to the changes compared to other subsystems of the delta. The median changes of the three drivers combined indicate that the inundation extent would increase slightly, but the overall floodplain sedimentation would decrease by approximately 40%, and the suspended sediment load to the South China Sea would diminish to half of the current rates. The maximum changes in all drivers would mean a nearly 90% reduction of delta sedimentation, and a 95% reduction of the suspended sediment reaching the sea. These findings provide new and valuable information on the possible future development of floodplain hydraulics and sedimentation in the Mekong Delta, and identify the areas that are most vulnerable to these changes. This, in turn, provides a

  8. Social and Economic Consequences of Extreme Hydrological Regimes in Relationship to Federal Hydropower Generation on the Missouri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    parrish, M. A.; Otstot, R.; Moradkhani, H.

    2011-12-01

    After suffering from a ten year drought the main-stem Missouri reservoir system has now reached full capacity with flooding across a significant part of the region. Hydropower generation as a secondary purpose to both navigation and flood control is both directly and indirectly effected by these extreme hydrological regimes with sub-optimal generation timing, loss of dependable capacity, decrease in turbine efficiency, and operating in-flexibilities to buffer other renewable resources such as wind power. Hydropower operations under these extreme conditions are expected to continue with the recent SECURE Water Act Report issued by the Bureau of Reclamation predicting that the mean annual basin runoff may increase as much as 9.7% over the next fifty years. This study seeks to map the social and economic consequences of these extreme hydrologic regimes. First, using fifty years of historical generation a cumulative monthly frequency curve for each of the six federal plants on the Missouri River is developed. Then following the scenario analysis technique performed by the Department of Interior's study on the Deepwater Horizon Spill social and economic consequence chains are mapped into quartiles of the monthly frequency curves utilizing guidance from U.S Army Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, and Western area Power Administration. Locating the placement of the monthly generation for periods of extreme hydrological conditions within the frequency curve provides an objective relationship between the extreme event and the social and economic consequences. Using this approach over the fifty year period of record provides a way to analyze the cumulative multi-year effect of drought and flood, while also providing a way to calculate the uncertainty of the consequence associated with the extreme event.

  9. Future sediment dynamics in the Mekong Delta floodplains: Impacts of hydropower development, climate change and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manh, Nguyen Van; Dung, Nguyen Viet; Hung, Nguyen Nghia; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    The Mekong Delta is under threat due to human activities that are endangering livelihood of millions of people. Hydropower development, climate change and the combined effects of sea level rise and deltaic subsidence are the main drivers impacting future flow regimes and sedimentation patterns in the Mekong Delta. We develop a sensitivity-based approach to assess the response of the floodplain hydrology and sediment dynamics in the delta to these drivers. A quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of suspended sediment dynamics is used to simulate the sediment transport and sediment deposition in the delta, including Tonle Sap Lake, for a baseline (2000-2010) and a future (2050-2060) period. For each driver we derive a plausible range of future states and discretize it into different levels, resulting in 216 combinations. Our results thus cover all plausible future pathways of sediment dynamics in the delta based on current knowledge. Our results indicate that hydropower development dominates the changes in floodplain sediment dynamics of the Mekong Delta, while sea level rise has the smallest effect. The floodplains of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta are much more sensitive to the changes compared to the other subsystems of the delta. The median changes of the three drivers combined indicate that the inundation extent would increase slightly, but the overall floodplain sedimentation would decrease by approximately 40%, and the sediment load to the South China Sea would diminish to half of the current rates. The maximum changes in all drivers would mean a nearly 90% reduction of delta sedimentation and a 95% reduction of the sediment reaching the sea. Our findings provide new and valuable information on the possible future development of floodplain hydraulics and sedimentation in the Mekong Delta and identify the areas that are most vulnerable to these changes.

  10. An Equitable Approach for Compensating Municipalities of the Rio Grande Watershed for Electricity Generated by the Furnas Hydropower Plant, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, C. A. A. S.; Mounts, D. J.; Menezes, S. C., Jr.; Rocha, R. R. C.; Chaves, M. A.; Castro, N. L. M.; Barros, K. O.; Martins, B. F.; Gleriani, J. M.; Soares, V. P.

