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Sample records for 28-d bioaccumulation tests

  1. Bioaccumulation tests applied in whole effluent assessment: A review

    SciTech Connect

    De Maagd, P.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Until recently, the emphasis within whole effluent assessment has been on the application of bioassays for acute and chronic toxicity. Although the need for additional parameters to assess the ecotoxicological hazard and risk of effluents for receiving water systems has been repeatedly advocated, other parameters such as bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, sediment toxicity, and nutrient impacts are seldom addressed. This paper discusses the potential additional value of including bioaccumulation parameters in whole effluent assessment and methods that can be used for routine assessment. It is concluded that screening on the presence of potentially bioaccumulating compounds leads to a more comprehensive hazard assessment and should therefore be included in whole effluent assessment. A chemical method to assess potentially bioaccumulating substances (PBSs) is preferred above methods using organisms or classical group parameters such as extractable organic halogens (EOX). In situ studies with organisms are not feasible for routine assessment for a number of reasons, including cost efficiency and matrix problems. Classical group parameters such as EOX do not relate to bioaccumulation or toxicity. Chemical methods for assessing bioaccumulation are usually presented as integrated methods composed of different procedure steps such as pretreatment, extraction, separation, and detection. However, an optimal method may be constructed by combining procedure steps from different reported methods. Solid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry is regarded as the preferable method for the assessment of PBSs. Before implementation in whole effluent assessment, however, the method must be carefully validated. Hazard assessment based on bioaccumulation seems feasible. For risk assessment, however, additional information is a prerequisite. Quantitative causal relationships between test assay results

  2. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of feeding

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  3. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  4. Novel control and steady-state correction method for standard 28-day bioaccumulation tests using Nereis virens.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Erin R; Steevens, Jeffery A; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Paterson, Gord; Drouillard, Ken G

    2011-06-01

    Evaluation of dredged material for aquatic placement requires assessment of bioaccumulation potentials for benthic organisms using standardized laboratory bioaccumulation tests. Critical to the interpretation of these data is the assessment of steady state for bioaccumulated residues needed to generate biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) and to address control correction of day 0 contaminant residues measured in bioassay organisms. This study applied a novel performance reference compound approach with a pulse-chase experimental design to investigate elimination of a series of isotopically labeled polychlorinated biphenyl ((13)C-PCBs) in the polychaete worm Nereis virens while simultaneously evaluating native PCB bioaccumulation from field-collected sediments. Results demonstrated that all (13)C-PCBs, with the exception of (13)C-PCB209 (> 80%), were eliminated by more than 90% after 28 d. The three sediment types yielded similar (13)C-PCB whole-body elimination rate constants (k(tot)) producing the following predictive equation: log k(tot)  =  - 0.09 × log K(OW)  - 0.45. The rapid loss of (13)C-PCBs from worms over the bioassay period indicated that control correction, by subtracting day 0 residues, would result in underestimates of bioavailable sediment residues. Significant uptake of native PCBs was observed only in the most contaminated sediment and proceeded according to kinetic model predictions with steady-state BSAFs ranging from 1 to 3 and peaking for congeners of log K(OW) between 6.2 and 6.5. The performance reference compound approach can provide novel information about chemical toxicokinetics and also serve as a quality check for the physiological performance of the bioassay organism during standardized bioaccumulation testing. PMID:21381091

  5. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; Fernández, Alberto; Kühne, Ralph; Franco, Antonio; Pauné, Eduard; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2014-08-01

    REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo methods are used only as last resort. Using the ITS, in vivo testing could be waived for about 67% of the examined compounds, but bioaccumulation potential could be estimated on the basis of non-animal methods. The presented ITS is freely available through a web tool. PMID:24806447

  6. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2016-07-01

    At contaminated sediment sites, the bioavailability of contaminants in sediments is assessed using sediment-bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegates (Lv). The testing protocols recommend that ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) should be no less than 50:1. Occasionally, this recommendation is not followed, especially with sediments having low TOC, e.g., <1 %. This study evaluated the impacts and resulting biases in the testing results when the recommendation of "no less than 50:1" is not followed. In the study, seven sediments were tested with a series of TOC/Lv ratios that spanned the recommendation. With increasing loading of organisms, growth of the organisms decreased in six of the seven sediments tested. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the L. variegatus were measured in six of the seven sediments tested, and differences in PCB residues among loading ratios across all sediments were small, i.e., ±50 %, from those measured at the minimum recommended ratio of 50:1 TOC/Lv. In all sediment, PCB residues increased with increasing loading of the organisms for the mono-, di-, and tri-chloro-PCBs. For tetra-chloro and heavier PCBs, residues increased with increasing loading of organisms for only two of the six sediments. PCB residues were not significantly different between TOC/Lv loadings of 50:1 and mid-20:1 ratios indicating that equivalent results can be obtained with TOC/Lv ratios into the mid-20:1 ratios. Overall, the testing results suggest that when testing recommendation of 50:1 TOC/Lv is not followed, potential biases in the biota-sediment accumulations factors from the sediment-bioaccumulation test will be small. PMID:27165691

  7. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus: effects of feeding.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Hawthorne, Steven; Miller, David J; Grabanski, Carol B

    2015-05-01

    Standard sediment-bioaccumulation test methods specify that Lumbriculus variegatus should not be fed during the 28-day exposure. This lack of feeding can lead to decreases in L. variegatus weight and lipid content during the 28-day exposure period. Differences in intrinsic nutritional content of sediments could lead to additional variability in organism performance and/or contaminant uptake. To evaluate the potential benefits of feeding, sediment-bioaccumulation tests were performed comparing treatments with and without supplemental feeding with tropical fish food and also comparing performance food introduced as blended slurry versus fine flakes. The ration of food provided had to be limited to 6 mg/300-mL beaker with 250 mg of L. variegatus (ww) receiving three feedings per week to maintain acceptable dissolved oxygen (DO) in the test chambers. Relative weight change during exposure varied across sediments in the absence of food from very little change to as much as a 40 % decrease from starting weight. Feeding slurry and flake foods increased the total weight of recovered organisms by 32 and 48 %, respectively, but they did not decrease variability in weight changes across sediments. Lipid contents of the organisms decreased similarly across all feeding treatments during the test. At test termination, lipid contents of L. variegatus across unfed, slurry-fed, and flake-fed treatments were not significantly different per Tukey's honest significant difference test with 95 % family-wise confidence. Feeding resulted in polychlorinated biphenyl residues in L. variegatus being generally slightly less (median 78 %) and slightly greater (median 135 %) than the unfed treatments with slurry and flake formulated foods, respectively. PMID:25796613

  8. Dredged-material-effects assessment: Single-species toxicity/bioaccumulation and macrobenthos colonization tests

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, P.R.; Moore, J.C.; Clark, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests conducted according to methods established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Corps of Engineers in 1977 were used to evaluate potential environmental impacts of ocean disposal of dredged materials. Assessments of potential impacts based on results of currently recommended single-species tests were compared with results from macrobenthos colonization tests of dredged material from three harbors in the Gulf of Mexico and two in the Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus (EPA test method 100.3) effects of feeding and organism loading rate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methodology of USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specifies that the Lumbriculus variegatus should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry weight of no less than 50:1. It ...

  10. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  11. TCDD/TCDF levels in bioaccumulation test tissues and their corresponding sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, M.E.; Barrows, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments from eight highly urbanized, industrial areas were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDD/TCDF) contamination. The polychaete Nereis virens was exposed to the contaminated sediment for 28 days and then analyzed for TCDD/TCDF to evaluate the potential bioaccumulation of these contaminants, Levels of TCDD/TCDF accumulated in N. virens in general increased as the amount of sediment contamination increased and were significantly greater than levels in N. virens exposed to uncontaminated sediment. In addition, accumulation factors were calculated based on the levels of TCDD/TCDF in the test organisms and sediments, the organism lipid content, and the sediment total organic carbon content to predict the maximum amount of TCDD/TCDF likely to be accumulated from the sediments.

  12. BIOACCUMULATION AND AQUATIC SYSTEM SIMULATOR (BASS) USER'S MANUAL BETA TEST VERSION 2.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and borderline metals that complex wi...

  13. Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Community Dynamics and Functional End Points during Sediment Bioaccumulation Tests.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Koelmans, Albert A; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-11-17

    Whole sediment toxicity tests play an important role in environmental risk assessment of organic chemicals. It is not clear, however, to what extent changing microbial community composition and associated functions affect sediment test results. We assessed the development of bacterial communities in artificial sediment during a 28 day bioaccumulation test with polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorpyrifos, and four marine benthic invertebrates. DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes were used to characterize bacterial community composition. Abundance of total bacteria and selected genes encoding enzymes involved in important microbially mediated ecosystem functions were measured by qPCR. Community composition and diversity responded most to the time course of the experiment, whereas organic matter (OM) content showed a low but significant effect on community composition, biodiversity and two functional genes tested. Moreover, OM content had a higher influence on bacterial community composition than invertebrate species. Medium OM content led to the highest gene abundance and is preferred for standard testing. Our results also indicated that a pre-equilibration period is essential for growth and stabilization of the bacterial community. The observed changes in microbial community composition and functional gene abundance may imply actual changes in such functions during tests, with consequences for exposure and toxicity assessment. PMID:26466173

  14. Persistence of Triclocarban and Triclosan in Soils after Land Application of Biosolids and Bioaccumulation in Eisenia foetida

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Christopher P.; Paesani, Zachary J.; Chalew, Talia E. Abbot; Halden, Rolf U.; Hundal, Lakhwinder S.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of antimicrobial chemicals triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) in municipal biosolids has raised concerns about the potential impacts of these chemicals on soil ecosystems following land application of municipal biosolids. The relative persistence of TCC and TCS in agricultural fields receiving yearly applications of biosolids at six different loading rates over a three-year period was investigated. Soil and biosolids samples were collected, extracted, and analyzed for TCC and TCS using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, the potential for bioaccumulation of TCC and TCS from the biosolids-amended soils was assessed over 28 d in the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Standard 28-d bioaccumulation tests were conducted for three biosolids loading rates from two sites, representing agronomic and twice the agronomic rates of biosolids application plots as well as control plots receiving no applications of biosolids. Additional bioaccumulation kinetics data were collected for the soils receiving the high biosolids loadings to ensure attainment of quasi-steady state conditions. The results indicate that TCC is relatively more persistent in biosolids-amended soil than TCS. In addition, TCC bioaccumulated in E. foetida, reaching body burdens of 25 ± 4 and 133 ± 17 ng/gww in worms exposed for 28 d to the two soils amended with biosolids at agronomic rates. The 28-d organic carbon and lipid-normalized biota soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) were calculated for TCC and ranged from 0.22 ± 0.12 to 0.71 ± 0.13. These findings suggest that TCC bioaccumulation is somewhat consistent with the traditional hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) partitioning paradigm. However, these data also suggest substantially reduced bioavailability of TCC in biosolids-amended soils when compared to HOC partitioning theory. PMID:21128266

  15. Influence of compost addition on lead and arsenic bioavailability in reclaimed orchard soil assessed using Porcellio scaber bioaccumulation test.

    PubMed

    Udovic, M; McBride, M B

    2012-02-29

    Long-term application of lead arsenate in orchards has led to a significant accumulation of Pb and As in the topsoil. Reclamation of old orchards for agricultural purposes entails the exposure of humans to Pb and As, which can be reduced by adequate remediation actions. In this study, we assessed the remediation efficiency of compost addition, commonly used as a sustainable agricultural practice, in decreasing the human exposure Pb and As by direct ingestion. The remediation was evaluated based on Pb and As bioavailability, assessed by means of a selective non-exhaustive chemical extraction (modified Morgan extraction, MME), with a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) for the assessment of Pb and As bioavailability in ingested soils and with a novel in vivo bioaccumulation test with isopods (Porcellio scaber). All the tests showed that compost addition consistently reduced Pb, but increased As potential bioavailability. The bioaccumulation test with P. scaber was sensitive to changes in Pb and As bioavailability in test soils. However, the results indicate that the bioavailability of As could be under- or overestimated using solely chemical extraction tests. Indirect assessment of trace metal bioavailability with bioaccumulation in isopods can be used as complementary source of data to the existing in vitro chemical extraction test approach for the estimation of human exposure to trace elements in polluted and remediated soil. This is the first report on the use of As accumulation in P. scaber as a tool for the assessment of As bioavailability in contaminated orchard soil. PMID:22240057

  16. Methods for measuring the toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants with freshwater invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The procedures are described for testing freshwater organisms in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity or bioaccumulation of contaminants associated with whole sediments. Sediments may be collected from the field or spiked with compounds in the laboratory. Toxicity methods are outlined for two organisms, the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus tentans. The toxicity tests are conducted for 10 d in 300 ml chambers containing 100 ml of sediment and 175 ml of overlying water. Overlying water is renewed daily and test organisms are fed during the toxicity tests. The endpoint in the toxicity test with H. azteca is survival and the endpoints in the toxicity test with C. tentans are survival and growth. Procedures are primarily described for testing freshwater sediments; however, estaurine sediments (up to 15%) can also be tested with H. azteca. Guidance for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus is provided in the manual.

  17. Sediment bioaccumulation test with upper Mississippi River sediments using the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, E.L.; Canfield, T.J.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.

    1995-12-31

    The test is part of the U.S.G.S. investigation Flood Effects on Surficial Bed Sediments Stored in the Navigational Pools of the Upper Mississippi River. In the laboratory Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed 28 days to sediments collected from 13 upper Mississippi River stations. The laboratory exposure was conducted using guidelines published in USEPA Methods for Measuring the Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Sediment associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates. For comparison to laboratory results, native oligochaetes were isolated in the field from subsamples of each of the 13 sediments. Both laboratory exposed and field collected oligochaetes were allowed to clear their gut contents for 24 hours after sampling. After elimination, the oligochaete samples were stored frozen until analyzed. Organic contaminants were measured in the both sets of oligochaetes and the concentrations were compared. In general the concentrations of contaminants in both laboratory an field-collected oligochaetes were low. For many of the compounds measured, there was good agreement between laboratory exposed and field collected oligochaetes.

  18. Trait-based modelling of bioaccumulation by freshwater benthic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sidney, Livia Alvarenga; Diepens, Noël J; Guo, Xiaoying; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the role of species traits in chemical exposure is crucial for bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of chemicals. We measured and modelled bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus and Sphaerium corneum. We used a battery test procedure with multiple enclosures in one aquarium, which maximized uniformity of exposure for the different species, such that the remaining variability was due mostly to species traits. The relative importance of uptake from either pore water or sediment ingestion was manipulated by using 28 d aged standard OECD sediment with low (1%) and medium (5%) OM content and 13 months aged sediment with medium OM (5%) content. Survival was ≥76% and wet weight increased for all species. Reproduction of H. azteca and weight gain of H. azteca and S. corneum were significantly higher in the medium OM aged sediments than in other sediments, perhaps due to a more developed microbial community (i.e., increase in food resources). Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) ranged from 3 to 114, depending on species and PCB congener, with C. riparius (3-10)bioaccumulation model with species-specific bioaccumulation parameters fitted well to the experimental data and showed that bioaccumulation parameters were depended on species traits. Enclosure-based battery tests and mechanistic BSAF models are expected to improve the quality of the exposure assessment in whole sediment toxicity tests. PMID:27126443

  19. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants using freshwater invertebrates: A review of methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Benoit, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in methods for evaluating the toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants associated with freshwater sediments and summarizes example case studies demonstrating the application of these methods. Over the past decade, research has emphasized development of more specific testing procedures for conducting 10-d toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus tentans. Toxicity endpoints measured in these tests are survival for H. azteca and survival and growth for C. tentans. Guidance has also been developed for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, including determination of bioaccumulation kinetics for different compound classes. These methods have been applied to a variety of sediments to address issues ranging from site assessments to bioavailability of organic and inorganic contaminants using field-collected and laboratory-spiked samples. Survival and growth of controls routinely meet or exceed test acceptability criteria. Results of laboratory bioaccumulation studies with L. variegatus have been confirmed with comparisons to residues (PCBs, PAHs, DDT) present from synoptically collected field populations of oligochaetes. Additional method development is currently underway to develop chronic toxicity tests and to provide additional data-confirming responses observed in laboratory sediment tests with natural benthic populations.

  20. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants using freshwater invertebrates: A review of methods and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Benoit, D.A.; Brunson, E.L.; Burton, G.A.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hoke, R.A.; Landrum, P.F.; Norberg-King, T. J.; Winger, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in methods for evaluating the toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants associated with freshwater sediments and summarizes example case studies demonstrating the application of these methods. Over the past decade, research has emphasized development of more specific testing procedures for conducting 10-d toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus tentans. Toxicity endpoints measured in these tests are survival for H. azteca and survival and growth for C. tentans. Guidance has also been developed for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, including determination of bioaccumulation kinetics for different compound classes. These methods have been applied to a variety of sediments to address issues ranging from site assessments to bioavailability of organic and inorganic contaminants using field-collected and laboratory-spiked samples. Survival and growth of controls routinely meet or exceed test acceptability criteria. Results of laboratory bioaccumulation studies with L. variegatus have been confirmed with comparisons to residues (PCBs, PAHs, DDT) present from synoptically collected field populations of oligochaetes. Additional method development is currently underway to develop chronic toxicity tests and to provide additional data-confirming responses observed in laboratory sediment tests with natural benthic populations.

  1. Measuring bioaccumulation of contaminants from field-collected sediment in freshwater organisms: a critical review of laboratory methods.

    PubMed

    Van Geest, Jordana L; Poirier, David G; Sibley, Paul K; Solomon, Keith R

    2010-11-01

    To be effective, decision-making frameworks require data from robust and reliable test methods. Using standard methods allows for more effective comparison between studies and application of data, and it reduces unnecessary duplication of efforts. Laboratory methods to assess the toxicity of sediment have been standardized and extensively used; however, procedures for measuring the bioaccumulation of contaminants from sediment into aquatic organisms need further standardization. Bioaccumulation methods using freshwater invertebrates and fish exposed to field-contaminated sediment were reviewed to identify important similarities and differences in method protocols, test conditions that need to be controlled, and data gaps. Although guidance documents are available, great variation still exists in exposure techniques used in tests, which may potentially affect the estimation of bioaccumulation. The techniques most consistent across studies include the use of Lumbriculus variegatus as a test species, test temperatures between 20 and 25°C, and a 28-d exposure with no addition of food, followed by purging of organisms. Issues that were inconsistent between studies or remained unspecified, which should be addressed, include the bioaccumulation potential of other test species, loading density of organisms, and sediment-to-water ratio. In addition to proper evaluation of the various exposure techniques and conditions, a need exists for more consistent inclusion of quality control procedures during testing. PMID:20886499

  2. Influence of compost addition on lead and arsenic bioavailability in reclaimed orchard soil assessed using Porcellio scaber bioaccumulation test

    PubMed Central

    Udovic, M.; McBride, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    A long history of lead arsenate application in orchards has led to significant accumulation of Pb and As in the topsoil. Besides the threat that such soils represent for the environment, reclamation of old orchards for agricultural purposes implies the exposure of humans to Pb and As. In this study we assessed the influence of vegetable compost addition (as a sustainable agricultural practice) to contaminated acidic orchard soil on Pb and As bioavailability, assessed with two selective non-exhaustive chemical extractions and with an in vivo bioaccumulation test with an isopod (P. scaber). The treatment with compost caused a significant increase in soil pH and total carbon content, resulting in a consistent decrease of Pb bioavailability. In contrast, the bioavailability of As increased, indicating that a complementary treatment should be used for reducing the bioavailability of As in old orchard soils. This is the first report on the use of As accumulation in P. scaber as a tool for the assessment of As bioavailability in contaminated orchard soil. PMID:22240057

  3. Effects of Activated Carbon on PCB Bioaccumulation and Biological Responses of Chironomus riparius in Full Life Cycle Test.

    PubMed

    Nybom, Inna; Abel, Sebastian; Waissi, Greta; Väänänen, Kristiina; Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Akkanen, Jarkko

    2016-05-17

    The nonbiting midge Chironomus riparius was used to study the remediation potential and secondary effects of activated carbon (AC, ø 63-200 μm) in PCB contaminated sediments. AC amendments efficiently reduced PCB bioavailability determined by Chironomus riparius bioaccumulation tests and passive samplers. PCBs were shown to transfer from larvae to adults. Lower PCB concentrations were observed in adult midges emerging from AC amended compared to unamended sediments. Increased reproduction, survival, larval growth and gut wall microvilli length were observed with low AC dose (0.5% sediment dw) compared to unamended sediment, indicating an improved success of larvae in the sediment with low organic carbon content. On the other hand, higher AC doses (2.5% sediment dw) caused adverse effects on emergence and larval development. In addition, morphological changes in the gut wall microvilli layer were observed. This study showed that the secondary effects of AC amendments are dependent on the dose and the sediment characteristics. Metamorphic species, such as C. riparius, may act as a vector for organic pollutants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems and according to this study the AC amendments may reduce this transport. PMID:27100921

  4. Toxicity, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of silver nanoparticles in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanhua; Ho, Kay T; Scheckel, Kirk G; Wu, Fengchang; Cantwell, Mark G; Katz, David R; Horowitz, Doranne Borsay; Boothman, Warren S; Burgess, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    The toxicity, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure was investigated. Results from 7-d sediment toxicity tests indicate that AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP did not exhibit toxicity to the amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia) at ≤75 mg/kg dry wt. A 28-d bioaccumulation study showed that Ag was significantly accumulated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens (N. virens) in the AgNP-citrate, AgNP-PVP and a conventional salt (AgNO3) treatments. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results showed the distribution of Ag species in marine sediments amended with AgNP-citrate, AgNP-PVP, and AgNO3 was AgCl (50–65%) > Ag2S (32–42%) > Ag metal (Ag0) (3–11%). In N virens, AgCl (25–59%) and Ag2S (10–31%) generally decreased and, Ag metal (32–44%) increased, relative to the sediments. The patterns of speciation in the worm were different depending upon the coating of the AgNP and both types of AgNPs were different than the AgNO3 salt. These results show that the AgNP surface capping agents influenced Ag uptake, biotransformation, and/or excretion. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the bioaccumulation and speciation of AgNPs in a marine organism (N. virens). PMID:25369427

  5. A review and test of predictive models for the bioaccumulation of radiostrontium in fish.

    PubMed

    Smith, J T; Sasina, N V; Kryshev, A I; Belova, N V; Kudelsky, A V

    2009-11-01

    Empirical relations between the (90)Sr concentration factor (CF) and the calcium concentration in freshwater aquatic systems have previously been determined in studies based on data obtained prior to the Chernobyl accident. The purpose of the present research is to review and compare these models, and to test them against a database of post-Chernobyl measurements from rivers and lakes in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and Finland. It was found that two independently developed models, based on pre-Chernobyl empirical data, are in close agreement with each other, and with empirical data. Testing of both models against new data obtained after the Chernobyl accident confirms the models' predictive ability. An investigation of the influence of fish size on (90)Sr accumulation showed no significant relationship, though the data set was somewhat limited. PMID:19656592

  6. Proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95, bioaccumulation testing utilizing Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J.; Simmers, J.; Lee, C.; Tatem, H.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the method developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) to determine sediment toxicity utilizing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. This method has been used successfully in evaluating the target contaminants; metals, PAHs, and PCBs. This procedure is currently a proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95: Conducting a Laboratory Soil Toxicity Test With The Lumbricid Earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

  7. Biodegradation and bioaccumulation of phthalates

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, N.; Diefenbach, R.

    1995-12-31

    Phthalate esters very often are considered as persistent in the environment. This view is supported by an assumed lack of biodegradability, the high log K{sub ow} values and the assumed high bioaccumulation potential. Results are presented which show phthalates esters to be readily biodegradable even with a non-adapted inoculum. Combined with a lack of relevant bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, a reconsideration of the environmental impact of these substances is necessary. Special prerequisites for testing poorly water soluble substances are also discussed.

  8. Bioaccumulation of PAHs by the estuarine polychaete, Streblospio benedicti: Comparison between radioisotope and GC/MS analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, P.L.; Chandler, G.T.; Shipp, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    Bioaccumulation of sediment associated organic contaminants can be measured using traditional analytical approaches such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, or by employing radioisotope techniques. The authors compared these methods by measuring bioaccumulation of common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments by the opportunistic deposit/suspension feeding polychaete, Streblospio benedicti. First, the authors exposed S. benedicti to {sup 14}C-fluoranthene for 28 days. On days 3, 6, 10, 18, and 28, worms were sampled and measured for {sup 14}C activity. They performed a similar 28d test with three non radiolabeled PAHs (fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, and 1,2-benzanthracene). The S. benedicti body burden of each compound was quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results from the radioisotope assay indicate that S. benedicti accumulates sediment associated {sup 14}C-fluoranthene at a level 95-135X that of sediment after 28d. Differences between detected {sup 14}C activity and GC/MS measured fluoranthene in S. benedicti tissue may indicate transformation of the parent PAH to other compounds which could retain a radiolabel. GC/MS in turn may indicate the presence of a metabolic pathway which polychaetes such as S. benedicti utilize to eliminate PAH body burdens.

  9. Tests of bioaccumulation models for polychlorinated biphenyl compounds: a study of young-of-the-year bluefish in the Hudson River estuary, USA.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Lawrence A; Buckel, Jeffrey A; Conover, David O; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2006-08-01

    A field-based study regarding uptake of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) by young-of-the-year (YOY) bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) was initiated to test a steady-state model of bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in a rapidly growing fish. Determination of prey composition as well as size-dependent growth and specific consumption rates for YOY bluefish from separate field and laboratory studies enabled the input of these species-specific parameters into the model. Furthermore, the time and duration of the exposure of YOY bluefish to dissolved PCBs from a well-characterized system (Hudson River, USA) was well known. Patterns of accumulation of individual PCB congeners differed relative to the accumulation of total PCBs, with the greatest net accumulation occurring for the higher-molecular-weight congeners. Comparison of lipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) with the octanol-water partition coefficients of individual PCB congeners revealed bluefish to be above the BAFs predicted by lipid-based equilibrium partitioning, suggesting that uptake from food is an important source of PCBs in YOY bluefish. Comparison of measured BAFs with values predicted by a steady-state, food-chain model showed good first-order agreement. PMID:16916026

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METABOLISM AND BIOACCUMULATION OF BENZO[A]PYRENE IN BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism on bioaccumulation is well accepted, but rarely has been examined in many species of benthic invertebrates that commonly are found in contaminated sediments, or used in bioaccumulation or toxicity tests. ...

  11. Bioaccumulation kinetics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from estuarine sediments to the marine polychaete, Nereis virens.

    PubMed

    Klosterhaus, Susan L; Dreis, Erin; Baker, Joel E

    2011-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Polybrominated diphenyl ether no-uptake rates from estuarine or marine sediments to deposit-feeding organisms have not yet been reported. In the present study, the marine polychaete worm Nereis virens was exposed to field-contaminated and spiked sediments containing the penta- and deca-BDE commercial mixtures in a 28-d experiment to characterize the relative bioavailability of PBDE congeners from estuarine sediments. A time series sampling regimen was conducted to estimate uptake rate constants. In both field-collected and laboratory-spiked sediment exposures, worms selectively accumulated congeners in the penta-BDE mixture over BDE 209 and other components of the deca-BDE mixture, supporting the prevalence of these congeners in higher trophic level species. Brominated diphenyl ether 209 was not bioavailable to N. virens from field sediment and was only minimally detected in worms exposed to spiked sediments in which bioavailability was maximized. Chemical hydrophobicity was not a good predictor of bioavailability for congeners in the penta-BDE mixture. Direct comparison of bioavailability from the spiked and field sediments for the predominant congeners in the penta-BDE mixture was confounded by the considerable difference in exposure concentration between treatments. Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for N. virens after 28 d of exposure to the field sediment were lower than the BSAFs for Nereis succinea collected from the field site, indicating that 28-d bioaccumulation tests using N. virens may underestimate the in situ concentration of PBDEs in deposit-feeding species. The bioavailability of PBDEs to N. virens indicates that these chemicals can be remobilized from estuarine sediments and transferred to aquatic food webs. PMID:21337608

  12. Making regulatory sense of bioaccumulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Moore, D.W.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluating the environmental consequences of contaminant bioaccumulation is a complex technical and regulatory problem. This problem is exacerbated by the high cost of bioaccumulation testing and the lack of explicit regulatory guidance on how bioaccumulation data should be interpreted and used within a regulatory program. The lack of explicit interpretive guidance has resulted in poorly focused attempts to use this data to make decisions about the management of contaminated sediments. Technical advances in the ability to detect very small quantities of toxicant within the tissues of organisms should reinforce the importance of understanding the relationship between toxicant dose and biological response. Not all detected toxicants will produce adverse effects. Absent specific information about toxicant dose and associated biological effects (e.g. reduced survival, growth, reproduction in animals, cancer risk in humans), it is difficult if not impossible from a regulatory standpoint to objectively determine what level of bioaccumulation constitutes an acceptable adverse effect. To facilitate objective interpretation of bioaccumulation test data they have developed a species-specific residue-effects database using published residue-effects information. Along with guidance on the proper use and limitations of such data, this database should result in more effective management of contaminated sediments.

  13. Evaluation of a first-order model for the prediction of the bioaccumulation of PCBs and DDT from sediment into the marine deposit-feeding clam Macoma nasuta

    SciTech Connect

    Boese, B.L.; Lee, H. II; Echols, S.

    1997-07-01

    A first-order model for predicting contaminant bioaccumulation from sediments into benthic invertebrates was validated using a marine deposit-feeding clam, Macoma nasuta, exposed to polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-spiked and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-contaminated sediments. Contaminant uptake and depuration were analyzed following short-term and long-term sediment exposures. Uptake and depuration rates were used to predict steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and exposure times needed to attain steady state. These predictions were compared to observed steady-state BAFs. Estimating elimination and uptake rates from depuration and short-term uptake experiments was an accurate means of predicting BAFs for some PCBs but was not as accurate for predicting DDT BAFs. The exposure time need to attain steady state was poorly predicted by the model. The results demonstrated that a standard 28-d bioaccumulation test estimated steady-state tissue residues within two-fold and was a better predictor than the model for the BAFs of superlipophilic PCBs (log K{sub ow} > 7). Differences in contaminant bioavailability were noted between field-contaminated (DDT) and laboratory-spiked (PCB) sediments.

  14. Workgroup report: review of fish bioaccumulation databases used to identify persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic substances.

    PubMed

    Weisbrod, Anne V; Burkhard, Lawrence P; Arnot, Jon; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Howard, Philip H; Russom, Christine; Boethling, Robert; Sakuratani, Yuki; Traas, Theo; Bridges, Todd; Lutz, Charles; Bonnell, Mark; Woodburn, Kent; Parkerton, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Chemical management programs strive to protect human health and the environment by accurately identifying persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic substances and restricting their use in commerce. The advance of these programs is challenged by the reality that few empirical data are available for the tens of thousands of commercial substances that require evaluation. Therefore, most preliminary assessments rely on model predictions and data extrapolation. In November 2005, a workshop was held for experts from governments, industry, and academia to examine the availability and quality of in vivo fish bioconcentration and bioaccumulation data, and to propose steps to improve its prediction. The workshop focused on fish data because regulatory assessments predominantly focus on the bioconcentration of substances from water into fish, as measured using in vivo tests or predicted using computer models. In this article we review of the quantity, features, and public availability of bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and biota-sediment accumulation data. The workshop revealed that there is significant overlap in the data contained within the various fish bioaccumulation data sources reviewed, and further, that no database contained all of the available fish bioaccumulation data. We believe that a majority of the available bioaccumulation data have been used in the development and testing of quantitative structure-activity relationships and computer models currently in use. Workshop recommendations included the publication of guidance on bioconcentration study quality, the combination of data from various sources to permit better access for modelers and assessors, and the review of chemical domains of existing models to identify areas for expansion. PMID:17384774

  15. Dynamic bioaccumulation of organics in finned fish

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, R.; Cohen, Y.

    1995-12-31

    A compartmental food-chain bioaccumulation model was developed to predict the degree of bioaccumulation of hydrophobic toxins in finned fish under dynamic conditions. The model was developed with the intent of minimizing the number of required user-input parameters while maintaining flexibility of describing a wide range of plausible scenarios. The model is shown to be in excellent agreement with more complex models and with available field data. The effect of various uptake mechanisms, morphometric parameters and species diet on toxin accumulation in finned fish will be illustrated via a number of test cases covering a wide set of species. The integration of the current bioaccumulation model with multimedia chemical transport and fate models such as the recent Integrated Spatial Multimedia Compartmental Model (Cohen and van de Water, in Computer Techniques in Environmental Studies, Vol. 1, Pollution Modeling, Zannetti (Ed.), 1994) will also be described and illustrated via selected test cases.

  16. Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic )System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and bord...

  17. VERIFICATION OF A TOXIC ORGANIC SUBSTANCE TRANSPORT AND BIOACCUMULATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field verification of the Toxic Organic Substance Transport and Bioaccumulation Model (TOXIC) was conducted using the insecticide dieldrin and the herbicides alachlor and atrazine as the test compounds. The test sites were two Iowa reservoirs. The verification procedure include...

  18. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in long-term tests with the freshwater benthic invertebrates Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.W.; Ankley, G.T.; Nichols, J.W.; Elonen, G.E.; Nessa, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    Two species of freshwater benthic invertebrates, Chronomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus, were exposed to three dietary concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and toxicity and bioaccumulation were determined. No toxic effects were observed in full life cycle tests with either species at tissue residue concentrations up to 9,533 ng TCDD/g lipid. The observed lack of sensitivity of the two species to TCDD was consistent with a presumed absence of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in aquatic invertebrates. Predictions of lipid-normalized tissue concentrations were made based on lipid-normalized TCDD concentrations in the food and were within 15% of targeted concentrations in both species. Depuration studies indicated that TCDD elimination followed first-order kinetics, with elimination rate constants of 0.0014 to 0.0022 h{sup {minus}1} for L. variegatus and 0.0070 to 0.0099 h{sup {minus}1} for C. tentans. Half-lives ranged from 315 to 495 h in L. variegatus and from 70 to 99 h in C. tentans. The ability of invertebrates to accumulate relatively high concentrations of TCDD in the absence of toxic effects may be relevant to the transfer of contaminants through aquatic food webs to potentially sensitive vertebrate species.

  19. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  20. Capping efficiency of various carbonaceous and mineral materials for in situ remediation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contaminated marine sediments: sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation in boxcosm tests.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Sarah; Schaanning, Morten; Samuelsson, Göran S; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Olofsson, Ida; Eek, Espen; Wiberg, Karin

    2012-03-20

    The efficiency of thin-layer capping in reducing sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene, and octachlorostyrene was investigated in a boxcosm experiment. The influence of cap thickness (0.5-5 cm) and different cap materials was tested using a three-factor experimental design. The cap materials consisted of a passive material (coarse or fine limestone or a marine clay) and an active material (activated carbon (AC) or kraft lignin) to sequester the contaminants. The cap thickness and the type of active material were significant factors, whereas no statistically significant effects of the type of passive material were observed. Sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation by the two test species, the surface-dwelling Nassarius nitidus and the deep-burrowing Nereis spp., decreased with increased cap thickness and with addition of active material. Activated carbon was more efficient than lignin, and a ~90% reduction of fluxes and bioaccumulation was achieved with 3 cm caps with 3.3% AC. Small increases in fluxes with increased survival of Nereis spp. indicated that bioturbation by Nereis spp. affected the fluxes. PMID:22339559

  1. Bioaccumulation of PCBs Across Concentration Gradients in Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus quantify the relationships between the chemical residues in sediments and benthic invertebrates, and these relationships are expressed as biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF). At some field sites, BSAFs decr...

  2. Bioaccumulation of cadmium bound to ferric hydroxide and particulate organic matter by the bivalve M. meretrix.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Jia, Yongfeng; Zhu, Huijie

    2012-06-01

    Ferric hydroxide and particulate organic matter are important pools of trace metals in sediments and control their accumulation by benthic animals. We investigated bioaccumulation of cadmium in bivalve Meretrix meretrix by using a simplified system of laboratory synthesized iron oxides and commercially obtained humic acids to represent the inorganic and organic matrix found in nature. The results showed that bioaccumulation characteristics were distinctly different for these two substrates. Bioaccumulation from ferric hydroxide was not observed at 70 and 140 mg/kg, while the clams started to absorb Cd at 140 mg/kg from organic matter and the bioaccumulation rate was faster than that from ferric hydroxide. Within 28 d, accumulation of Cd from organic matter appeared to reach a steady state after rising to a certain level, while absorption from ferric hydroxide appeared to follow a linear profile. The findings have implications about the assimilation of trace metals from sediments by benthic animals. PMID:22445921

  3. Review of existing terrestrial bioaccumulation models and terrestrial bioaccumulation modeling needs for organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gobas, Frank A P C; Burkhard, Lawrence P; Doucette, William J; Sappington, Keith G; Verbruggen, Eric M J; Hope, Bruce K; Bonnell, Mark A; Arnot, Jon A; Tarazona, Jose V

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for terrestrial bioaccumulation assessments are far less-developed than for aquatic systems. This article reviews modeling approaches that can be used to assess the terrestrial bioaccumulation potential of commercial organic chemicals. Models exist for plant, invertebrate, mammal, and avian species and for entire terrestrial food webs, including some that consider spatial factors. Limitations and gaps in terrestrial bioaccumulation modeling include the lack of QSARs for biotransformation and dietary assimilation efficiencies for terrestrial species; the lack of models and QSARs for important terrestrial species such as insects, amphibians and reptiles; the lack of standardized testing protocols for plants with limited development of plant models; and the limited chemical domain of existing bioaccumulation models and QSARs (e.g., primarily applicable to nonionic organic chemicals). There is an urgent need for high-quality field data sets for validating models and assessing their performance. There is a need to improve coordination among laboratory, field, and modeling efforts on bioaccumulative substances in order to improve the state of the science for challenging substances. PMID:26272325

  4. Harmonization of standard toxicity test methods used in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ankley, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past two years, Environment Canada (EC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have developed standard methods for conducting toxicity and bioaccumulation tests with freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediments. Existing ASTM methods were used as a basis to harmonize these methods for conducting testing with either field-collected or laboratory-spiked sediments. For freshwater toxicity tests, methods are described by EC and EPA for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midges Chironomus tentans and C. riparius. Endpoints include 10- to 14-d survival of growth. Methods are also described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. For estuarine and marine toxicity tests, methods are described for several amphipods (i.e., Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, Eohaustorius estuarius, Leptocheirus plumulosus). Endpoints include 10-d survival and reburial. EC is also developing methods for conducting toxicity tests with Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Canadian species of polychaetes. Methods are described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with a variety of mollusks (i.e., Macoma spp.) and polychaetes (i.e., Nereis spp.). Slight inconsistencies in methods between freshwater and estuarine/marine testing or between EC and EPA testing include: (1) static vs. flow-through conditions, (2) sieving of sediment, (3) types and quantity of food, (4) age of test organisms, or (4) duration of the test and required endpoints. Additional research is in progress to: (1) develop chronic toxicity tests with amphipods and midges measuring survival, growth, or reproduction, (2) develop whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures, (3) refine sediment spiking procedures, and (4) field-validate laboratory tests.

  5. A tiered assessment strategy for more effective evaluation of bioaccumulation of chemicals in fish.

    PubMed

    Lillicrap, Adam; Springer, Tim; Tyler, Charles R

    2016-03-01

    There is currently limited guidance available for regulators and risk assessors on how to use data from non-guideline methods when assessing the bioaccumulation potential of a chemical. Furthermore, bioaccumulation assessments can be more subjective than they need to be due to the lack of a guidance framework on how to use/include the range of information that may be available for a substance. Under some circumstances, in silico, in vitro and/or in vivo non-test guideline data may be sufficient to classify whether a substance is bioaccumulative without the need for further animal testing. Classifying the bioaccumulative potential of a substance is especially difficult when the bioconcentration factor (BCF) is close to the threshold for defining it as bioaccumulative/very bioaccumulative (B/vB), and a more structured process is required to reduce uncertainty in the BCF estimates. In these situations, in silico and in vitro data can, and should, be used to provide greater confidence in classifying these substances. To aid future evaluations of bioaccumulation data, a proposed tiered assessment strategy is presented incorporating all available data on the bioaccumulative properties of a substance. In addition, a revised scheme is recommended for improving the classification of the bioaccumulative potential of a substance. PMID:26724733

  6. A bioaccumulation bioassay for freshwater sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Noguchi, George E.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Edsall, Carol C.; Shoesmith, John A.; Bowker, James D.

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay is described for determining the bioavailability of contaminants from freshwater sediments. The bioassay consists of 10-d exposures to whole sediments under flow-through conditions. After testing five species, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the earthworm (Lubricus terrestris) were recommended for use in the test. When the availability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg and Zn from Great Lakes sediments was examined in laboratory exposures, only the PCBs were accumulated. A field validation study demonstrated that the magnitude of accumulation in laboratory exposures was similar to that in organisms caged in the field. A protocol is recommended for using the test as a standardized bioaccumulation bioassay.

  7. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  8. Exterior view of south wall of Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T28D), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of south wall of Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D), looking north. The taller structure immediately to the rear in the upper left background is the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B) - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Oxidizer Conditioning Structure, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Comparing Laboratory and Field Measured Bioaccumulation Endpoints

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an approach that allows comparisons of all laboratory and field bioaccumulation endpoints measurements. The approach will enable the inclusion of large amounts of field data into evaluations of bioaccumulation potential for legacy chemicals. Currently, these...

  10. Temperature-dependent bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Muijs, Barry; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2009-06-15

    Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) play a key role in risk assessment of chemicals in sediments and soils. For hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), BAFs are, however, difficult to determine and values are mostly obtained by modeling. Apart from a lack of reliable data, the applicability of lab-derived values in the field situation is unknown, as exposure conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, salinity, test species, number of chemicals) are standardized in the lab, whereas they may vary in the field. In this study, the effect of temperature on the bioaccumulation of a series of moderate to very hydrophobic PAHs in aquatic worms was studied by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. The results indicated that bioaccumulation of nonmetabolizable HOCs is an exothermic, enthalpy-driven process, thus decreasing with increasing temperature. As such, biotic concentrations may be several times higher in winter than in summertime, which could have ecotoxicological consequences. A two-parameter linear free energy relationship was derived with which PAH bioaccumulation can be predicted from temperature and the chemicals' hydrophobicities. Comparing the determined (thermodynamics of) PAH partitioning into organisms and PDMS indicated that the latter phase cannot be used as a surrogate phase for animal lipids. Still, SPME provides an appropriate analytical tool for the measurement of aqueous concentrations, from which bioaccumulation can subsequently be estimated by using BAFs. PMID:19603671

  11. IN SITU BIOASSAY CHAMBER FOR ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION USING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we describe the construction of a simple, inexpensive bioassay chamber for testing sediment toxicity (survival and growth) and bioaccumulation under field conditions using the midge Chironomus tentans and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. The test chamber is ...

  12. Effects of Feeding Rate and Loading Density on Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment tests with aquatic organisms can provide valuable information about potential toxicity and the bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the organisms. The USEPA 28-day Lumbriculus variegatus bioaccumulation test for sediments when successfully perfor...

  13. Exterior view of LongTerm Oxidizer Silo (T28D) in left background ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28D) in left background (taller structure) and adjacent Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28B) at extreme left background, looking south. At far right in foreground is a nitrogen tank in a concrete truck well - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Oxidizer Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Bioaccumulation Assessment using Predictive Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mandated efforts to assess chemicals for their potential to bioaccumulate within the environment are increasingly moving into the realm of data inadequacy. Consequently, there is an increasing reliance on predictive tools to complete regulatory requirements in a timely and cost-e...

  15. Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Marine Organisms.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity, bioaccumulation and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure was investigated. Results from 7-d sediment toxicity tests indicate that Ag...

  16. Long-term effects of dredging operations program: Assessing bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms exposed to contaminated sediments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.U.; McFarland, V.A.

    1991-07-01

    This paper synthesizes previous work on bioaccumulation to provide a working document for the environmental impact on the aquatic environment due to bioaccumulation of sediment contaminants resulting from dredging operations and dredged material placement. Emphasis is placed on explanation of basic concepts concerning, and factors influencing, sediment contaminant bioaccumulation and bioavailability. The paper presents several numerical methods for assessing bioaccumulation, including a simple method for estimating theoretical bioaccumulation potential (TBP) from sediment chemistry for neutral organic chemicals. Methods are also given for projecting contaminant concentrations in organism tissues when steady state is achieved, based on laboratory or field exposures to contaminated sediments. These assessments are presented in the context of the US Environmental Protection Agency's tiered testing approach for dredged material evaluation. The various numerical methods for bioaccumulation assessment are illustrated and compared using step-by-step example calculations with hypothetical and actual data.

  17. Evaluation of PCB bioaccumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in field-collected sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) contaminated sediment samples from the Hudson, Grasse, and Fox Rivers Superfund sites with concurrent measurement of PCB concentrations in sediment interstitial water. Th...

  18. Review of existing terrestrial bioaccumulation models and terrestrial bioaccumulation modeling needs for organic chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protocols for terrestrial bioaccumulation assessments are far less-developed than for aquatic systems. This manuscript reviews modeling approaches that can be used to assess the terrestrial bioaccumulation potential of commercial organic chemicals. Models exist for plant, inver...

  19. Use of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Bioaccumulation Assessments for Fish

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, John W.; Erhardt, Susan; Dyer, Scott; James, Margaret O.; Moore, Margo; Plotzke, Kathleen; Segner, Helmut; Schultz, Irvin R.; Thomas, Karluss; Vasiluk, Luba; Weisbrod, Anne V.

    2007-11-01

    A scientific workshop was held in 2006 to discuss the use of in vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) data in chemical bioaccumulation assessments for fish. Computer-based (in silico) modeling tools are widely used to estimate chemical bioaccumulation. These in silico methods have inherent limitations that result in inaccurate estimates for many compounds. Based on a review of the science workshop participants concluded that two factors, absorption and metabolism, represent the greatest sources of uncertainty in current bioaccumulation models. Both factors can be investigated experimentally using in vitro test systems.

  20. Impact of agglomeration on the bioaccumulation of sub-100 nm sized TiO₂.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dongwook; Jeon, Soo Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2014-04-01

    To improve our understanding on the impact of extrinsic properties of NPs on their bioaccumulation and toxicity, we have investigated the bioaccumulation of sub 100 nm sized P25 TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) by Daphnia magna (D. magna) in toxicity testing media. Based on our quantitative ICP-MS measurements as well as spectromicroscopic observations, we found that the bioaccumulation by D. magna were strongly influenced by the extrinsic properties of NPs as well as the biological uptake characteristics of D. magna. New sets of effective dosimetry parameters well correlated with the amount of NPs bioaccumulated within D. magna were also proposed. Based on these findings, we suggested that the extrinsic physicochemical properties of NPs (e.g., interfacial and colloidal properties of NPs) and biological characteristics for NPs (e.g., uptake cutoff sizes of testing organisms) should be considered and included when developing alternative dosimetry of NPs. PMID:24495458

  1. Effects of storage on sediment toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and chemistry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tatem, H.E.; Brandon, D.L.; Lee, C.R.; Jarvis, A.S.; Rhett, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Current guidance on storage of sediments for bioassay/bioaccumulation tests requires that samples be held at 4 C and used within 2 weeks of collection. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sediment storage for 40 weeks on sediment toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and chemical analyses. Toxicity and bioaccumulation tests were conducted five times during 40 weeks of storage. Chemical analyses were performed three times during this period. The data indicate that sediments can be held for longer than 2 to 4 weeks, in many cases, without significant effect on test results. However, results of the study also show that tests performed at different times can produce different results. This study showed that a sediment that was toxic to mysids remained toxic during 16 weeks of sediment storage. Two sediments that were toxic initially continued to show significant toxicity after 8 and 16 weeks of sediment storage. One sediment, not toxic initially or at 4 weeks, changed during storage, becoming significantly toxic compared to the Atlantic Ocean (Ref) sediment. The bioaccumulation results showed that certain sediment contaminants (lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs), generally do not reveal a statistical change in bioaccumulation, relative to Ref animals, during 16 weeks of sediment storage. Other PAHs, including phenanthrene, anthracene, benzo (a) anthracene, and chrysene, did change in bioaccumulation potential during storage.

  2. Iron bioaccumulation in mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Sandra M.; Umeo, Suzana H.; Marcante, Rafael C.; Yokota, Meire E.; Valle, Juliana S.; Dragunski, Douglas C.; Colauto, Nelson B.; Linde, Giani A.

    2015-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is able to bioaccumulate several metals in its cell structures; however, there are no reports on its capacity to bioaccumulate iron. The objective of this study was to evaluate cultivation variables to increase iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium. A full factorial design and a central composite design were utilized to evaluate the effect of the following variables: nitrogen and carbon sources, pH and iron concentration in the solid culture medium to produce iron bioaccumulated in mycelial biomass. The maximum production of P. ostreatus mycelial biomass was obtained with yeast extract at 2.96 g of nitrogen L −1 and glucose at 28.45 g L −1 . The most important variable to bioaccumulation was the iron concentration in the cultivation medium. Iron concentration at 175 mg L −1 or higher in the culture medium strongly inhibits the mycelial growth. The highest iron concentration in the mycelium was 3500 mg kg −1 produced with iron addition of 300 mg L −1 . The highest iron bioaccumulation in the mycelium was obtained in culture medium with 150 mg L −1 of iron. Iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium is a potential alternative to produce non-animal food sources of iron. PMID:26221108

  3. Iron bioaccumulation in mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sandra M; Umeo, Suzana H; Marcante, Rafael C; Yokota, Meire E; Valle, Juliana S; Dragunski, Douglas C; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-03-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is able to bioaccumulate several metals in its cell structures; however, there are no reports on its capacity to bioaccumulate iron. The objective of this study was to evaluate cultivation variables to increase iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium. A full factorial design and a central composite design were utilized to evaluate the effect of the following variables: nitrogen and carbon sources, pH and iron concentration in the solid culture medium to produce iron bioaccumulated in mycelial biomass. The maximum production of P. ostreatus mycelial biomass was obtained with yeast extract at 2.96 g of nitrogen L (-1) and glucose at 28.45 g L (-1) . The most important variable to bioaccumulation was the iron concentration in the cultivation medium. Iron concentration at 175 mg L (-1) or higher in the culture medium strongly inhibits the mycelial growth. The highest iron concentration in the mycelium was 3500 mg kg (-1) produced with iron addition of 300 mg L (-1) . The highest iron bioaccumulation in the mycelium was obtained in culture medium with 150 mg L (-1) of iron. Iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium is a potential alternative to produce non-animal food sources of iron. PMID:26221108

  4. Bioaccumulation of PCBs by algae: Kinetics versus equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Skoglund, R.S. )

    1993-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) by phytoplankton is correlated to the compound's octanol/water partition coefficient (K[sub ow]) in a predictive relationship in laboratory experiments, and to confirm these findings with field observations. In laboratory experiments the authors measured the uptake of 40 representative polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners over time under conditions that inhibited and allowed phytoplankton growth. Results indicated that the bioaccumulation process is consistent with partitioning from water into cell lipids but is slower than previously thought. The uptake of PCBs was slow relative to growth of phytoplankton, preventing the chemical from reaching thermodynamic equilibrium in algal cells under conditions promoting growth (nonwinter). Thus under non-winter field conditions, many PCB congeners never reach equilibrium concentrations. Food-chain models that assume equilibrium between HOCs and the primary trophic level could be inaccurate and may need to use a kinetic framework.

  5. Chiral xenobiotics bioaccumulations and environmental health prospectives.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Iqbal; ALOthman, Zeid A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman A; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Ali, Imran

    2015-08-01

    The chiral xenobiotics are very dangerous for all of us due to the different enantioselective toxicities of the enantiomers. Besides, these have different enantioselective bioaccumulations and behaviors in our body and other organisms. It is of urgent need to understand the enantioselective bioaccumulations, toxicities, and the health hazards of the chiral xenobiotics. The present article describes the classification, sources of contamination, distribution, enantioselective bioaccumulation, and the toxicities of the chiral xenobiotics. Besides, the efforts are also made to discuss the prevention and remedial measures of the havoc of the chiral xenobiotics. The challenges of the chiral xenobiotics have also been highlighted. Finally, future prospectives are also discussed. PMID:26148690

  6. Screening of chemicals for human bioaccumulative potential with a physiologically based toxicokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Tonnelier, Arnaud; Coecke, Sandra; Zaldívar, José-Manuel

    2012-03-01

    Human bioaccumulative potential is an important element in the risk assessment of chemicals. Due to the high number of synthetic chemicals, there exists the need to develop prioritisation strategies. The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive tool for human bioaccumulation risk assessment that incorporates not only the chemical properties of the compounds, but also the processes that tend to decrease the concentration of the compound such as metabolisation. We used a generic physiologically based toxicokinetic model that based on in vitro human liver metabolism data, minimal renal excretion and a constant exposure was able to assess the bioaccumulative potential of a chemical. The approach has been analysed using literature data on well-known bioaccumulative compounds and liver metabolism data from the ECVAM database and a subset of the ToxCast phase I chemical library-in total 94 compounds covering pharmaceuticals, plant protection products and industrial chemicals. Our results provide further evidence that partitioning properties do not allow for a reliable screening criteria for human chemical hazard. Our model, based on a 100% intestinal absorption assumption, suggests that metabolic clearance, plasma protein-binding properties and renal excretion are the main factors in determining whether bioaccumulation will occur and its amount. It is essential that in vitro metabolic clearance tests with metabolic competent cell lines as well as plasma protein-binding assays be performed for suspected bioaccumulative compounds. PMID:22089525

  7. Sediment bioaccumulation testing: Manistique Harbor sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manistique Harbor AOC public meeting and availability session on August 28th in Manistique, MI. This meeting/session is organized by GLNPO; they are EPA's lead on AOC restoration efforts. The goal of the meeting is to engage with the community with all the work that has been d...

  8. Effect of feeding in 30-day bioaccumulation assays using Hyalella azteca in fluoranthene-dosed sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Current protocols for conducting freshwater sediment bioaccumulation tests require that food be added to exposures. To determine effects of adding food, 30-day bioaccumulation assays were conducted with H. azteca exposed to sediment dosed with four concentrations (0.05 to 1,267 nmol/g dry weight) of fluoranthene. Accumulation was significantly greater in fed versus non-fed animals at all dose levels after 96 and 240 hours of exposure and continued to be greater after 30 days in the low dose levels. At sediment concentrations above 634 nmol/g dw, survival of unfed animals dropped to 34% after 30 days, However, after 30 days, reproduction was observed in fed animals exposed to sediment concentrations > 16 times the expected LC50 calculated for fluoranthene in sediment. These data raise questions concerning the interpretation of standard toxicity and bioaccumulation tests when food is routinely added.

  9. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria for POPS and PBT Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from academia, industry and government reviewed current international regulations for the screening of commercial chemicals for bioaccumulation in the context of the current state of the science in the area of bioaccumulation. Based on this review several recommendat...

  10. A REVIEW OF BIOACCUMULATION MODELING APPROACHES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are likely to bioaccumulate in biological components of the environment, including fish and wildlife. The complex and long-term dynamics involved with bioaccumulation are often represented with models. Current scientific developments in t...

  11. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in marine organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, J M

    1979-01-01

    A general review of cadmium concentrations in marine organisms and studies of cadmium bioaccumulation is presented. Factors which influence cadmium concentrations, such as regional differences, seasonal fluctuations and salinity, are discussed and species which are likely to accumulate cadmium identified. Experimental studies designed to investigate the influence of some of these factors on cadmium bioaccumulation in a filter feeding bivalve mollusk, the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), are presented. Field studies of seasonal dynamics of cadmium in oysters indicate patterns which may be correlated with seasonal physiological activity. The bioaccumulation of cadmium following input to estuarine systems by natural phenomena is observed. Cadmium concentrations in oysters collected from regions of different salinity suggest an inverse relationship between cadmium concentration and salinity. Laboratory experiments designed to investigate mechanisms of cadmium accumulation demonstrate that an inducible cadmium binding protein, similar to metallothiomein, is present in the American oyster. PMID:488051

  12. [Research Progress in Norovirus Bioaccumulation in Shellfish].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Deqing; Su, Laijin; Zhao, Feng; Ma, Liping

    2015-05-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the most important foodborne viral pathogens worldwide. Shellfish are the most common carriers of NoVs as they can concentrate and accumulate large amounts of the virus through filter feeding from seawater. Shellfish may selectively accumulate NoVs with different genotypes, and this bioaccumulation may depend on the season and location. Our previous studies found various histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in shellfish tissues. While HBGAs might be the main reason that NoVs are accumulated in shellfish, the detailed mechanism behind NoV concentration and bioaccumulation in shellfish is not clear. Here we review current research into NoV bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, seasonal variation, and binding mechanism in shellfish. This paper may provide insight into controlling NoV transmission and decreasing the risks associated with shellfish consumption. PMID:26470540

  13. Bioaccumulation of isocarbophos enantiomers from laboratory-contaminated aquatic environment by tubificid worms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiantian; Diao, Jinling; Di, Shanshan; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2015-04-01

    The benthic fauna is of great importance to assess the environmental fate of contaminations in aquatic ecosystem. In this study, tubificids were exposed to both laboratory-contaminated aqueous phases and spiked sediment to study the bioaccumulation of isocarbophos (ICP). Two types of spiked sediments were used in the spiked sediment experiment. During the exposure period, an enantioselective bioaccumulation was found in spiked water treatment, with concentrations of the (-)-ICP higher than that of the (+)-ICP, but no enantioselectivity was detected in the spiked sediment treatments. However, different bioaccumulation patterns were observed in the two spiked sediment treatments. Results showed that for spiked forest field sediment (FF sediment) incubation, bioaccumulation was governed by the concentrations in soil. Whereas ICP was bioaccumulated dominantly from overlying water in spiked Chagan Lake sediment (CG sediment) test. The dissipation rates were proved different in the two sediments and ICP dissipated much faster in CG sediment than that in FF sediment. Significant difference in ICP's half-life was also observed between worm-present and worm-free treatments in FF sediment. The detections of concentrations in overlying water indicated that much more ICP diffused to aquatic phase with the present of tubificids. PMID:25475969

  14. The State of In Vitro Science for Use in Bioaccumulation Assessments for Fish

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, Anne V.; Sahi, Jasminder; Segner, Helmut; James, Margaret O.; Nichols, John W.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Erhardt, Susan; Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina; Bonnell, Mark; Hoeger, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Through the concerted evaluations of thousands of commercial substances for the qualities of persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity as a result of the United Nations Environment Program’s Stockholm Convention, it has become apparent that fewer empirical data are available on bioaccumulation than other endpoints and that bioaccumulation models were not designed to accommodate all chemical classes. Due to the number of chemicals that may require further assessment, in vivo testing is cost prohibitive and discouraged due to the large number of animals needed. Although in vitro systems are less developed and characterized for fish, multiple high-throughput in vitro assays have been used to explore the dietary uptake and elimination of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics by mammals. While similar processes determine bioaccumulation in mammalian species, a review of methods to measure chemical bioavailability in fish screening systems, such as chemical biotransformation or metabolism in tissue slices, perfused tissues, fish embryos, primary and immortalized cell lines, and subcellular fractions, suggest quantitative and qualitative differences between fish and mammals exist. Using in vitro data in assessments for whole organisms or populations requires certain considerations and assumptions to scale data from a test tube to a fish, and across fish species. Also, different models may incorporate the predominant site of metabolism, such as the liver, and significant presystemic metabolism by the gill or gastrointestinal system to help accurately convert in vitro data into representative whole-animal metabolism and subsequent bioaccumulation potential. The development of animal alternative tests for fish bioaccumulation assessment is framed in the context of in vitro data requirements for regulatory assessments in Europe and Canada.

  15. Inclusion of bioaccumulation in environmental risk assessment: An integrated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Cowan, C.E.; Larson, R.J.; Versteeg, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, the potential to bioaccumulate has been ignored in risk assessments or assessed in isolation. Bioaccumulation can be included in an integrated approach by posing two questions. (1) Is the duration of acute aquatic testing sufficient to identify effects due to direct exposure? This can be addressed by comparing T95 (time to reach 95% of steady state) with test duration. (2) Do dietary sources contribute substantially to exposure; is so, will this affect organisms higher in the food web? This can be addressed in stages. (1) A suitable QSAR can be employed to estimate the Bioconcentration Factor (BCF). Because aquatic dietary exposure to non-ionic, poorly metabolized organics is not significant for compounds with log K{sub ow} below {approximately}4.5--5, only compounds with BCF > 1,000 (log K{sub ow} {approximately}4.3) are further evaluated. (2) Predicted BCFs may be refined by measuring the predictive parameter (e.g., K{sub ow}) or the BCF. (3) If the ``parent`` BCF remains > 1,000, a food chain model is employed to derive bioaccumulation factors (BAF) which may be achieved in the food web of interest. The BAF is then combined with Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) values to derive a PECoral or concentration available in prey. This is then compared with a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC)oral for consumer organism(s). Mammalian toxicity databases on new and HVP existing chemicals may assist in deriving the PNECoral. (4) Further refinement of the PECoral or PNECoral may be needed. Mitigating circumstances such as metabolism and reduced bioavailability must also be considered. Such an approach may be necessary for a subset of chemicals and would be tailored dependent on chemical use, release, environmental fate -- especially persistence -- and distribution.

  16. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals in Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae) in synthetic sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrahy, E.A.; Clements, W.H.

    1997-02-01

    This research investigated toxicity and bioaccumulation of a mixture of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in Chironomus tentans in synthetic sediment, and compared predicted to measured steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). In a toxicity test, C. tentans were exposed to various dilutions of a base concentration (1.0 X) of a mixture of the four metals (5 {micro}g/g Cd. 10 {micro}g/g Cu. 70 {micro}g/g Pb, and 300 {micro}g/g Zn) in synthetic sediment. Mortality ranged from 17 to 100%. To measure bioaccumulation of the metals, C. tentans were exposed to 0.35 X the base concentration for a period of up to 14 d in two uptake tests. Bioaccumulation of all four metals increased over the 14-d uptake phases. Concentrations of metals in chironomids were significantly correlated with exposure time in the uptake phases. Only concentrations of copper approached background levels after 7 d depuration. Uptake rate coefficients and elimination rate constants were determined for each metal. Bioaccumulation factors were highest for Cd and lowest for Pb. With the exception of Pb, steady-state BAFs were within a factor of about two of those calculated using the first-order kinetic model. The high BAFs calculated may indicate greater bioavailability in synthetic sediment. Studies comparing toxicity and bioaccumulation of natural and synthetic sediments are necessary before the use of synthetic sediments is widely adopted.

  17. INVESTIGATING COMPLEXITY IN FOOD WEB BIOACCUMULATION MODELING USING THE BIOACCUMULATION AND AQUATIC SYSTEM SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioaccumulation of methylmercury in exposed fish communities is primarily mediated via dietary uptake rather than direct gill uptake from the ambient water. Consequently, accurate predication of fish methylmercury concentrations demands reasonably realistic presentations of a com...

  18. Bioaccumulation of decamethylpentacyclosiloxane (D5): A review.

    PubMed

    Gobas, Frank A P C; Powell, David E; Woodburn, Kent B; Springer, Tim; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-12-01

    Decamethylpentacyclosiloxane (D5) is a widely used, high-production volume personal care product with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(OW)) of 8.09. Because of D5's high K(OW) and widespread use, it is subject to bioaccumulation assessments in many countries. The present study provides a compilation and an in-depth, independent review of bioaccumulation studies involving D5. The findings indicate that D5 exhibits depuration rates in fish and mammals that exceed those of extremely hydrophobic, nonbiotransformable substances; that D5 is subject to biotransformation in mammals and fish; that observed bioconcentration factors in fish range between 1040 L/kg and 4920 L/kg wet weight in laboratory studies using non-radiolabeled D5 and between 5900 L/kg and 13 700 L/kg wet weight in an experiment using C(14) radiolabeled D5; and that D5 was not observed to biomagnify in most laboratory experiments and field studies. Review of the available studies shows a high degree of internal consistency among findings from different studies and supports a broad comprehensive approach in bioaccumulation assessments that includes information from studies with a variety of designs and incorporates multiple bioaccumulation measures in addition to the K(OW) and bioconcentration factor. PMID:26363134

  19. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  20. PERSISTENT, BIOACCUMULATIVE, AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS (PBTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Article describes the class of compounds known as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic pollutants (known as PBTs), including the mechanisms responsible for ability to build up the food chain and for causing adverse health effects and ecosystem damage. Exposure to numerous PBTs ...

  1. Food Pyramids and Bio-Accumulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Students learn about marine food chains, bioaccumulation, the energy pyramid, and potential ocean pollutants and their effects on ocean ecosystems in this activity which involves having students pull drawings of marine organisms which include diatoms, copepods, anchovies, bonito, and killer whale out of a bag, then demonstrating the food chain by…

  2. Metals Bioaccumulation Mechanism in Neem Bark.

    PubMed

    Krishnani, Kishore K; Boddu, Veera M; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ghadge, S V; Sarkar, Biplab; Brahmane, M P; Choudhary, K; Kathiravan, V; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as Hg(2+) < Cd(2+) < Pb(2+) ≅ Cu(2+). Surface properties of the biomaterial were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques for their sorption mechanism. Whewellite (C2CaO4 · H2O) was identified in the biomaterial, which indicated that calcium ions are electrovalently bonded with carboxylate ions facilitating the ion exchange mechanism with metal ions. Bioaccumulation of metal ions was also studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the presence of functional groups implicated in adsorbing metal ions. Biomaterial did not adsorb anionic As(III), As(V) and Cr(VI), because of their electrostatic repulsion with carboxylic functional groups. Neem bark can be used as bioindicators, bioaccumulators and biomonitors while determining environmental pressures. Metal bioaccumulative properties and structural investigation of plant bark has potential in providing quantitative information on the metal contamination in the surrounding environment. PMID:26193837

  3. Bacterial metal leaching and bioaccumulation. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning bioleaching and bioaccumulation in metal recovery systems. References study bacterial oxidation, fungal metabolism, metal extraction, and metal recovery from deposits. Gold and uranium ore treatments are discussed. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests and ultrasound pretreatment are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Summary of a workshop on interpreting bioaccumulation data collected during regulatory evaluations of dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Moore, D.W.; Landrum, P.; Neff, J.; Cura, J.

    1996-07-01

    Evaluating the environmental consequences of contaminant bioaccumulation resulting from dredged material disposal is a complex technical and regulatory problem. This problem is exacerbated by the high cost of bioaccumulation testing and the lack of explicit guidance on how bioaccumulation data should be interpreted and used within a regulatory program. Bioaccumulation is a measurable phenomenon, rather than an effect. Without specific information about biological effects (e.g., reduced survival, growth, reproduction in animals, cancer risk in humans) resulting from bioaccumulation, it is difficult if not impossible from a regulatory standpoint to objectively determine what level of bioaccumulation constitutes an `unacceptable adverse effect.` Existing regulatory guidance attempts to overcome this with two approaches, both of which use low aquatic trophic level organisms and a reference-based comparison. In the first approach, the level of bioaccumulation of a specific contaminant is compared with a numerical effect limit, such as a Food and Drug Administration action level or a fish advisory. If the level of the contaminant in the organism exceeds the numerical limit, it is equated to an unacceptable adverse effect. If it does not, or there is no numerical limit, the second approach involves a comparison with animals exposed to a reference sediment. If bioaccumulation in the animals exposed to the dredged material exceeds that of animals exposed to the reference, a number of subjective factors are then evaluated to determine whether or not dredged material disposal will result in an `unacceptable adverse effect` (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) 1991, 1994).

  5. Persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Kong, Deguo; Hendriks, Hester S; de Wit, Cynthia A; Cousins, Ian T; Westerink, Remco H S; Leonards, Pim E G; Kraak, Michiel H S; Admiraal, Wim; de Voogt, Pim; Parsons, John R

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are synthetic organic materials having a high carbon and hydrogen content, which make them readily combustible. Polymers have many indoor uses and their flammability makes them a fire hazard. Therefore, flame retardants (FRs) are incorporated into these materials as a safety measure. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which accounted for about 21% of the total world market of FRs, have several unintended negative effects on the environment and human health. Hence, there is growing interest in finding appropriate alternative halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Many of these HFFRs are marketed already, although their environ- mental behavior and toxicological properties are often only known to a limited extent, and their potential impact on the environment cannot yet be properly assessed. Therefore, we undertook this review to make an inventory of the available data that exists (up to September 2011) on the physical-chemical properties, pro- duction volumes, persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) of a selection of HFFRs that are potential replacements for BFRs in polymers. Large data gaps were identified for the physical-chemical and the PBT properties of the reviewed HFFRs. Because these HFFRs are currently on the market, there is an urgent need to fill these data gaps. Enhanced transparency of methodology and data are needed to reevaluate certain test results that appear contradictory, and, if this does not provide new insights, further research should be performed. TPP has been studied quite extensively and it is clearly persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. So far, RDP and BDP have demonstrated low to high ecotoxicity and persistence. The compounds ATH and ZB exerted high toxicity to some species and ALPI appeared to be persistent and has low to moderate reported ecotoxicity. DOPO and MPP may be persistent, but this view is based merely on one or two studies, clearly indicating a lack of information. Many degradation studies have been

  6. Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Depuration of Bromoform in Five Marine Species

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C. I.; Tone, F. C.; Wilkinson, P.; Blaylock, J. W.; Schirmer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Bromoform has been identified as the single most abundant halogenated organic compound produced by the chlorination of marine waters. To determine the potential biological effects of its release into marine waters, short-term toxicity bioassays and 28-day uptake/28-day depuration studies were conducted with five marine species: Protothaca staminea, Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea virginica, Penaeus aztecus, and Brevoortia tyrannus. The bioassay studies indicate that 96-hr LC50s ranged from approximately 7 ppm for B. tyrannus to greater than 40 ppm for P. staminea. Behavioral changes were noted in P. aztecus and B. tyrannus exposed to sublethal concentrations of bromoform. In all species tested, the uptake and depuration of bromoform was rapid. Bromoform was present in all exposed animal tissues within 24 hours and was depurated within 48 hours. In the mollusk species, there was bioaccumulation above water concentrations in the first week of exposure, and then the tissue concentrations fell to levels approximately equal to the water concentrations. The shrimp and menhaden also bioaccumulated bromoform above water concentrations in the first week of exposure, but then the tissue concentrations fell to approximately 0.4 {micro}g/g and remained at this level independent of water concentrations.

  7. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future. PMID:24440489

  8. An investigation into ciguatoxin bioaccumulation in sharks.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Lauren; Capper, Angela; Carter, Steve; Simpfendorfer, Colin

    2016-09-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by benthic Gambierdiscus dinoflagellates, readily biotransform and bioaccumulate in food chains ultimately bioconcentrating in high-order, carnivorous marine species. Certain shark species, often feeding at, or near the top of the food-chain have the ability to bioaccumulate a suite of toxins, from both anthropogenic and algal sources. As such, these apex predators are likely sinks for CTXs. This assumption, in conjunction with anecdotal knowledge of poisoning incidents, several non-specific feeding trials whereby various terrestrial animals were fed suspect fish flesh, and a single incident in Madagascar in 1994, have resulted in the widespread acceptance that sharks may accumulate CTXs. This prompted a study to investigate original claims within the literature, as well as investigate CTX bioaccumulation in the muscle and liver of 22 individual sharks from nine species, across four locations along the east coast of Australia. Utilizing an updated ciguatoxin extraction method with HPLC-MS/MS, we were unable to detect P-CTX-1, P-CTX-2 or P-CTX-3, the three primary CTX congeners, in muscle or liver samples. We propose four theories to address this finding: (1) to date, methods have been optimized for teleost species and may not be appropriate for elasmobranchs, or the CTXs may be below the limit of detection; (2) CTX may be biotransformed into elasmobranch-specific congeners as a result of unique metabolic properties; (3) 22 individuals may be an inadequate sample size given the rare occurrence of high-order ciguatoxic organisms and potential for CTX depuration; and (4) the ephemeral nature and inconsistent toxin profiles of Gambierdiscus blooms may have undermined our classifications of certain areas as CTX hotspots. These results, in combination with the lack of clarity within the literature, suggest that ciguatoxin bioaccumulation in sharks remains elusive, and warrants further investigation to determine the dynamics of toxin production

  9. Bioaccumulation of radiocaesium in Arctic seals.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jolynn; Wolkers, Hans; Andersen, Magnus; Rissanen, Kristina

    2002-12-01

    Seals are high trophic level feeders that bioaccumulate many contaminants to a greater degree than most lower trophic level organisms. Their trophic status in the marine food web and wide-spread distribution make seals useful sentinels of arctic environmental change. The purpose of this investigation is to document the levels and bioaccumulation potential of radiocaesium in high latitude seal species for which data have not previously been available. The study was carried out on harp, ringed, and bearded seals caught north of the island archipelago of Svalbard (82 degrees N) in 1999. The results are then compared with previous studies in order to elucidate factors responsible for bioaccumulation in Arctic seals. Concentrations of 137Cs were determined in muscle, liver and kidney samples from a total of 10 juvenile and one adult seal. The mean concentration in muscle samples for all animals was 0.23 +/- 0.045 Bq/kg f.w. 137Cs concentrations in both liver and kidney samples were near detection limits (approximately 0.2 Bq/kg f.w.). The results are consistent with previous studies indicating low levels of radiocaesium in Arctic seals in response to a long term trend of decreasing levels of 137Cs in the Barents Sea region. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) estimated for seals from NE Svalbard are low, ranging from 34 to 130. Comparing these values with reported BCFs for Greenland seals from other sectors of the European Arctic, we suggest that the combination of physiological and ecological factors on radiocaesium bioaccumulation is comparable among different Arctic seal populations. The application of this work to Arctic monitoring and assessment programs is discussed. PMID:12523541

  10. Comparison of nonplanar and coplanar PCB congener partitioning in seawater and bioaccumulation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, B.J.; Nelson, W.G.; Pruell, R.J.

    1996-09-01

    The partitioning of 18 nonplanar and three coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was quantified in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts. Concurrently, bioaccumulation of these congeners was measured in blue mussels deployed for 7 and 28 d in New Bedford Harbor, and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated for each congener. The PCB concentrations measured in the dissolved and particulate fractions of seawater samples were used to calculate partition coefficients (K{sub p}) for each congener. These values were correlated with reported octanol/water partition coefficients (K{sub ow}). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in the relationships between K{sub p} and K{sub ow} for the coplanar congeners relative to the nonplanar congeners. Coplanar congeners reached steady state faster than the nonplanar congeners; however, after 28 d a similar relationship was observed between BCF and K{sub ow} in coplanar and nonplanar congeners. These data indicate that coplanar PCBs partition in seawater and accumulate in mussels similarly to nonplanar PCBs with the same number of chlorines.

  11. Bioaccumulation dynamics and exposure routes of Cd and Cu among species of aquatic mayflies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, D.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of periphyton is a potentially important route of metal exposure to benthic invertebrate grazers. The present study examined the bioaccumulation kinetics of dissolved and dietary Cd and Cu in five species of mayflies (class Insecta). Artificial stream water and benthic diatoms were separately labeled with enriched stable metal isotopes to determine physiological rate constants used by a biokinetic bioaccumulation model. The model was employed to simulate the effects of metal partitioning between water and food, expressed as the bioconcentration factor (BCF), as well as ingestion rate (IR) and metal assimilation efficiency of food (AE), on the relative importance of water and food to metal bioaccumulation. For all test species, the contribution of dietary uptake of Cd and Cu increased with BCF. For a given BCF, the contribution of food to the body burden increased with kuf, the metal uptake rate constant from food that combined variation in IR and AE. To explore the relative importance of water and diet exposure routes under field conditions, we used estimated site-specific aqueous free-ion concentrations to model Cd and Cu accumulation from aqueous exposure, exclusively. The predicted concentrations accounted for less than 5% of the observed concentrations, implying that most bioaccumulated metal was acquired from food. At least for the taxa considered in this study, we conclude that consumption of metal-contaminated periphyton can result in elevated metal body burdens and potentially increase the risk of metal toxicity. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  12. In vivo bioaccumulation of contaminants from historically polluted sediments - relation to bioavailability estimates.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Allan, Ian J; Oxnevad, Sigurd; Schaanning, Morten T; Borgå, Katrine; Bakke, Torgeir; Næs, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    Many contaminants are recalcitrant against degradation. Therefore, when primary sources have been discontinued, contaminated sediments often function as important secondary pollution sources. Since the management and potential remediation of contaminated marine sediments may be very costly, it is important that the environmental risks of contaminants present in these sediments and benefits of remediation are evaluated as accurately as possible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of common organochlorine contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in selected polluted sediments from Norway by simple generic sorption models (free energy relationships), as well as by pore water concentration measurements. Furthermore, the aim was to predict bioaccumulation from these bioavailability estimates for comparison with in vivo bioaccumulation assessments using ragworm (Nereis virens) and netted dogwhelk (Hinia reticulata). Predicted biota-to-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) derived from pore water concentration estimates were in better agreement with the bioaccumulation observed in the test organisms, than the generic BSAFs expected based on linear sorption models. The results therefore support that site-specific evaluations of bioaccumulation provide useful information for more accurate risk assessments. A need for increased knowledge of the specific characteristics of benthic organisms, which may influence the exposure, uptake and elimination of contaminants, is however emphasized. PMID:23178838

  13. Different modes of TiO2 uptake by Ceriodaphnia dubia: relevance to toxicity and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Iswarya, V; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    The extensive environmental exposure of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) may result in their bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms leading to their biotransfer in a food chain through various routes in a freshwater ecosystem. The present study focuses on the possible modes of TiO2 NP trophic transfer to Ceriodaphnia dubia, in presence and/absence of its diet, Scenedesmus obliquus (primary producer). The acute exposure studies (48h) were designed to have daphnids exposed to (i) the free NPs, (ii) both the free and the algae-borne NPs; and (iii) only the algae-borne NPs in separate tests to understand the possible routes of NP transfer. The dietary uptake of TiO2 NPs (algae-borne) was found to be the primary route for NP biotransfer with ∼70% of total NP uptake. Interestingly, in a separate study it was noticed that the NPs coated with algal exudates were easily taken up by daphnids as compared to pristine NPs of same concentrations, leading to their higher bioaccumulation. A chronic toxicity study, where daphnids were exposed to both free and algae-borne NPs for 21 days was undertaken to comprehend the TiO2 NP effect on daphnia growth and reproduction upon chronic exposure and also the bioaccumulation potential. Both acute and chronic exposure studies suggested higher bioaccumulation of TiO2 in daphnids when the particles were less toxic to the diet (algae). PMID:24755515

  14. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in sediment by oligochaetes: Influence of exposure pathway and contact time

    SciTech Connect

    Loonen, H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1997-07-01

    Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed simultaneously to radiolabeled [{sup 3}H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and [{sup 14}C]octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) in sediment for 28 d, in order to study accumulation processes of hydrophobic substances. Elimination was studied for a further 20 d. The uptake and elimination rate constants and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were determined for TCDD and OCDD in the presence and absence of sediment (overlying water). Steady-state concentrations in oligochaetes were achieved for TCDD but not for OCDD over the 28-d exposure. Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) after a 28-d exposure were 1.6 {+-} 0.27 for TCDD and 0.07 {+-} 0.02 for OCDD. Steady-state log BAF values (lipid based) for TCDD and OCDD in oligochaetes in the overlying water were 5.9 and 5.5 L/kg, respectively. The effect of incubation time between sediment and contaminants was investigated by repeating the accumulation study after a contact period of 21 months. BSAFs of sediment-sorbed TCDD and OCDD were 1.5 to 2-fold lower for the long contact time sediment. Based on comparison of predicted accumulation from pore water and observed accumulation by sediment-exposed oligochaetes, it was concluded that 1.4-fold greater accumulation occurred due to assimilation of TCDD and OCDD from ingested sediment. This additional accumulation in the presence of sediment, not accounted for by uptake only from pore waters, was consistent with literature data for other hydrophobic organochlorines.

  15. Bioaccumulation of fossil fuel components during single-compound and complex-mixture exposures of Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Carlile, D.W.; Hanf, R.W. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    The authors conducted tests with the water flea (Daphnia magna) to compare the bioaccumulation of compounds presented alone with the bioaccumulation of these same compounds when they were presented within a complex coal liquid, water-soluble fraction. Phenol and aniline were used as representative compounds because they are highly soluble, moderately toxic, and common to many fossil fuel liquid products and corresponding wastes. The tests were primarily designed to aid in development of predictive models relating to the transport and fate of components from complex mixtures in aquatic biota.

  16. Impact of biodegradation on the potential bioaccumulation and toxicity of refinery effluents.

    PubMed

    Leonards, Pim E G; Postma, Jaap F; Comber, Mike; Whale, Graham; Stalter, George

    2011-10-01

    Whole effluent assessments (WEA) are being investigated as potential tools for controlling aqueous industrial discharges and minimizing environmental impact. The present study investigated how toxicity and the presence of potentially bioaccumulative substances altered when refinery effluents were subjected to biodegradation tests. Three petrochemical effluents were assessed, two freshwater and one saline, and subjected to two different types of biodegradation tests, resembling either a ready style (dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-die away) or an inherent style (Zahn-Wellens) test and the toxicity and potential to bioaccumulate parameters were re-analysed during and after biodegradation. A high proportion of the potentially bioaccumulative substances (PBS) in these effluents was easily biodegradable. Biodegradation not only lowered the PBS concentration but also toxicity. Appropriate controls are required however, as some increases in toxicity were observed after 4 h. In the present study, six other petrochemical effluents were also assessed for their PBS content and toxicity to increase the understanding of the relationship between PBS and toxicity. The results showed that the PBS concentrations in these samples were lower than the estimated benchmarks of acute toxicity for algae, fish and crustacean, although two samples were above the critical PBS values for chronic narcotic toxicity for Daphnia magna, which support the assumption that narcotic effects are mainly responsible for the observed toxicity in refinery effluents. It can be concluded that for facilities processing petroleum products that the measurement of PBS is a suitable surrogate for toxicity tests at the screening stage. Finally, the combination of persistency, bioaccumulation, and toxicity tests was shown to have additional value compared to an approach using only toxicity tests. PMID:21796668

  17. The effect of sediment on survival, growth, reproductive success and bioaccumulation in Neanthes: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlinger, T.V.; Fanizzi, M.; Soong, K.; Armstrong, J.; Reish, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments taken from the vicinity of the County Sanitation Districts of Orange County ocean outfall were tested for survival, growth, reproduction and bioaccumulation of toxicants on the polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata. The end points were survival, growth (dry weight), reproductive success (as number of emerged larvae) and bioaccumulation (metals, DDT, PCBs). Ten experiments have been conducted over a 2 year period of which 2 measured reproductive success. The experiments for survival and growth utilized 2--3 week old post-emergence juvenile worms and subjected them to different test sediments including an inert sediment and plain sea water control. Worms were fed during the experiments. Experiments for reproductive success and bioaccumulation consisted of placing 100 juvenile worms each in 10 gallon aquaria together with test sediment for a 35--40 day period. After which, 10--15 pairs were made and each pair was placed in a separate 1 liter beaker together with sediment for the reproductive experiment. The remaining worms in each aquarium were used for chemical analysis. No toxic responses, as measured by survival, growth and reproductive success, were noted at any station during the 2 year study. Growth was generally lower in the inert sediment and sea water controls compared to test sediments indicating that worms were obtaining some nutrients from the sediment. No difference was noted in the number of emerged juveniles in any test container. While worms accumulated metals and organics in their tissue, there was neither a relationship to the station location nor to survival, growth or reproduction.

  18. Involuntary bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in nonsmoking heterogeneous human population

    SciTech Connect

    Krotoszynski, B.K.; O'Neill, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical bioaccumulation in nonsmoking heterogeneous human population was determined by a noninvasive expired air technique. Ubiquitous and nonubiquitous environmental pollutants were isolated and identified and the respective distribution and inhalation hazards were evaluated. Attempts were made to isolate and identify the state of health related expired air constituents. The selected 291 environmental pollutants or the total estimated bioaccumulation, were distributed among the heterogenous and homogenous study populations as the constituents of the respective chemical bioaccumulation. The bioaccumulation of the environmental pollutants observed in the heterogenous population, including controls, prediabetics and diabetics, consisted of 176 compounds or 60.5% of the total estimated bioaccumulation. The constituents of this bioaccumulation are termed ubiquitous pollutants because they have accumulated in the heterogenous population as the result of the prolonged body exposures irrespectively of the residence, age, height, weight, sex, occupation, diet and the state of health of the exposed individuals. The major contribution to the bioaccumulation in the heterogenous population arose from 150 hydrocarbons (85.2% of total bioaccumulation) which presents serious exposure health hazards to this population. This is supported by the known toxicity and the possible mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of these hydrocarbons. Such health hazards will augment with the increasing utilization of petroleum products in industry and automobiles. (JMT)

  19. A method for improving predictive modeling by taking into account lag time: Example of selenium bioaccumulation in a flowing system.

    PubMed

    Beckon, William N

    2016-07-01

    For bioaccumulative substances, efforts to predict concentrations in organisms at upper trophic levels, based on measurements of environmental exposure, have been confounded by the appreciable but hitherto unknown amount of time it may take for bioaccumulation to occur through various pathways and across several trophic transfers. The study summarized here demonstrates an objective method of estimating this lag time by testing a large array of potential lag times for selenium bioaccumulation, selecting the lag that provides the best regression between environmental exposure (concentration in ambient water) and concentration in the tissue of the target organism. Bioaccumulation lag is generally greater for organisms at higher trophic levels, reaching times of more than a year in piscivorous fish. Predictive modeling of bioaccumulation is improved appreciably by taking into account this lag. More generally, the method demonstrated here may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling in a wide variety of other cause-effect relationships in which lag time is substantial but inadequately known, in disciplines as diverse as climatology (e.g., the effect of greenhouse gases on sea levels) and economics (e.g., the effects of fiscal stimulus on employment). PMID:27149556

  20. Digestive determinants of benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene bioaccumulation by a deposit-feeding polychaete

    SciTech Connect

    Penry, D.L.; Weston, D.P.

    1998-11-01

    The uptake of hydrophobic contaminants from ingested sediment can contribute significantly to body burdens of deposit feeders, and feeding behavior and digestive physiology can play important roles in bioaccumulation. The authors examined the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the deposit-feeding polychaete Abarenicola pacifica in experiments in which worms were first acclimated to low or high organic carbon sediments with 0.08 or 0.45% total organic carbon, respectively and then transferred to low or high organic carbon test sediments contaminated with radiolabeled phenanthrene or benzo[a]pyrene. Ingestion rate was measurements are essential in many types of bioaccumulation studies because differences in ingestion rates between sediment types may confound some traditional measures of bioavailability. Physiological acclimation to the low or high organic carbon sediments did not appear to affect PAH uptake from the test sediments, but acclimation did affect biotransformation capabilities, particularly for phenanthrene.

  1. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S.; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis), chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity), biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases), and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research. PMID:22363248

  2. Modeling of Bioaccumulation in Marine Benthic Invertebrates Using a Multispecies Experimental Approach.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Koelmans, Albert A

    2015-11-17

    The causal links between species traits and bioaccumulation by marine invertebrates are poorly understood. We assessed these links by measuring and modeling polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation by four marine benthic species. Uniformity of exposure was achieved by testing each species in the same aquarium, separated by enclosures, to ensure that the observed variability in bioaccumulation was due to species traits. The relative importance of chemical uptake from pore water or food (organic matter, OM) ingestion was manipulated by using artificial sediment with different OM contents. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) ranged from 5 to 318, in the order Nereis virens < Arenicola marina ≈ Macoma balthica < Corophium volutator. Calibration of a kinetic model provided species-specific parameters that represented the key species traits, thus illustrating how models provide an opportunity to read across benthic species with different feeding strategies. Key traits included species-specific differentiation between (1) ingestion rates, (2) ingestion of suspended and settled OM, and (3) elimination rates. The high BSAF values and their concomitant variability across the species challenges approaches for exposure assessment based on pore water concentration analysis and equilibrium partition theory. We propose that combining multienclosure testing and modeling will substantially improve exposure assessment in sediment toxicity tests. PMID:26465976

  3. Strain-Dependent Norovirus Bioaccumulation in Oysters ▿

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Haifa; Schaeffer, Julien; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Le Pendu, Jacques; Atmar, Robert L.; Crawford, Sue E.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the main agents of gastroenteritis in humans and the primary pathogens of shellfish-related outbreaks. Some NoV strains bind to shellfish tissues by using carbohydrate structures similar to their human ligands, leading to the hypothesis that such ligands may influence bioaccumulation. This study compares the bioaccumulation efficiencies and tissue distributions in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) of three strains from the two principal human norovirus genogroups. Clear differences between strains were observed. The GI.1 strain was the most efficiently concentrated strain. Bioaccumulation specifically occurred in digestive tissues in a dose-dependent manner, and its efficiency paralleled ligand expression, which was highest during the cold months. In comparison, the GII.4 strain was very poorly bioaccumulated and was recovered in almost all tissues without seasonal influence. The GII.3 strain presented an intermediate behavior, without seasonal effect and with less bioaccumulation efficiency than that of the GI.1 strain during the cold months. In addition, the GII.3 strain was transiently concentrated in gills and mantle before being almost specifically accumulated in digestive tissues. Carbohydrate ligand specificities of the strains at least partly explain the strain-dependent bioaccumulation characteristics. In particular, binding to the digestive-tube-specific ligand should contribute to bioaccumulation, whereas we hypothesize that binding to the sialic acid-containing ligand present in all tissues would contribute to retain virus particles in the gills or mantle and lead to rapid destruction. PMID:21441327

  4. Environmental effects of dredging. Use of daphnia magna to predict consequences of bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    1987-03-01

    Results reported herein represent a portion of the laboratory research evaluating the relationship between mercury and cadmium tissue residues and biological effects in the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna (commonly known as the water flea). Procedures presented here for a 28-day Daphnia magna toxicity test could be used in screening for water-column toxicity resulting from open-water disposal of a specific dredged material. As a part of its regulatory and dredging programs, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers often conducts, or requires to be conducted, an assessment of the potential for bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants from sediment scheduled for dredging and open-water disposal. There is, at present, no generally accepted guidance available to aid in the interpretation of the biological consequences of bioaccumulation. To provide an initial basis for such guidance, the Environmental Laboratory is conducting both literature database analyses and experimental laboratory studies as part of the Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations (LEDO) Program.

  5. Flue-gas-influenced heavy metal bioaccumulation by the indigenous microalgae Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002.

    PubMed

    Palanisami, Swaminathan; Lee, Keesoo; Balakrishnan, Baskar; Nam, Paul Ki-souk

    2015-01-01

    Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002 was cultivated using flue gas originating from a coal-fired power plant as a carbon dioxide (CO2) source. The flue gas contains various heavy metals. For investigating the fate of flue-gas-introduced metals on the cultivation system, bioaccumulation was measured in the microalgal biomass and milieu. The accumulated biomass was found to contain eight heavy metals: arsenic, chromium, barium, lead, selenium, silver, cadmium, and mercury. High heavy metal accumulations were also found in the control group of algae grown without the addition of flue gas at the same location. Further testing revealed that some of the heavy metals originated from well water used in the cultivation. The flue-gas-influenced bioaccumulation pattern of different heavy metals was observed. The responses of individual heavy metals and the influence of well water microbial flora on the algal growth were investigated, this study showed that hormesis was developed by the D. communis LUCC 002. PMID:25184415

  6. Influence of feeding and earthworm density on compound bioaccumulation in earthworms Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Šmídová, Klára; Šerá, Jana; Bielská, Lucie; Hofman, Jakub

    2015-12-01

    Earthworm density and feeding during exposure to contaminated soil have been used inconsistently in bioaccumulation studies, which may lead to possible errors in risk assessment and modeling. Hydrophobic organic pollutants with a wide range of environmental properties (phenanthrene, pyrene, lindane, p,p'-DDT, and PCB 153) were used to study the effect of different earthworm densities in combination with the presence or absence of feeding on bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). Similar BAFs were found at various soil-to-worm ratios, with the exception of phenanthrene. We recommend using at least 15 gsoil dw per earthworm. The absence of feeding doubled the BAFs and, thus, using no food ration can be considered as "the worst case scenario". Whenever food is to be applied (i.e. to ensure the validity of the test in earthworm mass loss), we suggest feeding depending on the organic carbon content of the studied soil. PMID:26378968

  7. Bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredging and dredged material disposal: a literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, James G.; Mac, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    A literature review of sediment bioassessment was conducted as the first step in the development of a more standardized and ecologically sound test procedure for evaluating sediment quality. Based on the review, the authors concluded that 1) a standardized laboratory bioassessment test should consist of flowthrough exposure of at least 10 days duration using more than one aquatic organism including at least an infaunal benthic invertebrate and a fish species. 2) Before adoption of a laboratory sediment bioassessment procedure, the laboratory results should be evaluated by comparison with field conditions. 3) Most current sediment bioassessment regulatory tests measure acute toxicity or bioaccumulation. Development of tests to evaluate chronic, sublethal effects is needed.

  8. Bioaccumulation of Triclocarban in Lumbriculus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Christopher P.; J.Paesani, Zachary; Abbot Chalew, Talia E.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) has been detected in streams and municipal biosolids throughout the United States. In addition, TCC and potential TCC transformation products have been detected at high levels (ppm range) in sediments near major United States cities. Previous work has suggested that TCC is relatively stable in these environments, thereby raising concerns about the potential for bioaccumulation in sediment-dwelling organisms. Bioaccumulation of TCC from sediments was assessed using the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus. Worms were exposed to TCC in sediment spiked to 22.4 ppm to simulate the upper bound of environmental concentrations. Uptake from laboratory-spiked sediment was examined over 56 days for TCC and 4,4′dichlorocarbanilide (DCC), a chemical impurity in and potential transformation product of TCC. The clearance of TCC from worms placed in clean sediment was also examined over 21 d after an initial 35-d exposure to TCC in laboratory-spiked sediment. Concentrations of TCC and DCC were monitored in the worms, sediment, and the overlying water using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Experimental data were fitted using a standard biodynamic model to generate uptake and elimination rate constants for TCC in L. variegatus. These rate constants were used to estimate steady-state lipid and organic-carbon normalized biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for TCC and DCC of 2.2 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.1 goc/glip, respectively. Alternatively, directly-measured BSAFs for TCC and DCC after 56 days of exposure were 1.6 ± 0.6 and 0.5 ± 0.2 goc/glip, respectively. Loss of TCC from pre-exposed worms followed first-order kinetics, and the fitted elimination rate-constant was identical to that determined from the uptake portion of the present study. Overall, study observations indicate that TCC bioaccumulates from sediments in a manner that is consistent with the traditional hydrophobic organic contaminant paradigm. PMID

  9. Comparative toxicity and bioaccumulation of fenvalerate and esfenvalerate to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Kang; Liu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    More attention is being paid to the enantioselective toxicity of chiral pesticides. However, limited investigations have been done to assess the ecological risks of chiral pesticides to soil community. Fenvalerate (FV), an extensively used synthetic pyrethroid, is a typical chiral pesticide. The most insecticidally active enantiomer of FV, esfenvalerate (ESFV), also has been marketed and widely used. In this study, the toxicological sensitivity and bioaccumulation of FV and ESFV in earthworms were assessed. The results showed that FV was less toxic than ESFV, but more accumulated in earthworms. ESFV was at least 4 times more toxic to earthworms than FV according to the filter paper contact toxicity test and the artificial soil test. Enantiospecific induction in oxidative stress was observed in earthworms exposed to FV and ESFV. The bioaccumulation of FV and ESFV in earthworm tissues was also enantioselective, preferentially accumulating FV. The uptake of ESFV by earthworms was lower than that of FV, so that the biota to soil accumulation factor (BSAF) value of ESFV was lower than that of FV. Our findings suggest that the enantioselective toxicity and bioaccumulation of chiral pesticides should be considered for evaluating ecological risks of these compounds to non-target organisms. PMID:26900980

  10. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments.

    PubMed

    Tuikka, A I; Leppänen, M T; Akkanen, J; Sormunen, A J; Leonards, P E G; van Hattum, B; van Vliet, L A; Brack, W; Smedes, F; Kukkonen, J V K

    2016-09-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in sediment dry matter or pore water. The predicted tissue concentrations were compared to the measured ones after 28-day laboratory test using oligochaeta worms (Lumbriculus variegatus). The second objective was to compare the bioaccumulation of PAHs and PCBs in the laboratory test with the in situ bioaccumulation of these compounds. Using the traditional organic carbon-water partitioning model, tissue concentrations were greatly overestimated, based on the concentrations in the sediment dry matter. Use of an additional correction factor for black carbon with a two-carbon model, significantly improved the bioaccumulation predictions, thus confirming that black carbon was important in binding the chemicals and reducing their accumulation. The predicted PAH tissue concentrations were, however, high compared to the observed values. The chemical concentrations were most accurately predicted from their freely dissolved pore water concentrations, determined using equilibrium passive sampling. The patterns of PCB and PAH accumulation in sediments for laboratory-exposed L. variegatus were similar to those in field-collected Lumbriculidae worms. Field-collected benthic invertebrates and L. variegatus accumulated less PAHs than PCBs with similar lipophilicity. The biota to sediment accumulation factors of PAHs tended to decrease with increasing sediment organic carbon normalized concentrations. The presented data yields bioconcentration factors (BCF) describing the chemical water-lipid partition, which were found to be higher than the octanol-water partition coefficients, but on a similar level with BCFs drawn from relevant literature. In conclusion, using the two-carbon model method

  11. Bioaccumulation of cinmethylin in bluegill sunfish

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.W. ); Forbis, A.D.; Franklin, L. )

    1990-01-01

    Technical cinmethylin and Cinch 7EC herbicide showed low toxicity against various aquatic organisms. The bioaccumulation potential of ({sup 14}C)cinmethylin in the bluegill sunfish under a dynamic flow-through system at a constant concentration of 0.1 mg/L was examined. A rapid uptake of radioactivity was observed. Tissue residues plateaued after 3 days, and the mean tissue residues after 28 days of exposure were 35, 12, and 58 {mu}g/g (ppm) for the whole fish, fillet, and viscera, respectively. The corresponding bioconcentration factors for the above tissues were 360, 120, and 600, respectively. Greater than 99% of the tissue residues was eliminated from the exposed fish after the 14-day depuration period. In addition to ({sup 14}C)cinmethylin, major metabolites isolated from the treated fish were {alpha}-carboxycinmethylin and 8-hydroxy-{alpha}-carboxycinmethylin. o-Toluic acid and {alpha}-hydroxycinmethylin were observed as minor components.

  12. BIOACCUMULATION AND ENANTIOSELECTIVE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF FIPRONIL AND SELECTED CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research, dietary accumulation and enantioselective biotransformation were determined for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed separately to the phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil and to a series of selected conazole fungicides. Bioaccumulation of each pesticide ...

  13. ASSESSING BIOACCUMULATION FOR DERIVING NATIONAL HUMAN HEALTH WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is revising its methodology for deriving national ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) to protect human health. A component of this guidance involves assessing the potential for chemical bioaccumulation in commonly consumed fish ...

  14. Bioaccumulation of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in Tetrahymena thermophila by Direct Feeding or Trophic Transfer.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Monika; Petersen, Elijah J; Buchholz, Bruce A; Orias, Eduardo; Holden, Patricia A

    2016-08-16

    Consumer goods contain multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) that could be released during product life cycles into the environment, where their effects are uncertain. Here, we assessed MWCNT bioaccumulation in the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila via trophic transfer from bacterial prey (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) versus direct uptake from growth media. The experiments were conducted using (14)C-labeled MWCNT ((14)C-MWCNT) doses at or below 1 mg/L, which proved subtoxic since there were no adverse effects on the growth of the test organisms. A novel contribution of this study was the demonstration of the ability to quantify MWCNT bioaccumulation at low (sub μg/kg) concentrations accomplished by employing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After the treatments with MWCNTs at nominal concentrations of 0.01 mg/L and 1 mg/L, P. aeruginosa adsorbed considerable amounts of MWCNTs: (0.18 ± 0.04) μg/mg and (21.9 ± 4.2) μg/mg bacterial dry mass, respectively. At the administered MWCNT dose of 0.3 mg/L, T. thermophila accumulated up to (0.86 ± 0.3) μg/mg and (3.4 ± 1.1) μg/mg dry mass by trophic transfer and direct uptake, respectively. Although MWCNTs did not biomagnify in the microbial food chain, MWCNTs bioaccumulated in the protozoan populations regardless of the feeding regime, which could make MWCNTs bioavailable for organisms at higher trophic levels. PMID:27398725

  15. Massive Bioaccumulation and Self-Assembly of Phenazine Compounds in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rajeswaran, Walajapet G.; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Harris, Grant; Keswani, Rahul K.; Chiang, Mason; Rzeczycki, Phillip; Talattof, Arjang; Hafeez, Mahwish; Horobin, Richard W.; Larsen, Scott D.; Stringer, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Clofazimine is an orally administered, FDA-approved drug that massively bioaccumulates in macrophages, forming membrane-bound intracellular structures possessing nanoscale supramolecular features. Here, a library of phenazine compounds derived from clofazimine was synthesized and tested for their ability to accumulate and form ordered molecular aggregates inside cells. Regardless of chemical structure or physicochemical properties, bioaccumulation was consistently greater in macrophages than in epithelial cells. Microscopically, some self-assembled structures exhibited a pronounced, diattenuation anisotropy signal, evident by the differential absorption of linearly polarized light, at the peak absorbance wavelength of the phenazine core. The measured anisotropy was well above the background anisotropy of endogenous cellular components, reflecting the self-assembly of condensed, insoluble complexes of ordered phenazine molecules. Chemical variations introduced at the R-imino position of the phenazine core led to idiosyncratic effects on the compounds‘ bioaccumulation behavior, as well as on the morphology and organization of the resulting intracellular structures. Beyond clofazimine, these results demonstrate how the self-assembly of membrane-permeant, orally-bioavailable small molecule building blocks can endow cells with unnatural structural elements possessing chemical, physical and functional characteristics unlike those of other natural cellular components. PMID:26380168

  16. Removal and bioaccumulation of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Sardar; Waqas, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nadeem; Khushnood-Ur-Rehman; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2015-01-01

    Four freshwater algae, including Cladophora glomerata, Oedogonium westii, Vaucheria debaryana and Zygnema insigne, were tested for their bioaccumulation capacity for cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a controlled environment with an average temperature of 18 °C, and light/dark duration of 12:12 h. Experiments were performed in aqueous solutions containing selected heavy metals (HM) (ranging from 0.05 to 1.5 mg L(-1)) with 0.5 g of living algae at 18 °C and pH 6.8. The results indicated that C. glomerata was observed to be the most competent species for the removal of Cr, Cd and Pb from aqueous solutions. HM removal trends were in the order of Cd>Cr>Pb while the removal efficiency of selected algae species was in the order of C. glomerata, O. westii, V. debaryana and Z. insigne. The bioaccumulation capacity of C. glomerata, V. debaryana and Z. insigne was observed for different HM. Removal of HM was higher with low levels of HM in aqueous solutions. The results indicated that C. glomerata, O. westii, V. debaryana and Z. insigne had significant (P≤0.01) diverse bioaccumulation capacity for Cr, Cd and Pb. PMID:25607667

  17. Feeding reduces waterborne Cu bioaccumulation in a marine rabbitfish Siganus oramin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Du, Sen; Zhou, Yanyan; Gao, Na; Zhang, Li; Green, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne metal uptake has been extensively studied and dietary metal assimilation is increasingly recognized in fish, whilst the interaction between the two uptake routes is largely overlooked. This study compared the waterborne Cu bioaccumulation ((65)Cu as tracer) in a juvenile rabbitfish at different feeding regimes (starvation (SG), feeding normal diet (NDG) or diet supplemented with extra Cu (DCG)) to test the hypothesis that feeding can influence waterborne metal uptake in marine fish. NDG and DCG diet was fed as a single meal and then all fish were exposed to waterborne (65)Cu for 48 h, during which the time course sampling was conducted to determine (65)Cu bioaccumulation, chyme flow and dietary Cu assimilation. The results revealed that SG fish accumulated the highest (65)Cu, followed by NDG (61% of SG), whilst DCG fish accumulated the lowest (65)Cu (34% of SG). These results suggested a protective effect of feeding against waterborne Cu bioaccumulation. This effect was most notable between 10 min and 16 h when there was chyme in gastrointestinal tract (GT). Dietary Cu assimilation mainly occurred before 16 h after feeding. Waterborne (65)Cu influx rate in the GT was positively correlated with (65)Cu contents of chyme in NDG, whereas it was largely negatively correlated with (65)Cu contents of chyme in DCG. The waterborne Cu uptake in the GT was mainly influenced by the chyme flow and dietary Cu assimilation. Overall, our findings suggested that feeding has an important effect on waterborne metal uptake and that both the feeding status of the fish and the relative metal exposure through water and food should be considered in prediction of the metal bioaccumulation and biomonitoring programs. PMID:26552536

  18. Flow-through bioassay for measuring bioaccumulation of toxic substances from sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol C.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Sayers, Richard E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Over 10 million cubic meters of sediment are dredged annually from Great Lakes waterways. Because much of this material is taken from harbors, connecting channels, and other nearshore areas that often are contaminated with toxic substances, the sediments proposed for dredging need to be evaluated for the presence of bioavailable contaminants and the potential for toxicity to the biota. Sound decisions on the appropriate disposal of the dredged material can be made only after such an evaluation. Presently, no standardized procedure exists for evaluating dredged material in freshwater systems although current criteria for discharge of dredged material into marine water have been developed (USEPA/CE 1977). In the ocean discharge guideline, it is recommended that bioassays be conducted on liquid, solid, and suspended particulate phases of dredged material. because it appears that the solid phase has the greatest potential for environmental damage and because measurement of bioaccumulation must be made to evaluate sediments for disposal (USEPA/CE 1977, Seeyle and Mac 1983), we developed a bioassay for testing the solid phase of dredged material that measures the survival of organisms and, perhaps more important, the bioaccumulation of toxic substances by aquatic organisms from naturally contaminated sediments (Peddicord et al. 1980; Rubinstein et al. 1980, 1983; Seeyle st al. 1982), several have used testing methods that result in unacceptable mortality to control organisms (Bahnick et al. 1981, Prater et al. 1983). Our bioassay is intended to estimate the potential for bioaccumlation of contaminants from sediments that are not acutely toxic to test organisms, but are suspected of containing persistent contaminants. By using test organisms that are not highly susceptible to toxic compounds, the bioaccumulation test allows estimation of the potential food-chain accumulation of contaminants that may occur in local biota from surficial sediments. In practice

  19. Bioaccumulation surveillance in Milford Haven Waterway.

    PubMed

    Langston, W J; O'Hara, S; Pope, N D; Davey, M; Shortridge, E; Imamura, M; Harino, H; Kim, A; Vane, C H

    2012-01-01

    Biomonitoring of contaminants (metals, organotins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs) was undertaken in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) and a reference site in the Tywi Estuary (St Ishmael/Ferryside) during 2007-2008. Bioindicator species encompassed various uptake routes-Fucus vesiculosus (dissolved contaminants); Littorina littorea (grazer); Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule (suspension feeders); and Hediste (=Nereis) diversicolor (sediments). Differences in feeding and habitat preference have subtle implications for bioaccumulation trends though, with few exceptions, contaminant burdens in MHW were higher than the Tywi reference site, reflecting inputs. Elevated metal concentrations were observed at some MHW sites, whilst As and Se (molluscs and seaweed) were consistently at the higher end of the UK range. However, for most metals, distributions in MH biota were not exceptional. Several metal-species combinations indicated increases in bioavailability upstream, which may reflect the influence of geogenic/land-based sources-perhaps enhanced by lower salinity. TBT levels in MH mussels were below OSPAR toxicity thresholds and in the Tywi were close to zero. Phenyltins were not accumulated appreciably in M. edulis, whereas some H. diversicolor populations appear subjected to localized (historical) sources. PAHs in H. diversicolor were distributed evenly across most of MHW, although acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were highest at one site near the mouth; naphthalenes in H. diversicolor were enriched in the mid-upper Haven (a pattern seen in M. edulis for most PAHs). Whilst PAH (and PCB) concentrations in MH mussels were mostly above reference and OSPAR backgrounds, they are unlikely to exceed ecotoxicological thresholds. Bivalve Condition indices (CI) were highest at the Tywi reference site and at the seaward end of MH, decreasing upstream-giving rise to several significant (negative) relationships between CI and body burdens

  20. Capping in situ with activated carbon in Trondheim harbor (Norway) reduces bioaccumulation of PCBs and PAHs in marine sediment fauna.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Göran S; Hedman, Jenny E; Elmquist Kruså, Marie; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2015-08-01

    Three types of thin-layer caps with activated carbon (AC) were tested in situ in experimental plots (10 × 10 m) in Trondheim harbor, Norway, using AC + clay, AC-only or AC + sand. One year after capping, intact sediment cores were collected from the amended plots for ex situ surveys of the capping efficiency in reducing the PAH and PCB aqueous concentrations and bioaccumulation by the polychaete Hediste diversicolor and the clam Abra nitida. Reduced pore water concentrations were observed in all AC treatments. The capping efficiency was in general AC + clay > AC-only > AC + sand. AC + clay reduced bioaccumulation of PAH and PCB congeners between 40% and 87% in the worms and between 67% and 97% in the clams. Sediment capped with AC-only also led to reduced bioaccumulation of PCBs, while AC + sand showed no reduction in bioaccumulation. Thus the best thin-layer capping method in this study was AC mixed with clay. PMID:26121661

  1. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    characterization of samples of whole sediment included analyses of grain size, TOC, and nutrients. Organic chemical characterization of samples of whole sediment included PCB homologs and select (13) PCB congeners, parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; and dibenzofurans. The PCB aroclors analyzed included 1016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, 1262 and 1268. Analyses of whole sediment also included total metals, simultaneously extracted metals, and acid volatile sulfide. Chemical characterization of samples of pore water isolated from samples of whole sediment at the start of the sediment toxicity exposures or at the start of the sediment bioaccumulation exposures included metals, major cations, major anions, dissolved organic carbon, and additional water-quality characteristics. Concentrations of metals or PCBs in pore water during the sediment toxicity exposures or during sediment bioaccumulation exposures also were determined using peeper samples (for metals) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samplers (for PCBs). The bioavailability and bioaccumulation of PCBs in 14 sediment samples were investigated using SPME passive samplers and the 28-d L. variegatus whole-sediment bioaccumulation exposures In general the accumulation of PCBs consistently was predicted through the use of organic carbon normalization and equilibrium partitioning. In these sediments, PCB homologs were accumulated differently based on bioavailability and potential to accumulate in oligochaetes. As part of this assessment homolog specific biota sediment accumulation factor values were developed that could be applied across the larger site to predict tissue levels of PCBs. The whole-sediment toxicity tests done with H. azteca and C. dilutus met the established ASTM and USEPA test acceptability criteria. The most responsive H. azteca endpoints were day 42 survival normalized young per female and day 28 biomass and

  2. Mercury Speciation and Bioaccumulation In Riparian and Upland Food Webs of the White Mountains Region, New Hampshire, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenhouse, N.; Gebauer, R.; Lowe, W.; McFarland, K.; Bank, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The soils and foods webs associated with mid to high elevation, forested, headwater streams are potential hotspots for mercury methylation and bioaccumulation but are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that spatial variation in mercury bioaccumulation in upland taxa associated with headwater streams can be explained by variation in soil conditions promoting Hg methylation such as soil moisture, pH, and sulfur and organic matter content. We sampled at high (c. 700m) and mid elevation (c. 500m) in northern hardwood forest adjacent to and away from (75m) replicate headwater streams in the Hubbard Brook and Jeffers Brook watersheds of the White Mountains region, New Hampshire, USA. These forested watersheds differed primarily in soil calcium content and pH. We measured and assessed spatial variation in total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in soils, insects, spiders, salamanders and birds. We also tested whether trophic position, as determined by nitrogen stable isotopes, was a major predictor of Hg bioaccumulation across these riparian and upland forest taxa. We found elevated levels of THg in all measured components of the food web, and conditions for methylation were better in the upland forest sites compared to the riparian sites located adjacent to headwater streams. Both THg and MeHg in biota were positively correlated with trophic position as indicated by 15N enrichment. In fact, trophic position was a better predictor of THg and MeHg content than spatial location, but the spatial patterning of bioaccumulation differed among taxa. Our data show that that significant Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification can occur in soils and food webs of mid to high elevation temperate deciduous forests of the Northeast. They also suggest that mercury methylation in forested watersheds is a widespread phenomenon and not limited to areas with high soil moisture, such as lotic environments.

  3. Mercury bioaccumulation in Hayward Marsh, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlendorf, H.; Byron, E.; Taylor, L.; Cortes, R.

    1995-12-31

    Hayward Marsh was created in 1988 to provide wildlife habitat using treated wastewater from Union Sanitary District, which is located in the San Francisco Bay area. Mercury has been identified as one of the major contaminants of concern for San Francisco Bay sediment and biota. This study was conducted to determine whether mercury bioaccumulation in the Marsh occurred at ecologically significant levels. Sediment, benthic and free-swimming aquatic invertebrates, fish, bird eggs, and muskrat livers were analyzed. Mercury concentrations in the various media were compared to regional background levels and potential adverse effect levels. The findings indicated that mercury concentrations were generally similar to background levels and that there was a low probability of adverse effects to wildlife feeding in the Marsh. An important aspect of the study was inclusion of three bird species, along with their potential food organisms, in the sampling, one of the species had elevated mercury levels in its eggs but those birds probably were exposed outside the Marsh because the two other species and common food-chain organisms did not show elevated mercury levels.

  4. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  5. Usefulness of the lipid index for bioaccumulation studies with Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Klopfer, D.C.; Carlile, D.W.; Hanf, R.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Bioaccumulation studies with Daphnia magna have become an important tool for hazard evaluation of potentially toxic materials released to aquatic environments. Despite widespread use of this test organism, little attention has been paid to the influence of stored lipids on uptake of xenobiotics. The authors drew upon principles of zooplankton population dynamics in the limnological literature to define experimental parameters for bioconcentration testing of organic compounds. Adult test populations were initially starved and monitored for lipid content and brood production. Mean lipid index values declined at 72 h to less than 50% of those observed at 24 h. The number of hatched young peaked at 48 h and was inversely related to lipid storage and ovary production. In a separate experiment, uptake kinetics of /sup 14/C-labelled quinoline were compared between two daphnid test groups with mean lipid scores of 5.4 and 2.8 respectively. Total radioactivity was significantly higher for the high lipid group at 8 h, and the coefficient of variation was lower. Estimated bioconcentration factors adjusted to dry weight were similar. Our studies indicated that lipid reserves of daphnid test populations can be routinely monitored as an indicator of stress in the laboratory. Bioaccumulation tests should be limited to less than 24 h to avoid depletion of lipid stores, which may cause increased variation in tissue concentration over time. 19 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  6. A field assessment of long-term laboratory sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.; Hayward, J.M.R.; Jones, J.R.; Jones, S.B.; Ireland, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    Response of the amphipod Hyalella azteca exposed to contaminated sediments for 10 to 42 d in laboratory toxicity tests was compared to responses observed in controlled three-month invertebrate colonization exposures conducted in a pond. Sediments evaluated included a sediment spiked with dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) or dilutions of a field sediment collected from the Grand Calumet River (GCR) in Indiana (USA) (contaminated with organic compounds and metals). Consistent effects were observed at the highest exposure concentrations (400 ??g DDD/goc [DDD concentrations normalized to grams of organic carbon (goc) in sedimentl or 4% GCR sediment) on survival, length, and reproduction of amphipods in the laboratory and on abundance of invertebrates colonizing sediments in the field. Effect concentrations for DDD observed for 10-d length and 42-d reproduction of amphipods (e.g., chronic value [ChV] of 66 ??g DDD/goc and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25] of 68 ??g DDD/goc for reproduction) were similar to the lowest effect concentrations for DDD measured on invertebrates colonizing sediment the field. Effect concentrations for GCR sediment on 28-d survival and length and 42-d reproduction and length of amphipods (i.e., ChVs of 0.20-0.66% GCR sediment) provided more conservative effect concentrations compared to 10-d survival or length of amphipods in the laboratory or the response of invertebrates colonizing sediment in the field (e.g., ChVs of 2.2% GCR sediment). Results of this study indicate that use of chronic laboratory toxicity tests with H. azteca and benthic colonization studies should be used to provide conservative estimates of impacts on benthic communities exposed to contaminated sediments. Bioaccumulation of DDD by oligochaetes colonizing the DDD-spiked sediment was similar to results of laboratory sediment tests previously conducted with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegates, confirming that laboratory exposures can be used to estimate

  7. Derivation of proposed human health and wildlife bioaccumulation factors for the Great Lakes initiative. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, C.E.

    1993-03-01

    The publication is divided into two sections: Comparison of Proposed Human Health and Bioaccumulation Factors (HHBAFs) for the Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) and Derivation of Proposed Human Health and Wildlife Bioaccumulation Factors for the Great Lakes Initiative.

  8. APPROACHES FOR MEASUREMENTS OF FIELD BIOACCUMULATION OF POPS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO LESS PERSISTENT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on where and when field based approaches for assessing bioaccumulation of chemicals in aquatic food webs can be used for predicting bioaccumulation of the thousands of existing chemicals in commerce.

  9. Summary of Cefic-LRI sponsored workshop: Recent scientific developments in bioaccumulation research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current bioaccumulation regulations in most jurisdictions include only the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) for screening assessments. Methods for evaluating bioaccumulation continue to evolve and various other metrics have been prop...

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP OF BIOACCUMULATIVE CHEMICALS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT TO RESIDUES IN FISH: A VISUALIZATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A visualization approach is developed and presented for depicting and interpreting bioaccumulation relationships and data, i.e., bioaccumulation factors (BAFs), biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) and chemical residues in fish, using water-sediment chemical concentration ...

  11. Dietary Uptake Models Used for Modeling the Bioaccumulation of Organic Contaminants in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous models have been developed to predict the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in fish. Although chemical dietary uptake can be modeled using assimilation efficiencies, bioaccumulation models fall into two distinct groups. The first group implicitly assumes that assimila...

  12. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of silver compounds: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Ratte, H.T.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed that bioaccumulation of silver in soil is rather low, even if the soil is amended with silver-containing sewage sludge. Plants grown on tailings of silver mines were found to have silver primarily in the root systems. In marine and freshwater systems, the highest reported bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were observed in algae, probably because of adsorption of the dissolved silver to the cell surface. In herbivorous organisms, the BCF was lower by about two orders of magnitude. Low amounts of silver were assimilated from food with no substantial biomagnification. In carnivores (e.g., fish), the BCF was also lower by one order of magnitude with no indication of biomagnification. Toxicity of silver occurs mainly in the aqueous phase and depends on the concentration of active, free Ag{sup +} ions. Accordingly, many processes and water characteristics reduce silver toxicity by stopping the formation of free Ag{sup +}, binding Ag{sup +}, or preventing binding of Ag{sup +} to the reactive surfaces of organisms. The solubility of a silver compound, and the presence of complexing agents dissolved organic carbon, and competing ions are important. In soil, sewage sludge, and sediment, in which silver sulfide predominates, the toxicity of silver, even at high total concentrations, is very low. The highly soluble silver thiosulfate complex has low toxicity, which can be attributed to the silver complexed by thiosulfate. Silver nitrate is one of the most toxic silver compounds. The toxic potential of silver chloride complexes in seawater is and will be an important issue for investigation. Aquatic chronic tests, long-term tests, and tests including sensitive life stages show lower toxicity thresholds. The organisms viewed as most sensitive to silver are small aquatic invertebrates, particularly embryonic and larval stages.

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation factors and spurious correlations.

    PubMed

    Pollman, Curtis D; Axelrad, Donald M

    2014-10-15

    While bioaccumulation factors (BAF) - the ratio of biota contaminant concentrations (Cbiota) to aqueous phase contaminant concentrations (Cw) - are useful in evaluating the accumulation of mercury (Hg) and other contaminants for various trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems, reduction of the underlying relationship between Cbiota and Cw to a single ratio (BAF) has inherent risks, including spurious correlation. Despite a long and rich history of remonstrations in the literature, several very recent publications evaluating Hg-related BAFs have suffered from false conclusions based on spurious correlation, and thus it seems that periodic reminders of the causes and risks of these errors are required. Herein we cite examples and explanations for unsupported conclusions from publications where authors using BAF-Cw relationships fail to recognize the underlying statistical significance (or lack thereof) of direct relationships between Cw and Cbiota. This fundamental error leads to other problems, including ascribing mechanistic significance (e.g., mechanisms related to biota contaminant uptake) to "inverse" BAF-Cw relationships that reflect nothing more than regressing the log transformed inverse of Cw (i.e., negative log) against itself (i.e., positive log transformed), and using such regression models of BAF-Cw relationships that appear significant for predictive purposes, but are misleading. Spurious correlation arising in the analysis of BAF relationships can potentially appear in more subtle forms as well, including regressing variables such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that are correlated with Cw. We conclude that conducting a direct analysis by examining the relationship between Cbiota and Cw (or Cbiota and other variables) rather than evaluating a ratio (BAF) is less ambiguous and subject to error, more easily interpreted, and would lead to more supportable conclusions. PMID:25087751

  14. Cylindrospermopsin: A Decade of Progress on Bioaccumulation Research

    PubMed Central

    Kinnear, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is rapidly being recognised as one of the most globally important of the freshwater algal toxins. The ever-expanding distribution of CYN producers into temperate zones is heightening concern that this toxin will represent serious human, as well as environmental, health risks across many countries. Since 1999, a number of studies have demonstrated the ability for CYN to bioaccumulate in freshwater organisms. This paper synthesizes the most current information on CYN accumulation, including notes on the global distribution of CYN producers, and a précis of CYN’s ecological and human effects. Studies on the bioaccumulation of CYN are systematically reviewed, together with an analysis of patterns of accumulation. A discussion on the factors influencing bioaccumulation rates and potential is also provided, along with notes on detection, monitoring and risk assessments. Finally, key gaps in the existing research are identified for future study. PMID:20411114

  15. Bioaccumulation of cesium-137 by biota in different aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Topcuoğlu, S

    2001-08-01

    Macroalgae, isopods and fish species were exposed to 137Cs in brackish and sea water conditions for 18 days to determine radionuclide concentration factors. The concentration factors of 137Cs in brown shrimp and polychaete species were also investigated under brackish water conditions. At equilibrium, the concentration factors in macroalgae, isopod, fish, brown shrimp and polychate samples were found to be 2.5, 33, 2, 16 and 11 at 16 degrees C in brackish water conditions, respectively. The accumulation rate in macroalgae species was influenced by temperatures between 6 degrees C and 16 degrees C. The bioaccumulation of 137Cs in isopods at low salinity regime was increased significantly. At the same time, the bioaccumulation rate in macroalgae species also showed slight increase at low salinity. On the other hand, the bioaccumulation rate of 137Cs in the fish species in sea water was higher than in brackish water. PMID:11482657

  16. Bioaccumulation potential of heterotrophic bacteria for lead, selenium, and arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.A.; Watling, R.J.