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil, ninety percent of total electric power comes from renewable sources, where hydropower represents 2/3 of the national energy matrix. In 2012, the new Federal Forest Code eliminated environmental protection along drainage divides and reduced the mandatory width of riparian zones, allowing for land cover change in these environmentally sensitive areas. The conversion of forestlands to agriculture will subject hydroelectric reservoirs to a growing load of sediments, shortening their useful life. In this study of the Furnas hydropower plant and its contributing basin, in the upper reaches of the Rio Grande, a re-evaluation of factors that determine the distribution of finances accrued from hydroelectric generation is recommended. Under the current policy, royalties are paid by the Furnas facility to states and municipalities in direct relation to the area of land flooded by its reservoir, whereas contributing rainfall precipitating in municipalities upstream of the lake is not considered. Currently, the 31 municipalities with lands flooded by the reservoir receive an average of R 213,107 (US 67,226) annually, while the remaining 172 municipalities in the basin receive no water royalties. In the proposed approach to redistribute these funds, each of the 203 municipalities will receive compensation determined by their contributing catchment area, averaging R32,543 (US 10,266) per year. By considering distribution of rainfall in order to equitably allocate hydroelectric royalties, a system for the payment of environmental services is conceived. Such a system intends to incent stakeholders to protect or replant native forests along drainage divides and riparian zones, in recognition of the value this vegetation has in the reduction of long term costs for hydroelectric facilities.

  11. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  12. Development of an operational, full-scale fish protection system at a major pumped-storage hydropower dam

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Ploskey, G.R.; Weeks, G.

    1995-12-31

    A large scale, fully operational, integrated fish protection system was developed for Richard B. Russell Dam, a Corps of Engineers pumped-storage hydropower facility with 640 MW conventional generation capacity and 340 MW pumping capacity, on the Savannah River between Georgia and South Carolina. The fish protection system, designed to operate during pumping operation only, combines: (1) knowledge of seasonal and diel movement patterns of fishes to develop guidelines to restrict pumping to periods of minimal fish entrainment potential; (2) detailed 2-dimensional physical and numerical hydraulic modeling to identify high velocity entraining flow zones, low velocity zones, and slack water zones; (3) an acoustic repulsion system employing high-frequency sound to divert blueback herring out of the entraining zone and into low velocity or slack water zones; (4) banks of high pressure sodium incandescent lights located in the low velocity-slack water zones to attract and hold fishes during pumping operation; and (5) a veneer made of 0.32-cm wedge wire on 5.08-cm centers that is placed directly over the trash racks to divert fishes larger than about 35-cm in length from the trash racks. Strobe lights were initially included in the system, but later abandoned after evaluation for effectiveness. Yearlong full recovery net monitoring supplemented by fixed aspect hydroacoustics sampling using two of the four pumped-storage units demonstrates the effectiveness of the fish protection. The total cost of the system was less than one million dollars. Integrating separate fish protection technologies into a comprehensive fish protection system can be used to increase fish protection at hydropower dams.

  13. Are Wind Power and Hydropower Complements or Competitors? An Analysis of Ecosystem Service Constraints in the Roanoke Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Fernandez, A. R.; Blumsack, S.

    2011-12-01

    Hydropower can provide inexpensive, flexible fill-in power to compensate for intermittent renewable generation. Policies for hydropower dams maintain multiple services beyond electric generation, including environmental protection, flood control and recreation. We model the decision of a hydroelectric generator to shift some of its power production capacity away from the day-ahead energy market into a "wind-following" service that smoothes the intermittent production of wind turbines. Offering such a service imposes both private and social opportunity costs. Since fluctuations in wind energy output are not perfectly correlated with day-ahead energy prices, a wind-following service will necessarily affect generator revenues. Seasonal wind patterns produce conflicts with the goal of managing rivers for "ecosystem services" - the maintenance or enhancement of downstream ecosystems. We illustrate our decision model using the Kerr Dam in PJM's territory in North Carolina. We simulate the operation of Kerr Dam over a three-year period that features hydrologic variability from normal water years to extreme drought conditions. We use an optimization framework to estimate reservation prices for Kerr Dam offering wind-following services in the PJM market. Wind-following may be profitable for Kerr Dam at low capacity levels during some time periods if ecosystems services are neglected and if side payments, or reserves-type payments, are provided. Wind-following with ecosystem services yields revenue losses that typically cannot be recovered with reserves market payments. Water release patterns are inconsistent with ecosystem-services goals when Kerr Dam dedicates significant capacity to wind-following, particularly in drought years.

  14. Hydroeconomic Analysis of the Balance between Renewable Wind Energy, Hydropower, and Ecosystems Services in the Roanoke River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, A.; Blumsack, S.; Reed, P.