    1987-06-01

    Metal compounds are essential for the development and survival of all life forms and bacteria play a major role in the geochemical and biological recycling of these compounds. In the marine environment, one of the most significant metal-microbe interactions is the uptake of metal compounds by bacteria. Such metal-bacterial bioaccumulations can be beneficial, as well as detrimental, to the ecology as a whole or to individual members of the biota. Fundamental studies on the ability of bacteria to bioaccumulate metals have not been extensively undertaken although this type of study is an essential aspect of pollution investigations. Such studies are also critical to the development of biological systems for use in toxic waste removal as well as for the optimization of recovery processes for the metals of industrial and commercial value. This paper describes two simple experiments which were designed to obtain information on the potential of marine bacteria to bioaccumulate lead, selenium and arsenic.

  17. Bioaccumulation of metals by Hyalella azteca exposed to contaminated sediments from the upper Clark Fork River, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Kemble, N.E. . Midwest Science Center)

    1994-12-01

    Macroinvertebrate contaminated with metals in the Clark Fork River of Montana have been demonstrated to be a potentially toxic component in the diet of trout. Because sediment was the suspected source of metals to these invertebrates, bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from sediment was evaluated by exposing the amphipod Hyalella azteca for 28 d in the laboratory to samples of sediment collected from depositional areas of the Clark Fork River. Benthic invertebrates collected from riffles adjacent to the depositional areas were also analyzed for metals. The pattern of metal accumulation between laboratory-exposed and field-collected animals was similar; however, the concentrations of metals in laboratory-exposed amphipods were often 50 to 75% less than were the concentrations of metals in the field-collected invertebrates. These findings indicate that sediment is a significant source of metals to invertebrates in the Clark Fork River. Additional studies should be conducted to determine threshold concentrations for effects of dietary metals on fish. Long-term monitoring of the river should include sampling benthic invertebrates for metal accumulation.

  18. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected plants to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    Soil toxicity tests using lettuce (Latuca saliva) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments at two facilities in California. At some sites, terrestrial plants were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to plants, phytophagous insects, and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Observations of seed germination and growth were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the lettuce and field-collected plants was evaluated by comparing plant contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Whole-body contaminant concentrations in insects collected on some of the plants in the field were also considered in evaluating the potential for toxicity to insectivorous birds. The study indicated that contaminant uptake was occurring in the field-collected and bioassay plants but not the insects. Site factors in addition to soil contaminant concentration influenced the potential for plant toxicity and bioaccumulation.

  19. Sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation of nano and micron-sized aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Coleman, Jessica G; Weiss, Charles A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-02-01

    Nano-aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)) is used commercially in coatings and abrasives. Nano-Al(2)O(3) can also be generated through the oxidation of nano-aluminum in military propellants and energetics. The purpose of the present study was to assess toxicity and bioaccumulation of nano-Al(2)O(3) to a variety of sediment organisms (Tubifex tubifex, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Corbicula fluminea). The bioaccumulation and toxicity of nano-Al(2)O(3) was compared with that of micron-sized Al(2)O(3) to investigate potential size-related effects. Results of the present study show species-specific differences in relative bioaccumulation of nano and micron-sized Al(2)O(3). Significant toxic effects (survival and growth) were observed in H. azteca testing, but only at high concentrations unlikely to be found in the environment. Nano-Al(2)O(3) was found to be more toxic than micron-sized Al(2)O(3) to H. azteca survival in a 14-d study in which organisms were in direct contact with a thin layer of 625 or 2,500 mg of Al(2)O(3) dispersed on the surface of either sediment or sand. A significant growth effect was also observed for nano but not micron-sized Al(2)O(3) at the highest treatment level tested (100 g/kg Al(2)O(3)) in a 10-d H. azteca bioassay in which Al(2)O(3) was homogenized with sediment. However, differences in measured sediment Al concentrations (micron-sized = 55.1 [+/-0.6] g/kg Al; nano-sized = 66.2 [+/-0.6] g/kg Al) in the nano and micron-sized Al(2)O(3) preclude direct comparison of the toxicity of these two treatments based on particle size. PMID:20821462

  20. Assessment of soil stabilization by chemical extraction and bioaccumulation using earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Abd Aziz, Azilah; Han, Heop Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-05-01

    Soil stabilization does not remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, but lowers their exposures to ecosystem. Thus, it should be evaluated by measuring the fractions of heavy metals which are mobile and/or bioavailable in soils. The study compared several chemical extractions which intended to quantify the mobile or bioaccessible fractions with uptake and bioaccumulation by earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Soil samples were taken from the abandoned mine area contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and/or Zn. To stabilize heavy metals, the soils were amended with limestone and steel slag at 5% and 2% (w/w), respectively. All chemical extractions and earthworm tests were applied to both the contaminated and the stabilized soils with triplicates. The chemical extractions consisted of six single extractions which were 0.01M CaCl2 (unbufferred), EDTA or DTPA (chelating), TCLP (acidic), Mehlich 3 (mixture), and aqua regia (peudo-total). Sequential extractions were also applied to fractionate heavy metals in soils. In earthworm tests, worms were exposed to the soils for uptake of heavy metals. After 28 days of exposure to soils, worms were transferred to clean soils for elimination. During the tests, three worms were randomly collected at proper sampling events. Worms were rinsed with DI water and placed on moist filter paper for 48 h for depuration. Filter paper was renewed at 24 h to prevent coprophagy. The worms were killed with liquid nitrogen, dried in the oven, and digested with aqua regia for ICP-MS analysis. In addition to the bioaccumulation, several toxicity endpoints were observed such as burrowing time, mortality, cocoon production, and body weight changes. Toxicokinetics was applied to determine the uptake and elimination heavy metals by the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated using total metal concentrations and body burdens. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were applied to evaluate the relationship between metal fractions by single

  1. Hepatic cadmium, metal-binding proteins and bioaccumulation in bluegills exposed to aqueous cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Atchison, G.J.; Wiener, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    We examined sublethal responses of juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to aqueous cadmium in two 28-d tests (test I, 0.0-8.4 μg Cd per liter; test II, 0.0-32.3 μg Cd per liter) in an intermittent-flow diluter. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replicates in each of eight treatments (seven Cd exposures and one water control with 25 fish per replicate). Cadmium did not affect the growth of test fish. The mean whole-body concentrations of Cd in exposed fish were 1.8- to 44-fold those in controls in the two tests. Mean concentrations of hepatic nonthionein cytosolic Cd (not bound by metal-binding proteins, MBP) in all Cd treatments greatly exceeded those in controls, and mean concentrations of hepatic MBP in all treatments except one (0.8 μg Cd per liter in test I) exceeded those in controls. Nonthionein cytosolic Cd, hepatic MBP, and whole-body Cd in bluegills were linearly related to exposure concentrations within the range 0 to 20 μg Cd per liter. Much of the total Cd-binding capacity of hepatic MBP per fish was occupied by Cd after the 28-d exposures, although additional Cd-binding capacity remained unoccupied by Cd in fish in all treatments. The mean total Cd-binding capacity of hepatic MBP per fish, which ranged from 1.7 to 14 nmol Cd in test I and from 0.8 to 24 nmol Cd in test II, increased in a concentration-response manner at exposure concentrations below 13 μg/L. Nonthionein cytosolic Cd was the most sensitive indicator of Cd exposure, based on an LOEC of 0.8 μg Cd per liter.

  2. Effect of feeding in 30-day bioaccumulation assays using Hyalella azteca in fluoranthene-dosed sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A.; Driscoll, S.K.; Landrum, P.F.

    1997-04-01

    Current protocols for conducting freshwater sediment bioaccumulation tests recommend that food not be added to exposures, whereas toxicity tests require food addition. To determine effects of adding food on exposure, 30-d sediment exposures were conducted with Hyalella azteca to sediment dosed with four fluoranthene concentrations. Accumulation was significantly greater in fed versus nonfed animals at all dose levels after 96 h of exposure and continued to be greater after 30 d in the low dose levels. At sediment concentrations above 478 nmol/g dry weight, survival of unfed animals dropped to 34% after 30 d. After 30 d of exposure, growth and reproduction were observed in fed animals exposed to sediment 10-d studies reported in the literature using sediment with comparable organic carbon concentrations. Samples of sediment in exposure breakers taken from the sediment-water interface (flocculant layer) and 1 to 2 cm below the interface had large differences in fluoranthene and organic carbon concentrations. The concentration of fluoranthene was 2 to 10 times greater in the flocculant layer, the area inhabited by H. azteca, compared to the deeper sediment. These data raise questions concerning the interpretation of standard toxicity and bioaccumulation tests when food is routinely added.

  3. Stereoselective bioaccumulation and metabolite formation of triadimefon in Tubifex tubifex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiantian; Diao, Jinling; Di, Shanshan; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-06-17

    Triadimefon, a chiral fungicide, could be metabolized to triadimenol which has two chiral centers. In this work, Tubifex tubifex was exposed to triadimefon through the aqueous and soil phase to explore the relative importance of the routes of uptake. Bioaccumulation of triadimefon in tubifex was detected in both treatments, and the kinetics of the accumulation processes were significantly different in these two experiments. In spiked water treatment, (S)-triadimefon was preferentially accumulated over the (R)-triadimefon, whereas the enantioselective bioaccumulation was not detected in the spiked soil microenvironment. Simultaneously, four stereoisomers of triadimenol were also found in the tubifex tissue. Although the amount of these stereoisomers were different from each other with relatively more accumulation of the most fungi-toxic stereoisomer (1S,2R), the abundance ratios in the two exposure treatments were similar at the same sampling, following the order (1S,2S) > (1R,2S) > (1R,2R) > (1S,2R). The bioaccumulation factor was calculated for parent compound triadimefon and metabolite enrichment factor for metabolite. The results showed that both uptake routes, epidermal contact in the aqueous phase and ingestion of solid particles in soil, were important to the bioaccumulation of the triadimefon and triadimenol in tubifex. PMID:24846121

  4. METAL BIOACCUMULATION IN FISHES AND AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Literature concerning the bioaccumulation of metals by freshwater and marine fishes and invertebrates has been reviewed; metal residue levels are also reported for a few mammals and plants. Twenty-one metals are considered in individual sections of the review and a bibliography o...

  5. Comparison and Evaluation of Laboratory and Field Measured Bioaccumulation Endpoints

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of bioaccumulation endpoints on a fugacity basis allows provides a framework to assess the biomagnification potential of a chemical and assess data deficiencies, i.e., uncertainties and lack of data. In addition, it is suggested that additional guidance is needed in o...

  6. Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Marine Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity, bioaccumulation and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure were investigated. Results from 7-d sedimen...

  7. Bivalve mollusks in metal pollution studies: from bioaccumulation to biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Harper, David A T

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary environmental challenges have emphasized the need to critically assess the use of bivalve mollusks in chemical monitoring (identification and quantification of pollutants) and biomonitoring (estimation of environmental quality). Many authors, however, have considered these approaches within a single context, i.e., as a means of chemical (e.g. metal) monitoring. Bivalves are able to accumulate substantial amounts of metals from ambient water, but evidence for the drastic effects of accumulated metals (e.g. as a TBT-induced shell deformation and imposex) on the health of bivalves has not been documented. Metal bioaccumulation is a key tool in biomonitoring; bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of various metals in relation to bivalves are described in some detail including the development of biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Measuring metal in the whole-body or the tissue of bivalves themselves does not accurately represent true contamination levels in the environment; these data are critical for our understanding of contaminant trends at sampling sites. Only rarely has metal bioaccumulation been considered in combination with data on metal concentrations in parts of the ecosystem, observation of biomarkers and environmental parameters. Sclerochemistry is in its infancy and cannot be reliably used to provide insights into the pollution history recorded in shells. Alteration processes and mineral crystallization on the inner shell surface are presented here as a perspective tool for environmental studies. PMID:23751124

  8. COMMUNICATING RISKS OF PERSISTANT BIOACCUMULATING TOXICS IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary route of exposure to many persistant bioaccumulating toxins (PBT) such as methyl mercury, PCDs or Dioxins is though foods. Many people, but particularly subsistence fishermen, pregnant women and children, are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their c...

  9. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals and related trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.B.; Speigel, S.J.

    1983-06-01

    A literature review of bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals is presented. The most common heavy metals studied were Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb. The studies dealt with heavy metals in the environment, bioconcentration, toxicity, and detoxification of heavy metals. (JMT)

  10. Optimizing fish sampling for fish–mercury bioaccumulation factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs; ratios of mercury (Hg) in fish (Hgfish) and water (Hgwater)) are used to develop total maximum daily load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Both applications require representative Hgfish estimates and, thus, are sensitive to s...

  11. Bioaccumulation Data from Laboratory and Field Studies: Are They Comparable?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Once released into the environment, there are a number of chemicals that are known to bioaccumulate in organisms, sometimes to concentrations that may threaten their health or the health of their predators. However, it remains challenging to use physical or chemical properties o...

  12. Uptake and bioaccumulation of three PCBs by Chlorella fusca

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Rott, B.; Korte, F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports the bioaccumulation of three PCBs (2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, 2,4,6,2'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2,4,6,2',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) by the green alga Chlorella fusca under various conditions. A probable pattern of the bioconcentration mechanism is suggested. No metabolites were extracted from algae or water 6 days after incubation with PCBs.

  13. Bioaccumulation of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in Tetrahymena thermophila by Direct Feeding or Trophic Transfer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mortimer, Monika; Petersen, Elijah J.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Orias, Eduardo; Holden, Patricia A.

    2016-07-11

    We report that consumer goods contain multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) that could be released during product life cycles into the environment, where their effects are uncertain. Here, we assessed MWCNT bioaccumulation in the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila via trophic transfer from bacterial prey (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) versus direct uptake from growth media. The experiments were conducted using 14C-labeled MWCNT (14C-MWCNT) doses at or below 1 mg/L, which proved subtoxic since there were no adverse effects on the growth of the test organisms. A novel contribution of this study was the demonstration of the ability to quantify MWCNT bioaccumulation at low (sub μg/kg)more » concentrations accomplished by employing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After the treatments with MWCNTs at nominal concentrations of 0.01 mg/L and 1 mg/L, P. aeruginosa adsorbed considerable amounts of MWCNTs: (0.18 ± 0.04) μg/mg and (21.9 ± 4.2) μg/mg bacterial dry mass, respectively. At the administered MWCNT dose of 0.3 mg/L, T. thermophila accumulated up to (0.86 ± 0.3) μg/mg and (3.4 ± 1.1) μg/mg dry mass by trophic transfer and direct uptake, respectively.Finally, aAlthough MWCNTs did not biomagnify in the microbial food chain, MWCNTs bioaccumulated in the protozoan populations regardless of the feeding regime, which could make MWCNTs bioavailable for organisms at higher trophic levels.« less

  14. Uranium bioaccumulation in a freshwater ecosystem: impact of feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Lisa D; Evans, Douglas

    2012-11-15

    The objectives of our study were: (1) to determine if there was significant uranium (U) bioaccumulation in a lake that had been historically affected by a U mine and (2) to use a combined approach of gut content examination and stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis to determine if U bioaccumulation in fish was linked to foodweb ecology. We collected three species of fish: smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), in addition to several invertebrate species including freshwater bivalves (family: Sphaeriidae), dragonfly nymphs (order: Odonata), snails (class: Gastropoda) and zooplankton (family: Daphniidae). Results showed significant U bioaccumulation in the lake impacted by historical mining activities. Uranium accumulation was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher in invertebrates than in the fish species. Within fish, U was measured in operculum (bone), liver and muscle tissue and accumulation followed the order: operculum>liver>muscle. There was a negative relationship between stable nitrogen ratios ((15)N/(14)N) and U bioaccumulation, suggesting U biodilution in the foodweb. Uranium bioaccumulation in all three tissues (bone, liver, muscle) varied among fish species in a consistent manner and followed the order: bluegill>yellow perch>smallmouth bass. Collectively, gut content and stable isotope analysis suggests that invertebrate-consuming fish species (i.e. bluegill) have the highest U levels, while fish species that were mainly piscivores (i.e. smallmouth bass) have the lowest U levels. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the feeding ecology of fish when trying to predict U accumulation. PMID:22963859

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction of persistent organic pollutants from natural and artificial soils and comparison with bioaccumulation in earthworms.

    PubMed

    Bielská, Lucie; Šmídová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2013-05-01

    Selective supercritical fluid extraction (SSFE) was used as a measurement of compound chemical accessibility and as a predictor of compound bioavailability from three natural soils and artificial analogues prepared to have comparable total organic carbon content. Soils spiked with phenanthrene, pyrene, PCB 153, lindane, and p,p'-DDT were aged for 0, 14, 28, or 56 days and then selectively extracted by supercritical fluid extraction. Compounds exhibited decreasing extractability with increasing pollutant-soil contact time and increasing total organic carbon content in tested soils. However, the different extractability of compounds from artificial and natural pairs having comparable TOC indicates the limitations of using TOC as an extrapolation basis between various soils. The comparison of extractability with bioaccumulation by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) previously published by Vlčková and Hofman (2012) showed that only for PAHs it was possible to predict their bioaccumulation by means of selective SFE. PMID:23416268

  16. Bioaccumulation and Elimination of the Herbicide Clomazone in the Earthworms Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jia; Li, Ping; Li, Qing X; Zheng, Pengfei; Diao, Xiaoping

    2015-11-01

    Acute toxicity, bioaccumulation, and elimination of herbicide clomazone in the earthworm Eisenia fetida were investigated in the different exposure systems. The LC50 values of clomazone on earthworms were 5.6 μg cm(-2) in the contact filter paper test (48 h), 174.9 mg kg(-1) (7 days) and 123.4 mg kg(-1) (14 days) in artificial soil test, respectively. Clomazone could rapidly bioaccumulate in earthworms and reached the highest concentration after 3 days exposure, with the maximum concentrations of 9.0, 35.3 and 142.3 mg kg(-1) at 10.0, 40.0 and 160.0 mg kg(-1) of clomazone, respectively. Clomazone uptake showed a good correlation with exposure concentration. After the 14th day, clomazone declined to minimum value. About 74%-80% of accumulated clomazone was eliminated within 1 day after exposed to clomazone-free soil. However, a trace amount of clomazone persisted for a relatively long time in earthworms. PMID:26370279

  17. Uncertainty analysis for an equilibrium partitioning-based estimator of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon bioaccumulation potential in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.U.; McFarland, V.A.

    2000-02-01

    In regulatory evaluations of contaminated sediments, an equilibrium partitioning-based screening test called theoretical bioaccumulation potential (TBP) is often performed to estimate the probable concentrations of neutral organic contaminants that would eventually accumulate in aquatic organisms from continuous exposure to a sediment. The TBP is calculated from contaminant concentration and organic carbon content of the sediment, lipid content of target organisms, and a partition coefficient, usually the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). However, routine applications of TBP have not included analysis of uncertainty. This paper demonstrates two methods for uncertainty analysis of TBP: a computational method that incorporates random and systematic error and a simulation method using bootstrap resampling of replicated model input parameters to calculate statistical uncertainty measures. For prediction of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioaccumulation in bivalves exposed to contaminated sediments, uncertainty as a factor of TBP ranged from 1.2 to 4.8 using the computational method and 0.5 to 1.9 based on bootstrap 95% confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis indicated that BSAF parameters, especially tissue contaminant concentration and lipid content, contributed most to TBP uncertainty. In bootstrap tests of significance, TBP significantly over- or underestimated actual PAH bioaccumulation in bivalves in 41% and 10% of comparisons, respectively.

  18. A sediment ecotoxicity assessment platform for in situ measures of chemistry, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Part 2: Integrated application to a shallow estuary.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gunther; Chadwick, D Bart; Burton, G Allen; Taulbee, W Keith; Greenberg, Marc S; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Reible, Danny D

    2012-03-01

    A comprehensive, weight-of-evidence based ecological risk assessment approach integrating laboratory and in situ bioaccumulation and toxicity testing, passive sampler devices, hydrological characterization tools, continuous water quality sensing, and multi-phase chemical analyses was evaluated. The test site used to demonstrate the approach was a shallow estuarine wetland where groundwater seepage and elevated organic and inorganic contaminants were of potential concern. Although groundwater was discharging into the surficial sediments, little to no chemical contamination was associated with the infiltrating groundwater. Results from bulk chemistry analysis, toxicity testing, and bioaccumulation, however, suggested possible PAH toxicity at one station, which might have been enhanced by UV photoactivation, explaining the differences between in situ and laboratory amphipod survival. Concurrently deployed PAH bioaccumulation on solid-phase micro-extraction fibers positively correlated (r(2) ≥ 0.977) with in situ PAH bioaccumulation in amphipods, attesting to their utility as biomimetics, and contributing to the overall improved linkage between exposure and effects demonstrated by this approach. PMID:22172938

  19. Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    information on aquatic species, other than fish, that pertains to bioconcentration factors, metabolism, and elimination is rather limited in the literature. The kinds of basic information that is unavailable but is needed on important aquatic species includes biochemistry, physiology, position in food web, habitat, life cycle, etc. such information is very important to obtaining improved ecotoxicology risk assessments for many pesticides and other chemicals. More research attention on the behavior of pesticides in, and affect on many standard aquatic test species (e.g., daphnids, chironomids, oligochaetes and some bivalves) would particularly be welcome. In addition to improving ecotoxicology risk assessments on target species, such information would also assist in better delineating affects on species at higher trophic levels that are predaceous on the target species. There is also need for designing and employing more realistic approaches to measure bioconcentration and bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicology effects of pesticides in natural environment. The currently employed steady-state laboratory exposure studies are insufficient to deal with the complexity of parameters that control the contrasts to the abiotic processes of pesticide investigated under the strictly controlled conditions, each process is significantly affected in the natural environment not only by the site-specific chemistry of water and sediment but also by climate. From this viewpoint, ecotoxicological assessment should be conducted, together with the detailed analyses of abiotic processes, when higher-tier mesocosm studies are performed. Moreover, in-depth investigation is needed to better understand the relationship between pesticide residues in organisms and associated ecotoxicological endpoints. The usual exposure assessment is based on apparent (nominal) concentrations fo pesticides, and the residues of pesticides or their metabolites in the organisms are not considered in to the context of

  20. Bioaccumulation, subcellular distribution, and acute effects of chromium in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Li, Lixia; Chen, Hongxing; Bi, Ran; Xie, Lingtian

    2015-11-01

    Chromium (Cr) is an essential element but is toxic to aquatic organisms at elevated concentrations. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to a sublethal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) concentration via dissolved and dietary exposures for 6 d. Various measurements of Cr were made: bioaccumulation in different tissues, subcellular distribution in the liver, effects on antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Cr-induced lipid peroxidation. The results showed that bioaccumulation increased dramatically in all tested tissues from dissolved exposure but only significantly in the intestine from dietary treatment, implying that dissolved exposure may be predominant for Cr accumulation in medaka. Subcellular distribution revealed that Cr accumulated in the liver was mainly (46%) associated with the heat-stable protein fraction. Among the antioxidants examined, catalase (CAT) responded to dissolved Cr exposure in most tissues whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was less responsive. Malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly elevated in most tissues examined in the dissolved Cr-exposed fish, but were only elevated in the liver and intestine in the dietary Cr-exposed fish. The AChE activity in the brain was stimulated by 49% in the dissolved Cr-exposed fish. Reductions in condition factor and gonadosomatic index were also observed. These data help in an understanding of Cr tissue distribution and the acute effects of Cr in Japanese medaka. PMID:26096885

  1. Chronic sublethal effects of San Francisco Bay sediments on nereis (neanthes) arenaceodentata; bioaccumulation from bedded sediments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.; Dillon, T.M.

    1993-09-01

    In previous studies with San Francisco Bay sediments, minimal chronic sublethal effects were detected (Miscellaneous Paper D-93-1 and another Miscellaneous Paper in preparation by Moore and Dillon). To ensure that the lack of effects was not due to a lack of contaminant uptake, a bioaccumulation experiment was conducted. Bioaccumulation from bedded sediments was evaluated following a 9-week exposure with the marine polychaete worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata. Two sediments were evaluated, a contaminated San Francisco Bay test sediment and a clean control sediment from Sequim, WA. Animals were exposed as early juveniles through adulthood. Tissues were analyzed for metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides. Worms exposed to the contaminated San Francisco Bay sediment had significantly higher tissue residues of silver (0.30 mg/kg dry weight) and tributyltin (0.298 mg/kg dry weight). Conversely, tissue residues of control animals were significantly higher in cadmium (0.67 mg/kg dry weight) and lead (1.89 mg/kg dry weight). Small Amounts (0.02 mg/kg dry weight) of aldrin and dieldrin were measured in worms exposed to the contaminated sediment, while dieldrin and 8-BHC were found in Bioaccumulation, Neanthes, Chronic sublethal, San Francisco Bay, Dredged, Material, Sediment.

  2. Ecological factors contributing to variability of persistent organic pollutant bioaccumulation within forage fish communities of the Detroit River, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Anne M; Paterson, Gord; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Understanding variability of contaminant bioaccumulation within and among fish populations is critical for distinguishing between the chemical and biological mechanisms that contribute to food web biomagnification and quantifying contaminant exposure risks in aquatic ecosystems. The present study examined the relative contributions of chemical hydrophobicity (octanol-water partition coefficient [KOW ]) and habitat use as factors regulating variability in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener bioaccumulation in 3 lower trophic level cyprinid species across spatial and temporal scales. Bluntnose minnows (Pimephales notatus), spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius), and emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides) were sampled at 3 locations in the Detroit River, Ontario, Canada. Variability in PCB concentration was evaluated with respect to several factors, including chemical hydrophobicity, site, season, species, and weight using sum of squares and Levene's test of homogeneity of variance. Individual variability in bioaccumulated congener-specific residues depended on chemical hydrophobicity with mid- and high-range KOW congeners (log KOW  >6.0), demonstrating the highest amount of variance compared with low KOW congeners. Different feeding strategies also contributed to the variance observed for mid-range KOW congeners among species. In the present study, benthic feeding specialists exhibited lower variance in PCB concentrations compared with the 2 generalist species. The results indicate that chemical hydrophobicity and feeding ecology not only contribute to differences in the biomagnification potentials of fish, but also regulate between-individual variation in PCB concentrations both across and within fish species. PMID:24729083

  3. Evaluation of metal/acid-volatile sulfide relationships in the prediction of metal bioaccumulation by benthic macroinvertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ankley, G.T.

    1996-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the toxicity of divalent cationic metals (cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc) in sediments can be controlled through binding to acid-volatile sulfide (AVS). When the molar concentration of AVS exceeds that of the metals (i.e., the metal/AVS ratio is less than unity), they exist predominantly as insoluble metal sulfides, which presumably are not biologically available. Thus, at metal/AVS ratios less than 1, toxicity of sediment-associated metals to benthic macro-invertebrates has not been observed. However, bioaccumulation may provide a more direct assessment of contaminant bioavailability than the presence or absence of toxicity. The purpose of this report is to comprehensively review available literature on metal bioaccumulation versus sediment metal/AVS relationships to further examine the tenet that AVS controls metal bioavailability. In all, 12 studies were evaluated; these ranged from short-term (10-d) laboratory experiments with metal-spiked or field-collected sediments containing cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and/or zinc to long-term (> 1-year) field studies with sediments spiked with cadmium or zinc. Test organisms included mollusks, oligochaetes, polychaetes, amphipods, and midges. The preponderance of studies indicated reduced accumulation of metals at sediment metal/AVS ratios of less than 1. However, there were exceptions to this general observation, two of which occurred in short-term laboratory experiments with cadmium- or nickel-spiked sediments. In these studies there appeared to be a linear accumulation of metals with increasing sediment metal concentrations irrespective of the metal/AVS ratio. Although there is experimental evidence suggesting that significant bioaccumulation of metals does not occur when there is sufficient AVS available to bind them, the existence of data to the contrary indicates the need for further research into factors controlling the bioaccumulation of metals from sediments.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning and bioaccumulation in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott, D.; Griesmer, D.; Kreis, R.; Mackelburg, L.

    1994-12-31

    The 1989--1990 Green Bay Mass Balance Study generated an extensive data set for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in water, sediment and biological matrices. The analytes included several mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners. From these data, ratios between dissolved, particulate, and biotic concentrations in the water column and sediment have been calculated. These ratios provide a basis for evaluating the distribution of hydrophobic organic chemicals in the aquatic ecosystem. The Mass Balance Study also supported development of mathematical models of PCB transport, fate, and food chain bioaccumulation in Green Bay. The models provide significant additional insight as to processes affecting the observed PCB distribution, including spatial-temporal variability, organic carbon sorbent dynamics, sediment-water column disequilibria, and kinetics of bioaccumulation.

  5. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of the insecticide "Raid" in Wister rats.

    PubMed

    Achudume, Albert C; Nwoha, Polycarp C; Ibe, Joseph N

    2009-08-01

    Toxicity and bioaccumulation of the insecticide "Raid" was determined to assess total animal dietary exposures in a nonoccupational environment. The study focused primarily on dietary exposure concentrations (25-960 microg/g) of the ingredients of Raid administered to rats for 10 days. Tissue concentrations of the insecticide were determined by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method, whereas established methods were used to assess the tissue levels of glucose-6-phosphate and lactic acid dehydrogenase. Results show that animal mortality progressively increased with increasing concentrations while growth (in weight) decreased. Bioaccumulation of the insecticide in the tissues was in the order of lipid > muscle > liver > brain. The indices of toxicity showed no significant effect in brain, but significant reduction of glucose-6-phosphatase and lactic acid dehydrogenase levels were observed in muscle and liver. These results suggest an inhibition of some key metabolic enzymes resulting from accumulation of the insecticide components in the tissues. PMID:18785263

  6. Free and glycosylated sterol bioaccumulation in developing Cycas micronesica seeds

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Shaw, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of free and glycosylated forms of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were determined from Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill seeds throughout seed ontogeny. Per-seed pool of the four compounds increased linearly from 2 to 24 months, indicating no developmental period elicited a major shift in the rate of bioaccumulation. The slopes were not homogeneous, signifying a change in relative sterol profile concomitant with seed maturation. This shift was in favour of the glucosides, as their rate of accumulation exceeded that of the free sterols. Stigmasterol content exceeded that of β-sitosterol, but ontogeny did not influence the ratio of these dominant sterols. The quantity and quality of sterol exposure during consumption of foods prepared from gametophytes by humans is strongly influenced by age of harvested seeds. Results are critical for a further understanding of the link between human neurodegenerative diseases and historical consumption of foods derived from the seed gametophyte tissue. PMID:20157628

  7. Bioaccumulation factor portions of the proposed water quality guidance for the Great Lakes system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Bioaccumulation factors are being proposed to be used in the derivation of human health and wildlife criteria specific for the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative (GLWQI). Adopting the use of bioaccumulation factors instead of bioconcentration factors presents a significant change from current Agency guidance. Because there is not an established procedure for determining bioaccumulation factors, national guidance may be eventually modeled on the proposed GLWQI Guidance. The document was produced to facilitate review of and comment on the proposed procedure for determining bioaccumulation factors by persons who may not keep abreast of Federal Register notices, including the larger scientific community. The document is composed of two chapters and one appendix. Chapter 1 describes the development of the proposed procedure for determining bioaccumulation factors; Chapter 2 presents the proposed methodology for development of bioaccumulation factors.

  8. An assessment of the bioaccumulation of estrone in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rachel L; Deacon, Hannah E; Lai, Ka M; Birkett, Jason W; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of estrone by Daphnia magna was determined. Direct uptake via the aqueous medium occurred within the first 16 h. A bioconcentration factor of 228 was established over all temporal periods. Ingestion via Chlorella vulgaris gave a partitioning factor of 24, which may approximate to a biomagnification factor assuming steady state conditions. These preliminary results indicate that the partitioning to Daphnia magna via the food source, C. vulgaris is less significant than bioconcentration. PMID:14768873

  9. Bioaccumulation syndrome: identifying factors that make some stream food webs prone to elevated mercury bioaccumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Darren M.; Nislow, Keith H.; Folt, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic ecosystems, posing a significant health risk to humans and wildlife that eat fish. Mercury accumulates in aquatic food webs as methylmercury (MeHg), a particularly toxic and persistent organic mercury compound. While mercury in the environment originates largely from anthropogenic activities, MeHg accumulation in freshwater aquatic food webs is not a simple function of local or regional mercury pollution inputs. Studies show that even sites with similar mercury inputs can produce fish with mercury concentrations ranging over an order of magnitude. While much of the foundational work to identify the drivers of variation in mercury accumulation has focused on freshwater lakes, mercury contamination in stream ecosystems is emerging as an important research area. Here, we review recent research on mercury accumulation in stream-dwelling organisms. Taking a hierarchical approach, we identify a suite of characteristics of individual consumers, food webs, streams, watersheds, and regions that are consistently associated with elevated MeHg concentrations in stream fish. We delineate a conceptual, mechanistic basis for explaining the ecological processes that underlie this vulnerability to MeHg. Key factors, including suppressed individual growth of consumers, low rates of primary and secondary production, hydrologic connection to methylation sites (e.g. wetlands), heavily forested catchments, and acidification are frequently associated with increased MeHg concentrations in fish across both streams and lakes. Hence, we propose that these interacting factors define a syndrome of characteristics that drive high MeHg production and bioaccumulation rates across these freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Finally, based on an understanding of the ecological drivers of MeHg accumulation, we identify situations when anthropogenic effects and management practices could significantly exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg accumulation in stream fish

  10. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Yinghuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-10-01

    Earthworms represent an important food source for many vertebrates and as a result, predators may encounter toxic effects via the food chain from consumption of contaminated worms. Therefore, including an assessment of xenobiotic to worms in risk assessment procedures is advisable. Here we studied the acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in a soil. A slight difference in toxicity to earthworm between two enantiomers was found, and the calculated LC50 values for (+)-, rac- and (-)-ethofumesate were 4.51, 5.93 and 7.98 μg/cm(2), respectively, indicating that the acute toxicity of ethofumesate enantiomers was enantioselective. Earthworm can uptake ethofumesate but the bioaccumulation curve did not reach the steady state. In the elimination experiment, the concentrations of ethofumesate in earthworm declined following a first-order decay model with a short half life of 1.8d. The bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate in earthworm were both nonenantioselective. In combination with other studies, a linear relationship between Log BSAFs and Log Kow was observed, and the Log BSAFs increased with increasing Log Kow. But the elimination rate did not show any correlation with the Kow value. PMID:25048902

  11. Metal/metalloid (As, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia andrei under different scenarios of climate change.

    PubMed

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of global warming (increasing air temperature and decreasing soil moisture content) on the bioaccumulation kinetics of As, Cd and Zn in the earthworm Eisenia andrei in two polluted soils (mine tailing and watercourse soil). Earthworms were exposed for up to 21 d under four climate conditions: 20 °C + 50% soil water holding capacity (WHC) (standard conditions), 20 °C + 30% WHC, 25 °C + 50% WHC and 25 °C + 30% WHC. Porewater metal/metalloid availability did not change in the mine tailing soil after the incubation period under the different climate conditions tested. However, in the watercourse soil, porewater Cd concentrations decreased from ∼63 to ∼32-41 μg L(-1) after 21 d and Zn concentrations from ∼3761 to ∼1613-2170 μg L(-1), especially at 20 °C and 50% WHC. In both soils, As and Zn showed similar bioaccumulation patterns in the earthworms, without major differences among climate conditions. Earthworm concentrations peaked after 1-3 d of exposure (in μg g(-1) dry weight: As∼32.5-108, Zn∼704-1172) and then remained constant (typical pattern of essential elements even for As). For Cd the bioaccumulation pattern changed when changing the climate conditions. Under standard conditions, earthworm Cd concentrations increased to ∼12.6-18.5 μg g(-1) dry weight without reaching equilibrium (typical pattern of non-essential elements). However when increasing temperature and/or decreasing soil moisture content the bioaccumulation pattern changed towards that more typical of essential elements due to increased Cd elimination rates (from ∼0.11 to ∼0.24-1.27 d(-1) in the mine tailing soil, from ∼0.07 to ∼0.11-0.35 d(-1) in the watercourse soil) and faster achievement of a steady state. This study shows that metal/metalloid bioaccumulation pattern in earthworms may change dependent on climate conditions. PMID:27182979

  12. Effects of soil type, prepercolation, and ageing on bioaccumulation and toxicity of zinc for the springtail Folsomia candida

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, C.E.; Van Gestel, C.A.M.

    1998-06-01

    Soil properties are a major influence on the bioavailability and toxicity of metals and represent one of the important factors that complicate the extrapolation of results from laboratory tests to field situations. The influence of soil characteristics and way of contamination on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of zinc was investigated for the springtail Folsomia candida, and the applicability of chemical extraction techniques for the prediction of zinc uptake and toxicity was evaluated. Bioaccumulation of zinc in F. candida was related to water-soluble zinc concentrations, and uptake was dependent on the test soil used. Effects of zinc for F. candida could not be fully explained by bioaccumulation. This indicates that the existence of a fixed internal threshold concentration of zinc above which physiological functions are impaired is not likely for F. candida. In freshly contaminated soils, zinc toxicity was related to organic matter and clay content of the soil; however, the use of these soils overestimated the effects of zinc for F. candida by a factor of 5 to 8 compared to a test soil that was subjected to ageing under field conditions for 1.5 years. Equilibration of the zinc contamination by percolating the soils with water before use in the toxicity experiment strongly reduced the difference in zinc toxicity between laboratory-treated and aged soils. Water-soluble concentrations are most appropriate to predict effects of zinc on reproduction of F. candida in soils with unknown contamination histories. For laboratory toxicity tests, it is recommended to percolate soils with water after contamination and to include an equilibration period prior to use to achieve a more realistic exposure situation.

  13. Inter-laboratory comparison of clearance rates of xenobiotics by cryopreserved trout hepatocytes for the prediction of bioaccumulation potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic biotransformation is an important determinant of chemical bioaccumulation in fish. Consequently, improvements to bioaccumulation models can be made using estimates of chemical biotransformation rates. Cryopreserved trout hepatocytes have previously been used to measure ...

  14. Inter-laboratory comparison of xenobiotic clearance rates determined using cryopreserved trout hepatocytes for improving bioaccumulation predictions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic biotransformation is an important determinant of chemical bioaccumulation in fish. Consequently, bioaccumulation models can be improved using estimates of chemical biotransformation rates. Cryopreserved trout hepatocytes have been used to measure the clearance rates of so...

  15. Use of the aquatic oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus for assessing the toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.L.; Ankley, G.T.; Benoit, D.A.; Mattson, V.R. )

    1993-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe test methods utilizing the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus to assess the acute and chronic toxicity and the presence of bioaccumulatable compounds in contaminated sediments. Lumbriculus variegatus was chosen as a test species because (a) it represents an ecologically relevant component of freshwater ecosystems; (b) it is suitable for long-term testing and evaluation of chronic toxicity end points (e.g., growth, reproduction); (c) it is exposed via all important routes of concern, including ingesting of contaminated particles; and (d) it has sufficient biomass to assess bioaccumulation of contaminants. Also, Lumbriculus variegatus is easily cultured and handled. Described herein are culturing procedures and test protocols for Lumbriculus variegatus, as well as two examples of the types of experimental data generated when using the oligochaete in test with contaminated sediments. Two case studies are presented in which L. variegatus was used to assess the bioaccumulation of metals (cadmium, nickel) from contaminated sediments and assess the toxicity of sediment samples collected from the copper-contaminated Keweenaw Waterway system in Michigan.

  16. Bioaccumulation of Legacy and Emerging Organochlorine Contaminants in Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Dang, Viet D; Kroll, Kevin J; Supowit, Samuel D; Halden, Rolf U; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-07-01

    Freshwater sediment-dwelling Lumbriculus variegatus is known to serve as a vector for the transfer of contaminants from sediments to higher trophic level organisms, but limited data exist on the bioaccumulation of chemicals associated with sediments containing high total organic carbon (TOC). In the current study, sediments from the north shore area of Lake Apopka (Florida, USA), containing very high TOC [39 % (w/w)], were spiked with four chemicals-p,p'-dichlorordiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, fipronil, and triclosan-individually or in a mixture of the four and then used for bioaccumulation studies. Tissue concentrations of chemicals in L. variegatus were measured at 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of exposure, and the bioaccumulation potential was evaluated using biosediment accumulation factors [BSAF (goc/glipid)]. Increase in total body burdens of all four chemicals in L. variegatus was rapid at day 2 and reached a steady-state level after 7 days in both single and mixture experiments. Tissue concentrations of fipronil peaked after 2 days and then decreased by 70 % in sediment experiments suggesting that in addition to the degradation of fipronil that occurred in the sediment, L. variegatus may also be able to metabolize fipronil. The calculated 28-day BSAF values varied among the chemicals and increased in the order fipronil (1.1) < triclosan (1.4) < dieldrin (21.8) < p,p'-DDE (49.8) in correspondence with the increasing degree of their hydrophobicity. The relatively high BSAF values for p,p'-DDE and dieldrin probably resulted from lower-than-expected sorption of chemicals to sediment organic matter either due to the nature of the plant-derived organic matter, as a result of the relatively short equilibration time among the various compartments, or due to ingestion of sediment particles by the worms. PMID:26833202

  17. Estimation of the bioaccumulation potential of a nonchlorinated bisphenol and an ionogenic xanthene dye to Eisenia andrei in field-collected soils, in conjunction with predictive in silico profiling.

    PubMed

    Princz, Juliska; Bonnell, Mark; Ritchie, Ellyn; Velicogna, Jessica; Robidoux, Pierre-Yves; Scroggins, Rick

    2014-02-01

    In silico-based model predictions, originating from structural and mechanistic (e.g., transport, bioavailability, reactivity, and binding potential) profiling, were compared against laboratory-derived data to estimate the bioaccumulation potential in earthworms of 2 organic substances (1 neutral, 1 ionogenic) known to primarily partition to soil. Two compounds representative of specific classes of chemicals were evaluated: a nonchlorinated bisphenol containing an -OH group (4,4′-methylenebis[2,6-di-tert-butylphenol] [Binox]), and an ionogenic xanthene dye (2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromo-4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-3′,6′-dihydroxy-, disodium salt [Phloxine B]). Soil bioaccumulation studies were conducted using Eisenia andrei and 2 field-collected soils (a clay loam and a sandy soil). In general, the in silico structural and mechanistic profiling was consistent with the observed soil bioaccumulation tests. Binox did not bioaccumulate to a significant extent in E. andrei in either soil type; however, Phloxine B not only accumulated within tissue, but was not depurated from the earthworms during the course of the elimination phase. Structural and mechanistic profiling demonstrated the binding and reactivity potential of Phloxine B; this would not be accounted for using traditional bioaccumulation metrics, which are founded on passive-based diffusion mechanisms. This illustrates the importance of profiling for reactive ionogenic substances; even limited bioavailability combined with reactivity can result in exposures to a hazardous substance not predictable by traditional in silico modeling methods. PMID:24173968

  18. Bioaccumulation of total mercury in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Shirley; Baker, Priscilla; Crouch, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Earthworms are a major part of the total biomass of soil fauna and play a vital role in soil maintenance. They process large amounts of plant and soil material and can accumulate many pollutants that may be present in the soil. Earthworms have been explored as bioaccumulators for many heavy metal species such as Pb, Cu and Zn but limited information is available for mercury uptake and bioaccumulation in earthworms and very few report on the factors that influence the kinetics of Hg uptake by earthworms. It is known however that the uptake of Hg is strongly influenced by the presence of organic matter, hence the influence of ligands are a major factor contributing to the kinetics of mercury uptake in biosystems. In this work we have focused on the uptake of mercury by earthworms (Eisenia andrei) in the presence of humic acid (HA) under varying physical conditions of pH and temperature, done to assess the role of humic acid in the bioaccumulation of mercury by earthworms from soils. The study was conducted over a 5-day uptake period and all earthworm samples were analysed by direct mercury analysis. Mercury distribution profiles as a function of time, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs), first order rate constants and body burden constants for mercury uptake under selected conditions of temperature, pH as well as via the dermal and gut route were evaluated in one comprehensive approach. The results showed that the uptake of Hg was influenced by pH, temperature and the presence of HA. Uptake of Hg(2+) was improved at low pH and temperature when the earthworms in soil were in contact with a saturating aqueous phase. The total amount of Hg(2+) uptake decreased from 75 to 48 % as a function of pH. For earthworms in dry soil, the uptake was strongly influenced by the presence of the ligand. Calculated BAF values ranged from 0.1 to 0.8. Mercury uptake typically followed first order kinetics with rate constants determined as 0.2 to 1 h(-1). PMID:27347466

  19. Bioaccumulation of ergovaline in bovine lateral saphenous veins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Klotz, J L; Kirch, B H; Aiken, G E; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2009-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids have been associated with vasoconstriction in grazing livestock affected by the fescue toxicosis syndrome. Previous in vitro investigations studying how ergot alkaloids caused vasoconstriction have shown that ergovaline has a distinct receptor affinity and sustained contractile response. A similar contractile response has not been noted for lysergic acid. The objectives of this study were to determine if repetitive in vitro exposure of bovine lateral saphenous vein to lysergic acid or ergovaline would result in an increasing contractile response and if a measurable bioaccumulation of the alkaloids in the vascular tissue occurs over time. Segments of vein were surgically biopsied from healthy, Angus x Brangus cross-bred, fescue-naïve yearling heifers (n = 16) or collected from healthy mixed breed and sex cattle immediately after slaughter (n = 12) at a local abattoir. Veins were trimmed of excess fat and connective tissue, sliced into cross-sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O(2)/5% CO(2); pH = 7.4; 37 degrees C). Contractile responses to repetitive additions of ergovaline (1 x 10(-9) and 1 x 10(-7) M) and lysergic acid (1 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-4) M) were evaluated using the biopsied veins. For the bioaccumulation experiments, veins collected at the abattoir underwent repetitive additions of 1 x 10(-7) M ergovaline and 1 x 10(-5) M lysergic acid and the segments were removed after every 2 additions and media rinses for alkaloid quantification via HPLC/mass spectrometry. Contractile data were normalized as a percentage of contractile response induced by a reference dose of norepinephrine (1 x 10(-4) M). Repetitive additions of 1 x 10(-9) M ergovaline and 1 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-4) M lysergic acid resulted in contractile response with a negative slope (P < 0.02). In contrast, repetitive addition of 1 x 10(-7) M ergovaline resulted in a contractile response that increased with each

  20. The uptake and bioaccumulation of PCBs by phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Skoglund, R.S.; Stange, K. )

    1990-01-01

    Phytoplankton play a major role in the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to their large biomass, their high lipid content, and their place as the primary step in the aquatic food web. Phytoplankton accumulate PCBs in the water column most likely as a result of water-lipid partitioning, and can pass the contaminants up through the food web by consumers or transport them to bottom waters by sedimentation. The process of PCB uptake and bioaccumulation by phytoplankton has been the focus of our study.

  1. Bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have numerous industrial applications and may be released to the environment. In the aquatic environment, pristine or functionalized CNT have different dispersion behavior, potentially leading to different risks of exposure along the water column. Data included in this review indicate that CNT do not cross biological barriers readily. When internalized, only a minimal fraction of CNT translocate into organism body compartments. The reported CNT toxicity depends on exposure conditions, model organism, CNT-type, dispersion state and concentration. In the ecotoxicological tests, the aquatic organisms were generally found to be more sensitive than terrestrial organisms. Invertebrates were more sensitive than vertebrates. Single-walled CNT were found to be more toxic than double-/multi-walled CNT. Generally, the effect concentrations documented in literature were above current modeled average environmental concentrations. Measurement data are needed for estimation of environmental no-effect concentrations. Future studies with benchmark materials are needed to generate comparable results. Studies have to include better characterization of the starting materials, of the dispersions and of the biological fate, to obtain better knowledge of the exposure/effect relationships. PMID:24034413

  2. Reduction of Toxicity and PAH Bioaccumulation Potential During Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2004-03-01

    A set of model soils (e.g., quartz sands, loams, clays, peat, silica gels) was spiked with crude oil, aged for 27 months in the laboratory, and subjected to bench-scale slurry bioremediation treatment for 90 weeks. At various times, slurry samples were removed from the bioreactors, analyzed for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and assayed for toxicity using the solid-phase MicrotoxTM test. In addition, the PAH bioaccumulation potential in tissues of soil dwelling organisms was estimated by exposing semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for 14 days to initial (t=0) and final (t=90 wks) slurry samples. In most cases, soil toxicity (EC50) was reduced 5- to 10 fold during the first 20 weeks of bioremediation treatment but it rarely reached the EC50 value of the respective clean reference soils, indicating that some residual toxicity still remained after 20 weeks of bioremediation. The reduction of soil toxicity most closely correlated with the biodegradation of the sum of 4, 5, and 6 ring PAHs. A comparison of PAH concentrations in SPMDs exposed to initial and final slurry samples revealed that the potential of PAH accumulation in exposed animal tissues was reduced 50 to 300 fold as a result of slurry biotreatment. While in most soils the bioavailable PAH fraction was preferentially removed by the microorganisms, several high molecular weight PAHs that had reached an apparent concentration asymptote after 90 weeks of treatment were still bioavailable to a significant extent in several soils since they were readily taken up by the SPMDs. In summary, it can be concluded that bioremediation significantly reduces both toxicity and PAH bioaccumulation potential. However, the remaining undegraded contaminants are likely to pose some residual risk to environmental receptors since they still exhibit toxicity relative to uncontaminated background soils and are bioavailable to animal tissues.

  3. Seasonality of bioaccumulation of trace organics and lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Fang, James K H; Wu, Rudolf S S; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Shin, Paul K S

    2010-02-15

    Lysosomal integrity in mussels is widely used as a biomarker in coastal environments to demonstrate exposure to trace organic pollutants. However, few studies have determined the long-term influences of seasonal variations on the bioaccumulation of trace organics and subsequently altered response of lysosomal integrity in mussels. This study aimed to test three null hypotheses that (1) bioaccumulations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (SigmaPAH) and (2) total polychlorinated biphenyl (SigmaPCB), and (3) lysosomal integrity as indicated by Neutral Red retention time (NRRT) in haemocytes, in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were not seasonally dependent. The tissue concentrations of SigmaPAH and SigmaPCB and haemocytic NRRT were determined in P. viridis in a metropolitan harbour, subtropical Hong Kong during the wet and dry seasons from 2004 to 2007. Additional information on temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and total ammonia nitrogen in seawater, and sediment levels of SigmaPAH and SigmaPCB, were extracted from published data and re-analyzed. Our results accepted all null hypotheses, based on the minimal seasonal influences of seawater temperature and salinity on all studied parameters, in which no significant differences between the wet and dry seasons were detected. The seasonal effect was likely outweighed by the greatly improved water quality and pollution abatement noted inside the harbour, with a gradual shift in mussel PAHs from a pyrolytic origin to a petrogenic origin. Spatially, the site east of the harbour was relatively unpolluted. The single use of NRRT in P. viridis explained 25% of the total variation of the integrated pollution patterns in seawater, sediments and mussels. The present study suggested that the dynamic change of trace organics could be reflected by the response on lysosomal integrity in P. viridis, which was recommended as a routine screening biomarker in monitoring of harbour water quality across seasons. PMID

  4. Bioaccumulation and trophic magnification of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in a Mediterranean river food web.

    PubMed

    Ruhí, Albert; Acuña, Vicenç; Barceló, Damià; Huerta, Belinda; Mor, Jordi-Rene; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Sabater, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence exists that emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can be bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms. However, the relative role of trophic transfers in the acquisition of emerging pollutants by aquatic organisms remains largely unexplored. In freshwater ecosystems, wastewater treatment plants are a major source of PhACs and EDCs. Here we studied the entrance of emerging pollutants and their flow through riverine food webs in an effluent-influenced river. To this end we assembled a data set on the composition and concentrations of a broad spectrum of PhACs (25 compounds) and EDCs (12 compounds) in water, biofilm, and three aquatic macroinvertebrate taxa with different trophic positions and feeding strategies (Ancylus fluviatilis, Hydropsyche sp., Phagocata vitta). We tested for similarities in pollutant levels among these compartments, and we compared observed bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) to those predicted by a previously-developed empirical model based on octanol-water distribution coefficients (Dow). Despite a high variation in composition and levels of emerging pollutants across food web compartments, observed BAFs in Hydropsyche and Phagocata matched, on average, those already predicted. Three compounds (the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, the lipid regulator gemfibrozil, and the flame retardant TBEP) were detected in water, biofilm and (at least) one macroinvertebrate taxa. TBEP was the only compound present in all taxa and showed magnification across trophic levels. This suggests that prey consumption may be, in some cases, a significant exposure route. This study advances the notion that both waterborne exposure and trophic interactions need to be taken into account when assessing the potential ecological risks of emerging pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26170111

  5. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and ionic-Ag in the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary T; Selck, Henriette; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E

    2011-10-01

    There is increasing concern about the toxicities and potential risks, both still poorly understood, of silver nanoparticles for the aquatic environment after their eventual release via wastewater discharges. In this study, the toxicities of sediment associated nano (<100 nm)-, micron (2-3.5 μm)- and ionic (AgNO(3))-Ag on the sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor, were compared after 10 days of sediment exposure, using survival, DNA damage (comet assay) and bioaccumulation as endpoints. The nominal concentrations used in all exposure scenarios were 0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 μg Ag/g dry weight (dw) sediment. Our results showed that Ag was able to cause DNA damage in Nereis coelomocytes, and that this effect was both concentration- and Ag form-related. There was significantly greater genotoxicity (higher tail moment and tail DNA intensities) at 25 and 50 μg/g dw in nano- and micron-Ag treatments and at 50 μg/g dw in the ionic-Ag treatment compared to the controls (0μg/g dw). The nano-Ag treatment had the greatest genotoxic effect of the three tested Ag forms, and the ionic-Ag treatment was the least genotoxic. N. diversicolor did accumulate sediment-associated Ag from all three forms. Ag body burdens at the highest exposure concentration were 8.56 ± 6.63, 6.92 ± 5.86 and 9.86 ± 4.94 μg/g dw for worms in nano-, micron- and ionic-Ag treatments, respectively, but there was no significant difference in Ag bioaccumulation among the three treatments. PMID:21831346

  6. Influences on Mercury Bioaccumulation Factors for the Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.

    2003-05-06

    Mercury TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) are a regulatory instrument designed to reduce the amount of mercury entering a water body and ultimately to control the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. TMDLs are based on a BAF (bioaccumulation factor), which is the ratio of methyl mercury in fish to dissolved methyl mercury in water. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methyl mercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 118 km reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that species specific BAFs varied by factors of three to eight. Factors contributing to BAF variability were location, habitat and season related differences in fish muscle tissue mercury levels and seasonal differences in dissolved methyl mercury levels. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 106 for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 106 for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 106 for white catfish. Inaccurate and imprecise BAFs can result in unnecessary economic impact or insufficient protection of human health. Determination of representative and precise BAFs for mercury in fish from large rivers necessitates collecting large and approximately equal numbers of fish and aqueous methyl mercury samples over a seasonal cycle from the entire area and all habitats to be represented by the TMDL.

  7. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  8. Arsenic bioaccumulation in a marine juvenile fish Terapon jarbua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid that is causing widespread public concern. Recent measurements have indicated that some marine fish in China might be seriously contaminated with As. Yet the biokinetics and bioaccumulation pathway of As in fish remain little understood. In this study, we employed a radiotracer technique to quantify the dissolved uptake, dietary assimilation and subsequent efflux of As(V) in a marine predatory fish, Terapon jarbua. The dissolved uptake of As showed a linear pattern over a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μg L(-1), with a corresponding uptake rate constant of 0.0015 L g(-1)d(-1). The assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dietary As were only 3.1-7.4% for fish fed with copepods, clams, prey fish, or artificial diets, and were much lower than the As that entered the trophically available metal fraction in the prey. The dietary AEs were independent of the As(V) concentrations in the artificial diets. The efflux rate constant of As in fish following the dietary exposure was 0.03 d(-1). Modeling calculations showed that dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish, and the corresponding contributions of waterborne and dietary uptakes were related to the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and the ingestion rate of fish. This study demonstrates that As(V) has a low bioavailability to T. jarbua. PMID:21945928

  9. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of bromadiolone to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xiong, Kang; Ye, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jianyun; Yang, Ye; Ji, Li

    2015-09-01

    Bromadiolone, a potent second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide, has been extensively used worldwide for the field control of rodents. Invertebrates may be at risk from primary poisoning as a result of bromadiolone bait applications. However, there are few data regarding the toxicity and bioaccumulation of bromadiolone to earthworms. In this study, we reported that bromadiolone was toxic to earthworms at 1mg/kg soil, which is a likely concentration in the field following application of bromadiolone baits. Exposure to bromadiolone resulted in a significant inhibition of earthworm growth. The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were slightly increased in earthworms, while malondialdehyde content (as a molecular marker indicative of the damage to lipid peroxidation) was dominantly elevated over the duration of exposure. Bromadiolone in soil is bioaccumulative to earthworms. The biota to soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of bromadiolone were concentration dependent and BSAFs decreased as the level of bromadiolone in soil increased. These results suggest earthworms are not only the potential subject to primary poisoning but also the source of secondary exposure for insectivores and scavengers following application of bromadiolone. PMID:25965004

  10. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  11. Computerized Risk and Bioaccumulation System (Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Winsor, M.; Pelletier, J.; Randall, R.; Bertling, J.

    1991-11-01

    The Computerized Risk And Bioaccumulation System (CRABS, Version 1.0) is an expert system that predicts tissue residues of fifteen neutral organic pollutants in sediment-dwelling organisms and the human cancer risk from consumption of the contaminated shellfish. Bioaccumulation from bedded sediment can be predicted from the thermodynamic partitioning, first-order kinetic, or toxicokinetic model. All the models can predict steady-state tissue residues while the two kinetic models can predict non-steady-state uptake or elimination. CRABS then predicts the lifetime human cancer risk from consumption of clams and other non-mobile sediment-dwelling organisms containing the predicted (or measured) tissue residue. The linearized multistage model is used to predict cancer risk for a single pollutant from a single species diet. The program guides the user in estimating shellfish consumption rates if no site-specific rates are available. CRABS is designed to promote thorough documentation of the assumptions and data as well as to error check the entered values.

  12. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected invertebrates to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    Soil toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments for several sites at two facilities in California. At some sites, earthworms or other terrestrial invertebrates were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to soil invertebrates and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Earthworm mortality and other observations were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the laboratory earthworms and field-collected invertebrates was evaluated by comparing whole-body contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Earthworm toxicity tests indicated a wide range of sensitivity to on-site contaminants and showed the importance of considering potential confounding influences due to soil parameters other than contaminant concentration.

  13. Citrate coated silver nanoparticles change heavy metal toxicities and bioaccumulation of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Injeong; Lee, Byung-Tae; Kim, Hyun-A; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Sang Don; Hwang, Yu-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Citrate-coated AgNPs (c-AgNPs) have negatively charged surfaces and their surface interactions with heavy metals can affect metal toxicity in aquatic environments. This study used Daphnia magna to compare the acute toxicities and bioaccumulation of As(V), Cd, and Cu when they interact with c-AgNPs. The 24-h acute toxicities of As(V) and Cu were not affected by the addition of c-AgNPs, while bioaccumulation significantly decreased in the presence of c-AgNPs. In contrast, both the 24-h acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of Cd increased in the presence of c-AgNPs. These toxicity and bioaccumulation trends can be attributed to the interactions between the AgNP surface and the heavy metals. As(V) and c-AgNPs compete by negative charge, decreasing As(V) toxicity. Copper adheres readily to c-AgNP citrate, decreasing Cu bioavailability, and thus reducing Cu toxicity and bioaccumulation. Citrate complexes with divalent cations such as Ca and Mg reduce the competition between divalent cations and Cd on biotic ligand, increasing toxicity and bioaccumulation of Cd. This study shows that surface properties determine the effect of c-AgNPs on heavy metal toxicities and bioaccumulations; hence, further studies on the effect of nanoparticle by it surface properties are warranted. PMID:26188498

  14. Use of terrestrial field studies in the derivation of bioaccumulation potential of chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van den Brink, Nico W.; Arblaster, Jennifer A.; Bowman, Sarah R.; Conder, Jason M.; Elliott, John E.; Johnson, Mark S.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Rattner, Barnett A.; Sample, Bradley E.; Shore, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Field-based studies are an essential component of research addressing the behavior of organic chemicals, and a unique line of evidence that can be used to assess bioaccumulation potential in chemical registration programs and aid in development of associated laboratory and modeling efforts. To aid scientific and regulatory discourse on the application of terrestrial field data in this manner, this article provides practical recommendations regarding the generation and interpretation of terrestrial field data. Currently, biota-to-soil-accumulation factors (BSAFs), biomagnification factors (BMFs), and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) are the most suitable bioaccumulation metrics that are applicable to bioaccumulation assessment evaluations and able to be generated from terrestrial field studies with relatively low uncertainty. Biomagnification factors calculated from field-collected samples of terrestrial carnivores and their prey appear to be particularly robust indicators of bioaccumulation potential. The use of stable isotope ratios for quantification of trophic relationships in terrestrial ecosystems needs to be further developed to resolve uncertainties associated with the calculation of terrestrial trophic magnification factors (TMFs). Sampling efforts for terrestrial field studies should strive for efficiency, and advice on optimization of study sample sizes, practical considerations for obtaining samples, selection of tissues for analysis, and data interpretation is provided. Although there is still much to be learned regarding terrestrial bioaccumulation, these recommendations provide some initial guidance to the present application of terrestrial field data as a line of evidence in the assessment of chemical bioaccumulation potential and a resource to inform laboratory and modeling efforts.

  15. Use of terrestrial field studies in the derivation of bioaccumulation potential of chemicals.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Nico W; Arblaster, Jennifer A; Bowman, Sarah R; Conder, Jason M; Elliott, John E; Johnson, Mark S; Muir, Derek C G; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Rattner, Barnett A; Sample, Bradley E; Shore, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    Field-based studies are an essential component of research addressing the behavior of organic chemicals, and a unique line of evidence that can be used to assess bioaccumulation potential in chemical registration programs and aid in development of associated laboratory and modeling efforts. To aid scientific and regulatory discourse on the application of terrestrial field data in this manner, this article provides practical recommendations regarding the generation and interpretation of terrestrial field data. Currently, biota-to-soil-accumulation factors (BSAFs), biomagnification factors (BMFs), and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) are the most suitable bioaccumulation metrics that are applicable to bioaccumulation assessment evaluations and able to be generated from terrestrial field studies with relatively low uncertainty. Biomagnification factors calculated from field-collected samples of terrestrial carnivores and their prey appear to be particularly robust indicators of bioaccumulation potential. The use of stable isotope ratios for quantification of trophic relationships in terrestrial ecosystems needs to be further developed to resolve uncertainties associated with the calculation of terrestrial trophic magnification factors (TMFs). Sampling efforts for terrestrial field studies should strive for efficiency, and advice on optimization of study sample sizes, practical considerations for obtaining samples, selection of tissues for analysis, and data interpretation is provided. Although there is still much to be learned regarding terrestrial bioaccumulation, these recommendations provide some initial guidance to the present application of terrestrial field data as a line of evidence in the assessment of chemical bioaccumulation potential and a resource to inform laboratory and modeling efforts. PMID:26436822

  16. Metallothionein modulation in relation to cadmium bioaccumulation and age-dependent sensitivity of Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Toušová, Zuzana; Kuta, Jan; Hynek, David; Adam, Vojtěch; Kizek, René; Bláha, Luděk; Hilscherová, Klára

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to contribute to understanding of the mechanisms behind sensitivity differences between early and late instar larvae of Chironomus riparius and to address the influence of the differences in standard testing approaches on the toxicity evaluation. A 10-day contact sediment toxicity test was carried out to assess sensitivity to cadmium exposure in relation to different age and laboratory culture line origin of test organisms. Chironomid larvae of early (OECD 218 method) and late instar (US-EPA600/R-99/064 method) differed substantially in sensitivity of traditional endpoints (OECD: LOEC 50 and 10 μg Cd/g dry weight (dw); US-EPA: LOEC > 1000 and 100 μg Cd/g dw for survival and growth, respectively). Bioaccumulated cadmium and metallothioneins (MTs) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the role of MTs in reduced sensitivity to cadmium in late instar larvae. Metallothioneins were induced after treatment to greater Cd concentrations, but their levels in relation to cadmium body burdens did not fully explain low sensitivity of late instars to cadmium, which indicates some other effective way of detoxification in late instars. This study brings new information related to the role of MTs in age-dependent toxicant sensitivity and discusses the implications of divergence in data generated by chironomid sediment toxicity tests by standardized methods using different instars. PMID:26957427

  17. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  18. Mercury Bioaccumulation Potential from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Receiving Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

    2008-12-01

    In early 2007, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) mercury bioavailability project was initiated in response to the establishment of mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) criteria around the country. While many TMDLs recognize that point sources typically constitute a small fraction of the mercury load to a water body, the question was raised concerning the relative bioavailablity of mercury coming from various sources. For instance, is the mercury discharged from a wastewater treatment plant more or less bioavailable than mercury contributed from other sources? This talk will focus on the results of a study investigating approaches to the estimation of bioavailability and potential bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater treatment plants and other sources in receiving waters. From the outset, a working definition of bioavailability was developed which included not only methylmercury, the form that readily bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains, but also bioavailable inorganic mercury species that could be converted to methylmercury within a scientifically reasonable time frame. Factors that enhance or mitigate the transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury and its subsequent bioaccumulation were identified. Profiles were developed for various sources of mercury in watersheds, including wastewater treatment plants, with regard to methylmercury and inorganic bioavailable mercury, and the key factors that enhance or mitigate mercury bioavailability. Technologies that remove mercury from wastewater were reviewed and evaluated for their effect on bioavailability. A screening procedure was developed for making preliminary estimates of bioavailable mercury concentrations and fluxes in wastewater effluents and in fresh, estuarine and marine receiving waters. The procedure was validated using several diverse river and reservoir data sets. A "Bioavailability Tool" was developed which allows a user to estimate the bioavailability of an effluent and

  19. Bioaccumulation of organic contaminants by benthic invertebrates of the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, K.; Dickhut, R.

    1995-12-31

    In situ partitioning of PCBs and PAHs between benthic invertebrates and the environment has been compared to previously obtained laboratory bioaccumulation results. Previous laboratory studies show a characteristic nonlinear plot when bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are plotted against octanol-water partition coefficients (K{sub ow}), on a log-log scale. This phenomena can be explained by desorption and elimination kinetics. However preliminary in situ studies show a different relationship between field BAFs and K{sub ow} which may be explained by other biogeochemical factors. In situ and laboratory PAH and PCB partitioning measurements will be used to determine major mechanisms affecting contaminant bioaccumulation.

  20. POP bioaccumulation in macroinvertebrates of alpine freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Bizzotto, E C; Villa, S; Vighi, M

    2009-12-01

    This study serves to investigate the uptake of POPs in the different trophic levels (scrapers, collectors, predators, shredders) of macroinvertebrate communities sampled from a glacial and a non-glacial stream in the Italian Alps. The presented results show that the contaminant concentrations in glacial communities are generally higher compared to those from non-glacial catchments, highlighting the importance of glaciers as temporary sinks of atmospherically transported pollutants. Moreover, the data also suggests that in mountain systems snow plays an important role in influencing macroinvertebrate contamination. The main chemical uptake process to the macroinvertebrates is considered to be bioconcentration from water, as similar contaminant profiles were observed between the different trophic levels. The role of biomagnification/bioaccumulation is thought to be absent or negligible. The enrichment of chemicals observed in the predators is likely to be related to their greater lipid content compared to that of other feeding groups. PMID:19570599

  1. Bioaccumulation of hepatotoxins - a considerable risk in the Latvian environment.

    PubMed

    Barda, Ieva; Kankaanaää, Harri; Purina, Ingrida; Balode, Maija; Sjövall, Olli; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf of Riga, river Daugava and several interconnected lakes around the City of Riga, Latvia, form adynamic brackish-freshwater system favouring occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria. We examined bioaccumulation of microcystins and nodularin-R in aquatic organisms in Latvian lakes, the Gulf of Riga and west coast of open Baltic Sea in 2002-2007. The freshwater unionids accumulated toxins efficiently,followed by snails. In contrast, Dreissena polymorpha and most lake fishes (except roach) accumulated much less hepatotoxins. Significant nodularin-R concentrations were detected also in marine clams and flounders. No transfer of nodularin-R and microcystins between lake and brackish water systems took place. Lake mussels can transfer hepatotoxins to higher organisms, and also effectively remove toxins from the water column. Obvious health risks to aquatic organisms and humans are discussed. PMID:25463728

  2. Metal bioaccumulation in consumed marine bivalves in Southeast Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lino, A S; Galvão, P M A; Longo, R T L; Azevedo-Silva, C E; Dorneles, P R; Torres, J P M; Malm, O

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to investigate metal bioaccumulation by mussels (Perna perna) and Lion's Scallop (Nodipecten nodosus) farmed in tropical bays, in order to estimate spatial and temporal variation in the exposure to these elements, as well as human health risk. The concentration of each measured element was considered for this evaluation, using maximum residue level (MRL) in foods established by the Brazilian (ANVISA), American (USFDA) and European Communities (EC) legislations. Values for estimated daily ingestion (EDI) were determined for metals intake through mussel and scallop consumption. These estimates were compared with the reference value of (PTDI) proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). Trace elements concentration was measured on ninety mussels P. perna (tissue) and ninety Lion's Scallop N. nodosus (muscle and gonad) reared in four different tropical areas of the Southeast Brazilian coast, between 2009 and 2010. Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Chrome (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization. Cd and Mn were more efficiently bioaccumulated by scallops than mussels and the opposite was found for Fe, Cu and Ni. Guanabara Bay and Sepetiba Bay were considered the most impacted between ecosystems studied. Higher Cd values in Arraial do Cabo in the other sites studied were associated with upwelling that occurs in the region. Consumption of both species cannot be considered safe, because the Cu and Cr concentrations, in accordance with the limits established by the Brazilian Agency (ANVISA). On the other hand, any EDI value exceeded the corresponding value of the PTDI, proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:26854245

  3. Methylmercury in Marine Ecosystems: Spatial Patterns and Processes of Production, Bioaccumulation, and Biomagnification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia; Amirbahman, Aria; Fisher, Nicholas; Harding, Gareth; Lamborg, Carl; Nacci, Diane; Taylor, David

    2008-01-01

    The spatial variation of MeHg production, bioaccumulation and biomagnification in marine food webs is poorly characterized but critical to understanding the links between sources and higher trophic levels such as fish that are ultimately vectors of human and wildlife exposure. This paper discusses both large and local scale processes controlling Hg supply, methylation, bioaccumulation and transfer in marine ecosystems. While global estimates of Hg supply suggest important open ocean reservoirs of MeHg, only coastal processes and food webs are known sources of MeHg production, bioaccumulation, and bioadvection. The patterns observed to date suggest that not all sources and biotic receptors are spatially linked and that physical and ecological processes are important in transferring MeHg from source regions to bioaccumulation in marine food webs and from lower to higher trophic levels. PMID:19015919

  4. Optimizing the use of rainbow trout hepatocytes for bioaccumulation assessments with fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measured rates of biotransformation by cryopreserved trout hepatocytes can be extrapolated to the whole animal as a means of predicting metabolism impacts on chemical bioaccumulation. Future use of these methods within a regulatory context requires, however, that they be standar...

  5. DISTRIBUTION STUDY OF PERSISTENT, BIOACCUMULATIVE & TOXICS (PBTS) AT THE CALUMET WATER RECLAMATION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will determine the fate, transport and emission characteristics of selected persistent bioaccumulative compounds passing through a municipal waste treatment plant, including the sludge drying process. Compounds of interest include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PD...

  6. Selected Issues Associated with the Risk Assessment Process for Pesticides with Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Characteristics

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Scientific Advisory Panel meeting will address selected scientific issues associated with assessing the potential ecological risks resulting from use of a pesticide active ingredient which has persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) characteristics. EPA will pose speci...

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND METHYLMERCURY IN DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEM COMPARTMENTS IN THE EVERGLADES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) species distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments in the Everglades were analyzed at the landscape level in order to explore the implications of Hg distribution for Hg bioaccumulation, and to investigate major biogeochemical processes that are pertinent to t...

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

  9. Optimizing Stream Water Mercury Sampling for Calculation of Fish Bioaccumulation Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for game fishes are widely employed for monitoring, assessment, and regulatory purposes. Mercury BAFs are calculated as the fish Hg concentration (Hgfish) divided by the water Hg concentration (Hgwater) and, consequently, are sensitive ...

  10. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) from the German Wadden Sea.

    PubMed

    Jung, K; Zauke, G-P

    2008-07-30

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the suitability of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) from the German Wadden Sea as a biomonitor for the trace metals Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn and to analyse whether the two-compartment model sensu OECD could be used as a predictive tool to assess environmental quality. The tested decapods accumulated Cd and Pb upon exposure and it was possible to estimate significant model parameters of two-compartment models, while they did not respond to waterborn Cu and Zn. Kinetic BCFs at theoretical equilibrium were 860 for Cd and 750 for Pb. A tentative estimation showed the following sensitivity of C. crangon to an increase of soluble metal exposure: 0.4 microg Cd l(-1) and 0.9 microg Pb l(-1). Available information can be used to quantify a measure of agreement or disagreement between bioaccumulation in various decapods. This can be regarded as an important step in the calibration of biomonitors, which is necessary to assess the potential for bioaccumulation on different temporal and geographical scales. PMID:18571744

  11. Sensitivity of risk estimates to wildlife bioaccumulation factors in ecological risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Karustis, C.G.; Brewer, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The concept of conservatism in risk assessment is well established. However, overly conservative assumptions may result in risk estimates that incorrectly predict remediation goals. Therefore, realistic assumptions should be applied in risk assessment whenever possible. A sensitivity analysis was performed on conservative (i.e. bioaccumulation factor = 1) and scientifically-derived wildlife bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) utilized to calculate risks during a terrestrial ecological risk assessment (ERA). In the first approach, 100% bioaccumulation of contaminants was assumed to estimate the transfer of contaminants through the terrestrial food chain. In the second approach, scientifically-derived BAFs were selected from the literature. For one of the measurement species selected, total risks calculated during the first approach were higher than those calculated during the second approach by two orders of magnitude. However, potential risks due to individual contaminants were not necessarily higher using the conservative approach. Potential risk due to contaminants with low actual bioaccumulation were exaggerated while potential risks due to contaminants with greater than 100% bioaccumulation were underestimated. Therefore, the use of a default of 100% bioaccumulation (BAF = 1) for all contaminants encountered during an ERA could result in cases where contaminants are incorrectly identified as risk drivers, and the calculation of incorrect ecological risk-based cleanup goals. The authors suggest using site-specific or literature-derived BAFs whenever possible and realistic BAF estimates, based upon factors such as log K{sub ow}, when BAFs are unavailable.

  12. Apparent bioaccumulation of cylindrospermopsin and paralytic shellfish toxins by finfish in Lake Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Berry, J P; Jaja-Chimedza, A; Dávalos-Lind, L; Lind, O

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the well-characterized health threats associated with contamination of fish and shellfish by algal toxins in marine fisheries, the toxicological relevance of the bioaccumulation of toxins from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), as the primary toxigenic algae in freshwater systems, remains relatively unknown. Lake Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico) is a small, tropical lake system specifically characterized by a year-round dominance of the known toxigenic cyanobacterial genus, Cylindrospermopsis, and by low, but detectable, levels of both a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN), and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). In the present study, we evaluated, using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), levels of both toxins in several species of finfish caught and consumed locally in the region to investigate the bioaccumulation of, and possible health threats associated with, these toxins as potential foodborne contaminants. ELISA detected levels of both CYN and PSTs in fish tissues from the lake. Levels were generally low (≤ 1 ng g(-1) tissue); however, calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) indicate that toxin levels exceed the rather low levels in the water column and, consequently, indicated bioaccumulation (BAF >1). A reasonable correlation was observed between measured bioaccumulation of CYN and PSTs, possibly indicating a mutual source of both toxins, and most likely cells of Cylindrospermopsis, the dominant cyanobacteria in the lake, and a known producer of both metabolites. The potential roles of trophic transport in the system, as well as possible implications for human health with regards to bioaccumulation, are discussed. PMID:21838624

  13. Great Lakes water quality initiative technical support document for the procedure to determine bioaccumulation factors. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the document is to provide the technical information and rationale in support of the proposed procedures to determine bioaccumulation factors. Bioaccumulation factors, together with the quantity of aquatic organisms eaten, determine the extent to which people and wildlife are exposed to chemicals through the consumption of aquatic organisms. The more bioaccumulative a pollutant is, the more important the consumption of aquatic organisms becomes as a potential source of contaminants to humans and wildlife. Bioaccumulation factors are needed to determine both human health and wildlife tier I water quality criteria and tier II values. Also, they are used to define Bioaccumulative Chemicals of Concern among the Great Lakes Initiative universe of pollutants. Bioaccumulation factors range from less than one to several million.

  14. Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Simpson, Stuart L

    2014-07-01

    Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated that a biokinetic model of cadmium bioaccumulation for M. australiense could potentially be used to describe the metal bioaccumulation of the other two prawn species, albeit with an over-prediction of 3-9 times. Despite these being the same genus of decapod crustacean, the study highlights the issues with using surrogate species, even under controlled laboratory conditions. It is recommended that future studies using surrogate species quantify the

  15. Optimizing fish sampling for fish - mercury bioaccumulation factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Knightes, Christopher D.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chasar, Lia C.; Brigham, Mark E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Fish Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs; ratios of mercury (Hg) in fish (Hgfish) and water (Hgwater)) are used to develop Total Maximum Daily Load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Both applications require representative Hgfish estimates and, thus, are sensitive to sampling and data-treatment methods. Data collected by fixed protocol from 11 streams in 5 states distributed across the US were used to assess the effects of Hgfish normalization/standardization methods and fish sample numbers on BAF estimates. Fish length, followed by weight, was most correlated to adult top-predator Hgfish. Site-specific BAFs based on length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates demonstrated up to 50% less variability than those based on non-normalized Hgfish. Permutation analysis indicated that length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates based on at least 8 trout or 5 bass resulted in mean Hgfish coefficients of variation less than 20%. These results are intended to support regulatory mercury monitoring and load-reduction program improvements.

  16. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  17. Mercury and Arsenic Bioaccumulation and Eutrophication in Baiyangdian Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C.Y.; Pickhardt, P.C.; Xu, M.Q.; Folt, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Hg and As are widespread contaminants globally and particularly in Asia. We conducted a field study in Baiyangdian Lake, the largest lake in the North China Plain, to investigate bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of potentially toxic metals (total mercury and arsenic) in sites differing in proximity from the major point sources of nutrients and metals. Hg concentrations in fish and As concentrations in water are above critical threshold levels (US Environmental Protection Agency based) considered to pose some risk to humans and wildlife. Hg concentrations in biota are within the range of concentrations in lakes in the Northeast US despite the high levels of Hg emission and deposition in China whereas As concentrations are much higher. Dissolved concentrations of both Hg and As decrease with increasing chlorophyll concentrations suggesting that there is significant uptake of metal from water by algae. These results provide evidence for algal blooms controlling dissolved metal concentrations and potentially mitigating the trophic transfer of Hg to fish. This study also underscores the need for further investigation into this contaminated ecosystem and others like it in China that are an important source of fish and drinking water for consumption by local human populations. PMID:25705061

  18. Persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyfluorfen residues in onion.

    PubMed

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2010-03-01

    A field study was conducted to determine persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyflorfen residues in onion crop at two growth stages. Oxyfluorfen (23.5% EC) was sprayed at 250 and 500 g ai/ha on the crop (variety, N53). Mature onion and soil samples were collected at harvest. Green onion were collected at 55 days from each treated and control plot and analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with an accepted recovery of 78-92% at the minimum detectable concentration of 0.003 microg g(-1). Analysis showed 0.015 and 0.005 microg g(-1) residues of oxyfluorfen at 250 g a.i. ha(-1) rate in green and mature onion samples, respectively; however, at 500 g a.i.ha(-1) rates, 0.025 and 0.011 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues were detected in green and mature onion samples, respectively. Soil samples collected at harvest showed 0.003 and 0.003 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues at the doses 250 and 500 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. From the study, a pre-harvest interval of 118 days for onion crop after the herbicide application is suggested. PMID:19238567

  19. Temporal trends in organic contaminant bioaccumulation in Boston Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.P.; Connor, M.S.; Downey, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1987 the MWRA has used in situ caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) to assess organic contaminant (PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides) bioaccumulation resulting from the primary treatment discharge of its Deer Island POTW. Results indicate a substantial reduction in many contaminants, most notably the Low Molecular Weight (petrogenic) PAHs which are clearly associated with the Deer Island discharge. NOAA `Mussel Watch` and other fish tissue contaminant data are used to support the observation of these decreases. Effluent water quality data and concurrent mussel body burden data from dirty and clean control sites are used to interpret the trends and elucidate the contamination sources. During the same time frame histopathological analyses of winter flounder collected in proximity to the Deer Island discharge have shown a marked reduction in liver lesions and other contaminant related diseases. More recently (since 1992) slight elevations in chlordane, dieldrin, and total DDTs have been noted in mussel, flounder, and lobster tissue collected from Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay. The authors discuss the possibility that remobilization of contaminants from the sediments may be a source of this apparent increase.

  20. Triclosan: current status, occurrence, environmental risks and bioaccumulation potential.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Kaur, Surinder; Pulicharla, Rama; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Cledón, Maximiliano; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2015-05-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a multi-purpose antimicrobial agent used as a common ingredient in everyday household personal care and consumer products. The expanded use of TCS provides a number of pathways for the compound to enter the environment and it has been detected in sewage treatment plant effluents; surface; ground and drinking water. The physico-chemical properties indicate the bioaccumulation and persistence potential of TCS in the environment. Hence, there is an increasing concern about the presence of TCS in the environment and its potential negative effects on human and animal health. Nevertheless, scarce monitoring data could be one reason for not prioritizing TCS as emerging contaminant. Conventional water and wastewater treatment processes are unable to completely remove the TCS and even form toxic intermediates. Considering the worldwide application of personal care products containing TCS and inefficient removal and its toxic effects on aquatic organisms, the compound should be considered on the priority list of emerging contaminants and its utilization in all products should be regulated. PMID:26006133

  1. Triclosan: Current Status, Occurrence, Environmental Risks and Bioaccumulation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Kaur, Surinder; Pulicharla, Rama; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Cledón, Maximiliano; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y.

    2015-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a multi-purpose antimicrobial agent used as a common ingredient in everyday household personal care and consumer products. The expanded use of TCS provides a number of pathways for the compound to enter the environment and it has been detected in sewage treatment plant effluents; surface; ground and drinking water. The physico-chemical properties indicate the bioaccumulation and persistence potential of TCS in the environment. Hence, there is an increasing concern about the presence of TCS in the environment and its potential negative effects on human and animal health. Nevertheless, scarce monitoring data could be one reason for not prioritizing TCS as emerging contaminant. Conventional water and wastewater treatment processes are unable to completely remove the TCS and even form toxic intermediates. Considering the worldwide application of personal care products containing TCS and inefficient removal and its toxic effects on aquatic organisms, the compound should be considered on the priority list of emerging contaminants and its utilization in all products should be regulated. PMID:26006133

  2. Optimizing fish sampling for fish-mercury bioaccumulation factors.

    PubMed

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C; Riva-Murray, Karen; Knightes, Christopher D; Journey, Celeste A; Chasar, Lia C; Brigham, Mark E; Bradley, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Fish Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs; ratios of mercury (Hg) in fish (Hgfish) and water (Hgwater)) are used to develop total maximum daily load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Both applications require representative Hgfish estimates and, thus, are sensitive to sampling and data-treatment methods. Data collected by fixed protocol from 11 streams in 5 states distributed across the US were used to assess the effects of Hgfish normalization/standardization methods and fish-sample numbers on BAF estimates. Fish length, followed by weight, was most correlated to adult top-predator Hgfish. Site-specific BAFs based on length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates demonstrated up to 50% less variability than those based on non-normalized Hgfish. Permutation analysis indicated that length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates based on at least 8 trout or 5 bass resulted in mean Hgfish coefficients of variation less than 20%. These results are intended to support regulatory mercury monitoring and load-reduction program improvements. PMID:25592462

  3. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Clayden, Meredith G; Arsenault, Lilianne M; Kidd, Karen A; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-03-15

    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web - using the slope of log MeHg versus δ(15)N - was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. PMID:25149682

  4. Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Chloroform to Four Species of Freshwater Fish

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1980-08-01

    Acute toxicity of chloroform to four species of freshwater fish was studied in flow-through 96-hr toxicity tests. Chloroform is toxic to fish in the tens of parts per million, a concentration well above that which would be expected to be produced under normal power plant chlorination conditions. Investigations of acute toxicity of chloroform and the bioaccumulation of chlorinated compounds in tissues of fish revealed differences in tolerance levels and tissue accumulations. Mean 96-hr LC{sub 50}s for chloroform were 18 ppm for rainbow trout and bluegill, 51 ppm for largemouth bass and 75 ppm for channel catfish. Mortalities of bluegill and largemouth bass occurred during the first 4 hr of exposure while rainbow trout and channel catfish showed initial tolerance and mortalities occurred during the latter half of the 96-hr exposure. Rainbow trout had the highest level of chloroform tissue accumulation, 7 {micro}g/g tissue, catfish the second highest, 4 {micro}g/g tissue, followed by bluegill and largemouth bass which each accumulated about 3 {micro}g/g tissue. Accumulation of chloroform was less than one order of magnitude above water concentrations for all species.

  5. STEM-in-SEM high resolution imaging of gold nanoparticles and bivalve tissues in bioaccumulation experiments.

    PubMed

    García-Negrete, C A; Jiménez de Haro, M C; Blasco, J; Soto, M; Fernández, A

    2015-05-01

    The methodology termed scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy (STEM-in-SEM) has been used in this work to study the uptake of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) (average particle sizes of 23.5 ± 4.0 nm) into tissue samples upon in vitro exposure of the dissected gills of the Ruditapes philippinarum marine bivalve to the nanoparticle suspensions. The STEM-in-SEM methodology has been optimized for achieving optimum resolution under SEM low voltage operating conditions (20-30 kV). Based on scanning microscope assessments and resolution testing (SMART), resolutions well below 10 nm were appropriately achieved by working at magnifications over 100k×, with experimental sample thickness between 300 and 200 nm. These relatively thick slices appear to be stable under the beam and help avoid NP displacement during cutting. We herein show that both localizing of the internalized nanoparticles and imaging of ultrastructural disturbances in gill tissues are strongly accessible due to the improved resolution, even at sample thicknesses higher than those normally employed in standard TEM techniques at higher voltages. Ultrastructural imaging of bio-nano features in bioaccumulation experiments have been demonstrated in this study. PMID:25685960

  6. Bioaccumulative characteristics of hexabromocyclododecanes in freshwater species from an electronic waste recycling area in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Yang, Fangxing; Luo, Caihong; Wen, Sheng; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Ying

    2009-09-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are now emerging ubiquitous contaminants due to their wide usage, persistence and toxicities. To investigate the bioaccumulative characteristics of HBCDs, sediments, Winkle (Littorina littorea), crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) were collected from two streams near an E-waste dismantling site in China, and HBCD exposure test was then conducted on Chinese rare minnow. The concentration of HBCDs was 14 ng g(-1) dry weight in sediments, 186, 377 and 1791 ng g(-1) lipid weight in winkle, crucian carp and loach, respectively. gamma-HBCD was found to be the dominant diastereoisomer in the sediments (63% of total HBCDs). However, alpha-HBCD was selectively accumulated in the biotic samples and contributed to 77%, 63% and 63% of total HBCDs in winkle, crucian carp and loach, respectively. Moreover, an enrichment of (-)-enantiomers of alpha- and gamma-HBCD were found in the winkle. The reverse results were observed in the crucian carp and loach. Similar observations of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric composition were obtained in Chinese rare minnow with those found in the crucian carp and loach. These results indicate that the freshwater species from the streams are contaminated by HBCDs. alpha-HBCD can be selectively accumulated in organisms and the accumulative characteristics are enantioselective among species. PMID:19616822

  7. Methylmercury cycling, bioaccumulation, and export from agricultural and non-agricultural wetlands in the Yolo Bypass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Fleck, Jacob; Alpers, Charles N.; Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Stricker, Craig; Stephenson, Mark; Feliz, David; Gill, Gary; Bachand, Philip; Brice, Ann; Kulakow, Robin

    2010-01-01

    d) Identification and testing of potential management approaches for reducing MeHg contamination. In addition, the quantitative results reported here assess the effect of current land use practices in the Yolo Bypass MeHg production, bioaccumulation and export, and provide process-based advice towards achieving current goals of the RWQCB-CVR's Sacramento -- San Joaquin Delta Estuary TMDL for Methyl & Total Mercury (Wood et al., 2010b). Further work is necessary to evaluate biotic exposure in the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area at higher trophic levels (e.g. birds), to quantify winter hydrologic flux of MeHg to the larger Delta ecosystem, and to evaluate rice straw management options to limit labile carbon supplies to surface sediment during winter months. In summary, agricultural management of rice fields -- specifically the periodic flooding and production of easily degraded organic matter -- promotes the production of MeHg beyond rates seen in naturally vegetated wetlands, whether seasonally or permanently flooded., The exported load from MeHg from these agricultural wetlands may be controlled by limiting hydrologic export from fields to enhance on-site MeHg removal processes, but the tradeoff is that this impoundement increases Me Hg exposure to resident organisms.

  8. Bioaccumulation of thallium in an agricultural soil as affected by solid-phase association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The work focused on the biogeochemical behavior of synthetic Tl modified phases, namely birnessite, ferrihydrite, and calcite, in a neutral soil Leptosol. The data presented here clearly demonstrate a strong relationship between the mineralogical position of Tl in the soil and its uptake by the studied plant (Sinapis alba L.). All tested Tl phases behaved as potential Tl sources in the rhizosphere, with a maximum for ferrihydrite and minimum for birnessite. Therefore, it can be concluded that Mn(III,IV) oxides, if present in the soil system, may reduce biological uptake of Tl to a substantial degree, including the case of Tl-accumulating species (i.e., Brassicaceae). It was proven that even Tl-enriched calcite present in the carbonate-rich soil is an important precursor for further contaminant mobilization, despite its relative resistance to degradation. Our data indicate that the fate of secondary Tl phases in the rhizosphere might be significantly influenced by the pH of the soil matrix, i.e., soils with lower pHs reduce their stability, making them more susceptible to further degradation by root exudates. Bulk soil mineralogy and the content and quality of SOM are thus suggested to be critical parameters controlling the bioaccumulation potential for Tl. This research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (grant no. 14-01866S).

  9. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies. PMID:24112626

  10. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of soil PCBs in crickets: Comparison of laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, J.M.; McKee, M.J.; Ryan, M.E. . Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. and Dept. of Zoology)

    1993-11-01

    Laboratory and field studies were used to investigate toxicity and bioaccumulation of PCBs in crickets exposed to contaminated soil. A 14-d laboratory soil bioassay with the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) yielded an LC50 of 1,200 ppm Aroclor 1254. Mean whole-body concentrations of Aroclor 1254 in exposed crickets were 11, 48, 92, 149, and 144 ppm for soil test concentrations of 100, 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm, respectively. A whole-body concentration of about 150 ppm appears to be a threshold concentration above which acute mortality will be observed. House crickets placed in cages on a PCB-contaminated landfill accumulated 1.6 and 0.9 ppm of PCBs after 3 and 7 d of exposure, respectively. Although this represents a rapid uptake of PCBs, whole-body concentrations remained considerably below levels expected to cause acute mortality. Abundance of another species, the field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus), was investigated using pitfall traps placed at the PCB-contaminated landfill and a reference site. No adverse effect on abundance was observed at the contaminated site, nor was pitfall trap success correlated to soil PCB concentration. These data indicate that PCBs in soil can rapidly move into epigeic fauna but that the likelihood of acquiring sufficient body burdens to cause acute mortality is low.

  11. Influence of carbon nanotubes on pyrene bioaccumulation from contaminated soils by earthworms.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Elijah J; Pinto, Roger A; Landrum, Peter F; Weber, Walter J

    2009-06-01

    Increasing production of and application potentials for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suggest these materials will enter soil and sediment ecosystems in significant masses in upcoming years. This may result in ecological risks, either from the presence of the CNTs themselves or, given their exceptional sorption capacities, from their effects on the fate and accumulation of concurrently present hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs). Here we test the influence of additions of single-walled CNTs (SWNTs) and multi-walled CNTs (MWNTs) to two different pyrene-contaminated soils on uptake of this HOC by earthworms (Eisenia foetida). The effects of nanotube additions to the soils were observed to be CNT concentration dependent, with 0.3 mg nanotubes per gram of soil having no impact, while 3.0 mg/g of SWNTs or MWNTs substantially decreased pyrene bioaccumulation from both contaminated soils. The presence of CNTs also affected pyrene elimination rates. After a 14-day exposure to pyrene-spiked soils, earthworms showed enhanced elimination rates in soils amended with 3.0 mg CNT/g but not 0.3 mg CNT/g. These results suggest that the presence of SWNTs or MWNTs in terrestrial ecosystems will have concentration-dependent effects on decreasing HOC accumulation by earthworms in a manner similar to that expected of most "hard" carbons. PMID:19569349

  12. Critical body residues, Michaelis-Menten analysis of bioaccumulation, lethality and behaviour as endpoints of waterborne Ni toxicity in two teleosts.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Erin M; Marentette, Julie R; Balshine, Sigal; Wood, Chris M

    2014-03-01

    Traditionally, water quality guidelines/criteria are based on lethality tests where results are expressed as a function of waterborne concentrations (e.g. LC50). However, there is growing interest in the use of uptake and binding relationships, such as biotic ligand models (BLM), and in bioaccumulation parameters, such as critical body residue values (e.g. CBR50), to predict metal toxicity in aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, all these approaches only protect species against physiological death (e.g. mortality, failed recruitment), and do not consider ecological death which can occur at much lower concentrations when the animal cannot perform normal behaviours essential for survival. Therefore, we investigated acute (96 h) Ni toxicity in two freshwater fish species, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and compared LC, BLM, and CBR parameters for various organs, as well as behavioural responses (spontaneous activity). In general, round goby were more sensitive. Ni bioaccumulation displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in most tissues, and round goby gills had lower Kd (higher binding affinity) but similar Bmax (binding site density) values relative to rainbow trout gills. Round goby also accumulated more Ni than did trout in most tissues at a given exposure concentration. Organ-specific 96 h acute CBR values tended to be higher in round goby but 96 h acute CBR50 and CBR10 values in the gills were very similar in the two species. In contrast, LC50 and LC10 values were significantly higher in rainbow trout. With respect to BLM parameters, gill log KNiBL values for bioaccumulation were higher by 0.4-0.8 log units than the log KNiBL values for toxicity in both species, and both values were higher in goby (more sensitive). Round goby were also more sensitive with respect to the behavioural response, exhibiting a significant decline of 63-75 % in movements per minute at Ni concentrations at and above only 8 % of the LC50 value

  13. A study of bioaccumulation occurring in a spatial and temporal aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Bartell, S.M.; Miller, L.F.

    1995-12-31

    The impacts of spatial, temporal, and hydrodynamics on the bioaccumulation in the Chernobyl cooling lake were evaluated using a two-dimensional aquatic exposure assessment model. The model framework integrated spatial and temporal heterogeneity effects of radioactive environments, changes in abundance and distribution of aquatic populations, spatial and temporal dependent (or density-dependent) radionuclide ingestion rates, and population biomass changes. Plankton population growth was integrated into the hydrodynamic-transport model to determine the plankton biomass density change and distributions. The exposure estimation was conducted in a two-dimensional finite element mesh which was used in the hydrodynamic-transport model. Results indicated that bioaccumulation factors with the assumption of steady-state and homogeneous conditions significantly over-estimated the radionuclide concentration accumulated in fish. The impacts of changes of biomass distributions and variable ingestion rates on the bioaccumulation varied spatially and temporally. Results also revealed that a higher radiobiological turn-over rate could be a dominate factor in determining the radionuclide fate in biota when the ecological processes, such as population growth, were relatively slow. Two different predator-prey relationships were applied. Their impacts on the bioaccumulation of fish varied spatially and temporally. Overall, the results suggest that a more realistic physical description of contaminated environments and ecosystems is necessary in studying bioaccumulation occurring in nature.

  14. Role of benthic communities in organic contaminant transport and fate. 2: Bioaccumulation and biotransformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dickhut, R.M.; Schaffner, L.C.; Lay, P.W.; Mitra, S. |

    1994-12-31

    Numerous macrobenthic organisms from lower Chesapeake Bay have been observed to rapidly accumulate and transform a series of organic contaminants (OCs). Bioaccumulation and biotransformation vary both within and among major taxa, and with the OC physical-chemical properties. Bioaccumulation of OCs is rapid for various organisms regardless of feeding behavior indicating that uptake of contaminants from the dissolved phase may be important. Comparison of OC and metabolite body burdens to those in the corresponding sediment indicate three types of behavior for OC fluxes through the organisms over 56 days of exposure to contaminated sediments: steady state between contaminant uptake and elimination, faster uptake than elimination corresponding to bioaccumulation, and rapid loss relative to uptake, with decreasing bioaccumulation factors with time. OC loss mechanisms from operationally defined detectable pools in benthic biota may include: elimination of parent compound or metabolites, and binding of reactive metabolites to cellular structures. OC metabolite production and loss rates in benthic macrofauna from Chesapeake Bay are currently under investigation. Bioaccumulation and transformation of OCs by benthic organisms are of importance in determining their effects, including trophic transfer of organic pollutants, on aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Organochlorine bioaccumulation and trophic transfer model for the pilot whale in the northwest Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    The goals of this project were: (1) to determine the level of organochlorine exposure to pilot whales; (2) to identify tissue and individual bioaccumulation patterns, and (3) to develop a predictive model to approximate contaminant bioaccumulation into blubber. Samples from eighteen pilot whales beached in 1990--91 on Cape Cod, MA were analyzed by GC/ECD and GC/MS for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Individual congeners and total PCBs were identified and found to be high (ppm range) in several individuals. Blubber and liver differences in metabolizable PCB congeners correlate with differences in CYP 1A abundance and activity in mature vs. immature animals. ANOVA and cluster analyses were performed to identify specific bioaccumulation patterns. Pod or exposure conditions appear to be the most important factor in bioaccumulation in these whales. Maturity level, gender, and metabolizability also seem to influence bioaccumulation in various tissues. These patterns were applied in the development of a steady state mass balance model, which focuses on exposure differences rather than metabolic and gender influences. Using a range of environmental contaminant concentrations for seawater, plankton, squid and fish, the model`s low range of output values best approximated blubber residues.

  16. Significance of Xenobiotic Metabolism for Bioaccumulation Kinetics of Organic Chemicals in Gammarus pulex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and biotransformation are key toxicokinetic processes that modify toxicity of chemicals and sensitivity of organisms. Bioaccumulation kinetics vary greatly among organisms and chemicals; thus, we investigated the influence of biotransformation kinetics on bioaccumulation in a model aquatic invertebrate using fifteen 14C-labeled organic xenobiotics from diverse chemical classes and physicochemical properties (1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, imidacloprid, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol, ethylacrylate, malathion, chlorpyrifos, aldicarb, carbofuran, carbaryl, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, 4-nitrobenzyl-chloride, 2,4-dichloroaniline, and sea-nine (4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-3-isothiazolone)). We detected and identified metabolites using HPLC with UV and radio-detection as well as high resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap). Kinetics of uptake, biotransformation, and elimination of parent compounds and metabolites were modeled with a first-order one-compartment model. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated for parent compounds and metabolite enrichment factors for metabolites. Out of 19 detected metabolites, we identified seven by standards or accurate mass measurements and two via pathway analysis and analogies to other compounds. 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene, imidacloprid, and 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol were not biotransformed. Dietary uptake contributed little to overall uptake. Differentiation between parent and metabolites increased accuracy of bioaccumulation parameters compared to total 14C measurements. Biotransformation dominated toxicokinetics and strongly affected internal concentrations of parent compounds and metabolites. Many metabolites reached higher internal concentrations than their parents, characterized by large metabolite enrichment factors. PMID:22321051

  17. The role of exopolymeric substances in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles to algae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaijun; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag(+), C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces. With EPS removed, the total bioaccumulations and surface adsorptions for the three Ag species decreased but the cell internalizations increased; the 96 h half growth inhibition concentrations decreased, indicating EPS alleviated the algal toxicity of Ag. The cell-internalized but not the adsorbed AgNPs could contribute to the nanotoxicity. The EPS could bind both AgNPs and Ag(+), and thus inhibited the cell internalization and the nanotoxicity. However, the EPS-bound Ag on the cell surfaces would migrate along with the algae and be biologically amplified in the aquatic food chains, presenting ecological risks. These results are helpful for understanding the fate and ecological effects of NPs. PMID:27615743

  18. Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes. PMID:25015225

  19. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-01

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  20. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  1. Bioaccumulation of Cu-complex reactive dye by growing pellets of Penicillium oxalicum and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xin, Baoping; Chen, Gang; Zheng, Wenchai

    2010-06-01

    In this paper bioaccumulation of Cu-complex reactive dye by growing pellets of Penicillium oxalicum and its mechanism was investigated. Shaking flasks experiment showed that 99.7% of dye removal at 400 mg/l was attained after 48 h contact. Column reactor experiment showed that air lift ferment tower was a suitable reactor for both pellets formation and dye bioaccumulation. Repeated inoculation of the dye-loaded pellets accelerated dye bioaccumulation, leading to complete dye removal within 12 h. Dye initially was adsorbed on surface of cell, followed by penetration into cytoplasm. During bioaccumulation, mycelium expanded unevenly and thickened locally in diameter, generating a chain of spindles along the mycelium. In addition, the cell walls grew loose and thickened remarkably, being 4-5 folds as thick as the control one. The loose cell wall may offer both dye accumulation space and route way for dye to enter cytoplasm. There were certain unknown active matters in cytoplasm, which played an important role in dye accumulation. Desorption experiments suggested that electrostatic attraction was mainly attributed to the dye bioaccumulation. PMID:20421123

  2. The role of lipids in the bioaccumulation of hydrophobic chemicals in phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Pfaff, J.

    1995-12-31

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds such as PCBs in aquatic foodwebs is largely controlled by partitioning of the chemical from water to the organism`s lipids. Thus bioaccumulation is modeled as a function of the octanol-water partition coefficient, Kow. However, data from this laboratory have shown that the bioaccumulation of PCBs in phytoplankton is not a simple function of Kow. Specifically, less hydrophobic compounds have bioaccumulation factors greater than predicted by Kow, and very hydrophobic chemicals have bioaccumulation factors independent of Kow. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the types of lipids found in phytoplankton, whether certain compounds had preferences for different types of lipids, and whether Kow is a good surrogate for phytoplankton lipid-water partition coefficients. The results indicate that phytoplankton lipids vary significantly in composition compared to fish lipids; compounds with different hydrophobicities have different affinities for different lipid compounds; and that lipid-water partition coefficients for polar lipids are less than Kow and may plateau at a maximum value.

  3. Bioaccumulation of mycotoxins by shellfish: contamination of mussels by metabolites of a Trichoderma koningii strain isolated in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, C; Pouchus, Y F; Bardouil, M; Lassus, P; Roquebert, M F; Verbist, J F

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether toxic metabolites produced by fungi could cause shellfish toxicities, mussels were contaminated in laboratory conditions by sterile filtrates of a liquid culture of a strain of the fungus Trichoderma koningii previously isolated from a shellfish, the cockle (Cerastoderma edule). Mussels were kept in aerated natural seawater and fed with a culture of the microalga Isochrysis galbana, to which a filtrate of liquid fungal culture was added. Mussels were exposed to contamination for 7 days at 16 or 20 degrees C and extractions were then performed and their activity tested on blowfly larvae. The same toxicity was found in the fungal filtrate and the shellfish, indicating bioaccumulation. The digestive gland was the most toxic part of the mussel, confirming contamination by filtration. Treated mussels produced a mucus which appeared to be a means of eliminating toxic metabolites. PMID:9920482

  4. Prediction of ecotoxicological behavior of chemicals: relationship between n-octanol/water partition coefficient and bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by alga Chlorella

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, H.; Politzki, G.; Freitag, D.

    1984-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals by the green alga Chlorella fusca was determined. A quantitative relationship was found to exist between the lipophilicity (n-octanol/water partition coefficient) of the chemicals and the bioaccumulation factor.

  5. Bioaccumulation of metals in fish of Salmonidae family and the impact on fish meat quality.

    PubMed

    Alibabić, Vildana; Vahcić, Nada; Bajramović, Melisa

    2007-08-01

    The study was aimed at determining the levels of metals in water samples and muscles of the fish caught in the Una River basin, located in the northwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. For that purpose, three fish species: Brown Trout (Salmo trutta m. fario), Grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Californian Trout (Salmo gairdneri), together with stem water samples, were analyzed for metal concentrations (Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Se, Co, Sn, Zn, Fe, Ca, P) during a 2-year period. The fish was captured using electric fishing, nets or fishing equipment. The capture was undertaken on three sites (the river source, the middle flow and the river mouth) of each of the five biggest rivers belonging to the Una River basin (Unac, Krusnica, Sana, Klokot, and Una). The concentrations of metals in each sample were determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In the tested waters, the presence of Mn in concentrations higher than permitted (0.07 mg/l) had been detected. In the tested meat, the following average concentrations of metals (mg/kg) had been found: Pb (0.67), Cd (0.06), Mn (0.65), Ni (0.15), Cu (0.79), Cr (1.05), Se (0.03), Zn (8.92), Fe (5.40), Ca (14.68), and P (10.85). The correlation between Mn concentrations identified in the tested waters and those identified in the meat of Brown Trout was revealed to be statistically significant, which confirms that, over time, bioaccumulation of metals took place. Even though the results were not indicative of contamination, they strongly suggest that constant monitoring of the ecosystems in reference should be implemented. PMID:17171264

  6. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Bernard; Renoux, Agnès Y; Sarrazin, Manon; Hawari, Jalal; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2004-06-01

    Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT) were tested separately in adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) following a 14-d exposure to amended sandy loam forest soil. TNT, 4-ADNT, and 2-ADNT were lethal to earthworms (14-d LC(50) were: 580, 531 and 1088 micromol kg(-1), or 132, 105 and 215 mgkg(-1) dry soil, respectively) and gave the following order of toxicity: 4-ADNT>TNT>2-ADNT. Exposure to 2,4-DANT and to 2,6-DANT caused no mortality at 600 micromol kg(-1) or 100 mgkg(-1) dry soil. We found that all four TNT reduction products accumulated in earthworm tissues and 2-ADNT reached the highest levels at 3.0+/-0.3 micromol g(-1) tissue. The 14-d bioaccumulation factors were 5.1, 6.4, 5.1 and 3.2 for 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, 2,4-DANT and 2,6-DANT, respectively. Results also suggest that some TNT metabolites are at least as toxic as TNT and should be considered when evaluating the overall toxicity of TNT-contaminated soil to earthworms. PMID:15081777

  7. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins.

    PubMed

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/gd.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/gd.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04-0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. PMID:25777957

  8. Bioaccumulation of selenium in birds at Kesterson Reservoir, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Hothem, R.L.; Bunck, C.M.; Marois, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine selenium (Se) concentrations in tissues of birds collected during the 1983-1985 nesting seasons at Kesterson Reservoir (an area receiving high-Se irrigation drainage water), compare them with birds from reference sites within California's Central Valley, and relate them to food-chain Se concentrations at the study sites. Within years, Se in livers of adult birds collected early and late in the nesting season changed significantly at both Kesterson and the primary reference site (Volta Wildlife Area). These changes were related to the length of time birds had been present at the study sites and the associated accumulation (at Kesterson) or depuration (at Volta) of Se. All species showed significant location differences, which were greatest in species that occurred at Kesterson throughout the year or fed more consistently within the reservoir. There were few species differences in Se for birds at the reference sites (where food-chain Se levels were 'normal' [ 50 ?/g Se/g), species patterns varied by year, probably because of varying periods of residence and other factors. Se concentrations in kidneys and livers of American coots (Fulica americana) were significantly correlated (r = 0.9845); Se concentrations in breast muscles and livers of juvenile ducks (Anas spp.) also were correlated (r = 0.8280). Body weights of adult coots were negatively correlated with liver Se concentration. Late-season resident breeding birds or pre-fledging juvenile birds reared at a site usually provided the best indication of site-specific Se bioaccumulation.

  9. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides in fertilized Canadian Shield lake basins.

    PubMed

    Bird, G A; Hesslein, R H; Mills, K H; Schwartz, W J; Turner, M A

    1998-07-11

    Radionuclide tracers of heavy metals (59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 85Sr, 134Cs and 203Hg) representing potential contamination from nuclear power plants, industry and agriculture were added to separate basins of Lake 226, Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. The two basins were part of a eutrophication experiment and differed in their trophic status; the north basin (L226N) was eutrophic whereas the south basin (L226S) was mesotrophic. Our objective was to determine the uptake of the radionuclides by biota and the effect of lake trophic status on their bioaccumulation. The trophic status of the lakes did not appear to have a marked effect on the accumulation of radionuclides by the biota. This may have been because of a mid-summer leakage of nutrients between the basins which enhanced primary production in L226S, because there is a time lag between primary production and the availability of the radionuclides to the fishes or because trophic status does not affect the uptake of at least some of these radionuclides. However, there was a tendency for faster uptake of the radionuclides in L226N by fish than L226S, but the differences were not significant. Concentrations in the biota generally decreased in the order: fathead minnow > pearl dace > tadpoles > slimy sculpin > leeches. Concentrations in biota generally decreased in the order. 65Zn > 203Hg > 75Se > 134Cs > 60Co > 85Sr = 59Fe. Cobalt-60 concentrations in tadpoles were greater than in the other biota. Radionuclide concentrations in the tissues of lake whitefish indicated that uptake was predominantly from food. Radionuclide concentrations were usually higher in the posterior gut, liver and kidney than in other tissues, whereas body burdens were generally high in the muscle for 75Se, 134Cs and 203Hg; kidney and gut for 60Co; and bone for 65Zn and 75Se. Mercury-203 burdens were also high in the bone and gut. PMID:9718743

  10. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in macroinvertebrates living in stormwater wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Karouna, N.K.; Sparling, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The design of stormwater wetlands and ponds as wildlife habitats has prompted concern over the potential uptake of runoff contaminants by aquatic fauna. Stormwater wetlands provide a diverse array of habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrates. The importance of macroinvertebrates in aquatic communities has been well documented. Aquatic macroinvertebrates also serve as a major food source of many aquatic vertebrates, including fish and birds. The objectives of the study were to: (1) examine the responses of the macroinvertebrate community to water and sediment concentrations of heavy metals, and other water quality parameters; (2) determine whether macroinvertebrates living in stormwater wetlands bioaccumulate significant concentrations of heavy metals; (3) relate the concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, water and macroinvertebrates to land use in the surrounding watershed; (4) determine sediment and water toxicity to macroinvertebrates. Twenty stormwater wetlands, representing four land uses commercial, residential, highway and control, were monitored in this study. Water quality parameters, including pH, DO, turbidity, conductivity, hardness and metal concentrations were monitored bi-weekly for six months. Sediment samples were collected three times during the same period. Macroinvertebrate communities were sampled during alternate weeks after water collections. Ten-day sediment bioassays were conducted using the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Preliminary data analyses have indicated no significant difference in sediment and water metal concentrations between land uses. However, Zn concentrations in macroinvertebrates were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in wetlands serving commercial watersheds than in those serving the remaining three land uses. No differences have been detected in composition of invertebrate communities due to land use category.

  11. How Do High School Science Textbooks in Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Explain Bioaccumulation-Related Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2013-01-01

    Although bioaccumulation-related concepts are important scientific knowledge, a study on whether high school textbooks include appropriate explanations has not been conducted. The present study investigated science and biology textbooks from Korea, Japan, and the U.S., focusing on how bioaccumulation-related concepts were defined, what types of…

  12. Effect of incorporation of uncertainty in PCB bioaccumulation factors on modeled receptor doses

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, C.; Duncan, J.; Purucker, S.; Richardson, N.; Redfearn, A.

    1995-12-31

    Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) are regularly employed in ecological risk assessments to model contaminant transfer through ecological food chains. The authors compiled data on bioaccumulation of PCBs in plants, invertebrates, birds, and mammals from published literature and used these data to develop regression equations relating soil or food concentrations to bioaccumulation. They then used Latin Hypercube simulation techniques and simple food chain models to incorporate uncertainty in the BAF regressions into the derivation of exposure dose estimates for selected wildlife receptors. The authors present their preliminary results in this paper. Dose estimates ranged over several orders of magnitude for herbivorous, insectivorous, and carnivorous receptors. These results suggest incorporating the uncertainty in BAF values into food chain exposure models could provide risk assessors and risk managers with information on the probability of a given outcome that can be used in interpreting the potential risks at hazardous waste sites.

  13. Enantioselective bioaccumulation and degradation of sediment-associated metalaxyl enantiomers in Tubifex tubifex.

    PubMed

    Di, Shanshan; Liu, Tiantian; Diao, Jinling; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2013-05-29

    Knowledge about the enantioselective bioavailability of chiral pesticides in aquatic organisms facilitates more accurate interpretation of their environmental behaviors. In this study, the enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl enantiomers in Tubifex tubifex was detected in two uptake pathways. For the spike water treatment, a 16 day exposure experiment was employed and the enantiomer fractions (EFs) in tubifex tissue were maintained approximately at 0.47 during the experiment. For the spike sediment treatment, a 14 day bioaccumulation period indicated the concentrations of (-)-(R)-metalaxyl were higher than those of (+)-(S)-metalaxyl. Therefore, the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in worms was enantioselective for these treatments. With the presence of tubifex, higher concentrations of metalaxyl in overlying water and lower concentrations in sediment were detected than in worm-free treatments. This means that tubifex has positive functions in metalaxyl's diffusion from the sediment to overlying water and in the degradation of the sediment-associated metalaxyl. PMID:23635317

  14. Structural changes in response to bioaccumulation of iron and mercury in Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robins.

    PubMed

    Swapna, K S; Salim, Nabeesa; Chandra, Ratheesh; Puthur, Jos T

    2015-09-01

    A comparative study was designed to elucidate the effect of iron and mercury on the morphological and anatomical changes as well as bioaccumulation potential in Chromolaena odorata. Plants were grown in half-strength Hoagland nutrient medium artificially contaminated with known quantities of HgCl2 (15 μM) and FeCl3 (1000 μM). Bioaccumulation of Hg and Fe was maximum in the root, and comparatively reduced bioaccumulation was recorded in the stem and leaves. Microscopic studies on morphology and anatomy revealed development of trichomes and lenticels on the stem and modified trichomes on leaves. Localized deposits of stained masses in various internal parts of the root, stem and leaf also were observed. Differential adaptation/strategy of C. odorata to attain tolerance towards Hg and Fe and phytoremediation potential of the plant is discussed. PMID:26239568

  15. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Liza saliens from the Esmoriz-Paramos coastal lagoon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A; Peixoto, F; Salgado, M A

    2007-03-01

    Heavy metal (Cu and Zn) concentrations in liver, gills, and muscle of leaping grey mullet, Liza saliens, from the Portuguese Esmoriz-Paramos coastal lagoon were measured to evaluate their bioaccumulation as a function of sediment contamination. The highest metal concentrations were observed in the liver (254 mg Cu kg(-1)) and gills (114 mg Zn kg(-1)). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were found to follow the order: Cu-liver>Cu-gills>Cu-muscle and Zn-gills>Zn-liver>Zn-muscle. The highest BAFs were observed in the organs mainly implicated in metal metabolism and a significant positive relationship was found between BAFs and fish age. These results suggest the loss of homeostatic capacity of L. saliens under chronic metal exposure leading to bioaccumulation. Furthermore, Cu-liver and Zn-gills accumulation can be good environmental indicators of metal stress in L. saliens. PMID:16620977

  16. Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America)

    PubMed Central

    Kamman, Neil; Williams, Jason; Bugge, Deenie; Taylor, Vivien; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 2005–2008. Zooplankton in the eutrophic basin had lower concentrations of total Hg and MeHg than those in the oligotrophic basin in all years but 2007, when no bloom occurred in Missisquoi. In addition, Hg concentrations in seston and small zooplankton, sampled during 2009 at 12 sites spanning the lake, decreased with increasing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Thus, Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton across basins in Lake Champlain is related to trophic status, as observed previously in multiple lake studies. PMID:21995871

  17. Bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of corrosion products from radioactive stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine if corrosion products from radioactive Type 347 stainless steel could be biologically transferred from sediment through a marine food chain, and whether corrosion products dissolved in seawater could be bioaccumulated and then eliminated. Corrosion products containing /sup 60/Co and /sup 63/Ni from the radioactive stainless steel were introduced into marine sediments. Infaunal polychaete worms exposed to these sediments bioaccumulated the radionuclides. The feeding of these worms to shrimp and fish resulted in a trophic transfer of the radioactive products across a one-step food chain. The magnitude of the transfers are described in terms of transfer factors. Dissolved corrosion products as measured by the radionuclides were also bioaccumulated by shrimp and fish concentrating more than fish. Concentration factors were calculated.

  18. EVALUATION OF THREE FISH SPECIES AS BIOASSAY ORGANISMS FOR DREDGED MATERIAL TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three fish species, Cyprinodon variegatus, Fundulus similis, and Menidia menidia, were evaluated to determine which is most suitable as a bioassay organism for solid phase testing of dredged material. Acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were mon...

  19. A biodynamic model predicting waterborne lead bioaccumulation in Gammarus pulex: Influence of water chemistry and in situ validation.

    PubMed

    Urien, N; Uher, E; Billoir, E; Geffard, O; Fechner, L C; Lebrun, J D

    2015-08-01

    Metals bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms are considered to be a good indicator of bioavailable metal contamination levels in freshwaters. However, bioaccumulation depends on the metal, the species, and the water chemistry that influences metal bioavailability. In the laboratory, a kinetic model was used to describe waterborne Pb bioaccumulated in Gammarus pulex. Uptake and elimination rate constants were successfully determined and the effect of Ca(2+) on Pb uptake was integrated into the model. Thereafter, accumulated Pb concentrations in organisms were predicted with the model and compared with those measured in native populations from the Seine watershed (France). The predictions had a good agreement with the bioaccumulation levels observed in native gammarids and particularly when the effect of calcium was considered. To conclude, kinetic parameters experimentally derived for Pb in G. pulex are applicable in environmental conditions. Moreover, the consideration of the water's chemistry is crucial for a reliable interpretation of bioaccumulation. PMID:25845358

  20. Modeling the partitioning and bioaccumulation of TCDD and other hydrophobic organic chemicals in lake Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott, D.D.; Cook, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Lake trout and sediment data were used to define the biota-to-sediment ratio (BSR) for hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in Lake Ontario, including 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The BSRs for bioaccumulative PCDD/PCDFs were found to be approximately two orders of magnitude (i.e., 100x) lower than for other HOCs of similar hydrophobicity. To evaluate this difference, a modeling framework is applied which accounts for the significant processes affecting BSR: bioaccumulation, partitioning, and sediment-water chemical distribution.

  1. A non-equilibrium model for predicting bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in aquatic food-webs

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, H.; Lazar, R.; Haffner, G.D.; Whittle, D.M.; Gobas, F.A.P.C.

    1995-12-31

    A sub-model describing bioaccumulation and biomagnification in benthic invertebrates was incorporated into a steady-state food-web model (Gobas, 1993) was modified, to estimate concentrations of organic contaminants in aquatic organisms based on chemical concentrations in water and sediments. Model predictions were in good agreement with field data when applied to western Lake Erie. The improved ability of the model to simulate bioaccumulation by benthic invertebrates, makes this model particularly useful for quantifying contaminant transfer in the benthic food-web.

  2. Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Marshall; Brandt, Craig C; Fortner, Allison M

    2012-05-01

    In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including

  3. Modeling bioaccumulation and biotransformation of PAHs and PCBs by benthic macrofauna from lower Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Dickhut, R.M.; Schaffner, L.C.; Lay, P.; Mitra, S.

    1995-12-31

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of selected PAHs and PCBs from sediments spiked with radiolabeled compounds were examined in benthic communities from lower chesapeake Bay during summer and winter. Kinetic models were then used to determine the steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for the parent compounds in various benthic macrofaunal organisms, as well as the BAFs of aqueous soluble metabolites that tended to accumulate in the animals. BAFs for the parent compounds increased with the octanol-water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) of the compound up to a log K{sub ow} of approximately 6. However, in contrast to previous studies, the elimination rate constant was the dominant factor controlling the observed nonequilibrium with respect to bioaccumulation of the organic contaminants. Consequently, BAFs for the parent contaminants were related to the physical-chemical factors regulating passive elimination, as well as metabolic transformation of the parent compound. Aqueous soluble metabolite BAFs were directly related to the physical-chemical factors dictating the rate of formation of the conjugated complexes. Overall, body burdens of organic contaminants were higher in the summer relative to winter, as were the aqueous soluble metabolite fractions of contaminants in the animals, possibly indicating that organism activities as well as lipid pools are higher in summer compared to winter. The results indicate that a variety of physical, chemical, and biological factors interact in the ecosystem to dictate bioaccumulation and biotransformation of organic contaminants.

  4. NATIONAL COW MILK SURVEY FOR PERSISTENT, BIOACCUMULATIVE AND TOXIC (PBT) POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a survey for persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) pollutants in the U.S. milk supply. The EPA Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) was used to collect two sets of milk samples, one set in July 2000 and the second in January 2001. ERAMS has abo...