    2012-04-01

    Hydropower can provide inexpensive, flexible fill-in power to compensate for intermittent renewable generation. Policies for hydropower dams maintain multiple services beyond electric generation, including environmental protection, flood control and recreation. We model the decision of a hydroelectric generator to shift some of its power production capacity away from the day-ahead energy market into a "wind-following" service that smoothes the intermittent production of wind turbines. Offering such a service imposes both private and social opportunity costs. Since fluctuations in wind energy output are not perfectly correlated with day-ahead energy prices, a wind-following service will necessarily affect generator revenues. Seasonal wind patterns produce conflicts with the goal of managing rivers for "ecosystem services" - the maintenance or enhancement of downstream ecosystems. We illustrate our decision model using the Kerr Dam in PJM's territory in North Carolina. We simulate the operation of Kerr Dam over a three-year period that features hydrologic variability from normal water years to extreme drought conditions. We use an optimization framework to estimate reservation prices for Kerr Dam offering wind-following services in the PJM market. Wind-following may be profitable for Kerr Dam at low capacity levels during some time periods if ecosystems services are neglected and if side payments, or reserves-type payments, are provided. Wind-following with ecosystem services yields revenue losses that typically cannot be recovered with reserves market payments. Water release patterns are inconsistent with ecosystem-services goals when Kerr Dam dedicates significant capacity to wind-following, particularly in drought years.

  15. Comparative effects on trout habitat of hydropower modification with and without reregulation in the Cumberland River below Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, L.T.; Nestler, J.M.; Martin, J.L.

    1987-03-01

    The U.S. Army Engineer District, Nashville regulates flows in the Cumberland River at Wolf Creek Dam to provide for hydropower generation and flood control. To meet future demands for power in the region, the ORN is considering optimizing the generating capability at Wolf Creek Dam by both uprating existing turbines and adding more generating capability. Reregulation of the increased releases from Wolf Creek Dam is under consideration to alleviate the flow fluctuations associated with the upgrade. This report describes and quantifies the effects on trout habitat of hydropower modification and peaking operation at Wolf Creek Dam on trout habitat in the reach of the Cumberland River between Wolf Creek Dam and the site of the reregulation dam both with and without reregulation. The results of this comparison indicate that reregulation will generally have a beneficial impact on trout habitat, primarily because the backwater effects caused by the reregulation dam reduce the water velocities associated with peak discharge.

  16. An Analysis of Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Tail Waters of Hydroelectric Dams and the Implications for Small-Scale Hydropower Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cada, Glenn F.; Kumar, K. D.; Solomon, Jean A.; Hildebrand, Stephen G.

    1983-08-01

    One of the environmental issues affecting small-scale hydropower development in the United States is water quality degradation. The extent of this potential problem, as exemplified by low dissolved oxygen concentrations in reservoir tail waters, was analyzed by pairing operating hydroelectric sites with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream U.S. Geological Survey water quality stations. These data were used to calculate probabilities of noncompliance (PNC's), that is, the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. The continental states were grouped into eight regions based on geographic and climatic similarities. Most regions had higher mean PNC's in summer than in winter, and summer PNC's were greater for large-scale than for small-scale hydropower facilities. Cumulative probability distributions of PNC also indicated that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tail waters of operating hydroelectric dams are phenomena largely confined to sites with large-scale facilities.

  17. Estimating irrigation water demand using an improved method and optimizing reservoir operation for water supply and hydropower generation: a case study of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for water due to growth of population and socioeconomic development in the past several decades has posed a worldwide threat to water supply security and to the environmental health of rivers. This study aims to derive reservoir operating rules through establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the Xinfengjiang (XFJ) reservoir in the East River Basin in southern China to minimize water supply deficit and maximize hydropower generation. Additionally, to enhance the estimation of irrigation water demand from the downstream agricultural area of the XFJ reservoir, a conventional method for calculating crop water demand is improved using hydrological model simulation results. Although the optimal reservoir operating rules are derived for the XFJ reservoir with three priority scenarios (water supply only, hydropower generation only, and equal priority), the river environmental health is set as the basic demand no matter which scenario is adopted. The results show that the new rules derived under the three scenarios can improve the reservoir operation for both water supply and hydropower generation when comparing to the historical performance. Moreover, these alternative reservoir operating policies provide the flexibility for the reservoir authority to choose the most appropriate one. Although changing the current operating rules may influence its hydropower-oriented functions, the new rules can be significant to cope with the increasingly prominent water shortage and degradation in the aquatic environment. Overall, our results and methods (improved estimation of irrigation water demand and formulation of the reservoir optimization model) can be useful for local watershed managers and valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  18. An ecological economic assessment of flow regimes in a hydropower dominated river basin: the case of the lower Zambezi River, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Fanaian, Safa; Graas, Susan; Jiang, Yong; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2015-02-01