  5. Bioaccumulation and oxidative stress in Daphnia magna exposed to arsenite and arsenate.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenhong; Ren, Jinqian; Li, Xiaomin; Wei, Chaoyang; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Nan

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic pollution and its toxicity to aquatic organisms have attracted worldwide attention. The bioavailability and toxicity of arsenic are highly related to its speciation. The present study investigated the differences in bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in an aquatic organism, Daphnia magna, induced by 2 inorganic arsenic species (As(III) and As(V)). The bioaccumulation of arsenic, Na(+) /K(+) -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidative capability, and malondialdehyde content in D. magna were determined after exposure to 500 µg/L of arsenite and arsenate for 48 h. The results showed that the oxidative stress and antioxidative process in D. magna exposed to arsenite and arsenate could be divided into 3 phases, which were antioxidative response, oxidation inhibition, and antioxidative recovery. In addition, differences in bioaccumulation, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity, and total SOD activity were also found in D. magna exposed to As(III) and As(V). These differences might have been the result of the high affinity of As(III) with sulfhydryl groups in enzymes and the structural similarity of As(V) to phosphate. Therefore, arsenate could be taken up by organisms through phosphate transporters, could substitute for phosphate in biochemical reactions, and could lead to a change in the bioaccumulation of arsenic and activity of enzymes. These characteristics were the possible reasons for the different toxicity mechanisms in the oxidative stress process of arsenite and arsenate. PMID:26084717

  6. Differences in copper bioaccumulation and biological responses in three Mytilus species.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Steven J; Farmen, Eivind; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Blanco-Rayón, Esther; Izagirre, Urtzi

    2015-03-01

    Mytilus species are important organisms in marine systems being highly abundant and widely distributed along the coast of Europe and worldwide. They are typically used in biological effects studies and have a suite of biological effects endpoints that are frequently measured and evaluated for stress effects in laboratory experiments and field monitoring programmes. Differences in bioaccumulation and biological responses of the three Mytilus species following exposure to copper (Cu) were investigated. A laboratory controlled exposure study was performed with three genetically confirmed Mytilus species; M. galloprovincialis, M. edulis and M. trossulus. Chemical bioaccumulation and biomarkers were assessed in all three Mytilus species following a 4 day and a 21 day exposure to waterborne copper concentrations (0, 10, 100 and 500μg/L). Differences in copper bioaccumulation were measured after both 4 and 21 days, which suggests some physiological differences between the species. Furthermore, differences in response for some of the biological effects endpoints were also found to occur following exposure. These differences were discussed in relation to either real physiological differences between the species or merely confounding factors relating to the species natural habitat and seasonal cycles. Overall the study demonstrated that differences in chemical bioaccumulation and biomarker responses between the Mytilus spp. occur with potential consequences for mussel exposure studies and biological effects monitoring programmes. Consequently, the study highlights the importance of identifying the correct species when using Mytilus in biological effects studies. PMID:25568982

  7. Organophosphorus and Organochlorine Pesticides Bioaccumulation by Eichhornia crassipes in Irrigation Canals in an Urban Agricultural System.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Borrayo, B M; Heydrich, Silke Cram; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Quiroz, Manuel Hernández; Hill, Claudia Ponce De León

    2015-01-01

    A natural wetland in Mexico City Metropolitan Area is one of the main suppliers of crops and flowers, and in consequence its canals hold a high concentration of organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. There is also an extensive population of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), which is considered a plague; but literature suggests water hyacinth may be used as a phytoremediator. This study demonstrates bioaccumulation difference for the OC in vivo suggesting their bioaccumulation is ruled by their log K(ow), while all the OP showed bioaccumulation regardless of their log K(ow). The higher bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of the accumulated OC pesticides cannot be explained by their log K(ow), suggesting that the OC pesticides may also be transported passively into the plant. Translocation ratios showed that water hyacinth is an accumulating plant with phytoremediation potential for all organophosphorus pesticides studied and some organochlorine pesticides. An equation for free water surface wetlands with floating macrophytes, commonly used for the construction of water-cleaning wetlands, showed removal of the pesticides by the wetland with room for improvement with appropriate management. PMID:25976884

  8. IMPROVED RISK CHARACTERIZATION METHODS FOR DEVELOPING AQUATIC LIFE CRITERIA FOR NON-BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will use existing and developing information to evaluate and demonstrate procedures for more fully characterizing risks of non-bioaccumulative toxicants to aquatic organisms, and for incorporating these risks into aquatic life criteria. These efforts will address a v...

  9. INFLUENCES OF SEDIMENTARY ORGANIC MATTER QUALITY ON THE BIOACCUMULATION OF 4-NONYLPHENOL BY ESTUARINE AMPHIPODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a moderately persistent, hydrophobic chemical (Log Kow 4.5) with endocrine disrupting and acute narcotic effects in aquatic biota. There is concern about the ultimate fate of NP in aquatic ecosystems and potential for bioaccumulation by benthic biota from the ...

  10. METHOD EVALUATION TO MEASURE PERSISTENT BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN COW MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is important to understand the persistent and bioaccumulative toxic (PBT) levels in milk, as milk fat may be one of the highest dietary sources of PBT exposure. Analysis of milk also allows the opportunity to investigate geographic variability, as milk is produced and distrib...

  11. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in aquatic biota from a tidal freshwater marsh ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, B S; Brown, P Doelling; Kelso, D P; Foster, G D

    2002-05-01

    Water, sediments, and aquatic biota were sampled in a tidal river-marsh on the Potomac River near Washington, DC (USA) to assess baseline concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bioaccumulation in finish species. The mean sediment total-PCB concentration in the wetland was 50 ng/g dry weight, and mean concentrations in biota ranged from 150 ng/g to 450 ng/g wet weight. The highest PCB concentrations were observed in channel catfish. The median biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) estimated in all finfish species for total-PCBs was 2.9. However, some of the individual and co-eluting PCB congeners had median BSAFs that were substantially greater (e.g., congener numbers 42, 74, 182/187/128, and 171) or lower (e.g., congener numbers 18/15, 45, 185, and 208) than the total-PCB average. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (biota/water PCB concentration ratios) for PCB congeners showed a parabolic relation with n-octanol/water partition coefficients, confirming some previous investigations. There was no clear trend between apparent bioaccumulation factors and trophic level. Organic-carbon-normalized sediment distribution constants (sediment/water PCB concentration ratios) were linearly related to the apparent bioaccumulation factors for all the finfish species investigated. PMID:11994779

  12. Modulation of cadmium bioaccumulation and enhancing cadmium tolerance in Pichia kudriavzevii by sodium chloride preincubation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Jinzhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is limited by the sensitivity of living cells to cadmium. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium bioaccumulation and tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation significantly reduced the intracellular and cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of P. kudriavzevii at both 6 and 20 mg L(-1) cadmium, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae except that the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation at 20 mg L(-1) cadmium was reduced obviously by 20-60 g L(-1)  NaCl. For both yeasts, the improved contents of protein and proline after NaCl preincubation contributed to the cadmium tolerance. The thiol contents in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress were alleviated by NaCl preincubation, which might be due to the decrease of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. NaCl preincubation enhanced the contents of glycerol and trehalose in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no acceleration was observed in S. cerevisiae. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation could be applied in cadmium removal by growing P. kudriavzevii to increase the cadmium tolerance of the yeast. PMID:26753521

  13. ENHANCED BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL BY BACTERIA CELLS DISPLAYING SYNTHETIC PHYTOCHELATINS. (R827227)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel strategy using synthetic phytochelatins is described for the purpose of developing microbial agents for enhanced bioaccumulation of toxic metals. Synthetic genes encoding for several metal-chelating phytochelatin analogs (Glu-Cys)nGly (EC8 (n = 8), EC11 (n = 11...

  14. Forecasting fish biomasses, densities, productions, and bioaccumulation potentials of Mid-Atlantic wadeable streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional fishery conditions of Mid-Atlantic wadeable streams in the eastern United States are estimated using the BASS bioaccumulation and fish community model and data collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP)....

  15. Methylmercury in Marine Ecosystems: Spatial Patterns and Processes of Production, Bioaccumulation, and Biomagnification

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial variation of MeHg production, bioaccumulation and biomagnification in marine food webs is poorly characterized but critical to understanding the links between sources and higher trophic levels such as fish that are ultimately vectors of human and wildlife exposure. Th...

  16. Equilibrium sampling to determine the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants from sediment.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wickström, Håkan; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-10-01

    Equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory is currently the most widely used approach for linking sediment pollution by persistent hydrophobic organic chemicals to bioaccumulation. Most applications of the EqP approach assume (I) a generic relationship between organic carbon-normalized chemical concentrations in sediments and lipid-normalized concentrations in biota and (II) that bioaccumulation does not induce levels exceeding those expected from equilibrium partitioning. Here, we demonstrate that assumption I can be obviated by equilibrating a silicone sampler with chemicals in sediment, measuring chemical concentrations in the silicone, and applying lipid/silicone partition ratios to yield concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (CLip⇌Sed). Furthermore, we evaluated the validity of assumption II by comparing CLip⇌Sed of selected persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) to lipid-normalized concentrations for a range of biota from a Swedish background lake. PCBs in duck mussels, roach, eel, pikeperch, perch and pike were mostly below the equilibrium partitioning level relative to the sediment, i.e., lipid-normalized concentrations were ≤CLip⇌Sed, whereas HCB was near equilibrium between biota and sediment. Equilibrium sampling allows straightforward, sensitive and precise measurement of CLip⇌Sed. We propose CLip⇌Sed as a metric of the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic chemicals from sediment useful to prioritize management actions to remediate contaminated sites. PMID:25184484

  17. Thermal inactivation of enteric viruses and bioaccumulation of enteric foodborne viruses in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human enteric viruses are one of the main causative agents of shellfish associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stability of the most predominant enteric viruses were determined in both tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human nor...

  18. CADMIUM BIOACCUMULATION ASSAYS. THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO VARIOUS IONIC EQUILIBRIA IN LAKE SUPERIOR WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential use of bioaccumulation by Daphnia magna as an analytical tool in studying properties of various aqueous cadmium forms is described. Selected aquatic chemical factors affecting cadmium residues were determined for organisms exposed to cadmium in the absence and prese...

  19. EFFECTS OF DIELDRIN IN FOOD ON GROWTH AND BIOACCUMULATION IN MALLARD DUCKLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dieldrin in food organisms and commercial feed on growth and bioaccumulation were determined in mallard duckling. ieldrin-fed crickets, mealworms and annelid worms, and dieldrin-spiked commercial feed, were fed to mallard ducklings for 8 days. ean measured food con...

  20. Assessing the bioaccumulation of contaminants from sediments by fish and other aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willford, Wayne A.; Mac, Michael J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Contaminated sediments that are not acutely toxic to aquatic organisms but contain bioaccumulable toxic substances present a common, yet poorly understood problem for regulatory decision makers. In order to recommend options to minimize bioaccumulation of these toxic substances, decisionmakers need estimates of 1. which substances are available for accumulation by aquatic organisms; and 2. the potential impacts of such accumulation. The most direct and meaningful approach to estimating bioavailability is measurement of contaminant uptake by aquatic organisms exposed to the sediments of concern. Reasonably reliable methodologies exist for performing such exposures in the laboratory and in situ using marine or freshwater organisms. Such methods can demonstrate short-term potential for bioaccumulation of toxics from the sediments, but not necessarily the biological significance or long-term impact of any accumulated residues in the organisms and transfer of those residues through the food chain. Since most contaminated sediments contain a mixture of toxic substances, determination of the biological significance of their accumulation is not likely in the near future. Thus, the direct measurement of significant bioaccumulation of toxic substances from the sediments remains the most immediately useful index in a decision-making process.

  1. Experts Workshop on the Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment of Ionizable Organic Chemicals: Bioaccumulation/ADME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioaccumulation potential of neutral organic chemicals (e.g., PCBs, DDT, brominated flame retardants) has received a great deal of attention from scientists in the field of environment toxicology and chemistry over the past four decades. Regulations based on our understanding...

  2. BIOACCUMULATION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION OF CHIRAL TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are very little data on the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of current-use pesticides (CUPs) despite the fact that such data are critical in assessing their fate and potential toxic effects in aquatic organisms. To help address this issue, juvenile rainbow trout (Onco...

  3. BIOACCUMULATION, BIOTRANSFORMATION, AND METABOLITE FORMATION OF FIPRONIL AND CHIRAL LEGACY PESTICIDES IN RAINBOW TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the fate of current-use pesticides it is important to understand their bioaccumulation and biotransformation by aquatic biota. We examined the dietary accumulation and enantioselective biotransformation of the chiral current-use pesticide fipronil, along with a mixture ...

  4. Modeling Bioaccumulation as a Potential Route of Riverine Foodweb Exposures to PFOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated acids are compounds of interest as bioaccumulators; these persistent chemicals have been found in humans and animals throughout the world. Perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) has an especially high bioconcentration factor in fish, due to the stability of PFOS in the e...

  5. Exploring the Use of Multimedia Fate and Bioaccumulation Models to Calculate Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The trophic magnification factor (TMF) is considered to be a key metric for assessing the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in food webs. Fugacity is an equilibrium criterion and thus reflects the relative thermodynamic status of a chemical in the environment and in ...

  6. Sediment contamination and associates laboratory-measured bioaccumulation in New York/New Jersey waterways

    SciTech Connect

    Rosman, L.B.; Barrows, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments from 10 New York/New Jersey waterways within the Hudson-Raritan Estuary and Long Island Sound were collected to depths representative of dredging activity. Composited core sediments representing each waterway were analyzed for metals, PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides. To assess bioaccumulation, sand worms (Nereis virens) and blunt-nose clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 28 days to sediment composites and to New York Bight sediment. Tissues were analyzed for the same constituents as the sediment samples. The results highlight the range and magnitude of sediment contamination in NY/NJ waterways. Concentrations of some metals in sediments, compared with NY Bight sediment, were at least 10 times higher. Total PAHs reached 30,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). The sum of DDT, DDD, and DDE, the dominant pesticides, exceeded 3,000{micro}g/kg (dry weight). Total PCBs approached 3,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). Tissues exposed to sediments from several waterways bioaccumulated organic compounds at concentrations 10 times greater than those exposed to New York Bight sediments. Metals were bioaccumulated to a lesser degree. The presence and extent of bioaccumulated contaminants, along with sediment chemistry and benthic toxicity, create a profile characterizing each waterway.

  7. MICHTOX: A MASS BALANCE AND BIOACCUMULATION MODEL FOR TOXIC CHEMICALS IN LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    MICHTOX is a toxic chemical mass balance and bioaccumulation model for Lake Michigan. It was developed for USEPA's Region V in support of the Lake Michigan Lake-wide Management Plan (LaMP) to provide guidance on expected water quality improvements in response to critical pollutan...

  8. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil

    SciTech Connect

    van Gestel, C.A.; Ma, W.C.

    1988-06-01

    The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a low level of organic matter. This difference disappeared when LC50 values were recalculated to concentrations in soil solution using adsorption data. Eisenia fetida andrei showed LC50 values lower than those of Lumbricus rubellus although bioaccumulation was generally higher in the latter species. Toxicity and bioaccumulation based on soil solution concentrations increased with increasing lipophilicity of the chlorophenols. The present results indicate that the toxicity and bioaccumulation and therefore the bioavailability of chlorophenols in soil to earthworms are dependent on the concentration in soil solution and can be predicted on the basis of adsorption data. Both the toxicity of and bioaccumulation data on chlorophenols in earthworms demonstrated surprisingly good agreement with those on chlorophenols in fish.

  9. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  10. Assessments of chromium (and other metals) in vegetables and potential bio-accumulations in humans living in areas affected by tannery wastes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hualin; Arocena, Joselito M; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Zhou, Jiangmin

    2014-10-01

    Chromium (Cr) commonly enters the food chain through uptake by vegetables. However, accurate prediction of plant uptake of Cr (and other metals) still remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluated 5 indices of availability for Cr (and other metals) to identify reliable predictors of metal transfer from soils to garlic, onion, bokchoy, radish and celery grown in soils impacted by tannery wastes. The potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans was calculated from the Cr content of vegetable predicted by the best bio-availability index, amounts of vegetable consumed and recommended daily doses for Cr. Our results show that soil total Cr is the best predictor of Cr transfer from soils to onion (Cr in onion=8.51+0.005 Total Cr) while Cr extractable by Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure at pH 5 correlates very well with Cr uptake by bokchoy (Cr bokchoy=5.86+7.32 SPLP-5 Cr) and garlic (Cr garlic=7.63+2.36 SPLP-5 Cr). The uptake of Cr by radish and celery could not be reliably estimated by any of the 5 indices of availability tested in this study. Potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans (BA-Cr) increases from soils with low Cr (BA-Cr=11.5) to soil with high total Cr (BA-Cr=31.3). Due to numerous soil factors affecting the behavior of Cr in soils and the physiological differences among vegetables, we suggest that the prediction of the transfer of Cr (and other metals) from soils to plants should be specific to site, metal and vegetable. Potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans can be derived from a transfer function of Cr from soils to plants and the human consumption of vegetables. PMID:25048934

  11. The bioaccumulation factor for phosphorus-32 in edible fish tissue. Final report 1 Aug 77-15 Oct 79

    SciTech Connect

    Kaho, B.; Turgeon, K.

    1980-03-01

    Information used to derive the bioaccumulation factor for P-32 in edible portions of fish from water was reviewed to evaluate the currently recommended values of 100,000 in fresh water and 29,000 in sea water that are applied in generic calculations of radiation doses to persons from nuclear power reactor effluents. A phosphorus bioaccumulation factor of 70,000 was calculated for larger rivers and estuarine waters on the basis of geometric mean phosphorus concentrations of 2 mg/g wet weight in fish muscle and 0.03 mg/1 dissolved in water. A bioaccumulation factor for P-32 of 3,000 was computed by multiplying the phosphorus bioaccumulation factor by the ratio of the biological to the effective turnover rate in fish muscle. A biological turnover rate in muscle of 0.2 percent per day was estimated from phosphorus balances as a long-term average for large fish, although more rapid turnovers have been observed for brief periods. Large deviations from these selected generic bioaccumulation factors occur because of differences in phosphorus concentrations and turnover rates. Bioaccumulation of this magnitude is due to P-32 concentration at lowest trophic levels in the food web, not by concentration in fish, hence the availability of concentrating organisms determines whether this bioaccumulation factor is reached. Several other conditions that affect the P-32 bioaccumulation factor have not been quantified but are suggested for study. Measurement programs are recommended to determine site-specific P-32 bioaccumulation factors and enlarge the data base for the generic values.

  12. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of selenium during a life-cycle exposure with desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2012-01-01

    Populations of desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius; pupfish), a federally-listed endangered species, inhabit irrigation drains in the Imperial Valley agricultural area of southern California. These drains have varying degrees of selenium (Se) contamination of water, sediment, and aquatic biota. Published Se toxicity studies suggest that these levels of Se contamination may pose risk of chronic toxicity to Se-sensitive fish, but until recently there have been no studies of the chronic toxicity of Se to desert pupfish. A life-cycle Se exposure with pupfish was conducted to estimate dietary and tissue thresholds for toxic effects of Se on all life stages. The dietary exposure was based on live oligochaete worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) dosed with Se by a laboratory food chain based on selenized yeast. Oligochaetes readily accumulated Se from mixtures of selenized and control yeasts. The protocol for dosing oligochaetes for pupfish feeding studies included long-term (at least 28 days) feeding of a low-ration of yeast mixtures to large batches of oligochaetes. Oligochaetes were dosed at five Se levels in a 50-percent dilution series. Pupfish were simultaneously fed Se-dosed oligochaetes and exposed to a series of Se concentrations in water (consisting of 85 percent selenate and 15 percent selenite) to produce exposures that were consistent with Se concentrations and speciation in pupfish habitats. The nutritional characteristics of oligochaete diets were consistent across the range of oligochaete Se concentrations tested. The life-cycle exposure started with laboratory-cultured juvenile pupfish that were exposed to Se through sexual maturation and reproduction (150 days; F0 exposure). The Se exposure continued with eggs, larvae, and juveniles produced by Se-exposed parents (79 days; F1 exposure). Selenium exposure (water and diets), Se bioaccumulation (whole-body and eggs), and toxicity endpoints (juvenile and adult survival and growth; egg production and hatching

  13. Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2013-05-01

    Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater. PMID:22996821

  14. Bioaccumulation of nickel and its biochemical and genotoxic effects on juveniles of the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Francine F; Risso, Wagner E; Simonato, Juliana D; Martinez, Claudia B R

    2015-06-01

    Juveniles of the freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus were exposed to three concentrations of nickel (Ni): 25, 250 and 2500 µg L(-1) or water only for periods of 24 and 96 h to test for Ni bioaccumulation, its effects on antioxidant defenses and metallothioneins, and the occurrence of DNA damage. After exposure, the fish were sampled and tissue removed from the gills, liver, kidney and muscle to test for Ni accumulation and conduct biochemical (gills and liver) and genotoxic (blood cells and gills) analyses. The results showed that Ni accumulates in the organs in different proportions (kidney>liver>gills>muscle) and accumulation varied according to exposure time. Metallothionein (MT) levels increased in the liver and gills after exposure to Ni, implying that the presence of Ni in these tissues could induce MT synthesis. We also observed that Ni exposure affected antioxidant defenses, increasing lipid peroxidation in the liver of fish exposed to Ni for 96 h at the highest concentration tested. DNA damage increased in both blood cells and gills of fish exposed to all Ni concentrations, indicating the genotoxic potential of Ni on fish. We therefore concluded that Ni accumulates in various tissues and results in oxidative and DNA damage in P. lineatus, and that the maximum permitted Ni concentration set in Brazilian legislation (25 µg L(-1)) for freshwaters is not safe for this species. PMID:25744913

  15. Spatial and taxonomic variation in trace element bioaccumulation in two herbivores from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; Vaun McArthur, J

    2014-03-01

    Dissimilarities in habitat use, feeding habits, life histories, and physiology can result in syntopic aquatic taxa of similar trophic position bioaccumulating trace elements in vastly different patterns. We compared bioaccumulation in a clam, Corbicula fluminea and mayfly nymph Maccaffertium modestum from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Collection sites differed in distance to contaminant sources, incision, floodplain activity, and sources of flood event water and organic matter. Contaminants variably accumulated in both sediment and biofilm. Bioaccumulation differed between species and sites with C. fluminea accumulating higher concentrations of Hg, Cs, Sr, Se, As, Be, and Cu, but M. modestum higher Pb and V. Stable isotope analyses suggested both spatial and taxonomic differences in resource use with greater variability and overlap between species in the more physically disturbed site. The complex but essential interactions between organismal biology, divergence in resource use, and bioaccumulation as related to stream habitat requires further studies essential to understand impacts of metal pollution on stream systems. PMID:24507146

  16. Intra- and inter-laboratory reliability of a cryopreserved trout hepatocyte assay for the prediction of chemical bioaccumulation potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryopreserved trout hepatocytes provide a convenient in vitro system for measuring the intrinsic clearance of xenobiotics. Measured clearance rates can then be extrapolated to the whole animal as a means of improving modeled bioaccumulation predictions. To date, however, the in...

  17. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals. PMID:26440545

  18. Exploring the effects of temperature and resource limitation on mercury bioaccumulation in Fundulus heteroclitus using dynamic energy budget modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population survival and growth. To explore this approach, we conducted growth and bioaccumulation studies that contribute t...

  19. Bioaccumulation kinetics of the conventional energetics TNT and RDX relative to insensitive munitions constituents DNAN and NTO in Rana pipiens tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Guilherme R; Biedenbach, James M; Sims, Jerre G; Chappell, Pornsawan; Stanley, Jacob K; Gust, Kurt A

    2015-04-01

    The manufacturing of explosives and their loading, assembling, and packing into munitions for use in testing on training sites or battlefields has resulted in contamination of terrestrial and aquatic sites that may pose risk to populations of sensitive species. The bioaccumulative potential of the conventional explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and of the insensitive munitions (i.e., less shock sensitive) compound 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) were assessed using the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Trinitrotoluene entering the organism was readily biotransformed to aminodinitrotoluenes, whereas no transformation products were measured for RDX or DNAN. Uptake clearance rates were relatively slow and similar among compounds (1.32-2.19 L kg(-1) h(-1) ). Upon transfer to uncontaminated water, elimination rate was very fast, resulting in the prediction of fast time to approach steady state (5 h or less) and short elimination half-lives (1.2 h or less). A preliminary bioconcentration factor of 0.25 L kg(-1) was determined for the insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-trizole-5-one (NTO) indicating negligible bioaccumulative potential. Because of the rapid elimination rate for explosives, tadpoles inhabiting contaminated areas are expected to experience harmful effects only if under constant exposure conditions given that body burdens can rapidly depurate preventing tissue concentrations from persisting at levels that may cause detrimental biological effects. PMID:25524181

  20. Dynamic multipathway modeling of Cd bioaccumulation in Daphnia magna using waterborne and dietborne exposures.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Richard R; Krack, Susannah; Doyle, Patrick J; Hare, Landis; Vigneault, Bernard; McGeer, James C

    2007-02-28

    We tested the predictive ability of the dynamic multipathway bioaccumulation model (DYMBAM) to characterize Cd accumulation in Daphnia magna, a species commonly used in toxicity tests and because of its sensitivity, particularly to metals, a species that is relied upon in ecological risk assessments. We conducted chronic exposure experiments in which D. magna were exposed to either dietborne Cd alone or to both dietborne and waterborne Cd. In the food-only treatments, the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were pre-exposed to free Cd ion concentrations, [Cd(2+)], from 0.001 to 100nM (0.001-11microgL(-1)) then, on a daily feeding renewal basis, fed to D. magna over 21 days. In the water plus food treatment, D. magna were exposed for 21 days to the same range of [Cd(2+)] and fed with the same algal species that had been exposed to Cd at various concentrations. In the algal exposure media, Cd concentrations in algae were directly related to those in water and were characterized by a linear regression model using the log transformed concentration of the WHAM predicted Cd(2+) concentration. The DYMBAM was used with estimated values of the model constants for ingestion rate (0.08-0.34gg(-1)day(-1)) and growth rate (0.085-0.131day(-1)) based on our experimental data and with literature values for rate constants of Cd influx and efflux as well as Cd assimilation efficiency. Measured Cd concentrations in D. magna agreed with model predictions within a factor of 3. Using the model, we predict that food is an important contributor of Cd burden to D. magna, particularly at lower Cd exposure concentrations over an environmentally realistic gradient of free Cd in water. However, this cladoceran also takes up Cd from water and this exposure route becomes increasingly important at very high concentrations of free Cd (>10nM or 1.1microgL(-1)). Nevertheless, Cd produced lethal effects in D. magna that were exposed to this metal in water and diet, but

  1. Age and trophic position dominate bioaccumulation of mercury and organochlorines in the food web of Lake Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, J.K.; Beauchamp, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of bioaccumulation in food webs is critical to predicting which food webs are at risk for higher rates of bioaccumulation that endanger the health of upper-trophic predators, including humans. Mercury and organochlorines were measured concurrently with stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in key fishes and invertebrates of Lake Washington to explore important pathways of bioaccumulation in this food web. Across the food web, age and trophic position together were highly significant predictors of bioaccumulation. Trophic position was more important than age for predicting accumulation of mercury, ???DDT, and ???-chlordane, whereas age was more important than trophic position for predicting ???PCB. Excluding age from the analysis inflated the apparent importance of trophic position to bioaccumulation for all contaminants. Benthic and pelagic habitats had similar potential to bioaccumulate contaminants, although higher ???-chlordane concentrations in organisms were weakly associated with more benthic carbon signals. In individual fish species, contaminant concentrations increased with age, size, and trophic position (??15N), whereas relationships with carbon source (??13C) were not consistent. Lipid concentrations were correlated with contaminant concentrations in some but not all fishes, suggesting that lipids were not involved mechanistically in bioaccumulation. Contaminant concentrations in biota did not vary among littoral sites. Collectively, these results suggest that age may be an important determinant of bioaccumulation in many food webs and could help explain a significant amount of the variability in apparent biomagnification rates among food webs. As such, effort should be made when possible to collect information on organism age in addition to stable isotopes when assessing food webs for rates of biomagnification. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of aqueous and dietary uptakes to lead (Pb) bioaccumulation in Gammarus pulex: From multipathway modeling to in situ validation.

    PubMed

    Hadji, Rym; Urien, Nastassia; Uher, Emmanuelle; Fechner, Lise C; Lebrun, Jérémie D

    2016-07-01

    Although dynamic approaches are nowadays used increasingly to describe metal bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, the validation of such laboratory-derived modeling is rarely assessed under environmental conditions. Furthermore, information on bioaccumulation kinetics of Pb and the significance of its uptake by dietary route is scarce in freshwater species. This study aims at modeling aqueous and dietary uptakes of Pb in the litter-degrader Gammarus pulex and assessing the predictive quality of multipathway modeling from in situ bioaccumulation data. In microcosms, G. pulex were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of Pb (from 0.1 to 10µg/L) in the presence of Pb-contaminated poplar leaves, which were enclosed or not in a net to distinguish aqueous and dietary uptakes. Results show that water and food both constitute contamination sources for gammarids. Establishing biodynamic parameters involved in Pb aqueous and dietary uptake and elimination rates enabled to construct a multipathway model to describe Pb bioaccumulation in gammarids. This laboratory-derived model successfully predicted bioaccumulation measured in native populations of G. pulex collected in situ when local litter was used as dietary exposure source. This study demonstrates not only the suitable applicability of biodynamic parameters for predicting Pb bioaccumulation but also the necessity of taking dietary uptake into account for a better interpretation of the gammarids' contamination in natural conditions. PMID:27057993

  3. Facile synthesis of (55)Fe-labeled well-dispersible hematite nanoparticles for bioaccumulation studies in nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ji, Rong; Miao, Ai-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Although water-dispersible engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have a wide range of applications, the ENPs used in many nanotoxicological studies tend to form micron-sized aggregates in the exposure media and thus cannot reflect the toxicity of real nanoparticles. Here we described the synthesis of bare hematite nanoparticles (HNPs-0) and two poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-coated forms (HNPs-1 and HNPs-2). All three HNPs were well dispersed in deionized water, but HNPs-0 quickly aggregated in the three culture media tested. By contrast, the suspensions of HNPs-1 and HNPs-2 remained stable, with negligible amounts of PAA and Fe(3+) liberated from either one under the investigated conditions. To better quantify the accumulation of the coated HNPs, a relatively innocuous (55)Fe-labeled form of HNPs-2 was synthesized as an example and its accumulation in three phytoplankton species was tested. Consistent with the uptake kinetics model for conventional pollutants, the cellular accumulation of HNPs-2 increased linearly with exposure time for two of the three phytoplankton species. These results demonstrate the utility of (55)Fe-labeled well-dispersible HNPs as a model material for nanoparticle bioaccumulation studies in nanotoxicology. PMID:27038212

  4. Solid phase microextraction of organic pollutants from natural and artificial soils and comparison with bioaccumulation in earthworms.

    PubMed

    Bielská, Lucie; Šmídová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2014-02-01

    The presented study investigates the use of passive sampling, i.e. solid phase microextraction with polydimethylsiloxane fibers (PDMS-SPME), to assess the bioavailability of fiver neutral organic chemicals (phenanthrene, pyrene, lindane, p,p'-DDT, and PCB 153) spiked to natural and artificial soils after different aging times. Contaminant bioavailability was assessed by comparing PDMS concentrations with results from a 10 day bioaccumulation test with earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The hypotheses tested were (i) organic carbon (OC) normalization, which is commonly used to account for sorption and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil risk assessment, has limitations due to differences in sorptive properties of OC and aging processes (i.e. sequestration and biodegradation) and (ii) PDMS-SPME provides a more reliable measure of soil contaminant bioavailability than OC normalized soil concentrations. The above stated hypotheses were confirmed since the results showed that: (i) the PDMS/soil organic carbon partition ratio (R) accounting for the role that OC plays in partitioning significantly differed between soils and aging times and (ii) the correlation with earthworm concentrations was better using porewater concentrations derived from PDMS concentrations than when organic normalized soil concentrations were used. Capsule: Sorption of organic compounds measured by SPME method and their bioavailability to earthworms cannot be reliably predicted using OC content. PMID:24433790

  5. Bioaccumulation of hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorobutadiene and dioxins/furans downstream of organic chemical production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, P.

    1995-12-31

    A review of available fish tissue and bottom sediment data was conducted for waters downstream of five high volume producers of perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride to assess potential for bioaccumulation of` hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) and polychlorinated dioxins and furans. Three facilities are located in Louisiana and two are in Texas. These compounds originate as by-products and tend to be present at extremely low or nondetected concentrations in facility discharges. However, because they are hydrophobic, persistent, and strongly bind to sediment particles, contamination of bottom sediments may occur downstream of production facilities. Exposure to contaminated sediments can result in bioaccumulation of the contaminants in aquatic biota to levels which may constitute unacceptable risks to human health and the environment.

  6. Bioaccumulation of Metals in Tissues of Seahorses Collected from Coastal China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yanhong; Zhang, Li; Lin, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Seahorses, which have been used in Chinese traditional medicine, are poor swimmers and easily affected by regional ecological conditions. In this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation of nine metals in different tissues of four seahorse species (Hippocampus trimaculatus, H. histrix, H. kelloggi, and H. kuda) from six locations along the Chinese coast. The present study found relatively low concentrations of metals in the seahorses compared with those in other marine fishes. There was a location-dependent variation in metal concentrations in the seahorses, especially between developed and less developed cities. Results also showed metal concentrations varied among different seahorse species and tissues, with H. kelloggi having higher bioaccumulation ability compared with H. trimaculatus and higher metal levels were found in visceral mass, muscle, and skin tissues than those in brain, lips gill, endoskeleton, and exoskeleton tissues in the seahorses. Among different metals, Mg had the highest tissue concentrations in all the seahorses, followed by Al and Mn. PMID:26754546

  7. Exploring the effects of consumer-resource dynamics on contaminant bioaccumulation by aquatic herbivores

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, M.; Fisher, N.S.; Wang, W.X.

    1999-07-01

    The authors explore the consequences of consumer-resource interactions for bioaccumulation in two aquatic systems (cadmium accumulation in Dreissena polymorpha and polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in calanoid copepods). They explicitly link the feeding and growth rates of consumers to the abundance of resources under a variety of assumptions about the nature of the interactions between them. The models are parameterized using field and laboratory data, and predictions are quantitatively compared with field-measured distributions of tissue concentrations. Different assumptions about consumer-resource interactions result in different predicted distributions of tissue concentrations and illustrate the way these interactions constrain the bioaccumulation of contaminants. Linking feeding and growth rates to resource abundances will be important whenever these abundances change over time. User-friendly software will make these ideas accessible to nontheoreticians.

  8. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium in experimental cultures of Duckweed, Lemna polyrrhiza

    SciTech Connect

    Charpentier, S.; Garnier, J.; Flaugnatti, R.

    1987-06-01

    Knowledge of the mechanism of Itai-Itai disease aided the research concerning the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in plants and aquatic organisms. Because of their characteristics, lemnaceae can be considered as an interesting experimental material. Their small size, rapid growth and vegetative reproduction permitted us to obtain experimental cultures and to study the effect of cadmium: toxicity and bioaccumulation. The species Lemna polyrrhiza having a very voluminous root system, was used in this work. The effects of cadmium chloride (Cd Cl/sub 2/-2.5 H/sub 2/O) and Cadmium sulfate (3 Cd SO/sub 4/-8H/sub 2/O) were compared. The toxicity effect was approached by the numeration of plants.

  9. Bioaccumulation and toxicodynamics of cadmium to freshwater planarian and the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Chen, Hon-Cheng; Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-08-01

    Although toxic responses of freshwater planarians after exposure to environmental toxicants can be observed through external toxicological end points, physiological responses inside the bodies of treated planarians have rarely been investigated. The present study was designed, using cadmium (Cd) as a reference toxicant, to determine its bioaccumulation and toxicodynamics in the freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, after acute toxicity was obtained. Accumulated Cd concentrations, metallothionein levels, and the oxidative status in planarians were determined after exposure to Cd. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the acute death of Cd-treated planarians was associated with increased oxidative stress. After Cd-treated planarians were coexposed to antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), we found that NAC protected planarians from Cd lethality by maintaining the oxidative status and decreasing the bioaccumulation of Cd. The results of the present study support planarians being used as a practical model for toxicological studies of environmental contaminants in the future. PMID:22481525

  10. INFLUENCE OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON CHEMICAL FATE AND BIOACCUMULATION: THE ROLE OF MULTIMEDIA MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Todd; Armitage, James M; Cousins, Ian T; Muir, Derek CG; Ng, Carla A; Reid, Liisa; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Multimedia environmental fate models are valuable tools for investigating potential changes associated with global climate change, particularly because thermodynamic forcing on partitioning behavior as well as diffusive and nondiffusive exchange processes are implicitly considered. Similarly, food-web bioaccumulation models are capable of integrating the net effect of changes associated with factors such as temperature, growth rates, feeding preferences, and partitioning behavior on bioaccumulation potential. For the climate change scenarios considered in the present study, such tools indicate that alterations to exposure concentrations are typically within a factor of 2 of the baseline output. Based on an appreciation for the uncertainty in model parameters and baseline output, the authors recommend caution when interpreting or speculating on the relative importance of global climate change with respect to how changes caused by it will influence chemical fate and bioavailability. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:20–31. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23136071

  11. Bioaccumulation of four heavy metals in two populations of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Weis, J.S.; D'Andrea, L.

    1989-03-01

    Bioaccumulation can occur only if the rate of uptake of a chemical by an organism exceeds its rate of elimination. Many aquatic animals are able to excrete a greater proportion of their intake under contaminated conditions and thus maintain trace metal concentration in the body at an approximately normal level. The biological activity or the metabolic rate of an organism often changes due to natural seasonal variations causing the rate of incorporation and release of heavy metals to change. This paper reports on the comparative bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn in two populations of grass shrimp, Palaemontes pugio, one of the few species surviving in highly contaminated estuaries in northern New Jersey. One population they studied was from Piles Creek (PC), a tributary of the Arthur Kill in heavily industrialized Linden, New Jersey, and the other population was from Big Sheepshead Creek (BSC), a relatively pristine creek near non-industrialized Tuckerton, New Jersey.

  12. Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Wu, Jun; Deng, Shi-Huai; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Gang

    2010-01-15

    The following article from Environmental Toxicology, 'Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits' by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with 'Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)' by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188-194, 2005. PMID:20082444

  13. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms and sediments from Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Trevizani, Tailisi Hoppe; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; Ribeiro, Andreza Portella; Theophilo, Carolina Yume Sawamura; Majer, Alessandra Pereira; Petti, Monica Angélica Varella; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2016-05-15

    The Antarctic continent is considered a low-impact environment; however, there is a tendency to increase the contaminants' levels due to human activities in the research stations. In this study, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn levels in sediment and biota were determined in the environmental samples from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica) collected in 2003. The results demonstrated high concentrations of Cu and Zn in the sediments. There was bioaccumulation of As in the biota from Admiralty Bay and bioaccumulation of Zn specifically in the biota from Martel Inlet. In addition, the results were useful in order to understand the heavy metal levels for the pre-accident condition of Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station, where an accident occurred in 2012, and also for the comparison with current conditions within the monitoring work developed by INCT-APA (National Institute of Science and Technology for Environmental Research Antarctic). PMID:26936119

  14. Spatial heterogeneity of mercury bioaccumulation by walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) in Lake Roosevelt, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Short, T.; Munn, M. |

    1995-12-31

    Mercury bioaccumulation was examined in muscle tissue of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from Lake Roosevelt, a large (80,000 acres) reservoir receiving metal contaminated wastes from mining and associated processing activities. Walleye were collected from three spatially segregated reaches distributed along the relatively narrow axis of the reservoir to investigate whether regional differences in mercury bioaccumulation could be predicted by spatial patterns of mercury in bed sediment. Mercury concentrations in surficial sediments ranged from < 0.05 to 2.70 mg/kg, and generally decreased from the upper to lower reaches in an incremental fashion. Mercury in bed sediments was positively correlated with sediment organic carbon content; however, differences in organic carbon content accounted for only 15 percent of the variability observed in sediment mercury concentrations among reaches. Overall, mercury concentrations in muscle tissue ranged from 0.11 to 0.44 mg/kg wet weight and was positively correlated with age, weight, and length of walleye. Mercury concentrations of walleye varied spatially within the reservoir, with the highest concentrations occurring in fish from the lower and middle reaches. Condition factor (k) of fish was inversely related to tissue mercury concentration, and was significantly lower in fish collected from the lower and middle reaches compared with fish in the upper reach. Spatial patterns in mercury bioaccumulation could not be predicted by regional differences in sediment concentrations of total mercury. It is suggested that observed spatial patterns of mercury bioaccumulation may be related in part to preferential utilization of specific regions for spawning and foraging, and that these areas likely differ in mercury bioavailability, owing to local differences in edaphic conditions, and in the kinds and availability of food resources.

  15. Microcystin-LR bioaccumulation and depuration kinetics in lettuce and arugula: Human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Arruda-Neto, João Dias de Toledo; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Vilca, Franz Zirena; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo

    2016-10-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is one of the most toxic and common microcystins (MCs) variant found in aquatic ecosystems. Little is known about the possibility of recovering microcystins contaminated agricultural crops. The objectives of this study were to determine the bioaccumulation and depuration kinetics of MC-LR in leaf tissues of lettuce and arugula, and estimate the total daily intake (ToDI) of MC-LR via contaminated vegetables by humans. Arugula and lettuce were irrigated with contaminated water having 5 and 10μgL(-1) of MC-LR for 7days (bioaccumulation), and subsequently, with uncontaminated water for 7days (depuration). Quantification of MC-LR was performed by LC-MS/MS. The one-compartment biokinetic model was employed for MC-LR bioaccumulation and depuration data analysis. MC-LR was only accumulated in lettuce. After 7days of irrigation with uncontaminated water, over 25% of accumulated MC-LR was still retained in leaf tissues of plants treated with 10μgL(-1) MC-LR. Total daily toxin intake by adult consumers (60kg-bw) exceeded the 0.04μgMC-LRkg(-1) limit recommended by WHO. Bioaccumulation was found to be linearly proportional to the exposure concentration of the toxin, increasing over time; and estimated to become saturated after 30days of uninterrupted exposure. On the other hand, MC-LR depuration was less efficient at higher exposure concentrations. This is because biokinetic half-life calculations gave 2.9 and 3.7days for 5 and 10μgL(-1) MC-LR treatments, which means 29-37days are required to eliminate the toxin. For the first time, our results demonstrated the possibility of MC-LR decontamination of lettuce plants. PMID:27267723

  16. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in young-of-the-year striped bass: A nine month time series

    SciTech Connect

    Brownawell, B.J.; Malloy, T.A.; LeBlanc, L.A.; Thomann, R.V.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine uptake of PCBs in rapidly growing young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Hudson River Estuary and to compare the data to predictions from both steady-state and time-dependent food-chain bioaccumulation modeling. Striped bass in the Hudson are spawned in freshwater, enter the upper estuary in early summer, and overwinter in the lower estuary. The authors have determined that their PCB exposure in water varies little over this time. Striped bass life history, prey composition, and bioenergetics have been determined in prior or ongoing projects. High and relatively uniform PCB water concentrations (10--28 ng/L) in the Hudson Estuary make it an excellent model ecosystem to study PCB bioaccumulation. YOY fish were collected at approximately one month intervals from the upper Hudson River Estuary on ten dates beginning on July 1, 1994 (average wet of 0.3 g) and ending on April 4, 1995 (wet weights of 100--150 g). Striped bass and zooplankton prey (determined by gut contents) were analyzed for PCBs and lipids. PCB concentrations generally increased over the first three months with a stronger time dependence for more highly chlorinated homologues. Lipid-based PCB concentrations decreased in the late fall, likely due to a seasonal increase in storage lipids, Consistent with steady-state food-chain model predictions, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were highly correlated with K{sub ow} and lipid-based BAFs were above those estimated by lipid-based equilibrium with water. In the presentation they discuss the results of fully time-dependent BAF calculations and will show how the implications of steady-stale assumptions on bioaccumulation modeling become apparent when considering rapidly growing organisms like YOY striped bass.

  17. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and mobility from rice plants to Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ting-li; Liu, Shun; Tang, Qi-yi; Cheng, Jia-an

    2014-06-01

    Samples of soils, rice plants, and the adult, long-winged, brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), were collected from 18 sites of 9 regions in southern China. The concentrations of seven elements (Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, and Pb) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Heavy metal mobility and bioaccumulation were analyzed in the rice plant-N. lugens system. The concentrations of Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in rice plants were positively correlated with their relevant concentrations in soil samples The bioconcentration factors of the seven elements in the rice plant-N. lugens system showed that the order of metal accumulation was Mo>Zn>Ag>Cd>Cu>Pb>As. In particular, Mo and Zn showed significantly high accumulation in N. lugens. A cluster analysis and factor analysis showed that the bioaccumulation of these seven elements in the rice plant-N. lugens system could be classified into two groups, closely related to their molar mass. The first group consisted of five elements with relatively light molar masses: Cu, Zn, As, Mo, and Ag. Cu and Zn, which have nearly equal molar masses, showed similar accumulation levels in N. lugens. The second group included two elements with relatively heavy molar masses: Cd and Pb. This study demonstrated that bioaccumulation of seven heavy metals was regular in the rice plant-N. lugens system. N. lugens could be used as bioindicators of the contaminated degree for Zn in rice paddy fields. This information may provide a basis for future ecological research on the bioaccumulation mechanism in N. lugens. PMID:24735989

  18. Agricultural wetlands as potential hotspots for mercury bioaccumulation: Experimental evidence using caged fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands provide numerous ecosystem services, but also can be sources of methylmercury (MeHg) production and export. Rice agricultural wetlands in particular may be important sites for MeHg bioaccumulation due to their worldwide ubiquity, periodic flooding schedules, and high use by wildlife. We assessed MeHg bioaccumulation within agricultural and perennial wetlands common to California's Central Valley during summer, when the majority of wetland habitats are shallowly flooded rice fields. We introduced caged western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) within white rice (Oryza sativa), wild rice (Zizania palustris), and permanent wetlands at water inlets, centers, and outlets. Total mercury (THg) concentrations and body burdens in caged mosquitofish increased rapidly, exceeding baseline values at introduction by 135% to 1197% and 29% to 1566% among sites, respectively, after only 60 days. Mercury bioaccumulation in caged mosquitofish was greater in rice fields than in permanent wetlands, with THg concentrations at wetland outlets increasing by 12.1, 5.8, and 2.9 times over initial concentrations in white rice, wild rice, and permanent wetlands, respectively. In fact, mosquitofish caged at white rice outlets accumulated 721 ng Hg/fish in just 60 days. Mercury in wild mosquito fish and Mississippi silversides (Menidia audens) concurrently sampled at wetland outlets also were greater in white rice and wild rice than permanent wetlands. Within wetlands, THg concentrations and body burdens of both caged and wild fish increased from water inlets to outlets in white rice fields, and tended to not vary among sites in permanent wetlands. Fish THg concentrations in agricultural wetlands were high, exceeding 0.2 ??g/g ww in 82% of caged fish and 59% of wild fish. Our results indicate that shallowly flooded rice fields are potential hotspots for MeHg bioaccumulation and, due to their global prevalence, suggest that agricultural wetlands may be important contributors to Me

  19. Quantum dots exhibit less bioaccumulation than free cadmium and selenium in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Stewart, David T R; Noguera-Oviedo, Katia; Lee, Vincent; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Watson, David F; Aga, Diana S

    2013-06-01

    The present study addresses the bioaccumulation behavior of cadmium selenide quantum dots by Eisenia andrei earthworms in a terrestrial environment. Earthworms were exposed to quantum dot-treated soil for up to 4 wk and analyzed for cadmium and selenium concentration using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those from earthworms exposed to cadmium nitrate and selenious acid, as positive controls, and those exposed in untreated soil (negative control). Earthworms exposed to quantum dots showed significant bioaccumulation of cadmium and selenium (5.3- and 1.5-fold higher concentration over negative controls, respectively) after 4 wk. Over the same 4 wk, positive control earthworms accumulated 9.2- and 2.2-fold higher cadmium and selenium, respectively, than negative controls for a much more substantial final body burden of the 2 elements. The concentrations also increased with exposure time; cadmium concentrations increased from 3600 ± 310 ng/g to 8080 ± 660 ng/g, from 1 to 4 wk, suggesting that further bioaccumulation may take place with even longer exposure time. The molar ratio of cadmium to selenium in the quantum dot-exposed worms (6.2) is closer to the ratios seen in positive control worms (7.2) than to the pure quantum dots (1.8), which implies that quantum dots are taken up predominantly in the degraded form. The results suggest that chemical modification of quantum dots to protect them from environmental degradation could potentially reduce bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles by earthworms. PMID:23417745

  20. Mercury bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in sympatric snapper species from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bank, Michael S; Chesney, Edward; Shine, James P; Maage, Amund; Senn, David B

    2007-10-01

    Consumption of marine fish is a major route of toxic methyl mercury (MeHg) exposure to ocean apex predators and human populations. Here we explore the influence of trophic structure on total mercury (Hg) accumulation in red snapper (RS, Lutjanus campechanus) and gray snapper (GS, Lutjanus griseus) from the coastal Louisiana region of the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Mississippi River. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) determine the effectiveness of the use of offshore recreational fishing charter boats and marinas as sources of fish samples and (2) compare species differences in Hg bioaccumulation, trophic position, and carbon sources. Our data show that length-normalized Hg concentrations (> or = 97% as MeHg in tissue of both species) were 230% greater in GS in comparison to RS collected from the same general area. Stable C and N isotope signatures (delta15N and delta13C) indicate that GS occupy a slightly higher trophic position (approximately 30% of one trophic position higher) on the Gulf food web in comparison to RS and that GS appear to incorporate higher trophic positioned prey, continually and at smaller sizes. Mercury was strongly correlated with combined delta15N and delta13C in pooled species data, arguing that most of the substantial difference in Hg bioaccumulation between RS and GS can be explained by modest differences in their trophic position and, to a lesser degree, carbon sources, which had low variation and high overlap among species. These observations demonstrate that even minor to moderate differences in trophic position and food habits in sympatric species can create relatively large differences in bioaccumulation regimes and underscores the importance of quantitative characterization of trophic structure in marine MeHg bioaccumulation studies. PMID:17974344

  1. Comparative bioaccumulation of chlorinated hydrocarbons from sediment by two infaunal invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Meador, J.P.; Adams, N.G.; Casillas, E.; Bolton, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Bioaccumulation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) from field-contaminated sediments by two infaunal invertebrates, Rhepoxynius abronius and Armandia brevis was examined in the laboratory. Sediments were selected over a large geographical area of an urban estuary, the Hudson-Raritan, to assess the potential for bioaccumulation. Amphipod and polychaete tissue burdens were highly correlated over sites; however, concentrations of the trichlorobiphenyls in the polychaete were about twice that found in the amphipod and 4 to 8 times higher for the more hydrophobic PCBs. Unlike PAHs from these sediments, concentrations of CHs in IW and sediment indicated that partition coefficients (K{sub oc}) were generally as predicted. K{sub oc} values determined with non-sorbed interstitial water concentrations (IW{sub free}) were much closer to predicted values compared to those based on the total chlorinated compound. As expected, BAF values were highly variable among sites and increased greatly with declining TOC content. The BAF{sub loc} (lipid/organic carbon normalized bioaccumulation factor) for trichlorobiphenyls in the polychaete was similar to that for the amphipod; however the polychaete BAF{sub loc} increased with increasing hydrophobicity and was maximum for the pentachlorobiphenyls and close to the expected maximum. Some evidence for site-specific BAF{sub loc} values was found because of a strong correlation between BAF{sub loc} and sediment concentration; however for some PCBs, this correlation was weak.

  2. Similarity analysis of PAH and PCB bioaccumulation patterns in sediment-exposed Chironomus tentans larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.W.; O`Keefe, P.; Bush, B.

    1997-02-01

    Larvae of the aquatic insect Chironomus tentans were exposed at the third or fourth instar stage to sediments collected near the outfalls of two aluminum foundries and an aluminum fabrication plant. Biota and sediment bioaccumulation factors (BFs), based on wet tissue weights and dry sediment weights, ranged from 0.07 to 0.27 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from 0.22 to 1.42 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A higher rate of metabolism of PAHs compared with PCBs could explain the differences in BF values for the two groups of chemicals. It was found, using community similarity procedures from the field of ecology, that the congener patterns for PAHs and PCBs bioaccumulated by the larvae differed from the pattern of the same compounds in the sediments to which they were exposed. Affinity analysis indicated that the larvae favored the higher molecular weight PAH and PCB congeners. Preferential ingestion of sediments with defined particle size ranges, metabolism, and octanol/water partition coefficients (log K{sub ow}) are factors that may have influenced the bioaccumulation patterns. However, no single factor could adequately account for the differences between the larval and sediment patterns.

  3. Mercury contamination in deposited dust and its bioaccumulation patterns throughout Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Qamar, Sehrish; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Sohail, Muhammad; Mulla, Sikandar I; Fasola, Mauro; Shen, Heqing

    2016-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of environment is a major threat to human health in developing countries like Pakistan. Human populations, particularly children, are continuously exposed to Hg contamination via dust particles due to the arid and semi-arid climate. However, a country wide Hg contamination data for dust particles is lacking for Pakistan and hence, human populations potentially at risk is largely unknown. We provide the first baseline data for total mercury (THg) contamination into dust particles and its bioaccumulation trends, using scalp human hair samples as biomarker, at 22 sites across five altitudinal zones of Pakistan. The human health risk of THg exposure via dust particles as well as the proportion of human population that are potentially at risk from Hg contamination were calculated. Our results indicated higher concentration of THg in dust particles and its bioaccumulation in the lower Indus-plain agricultural and industrial areas than the other areas of Pakistan. The highest THg contamination of dust particles (3000ppb) and its bioaccumulation (2480ppb) were observed for the Lahore district, while the highest proportion (>40%) of human population was identified to be potentially at risk from Hg contamination from these areas. In general, children were at higher risk of Hg exposure via dust particles than adults. Regression analysis identified the anthropogenic activities, such as industrial and hospital discharges, as the major source of Hg contamination of dust particles. Our results inform environmental management for Hg control and remediation as well as the disease mitigation on potential hotspots. PMID:27372253

  4. Bioaccumulation Efficiency, Tissue Distribution, and Environmental Occurrence of Hepatitis E Virus in Bivalve Shellfish from France

    PubMed Central

    Grodzki, Marco; Schaeffer, Julien; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Chevé, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enteric pathogen of both humans and animals, is excreted by infected individuals and is therefore present in wastewaters and coastal waters. As bivalve molluscan shellfish are known to concentrate viral particles during the process of filter feeding, they may accumulate this virus. The bioaccumulation efficiencies of oysters (Crassostrea gigas), flat oysters (Ostrea edulis), mussels (Mytilus edulis), and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) were compared at different time points during the year. Tissue distribution analysis showed that most of the viruses were concentrated in the digestive tissues of the four species. Mussels and clams were found to be more sensitive to sporadic contamination events, as demonstrated by rapid bioaccumulation in less than 1 h compared to species of oysters. For oysters, concentrations increased during the 24-h bioaccumulation period. Additionally, to evaluate environmental occurrence of HEV in shellfish, an environmental investigation was undertaken at sites potentially impacted by pigs, wild boars, and human waste. Of the 286 samples collected, none were contaminated with hepatitis E virus, despite evidence that this virus is circulating in some French areas. It is possible that the number of hepatitis E viral particles discharged into the environment is too low to detect or that the virus may have a very short period of persistence in pig manure and human waste. PMID:24795382

  5. Mercury bioaccumulation and decontamination kinetics in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, P G; Grilo, T F; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2013-02-01

    Mercury bioaccumulation and decontamination kinetics in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule were studied through a mesocosms experiment after a medium-term exposure to the metal. The results revealed that the bivalve presented distinct bioaccumulation kinetics according to the different tissues. While the gills showed a linear accumulation pattern, the digestive gland and the entire organism presented a saturation model, with higher accumulation during the first 7d of exposure and lower during the rest of the time. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to the Hg concentration, since the organisms under lower contamination presented higher bioconcentration factors than the ones under higher contamination. Gills were the tissues with higher mercury accumulation capability. Concerning the decontamination phase, C. edule lost approximately 80% of the mercury after 24h exposure in clean seawater. Nevertheless, never reached the original condition, showing in the final (20 d detox), Hg levels (>0.5 ppm) higher than those allowed by the legislation regulating human food consumption. This represents a matter of concern for Human health. PMID:23141557

  6. Enantioselective determination of triazole fungicide epoxiconazole bioaccumulation in tubifex based on HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Wang, Bo; Xu, Peng; Liu, Tiantian; Di, Shanshan; Diao, Jinling

    2014-01-15

    In this study, the enantioselective bioaccumulation of epoxiconazole enantiomers in tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificida) was investigated in two uptake pathways. A sensitive and rapid chiral method was developed for the determination of epoxiconazole enantiomers in tubifex and soil based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In the spiked-water or spiked-soil treatments, enantioselective bioaccumulation of epoxiconazole in tubifex was obersved. For spiked-water treatment, (-)-epoxiconazole accumulated in tubifex to a greater extent than (+)-epoxiconazole, leading to enrichments with a composition (-) > (+). However, for spiked-soil treatment, the enantioselectivity in tubifex was reversed with a preferential accumulation of (+)-epoxiconazole. Calculated accumulation factors (AFs) indicated that epoxiconazole in spiked-water treatment had higher bioaccumulation potential than that in spiked-soil treatment. The results from the spiked-soil treatment also revealed that the dissipation of epoxiconazole in soil was enantioselective, and tubifex has positive effects on epoxiconazole diffusion from soil to overlying water. PMID:24364671

  7. Enantioselective bioaccumulation of soil-associated fipronil enantiomers in Tubifex tubifex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiantian; Wang, Peng; Lu, Yuele; Zhou, Gaoxin; Diao, Jinling; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-06-15

    Enantioselective behavior of chiral pesticides in the aquatic environment has been a subject of growing interest. In this study, the enantioselective bioaccumulation of fipronil enantiomers in Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificida) was detected in both spike-water and spike-soil systems, respectively. For the spike-water treatment, a 9-day exposure experiment was employed and the enantiomer fraction in tubifex tissue was maintained approximately at 0.58 during the experiment. In addition, a 14-day bioaccumulation period was chosen for the spike-soil treatment and a more significant deviation of enantiomer fraction from 0.5 in tubifex tissue was detected, with concentrations of the R-form higher than that of the S-form. Therefore, the bioaccumulation of fipronil was enantioselective in tubifex tissue for the two treatments and the magnitude of enantioselectivity may be influenced by different exposure conditions. For the spike-soil treatment, the concentrations of fipronil in verlying water and soil were also determined. With the presence of tubifex worms, higher concentrations of fipronil in overlying water and lower concentrations in soil were detected than that in the absence of tubifex treatment during the whole 14-day exposure period. This means that tubifex has positive functions in fipronil's diffusion from soil to overlying water and in the degradation of the soil-associated fipronil. PMID:22502899

  8. The toxicity, bioaccumulation, elimination, conversion of the enantiomers of fipronil in Anodonta woodiana.

    PubMed

    Qu, Han; Ma, Rui-Xue; Liu, Dong-Hui; Jing, Xu; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Peng

    2016-07-15

    The enantioselective bioaccumulation and elimination of fipronil in Anodonta woodiana (A. woodiana) were studied and the main metabolites fipronil desulfinyl, fipronil sulfide and fipronil sulfone were determined. The acute toxicity of the enantiomers of fipronil and the three metabolites were also investigated. In the bioaccumulation process, fipronil in A. woodiana reached equilibrium after 11days with BCF value of 0.2, and the enantiomeric fraction (EF) values showed that the bioaccumulation was enantioselective with enantioenrichment of S-fipronil. The degradation of fipronil in A. woodiana fitted first-order kinetics model with half-lives of the enantiomers were 5.8 d for R-fipronil and 7.6 d for S-fipronil, and the EF values decreasing from 0.5 gradually indicating the R-enantiomer was preferentially degraded. The degradation of single enantiomers was also performed and the results revealed a fast conversion of R-fipronil to S-fipronil by A. woodiana. The three metabolites were all detected in A. woodiana-water system, in which fipronil sulfone and fipronil sulfide had higher concentration levels. According to the 72-h LC50 values, S-fipronil was much more toxic than the racemate and R-fipronil. Moreover, the metabolites were more toxic than the parent fipronil. The results suggested the individual enantiomers of chiral pollutants and the metabolites should be considered in the risk assessments. PMID:27037470

  9. Forecasting fish biomasses, densities, productions, and bioaccumulation potentials of mid-atlantic wadeable streams.

    PubMed

    Barber, M Craig; Rashleigh, Brenda; Cyterski, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Regional fishery conditions of Mid-Atlantic wadeable streams in the eastern United States are estimated using the Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) bioaccumulation and fish community model and data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Average annual biomasses and population densities and annual productions are estimated for 352 randomly selected streams. Realized bioaccumulation factors (BAF) and biomagnification factors (BMF), which are dependent on these forecasted biomasses, population densities, and productions, are also estimated by assuming constant water exposures to methylmercury and tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorinated biphenyls. Using observed biomasses, observed densities, and estimated annual productions of total fish from 3 regions assumed to support healthy fisheries as benchmarks (eastern Tennessee and Catskill Mountain trout streams and Ozark Mountains smallmouth bass streams), 58% of the region's wadeable streams are estimated to be in marginal or poor condition (i.e., not healthy). Using simulated BAFs and EMAP Hg fish concentrations, we also estimate that approximately 24% of the game fish and subsistence fishing species that are found in streams having detectable Hg concentrations would exceed an acceptable human consumption criterion of 0.185 μg/g wet wt. Importantly, such streams have been estimated to represent 78.2% to 84.4% of the Mid-Atlantic's wadeable stream lengths. Our results demonstrate how a dynamic simulation model can support regional assessment and trends analysis for fisheries. PMID:25858149

  10. Effects of phytoplankton cell size and chloride concentration on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Van Duong, Hieu; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Byeong-Gweon; Han, Seunghee

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, the effects of phytoplankton cell size and methylmercury (MeHg) speciation on the bioaccumulation of MeHg by marine phytoplankton were investigated. Volume concentration factors (VCFs) of MeHg were determined in relation to the surface area to volume ratio of the cells for four species of diatom and a cyanobacteria species cultured in unenriched seawater. The VCFs of MeHg, ranging from 7.3 × 10(4) to 1.6 × 10(6) , increased linearly as the cell surface area-to-volume ratio increased. It suggests that pico- and nano-dominated phytoplankton communities may lead to larger MeHg accumulation than the one dominated by microphytoplankton. MeHg VCFs increased with increasing chloride concentration from 0.47 to 470 mM, indicating that MeHg bioaccumulation is enhanced under conditions that facilitate membrane permeability by the formation of neutral MeHgCl species. Overall results suggest that the size distributions of the planktonic community as well as the seawater chemistry affect MeHg bioaccumulation by marine phytoplankton. PMID:23065924

  11. Bioaccumulation of human pharmaceuticals in fish across habitats of a tidally influenced urban bayou.

    PubMed

    Du, Bowen; Haddad, Samuel P; Luek, Andreas; Scott, W Casan; Saari, Gavin N; Burket, S Rebekah; Breed, Christopher S; Kelly, Martin; Broach, Linda; Rasmussen, Joseph B; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2016-04-01

    Though pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern are increasingly observed in inland water bodies, the occurrence and bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals in estuaries and coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. In the present study, bioaccumulation of select pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern was examined in fish from Buffalo Bayou, a tidally influenced urban ecosystem that receives effluent from a major (∼200 million gallons per day) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Houston, Texas, USA. Using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, various target analytes were observed in effluent, surface water, and multiple fish species. The trophic position of each species was determined using stable isotope analysis. Fish tissue levels of diphenhydramine, which represented the only pharmaceutical detected in all fish species, did not significantly differ between freshwater and marine fish predominantly inhabiting benthic habitats; however, saltwater fish with pelagic habitat preferences significantly accumulated diphenhydramine to the highest levels observed in the present study. Consistent with previous observations from an effluent-dependent freshwater river, diphenhydramine did not display trophic magnification, which suggests site-specific, pH-influenced inhalational uptake to a greater extent than dietary exposure in this tidally influenced urban ecosystem. The findings highlight the importance of understanding differential bioaccumulation and risks of ionizable contaminants of emerging concern in habitats of urbanizing coastal systems. PMID:26587912

  12. Developmental patterns of copper bioaccumulation in a marine fish model Oryzias melastigma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Du, Sen; Green, Iain; Tan, Qiaoguo; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Allometry is known to be an important factor influencing metal bioaccumulation in animals. However, it is not clear whether effects are due to body size per se or changes in physiological traits during the animals' development. We therefore investigated the biokinetics of copper (Cu) and predicted Cu bioaccumulation during the development of a fish model, the marine medaka. The results revealed that the waterborne Cu uptake rate constant decreased and dietary Cu assimilation efficiency increased during development from larvae to adults. Thus, the allometric dependency of the biokinetic parameters in juveniles and adults can not be simply extrapolated to the whole life cycle. The body Cu concentration in the fish was predicted by the biokinetic model, which showed a rapid increase in the larval stage, followed by a slight increase from juveniles to adults, and then a relatively stable plateau in the post-adult stage. Dietary Cu uptake became more important as fish developed from larvae to juveniles, but became less important from juveniles to adults. These findings suggested that the developmental patterns of metal bioaccumulation are driven by an integrated biological/physiological shift through animals' ontogeny rather than a simple allometric dependent change. The developmental changes of metal uptake should be considered in ecological bioassessment and biomonitoring programs. PMID:26675367

  13. Selective bioaccumulation and elimination of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae).

    PubMed

    Di, Shanshan; Huang, Ledan; Diao, Jinling; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Tubifex tubifex worms were exposed to sediment-associated hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers to study the bioaccumulation and elimination behaviors of HCH isomers in T. tubifex. During a 10-day bioaccumulation experiment, bioaccumulation curves of HCHs were approximate to M-type in T. tubifex. The enantioselective behaviors of α-HCH enantiomers were observed in T. tubifex, with concentrations of (+)-α-HCH higher than that of (-)-α-HCH. The concentration of γ-HCH in T. tubifex was higher than that of β-HCH and α-HCH. The existence of worms can accelerate the dissipation of HCHs in sediment, and the dissipation half-lives of α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH were 8.39, 23.90, and 3.10 days, respectively. In the elimination experiment, approximately 0.053 (37.1%), 0.074 (45.9%), and 0.042 mg/kgwwt (38.4%) α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH were depleted or excreted in T. tubifex on the first day, respectively. The body residues in T. tubifex were 0.084 (α-HCH), 0.082 (β-HCH), and 0.061 mg/kgwwt (γ-HCH) at the end of elimination experiment. Furthermore, the existence of T. tubifex could affect the overlying water quality parameters. PMID:26725886

  14. Bioaccumulation patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in northwest Atlantic pilot whales

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2000-03-01

    Contaminant exposure is widespread among marine mammals but is of unknown significance. This study characterized organochlorine bioaccumulation in pilot whales, and these bioaccumulation patterns are proposed as representative of Northwest (NW) Atlantic cetacea. Samples were collected from whales stranded in Massachusetts and caught in nets. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and chlorinated pesticide concentrations were determined via GC/ECD and found to be similar to those reported for other NW Atlantic odontocetes. The organochlorine in highest concentration was 4,4{prime}-DDE, followed by trans-nonachlor, 4,4{prime}-DDD, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, C14(52), C15(95), C15(101), C15(118), C16(138), C16(149), C16(153), C17(180), and C17(187). The concentration of 19 pesticides was higher in blubber than liver. The concentration of 26 PCB congeners was also greater in blubber than liver. Principal component analysis and ANOVA indicated that blubber accumulated proportionately more of the most recalcitrant compounds, such as 4,4{prime}-DDE and nonmetabolizable PCBs, compared to liver. Whales that stranded together had more similar bioaccumulation than animals of the same gender or maturity. The high variation among individuals in tissue concentrations and the similarity within a stranding group suggest that pilot whale pods are exposed to a large range of pollutant sources, such as through different prey and feeding locations.

  15. Organochlorine exposure and bioaccumulation in the endangered northwest Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) population

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2000-03-01

    Exposure to toxicants is one factor hypothesized to influence population growth of the northern right whale. Organochlorines in right whale skin, feces, and prey were measured and used to identify factors influencing exposure and bioaccumulation. Concentrations of 30 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 20 pesticides in skin biopsies were consistent with other baleenopterids. Concentrations in feces and prey were two orders of magnitude less than in biopsies. In principal component analysis, organochlorines in biopsies matched those from Bay of Fundy, Canada, zooplankton, whereas feces were like Cape Cod, USA, copepods. Year of biopsy collection was the principal factor associated with differential accumulation of nonmetabolizable PCBs, 4,4{prime}-DDE, and dieldrin. Biopsies collected during winter had lower concentrations of lipid and metabolizable compounds than biopsies collected during summer. Concentrations of metabolizable PCBs increased with age in males. The bioaccumulation patterns implied that blubber burdens change annually because of the ingestion of different prey or prey from distinct locations and the release of some organochlorines stored in blubber during lipid depletion in winter. Because biopsy concentrations were lower than those found in marine mammals affected by PCBs and DDTs, the authors do not have evidence that the endangered whales bioaccumulate hazardous concentrations of organochlorines.

  16. Effect of PCB Bioavailability Changes in Sediments on Bioaccumulation in Fish.

    PubMed

    Fadaei, Hilda; Watson, Aaron; Place, Allen; Connolly, John; Ghosh, Upal

    2015-10-20

    In situ sediment amendment with sorbents such as activated carbon (AC) can effectively reduce the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, there is limited experimental or modeling assessment of how bioavailability changes in sediments impact bioaccumulation in fish - the primary risk driver for exposure to humans and top predators in the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study we performed laboratory aquarium experiments and modeling to explore how PCB sorption in sediments impacted exposure pathways and bioaccumulation in fish. Results showed that freely dissolved PCBs in porewater and overlying water measured by passive sampling were reduced by more than 95% upon amendment with 4.5% fine granular AC. The amendment also reduced the PCB uptake in fish by 87% after 90 days of exposure. Measured freely dissolved concentrations were incorporated in equilibrium and kinetic models for predicting uptake by fish. Predicted uptake using the kinetic model was generally within a factor of 2 for total PCBs measured in fish. The kinetic model output was most sensitive to overlying water PCBs, lipid fraction, and dissolved oxygen concentration (regulating gill ventilation). Our results indicate that by incorporating changes in freely dissolved PCB concentrations in bioaccumulation models it is possible to predict effectiveness of sediment remediation in reducing PCB uptake in fish. PMID:26402889

  17. Bioaccumulation efficiency, tissue distribution, and environmental occurrence of hepatitis E virus in bivalve shellfish from France.

    PubMed

    Grodzki, Marco; Schaeffer, Julien; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Chevé, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enteric pathogen of both humans and animals, is excreted by infected individuals and is therefore present in wastewaters and coastal waters. As bivalve molluscan shellfish are known to concentrate viral particles during the process of filter feeding, they may accumulate this virus. The bioaccumulation efficiencies of oysters (Crassostrea gigas), flat oysters (Ostrea edulis), mussels (Mytilus edulis), and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) were compared at different time points during the year. Tissue distribution analysis showed that most of the viruses were concentrated in the digestive tissues of the four species. Mussels and clams were found to be more sensitive to sporadic contamination events, as demonstrated by rapid bioaccumulation in less than 1 h compared to species of oysters. For oysters, concentrations increased during the 24-h bioaccumulation period. Additionally, to evaluate environmental occurrence of HEV in shellfish, an environmental investigation was undertaken at sites potentially impacted by pigs, wild boars, and human waste. Of the 286 samples collected, none were contaminated with hepatitis E virus, despite evidence that this virus is circulating in some French areas. It is possible that the number of hepatitis E viral particles discharged into the environment is too low to detect or that the virus may have a very short period of persistence in pig manure and human waste. PMID:24795382

  18. Tungsten toxicity, bioaccumulation, and compartmentalization into organisms representing two trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alan J; Johnson, David R; Seiter, Jennifer M; Lindsay, James H; Boyd, Robert E; Bednar, Anthony J; Allison, Paul G

    2012-09-01

    Metallic tungsten has civil and military applications and was considered a green alternative to lead. Recent reports of contamination in drinking water and soil have raised scrutiny and suspended some applications. This investigation employed the cabbage Brassica oleracae and snail Otala lactea as models to determine the toxicological implications of sodium tungstate and an aged tungsten powder-spiked soil containing monomeric and polymeric tungstates. Aged soil bioassays indicated cabbage growth was impaired at 436 mg of W/kg, while snail survival was not impacted up to 3793 mg of W/kg. In a dermal exposure, sodium tungstate was more toxic to the snail, with a lethal median concentration of 859 mg of W/kg. While the snail significantly bioaccumulated tungsten, predominately in the hepatopancreas, cabbage leaves bioaccumulated much higher concentrations. Synchrotron-based mapping indicated the highest levels of W were in the veins of cabbage leaves. Our results suggest snails consuming contaminated cabbage accumulated higher tungsten concentrations relative to the concentrations directly bioaccumulated from soil, indicating the importance of robust trophic transfer investigations. Finally, synchrotron mapping provided evidence of tungsten in the inner layer of the snail shell, suggesting potential use of snail shells as a biomonitoring tool for metal contamination. PMID:22873780

  19. Discrimination of trait-based characteristics by trace element bioaccumulation in riverine fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, T.M.; DeWeese, L.R.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between tissue trace element concentrations and species traits were examined for 45 fish species to determine the extent to which trait-based characteristics accounted for relative differences among species in trace element bioaccumulation. Percentages of fish species correctly classified by discriminant analysis according to traits predicted by tissue trace element concentrations ranged from 72% to 87%. Tissue concentrations of copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc appeared to have the greatest overall influence on differentiating species according to trait characteristics. Discrimination of trait characteristics did not appear to be strongly influenced by local sources of trace elements in the streambed sediment. Bioaccumulation was greatest for those species classified as primarily detritivores, having relatively large adult body size, considered nonmigratory with respect to reproductive strategy, occurring mostly in large or variable size streams and rivers, preferring depositional areas within the stream channel, and preferring benthic rather than open-water habitats. Our findings provide evidence of the strong relationship between bioaccumulation of environmental trace elements and trait-based factors that influence contaminant exposure. ?? 2008 NRC.

  20. Where does that mercury come from? Assessing mercury speciation and bioaccumulation in terrestrial and aquatic amphibians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury deposition and contamination in the United States, and elsewhere, is widespread and well-documented and continues to be a public-health issue of concern for certain sectors of the global human population. Documentation of the pervasiveness of this contaminant is a first step toward understanding the potential environmental health and ecological implications of mercury pollution. Identifying broad scale distribution patterns of mercury bioaccumulation can convey to regulators that certain ecosystems may be degraded and require development of policies and regulations that may reduce mercury emissions, and ultimately, improve air and water quality. A more synthesized, holistic, perspective on the mechanisms related to aquatic and terrestrial biogeochemistry linkages of fate, transport, and bioavailability of mercury in aquatic ecosystems will result from long term, multi-ecosystem monitoring programs coupled with process-oriented research questions. Here I present total and monomethylmercury field data from experimental (NSF-LTER) and reference (NPS, USFS) ecosystems in the conterminous United States. Using these measurements I evaluate the use of stable isotope and uncertainty analysis techniques for comparative modeling purposes in aquatic and terrestrial amphibian species. Additionally, I present a synthesis of mercury speciation, bioaccumulation, distribution, and ecotoxicity in terrestrial and aquatic species and ecosystems across a broad gradient of physical, climatic, and biotic settings. The role of scale, disturbance mechanisms, geography, and abiotic and biotic factors governing mercury distribution and bioaccumulation in the different ecosystem types will also be discussed.

  1. Influence of plant-earthworm interactions on SOM chemistry and p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Jason W; Slizovskiy, Ilya B; Petriello, Michael C; Butler, Kelly L

    2011-05-01

    Laboratory experiments assessed how bioaccumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil and humic acid (HA) chemistry are affected by interactions between the plants Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo and ssp. ovifera and the earthworms Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, and Apporectodea caliginosa. Total organochlorine phytoextraction by ssp. pepo increased at least 25% in the presence of any of the earthworm species (relative to plants grown in isolation). Uptake of the compound by ssp. ovifera was unaffected by earthworms. Plants influenced earthworm bioaccumulation as well. When combined with pepo, p,p'-DDE levels in E. fetida decreased by 50%, whereas, in the presence of ovifera, bioconcentration by L. terrestris increased by more than 2-fold. Spectral analysis indicated a decrease in hydrophobicity of HA in each of the soils in which both pepo and earthworms were present. However, HA chemistry from ovifera treatments was largely unaffected by earthworms. Risk assessments of contaminated soils should account for species interactions, and SOM chemistry may be a useful indictor of pollutant bioaccumulation. PMID:21421253

  2. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores ( <10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  3. Metabolism and bioaccumulation of nitroaromatic munitions by-products in earthworms and plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T.V.; Chang, L.W.; Smith, M.K.; Daniel, F.B.; Wiechman, B.; Reddy, G.

    1994-12-31

    Previously the authors have used earthworm and plant bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of nitroaromatic ammunition by-products. In the present study, they investigated the uptake, metabolism and possible bioaccumulation of these compounds in earthworms and plants. Earthworms were maintained on artificial soil supplemented with {sup 14}[C] trinitrobenzene (TNB). The authors also studied the translocation, metabolism and bioaccumulation of {sup 14}[C] 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) by germinating oat and lettuce seeds planted on artificial soil. Acetone extracts of tissue and gut contents of earthworms exposed to TNB for different intervals contained only a small fraction of the original radioactivity, which did not increase with time. The radioactivity extracted from earthworms co-eluted with 1,3-dinitroaniline (DNAN) on HPLC and the amount of radioactivity decreased with time. In the DNB plant studies, five day old oat seedlings accumulated 17% of {sup 14}[C] radioactivity. HPLC of acetone extracts revealed unidentified radioactive peaks but DNB radioactivity was not detected. The radioactivity from butanol extracts of both oats and lettuce coeluted with aniline and 3-nitroaniline and the radioactivity increased with time. These results suggest that oats and lettuce bioaccumulate DNB metabolites, which might result in the transfer of toxicants to herbivores.

  4. Bioaccumulation and depuration pattern of copper in different tissues of mystus vittatus, related to various size groups.

    PubMed

    Subathra, Sriramulu; Karuppasamy, Ramasamy

    2008-02-01

    The bioaccumulation pattern of copper (Cu) in gill, liver, kidney, and muscle of different sizes (fingerlings and adult age) of healthy Mystus vittatus when exposed to their respective sublethal concentrations of Cu-water, containing one-third 96-hr LC(50) level (6.20 and 15.95 mg L(-1)) for short-term (120 hr) and one-eighth 96-hr LC(50) level (2.33 and 5.98 mg L(-1)) for long-term experimentation, respectively, has been analyzed. The Cu shows a maximum deposition (p < 0.01) in the liver (82.12 and 70.65 microg/g) followed by gill (74.35 and 63.69 microg/g) and kidney (61.52 and 54.09 microg/g) both in fingerlings and adult fish, respectively, during 28 days of exposure. The lowest deposition of Cu is found to be 0.83 and 0.93 microg/g in fingerlings and 0.79 and 0.86 microg/g in adult muscle tissue during short-term (120 hr) and long-term (28 days) exposure periods, respectively. Comparing the accumulation of Cu on the two size groups at both exposure levels, it is obvious that the fingerlings showed higher Cu concentration in all tissues than those of adult fish. Another equally important finding is that the depuration of Cu by maintaining the bioaccumulated fish (long-term exposed group) of both size groups in quality dechlorinated ground water reveals that there is a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in Cu concentration in different tissues as the day passes. A comparison of the performance of the two size groups in respect of depuration clearly indicates that the fingerlings have taken 24-43 days (gill-kidney), whereas in mature fish it is 21-39 days (gill-kidney) to reach the level of control fish. Among the various tissues in both size groups, gill took the minimum number of days for complete recovery, whereas the muscle tissue did not significantly eliminate Cu even after 30 days of depuration. These data constitute a reference for future studies on the evolution of Cu accumulation and elimination tendency in relation to different size groups of fish in the

  5. Methylmercury bioaccumulation across a productivity gradient in streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conceptual models have identified periphyton as a potentially improtant pathway for biomagnifying pollutants in streams. This hypothesis, however, has neither been tested experimentally, norinvestigated form ethylmercury (MeHg) a ubiquitous aquatic contaminant.

  6. Methylmercury Bioaccumulation in Rice and Wetland Biota: employing integrated indices of processes that drive methylmercury risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.; Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands often are associated with elevated methylmercury (MeHg) production and food web bioaccumulation, making them potentially important sources of Hg to surrounding waters and to wetland-dependent fish and wildlife. However, the cycling of MeHg through wetlands can vary markedly with wetland type. Agricultural wetlands such as rice fields can exhibit particularly pronounced MeHg concentrations and bioaccumulation because their biogeochemical, hydrological, and ecological characteristics facilitate the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg) to MeHg. Rice fields are characterized by a series of seasonal extreme wetting and drying cycles, sulfate-containing fertilizers, and high levels of labile organic carbon, all of which are key processes in the Hg cycle. Rice fields comprise approximately 20% of freshwater habitats and 11% of cultivated land area globally, providing critical wildlife habitat while offering substantial economic, human health, and ecosystem benefits. Thus, there is strong impetus to better understand the drivers of Hg cycling in rice fields and to develop useful management approaches for minimizing Hg risk associated with rice agriculture without compromising rice production. We examined the role of rice wetlands on MeHg bioaccumulation through foodwebs by employing biosentinel caged fish as integrators of MeHg cycling processes. With experimental field studies in California's Central Valley, we placed biosentinel fishes into nine rice wetlands that were subjected to three different harvest strategies, and into nine managed wetlands that encompassed three different hydrological regimes. We simultaneously measured a suite of biogeochemical processes in surface water, sediment, and pore water in order to link the response in fish Hg bioaccumulation with within-field processes that regulate MeHg cycling. Our preliminary results indicate that fish Hg concentrations were 1.6 times higher in rice wetlands than in managed wetlands. Additionally, fish Hg

  7. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Lethality, bioaccumulation and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to follow-up the distribution, lethality percentile doses (LDs) and bioaccumulation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs, average diameter 9.83 ± 1.61 nm) in some tissues of male albino rats, and to evaluate its genotoxicity to the brain tissues, during acute and sublethal experiments. The LDs of Al2O3-NPs, including median lethal dose (LD50), were estimated after intraperitoneal injection. The computed LD50 at 24 and 48 h were 15.10 and 12.88 g/kg body weight (b.w.), respectively. For acute experiments, the bioaccumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen was estimated after 48 h of injection with a single acute dose (3.9, 6.4 and 8.5 g/kg b.w.), while for sublethal experiments it was after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of injection with 1.3 g/kg b.w. once in 2 days. Multi-way analysis of variance affirmed that Al uptake, in acute experiments, was significantly affected by the injected doses, organs (brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen) and their interactions, while for sublethal experiments an altogether effect based on time (1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days), doses (0 and 1.3 g), organs and their interactions was reported. In addition, Al accumulated in the brain, liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of rats administered with Al2O3-NPs were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, during acute and sublethal experiments. The uptake of Al by the spleen of rats injected with acute doses was greater than that accumulated by kidney>brain>intestine>liver, whereas the brain of rats injected with sublethal dose accumulated lesser amount of Al followed by the kidneyBioaccumulation of Al, in all studied tissues, was positively correlated with the injected doses (in acute term) and the experimental periods (in sublethal term). In the acute and sublethal experiments, comet assay parameters such as the tail intensity (i.e. DNA percentage), tail extent moment and olive tail

  8. Evaluation of the potential bioaccumulation ability of the blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.) for assessment of environmental matrices of mudflats.

    PubMed

    Mirsadeghi, Seiedeh Aghileh; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Yap, Chee Kong; Gobas, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The spatial distribution of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (tPAHs) was quantified in aquacultures located in intertidal mudflats of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia in order to investigate bioaccumulation of PAH in blood cockles, Anadara granosa (A. granosa). Fifty-four samples from environmental matrices and A. granosa were collected. The sampling locations were representative of a remote area as well as PAH-polluted areas. The relationship of increased background levels of PAH to anthropogenic PAH sources in the environment and their effects on bioaccumulation levels of A. granosa are investigated in this study. The levels of PAH in the most polluted station were found to be up to ten-fold higher than in remote areas in blood cockle. These high concentrations of PAHs reflected background contamination, which originates from distant airborne and waterborne transportation of contaminated particles. The fraction and source identification of PAHs, based on fate and transport considerations, showed a mix of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. The relative biota-sediment accumulation factors (RBSAF), relative bioaccumulation factors from filtered water (RBAFw), and from suspended particulate matter (SPM) (RBAFSP) showed higher bioaccumulations of the lower molecular weight of PAHs (LMWs) in all stations, except Kuala Juru, which showed higher bioaccumulation of the higher molecular weight of PAHs (HMWs). Calculations of bioaccumulation factors showed that blood cockle can accumulate PAHs from sediment as well as water samples, based on the physico-chemical characteristics of habitat and behaviour of blood cockles. Correlations among concentrations of PAHs in water, SPM, sediment and A. granosa at the same sites were also found. Identification of PAH levels in different matrices showed that A. granosa can be used as a good biomonitor for LMW of PAHs and tPAHs in mudflats. Considering the toxicity and carcinogenicity of PAHs, the bioaccumulation by blood cockles

  9. Effect of pollution by particulate iron on the morphoanatomy, histochemistry, and bioaccumulation of three mangrove plant species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara da Costa; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Conti, Melina Moreira; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias

    2015-05-01

    In Brazil, some mangrove areas are subjected to air pollution by particulate iron from mining activities. However, the effect of this pollutant on mangrove plants is not well known. This study aimed to comparatively analyze the morphoanatomy, histochemistry, and iron accumulation in leaves of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle. Samples were collected from five mangrove sites of Espírito Santo state, each of which is exposed to different levels of particulate iron pollution. The amount of particulate material settled on the leaf surface was greater in A. schaueriana and L. racemosa, which contain salt glands. High iron concentrations were found in leaves of this species, collected from mangrove areas with high particulate iron pollution, which suggests the foliar absorption of this element. None of the samples from any of the sites showed morphological or structural damage on the leaves. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to X-ray diffraction rendered a good method for evaluating iron on leaves surfaces. A histochemical test using Prussian blue showed to be an appropriate method to detect iron in plant tissue, however, proved to be an unsuitable method for the assessment of the iron bioaccumulation in leaves of A. schaueriana and R. mangle. So far, this study demonstrates the need of evaluating the pathway used by plants exposed to contaminated particulate matter to uptake atmospheric pollutants. PMID:25655694

  10. Bioaccumulation and trophic dilution of human pharmaceuticals across trophic positions of an effluent-dependent wadeable stream

    PubMed Central

    Du, Bowen; Haddad, Samuel P.; Luek, Andreas; Scott, W. Casan; Saari, Gavin N.; Kristofco, Lauren A.; Connors, Kristin A.; Rash, Christopher; Rasmussen, Joseph B.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2014-01-01

    Though pharmaceuticals are increasingly observed in a variety of organisms from coastal and inland aquatic systems, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals in aquatic food webs have not been reported. In this study, bioaccumulation of select pharmaceuticals was investigated in a lower order effluent-dependent stream in central Texas, USA, using isotope dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (MS). A fish plasma model, initially developed from laboratory studies, was tested to examine observed versus predicted internal dose of select pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceuticals accumulated to higher concentrations in invertebrates relative to fish; elevated concentrations of the antidepressant sertraline and its primary metabolite desmethylsertraline were observed in the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and two unionid mussel species. Trophic positions were determined from stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) collected by isotope ratio-MS; a Bayesian mixing model was then used to estimate diet contributions towards top fish predators. Because diphenhydramine and carbamazepine were the only target compounds detected in all species examined, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were derived to evaluate potential trophic transfer of both compounds. TMFs for diphenhydramine (0.38) and carbamazepine (1.17) indicated neither compound experienced trophic magnification, which suggests that inhalational and not dietary exposure represented the primary route of uptake by fish in this effluent-dependent stream. PMID:25313153

  11. Endophytic Cultivable Bacteria of the Metal Bioaccumulator Spartina maritima Improve Plant Growth but Not Metal Uptake in Polluted Marshes Soils

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Jennifer; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Caviedes, Miguel A.; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D.

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacterial population was isolated from Spartina maritima tissues, a heavy metal bioaccumulator cordgrass growing in the estuaries of Tinto, Odiel, and Piedras River (south west Spain), one of the most polluted areas in the world. Strains were identified and ability to tolerate salt and heavy metals along with plant growth promoting and enzymatic properties were analyzed. A high proportion of these bacteria were resistant toward one or several heavy metals and metalloids including As, Cu, and Zn, the most abundant in plant tissues and soil. These strains also exhibited multiple enzymatic properties as amylase, cellulase, chitinase, protease and lipase, as well as plant growth promoting properties, including nitrogen fixation, phosphates solubilization, and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. The best performing strains (Micrococcus yunnanensis SMJ12, Vibrio sagamiensis SMJ18, and Salinicola peritrichatus SMJ30) were selected and tested as a consortium by inoculating S. maritima wild plantlets in greenhouse conditions along with wild polluted soil. After 30 days, bacterial inoculation improved plant photosynthetic traits and favored intrinsic water use efficiency. However, far from stimulating plant metal uptake, endophytic inoculation lessened metal accumulation in above and belowground tissues. These results suggest that inoculation of S. maritima with indigenous metal-resistant endophytes could mean a useful approach in order to accelerate both adaption and growth of this indigenous cordgrass in polluted estuaries in restorative operations, but may not be suitable for rhizoaccumulation purposes. PMID:26733985

  12. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Kraus, Tamara E C; Fleck, Jacob A; Krabbenhoft, David P; Horwath, William R; Bachand, Sandra M; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex; Bachand, Philip A M

    2015-05-19

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems. PMID:25893963

  13. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Horwarth, William R.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  14. Concentration dependence of biotransformation in fish liver S9: Optimizing substrate concentrations to estimate hepatic clearance for bioaccumulation assessment.

    PubMed

    Lo, Justin C; Allard, Gayatri N; Otton, S Victoria; Campbell, David A; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2015-12-01

    In vitro bioassays to estimate biotransformation rate constants of contaminants in fish are currently being investigated to improve bioaccumulation assessments of hydrophobic contaminants. The present study investigates the relationship between chemical substrate concentration and in vitro biotransformation rate of 4 environmental contaminants (9-methylanthracene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver S9 fractions and methods to determine maximum first-order biotransformation rate constants. Substrate depletion experiments using a series of initial substrate concentrations showed that in vitro biotransformation rates exhibit strong concentration dependence, consistent with a Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. The results indicate that depletion rate constants measured at initial substrate concentrations of 1 μM (a current convention) could underestimate the in vitro biotransformation potential and may cause bioconcentration factors to be overestimated if in vitro biotransformation rates are used to assess bioconcentration factors in fish. Depletion rate constants measured using thin-film sorbent dosing experiments were not statistically different from the maximum depletion rate constants derived using a series of solvent delivery-based depletion experiments for 3 of the 4 test chemicals. Multiple solvent delivery-based depletion experiments at a range of initial concentrations are recommended for determining the concentration dependence of in vitro biotransformation rates in fish liver fractions, whereas a single sorbent phase dosing experiment may be able to provide reasonable approximations of maximum depletion rates of very hydrophobic substances. PMID:26077187

  15. Endophytic Cultivable Bacteria of the Metal Bioaccumulator Spartina maritima Improve Plant Growth but Not Metal Uptake in Polluted Marshes Soils.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Jennifer; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Caviedes, Miguel A; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacterial population was isolated from Spartina maritima tissues, a heavy metal bioaccumulator cordgrass growing in the estuaries of Tinto, Odiel, and Piedras River (south west Spain), one of the most polluted areas in the world. Strains were identified and ability to tolerate salt and heavy metals along with plant growth promoting and enzymatic properties were analyzed. A high proportion of these bacteria were resistant toward one or several heavy metals and metalloids including As, Cu, and Zn, the most abundant in plant tissues and soil. These strains also exhibited multiple enzymatic properties as amylase, cellulase, chitinase, protease and lipase, as well as plant growth promoting properties, including nitrogen fixation, phosphates solubilization, and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. The best performing strains (Micrococcus yunnanensis SMJ12, Vibrio sagamiensis SMJ18, and Salinicola peritrichatus SMJ30) were selected and tested as a consortium by inoculating S. maritima wild plantlets in greenhouse conditions along with wild polluted soil. After 30 days, bacterial inoculation improved plant photosynthetic traits and favored intrinsic water use efficiency. However, far from stimulating plant metal uptake, endophytic inoculation lessened metal accumulation in above and belowground tissues. These results suggest that inoculation of S. maritima with indigenous metal-resistant endophytes could mean a useful approach in order to accelerate both adaption and growth of this indigenous cordgrass in polluted estuaries in restorative operations, but may not be suitable for rhizoaccumulation purposes. PMID:26733985

  16. Issues Relating To Sediment Toxicity Testing And Bioaccumulation Of Persistent Chemicals In SRS Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    WINONA, SPECHT

    2005-03-01

    Many chemical contaminants that enter a water body in an aqueous form are ultimately deposited to the sediments. Over time, the concentrations of contaminants in sediments may build up to concentrations that are much higher than those found in the water column. However, not all chemicals present in sediments are toxic/bioavailable. Factors that affect bioavailability include aqueous solubility, pH, redox, and composition of the sediment matrix (grain size, mineral constituents, organic matter), and for metals, the quantity of acid volatile sulfides that are present in the sediments. Many sediments contain multiple chemical contaminants, which may interact synergistically or antagonistically with respect to toxicity.

  17. PREDICTING BIOACCUMULATION POTENTIAL: A TEST OF A FUGACITY-BASED MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clams (Macoma nasuta) from an unpolluted site in Yaquina Bay, regon were exposed in the laboratory for 28 days to 6 field-contaminated sediments (treatments) which varied widely in concentration of 10 organic pollutants. ean accumulation factors (AF = (concentration in tissue/lip...

  18. TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION OF PFOS IN A PARTIAL LIFE CYCLE TEST WITH THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer actively manufactured, the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need to...

  19. Environmental effects of dredging. Factors influencing bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants by aquatic organisms. Glossary and bibliography. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, V.A.; Lutz, C.H.; Reilly, F.J.

    1989-08-01

    This is the fourth technical note in a series of four which outlines and describes the principal factors that determine uptake and retention of chemicals by aquatic organisms. The first three notes in the series describe factors relating to contaminants, sediment and water, and biota. This note contains a glossary of terms and a bibliography of key and recent publications in the scientific literature containing supporting data and discussion on each topic. The information contained herein is intended to assist Corps of Engineers environmental personnel in activities requiring a working knowledge of concepts and terminology in the subject of chemical uptake, retention, and elimination by aquatic organisms exposed to contaminated sediments. Bioaccumulation is the general term used to refer to the uptake and storage of chemicals by organisms from their environment through all routes of entry. Bioaccumulation includes bioconcentration, which is the direct uptake of chemicals from water alone, and is distinguished from biomagnification, which is the increase in chemical residues taken up through two or more levels of a food chain. Assessments of the potential for bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredged sediments are often required in evaluations of permit requests. Thus, familiarity with the fundamental physical, biological, and chemical factors affecting bioaccumulation is necessary for performing evaluations of the ecological impacts of dredging operations. Additionally, a basic understanding of the concepts and terminology of bioaccumulation is increasingly required of environmental personnel who are involved in dredging and disposal operations which may involve contaminated sediments and legal personnel involved with regulation and litigation.

  20. Effect of inorganic salts on the growth and Cd2+ bioaccumulation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii cultured under Cd2+ stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Xu, Ying; Li, Chunsheng; Lv, Xin; Wang, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Using living cells to remove heavy metals was limited by the sensitivity of living cells to heavy metal ions. Effect of inorganic salts on the growth and Cd(2+) bioaccumulation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (Z. rouxii) was studied. Results showed that NaCl, KCl, CaCl(2) and MgCl(2) could markedly reduce the growth inhibition ratio while NaNO(3), KNO(3), Na(2)SO(4) and K(2)SO(4) significantly increased it. Effect of inorganic salts on the Cd(2+) bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii indicated that different inorganic salts could promote or restrain the growth of Z. rouxii under Cd(2+) stress by weakening or enhancing Cd(2+) bioaccumulation. Although NaCl and KCl lowered the Cd(2+) accumulation per unit weight of Z. rouxii biomass, the total Cd(2+) bioaccumulation and Cd(2+) percentage removal both markedly increased. It suggested that NaCl and KCl could be introduced to enhance the growth and Cd(2+) bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii under Cd(2+) stress. PMID:23182039

  1. Bioaccumulation of PCB-153 and effects on molecular biomarkers acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan; Soriano, José Antonio; Concha-Graña, Estefanía; Muniategui, Soledad; Beiras, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    In this study, PCB-153 bioaccumulation kinetics and concentration-response experiments were performed employing wild Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels. In addition, the activity of three enzymatic biomarkers: glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), were measured in the mussel gills. The experimental data fitted well to an asymptotic accumulation model with a high bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 9324 L kg(-1) and a very limited depuration capacity, described by a low excretion rate coefficient (Kd = 0.083 d(-1)). This study reports by first time in mussels significant inhibition of GST activity and significant induction of GPx activity as a result of exposure to dissolved PCB-153. In contrast, AChE activity was unaffected at all concentrations and exposure times tested. The effects on both enzymes are time-dependent, which stresses the difficulties inherent to the use of these biomarkers in chemical pollution monitoring programs. PMID:27176625

  2. A dynamic and mechanistic model of PCB bioaccumulation in the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Maury, Olivier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Roupsard, François; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Loizeau, Véronique

    2009-08-01

    Bioaccumulation is difficult to document because responses differ among chemical compounds, with environmental conditions, and physiological processes characteristic of each species. We use a mechanistic model, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, to take into account this complexity and study factors impacting accumulation of organic pollutants in fish through ontogeny. The bioaccumulation model proposed is a comprehensive approach that relates evolution of hake PCB contamination to physiological information about the fish, such as diet, metabolism, reserve and reproduction status. The species studied is the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758). The model is applied to study the total concentration and the lipid normalised concentration of 4 PCB congeners in male and female hakes from the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean sea) and the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic ocean). Outputs of the model compare consistently to measurements over the life span of fish. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the relative effects of food contamination, growth and reproduction on the PCB bioaccumulation in hake. The same species living in different habitats and exposed to different PCB prey concentrations exhibit marked difference in the body accumulation of PCBs. At the adult stage, female hakes have a lower PCB concentration compared to males for a given length. We successfully simulated these sex-specific PCB concentrations by considering two mechanisms: a higher energy allocation to growth for females and a transfer of PCBs from the female to its eggs when allocating lipids from reserve to eggs. Finally, by its mechanistic description of physiological processes, the model is relevant for other species and sets the stage for a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and ecological effects of organic contaminants in marine organisms.

  3. Hot Spots of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Amphibian Populations From the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in the United States (U.S.) is well-documented and continues to be a public- health issue of great concern. Fish consumption advisories have been issued throughout much of the U.S. due to elevated levels of methylmercury (MeHg). Methylmercury contamination in the developing fetus and in young children is a major public health issue for certain sectors of the global human population. Moreover, identifying MeHg hot spots and the effects of MeHg pollution on environmental health and biodiversity are also considered a high priority for land managers, risk assessors, and conservation scientists. Despite their overall biomass and importance to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, Hg and MeHg bioaccumulation dynamics and toxicity in amphibians are not well studied, especially when compared to other vertebrate taxa such as birds, mammals, and fish species. Population declines in amphibians are well documented and likely caused by synergistic and interacting, multiple stressors such as climate change, exposure to toxic pollutants, fungal pathogens, and habitat loss and ecosystem degradation. Protecting quality of terrestrial ecosystems in the U.S. has enormous ramifications for economic and public health of the nation's residents and is fundamental to maintaining the biotic integrity of surface waters, riparian zones, and environmental health of forested landscapes nationwide. Determining Hg concentration levels for terrestrial and surface water ecosystems also has important implications for protecting the nation's fauna. Here I present an overview of the National Amphibian Mercury Program and evaluate variation in MeHg hotspots, Hg bioaccumulation and distribution in freshwater and terrestrial habitats across a broad gradient of physical, climatic, biotic, and ecosystem settings to identify the environmental conditions and ecosystem types that are most sensitive to Hg pollution. The role of geography, disturbance mechanisms, and abiotic and biotic

  4. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of the beta-blocker propranolol in multigenerational exposure to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Yong; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-09-01

    Multigenerational bioaccumulation and biotransformation activity and short-term kinetics (e.g., uptake and depuration) of propranolol in Daphnia magna were investigated at environmental concentration. The body burden and the major metabolite, desisopropyl propranolol (DIP), of propranolol were quantified using LC-MS/MS at the end of each generation after exposure for 11 generations. The accumulation of propranolol in D. magna at an environmental concentration of 0.2 μg/L was not much different between the parent (F0) and the eleventh filial (F10) generation. However, at 28 μg/L, its accumulation was 1.6 times higher-up to 18.9 μg/g-in the F10 generation relative to the F0. In contrast to propranolol, DIP intensity gradually increased from F0 to F10 at 0.2 μg/L, reflecting an increase in detoxification load and biotransformation performance; no increasing trend was observed at 28 μg/L. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) showed higher values with a lower concentration and longer period of exposure. The average values of the BAF for 21 days of long-term exposure in successive 11 generations were 440.4 ± 119.7 and 1026.5 ± 208.6 L/kg for 28 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. These are comparable to the BAF of 192 for the short-term 72-h exposure at 28 μg/L in the parent generation. It is also recommended that future studies for pharmaceutical ingredients be conducted on drug-drug interaction and structural characteristics on the prediction of biotransformation activity and bioaccumulation rate. PMID:27373739

  5. Impact of zinc acclimation on bioaccumulation and homeostasis in Chlorella kesslerii.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Christel S; Behra, Renata; Wilkinson, Kevin J

    2005-08-30

    Growth curves, cellular Zn contents and cellular protein expression were examined for the green alga, Chlorella kesslerii, as a function of different Zn growth regimes (growth in 16 pM, 1.7 nM or 1.6 microM calculated Zn2+). Zn homeostasis was responsible for observed differences in the capacity of the organism to accumulate Zn. The rapid acclimation that occurred in response to a Zn deficiency was likely due to the production of Zn transport sites. No differences were observed among cellular phytochelatin contents or efflux rate constants, although efflux did play an important role in regulating Zn cellular content. A long-term adaptation to Zn was not thought to occur since bioaccumulation and biological responses were similar for four successive cultures (30-40 days, 16-19 cell cycles) at different [Zn2+]. Among proteins that were influenced by the Zn growth regime, the Rubisco and histone H3 proteins were identified as being induced in the presence of 1.6 microM Zn2+ as compared with 1.7 nM Zn2+. The impact of the Zn preconditioning demonstrated that the concentrations of essential metals in the algal growth media would have an important, if not predominant effect on toxicity or bioaccumulation assessments. Furthermore, the high regulation of Zn transport and intracellular events by the microorganisms will likely preclude the use of simple metal uptake models including the free ion activity model and the biotic ligand model to predict either bioaccumulation or toxicological effects of Zn and perhaps other essential metals. PMID:15993955

  6. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  7. Linking metal bioaccumulation of aquatic insects to their distribution patterns in a mining-impacted river.

    PubMed

    Cain, Daniel J; Luoma, Samuel N; Wallace, William G

    2004-06-01

    Although the differential responses of stream taxa to metal exposure have been exploited for bioassessment and monitoring, the mechanisms affecting these responses are not well understood. In this study, the subcellular partitioning of metals in operationally defined metal-sensitive and detoxified fractions were analyzed in five insect taxa. Samples were collected in two separate years along an extensive metal contamination gradient in the Clark Fork River (MT, USA) to determine if interspecific differences in the metal concentrations of metal-sensitive fractions and detoxified fractions were linked to the differences in distributions of taxa relative to the gradient. Most of the Cd, Cu, and Zn body burdens were internalized and potentially biologically active in all taxa, although all taxa appeared to detoxify metals (e.g., metal bound to cytosolic metal-binding proteins). Metal concentrations associated with metal-sensitive fractions were highest in the mayflies Epeorus albertae and Serratella tibialis, which were rare or absent from the most contaminated sites but occurred at less contaminated sites. Relatively low concentrations of Cu were common to the tolerant taxa Hydropsyche spp. and Baetis spp., which were widely distributed and dominant in the most contaminated sections of the river. This suggested that distributions of taxa along the contamination gradient were more closely related to the bioaccumulation of Cu than of other metals. Metal bioaccumulation did not appear to explain the spatial distribution of the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis, considered to be a bioindicator of metal effects in the river. Thus, in this system the presence/ absence of most of these taxa from sites where metal exposure was elevated could be differentiated on the basis of differences in metal bioaccumulation. PMID:15376532

  8. Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Vasić, Nebojša; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2014-05-01

    In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during

  9. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  10. Bioaccumulation trends of arsenic and antimony in a freshwater ecosystem affected by mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dovick, Meghan A.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Arkle, Robert .; Pilliod, David

    2016-01-01

    We compared As and Sb bioaccumulation and biomagnification when these metalloids co-occurred at varying environmental concentrations in a stream and wetlands near a contaminated mine site in Idaho (USA). We measured As and Sb concentrations in water and substrate samples, and in tissues of organisms representing several trophic levels. Bioaccumulation of both As and Sb was observed in stream organisms with the following trend of bio-diminution with increasing trophic level: primary producers>tadpoles>macroinvertebrates>trout. We also note reductions in metalloid concentrations in one of two stream remediation reaches engineered within the past 17 years to ameliorate metalloid contamination in the stream. Several wetlands contained thick microbial mats and were highly populated with boreal toad tadpoles that fed on them. The mats were extremely contaminated (up to 76 564 mg kg-1 As and 675 mg kg-1 Sb) with amorphous As- and Sb-bearing minerals that we interpret as biogenic precipitates from geomicrobiological As- and Sb-cycling. Ingested mat material provided a direct source of metalloids to tadpoles, and concentrations of 3867 mg kg-1 (As) and 375 mg kg-1 (Sb) reported here represent the highest whole body As and Sb levels ever reported in living tadpoles. The bulk of tadpole metalloid burden remained in the gut despite attempts to purge the tadpoles prior to analysis. This study adds to a number of recent investigations reporting bioaccumulation, but not biomagnification, of As and Sb in food webs. Moreover, our results suggest that tadpoles, in particular, may be more resistant to metalloid contamination than previously assumed.

  11. Literature review on the use of bioaccumulation for heavy metal removal and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R. , Pinole, CA ); Wilde, E.W. )

    1991-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of metals by microbes -- bioremoval'' -- is a powerful new technology for the concentration, recovery, and removal of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from waste streams and contaminated environments. Algae are particularly well suited for metal bioremoval. A recent commercial application of bioremoval utilizes inert (dead) immobilized microalgae biomass as ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste waters. Also, living microalgal cultures have been used to remove metals from mine effluents. Microbial cells and biomass can bioaccumulate metals and radionuclides by a large variety of mechanisms, both dependent and independent of cell metabolism. Microbial cell walls can act as ion exchange and metal complexation agents. Heavy metals can precipitate and even crystallize on cell surfaces. Metabolically produced hydrogen sulfide or other metabolic products can bioprecipitate heavy metals. Many microbes produce both intra- and extracellular metal complexing agents which could be considered in practical metal removal processes. Bioremoval processes are greatly affected by the microbial species and even strain used, pH, redox potential, temperature, and other conditions under which the microbes are grown. Development of practical applications of bioremoval requires applies research using the particular waste solutions to be treated, or close simulations thereof. From a practical perspective, the selection of the microbial biomass and the process for contacting the microbial biomass with the metal containing solutions are the key issues. Much of the recent commercial R D has emphasized commercially available, inert, microbial biomass sources as these can be acquired in sufficient quantities at affordable costs. The fundamental research and practical applications of bioaccumulation by microalgae suggests these organisms warrant a high priority in the development of advanced bioremoval processes.

  12. Literature review on the use of bioaccumulation for heavy metal removal and recovery. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Wilde, E.W.

    1991-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of metals by microbes -- `` bioremoval`` -- is a powerful new technology for the concentration, recovery, and removal of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from waste streams and contaminated environments. Algae are particularly well suited for metal bioremoval. A recent commercial application of bioremoval utilizes inert (dead) immobilized microalgae biomass as ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste waters. Also, living microalgal cultures have been used to remove metals from mine effluents. Microbial cells and biomass can bioaccumulate metals and radionuclides by a large variety of mechanisms, both dependent and independent of cell metabolism. Microbial cell walls can act as ion exchange and metal complexation agents. Heavy metals can precipitate and even crystallize on cell surfaces. Metabolically produced hydrogen sulfide or other metabolic products can bioprecipitate heavy metals. Many microbes produce both intra- and extracellular metal complexing agents which could be considered in practical metal removal processes. Bioremoval processes are greatly affected by the microbial species and even strain used, pH, redox potential, temperature, and other conditions under which the microbes are grown. Development of practical applications of bioremoval requires applies research using the particular waste solutions to be treated, or close simulations thereof. From a practical perspective, the selection of the microbial biomass and the process for contacting the microbial biomass with the metal containing solutions are the key issues. Much of the recent commercial R&D has emphasized commercially available, inert, microbial biomass sources as these can be acquired in sufficient quantities at affordable costs. The fundamental research and practical applications of bioaccumulation by microalgae suggests these organisms warrant a high priority in the development of advanced bioremoval processes.

  13. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  14. Linkage of bioaccumulation and biological effects to changes in pollutant loads in south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornberger, M.I.; Luoma, S.N.; Cain, D.J.; Parchaso, F.; Brown, C.L.; Bouse, R.M.; Wellise, C.; Thompson, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    The developed world has invested billions of dollars in waste treatment since the 1970s; however, changes in ecological or biological responses are rarely associated with reductions in metal pollutants. Here we present a novel, 23-yr time series of environmental change from a San Francisco Bay mudflat located 1 km from the discharge of a suburban domestic sewage treatment plant. Samples of surface sediment, the bioindicator Macoma balthica, and metals loading data were used to establish links between discharge, bioaccumulation, and effects. Mean annual Ag concentrations in M. balthica were 106 ??g/g in 1978 and 3.67 ??g/g in 1998. Concentrations of Cu declined from 287 ??g/g in 1980 to a minimum of 24 ??g/g in 1991. Declining Cu bioaccumulation was strongly correlated with decreasing Cu loads from the plant between 1977 and 1998. Relationships with bioaccumulation and total annual precipitation suggested that inputs from nonpoint sources were most important in controlling Zn bioavailability during the same period. Ecoepidemiological criteria were used to associate failed gamete production in M. balthica to a metals-enriched environment. Reproduction persistently failed between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s; it recovered after metal contamination declined. Other potential environmental causes such as food availability, sediment chemistry, or seasonal salinity fluctuations were not related to the timing of the change in reproductive capability. The results establish an associative link, suggesting that it is important to further investigate the chemical interference of Cu and/or Ag with invertebrate reproduction at relatively moderate levels of environmental contamination.

  15. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Rich, Courtney D; Blaine, Andrea C; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-01-20

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids-amended and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted soils results in two potential pathways for movement of these environmental contaminants into terrestrial foodwebs. Uptake of PFAAs by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to unspiked soils with varying levels of PFAAs (a control soil, an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and two AFFF-impacted soils) was measured. Standard 28 day exposure experiments were conducted in each soil, and measurements taken at additional time points in the municipal soil were used to model the kinetics of uptake. Uptake and elimination rates and modeling suggested that steady state bioaccumulation was reached within 28 days of exposure for all PFAAs. The highest concentrations in the earthworms were for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (2160 ng/g) and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) in the industrially impacted soil (737 ng/g). Wet-weight (ww) and organic carbon (OC)-based biota soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for the earthworms were calculated after 28 days of exposure for all five soils. The highest BSAF in the industrially impacted soil was for PFDoA (0.42 goc/gww,worm). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, dry-weight-basis, dw) were also calculated at 28 days for each of the soils. With the exception of the control soil and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in the industrially impacted soil, all BAF values were above unity, with the highest being for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (139 gdw,soil/gdw,worm). BSAFs and BAFs increased with increasing chain length for the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and decreased with increasing chain length for the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). The results indicate that PFAA bioaccumulation into earthworms depends on soil concentrations, soil characteristics, analyte, and duration of exposure, and that accumulation into earthworms may be a potential

  16. Sterilization affects soil organic matter chemistry and bioaccumulation of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene by earthworms.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Jason W; Slizovskiy, Ilya B; Peters, Richard D; Melnick, Adam M

    2010-06-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of soil sterilization on the bioavailability of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene to the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris. Physical and chemical changes to soil organic matter (SOM) induced by sterilization were also studied. Uptake of both compounds added after soil was autoclaved or gamma irradiated increased for E. fetida. Sterilization had no effect on bioaccumulation of p,p'-DDE by L. terrestris, and anthracene uptake increased only in gamma-irradiated soils. Analyses by FT-IR and DSC indicate sterilization alters SOM chemistry and may reduce pollutant sorption. Chemical changes to SOM were tentatively linked to changes in bioaccumulation, although the effects were compound and species specific. Artifacts produced by sterilization could lead to inaccurate risk assessments of contaminated sites if assumptions derived from studies carried out in sterilized soil are used. Ultimately, knowledge of SOM chemistry could aid predictions of bioaccumulation of organic pollutants. PMID:20227150

  17. Effect of season and habitat on PCB bioaccumulation by caged bluegill sunfish deployed in a Great Lakes area of concern.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Anne; Leadley, T A; Drouillard, K G; Haffner, G D

    2014-07-01

    Bluegill sunfish were caged in the Detroit River, Ontario, Canada, for 64 days to determine bioaccumulation rates of PCBs. Deployments involved placing fish in cages suspended in the water (suspended cages) compared to cages partially buried in sediments. Deployments were performed in the summer and winter months. During summer, fish exhibited significant increases in body weight and lipid content (sediment associated cages only), whereas in winter, body weights did not change. Lipid normalized PCB concentrations and PCB mass in fish increased significantly with time in summer deployments, but not in winter. Fish continued to accumulate PCBs over the 64 days caging duration except for PCBs 33, 49, and 52 in sediment associated cages. There were no significant differences in the bioaccumulation of PCBs between cage types. This study confirms that biomonitoring studies using caged fish should ensure chemical toxicokinetics are consistent when comparing bioaccumulation results among sites and/or time points. PMID:24744127

  18. Multivariate modeling of PCB bioaccumulation in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Bavel, B. van; Andersson, P.; Wingfors, H.; Bergqvist, P.A.; Rappe, C.; Tysklind, M.; Aahgren, J.; Norrgren, L.

    1996-06-01

    Three-spined sticklebacks were exposed to 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through gastrointestinal intake. The PCBs, viz. 2,2{prime},3,4-TeCB, 2,2{prime},4,6{prime}-TeCB, 2,3,3{prime},5{prime}-TeCB, 2,3,4,4{prime}-TeCB, 2,3{prime},4,5{prime}-TeCB, 3,3{prime},4,5-TeCB, 2,2{prime},3,4{prime},6-PeCB, 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5-PeCB, 2,2{prime},4,6,6{prime}-PeCB, 2,3,3{prime},5,6-PeCB, 2,3,4,4{prime},6-PeCB, 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}5-PeCB, 2,2{prime},3,4,5,6{prime}-HxCB, 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-HxCB, 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-HxCB, 2,2{prime},3,3{prime},4,5,6-HpCB, 2,2{prime},3,4,4{prime},6,6{prime}-HpCB, 2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5,6,6{prime}-HpCB, 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5,6-HpCB, and 2,3,3{prime},4{prime},5,5{prime},6-HpCB, were selected by means of a full factorial design in combination with principal component analyses based on several physicochemical properties of tetra- through hepta-PCBs. After exposure to the training set, pooled samples of the sticklebacks were analyzed by GC-MS after lipid determination and cleanup using Florisil open-column chromatography. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated on a lipid basis by dividing the PCB concentrations in the fish by the respective concentrations in the feed. Higher chlorinated PCBs showed, in general, higher bioaccumulation than the lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated biphenyls with vicinal hydrogens in the meta- and para-positions exhibited low bioaccumulation. Finally, 18 of the 20 measured BAFs were used to calculate a multivariate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) by means of partial least squares fitting to latent structures. By applying this QSAR, the bioaccumulation potentials of 136 nontested tetra- through hepta-PCB congeners were predicted.

  19. Lettuce irrigated with contaminated water: Photosynthetic effects, antioxidative response and bioaccumulation of microcystin congeners.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo; Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Arruda-Neto, João Dias de Toledo; de Oliveira, Ênio Tiago; dos Santos, Flávio

    2016-06-01

    The use of microcystins (MCs) contaminated water to irrigate crop plants represents a human health risk due to their bioaccumulation potential. In addition, MCs cause oxidative stress and negatively influence photosynthetic activities in plants. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of MCs on photosynthetic parameters and antioxidative response of lettuce. Furthermore, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR in the vegetable after irrigation with contaminated water was determined. Lettuce crops were irrigated for 15 days with water containing cyanobacterial crude extracts (Microcystis aeruginosa) with MC-LR (0.0, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 µg L(-1)), MC-RR (0.0, 0.15, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 µg L(-1)) and total MCs (0.0, 0.65, 2.5, 6.5 and 13.0 µg L(-1)). Increased net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf tissue transpiration and intercellular CO2 concentration were recorded in lettuce exposed to different MCs concentrations. Antioxidant response showed that glutathione S-transferase activity was down-regulated in the presence of MCs. On the other hand, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities were upregulated with increasing MCs concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs and MC-LR was highest at 6.50 and 5.00 µg L(-1), respectively, while for MC-RR, the highest BAF was recorded at 1.50 µg L(-1) concentration. The amount of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR bioacumulated in lettuce was highest at the highest exposure concentrations. However, at the lowest exposure concentration, there were no detectable levels of MC-LR, MC-RR and total MCs in lettuce. Thus, the bioaccumulation of MCs in lettuce varies according to the exposure concentration. In addition, the extent of physiological response of lettuce to the toxins relies on exposure concentrations. PMID:26896895

  20. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioaccumulation and effect on heat production on salmon eggs at different stages of development.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Kimmo A; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2004-05-28

    In this study, pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioaccumulation and its effect on heat dissipation was studied in eggs of the lake salmon (Salmo salar m. sebago). In bioaccumulation studies, the eggs were exposed to low concentrations (0.051-0.056 micromol/l, 13.583-14.915) of waterborne [14C]-labeled PCP at two developmental stages: (1) 3 weeks after fertilization, and (2) just before hatching. The effect of PCP on egg heat dissipation was measured by a microcalorimeter after exposing the eggs to gradual concentrations (0-0.992 micromol/l) of PCP for 48 h. After both the bioaccumulation and heat dissipation experiments, the eggs were dissected and the concentrations of PCP in tissue were determined separately for eggshell, yolk and embryo. The bioaccumulation studies showed that PCP accumulates more in the eggs at the late developmental stage. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) for different tissues were 3-42 times higher for the eggs at the late developmental stage compared with the eggs that were incubated only for 3 weeks. In early developmental stage, the eggshell adsorbs a large portion of the chemical. In late developmental stage, the actual embryo accumulated both proportionately and totally more than other dissected tissues in the beginning of the exposure, but eventually the yolk accumulated highest total amount of the chemical. A probable reason for the higher PCP body burden in the late developmental stage is that the respiration rate and metabolic activity of the embryo increases as it grows. The salmon eggs responded to an exposure to PCP with an elevated rate of heat dissipation. The threshold concentration above which the embryo heat dissipation was amplified was 29.64 micromol/kg embryo wet weight (ww) or 0.28 micromol/l. The highest embryo heat production was measured at the exposure concentration of 0.992 micromol/l. At higher exposure concentrations the heat dissipation decreased. The basic findings of the study are that PCP accumulates in growing embryonic

  1. Bioaccumulation of metals by blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) deployed in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.G.; Bergen, B.J.; Nelson, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    As part of a marine Superfund site remedial monitoring program, blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were deployed for 28 day intervals to monitor the levels of bioavailable copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts. Dissolved and particulate seawater samples were collected periodically during twelve separate deployments and analyzed for these metals also. Bioconcentration factors, the concentration in mussel tissue normalized to dissolved, particulate and total seawater concentrations, were calculated. Previous studies conducted at this site demonstrated that these six metals bioconcentrate in blue mussels and that bioaccumulation patterns vary for each metal. The sources of this variability are discussed with respect to the partitioning of each metal in seawater.

  2. A National Pilot Study of Mercury Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems Along Multiple Gradients: Bioaccumulation in Fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Wiener, James G.; Echols, Kathy R.

    2001-01-01

    Water, sediment, and fish were sampled in the summer and fall of 1998 at 106 sites from 20 U.S. watershed basins to examine relations of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems. Bioaccumulation of Hg in fish from these basins was evaluated in relation to species, Hg and MeHg in surficial sediment and water, and watershed characteristics. Bioaccumulation was strongly (positively) correlated with MeHg in water (r = 0.63, p < 0.001) but only moderately with the MeHg in sediment (r = 0.33, p < 0.001) or total Hg in water (r = 0.28, p < 0.01). Of the other significantly measured parameters, pH, DOC, sulfate, sediment LOI, and the percent wetlands of each basin were also significantly correlated with Hg bioaccumulation in fish. The best model for predicting Hg bioaccumulation included Me Hg in water, PH of the water, % wetlands in the basin, and the AVS content of the sediment. These four variables accounted for 45% of the variability of the fish fillet Hg concentration normalized (divided) by total length; however, the majority was described by MeHg in water. A MeHg water concentration 0.12 ng/L was on average, associated with a fish fillet Hg concentration of 0.3 mg/kg wet weight for an age-3 fish when all species were considered. For age-3 largemouth bass, a MeHg water concentration of 0.058 ng/L was associated with the 0.3 mg/kg fillet concentration. Based on rankings for Hg in sediment, water, and fish, sampling sites from the following five study basins had the greatest Hg contamination: Nevada Basin and Range, South Florida Basin, Sacramento River Basin (California), Santee River Basin and Caostal Drainages (South Carolina), and the Long Island and New Jersey Coastal DRainags. A sampling and analysis strategy based on this pilot study is planned for all USGS/NAWQA study units over the next decade.