    The flow regime of rivers, being an integral part of aquatic ecosystems, provides many important services benefiting humans in catchments. Past water resource developments characterized by river embankments and dams, however, were often dominated by one (or few) economic use(s) of water. This results in a dramatically changed flow regime negatively affecting the provision of other ecosystem services sustained by the river flow. This study is intended to demonstrate the value of alternative flow regimes in a river that is highly modified by the presence of large hydropower dams and reservoirs, explicitly accounting for a broad range of flow-dependent ecosystem services. In this study, we propose a holistic approach for conducting an ecological economic assessment of a river's flow regime. This integrates recent advances in the conceptualization and classification of ecosystem services (UK NEA, 2011) with the flow regime evaluation technique developed by Korsgaard (2006). This integrated approach allows for a systematic comparison of the economic values of alternative flow regimes, including those that are considered beneficial for aquatic ecosystems. As an illustration, we applied this combined approach to the Lower Zambezi Basin, Mozambique. Empirical analysis shows that even though re-operating dams to create environmentally friendly flow regimes reduces hydropower benefits, the gains to goods derived from the aquatic ecosystem may offset the forgone hydropower benefits, thereby increasing the total economic value of river flow to society. The proposed integrated flow assessment approach can be a useful tool for welfare-improving decision-making in managing river basins.

  19. Modeling Changes in Bed Surface Texture and Aquatic Habitat Caused by Run-of-River Hydropower Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, T. K.; Venditti, J. G.; Nelson, P. A.; Popescu, V.; Palen, W.

    2014-12-01

    Run-of-river (RoR) hydropower has emerged as an important alternative to large reservoir-based dams in the renewable energy portfolios of China, India, Canada, and other areas around the globe. RoR projects generate electricity by diverting a portion of the channel discharge through a large pipe for several kilometers downhill where it is used to drive turbines before being returned to the channel. Individual RoR projects are thought to be less disruptive to local ecosystems than large hydropower because they involve minimal water storage, more closely match the natural hydrograph downstream of the project, and are capable of bypassing trapped sediment. However, there is concern that temporary sediment supply disruption may degrade the productivity of salmon spawning habitat downstream of the dam by causing changes in the grain size distribution of bed surface sediment. We hypothesize that salmon populations will be most susceptible to disruptions in sediment supply in channels where; 1) sediment supply is high relative to transport capacity prior to RoR development, and 2) project design creates substantial sediment storage volume. Determining the geomorphic effect of RoR development on aquatic habitat requires many years of field data collection, and even then it can be difficult to link geomorphic change to RoR development alone. As an alternative, we used a one-dimensional morphodynamic model to test our hypothesis across a range of pre-development sediment supply conditions and sediment storage volumes. Our results confirm that coarsening of the median surface grain-size is greatest in cases where pre-development sediment supply was highest and sediment storage volumes were large enough to disrupt supply over the course of the annual hydrograph or longer. In cases where the pre-development sediment supply is low, coarsening of the median surface grain-size is less than 2 mm over a multiple-year disruption period. When sediment supply is restored, our results

  20. Assessing potential impacts of climate change on hydropower generation of three reservoirs in the Tagus River Basin under ensemble of climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanova, Anastasia; Koch, Hagen; Hattermann, Fred F.; Krysanova, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    The Tagus River basin is an important strategic water and energy source for Portugal and Spain. With an extensive network of 40 reservoirs with more than 15 hm3 capacity and numerous abstraction channels it is ensuring water supply for domestic and industrial usage, irrigation and hydropower production in Spain and Portugal. Growing electricity and water supply demands, over-regulation and construction of new dams, and large inter-basin water transfers aggravated by strong natural variability of climate and aridity of the catchment have already imposed significant pressures on the river. The substantial reduction of discharge, dropping during some months to zero in some parts of the catchment, is observed already now, and projected climatic change is expected to alter the water budget of the catchment further. As the water inflow is a fundamental defining factor in a reservoir operation and hydropower production, the latter are highly sensitive to shifts in water balance of the catchment, and hence to changes in climate. In this study we aim to investigate the effects of projected climate change on water inflows and hydropower generation of the three large reservoirs in the Tagus River Basin, and by that to assess their ability to cover electricity power demands and provide water supply under changed conditions, assuming present management strategies; hydropower and abstraction demands. The catchment scale, process-based eco-hydrological model SWIM was set up, calibrated and validated up to the Santarem gauge at the Tagus outlet, with the implementation of a reservoir module. The reservoir module is able to represent three reservoir operation management options, simulate water abstraction and provide rates of generated hydropower. In total, fifteen largest reservoirs in the Tagus River Basin were included in the model, calibrated and validated against observed inflow, stored water and outflow water volumes. The future climate projections were selected from the