  3. Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmanan, P.T. ); Nambisan, P.N.K. )

    1989-07-01

    Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

  4. Assessment of concentration, bioaccumulation and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay.

    PubMed

    Ziyaadini, Morteza; Mehdinia, Ali; Khaleghi, Leila; Nassiri, Mahmoud

    2016-06-15

    The amounts and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in the zooplankton community of Chabahar Bay were investigated. The highest amounts of total PAHs (tPAHs) in the water and zooplankton samples were 62.2ngL(-1) and 1478.6ngg(-1) dry weights, in near the Shahid Beheshti Port and desalination, respectively. The greatest amount of BAF (51,780) was obtained in the entry of Bay, and it was related to the phenanthrene accumulation. Using molecular ratio, the results showed that the major input source of PAH compounds in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay was pyrolytic (fuel) source. PMID:26944700

  5. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls by loaches living in rice paddy fields of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Lu, Xianbo; Zhang, Yichi; Ma, Xindong; Wang, Shuqiu; Ni, Yuwen; Chen, Jiping

    2016-09-01

    The concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in two loach species (Misgurnus mohoity and Paramisgurnus dabryanus) and the soils of their inhabiting rice paddies from three typical rice production bases of Northeast China to explore the main factors influencing the bioaccumulation. The concentrations of ∑18PCBs and ∑21OCPs in loaches were determined to be in the ranges of 0.14-0.76 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and 1.19-78.53 ng g(-1) ww, respectively. Most of loaches showed the considerably high contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which accounted for over 97% of the total OCPs. The much lower maximum allowable loach consumption rates (<15 g d(-1)) indicated a high carcinogenic risk that results from the consumption of rice-field loaches. The field biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) was calculated as a main measure of bioaccumulation potential. The comparisons of BSAF values and the results of multivariate analysis indicated that habitat-specific environmental conditions, mainly the paddy soil contamination levels and average temperature, decisively affected the bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants. When the influence of lipid contents was offset, M. mohoity loaches were found to have a higher potential to accumulation PCBs and OCPs than P. dabryanus loaches, while the bioaccumulation potentials did not exhibit significant differences between juvenile and adult loaches and between male and female loaches. The octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) was the main chemical factor influencing bioaccumulation potentials. The BSAF values presented an increasing tendency with increasing log KOW values from 6.0 to approximately 7.0, followed by a decreasing tendency with a continuous increase in log KOW values. Moreover, loaches exhibited an isomeric-selective bioaccumulation for p

  6. Explaining differences between bioaccumulation measurements in laboratory and field data through use of a probabilistic modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selck, Henriette; Drouillard, Ken; Eisenreich, Karen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Palmqvist, Annemette; Ruus, Anders; Salvito, Daniel; Schultz, Irv; Stewart, Robin; Weisbrod, Annie; van den Brink, Nico W.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine

    2012-01-01

    In the regulatory context, bioaccumulation assessment is often hampered by substantial data uncertainty as well as by the poorly understood differences often observed between results from laboratory and field bioaccumulation studies. Bioaccumulation is a complex, multifaceted process, which calls for accurate error analysis. Yet, attempts to quantify and compare propagation of error in bioaccumulation metrics across species and chemicals are rare. Here, we quantitatively assessed the combined influence of physicochemical, physiological, ecological, and environmental parameters known to affect bioaccumulation for 4 species and 2 chemicals, to assess whether uncertainty in these factors can explain the observed differences among laboratory and field studies. The organisms evaluated in simulations including mayfly larvae, deposit-feeding polychaetes, yellow perch, and little owl represented a range of ecological conditions and biotransformation capacity. The chemicals, pyrene and the polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153, represented medium and highly hydrophobic chemicals with different susceptibilities to biotransformation. An existing state of the art probabilistic bioaccumulation model was improved by accounting for bioavailability and absorption efficiency limitations, due to the presence of black carbon in sediment, and was used for probabilistic modeling of variability and propagation of error. Results showed that at lower trophic levels (mayfly and polychaete), variability in bioaccumulation was mainly driven by sediment exposure, sediment composition and chemical partitioning to sediment components, which was in turn dominated by the influence of black carbon. At higher trophic levels (yellow perch and the little owl), food web structure (i.e., diet composition and abundance) and chemical concentration in the diet became more important particularly for the most persistent compound, PCB-153. These results suggest that variation in bioaccumulation

  7. 26 CFR 1.280C-3 - Disallowance of certain deductions for qualified clinical testing expenses when section 28 credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 28(d)(2)). (b) Capitalization of qualified clinical testing expenses. In a case in which qualified... clinical testing expenses when section 28 credit is allowable. 1.280C-3 Section 1.280C-3 Internal Revenue... Not Deductible § 1.280C-3 Disallowance of certain deductions for qualified clinical testing...

  8. Laboratory Protocol for Measuring the Bioaccumulation of Mercury by Earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffy, D.; Nichols, A.; McLaughlin, A.

    2007-12-01

    Protocol was developed for a series of laboratory tests to determine if Canadian earthworms ( Lumbricus terrestris) can hyperaccumulate mercury from the soil in which they live. Two batches of 300 hundred worms each were measured for mercury uptake by establishing 3 populations (one control and two of known contamination). Populations were sampled every two weeks. Worm lengths were measured as an indicator of worm age and health. Worm tissue was processed by a modified EPA Method 7470 consisting of freeze drying, vacuum extraction, oxidation and acid extraction of the mercury. Each sample needed 2.000 g dry weight of worm tissue required 5 to 6 worms to be homogenized. Mercury concentration in the extraction fluid was measured by a CETAC M-6100 cold vapor mercury analyzer with an ASX-400 Autosampler having a method detection limit of 0.05 ppb. QA/QC activities such as calibration of instrumentation, spike samples, blank samples, reagent control samples, triplicate samples, and standard samples ensure acurate and precise measurements of mercury levels in tissue samples.

  9. Literature-derived bioaccumulation models for earthworms: Development and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II; Beauchamp, J.J.; Efroymson, R.A.

    1999-09-01

    Estimation of contaminant concentrations in earthworms is a critical component in many ecological risk assessments. Without site-specific data, literature-derived uptake factors or models are frequently used. Although considerable research has been conducted on contaminant transfer from soil to earthworms, most studies focus on only a single location. External validation of transfer models has not been performed. The authors developed a database of soil and tissue concentrations for nine inorganic and two organic chemicals. Only studies that presented total concentrations in departed earthworms were included. Uptake factors and simple and multiple regression models of natural-log-transformed concentrations of each analyte in soil and earthworms were developed using data from 26 studies. These models were then applied to data from six additional studies. Estimated and observed earthworm concentrations were compared using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Relative accuracy and quality of different estimation methods were evaluated by calculating the proportional deviation of the estimate from the measured value. With the exception of Cr, significant, single-variable (e.g., soil concentration) regression models were fit for each analyte. Inclusion of soil Ca improved model fits for Cd and Pb. Soil pH only marginally improved model fits. The best general estimates of chemical concentrations in earthworms were generated by simple ln-ln regression models for As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn, and polychlorinated biphenyls. No method accurately estimated Cr or Ni in earthworms. Although multiple regression models including pH generated better estimates for a few analytes, in general, the predictive utility gained by incorporating environmental variables was marginal.

  10. Strain-specific bioaccumulation and intracellular distribution of Cd²⁺ in bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere, ectomycorrhizae, and fruitbodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Złoch, Michał; Kowalkowski, Tomasz; Baum, Christel; Niedojadło, Katarzyna; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2015-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of Cd(2+) in soil bacteria might represent an important route of metal transfer to associated mycorrhizal fungi and plants and may have potential as a tool to accelerate Cd(2+) extraction in the bioremediation of contaminated soils. The present study examined the bioaccumulation of Cd(2+) in 15 bacterial strains representing three phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) that were isolated from the rhizosphere, ectomycorrhizae, and fruitbody of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The strains Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-14, Variovorax sp. ML3-12, and Luteibacter sp. II-116-7 displayed the highest biomass productivity at the highest tested Cd(2+) concentration (2 mM). Microscopic analysis of the cellular Cd distribution revealed intracellular accumulation by strains Massilia sp. III-116-18, Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-14, and Bacillus sp. ML1-2. The quantities of Cd measured in the interior of the cells ranged from 0.87 to 1.31 weight % Cd. Strains originating from the rhizosphere exhibited higher Cd(2+) accumulation efficiencies than strains from ectomycorrhizal roots or fruitbodies. The high Cd tolerances of Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-16 and Bacillus sp. ML1-2 were attributed to the binding of Cd(2+) as cadmium phosphate. Furthermore, silicate binding of Cd(2+) by Bacillus sp. ML1-2 was observed. The tolerance of Massilia sp. III-116-18 to Cd stress was attributed to a simultaneous increase in K(+) uptake in the presence of Cd(2+) ions. We conclude that highly Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating bacterial strains from the genera Massilia sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. might offer a suitable tool to improve the bioremediation efficiency of contaminated soils. PMID:25231735

  11. Do pharmaceuticals bioaccumulate in marine molluscs and fish from a coastal lagoon?

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, R; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S; Huerta, B; Barceló, D; León, V M

    2016-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of 20 pharmaceuticals in cockle (Cerastodema glaucum), noble pen shell (Pinna nobilis), sea snail (Murex trunculus), golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and black goby (Gobius niger) was evaluated, considering their distribution throughout the Mar Menor lagoon and their variations in spring and autumn 2010. The analytical procedure was adapted for the different matrices as being sensitive and reproducible. Eighteen out of the 20 compounds analysed were found at low ngg(-1) in these species throughout the lagoon. Hydrochlorothiazide and carbamazepine were detected in all species considered. The bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals was heterogeneous in the lagoon, with a higher number of pharmaceuticals being detected in fish (18) than in wild molluscs (8), particularly in golden grey mullet muscle (16). В-blockers and psychiatric drugs were preferentially bioccumulated in fish and hydrochlorothiazide was also confirmed in caged clams. The higher detection frequency and concentrations found in golden grey mullet suggested that mugilids could be used as an indicator of contamination by pharmaceuticals in coastal areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows data about hydrochlorothiazide, levamisole and codeine in wild marine biota. PMID:26775009

  12. Modeling organic chemical fate in aquatic systems: Significance of bioaccumulation and relevant time-space scales

    SciTech Connect

    Thomann, R.V.

    1995-06-01

    The importance of aquatic food chain bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in contributing to human dose is derived. It is shown that for chemicals with log octanol water partition coefficients greater than about 3, the role of food chain transfer to fish consumed by humans becomes the more dominant route over drinking water. Modeling of aquatic food chain bioaccumulation then becomes necessary to accurately estimate dose of such chemicals to humans. The relevant time and space scales for groundwater and surface water also indicate a division of organic chemicals at a log octanol water partition coefficient of about 3. For chemicals greater than that level, groundwater transport is minimal, while for chemicals with log octanol water coefficients of less than about 3, detention times are long relative to surface water and biodegradation processes become more significant. An illustration is given of modeling the groundwater transport of two organic chemicals (BCEE and benzene) and a metal (chromium) at a Superfund site. The model indicates that after 10 years only a relatively small fraction of the chemicals had traveled in the groundwater about 300 m to the point of release from the site to surface water. On the other hand, steady state in the adjacent stream and lake is reached rapidly over a distance of 2000 m, illustrating the difference in spatial and temporal scales for the groundwater and surface water. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effects of biochar on the transformation and earthworm bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in soil.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jianqiang; Zhou, Wenqiang; Jiang, Bingqi; Wang, Lianhong; Ma, Yini; Guo, Hongyan; Schulin, Rainer; Ji, Rong; Evangelou, Michael W H

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the effects of biochar on the fate and behavior of micropollutants in soil, especially in the presence of soil macrofauna. Using a 14C-tracer, we studied the fate of 2,4-dichlorophenol and phenanthrene, after 30 days in soil in the presence of a biochar (0-5%, dry weight) produced from China fir at 400 °C and/or the earthworm Metaphire guillelmi. Application of the biochar significantly reduced the degradation and mineralization of both pollutants and strongly increased the accumulation of their metabolites in soil. The earthworm had no significant effects on the degradation of parent molecules of the pollutants but it significantly reduced the mineralization of the pollutants independent of the presence of the biochar. Although at an application rate of <1% the biochar strongly sorbed both pollutants, it did not significantly decrease the bioaccumulation of free dichlorophenol and phenanthrene and their metabolites by the earthworm. Our results demonstrate the complex effects of biochar on the fate, transformation, and earthworm bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in soil. They show that biochar application may not be an appropriate strategy for treating soil contaminated with hydrophobic organic pollutants and underline the importance of soil-feeding earthworms in risk assessments of biochar effects on soil remediation. PMID:26694792

  14. Enantioselective bioaccumulation and dissipation of soil-associated metalaxyl enantiomers in tubifex.

    PubMed

    Di, Shanshan; Liu, Tiantian; Lu, Yuele; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Many pesticides are chiral compounds and stereochemistry is an important factor for any reaction of chiral structures in biological systems. In this study, experiment about bioaccumulation of the two metalaxyl enantiomers in Tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificida) was conducted in laboratory aquatic ecosystems. Terrestrial soil spiked with two dose levels of metalaxyl was employed as the artificial bottom substrate. A method of determination of metalaxyl enantiomers in tubifex tissue, soil and overlying water were developed by HPLC. During a 14-day exposure, concentrations of metalaxyl in tubifex increased with the of soil concentration, however, the enantioselective bioaccumulation was only detected at high-dose exposure group, with the preferential accumulation of (-)-(R)-metalaxyl. The bioturbation activity of tubifex decreased water clarity and released soil-associated metalaxyl to overlying water. In those experiments where tubifex was exposed to metalaxyl from soil, pore water and overlying water, each route contributed to the total body burden, and our results indicated the pore water and soil are the primary exposure routes for high-dose exposure concentration treatment. PMID:24174372

  15. A probabilistic model for silver bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and assessment of human health risks.

    PubMed

    Warila, J; Batterman, S; Passino-Reader, D R

    2001-02-01

    Silver (Ag) is discharged in wastewater effluents and is also a component in a proposed secondary water disinfectant. A steady-state model was developed to simulate bioaccumulation in aquatic biota and assess ecological and human health risks. Trophic levels included phytoplankton, invertebrates, brown trout, and common carp. Uptake routes included water, food, or sediment. Based on an extensive review of the literature, distributions were derived for most inputs for use in Monte Carlo simulations. Three scenarios represented ranges of dilution and turbidity. Compared with the limited field data available, median estimates of Ag in carp (0.07-2.1 micrograms/g dry weight) were 0.5 to 9 times measured values, and all measurements were within the predicted interquartile range. Median Ag concentrations in biota were ranked invertebrates > phytoplankton > trout > carp. Biotic concentrations were highest for conditions of low dilution and low turbidity. Critical variables included Ag assimilation efficiency, specific feeding rate, and the phytoplankton bioconcentration factor. Bioaccumulation of Ag seems unlikely to result in toxicity to aquatic biota and humans consuming fish. Although the highest predicted Ag concentrations in water (> 200 ng/L) may pose chronic risks to early survival and development of salmonids and risks of argyria to subsistence fishers, these results occur under highly conservative conditions. PMID:11351445

  16. Mercury Bioavailability and Bioaccumulation in Estuarine Food Webs in the Gulf of Maine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia Y.; Dionne, Michele; Mayes, Brandon M.; Ward, Darren M.; Sturup, Stefan; Jackson, Brian P.

    2009-01-01

    Marine food webs are important links between Hg in the environment and human exposure via consumption of fish. Estuaries contain sediment repositories of Hg and are also critical habitat for marine fish and shellfish species consumed by humans. MeHg biotransfers from sites of production in estuarine sediments to higher trophic levels via both benthic and pelagic pathways. In this study, we investigated the potential for Hg biotransfer to estuarine food webs across a Hg contamination gradient in the Gulf of Maine. Despite the variation in sediment Hg concentrations across sites (>100 fold), Hg concentrations in biota ranged by only 2–4 fold for each species across sites. Sediment contamination alone explained some variation in Hg and MeHg concentrations in biota across sites. However, biogeochemical and ecological factors also explained significant variation in Hg bioaccumulation across species. Contaminated sites had higher total organic carbon concentrations in sediments, which related to a decrease in Hg bioaccumulation (measured as biota-sediment concentration factors, BSCF). Moreover, concentrations of MeHg were higher in pelagic-feeding than benthic-feeding fauna (determined from delta 13C) indicating the importance of pelagic pathways in transferring MeHg. Lastly, the proportion of total Hg as MeHg increased with trophic level (measured as delta 15N). These results reveal the importance of both biogeochemical and ecological factors in determining the bioavailability and trophic transfer of MeHg in estuarine food webs. PMID:19368175

  17. Dynamic modeling of copper bioaccumulation by Mytilus edulis in the presence of humic acid aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Marín, Paula; Aierbe, Eneko; Lorenzo, J Ignacio; Mubiana, Valentine K; Beiras, Ricardo; Blust, Ronny

    2016-09-01

    Copper (Cu) complexation by humic acids (HA) is expected to decrease Cu bioavailability for aquatic organisms as predicted by metal bioavailability models, such as the biotic ligand model (BLM). This has been confirmed for non-feeding organisms such as marine invertebrate embryos or microalgae, but for filter-feeding organisms such as the mussel Mytilus edulis, Cu bioaccumulation was higher in the presence of HA, suggesting that part of the Cu-HA complexes were available for uptake. This study shows the dynamic modeling of Cu accumulation kinetics in the gills and rest of the soft-body of M. edulis in the absence and presence of HA. Assuming that truly dissolved Cu is taken in the body via the gills following BLM premises, and including uptake of Cu-HA aggregates via the gut into the rest compartment, this two-compartmental model could successfully explain the observed bioaccumulation data. This modeling approach gives strong evidence to the hypothesis that Cu-HA aggregates can be ingested by mussels leading to Cu absorption in the digestive system. PMID:27498364

  18. Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, K.; Bjoerk, M.; Burreau, S.; Gilek, M. )

    1999-06-01

    Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, IUPAC congeners 47, 99, and 153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners 31, 52, 77, 118, and 153) in a flow-through experimental setup for 44 d. After the exposure phase, the mussels were allowed to depurate in natural brackish water for 26 d. After analyses, uptake clearance rate coefficients (k[sub u]), depuration rate coefficients (k[sub d]), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated. A rapid uptake of all PBDEs and PCBs was observed, especially for PBDE congeners 47 and 99. The depuration rate decreased with increasing hydrophobicity as expected for the PCBs, but for the PBDEs, depuration rate coefficients appeared to be of the same magnitude for all three congeners independently of log K[sub OW]. The BAFs obtained for PBDE 47 and PBDE 99 were higher than for all other substances in the study, severalfold higher than for PCBs of similar hydrophobicity. The presented data indicate that the bioaccumulation potential of PBDEs, extensively used as flame retardants, is similar or higher than that of PCBs for filter feeding organisms such as blue mussels.

  19. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Mbaa River and the impact on aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ajima, M N O; Nnodi, P C; Ogo, O A; Adaka, G S; Osuigwe, D I; Njoku, D C

    2015-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and toxic effects of heavy metals have caused ecological damage to aquatic ecosystem. In this study, concentration of heavy metals including zinc, lead, cadmium, iron, and copper were determined in the sediment and water as well as in the muscle, gill, and intestine of two fish species (Pelmatochromis guentheri and Pelmatochromis pulcher) of Mbaa River in Southeastern Nigeria. Samples were collected at three different spots from the river, and the level of heavy metals specified above were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) after a modified wet digestion process. The results indicated that sediment had the highest concentration of the heavy metals investigated while water had the lowest concentration. Fish tissues showed appreciable bioaccumulation of these metals as evidenced by a higher concentration profile when compared with that of water. Furthermore, the concentration of these heavy metals in water and their bioconcentration factor in the fish were above the recommended limit by WHO and FEPA, indicating that Mbaa River along Inyishi may not be suitable for drinking nor the fish safe for human consumption. The study also reveals the use of fish as bioindicator of aquatic environment. PMID:26597816

  20. Heavy metals bioaccumulation in Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) cultivated in areas under intensive agriculture, Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Sandip Singh; Sambyal, Vasudha; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) is one of the main fodder crops of Punjab, India. But due to the heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils by anthropogenic activities, there is rise in metal bioaccumulation in crops like Berseem. In addition to human influence, heavy metal contents in soil are highly dependent on soil characteristics also. Therefore a study was conducted in areas having intensive agricultural practices to analyze physico-chemical characteristics of soils under Berseem cultivation and heavy metal bioaccumulation in Berseem. The studied soils were alkaline, sandy in texture and low in soil organic matter. Among the studied heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Co and Pb) in soil and Berseem, Cr content in Berseem was found to be above maximum permissible limits. Soil to Berseem metal bioaccmulation factor (BAF) was above 1 for Cr, Cu, Cd and Co in many samples and highest BAF was found for Co (4.625). Hence it can be concluded that Berseem from studied areas was unsafe for animal consumption. PMID:27026870

  1. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in pre-fledgling tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, M.L. )

    1989-09-01

    Wetlands in urbanized areas are frequently degraded by human activity. The Hackensack River Estuary in Northeastern New Jersey is no exception. This estuary contains over 1,600 acres of landfill, and receives various levels of treated effluent from seven different sewage treatment plants. Heavy metals are a common pollutant in the Hackensack River Basin. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in birds is a well documented phenomenon. Studies have shown that near shore predatory birds have higher mercury levels in their feathers than do pelagic predatory birds. Other studies have shown that insectivorous pied flycatcher nestlings and black-crowned night heron pre-fledglings show heavy metal body burdens that correlate well with the distance of their nests from a heavy metal source. The tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) is a common summer resident in the Hackensack Meadowlands. This species readily nests in man-made nest boxes, and has used boxes erected for this purpose in the Hackensack Meadowlands District (HMD). The swallows feed primarily on adult midges (Chironomus decorus) which are prevalent in the region. This relationship makes the tree swallows and midges an ideal model for food chain bioaccumulation studies.

  2. Modeling organic chemical fate in aquatic systems: significance of bioaccumulation and relevant time-space scales.

    PubMed Central

    Thomann, R V

    1995-01-01

    The importance of aquatic food chain bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in contributing to human dose is derived. It is shown that for chemicals with log octanol water partition coefficients greater than about 3, the role of food chain transfer to fish consumed by humans becomes the more dominant route over drinking water. Modeling of aquatic food chain bioaccumulation then becomes necessary to accurately estimate dose of such chemicals to humans. The relevant time and space scales for groundwater and surface water also indicate a division of organic chemicals at a log octanol water partition coefficient of about 3. For chemicals greater than that level, groundwater transport is minimal, while for chemicals with log octanol water coefficients of less than about 3, detention times are long relative to surface water and biodegradation processes become more significant. An illustration is given of modeling the groundwater transport of two organic chemicals (BCEE and benzene) and a metal (chromium) at a Superfund site. The model indicates that after 10 years only a relatively small fraction of the chemicals had traveled in the groundwater about 300 m to the point of release from the site to surface water. On the other hand, steady state in the adjacent stream and lake is reached rapidly over a distance of 2000 m, illustrating the difference in spatial and temporal scales for the groundwater and surface water. PMID:8565912

  3. Bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic selenium in a laboratory food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, J.M.; Canfield, T.J.; La Point, T.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Aquatic organisms accumulated selenium (Se) from inorganic and organic Se species via aqueous and food-chain exposure routes. The authors measured aqueous and food-chain Se bioaccumulation from selenate, selenite, and seleno-L-methionine in a laboratory food chain of algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), daphnids (Daphnia magna), and fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus). Selenium concentrations were monitored radiometrically with [sup 75]Se-labeled compounds. All three organisms concentrated Se more strongly from aqueous selenomethionine than from either inorganic Se species. Bioconcentration factors estimated from 1 [mu]g Se/L Se-methionine exposures were approximately 16,000 for algae, 200,000 for daphnids, and 5,000 for bluegills. Algae and daphnids concentrated Se more strongly from selenite than selenate whereas bluegills concentrated Se about equally from both inorganic species. Bioaccumulation of foodborne Se by daphnids and bluegills was similar in food chains dosed with different Se species. Daphnids and bluegills did not accumulate Se concentrations greater than those in their diet, except at very low dietary Se concentrations. Food-chain concentration factors (CFs) for daphnids decreased from near 1.0 to 0.5 with increases in algal Se concentrations, whereas CFs estimated from bluegill exposures averaged 0.5 over a range of foodborne Se concentrations. In exposures based on selenite, bluegills accumulated greater Se concentrations from food than from water.

  4. Influence of nutrient additions on cadmium bioaccumulation by aquatic invertebrates in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Muir, D.C.G.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Hecky, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    Cadmium distribution and bioaccumulation were examined over a 2-year period (1991--1992) in two nutrient-enriched and two control littoral enclosures and in the littoral zone in Lake 382 (L382). Lake 382, a small oligotrophic lake, is located within the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, and received experimental Cd additions from 1987 to 1992. In the second year of this study, chlorophyll a and suspended C concentrations in the nutrient-enriched enclosures increased by 6.6 and 3.4 times, respectively, compared to the controls. As a result of increased particulate produced by the nutrient additions, Cd concentrations in water from the nutrient-enriched enclosures were higher compared to the controls. Estimated Cd/C concentrations in water were lower in the nutrient-enriched enclosures relative to the controls because of higher particle concentrations. Effects on Cd bioaccumulation were limited even though mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions were reached in the nutrient-enriched enclosures had consistently higher Cd concentrations compared to the controls, but significant differences were not detected. Enhanced accumulation of Cd-rich particulate matter by these organisms may account for this trend. Mussels and crayfish accumulated significantly more Cd when exposed in the lake compared to the enclosures. This observation is due to elevated Cd water concentrations in the lake compared to the enclosures because of continued Cd additions to the lake. These results suggest that the water route of exposure is an important pathway for Cd accumulation by these organisms.

  5. Bioaccumulation and analytics of pharmaceutical residues in the environment: A review.

    PubMed

    Puckowski, Alan; Mioduszewska, Katarzyna; Łukaszewicz, Paulina; Borecka, Marta; Caban, Magda; Maszkowska, Joanna; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    The presence of pharmaceutical residues in various environmental compartments is an issue of increasing concern. The widespread occurrence of these compounds in water and soil samples has been demonstrated in a number of analytical studies. However, the data about their concentrations in biota samples is scarce. Moreover, the trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals remains largely unexplored, despite increasing evidence of the potential bioaccumulation of those compounds. Therefore, the main aim of this review is to present an overview of the current state of data about the bioaccumulation and analytical methodologies used for the determination of pharmaceutical residues in biota samples. This work focuses on the most commonly found pharmaceuticals in the environment: antibiotics, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid hormones, antihypertensives and antidepressants. We do hope that the collected data will allow a better understanding of pharmaceutical pollution and the exposure of non-target organisms. However, although impressive progress has undoubtedly been made, in order to fully understand the behavior of these chemicals in the environment, there are still numerous gaps to be filled in our overall knowledge in this field. PMID:26968887

  6. The role of irrigation techniques in arsenic bioaccumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Spanu, Antonino; Daga, Leonardo; Orlandoni, Anna Maria; Sanna, Gavino

    2012-08-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic compounds in rice is of great concern worldwide because rice is the staple food for billions of people and arsenic is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic elements at even trace amounts. The uptake of arsenic compounds in rice comes mainly from its interaction with system soil/water in the reducing conditions typical of paddy fields and is influenced by the irrigation used. We demonstrate that the use of sprinkler irrigation produces rice kernels with a concentration of total arsenic about fifty times lower when compared to rice grown under continuous flooding irrigation. The average total amount of arsenic, measured by a fully validated ICP-MS method, in 37 rice grain genotypes grown with sprinkler irrigation was 2.8 ± 2.5 μg kg(-1), whereas the average amount measured in the same genotypes grown under identical conditions, but using continuous flooding irrigation was 163 ± 23 μg kg(-1). In addition, we find that the average concentration of total arsenic in rice grains cultivated under sprinkler irrigation is close to the total arsenic concentration found in irrigation waters. Our results suggest that, in our experimental conditions, the natural bioaccumulation of this element in rice grains may be completely circumvented by adopting an appropriate irrigation technique. PMID:22765219

  7. Mercury bioaccumulation in an estuarine predator: Biotic factors, abiotic factors, and assessments of fish health.

    PubMed

    Smylie, Meredith S; McDonough, Christopher J; Reed, Lou Ann; Shervette, Virginia R

    2016-07-01

    Estuarine wetlands are major contributors to mercury (Hg) transformation into its more toxic form, methylmercury (MeHg). Although these complex habitats are important, estuarine Hg bioaccumulation is not well understood. The longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus (L. 1758), an estuarine predator in the eastern United States, was selected to examine Hg processes due to its abundance, estuarine residence, and top predator status. This study examined variability in Hg concentrations within longnose gar muscle tissue spatially and temporally, the influence of biological factors, potential maternal transfer, and potential negative health effects on these fish. Smaller, immature fish had the highest Hg concentrations and were predominantly located in low salinity waters. Sex and diet were also important factors and Hg levels peaked in the spring. Although maternal transfer occurred in small amounts, the potential negative health effects to young gar remain unknown. Fish health as measured by fecundity and growth rate appeared to be relatively unaffected by Hg at concentrations in the present study (less than 1.3 ppm wet weight). The analysis of biotic and abiotic factors relative to tissue Hg concentrations in a single estuarine fish species provided valuable insight in Hg bioaccumulation, biomagnification, and elimination. Insights such as these can improve public health policy and environmental management decisions related to Hg pollution. PMID:27086072

  8. Geochemical features of heavy metal bioaccumulation in the Guaymas Basin of the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demina, L. L.; Galkin, S. V.

    2009-10-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy (flame and graphite furnace techniques) and instrumental neutron activation analysis were used for determining the Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ag, Co, Cr, As, Se, Sb, Ba, Au, and Hg contents in 25 samples of different tissues and whole organisms inhabiting the southern trough in the Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) and in several samples of its bottom waters. It is shown that the habitat environment of this hydrothermal field with high primary production of both photosynthetic and bacterial chemosynthetic origin influences the Fe and Mn ratios in the waters of the microbiotopes and the distribution patterns of the metals in the external and internal organs of the benthic animals. In the dominant specialized taxa, the maximal bioaccumulation of metals is registered both in the organs related to bacterial chemosynthesis such as the trophosome of Vestimentifera Riftia pachyptila and the gills of the vesicomyid clam Archivestica gigas and in other organs. The other organisms such as the mollusks Nuculana grasslei, actinias Paraphelliactis pabista, Actinaria, and Spongia and the crabs Munidopsis alvisca demonstrate high bioaccumulation properties as well. The metal concentration coefficient is highly variable ranging from 10 to 104. The changes in the molar Fe/Mn ratio values imply the partitioning of these two metals in the following migration succession: microbiotope water-external organs-internal organs.

  9. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in stranded cetaceans from Taiwan coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Ko, Fung Chi; We, Nien-Ying; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2014-07-30

    This study focuses on analyzing PBDEs in the liver, muscle, and blubber tissues of stranded dolphins (Stenella attenuate) on the Taiwan coast to determine and compare the PBDE levels and distributions among tissue types. Total concentrations of 19 PBDEs (ΣPBDE) in male dolphins (9.97 to 436ng/g fat) were significantly higher than in female animals (2.73 to 89.5ng/g fat), implying gender variation in bioaccumulation and the possibility of generation transfer from mother to fetus during pregnancy. The levels of contamination varied among tissue type; contamination was higher in blubber than that in muscle or liver, suggesting a possible transformation and redistribution of these compounds in body burden. Aside from gender and tissue type, ΣPBDE concentrations also significantly correlated with body length, an indicator of dolphin age. PCA analysis results showed no significant difference in PBDE congener pattern distributions in blubber tissues, indicating that blubber may be the final storage of contaminants in cetaceans, and that bioaccumulation of PBDEs may be dependent on chemical properties. BDE-154 and BDE-47 were the predominant PBDE congeners in stranded dolphins, and their correlation with body length suggests the significant metabolic depletion of BDE-154 in this species and possible exposure to both penta-BDE and octa-BDE mixtures. PMID:24440412

  10. Zinc and copper bioaccumulation in fish from Laizhou Bay, the Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinhu; Cao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Chuantao; Dou, Shuozeng

    2014-05-01

    Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations were determined in the tissues (muscle, stomach, liver, gills, skin, and gonads) of five commercial fish species (mullet Liza haematocheilus, flathead Platycephalus indicus, mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius, silver pomfret Pampus argenteus, and sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus) from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea. Metal bioaccumulation was highest in the metabolically active tissues of the gonads and liver. Bioconcentration factors for Zn were higher in all tissues (gonads 44.35, stomach 7.73, gills 7.72, liver 5.61, skin 4.88, and muscle 1.63) than the corresponding values for Cu (gonads 3.50, stomach 3.00, gills 1.60, liver 5.43, skin 1.50, and muscle 0.93). Mackerel tissues accumulated metal to higher concentrations than did other fish species, but bioaccumulation levels were not significantly correlated with the trophic levels of the fish. Zn and Cu concentrations in the tissues were generally negatively correlated with fish length, except for a few tissues of sea bass. Risk assessment based on national and international permissible limits and provisional tolerances for weekly intake of Zn and Cu revealed that the concentrations of these two metals in muscle were relatively low and would not pose hazards to human health.

  11. A probabilistic model for silver bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and assessment of human health risks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warila, James; Batterman, Stuart; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    2001-01-01

    Silver (Ag) is discharged in wastewater effluents and is also a component in a proposed secondary water disinfectant. A steady-state model was developed to simulate bioaccumulation in aquatic biota and assess ecological and human health risks. Trophic levels included phytoplankton, invertebrates, brown trout, and common carp. Uptake routes included water, food, or sediment. Based on an extensive review of the literature, distributions were derived for most inputs for use in Monte Carlo simulations. Three scenarios represented ranges of dilution and turbidity. Compared with the limited field data available, median estimates of Ag in carp (0.07-2.1 Iμg/g dry weight) were 0.5 to 9 times measured values, and all measurements were within the predicted interquartile range. Median Ag concentrations in biota were ranked invertebrates > phytoplankton > trout > carp. Biotic concentrations were highest for conditions of low dilution and low turbidity. Critical variables included Ag assimilation eficiency, specific feeding rate, and the phytoplankton bioconcentration factor. Bioaccumulation of Ag seems unlikely to result in txicity to aquatic biota and humans consuming fish. Although the highest predicted Ag concentrations in water (>200 ng/L) may pose chronic risks to early survival and development of salmonids and risks of argyria to subsistence fishers, these results occur under highly conservative conditions.

  12. Effects of perchlorate bioaccumulation on Spodoptera litura growth and sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Qin, Junhao; Shu, Yinghua; Li, Yongjun; He, Hongzhi; Li, Huashou

    2016-05-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4 (-)) pollution is widespread in the natural environment, but the effects of ClO4 (-) on the terrestrial insects are rarely studied. Here, when phytophagous insect Spodoptera litura larvae were fed on the diets with different ClO4 (-) concentrations, changes in their life-history traits were recorded; ClO4 (-) accumulations in feces and insect body were detected. The results demonstrated that ClO4 (-) bioaccumulation in insect at the different developmental stages was ranked in the order: adults > pupae > the 4th > 5th > 6th instar larvae. Besides, ClO4 (-) accumulations in the feces were ranked in the order: the 6th > 5th > 4th instar larvae. The ClO4 (-) accumulations in female pupae and adults were significantly higher than that in males. ClO4 (-) bioaccumulation in insect prolonged larval development time and caused a skewed sex ratio (the percentage of males at metamorphosis significantly decreased) under 100 to 200 mg ClO4 (-)/kg treatment. Therefore, ClO4 (-) accumulations in S. litura body presented developmental stage-, sex-specific pattern, and the sex-specific ClO4 (-) accumulations resulted in difference of sex ratio. These effects were observed at concentrations reported in natural environments contaminated with ClO4 (-), suggesting that this contaminant may pose a threat to the normal development and growth of this insect species. PMID:26810791

  13. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by freshwater algal species of Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Jaiswar, Santial; Kazi, Mudassar Anisoddin; Mehta, Shailesh

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated copper, cadmium, lead and zinc accumulation in algal species Oedogonium, Cladophora, Oscillatoria and Spirogyra from freshwater habitats of Bhavnagar, India. Eight different locations were periodically sampled during August 2009 to March 2011. The general trend of heavy metal concentrations in all the algal species in present study (except at few stations), were found to be in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Highest accumulation of Cu was recorded in Oedogonium, while Cladophora showed highest accumulation of Pb signifying a good bioaccumulator. Oscillatoria and Oedogonium were highest Zn accumulating algae which showed significant difference between the means at P < 0.05. ANOVA was performed for comparing significance mean between the groups and within the group for heavy metals in water. The concentration of heavy metals in water was in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The present study showed that Oedogonium, Cladophora, Oscillatoria and Spirogyra were excellent bioaccumulator and could be utilized as biomonitoring agents in water bodies receiving waste contaminated by metals. PMID:26688974

  14. Marine foraging ecology influences mercury bioaccumulation in deep-diving northern elephant seals

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury contamination of oceans is prevalent worldwide and methylmercury concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200–1000 m) are increasing more rapidly than in surface waters. Yet mercury bioaccumulation in mesopelagic predators has been understudied. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometres to forage within coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean. We coupled satellite telemetry, diving behaviour and stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) from 77 adult females, and showed that variability among individuals in foraging location, diving depth and δ13C values were correlated with mercury concentrations in blood and muscle. We identified three clusters of foraging strategies, and these resulted in substantially different mercury concentrations: (i) deeper-diving and offshore-foraging seals had the greatest mercury concentrations, (ii) shallower-diving and offshore-foraging seals had intermediate levels, and (iii) coastal and more northerly foraging seals had the lowest mercury concentrations. Additionally, mercury concentrations were lower at the end of the seven-month-long foraging trip (n = 31) than after the two-month- long post-breeding trip (n = 46). Our results indicate that foraging behaviour influences mercury exposure and mesopelagic predators foraging in the northeast Pacific Ocean may be at high risk for mercury bioaccumulation. PMID:26085591

  15. Marine foraging ecology influences mercury bioaccumulation in deep-diving northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Costa, Daniel P

    2015-07-01

    Mercury contamination of oceans is prevalent worldwide and methylmercury concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m) are increasing more rapidly than in surface waters. Yet mercury bioaccumulation in mesopelagic predators has been understudied. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometres to forage within coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean. We coupled satellite telemetry, diving behaviour and stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) from 77 adult females, and showed that variability among individuals in foraging location, diving depth and δ(13)C values were correlated with mercury concentrations in blood and muscle. We identified three clusters of foraging strategies, and these resulted in substantially different mercury concentrations: (i) deeper-diving and offshore-foraging seals had the greatest mercury concentrations, (ii) shallower-diving and offshore-foraging seals had intermediate levels, and (iii) coastal and more northerly foraging seals had the lowest mercury concentrations. Additionally, mercury concentrations were lower at the end of the seven-month-long foraging trip (n = 31) than after the two-month- long post-breeding trip (n = 46). Our results indicate that foraging behaviour influences mercury exposure and mesopelagic predators foraging in the northeast Pacific Ocean may be at high risk for mercury bioaccumulation. PMID:26085591

  16. Marine foraging ecology influences mercury bioaccumulation in deep-diving northern elephant seals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury contamination of oceans is prevalent worldwide and methylmercury concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200–1000 m) are increasing more rapidly than in surface waters. Yet mercury bioaccumulation in mesopelagic predators has been understudied. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometres to forage within coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean. We coupled satellite telemetry, diving behaviour and stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) from 77 adult females, and showed that variability among individuals in foraging location, diving depth and δ13C values were correlated with mercury concentrations in blood and muscle. We identified three clusters of foraging strategies, and these resulted in substantially different mercury concentrations: (i) deeper-diving and offshore-foraging seals had the greatest mercury concentrations, (ii) shallower-diving and offshore-foraging seals had intermediate levels, and (iii) coastal and more northerly foraging seals had the lowest mercury concentrations. Additionally, mercury concentrations were lower at the end of the seven-month-long foraging trip (n = 31) than after the two-month- long post-breeding trip (n = 46). Our results indicate that foraging behaviour influences mercury exposure and mesopelagic predators foraging in the northeast Pacific Ocean may be at high risk for mercury bioaccumulation.

  17. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al. PMID:27086300

  18. Facilitated bioaccumulation of perfluorooctanesulfonate in zebrafish by nano-TiO2 in two crystalline phases.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Liwen; Shi, Xiaomei; Pan, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Lingyan; Chen, Meng; Han, Yuwei

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish were placed in the upper layer of aquariums to investigate the impacts of anatase and rutile nano-TiO2 on perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) bioaccumulation in zebrafish. Both variations of particle hydrodynamic size and concentration in water column suggest that anatase was better dispersed than rutile. PFOS could be significantly adsorbed on nano-TiO2 to form TiO2-PFOS complexes, leading to reduced concentration of PFOS in upper layer. Due to enhanced exposure to PFOS by ingestion and adhesion of TiO2-PFOS complexes, the whole-body PFOS concentration in zebrafish was enhanced by 59.0% (95% CI: 55.9%, 61.9%) and 25.4% (95% CI: 24.8%, 25.6%) in the presence of anatase and rutile nano-TiO2 after equilibrium compared with the control with PFOS alone. The bioaccumulation of PFOS was much more promoted by anatase, which was attributed by greater adsorption capacity of PFOS to anatase, slower migration of their complex in water column, and slower elimination rate of anatase from fish. PMID:26319509

  19. Review of OPFRs in animals and humans: Absorption, bioaccumulation, metabolism, and internal exposure research.

    PubMed

    Hou, Rui; Xu, Yiping; Wang, Zijian

    2016-06-01

    Due to their widespread use, organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are commonly detected in various environmental matrices and have been identified as emerging contaminants. Considering the adverse effects of OPFRs, many researchers have paid their attention on the absorption, bioaccumulation, metabolism and internal exposure processes of OPFRs in animals and humans. In this article, we first review the diverse absorption routes of OPFRs by animals and humans (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, dermal absorption and gill absorption). Bioaccumulation and biomagnification potentials of OPFRs in different types of organisms and food webs are also summarized, based on quite limited available data and results. For metabolism, we review the Phase-I and Phase-II metabolic processes for each type of OPFRs (chlorinated OPFRs, alkyl-OPFRs and aryl-OPFRs) in the animals and humans, as well as toxicokinetic information and putative exposure biomarkers on OPFRs. Finally, we highlight gaps in our knowledge and critical directions for future internal exposure studies of OPFRs in animals and humans. PMID:27010170

  20. Modeling bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in estuarine-marine food chains.

    PubMed

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; de Vos, Martine G; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Vethaak, A Dick; de Voogt, Pim; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-11-01

    There are several studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), but their toxico-kinetic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we explored the accumulation of NP and NPEOs in estuarine-marine food chains with a bioaccumulation model comprising five trophic levels. Using this model, we estimated uptake and elimination rate constants for NPEOs based on the organisms' weight and lipid content and the chemicals' Kow. Further, we calculated accumulation factors for NP and NPEOs, including biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) and biomagnification factors (BMF), and compared these to independent field measurements collected in the Western Scheldt estuary in The Netherlands and field data reported in the literature. The estimated BSAF values for NP and total NPEOs were below 1 for all trophic levels. The estimated BMF values were around 1 for all trophic levels except for the highest level (carnivorous mammals and birds). For this trophic level, the estimated BMF value varied between 0.1 and 2.4, depending on the biotransformation capacity. For all trophic levels, except primary producers, the accumulation estimates that accounted for biotransformation of NPEOs into NP were closer to the field data than model estimates that did not include biotransformation, indicating that NP formation by biotransformation of NPEOs might occur in organisms. PMID:26026901

  1. Modelling growth and bioaccumulation of Polychlorinated biphenyls in common sole ( Solea solea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, M.; Loizeau, V.; Roupsard, F.; Le Guellec, A. M.; Bacher, C.

    2010-10-01

    Experiments were performed on juvenile sole in controlled conditions in the aim of understanding how the biology of common sole may affect the accumulation and dilution of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish were raised in optimal conditions and divided into two tanks: one control tank and one PCB tank. 4 PCB congeners were added to food for 3 months in the PCB tank; the soles were subsequently fed unspiked food for 3 months. Growth (length and weight) and PCB concentrations were monitored in both tanks and juvenile sole growth was not significantly affected by PCBs in our experimental conditions. We used the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to model sole biology and paid special attention to model calibration through the wide use of data from the literature. The model accurately reproduced fish growth in both tanks. We coupled a bioaccumulation model to reproduce the concentration dynamics of the 4 PCB congeners used. This model did not require additional calibration and was dependent solely on the growth model and PCB concentrations in food. The bioaccumulation model accurately simulated PCB accumulation in fish, but overestimated PCB concentrations in fish during the dilution phase. This may suggest that in addition to PCB dilution due to growth, PCB concentrations decreased due to other PCB elimination mechanisms. Finally, we discussed potential improvements to the model and its future applications.

  2. Delonix regia and Casuarina equisetifolia as passive biomonitors and as bioaccumulators of atmospheric trace metals.

    PubMed

    Ukpebor, Emmanuel Ehiabhi; Ukpebor, Justina Ebehirieme; Aigbokhan, Emmanuel; Goji, Idris; Onojeghuo, Alex Okiemute; Okonkwo, Anthony Chinedum

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of two common and ubiquitously distributed and exotic ornamental plant species in Nigeria-Delonix regia and Casuarina equisetifolia as biomonitors and as effective bioaccumulators of atmospheric trace metals (Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu) has been evaluated. Bark and leaf samples from these plant species were collected in June and July 2006 at five locations in Benin City. Four of the sampling sites were in areas of high traffic density and commercial activities, the fifth site is a remote site, selected to act as a control and also to provide background information for the metals. The plant samples were collected and processed using standard procedures and trace metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The bark of the plants was able to bioaccumulate the trace metals, especially Pb which originates from anthropogenic contributions in the city. The Pb range of 20.00-70.00 microg/g measured for the bark samples of D. regia, exceeded the normal plant Pb concentration of 0.2-20.0 microg/g and most Pb data available in literature. The bark of the plants was observed to accumulate more metals compared to the leave, while D. regia was found to be slightly better than C. equisetifolia in trace metal uptake efficiency. Spatial variations in the distributions of Pb and Zn were significant (p < 0.05), and the continuous use of leaded fuel in Nigeria was identified as the predominant source of Pb in the atmosphere. PMID:21174998

  3. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  4. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary T; Selck, Henriette; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the toxicities of sediment-associated silver added to sediment as commercially available silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 20 and 80 nm) and aqueous Ag (AgNO3) to the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor, were investigated for both individual and subcellular endpoints after 10 d of exposure. Both Ag NP types were characterized in parallel to the toxicity studies and found to be polydispersed and overlapping in size. Burrowing activity decreased (marginally) with increasing Ag concentration and depended on the form of Ag added to sediment. All worms accumulated Ag regardless of the form in which it was added to the sediment, and worm size (expressed as dry weight) was found to significantly affect bioaccumulation such that smaller worms accumulated more Ag per body weight than larger worms. Lysosomal membrane permeability (neutral red retention time, NRRT) and DNA damage (comet assay tail moment and tail DNA intensity %) of Nereis coelomocytes increased in a concentration-dependent manner in all three Ag treatments. Ag NP treatments were more toxic than aqueous Ag for all toxicity endpoints, even though bioaccumulation did not differ significantly among Ag forms. No significant difference in toxicity was observed between the two Ag NP treatments which was attributed to their overlap in particle size. PMID:25179147

  5. Bioaccumulation Dynamics of Arsenate at the Base of Aquatic Food Webs.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adeline R; Hesterberg, Dean R; Funk, David H; Buchwalter, David B

    2016-06-21

    Periphyton is an important food source at the base of freshwater ecosystems that tends to bioconcentrate trace elements making them trophically available. The potential for arsenic-a trace element of particular concern due to its widespread occurrence, toxicity, and carcinogenicity-to bioconcentrate in periphyton and thus be available to benthic grazers is less well characterized. To better understand arsenate bioaccumulation dynamics in lotic food webs, we used a radiotracer approach to characterize accumulation in periphyton and subsequent trophic transfer to benthic grazers. Periphyton bioconcentrated As between 3,200-9,700-fold (dry weight) over 8 days without reaching steady state, suggesting that periphyton is a major sink for arsenate. However, As-enriched periphyton as a food source for the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer resulted in negligible As accumulation in a full lifecycle exposure. Additional studies estimate dietary assimilation efficiency in several primary consumers ranging from 22% in the mayfly N. triangulifer to 75% in the mayfly Isonychia sp. X-ray fluorescence mapping revealed that As was predominantly associated with iron oxides in periphyton. We speculate that As adsorption to Fe in periphyton may play a role in reducing dietary bioavailability. Together, these results suggest that trophic movement of As in lotic food webs is relatively low, though species differences in bioaccumulation patterns are important. PMID:27223406

  6. Results of chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations of dioxins, furans, and guaicol/organic acids in sediments from the Grays Harbor/Chehalis River area

    SciTech Connect

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Squires, A.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was requested by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Seattle District, to assist in planning and conducting sampling, toxicological tests, and chemistry evaluations on sediment samples collected from the Chehalis River in Grays Harbor, Washington. The objectives of the study were to investigate the toxicity and biological effects of sediments that might potentially contain dioxins, furans, and organic acids, as a result of industrial practices in the Grays Harbor area, on sensitive marine species. In addition to the toxicological tests conducted using standard bioassays, sediment chemistry tests were performed to determine levels of selected chemicals, and elutriates of sediments were tested chemically and biologically to determine contaminant mobility in water. Also, bioaccumulation measurements were made to determine chemical mobility in animal tissue. A joint task group, including representatives from the USACE, Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE), Washington Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDOF), and Region 9 of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) participated in designing the testing program and reviewing data produced by MSL. The results of this analysis will be included in a supplemental Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the USACE for the Grays Harbor Dredging Program, beginning in early 1990. 13 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Bioaccumulation of cadmium and lead and its effects on hepatopancreas morphology in three terrestrial isopod crustacean species.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V; Sinatra, F; Copat, C; Oliveri Conti, G; Ferrante, M

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) bioaccumulation in three species of oniscidean isopods - Armadillidium granulatum Brandt, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) and Porcellio laevis Latreille which were exposed for three weeks to a contaminated diet, and to determine the morphological and ultrastructural changes in hepatopancreas. Metal accumulation, determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), was linearly associated with the exposed concentration and was a function of the metal and the species tested. All three species accumulated lower levels of Pb than Cd. A. vulgare accumulated the largest concentration of Pb, especially at the higher doses, whereas P. laevis showed the greatest Cd accumulation, and the highest Cd concentration was lethal for all exposed species. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd induced significant changes both in the general morphology of tubules and in the ultrastructural organization of epithelial cells in hepatopancreas. Some Pb/Cd induced alterations include: brush border disorganization; reduction of the basal labyrinth formed by the plasma membrane; condensation of some cytoplasm areas and of chromatin; rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial alterations; increase of secondary lysosomes and of type B granules in S cells. Some of the ultrastructural changes observed overlap with those induced by prolonged starvation, whereas others can be useful biomarkers of heavy metal toxicity. This study has confirmed that in terrestrial isopods, the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific manner; therefore ecological monitoring and assessment studies should consider each species individually. The research has confirmed that in the terrestrial isopods the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific way; therefore each species should first be evaluated in view of its employ in biomonitoring programs. PMID:25279851

  8. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by fish. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the global distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine and freshwater fish. Surveys, toxicological effects, mechanisms of accumulation, and temperature-concentration effects are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Biosorption of strontium from simulated nuclear wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus under culture conditions: adsorption and bioaccumulation processes and models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Kang, Wu; Sun, Shiyong; Wei, Hongfu; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Xiaoqin; Guo, Yuting; Huang, Ting; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2014-06-01

    Algae biosorption is an ideal wastewater treatment method when coupled with algae growth and biosorption. The adsorption and bioaccumulation of strontium from simulated nuclear wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus were investigated in this research. One hundred mL of cultured S. spinosus cells with a dry weight of 1.0 mg in simulated nuclear wastewater were used to analyze the effects on S. spinosus cell growth as well as the adsorption and bioaccumulation characters under conditions of 25 ± 1 °C with approximately 3,000 lux illumination. The results showed that S. spinosus had a highly selective biosorption capacity for strontium, with a maximum bioremoval ratio of 76%. The adsorbed strontium ion on cell walls was approximately 90% of the total adsorbed amount; the bioaccumulation in the cytoplasm varied by approximately 10%. The adsorption quantity could be described with an equilibrium isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model suggested that adsorption was the rate-limiting step of the biosorption process. A new bioaccumulation model with three parameters was proposed and could give a good fit with the experiment data. The results suggested that S. spinosus may be a potential biosorbent for the treatment of nuclear wastewater in culture conditions. PMID:24919131

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Marine Bacterium, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes Strain S1, with High Mercury Resistance and Bioaccumulation Capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Bian, Chao; Huang, Huiwei; Yin, Zhiwei; Shi, Qiong; Deng, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes S1, a marine bacterium, exhibited strong resistance to a high concentration of Hg(2+) and remarkable Hg(2+) bioaccumulation capacity. Here, we report the 6.9-Mb genome sequence of P. pseudoalcaligenes S1, which may help clarify its phylogenetic status and provide further understanding of the mechanisms of mercury bioremediation in a marine environment. PMID:27198018

  11. The fate and behavior of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals: examining lead (Pb) as a PBT metal.

    PubMed

    Check, Larissa; Marteel-Parrish, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals are a class of chemicals that resist degradation and persist in the environment for extensive periods. As a result of their persistence, when these chemicals are consumed, they bioaccumulate in the fat tissues, bones, and brain of organisms. Lead (Pb) is a PBT metal with the ability to bind irreversibly to neurons and to mimic natural minerals like calcium and zinc. The aim of this review is to examine the unique properties of a PBT, like Pb, as well as the analytic methods of detecting and characterizing PBTs. This review offers sections that explore Pb's persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation in fish and birds, and toxic characteristics in the human body. It further examines how Pb's effects on transcription factors could explain the observed Pb lines in Pb-poisoned individuals. This review also evaluates the relationship between the properties of persistence and bioaccumulation as a means to determine whether or not they are interconnected, interdependent, or independent of one another. PMID:24192495

  12. Bioavailability of PAHs in aluminum smelter affected sediments: evaluation through assessment of pore water concentrations and in vivo bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Bøyum, Olav; Grung, Merete; Næs, Kristoffer

    2010-12-15

    Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal tar pitch polluted sediments was predicted by (1) a generic approach based on organic carbon-water partitioning and Gibbs linear free energy relationship (between K(OW) and K(OC)), and (2) measurements of freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs in the sediment pore water, using passive samplers and solid phase extraction. Results from these predictions were compared with those from in vivo bioaccumulation experiments using Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta), Hinia reticulata (Gastropoda), and Nuculoma tenuis (Bivalvia). Measured sediment/water partition coefficients were higher than predicted by the generic approach. Furthermore, predicted biota-to-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) derived from measured pore water concentrations were more in agreement with the bioaccumulation observed for two of the three species. Discrepancies associated with the third species (N. tenuis) were likely a result of particles remaining in the intestine (as shown by microscopic evaluation). These results indicate the importance of conducting site-specific evaluations of pore water concentrations and/or bioaccumulation studies by direct measurements to accurately provide a basis for risk assessment and remediation plans. The importance of knowledge regarding specific characteristics of model organisms is emphasized. PMID:21077669

  13. VALIDATION OF AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA (AWQC) BIOACCUMULATION METHODOLOGY USING FIELD DATA FROM GREEN BAY AND THE HUDSON RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, EPA published its draft revision to the methodology for deriving ambient water quality criteria to protect human health. Four methods were proposed to determine lipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors based on freely-dissolved water concentrations (BAFs) for nonpolar or...

  14. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of copper in Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri under different pH values: Impacts of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingjun; Yang, Shaogui; Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Li, Yong; Liu, Jiaoqin; Wang, Zunyao; Sun, Cheng

    2016-03-15

    Aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (L. hoffmeisteri) has been commonly used as a lethal and/or sub-lethal toxicological model organism in ecological risk assessments in contaminated water environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the potential toxic effects of copper (Cu(II)) with or without perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) under different pH values (6.0, 7.0 and 8.0) on LC50, bioaccumulation, and oxidative stress biomarkers in L. hoffmeisteri after 3 and 7 days. The LC50 values of Cu(II) decreased with the increasing pH and the addition of PFOS. After each exposure, increasing bioaccumulation of Cu(II) in L. hoffmeisteri was observed in the combined exposure treatments, whereas the bioaccumulation of PFOS decreased. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase, the level of glutathione, and the content of malondialdehyde were significantly altered after these exposures, possibly indicating that the bioaccumulation of Cu(II) and PFOS caused adverse effects on antioxidant defenses of L. hoffmeisteri. The integrated biomarker response index, indicates that the combined effect was proposed as synergism, which is coincided with the results of toxic unit. Moreover, this work showed that aquatic environment may become more livable when water conditions changed from acidic to near-neutral or alkaline. PMID:26686481

  15. Biosorption of Strontium from Simulated Nuclear Wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus under Culture Conditions: Adsorption and Bioaccumulation Processes and Models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Kang, Wu; Sun, Shiyong; Wei, Hongfu; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Xiaoqin; Guo, Yuting; Huang, Ting; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Algae biosorption is an ideal wastewater treatment method when coupled with algae growth and biosorption. The adsorption and bioaccumulation of strontium from simulated nuclear wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus were investigated in this research. One hundred mL of cultured S. spinosus cells with a dry weight of 1.0 mg in simulated nuclear wastewater were used to analyze the effects on S. spinosus cell growth as well as the adsorption and bioaccumulation characters under conditions of 25 ± 1 °C with approximately 3,000 lux illumination. The results showed that S. spinosus had a highly selective biosorption capacity for strontium, with a maximum bioremoval ratio of 76%. The adsorbed strontium ion on cell walls was approximately 90% of the total adsorbed amount; the bioaccumulation in the cytoplasm varied by approximately10%. The adsorption quantity could be described with an equilibrium isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model suggested that adsorption was the rate-limiting step of the biosorption process. A new bioaccumulation model with three parameters was proposed and could give a good fit with the experiment data. The results suggested that S. spinosus may be a potential biosorbent for the treatment of nuclear wastewater in culture conditions. PMID:24919131

  16. Influence of reactive sulfide (AVS) and supplementary food on Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-S.; Lee, B.-G.; Yoo, H.; Koh, C.-H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay determined the relative contribution of various pathways of Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to moderately contaminated sediments. Juvenile worms were exposed for 25 d to experimental sediments containing 5 different reactive sulfide (acid volatile sulfides, AVS) concentrations (1 to 30 ??mol g-1), but with constant Ag, Cd, and Zn concentrations of 0.1, 0.1 and 7 ??mol g-1, respectively. The sediments were supplemented with contaminated food (TetraMin??) containing 3 levels of Ag-Cd-Zn (uncontaminated, 1?? or 5??1 metal concentrations in the contaminated sediment). The results suggest that bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn in the worms occurred predominantly from ingestion of contaminated sediments and contaminated supplementary food. AVS or dissolved metals (in porewater and overlying water) had a minor effect on bioaccumulation of the 3 metals in most of the treatments. The contribution to uptake from the dissolved source was most important in the most oxic sediments, with maximum contributions of 8% for Ag, 30% for Cd and 20% for Zn bioaccumulation. Sediment bioassays where uncontaminated supplemental food is added could seriously underestimate metal exposures in an equilibrated system; N. arenaceodentata feeding on uncontaminated food would be exposed to 40-60% less metal than if the food source was equilibrated (as occurs in nature). Overall, the results show that pathways of metal exposure are dynamically linked in contaminated sediments and shift as external geochemical characteristics and internal biological attributes vary.

  17. Improvement of zinc bioaccumulation and biomass yield in the mycelia and fruiting bodies of Pleurotus florida cultured on liquid media.

    PubMed

    Poursaeid, Nasser; Azadbakht, Abas; Balali, Gholam Reza

    2015-04-01

    The effect of different concentrations of zinc on the bioaccumulation of zinc and biomass yield in both mycelium and fruiting body of Pleurotus florida cultivated in liquid medium was studied. The results showed that the optimum yield of mycelia (11.33 ± 0.44 g/L) and fruiting bodies (7.70 ± 0.19 g/L) dry biomass was obtained in a liquid medium containing 100 mg/L of zinc. At a zinc concentration of 200 mg/L, the highest concentration of zinc in the mycelia and fruiting bodies reached 1.869 ± 0.115 and 0.151 ± 0.008 mg/g dry weight, respectively. The addition of zinc to the culture media significantly reduced zinc bioaccumulation factor in mycelia (from 24.64 ± 0.52 to 3.35 ± 0.24) and fruiting bodies (from 36.71 ± 0.30 to 0.49 ± 0.02) dry weight. Our findings indicated that the ability of zinc bioaccumulation in the mycelia is much higher than in the fruiting bodies. The fundamental information obtained in this study will be useful for the improvement of zinc bioaccumulation and biomass yield in mycelia and fruiting bodies of P. florida cultivated in liquid media to obtain maximum zinc-enriched biomass. PMID:25686560

  18. Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Benthic Organisms at the Base of the Marine Food Chain

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) increases over time, so does the potential for environmental release. This research aimed to determine the toxicity, bioavailability, and bioaccumulation of SWNTs in marine benthic organisms at the base of the food chain. The t...

  19. Copper and cadmium in bottom sediments dredged from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland--contamination and bioaccumulation study.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Karwowska, Ewa; Chmielewska, Iwona; Bekenova, Kundyz; Wanot, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    This research covered an evaluation of the copper and cadmium concentrations in bottom sediments dredged from one of the ponds in Warsaw. The samples of sediments, soil, and plants were analyzed in terms of Cu and Cd content. The research concerned the heap of dredged bottom sediments from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland. Two boreholes were made to obtain sediment cores with depths of A 162.5 cm and B 190.0 cm. The cores were divided into 10 sub-samples with a thickness of about 15-20 cm. A control sample of soil was taken from the horse racecourse several hundred meters away from the heap. The vegetation was sampled directly from the heap. The predominating plants were tested: Urtica dioica, Glechoma hederacea, Euonymus verrucosus, and Drepanocladus aduncus. A control sample of U. dioica taken outside of the heap was also tested. The commercial PHYTOTOXKIT microbiotest was applied to evaluate the influence of heavy metal-contaminated sediments (used as soil) on germination and growth of the chosen test plants. The analyses of cadmium and copper concentrations revealed that the metal concentration in sediments was diverse at different depths of sampling, probably reflecting their concentration in stored layers of sediments. Moreover, the metal content in core A was four to five times lower than that in core B, which reveals heterogeneity of the sediments in the tested heap. In core A, the copper concentration ranged from 4.7 to 13.4 mg/kg d.w. (average 8.06 ± 0.71 mg/kg d.w.), while in core B, it ranged from 9.2 to 82.1 mg/kg d.w. (average 38.56 ± 2.6 mg/kg d.w.). One of the results of the heavy metal presence in soils is their bioaccumulation in plants. Comparing plant growth, more intensive growth of roots was observed in the case of plants growing on the control (reference) soil than those growing on sediments. The intensive development of both primary and lateral roots was noticed. During this early growth, metal accumulation in plants occurred

  20. Interspecific comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organochlorines bioaccumulation in bivalves from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    León, Víctor M; Moreno-González, Rubén; González, Emilia; Martínez, Fulgencio; García, Víctor; Campillo, Juan A

    2013-10-01

    The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized in cockle, oyster and noble pen shell from nine areas in the Mar Menor lagoon with different hydrodynamic and pollutant sources. Biota, sediment and water samples were simultaneously collected in the spring and autumn of 2010. Considering all bivalve samples, PAH concentrations ranged from 8.98 to 370 μg·kg(-1) d.w., those of PCBs from 0.15 to 42.36 μg·kg(-1) d.w. and those of DDXs from below detection limit to 240.6 μg·kg(-1) d.w., where p,p'-DDE was the main fraction. The bioaccumulation of PAHs was similar for cockle, oyster and noble pen shell, being higher close to ports and wastewater effluents. However, DDX and PCB bioaccumulations in oyster and noble pen shell were significantly higher than in cockle in spring (p=0.02). The first organic pollutant bioaccumulation data for noble pen shell were obtained in this study, showing a preferential accumulation of pyrene. The increase of PAH bioaccumulation in autumn, as compared to spring, was low, due to high water temperatures during the summer, which favoured PAH dissipation processes. No significant seasonal variations were detected for OCPs and PCBs, except in some specific areas. The PAH, PCB and OCP levels detected in these bivalves were lower than OSPAR/MED POL environmental assessment criteria, except for p,p'-DDE in bivalves sited close to El Albujón watercourse mouth. PMID:23872249

  1. Some bioaccumulation factors and biota-sediment accumulation factors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lake Trout

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, L.P.; Lukasewycz, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/triphenylene were calculated using the tissue data of Zabik et al. for Salvelinus namaycush siscowet with a 20.5% lipid content, the water data of Baker and Eisenreich, and the sediment data of Baker and Eisenreich for the Lake Superior ecosystem. Log BAFs, both lipid normalized and based on the freely dissolved concentration of the chemical in the water, of 1.95, 3.22, 4.72, 4.73, and 3.61 were calculated for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/triphenylene, respectively. The BSAFs for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/tripenylene were 0.00011, 0.00016, 0.0071, 0.0054, and 0.00033, respectively.

  2. Bioaccumulations of heavy metals in Ipomoea aquatica grown in bottom ash recycling wastewater.

    PubMed

    Milla, Odette Varela; Rivera, Eva B; Huang, Wu-Jang

    2014-05-01

    A plant bioassay using hydroponically grown Ipomoea aquatica (water spinach) was applied to assess the phytotoxicity of untreated and treated wastewaters from a municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash recycling facility. The 50%-diluted, untreated wastewater exhibited acute toxicity (plants died within 24 hours). Highly diluted doses (3 and 6%) of both wastewater types displayed no significant differences when compared with the control. Treating the wastewater through sequential physical filtration and chemical precipitation processes decreased not only the dissolved solids content but also the pH and salt content. In addition, significant accumulations of Sr, Cr, and Sn were observed in the hydroponically grown I. aquatica plant tissues; in particular, the bioaccumulation of Sr in the leaves and roots was unexpectedly high. PMID:24961066

  3. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Comber, S D W; Rule, K L; Conrad, A U; Höss, S; Webb, S F; Marshall, S

    2008-05-01

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. PMID:17889974

  4. Effect of Artemia franciscana on the removal of nickel by bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Devi, S Sujatha; Sethu, M; Priya, P Gomathi

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the feasibility of using Artemia franciscana in reducing the Ni concentration of synthetic wastewater by the process of bioaccumulation. Metallothionein protein plays a key role in the uptake of nickel by Artemia. Artemia (Brine shrimp) was exposed to an initial nickel concentration of 40 mg/L. Gradual decrease of nickel was observed from 40 mg/L to 5 mg/L with a removal efficiency of 87.5%. The number of organisms were varied to determine the number for the maximum removal efficiency. Metallothionein protein in Artemia was estimated by the silver saturation method. The physical parameters such as pH were maintained in an alkaline condition of 9-10, temperature was maintained at room temperature and salinity at 30-35‰. These were found to be the optimal conditions for the survival and reduction of nickel by Artemia. PMID:24975411

  5. Seasonal bioaccumulation of organohalogens in tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus Castelnau, from Lake Pongolapoort, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wepener, Victor; Smit, Nico; Covaci, Adrian; Dyke, Sarah; Bervoets, Lieven

    2012-02-01

    The study determined current exposure of tigerfish in Lake Pongolaqpoort to organohalogens. Levels of DDT, PCB, HCB, HCH, PBDE and CHLs were measured in tigerfish muscle on a seasonal basis. Historical use of DDT was reflected in the bioaccumulation patterns (5,400-6,000 ng/g lipid) as well as current use of HCBs (7.7-15.7 ng/g lipid) in the agricultural areas. External factors, i.e. increased flow did not play a role in organic pollutant exposure. Levels are a function of the lipid content of the muscle tissue, i.e. 3.8% during low and 9% during high flow, implying that organohalogen exposure remains fairly constant throughout the year. PMID:22033654

  6. Recovery of high-value metals from geothermal sites by biosorption and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Han, Yin-Lung; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-05-01

    Generation of geothermal energy is associated with a significant amount of geothermal fluids, which may be abundant in high-value metals, such as lithium, cesium, rubidium, and other precious and rare earth metals. The recovery of high-value metals from geothermal fluids would thus have both economic and environmental benefits. The conventional technologies applied to achieve this are mostly physicochemical, which may be energy intensive, pose the risk of secondary pollution whilst being inefficient in recovering metals from dilute solutions. Biological methods, based on biosorption or bioaccumulation, have recently emerged as alternative approaches, as they are more environmentally friendly, cost effective, and suitable for treating wastewater with dilute metal contents. This article provides a comprehensive review of the related biological technologies used to recover the high-value metals present in geothermal fluids as well as critical discussion on the key issues that are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of those methods. PMID:24581863

  7. Toxicant Exposure and Bioaccumulation: A Common and Potentially Reversible Cause of Cognitive Dysfunction and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Kelln, Kasie L.

    2015-01-01

    Juxtaposed alongside the ongoing rise in the incidence and prevalence of dementia, is the surge of recent research confirming widespread exposure and bioaccumulation of chemical toxicants. Evidence from sources such as the Centers for Disease Control reveals that most people have accrued varying degrees of assorted toxic pollutants including heavy metals, flame retardants, and pesticide residues within their bodies. It has been well established that many of these toxicants have neurodegenerative as well as neurodevelopmental impact as a result of various pathophysiologic mechanisms including neuronal mitochondrial toxicity and disruption of neurotransmitter regulation. Elimination of stockpiled toxicants from the body may diminish adverse toxicant impact on human biology and allow restoration of normal physiological function. Incorporating a review of medical literature on toxicant exposure and dementia with a case history of a lead-exposed individual diagnosed with dementia, this paper will discuss a much overlooked and potentially widespread cause of declining brain function and dementia. PMID:25722540

  8. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in pelagic fish from the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kojadinovic, Jessica; Potier, Michel; Le Corre, Matthieu; Cosson, Richard P; Bustamante, Paco

    2007-03-01

    Trace elements were analyzed in fish of commercial interest to determine their importance in marine systems of the Western Indian Ocean and their bioaccumulation patterns. The results are equivalent or lower than levels reported in ichthyofauna worldwide. Certain values of muscular Cd, Hg, Pb and Zn were, however, above thresholds for human consumption. Levels varied among tissues, species and fish length, but were seldom influenced by the nutritional condition of the fish, its gender and its reproductive status. Correlations between hepatic Hg and Se levels in Swordfish (r2=0.747) and Yellowfin Tunas (r2=0.226), and among metallothionein linking metals imply the existence of detoxification processes in these species. Level differences between fish from the Mozambique Channel and Reunion Island reflect differences of diets rather than differences of elemental availability in both environments. PMID:17084003

  9. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and health hazard assessment for three fish species from Nansi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Huijun; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Ren, Yangang; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in fish is a global public health concern, because the consumption of contaminated fish accounts for the primary exposure of humans to toxic metals. In this study, the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in Crucian carp (Carassius auratus),Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), and Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) from Nansi Lake of China were evaluated, and compared with the corresponding historical values in 2001 when the government started to govern water environment effectively. Bioaccumulation of heavy metal was highest in P.fulvidraco, followed by C.auratus and H.nobilis. The concentrations of Pb, As, Cd were much lower than the historical values, but Hg concentration was higher, suggesting that heavy metal pollution problem in fish from Nansi Lake still exists. Health hazard assessment showed no health risk from exposure to Pb, As, Cd, and Hg by consuming fish from this lake. PMID:25636438

  10. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Sea of Okhotsk.

    PubMed

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N

    2016-09-15

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (α-, β-, and γ-), DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) were detected in five individuals of Northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis Linnaeus, 1761 from the Sea of Okhotsk. The average amount of HCHs in the organs of fulmars ranged from 608±177ng/g lipids in the total homogenate of the organs to 2093±264ng/g lipids in the feathers with skin. The average range of the amounts of DDTs was from 3606±333ng/g lipids in the feathers with skin to 4076±1624ng/g lipids in the feathers. The bioaccumulation of DDTs by seabirds of the Sea of Okhotsk is approximately equal to that of birds from other regions of the world's oceans, while the HCHs concentration is significantly higher. PMID:27357915

  11. Bioaccumulation of selenium by snakes and frogs in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Hothem, R.L.; Aldrich, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Livers of gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from Kesterson Reservoir (Merced County, California) contained significantly higher mean selenium concentrations (11.1 .mu.g/g, dry weight) than those from two nearby reference sites (2.05 and 2.14 .mu.g/g). Livers of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) collected from the San Luis Drain at Kersterson Reservoir also contained significantly higher mean selenium concentrations (45.0 .mu.g/g) than those from nearby reference sites (6.22 .mu.g/g). The high levels of selenium bioaccumulation in these snakes and frogs at Kersterson Reservoir reflected the elevated levels found in their food organisms. We did not examine that snakes or frogs from Kesterson for signs of ill health, but the concentrations we found were sufficiently high to warrant concern about potential adverse effects in these animals and their predators.

  12. Biomarkers and heavy metal bioaccumulation in mussels transplanted to coastal waters of the Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Duarte, Claudia A; Amin, Oscar A

    2010-03-01

    Mussels coming from a mussel farm at Brown Bay (Beagle Channel) were transplanted to four sites inside Ushuaia Bay for 2 and 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of coastal waters of Ushuaia Bay by measuring catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, total lipid content, bioaccumulation of heavy metals and condition index in transplanted mussel Mytilus edulis chilensis. Biomarkers except condition index showed significant differences among exposure times as well as among tissues. Digestive gland presented the highest catalase activity, malondialdehyde level and total lipid content. Digestive gland also was the main target tissue of accumulation of iron and copper, while gill accumulated the highest levels of zinc. A principal component analyzes with the whole set of data allowed to separate stations based on physicochemical conditions and biochemical responses of each studied area. PMID:19913913

  13. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls by zebra mussel populations predicted on the basis of bioenergetics

    SciTech Connect

    Yankovich, T.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants, such as PCBs, partition between several phases in aquatic environments. In order to predict contaminant partitioning and flux rates between aquatic biota and other environmental phases, it is necessary to have a basic understanding of the physico-chemical properties characteristic of the contaminant of interest, in addition to exposure rates of organisms to various contaminated phases. Exposure regimes are often dictated by food availability and corresponding feeding rates necessary to meet organism energetic requirements. Therefore, a model coupling zebra mussel bioenergetics and predicted PCB bioaccumulation has been constructed to assess the impact of zebra mussel populations on organic contaminant transfer in freshwater systems. The potential impact of mussel populations on organic contaminant transfer and energy flow will be discussed.

  14. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by benthic invertebrates at the Arkansas River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Kiffney, P.M.; Clements, W.H. . Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife Biology)

    1993-08-01

    A one-year biomonitoring study was conducted to determine the extent of metal contamination (Cd, Cu, and Zn) in a benthic community from the Arkansas River (CO), a subalpine stream impacted by discharges from historic mining operations. Elevated concentrations of metals in water were paralleled by higher concentrations in benthic organisms. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in metal concentrations in aufwuchs and benthic macroinvertebrates among upstream (reference) and downstream stations were observed. Metal concentration in aufwuchs and benthic invertebrates remained elevated at some downstream stations, despite decreases in water concentrations. Time of year and functional group contributed to the variation in metal bioaccumulation in benthic macroinvertebrates. Monitoring metal concentrations in aquatic macroinvertebrates was a better indicator of metal bioavailability in the Arkansas River than ambient (water) metal concentrations.

  15. Light-enhanced bioaccumulation of molybdenum by nitrogen-deprived recombinant anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Naito, Taki; Sachuronggui; Ueki, Masayoshi; Maeda, Isamu

    2016-01-01

    As molybdenum (Mo) is an indispensable metal for plant nitrogen metabolisms, accumulation of dissolved Mo into bacterial cells may connect to the development of bacterial fertilizers that promote plant growth. In order to enhance Mo bioaccumulation, nitrogen removal and light illumination were examined in anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (APB) because APB possess Mo nitrogenase whose synthesis is strictly regulated by ammonium ion concentration. In addition, an APB, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, transformed with a gene encoding Mo-responsive transcriptional regulator ModE was constructed. Mo content was most markedly enhanced by the removal of ammonium ion from medium and light illumination while their effects on other metal contents were limited. Increases in contents of trace metals including Mo by the genetic modification were observed. Thus, these results demonstrated an effective way to enrich Mo in the bacterial cells by the culture conditions and genetic modification. PMID:26376718

  16. Bioaccumulations of aluminum and the effects of chelating agents on different organs of Cirrhinus mrigala.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J

    2012-11-01

    The study of biological indicator organisms may be more informative than analyzing water or sediments for monitoring heavy metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Non-essential elements enter into the animals and accumulate at the different organs so that chelating agents are most versatile and effective antidotes to eliminate the metals toxicities. The aim of our present study is to find out bioaccumulations of aluminum and the effects of chelating agents DFO and DFP in Muscle, gill, kidney, brain and liver tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala by using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This study determined that the accumulation pattern of aluminum is muscle > gill > kidney > brain > liver. The present result suggests that DFO and DFP reduce the aluminum concentration in the tissues of C. mrigala fish and both are efficient chelators. Aluminum toxicity is a widespread problem in all forms of life, including humans, animals, fish, plants, and causes wide spread degradation of the environment and health. PMID:23063109

  17. Effect of nutrients on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in a tropical urban coastal lacustrine system.

    PubMed

    Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Sabu, Joseph; Jobin, Thomas; Justus, J

    2014-06-01

    The study on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in a lake reveals that during the nonrainy season, accumulation of cadmium in plankton is high in the upstream of the lake where anoxic freshwater condition exists resulting from inflow of urban wastes. Stern action is required to stop the bypass of sewage from the old sewer system especially in the commercial areas of Thiruvananthapuram city, either by augmenting the sewerage system or by treating sewage at the source. During monsoon season, the accumulation of heavy metals-namely lead and nickel, followed by cadmium and chromium-is high in phytoplankton resulting from high nitrate content caused by heavy rainfall. During postmonsoon, lead and nickel accumulation is high. The study emphasizes the need for stormwater management practices for the removal of lead in urban runoff from roads caused by vehicular exhaust, tire wear, and wastes from service stations and workshops. PMID:25109197

  18. Effects of hypolimnetic oxygen addition on mercury bioaccumulation in Twin Lakes, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Marc; Dent, Stephen; Reed, Brandon; Marshall, Piper; Gebremariam, Seyoum; Moore, Barry; Cross, Benjamin; Gantzer, Paul; Shallenberger, Ed

    2014-10-15

    Twin Lakes, located on the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Indian Reservation in eastern Washington, USA, include North Twin Lake (NT) and South Twin Lake (ST). The mesotrophic, dimictic lakes are important recreational fishing sites for both warm-water bass and cold-water trout. To improve summertime cold-water habitat for trout in NT, dissolved oxygen (DO) addition to the hypolimnion, using liquid oxygen as an oxygen gas source, started in 2009. This study assessed mercury (Hg) in the water column, zooplankton and fish, and related water quality parameters, in Twin Lakes from 2009 to 2012. Because methylmercury (MeHg) buildup in lake bottom water is commonly associated with hypolimnetic anoxia, hypolimnetic oxygenation was hypothesized to reduce Hg in bottom waters and biota in NT relative to ST. Oxygen addition led to significantly higher DO (mean hypolimnetic DO: 2-8 mg/L versus <1 mg/L) and lower MeHg (peak mean hypolimnetic MeHg: 0.05-0.2 ng/L versus 0.15-0.4 ng/L) in North Twin. In North Twin, years with higher DO (2009 and 2011) exhibited lower MeHg in bottom waters and lower total Hg in zooplankton, inferring a positive linkage between oxygen addition and lower bioaccumulation. However, when comparing between the two lakes, Hg levels were significantly higher in zooplankton (total Hg range: 100-200 versus 50-100 μg/kg dry weight) and trout (spring 2010 stocking cohort of eastern brook trout mean total Hg: 74.9 versus 49.9 μg/kg wet weight) in NT relative to ST. Lower Hg bioaccumulation in ST compared to NT may be related to bloom dilution in chlorophyll-rich bottom waters, a vertical disconnect between the location of zooplankton and MeHg in the water column, and high binding affinity between sulfide and MeHg in bottom waters. PMID:25034204

  19. Spatial Patterns of Mercury Bioaccumulation in the Upper Clark Fork River Basin, MT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staats, M. F.; Langner, H.; Moore, J. N.

    2010-12-01

    The Upper Clark Fork River Basin (UCFRB) in Montana has a legacy of historic gold/silver mine waste that contributes large quantities of mercury into the watershed. Mercury bioaccumulation at higher levels of the aquatic food chain, such as the mercury concentration in the blood of pre-fledge osprey, exhibit an irregular spatial signature based on the location of the nests throughout the river basin. Here we identify regions with a high concentration of bioavailable mercury and the major factors that allow the mercury to bioaccumulate within trophic levels. This identification is based on the abundance of mercury sources and the potential for mercury methylation. To address the source term, we did a survey of total mercury in fine sediments along selected UCFRB reaches, along with the assessment of environmental river conditions (percentage of backwaters/wetlands, water temperature and pH, etc). In addition, we analyzed the mercury levels of a representative number of macroinvertebrates and fish from key locations. The concentration of total mercury in sediment, which varies from reach to reach (tributaries of the Clark Fork River, <0.05 mg/kg to the main stem of the river, >5mg/kg) affects the concentration of mercury found at various trophic levels. However, reaches with a low supply of mine waste-derived mercury can also yield substantial concentrations of mercury in the biota, due to highly favorable conditions for mercury methylation. We identify that the major environmental factor that affects the methylation potential in the UCFRB is the proximity and connectivity of wetland areas to the river.

  20. Selenium bioaccumulation and body condition in shorebirds and terns breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2009-10-01

    The present study evaluated Se bioaccumulation in four waterbird species (n=206 birds) that breed within San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A.: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Selenium concentrations were variable and influenced by several factors, including species, region, reproductive stage, age, and sex. Adult Se concentrations (microg/g dry wt) in livers ranged from 3.07 to 48.70 in avocets (geometric mean +/- standard error, 7.92 +/- 0.64), 2.28 to 41.10 in stilts (5.29 +/- 0.38), 3.73 to 14.50 in Forster's terns (7.13 _ 0.38), and 4.77 to 14.40 in Caspian terns (6.73 +/- 0.78). Avocets had higher Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay, whereas stilt Se concentrations were similar between these regions and Forster's terns had lower Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay. Female avocets had higher Se concentrations than male avocets, but this was not the case for stilts and Forster's terns. Of the factors assessed, reproductive stage had the most consistent effect among species. Prebreeding birds tended to have higher liver Se concentrations than breeding birds, but this trend was statistically significant only for Forster's terns. Forster's tern chicks had lower Se concentrations than Forster's tern adults, whereas avocet and stilt adults and chicks were similar. Additionally, body condition was negatively related to liver Se concentrations in Forster's tern adults but not in avocet, stilt, or Caspian tern adults and chicks. These variable results illustrate the complexity of Se bioaccumulation and highlight the need to sample multiple species and examine several factors to assess the impact of Se on wildlife. PMID:19459720

  1. Implications of Dynamic Loading and Changing Climate on Mercury Bioaccumulation in a Planktivorous Fish (Orthodon microlepidotus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, R. W. H.; Flickinger, A.; Warwick, J. J.; Schumer, R.

    2015-12-01

    A bioenergetic and mercury (Hg) mass balance (BioHg) model is developed for the Sacramento blackfish (Orthodon microlepidotus), a filter feeding cyprinid found in northern California and Nevada. Attention focuses on the Lahontan Reservoir in northern Nevada, which receives a strong temporally varying load of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) from the Carson River. Hg loads are the result of contaminated bank erosion during high flows and diffusion from bottom sediments during low flows. Coupling of dynamic reservoir loading with periods of maximum plankton growth and maximum fish consumption rates are required to explain the largest body burdens observed in the planktivore. In contrast, the large body burdens cannot be achieved using average water column concentrations. The United States Bureau of Reclamation has produced future streamflow estimates for 2000-2099 using 112 CMIP3 climate projections and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. These are used to drive a fully dynamic Hg transport model to assess changes in contaminant loading to the reservoir and implications on planktivorous bioaccumulation. Model results suggest the future loads of DMeHg entering the Lahontan Reservoir will decrease most significantly in the spring and summer due to channel width increases and depth decreases in the Carson River which reduce bank erosion over the century. The modeled concentrations of DMeHg in the reservoir are expected to increase during the summer due to a decrease in reservoir volume affecting the concentrations more than the decrease in loads, and the model results show that bioaccumulation levels may increase in the upstream sections of the reservoir while maintaining contamination levels above the federal action limit for human consumption in the lower reservoir.

  2. Comparison of Selenium bioaccumulation in the clams Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis: a bioenergetic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byong-Gweon; Lee, Jung-Suk; Luoma, Samuel N

    2006-07-01

    Selenium uptake from food (assimilation efficiency) and dissolved phase (influx rate) as well as loss kinetics (efflux rate) were compared between two bivalves, Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis. The effects of salinity and temperature on these kinetic parameters for both clam species also were evaluated. The Asiatic clam, C. fluminea, more efficiently assimilated Se associated with algae (66-87%) than Se associated with oxic sediments (20-37%). However, no consistent difference was found between Se assimilation efficiencies from both food types (19-60%) for P. amurensis. The temperature and salinity had a minor influence on the Se assimilation from ingested food. However, the effects of temperature and salinity were more evident in the uptake from dissolved sources. The influx rate of Se(IV) increased by threefold with the increase of temperature from 5 to 21 degrees C for C. fluminea. The increase of salinity from 4 to 20 psu decreased the uptake rate constant (ku) of Se in P. amurensis from 0.011 to 0.005 L/g/h, whereas salinity change (0-8 psu) had a negligible effect on the Se influx rate of C. fluminea. The Se influx rate of P. amurensis decreased by half with the 3.5-fold increase in tissue dry weight. The rate constant of loss was greater for P. amurensis (0.029/d at 8 psu) than for C. fluminea (0.014/d at 0 psu and 0.01/d at 8 psu). A bioenergetic model suggests that dietary uptake is the dominant pathway for Se bioaccumulation in the two clams in San Francisco Bay and that interspecies differences in Se bioaccumulation can be explained by differences in food ingestion rates. PMID:16833157

  3. Comparison of selenium bioaccumulation in the clams Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis: A bioenergetic modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, B.-G.; Lee, J.-S.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Selenium uptake from food (assimilation efficiency) and dissolved phase (influx rate) as well as loss kinetics (efflux rate) were compared between two bivalves, Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis. The effects of salinity and temperature on these kinetic parameters for both clam species also were evaluated. The Asiatic clam, C. fluminea, more efficiently assimilated Se associated with algae (66-87%) than Se associated with oxic sediments (20-37%). However, no consistent difference was found between Se assimilation efficiencies from both food types (19-60%) for P. amurensis. The temperature and salinity had a minor influence on the Se assimilation from ingested food. However, the effects of temperature and salinity were more evident in the uptake from dissolved sources. The influx rate of Se(IV) increased by threefold with the increase of temperature from 5 to 21??C for C. fluminea. The increase of salinity from 4 to 20 psu decreased the uptake rate constant (ku) of Se in P. amurensis from 0.011 to 0.005 L/g/h, whereas salinity change (0-8 psu) had a negligible effect on the Se influx rate of C. fluminea. The Se influx rate of P. amurensis decreased by half with the 3.5-fold increase in tissue dry weight. The rate constant of loss was greater for P. amurensis (0.029/d at 8 psu) than for C. fluminea (0.014/d at 0 psu and 0.01/d at 8 psu). A bioenergetic model suggests that dietary uptake is the dominant pathway for Se bioaccumulation in the two clams in San Francisco Bay and that interspecies differences in Se bioaccumulation can be explained by differences in food ingestion rates. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  4. Bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of metal in freshwater Neotropical fish Geophagus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; da Silva, Cleber Pinto; Doria, Halina Binde; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; de Campos, Sandro Xavier

    2015-06-01

    From the concentration in water and sediments, bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr), silver (Ag), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), and arsenic (As) were determined in the gills, liver, and muscles of Geophagus brasiliensis in the Alagados Reservoir, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. Metals were quantified through AAS, and a study was carried out on the existing relations between metal and body weight, size, and genre of this species. The level of metal in the water of the reservoir was lower than the maximum set forth in the legislation, except for that of Cd and Fe. In sediments, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni presented concentrations above the threshold effect level (TEL). Pb and Cr were above the limits for the G. brasiliensis. The tendency of metals present in the muscles of G. brasiliensis was Al > Cu > Zn > Fe > Co > Mn > Cr > Ag > Ni > Pb > Cd > As. In the gills, it was Al > Fe > Zn > Mn > Co > Ag > Cr > Ni > Cu > As > Pb > Cd, and the liver presented Al > Cu > Zn > Co > Fe > Mn > Pb > Ag > Ni > Cr > As > Cd. The bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of metal in the tissues follow the global tendency liver > gills > muscle. The statistical analysis did not point to significant differences in the metal concentration and body weight, size, and gender of the species in the three tissues under analysis. PMID:25520205

  5. Benthic and pelagic pathways of methylmercury bioaccumulation in estuarine food webs of the northeast United States.

    PubMed

    Chen, Celia Y; Borsuk, Mark E; Bugge, Deenie M; Hollweg, Terill; Balcom, Prentiss H; Ward, Darren M; Williams, Jason; Mason, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a contaminant of global concern that bioaccumulates and bioamagnifies in marine food webs. Lower trophic level fauna are important conduits of MeHg from sediment and water to estuarine and coastal fish harvested for human consumption. However, the sources and pathways of MeHg to these coastal fisheries are poorly known particularly the potential for transfer of MeHg from the sediment to biotic compartments. Across a broad gradient of human land impacts, we analyzed MeHg concentrations in food webs at ten estuarine sites in the Northeast US (from the Hackensack Meadowlands, NJ to the Gulf of Maine). MeHg concentrations in water column particulate material, but not in sediments, were predictive of MeHg concentrations in fish (killifish and Atlantic silversides). Moreover, MeHg concentrations were higher in pelagic fauna than in benthic-feeding fauna suggesting that MeHg delivery to the water column from methylation sites from within or outside of the estuary may be an important driver of MeHg bioaccumulation in estuarine pelagic food webs. In contrast, bulk sediment MeHg concentrations were only predictive of concentrations of MeHg in the infaunal worms. Our results across a broad gradient of sites demonstrate that the pathways of MeHg to lower trophic level estuarine organisms are distinctly different between benthic deposit feeders and forage fish. Thus, even in systems with contaminated sediments, transfer of MeHg into estuarine food webs maybe driven more by the efficiency of processes that determine MeHg input and bioavailability in the water column. PMID:24558491

  6. Benthic and Pelagic Pathways of Methylmercury Bioaccumulation in Estuarine Food Webs of the Northeast United States

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia Y.; Borsuk, Mark E.; Bugge, Deenie M.; Hollweg, Terill; Balcom, Prentiss H.; Ward, Darren M.; Williams, Jason; Mason, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a contaminant of global concern that bioaccumulates and bioamagnifies in marine food webs. Lower trophic level fauna are important conduits of MeHg from sediment and water to estuarine and coastal fish harvested for human consumption. However, the sources and pathways of MeHg to these coastal fisheries are poorly known particularly the potential for transfer of MeHg from the sediment to biotic compartments. Across a broad gradient of human land impacts, we analyzed MeHg concentrations in food webs at ten estuarine sites in the Northeast US (from the Hackensack Meadowlands, NJ to the Gulf of Maine). MeHg concentrations in water column particulate material, but not in sediments, were predictive of MeHg concentrations in fish (killifish and Atlantic silversides). Moreover, MeHg concentrations were higher in pelagic fauna than in benthic-feeding fauna suggesting that MeHg delivery to the water column from methylation sites from within or outside of the estuary may be an important driver of MeHg bioaccumulation in estuarine pelagic food webs. In contrast, bulk sediment MeHg concentrations were only predictive of concentrations of MeHg in the infaunal worms. Our results across a broad gradient of sites demonstrate that the pathways of MeHg to lower trophic level estuarine organisms are distinctly different between benthic deposit feeders and forage fish. Thus, even in systems with contaminated sediments, transfer of MeHg into estuarine food webs maybe driven more by the efficiency of processes that determine MeHg input and bioavailability in the water column. PMID:24558491

  7. Climate Effects on Methylmercury Bioaccumulation Along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetelat, J.; Richardson, M.; MacMillan, G. A.; Amyot, M.; Hintelmann, H.; Crump, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that inorganic mercury (Hg) loadings to Arctic lakes decline with latitude. However, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in fish and their prey do not decline in a similar fashion, suggesting that higher latitude lakes are more vulnerable to Hg inputs. Preliminary results will be presented from a three-year study (2012-2015) of climate effects on MMHg bioaccumulation in lakes of the eastern Canadian Arctic. We have investigated mercury transport and accumulation processes in lakes and ponds from three study regions along a latitudinal gradient in climate-controlled ecosystem types in the Canadian Arctic, specifically sub-Arctic taiga, Arctic tundra and polar desert. In each water body, we measured key aspects of MMHg bioaccumulation—MMHg bioavailability to benthic food webs and organism growth rates—as well as how watershed characteristics affect the transport of Hg and organic carbon to lakes. Novel approaches were incorporated including the use of passive samplers (Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film samplers or DGTs) to estimate sediment bioavailable MMHg concentrations and tissue RNA content to compare organism short-term growth rates. A comparison of Arctic tundra and sub-Arctic taiga lakes showed that surface water concentrations of MMHg were strongly and positively correlated to total Hg concentrations both within and among study regions, implying strong control of inorganic Hg supply. Sediment concentrations of bioavailable MMHg were highly variable among lakes, although average concentrations were similar between study regions. Local environmental conditions appear to have a strong influence on sediment potential for MMHg supply. Lake-dwelling Arctic char from tundra lakes had similar or higher total Hg concentrations compared with brook trout from sub-Arctic lakes that were exposed to higher water MMHg concentrations. Potential environmental drivers of these patterns will be discussed. This latitudinal study will provide new

  8. Lethality and bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol in bluegill sunfish in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Liber, K.; Gangl, J.A.; Corry, T.D.; Heinis, L.J.; Stay, F.S.

    1999-03-01

    Toxicity and bioaccumulation in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) of 4-nonylphenol (NP), a common precursor and degradation intermediate of certain nonionic surfactants, were evaluated in a set of 18 aquatic mesocosms (littoral enclosures) in northeastern Minnesota. Nonylphenol was applied to enclosures every 48 h over a 20-d period (11 applications) at rates of 3, 30, 100, and 300 {micro}g/L. Additional enclosures served as untreated controls. Maximum NP levels in the integrated water column 2 h after each application averaged 5 {+-} 4, 23 {+-} 11, 76 {+-} 21, and 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L over the 11 applications at the 3-, 30-, 100-, and 300-{micro}g/L treatments, respectively. Sixty-one percent of the NP dissipated from the water column within {approximately} 39 h of each application. Estimated survival of stocked juvenile bluegills was significantly reduced at the 300-{micro}g/L NP treatment. No significant effects were noted at the other NP treatments; however, the 100-{micro}g/L enclosure with the highest mean NP concentration (93 {+-} 39 {micro}g/L) within that treatment had four to nine times more dead bluegills and four to six times fewer bluegills captured at the end of the season than the other two 100-{micro}g/L enclosures (64 {+-} 23 and 71 {+-} 32 {micro}g/L) and the controls, suggesting increased mortality in this enclosure. Nonylphenol tissue concentrations in juvenile bluegills collected from enclosures treated with 3 and 30 {micro}g/L NP ranged from 0.01 to 2.94 {micro}g/g wet weight and showed a significant positive relationship with the average measured NP concentration in the water. The mean wet weight nonequilibrium NP bioaccumulation factor was 87 {+-} 124. There was no relationship between fish lipid content and NP tissue concentration.

  9. Impact of humic substances on the aqueous solubility, uptake and bioaccumulation of platinum, palladium and rhodium in exposure studies with Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Sures, Bernd; Zimmermann, Sonja

    2007-03-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were exposed to different types of water containing PGE salts (PtCl4, PdSO4, RhCl3) to investigate the influence of humic substances on the aqueous solubility, uptake and bioaccumulation of noble metals. The results showed a time dependent decrease of the aqueous PGE concentrations in tank water for all groups. This could mainly be related to non-biological processes. The aqueous solubility of Pd and Rh was higher in humic water compared with non-chlorinated tap water, whereas Pt showed opposing results. Highest metal uptake rates and highest bioaccumulation plateaus were found for Pd, followed by Pt and Rh. Pd uptake and bioaccumulation was significantly hampered by humic substances, whose presence appear to increase Pt uptake and bioaccumulation. No clear trend emerged for Rh. Differences in effects of humic matter among the PGE may be explained by formation of metal complexes with different fractions of humic substances. PMID:17018243

  10. Development of a dynamic energy budget modeling approach to investigate the effects of temperature and resource limitation on mercury bioaccumulation in Fundulus heteroclitus-presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population survival and growth. To explore this approach, we are conducting growth and bioaccumulation studies that contrib...

  11. Development of a Dynamic Energy Budget Modeling Approach to Investigate the Effects of Temperature and Resource Limitation on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Fundulus Heteroclitus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population persistence and growth. To explore this approach, we are conducting growth and bioaccumulation studies that cont...

  12. Development of a dynamic energy budget modeling approach to investigate the effects of temperature and resource limitation on mercury bioaccumulation in Fundulus heteroclitus.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population survival and growth. To explore this approach, we are developing growth and bioaccumulation studies that contrib...

  13. EVALUATION OF A FIRST-ORDER MODEL FOR THE PREDICTION OF THE BIOACCUMULATION OF PCBS AND DDT FROM SEDIMENT INTO THE MARINE DEPOSIT-FEEDING CLAM MACOMA NASUTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A first-order model for predicting contaminant bioaccumulation from sediments into benthic invertebrates was validated using a marine deposit-feeding clam, Macoma nasuta, exposed to polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-spiked and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-contaminated sediments. ...

  14. Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Huan; Kraemer, Lisa; Evans, Douglas

    2013-10-15

    Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope ((65)Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65-91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9-35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors. PMID:23643199

  15. Influence of phosphate on toxicity and bioaccumulation of arsenic in a soil isolate of microalga Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Md Mezbaul; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the toxicity, biotransformation and bioaccumulation of arsenite and arsenate in a soil microalga, Chlorella sp., were investigated using different phosphate levels. The results indicated that arsenate was highly toxic than arsenite to the alga, and the phosphate limitation in growth media greatly enhanced arsenate toxicity. The uptake of arsenate in algal cells was more than that of arsenite, and the predominant species in the growth media was arsenate after 8 days of exposure to arsenite or arsenate, indicating arsenite oxidation by this microalga. Arsenate reduction was also observed when the alga was incubated in a phosphate-limiting growth medium. Similar to the process of biotransformation, the alga accumulated more arsenic when it was exposed to arsenate and preferably more in a phosphate-limiting condition. Although phosphate significantly influences the biotransformation and bioaccumulation of arsenic, the oxidizing ability and higher accumulation capacity of this alga have great potential for its application in arsenic bioremediation. PMID:26438364

  16. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in two matrices of the Bonny/New Calabar River Estuary in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onojake, M. C.; Sikoki, F. D.; Babatunde, B. B.; Akpiri, R. U.; Akpuloma, D.; Omokheyeke, O.

    2015-06-01

    The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Na were determined in the sediment and biota of the Bonny/New Calabar River Estuary in Niger Delta, Nigeria using atomic absorption spectrophotometer A-100. The concentration of the respective metals varied between 2011 and 2012. The range of mean values are presented in mg/kg along with variations at a statistically significant level ( P<0.05). In sediment, only Cr varied significantly ( p<0.05) within the two years. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) indicated a more potent source of metals from sediment than biota, accumulating Zn, Fe and Ni in magnitudes 10, 6 and 5 times more, respectively. The study shows elevated levels of heavy metals in sediment and bioaccumulation in biota. Regular monitoring and comparison of results with World Health Organization maximum permissible limits should be carried out, in order not to allow the metal concentration to reach alarming levels.

  17. A comparative review towards potential of microbial cells for heavy metal removal with emphasis on biosorption and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Hansda, Arti; Kumar, Vipin; Anshumali

    2016-10-01

    The threat of heavy metal pollution to environmental health is getting worldwide attention due to their persistence and non-biodegradable nature. Ineffectiveness of various physicochemical methods due to economical and technical constraints resulted in the search for a cost-effective and eco-friendly biological technique for heavy metal removal from the environment. The two effective biotic methods used are biosorption and bioaccumulation. A comparison between these two processes demonstrated that biosorption is a better heavy metal removal process than bioaccumulation. This is due to the intoxication of heavy metal by inhibiting their entry into the microbial cell. Genes and enzymes related to bioremoval process are also discussed. On comparing the removal rate, bacteria are surpassed by algae and fungi. The aim of this review is to understand the biotic processes and to compare their metal removal efficiency. PMID:27565780

  18. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in oysters from the southern coast of Korea: assessment of potential risk to human health.

    PubMed

    Mok, Jong Soo; Yoo, Hyun Duk; Kim, Poong Ho; Yoon, Ho Dong; Park, Young Cheol; Lee, Tae Seek; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Lee, Hee Jung; Ha, Kwang Soo; Shim, Kil Bo; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-06-01

    From 2009 to 2013, 80 oyster and 16 seawater samples were collected from the southern coast of Korea, including designated shellfish growing areas for export. The concentrations and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were determined, and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazards towards human consumption. The cadmium (Cd) concentration in oysters was the highest of three hazardous metals, including Cd, lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), however, below the standards set by various countries. The metal bioaccumulation ratio in oysters was relatively high for zinc and Cd but low for Hg, Pb, arsenic, and chromium. The estimated dietary intakes of all heavy metals for oysters accounted for 0.02%-17.75% of provisional tolerable daily intake. The hazard index for all samples was far <1.0, which indicates that the oysters do not pose an appreciable hazard to humans for the metal pollutants of study. PMID:25863478

  19. Mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in the smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena Linnaeus, from the Mexican Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Sánchez, O; Galván-Magaña, F; Rosíles-Martínez, R

    2010-04-01

    We analyzed total mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in muscle tissue and cartilage fibers (fins) from smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena, caught off Baja California Sur, Mexico. In muscle tissue, the mercury concentration ranged from 0.005 to 1.93 microg g(-1) ww (wet weight), which falls within the safety limits for food set by international agencies (Hg > 1.0 microg g(-1) ww). Only one specimen showed a mercury value that exceeded this limit. In fins, the mercury bioaccumulation was lower (<0.05). Selenium in muscle ranged from 0.11 to 1.63 microg g(-1) ww, while in fins it ranged from 0.13 to 0.56 microg g(-1) ww. PMID:20352184

  20. The bioconcentration and bioaccumulation factors for molybdenum in the aquatic environment from natural environmental concentrations up to the toxicity boundary.

    PubMed

    Regoli, Lidia; Van Tilborg, Wim; Heijerick, Dagobert; Stubblefield, William; Carey, Sandra

    2012-10-01

    In a regulatory context, bioaccumulation or bioconcentration factors are used for considering secondary poisoning potential and assessing risks to human health via the food chain. In this paper, literature data on the bioaccumulation of molybdenum in the aquatic organisms are reviewed and assessed for relevance and reliability. The data available in the literature were generated at exposure concentrations below those recommended in the REACH registration dossiers for molybdenum compounds i.e. PNEC(freshwater) 12.7 mg Mo/L. To address possible environmental concerns at regulatorily-relevant molybdenum concentrations, both a field study and a laboratory study were conducted. In the field study, whole body and organ-specific molybdenum levels were evaluated in fish (eel, stickleback, perch, carp bream, roach) held in the discharge water collector tanks of a molybdenum processing plant, containing a mean measured molybdenum level of 1.03 mg Mo/L. In the laboratory study, rainbow trout were exposed to two different nominal molybdenum levels (1.0 and 12.7 mg Mo/L), for 60 days followed by a 60-day depuration period. Whole body concentrations in rainbow trout during the exposure period were between <0.20 and 0.53 mg Mo/L. Muscle tissue molybdenum concentrations in fish taken from both experiments remained below 0.2mg/kg dry wt. These studies show an inverse relationship between exposure concentration and bioconcentration or bioaccumulation factor for molybdenum. In aquatic organisms, and in fish in particular, internal molybdenum concentrations are maintained in the presence of variation in external molybdenum concentrations. These observations must be considered when evaluating potential risks associated with the bioconcentration and/or bioaccumulation of molybdenum in the aquatic environment. PMID:22846769

  1. Assessment of radium-226 bioavailability and bioaccumulation downstream of decommissioned uranium operations, using the caged oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Wiramanaden, Cheryl I E; Orr, Patricia L; Russel, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the integrated effects of several geochemical processes that control radium-226 ((226) Ra) mobility in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulation in in situ caged benthic invertebrates. Radium-226 bioaccumulation from sediment and water was evaluated using caged oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) deployed for 10 d in 6 areas downstream of decommissioned uranium operations in Ontario and Saskatchewan, Canada. Measured (226) Ra radioactivity levels in the retrieved oligochaetes did not relate directly to water and sediment exposure levels. Other environmental factors that may influence (226) Ra bioavailability in sediment and water were investigated. The strongest mitigating influence on (226) Ra bioaccumulation factors was sediment barium concentration, with elevated barium (Ba) levels being related to use of barium chloride in effluent treatment for removing (226) Ra through barite formation. Observations from the present study also indicated that (226) Ra bioavailability was influenced by dissolved organic carbon in water, and by gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides in sediment, suggestive of sorption processes. Environmental factors that appeared to increase (226) Ra bioaccumulation were the presence of other group (II) ions in water (likely competing for binding sites on organic carbon molecules), and the presence of K-feldspars in sediment, which likely act as a dynamic repository for (226) Ra where weak ion exchange can occur. In addition to influencing bioavailability to sediment biota, secondary minerals such as gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides likely help mitigate (226) Ra release into overlying water after the dissolution of sedimentary barite. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:507-517. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25641375

  2. Multiscale Distribution and Bioaccumulation Analysis of Clofazimine Reveals a Massive Immune System-Mediated Xenobiotic Sequestration Response

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Jason; Stringer, Kathleen A.; Mane, Gerta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to some well-absorbed but slowly eliminated xenobiotics can lead to their bioaccumulation in living organisms. Here, we studied the bioaccumulation and distribution of clofazimine, a riminophenazine antibiotic used to treat mycobacterial infection. Using mice as a model organism, we performed a multiscale, quantitative analysis to reveal the sites of clofazimine bioaccumulation during chronic, long-term exposure. Remarkably, between 3 and 8 weeks of dietary administration, clofazimine massively redistributed from adipose tissue to liver and spleen. During this time, clofazimine concentration in fat and serum significantly decreased, while the mass of clofazimine in spleen and liver increased by >10-fold. These changes were paralleled by the accumulation of clofazimine in the resident macrophages of the lymphatic organs, with as much as 90% of the clofazimine mass in spleen sequestered in intracellular crystal-like drug inclusions (CLDIs). The amount of clofazimine associated with CLDIs of liver and spleen macrophages disproportionately increased and ultimately accounted for a major fraction of the total clofazimine in the host. After treatment was discontinued, clofazimine was retained in spleen while its concentrations decreased in blood and other organs. Immunologically, clofazimine bioaccumulation induced a local, monocyte-specific upregulation of various chemokines and receptors. However, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was also upregulated, and the acute-phase response pathways and oxidant capacity decreased or remained unchanged, marking a concomitant activation of an anti-inflammatory response. These experiments indicate an inducible, immune system-dependent, xenobiotic sequestration response affecting the atypical pharmacokinetics of a small molecule chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23263006

  3. Mercury in western North America: A synthesis of environmental contamination, fluxes, bioaccumulation, and risk to fish and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wiener, James G.; Eckley, Chris S.; Willacker, James J.; Evers, David C.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Obrist, Daniel; Fleck, Jacob; Aiken, George R.; Lepak, Jesse M.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Webster, Jackson; Stewart, Robin; Davis, Jay; Alpers, Charles N.; Ackerman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Western North America is a region defined by extreme gradients in geomorphology and climate, which support a diverse array of ecological communities and natural resources. The region also has extreme gradients in mercury (Hg) contamination due to a broad distribution of inorganic Hg sources. These diverse Hg sources and a varied landscape create a unique and complex mosaic of ecological risk from Hg impairment associated with differential methylmercury (MeHg) production and bioaccumulation. Understanding the landscape-scale variation in the magnitude and relative importance of processes associated with Hg transport, methylation, and MeHg bioaccumulation requires a multidisciplinary synthesis that transcends small-scale variability. The Western North America Mercury Synthesis compiled, analyzed, and interpreted spatial and temporal patterns and drivers of Hg and MeHg in air, soil, vegetation, sediments, fish, and wildlife across western North America. This collaboration evaluated the potential risk from Hg to fish, and wildlife health, human exposure, and examined resource management activities that influenced the risk of Hg contamination. This paper integrates the key information presented across the individual papers that comprise the synthesis. The compiled information indicates that Hg contamination is widespread, but heterogeneous, across western North America. The storage and transport of inorganic Hg across landscape gradients are largely regulated by climate and land-cover factors such as plant productivity and precipitation. Importantly, there was a striking lack of concordance between pools and sources of inorganic Hg, and MeHg in aquatic food webs. Additionally, water management had a widespread influence on MeHg bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems, whereas mining impacts where relatively localized. These results highlight the decoupling of inorganic Hg sources with MeHg production and bioaccumulation. Together the findings indicate that developing

  4. Metals bioaccumulation and biomarkers responses in the Neotropical freshwater clam Anodontites trapesialis: Implications for monitoring coal mining areas.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana Fernandes de; Cabral, Millena Terezinha; Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino; Antoniazzi, Matheus Henrique; Risso, Wagner Ezequiel; Martinez, Claudia Bueno Dos Reis

    2016-11-15

    As one of the most impactful industries, coal mining can promote several alterations at surrounding environment. In surface water, elevated concentrations of metals like Mn, Zn, Fe and Al are often observed. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation and the sub-lethal effects of these metals on various organs of the Neotropical bivalve Anodontites trapesialis confined along a stream located near a coal mine, in order to assess a set of biomarkers that could be used for effectively monitoring coal mining areas. Clams were caged, for 96h, at two sites located upstream (Up1 and Up2) and two sites downstream (Dw1 and Dw2) from the mine. Metals bioaccumulation was determined in gills, mantle, digestive gland, muscle and hemolymph and the following biomarkers were measured in A. trapesialis tissues: total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, metallothionein content, lipid peroxidation (LPO), proteins carbonylation, glutathione S-transferase activity, superoxide dismutase activity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The results showed that Al and Fe bioaccumulation in the gills and hemolymph, Al bioaccumulation in the mantle and muscle, increased LPO in the gills (Dw1 and Dw2) and mantle (Dw1), as well as reduced AChE activity in the muscle (Dw1 and Dw2) should be considered effective biomarkers for monitoring coal mining areas. A. trapesialis proved to be an efficient biological model, considering that biomarkers responses were observed in the clams after only 96h of confinement at Dw sites, accordingly this species could be a good candidate for monitoring Neotropical freshwaters. PMID:27453135

  5. Mercury in western North America: A synthesis of environmental contamination, fluxes, bioaccumulation, and risk to fish and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Wiener, James G; Eckley, Chris S; Willacker, James J; Evers, David C; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Obrist, Daniel; Fleck, Jacob A; Aiken, George R; Lepak, Jesse M; Jackson, Allyson K; Webster, Jackson P; Stewart, A Robin; Davis, Jay A; Alpers, Charles N; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2016-10-15

    Western North America is a region defined by extreme gradients in geomorphology and climate, which support a diverse array of ecological communities and natural resources. The region also has extreme gradients in mercury (Hg) contamination due to a broad distribution of inorganic Hg sources. These diverse Hg sources and a varied landscape create a unique and complex mosaic of ecological risk from Hg impairment associated with differential methylmercury (MeHg) production and bioaccumulation. Understanding the landscape-scale variation in the magnitude and relative importance of processes associated with Hg transport, methylation, and MeHg bioaccumulation requires a multidisciplinary synthesis that transcends small-scale variability. The Western North America Mercury Synthesis compiled, analyzed, and interpreted spatial and temporal patterns and drivers of Hg and MeHg in air, soil, vegetation, sediments, fish, and wildlife across western North America. This collaboration evaluated the potential risk from Hg to fish, and wildlife health, human exposure, and examined resource management activities that influenced the risk of Hg contamination. This paper integrates the key information presented across the individual papers that comprise the synthesis. The compiled information indicates that Hg contamination is widespread, but heterogeneous, across western North America. The storage and transport of inorganic Hg across landscape gradients are largely regulated by climate and land-cover factors such as plant productivity and precipitation. Importantly, there was a striking lack of concordance between pools and sources of inorganic Hg, and MeHg in aquatic food webs. Additionally, water management had a widespread influence on MeHg bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems, whereas mining impacts where relatively localized. These results highlight the decoupling of inorganic Hg sources with MeHg production and bioaccumulation. Together the findings indicate that developing

  6. Bioaccumulation of Zn and Ag Nanoparticles in the Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Lee Seung; Sung-Dae, Kim; Yi, Yang Song; Byeong-Gweon, Lee

    2014-05-01

    Many studies are carried out to evaluate environmental effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Most of the previous studies primarily focused on the effects of nanoparticles into the aquatic environment and human. Model studies predict that ENPs released into environment would transferred primarily to the soil of the terrestrial environment. Despite this prediction, biogeochemical behavior of ENPs in soil environment as well as bioavailability of ENPs to soil-dwelling organisms such as earthworm, springtail, isopod and nematodes are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to compare the bioaccumulation factor (BAFs) and subcellular partitioning of nanoparticles in the soil-dwelling earthworm (Eisenia fetida) from ENP (ZnO and Ag nanoparticles) or ionic metal (Zn2+, Ag+) contaminated soil. And the sequential extraction was also used to determine the mobility of metals in soil which could be used as to predict bioavailability and compare that with bioaccumulation factor. The radiotracer method was employed to trace the transfer of ENPs and ionic metal among different environmental media and animals. Radiolabeled 65ZnO, 110mAgNPs coated with PVP or citrate were synthesized in the laboratory and their chemical and biological behavior was compared to ionic 65Zn and 110mAg. The BAFs of Zn and Ag in the earthworms were determined after animals exposed to the contaminated soils. After the 7 days of elimination phase, subcellular partitioning of metals were also obtained. BAF for ZnO(0.06) was 31 times lower than that for Zn ion (1.86), suggesting that ZnO was less bioavailable than its ionic form from contaminated soil. On the other hands, BAFs for AgNPs coated with PVP (0.12) or with citrate (0.11) were comparable to those for Ag ion (0.17), indicating that Ag from contaminated soil was bioavailable in a similar rate regardless of chemical forms. The subcellular partitioning results showed that bioaccumulated Zn from Zn ion and ZnO contaminated soil were

  7. Aquatic bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of tetrabromobisphenol-A flame retardant introduced from a typical e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Zi-He; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    While the flame retardant chemical, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), has been frequently detected in the environment, knowledge regarding its species-specific bioaccumulation and trophic transfer is limited, especially in the highly contaminated sites. In this study, the components of an aquatic food web, including two invertebrates, two prey fish, and one predator fish, collected from a natural pond at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China were analyzed for TBBP-A, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The aquatic species had TBBP-A concentrations ranging from 350 to 1970 pg/g wet weight, with higher concentrations in the invertebrates relative to the fish species. Field-determined bioaccumulation factors of TBBP-A in the two aquatic invertebrates were nearly or greater than 5000, suggesting that TBBP-A is highly bioaccumulative in the two species. The lipid-normalized concentrations of TBBP-A in the aquatic species were negatively correlated with the trophic levels determined from stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) (r = -0.82, p = 0.09), indicating that this compound experienced trophic dilution in the current food web. PMID:27234832

  8. Metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) from New Caledonia: laboratory and field studies.

    PubMed

    Metian, Marc; Hédouin, Laetitia; Eltayeb, Mohamed M; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Mugnier, Chantal; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed at better understanding metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the edible Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, using both laboratory and field approaches. In the laboratory, the bioaccumulation kinetics of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, and Zn have been investigated in shrimp exposed via seawater and food, using the corresponding gamma-emitting radiotracers ((110 m)Ag, (109)Cd, (57)Co, (51)Cr, and (65)Zn) and highly sensitive nuclear detection techniques. Results showed that hepatopancreas and intestine concentrated the metals to the highest extent among the blue shrimp organs and tissues. Moulting was found to play a non negligible detoxification role for Co, Cr and, to a lesser extent, Zn. Metal retention by L. stylirostris widely varied (from a few days to several months), according to the element and exposure pathway considered (a given metal was usually less strongly retained when ingested with food than when it was taken up from the dissolved phase). In the field study, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn were analysed in shrimp collected from a New Caledonian aquaculture pond. Metal concentrations in the shrimp muscles were generally relatively low and results confirmed the role played by the digestive organs and tissues in the bioaccumulation/storage/detoxification of metals in the Pacific blue shrimp. Preliminary risk considerations indicate that consumption of the shrimp farmed in New Caledonia is not of particular concern for human health. PMID:20637480

  9. Effect of NaCl on the heavy metal tolerance and bioaccumulation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Liu, Bingjie

    2013-09-01

    Application of microorganisms as bioremediators for heavy metal removal in high salt environment is usually restricted by high salt concentrations. The effect of NaCl on the heavy metal tolerance and bioaccumulation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. For both yeasts, NaCl improved the cadmium and zinc tolerance, reduced the copper tolerance, and showed no obvious effect on the lead and iron tolerance. The bioaccumulation capacities of copper, zinc, and iron increased but the cadmium bioaccumulation capacities decreased after the addition of NaCl. NaCl obviously affected the amount of heavy metals removed intracellularly and on the cell surface. The heavy metal removal was not overwhelmingly inhibited by elevated NaCl concentrations, especially for Z. rouxii, and in some cases NaCl improved their removal ability. The salt-tolerant Z. rouxii that showed more powerful heavy metal tolerance and removal ability might be more suitable for heavy metal removal in high salt environment. PMID:23774294

  10. Bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements and organic pollutants in marine sponges from the South Brittany Coast, France.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Charline; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Sauleau, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accumulation of metallic and organic pollutants in marine sponges with the oyster Crassostrea gigas used as sentinel species. The concentrations of 12 Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs), 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), 7 PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and 3 organotin derivatives were measured in 7 marine sponges collected in the Etel River (South Brittany, France). Results indicated Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Pb, and Ti particularly accumulated in marine sponges such as Hymeniacidon perlevis and Raspailia ramosa at higher levels compared to oysters. At the opposite, Cu and Zn accumulated significantly at higher concentrations in oysters. Among PAHs analyzed, benzo(a)pyrene bioaccumulated in H. perlevis at levels up to 17-fold higher than in oysters. In contrast, PCBs bioaccumulated preferentially in oysters. Significant differences exist in the abilities of marine phyla and sponge species to accumulate organic and metallic pollutants however, among the few sponge species studied, H. perlevis showed impressive bioaccumulation properties. The use of this species as bioindicator and/or bioremediator near shellfish farming areas is also discussed. PMID:26634290

  11. Removal mechanisms and plant species selection by bioaccumulative factors in surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs): In the case of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Hao, Jingcheng; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2016-03-15

    Plants can bioaccumulate triclosan and bond with microbes and sediments in constructed wetlands (CWs) as well. However, little is known regarding the species-specific removal mechanism of CWs components and the selection of suitable wetland plant species for triclosan disposal. In this work, the use of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for choosing the best triclosan removal plant species was studied in laboratory-scale CWs. By the end of the experiment, over 80% of triclosan was removed and a specie-effect distribution was revealed in CWs with emergent, submerged and floating plants. By mass balance calculation, negative correlation between triclosan concentration in plants and degradation process was observed. The significant correlations between Log BSAFs values and triclosan concentration in plants or degradation contribution made it possible and reasonable in wetland plants selection. Introductions on plant species were provided considering the target removal process or regulation method. This work provided new information on plant species selection in CWs for triclosan removal or its emergency remediation by using bioaccumulative factors. PMID:26780127

  12. Strategies for eliminating and reducing persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances: common approaches, emerging trends, and level of success.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kate

    2006-12-01

    This paper reviews nine of the best-known strategies for eliminatine and reducing substances in the category known as "persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances" (PBTSs). The nine strategies are as follows: 1) Ontario's Candidate Substances List for Bans and Phase-outs (1992), 2) Canada's ARET Program (1994), 3) Canada's Toxic Substances Management Policy (1995), 4) the Commission for Environmental Cooperation's Sound Management of Chemicals Initiative (1995), 5) the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy (1997), 6) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) draft National PBT Strategy (1998), 7) U.S. EPA's Waste Minimization Program (1998), 8) the U.N. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001), and 9) Washington State's Rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxins (2006). The review describes the commonalities among the strategies, including their goals and principles, design approaches, and other common elements. It also discusses several emerging trends, such as the increasing importance of economic considerations, human health information, and nonregulatory management approaches. The paper concludes with a discussion of how effective the strategies have been at achieving their goals of elimination and reduction of persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances. PMID:17190337

  13. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) outmigrating through a contaminated urban estuary: dynamics and application.

    PubMed

    Meador, James P; Ylitalo, Gina M; Sommers, Frank C; Boyd, Daryle T

    2010-01-01

    A field study was conducted to examine bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for hatchery-raised and naturally reared (wild) ocean-type juvenile chinook salmon outmigrating through the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW), a contaminated urban estuary in Seattle, WA, USA. These results show differences in bioaccumulation of PCBs over time and space in this estuary, which may also occur for any contaminant that is distributed heterogeneously in this system. Highly mobile, outmigrating salmon accumulated approximately 3-5 times more PCBs on the east side of the LDW than fish on the west side, which is supported by an almost identical difference in mean sediment concentrations. The tPCB concentration data suggest that for most of the spring and early summer, juvenile chinook were likely segregated between the east and west side of the LDW, but may have crossed the channel later in the year as larger fish. Additionally, we used biota-sediment accumulation factors to assess the relative degree of bioaccumulation and explore these factors as potential metrics for predicting adverse sediment concentrations. These results highlight the importance of time and space in sampling design for a highly mobile species in a heterogeneous estuary. PMID:19685184

  14. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of CuO nanoparticles by a freshwater invertebrate after waterborne and dietborne exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The incidental ingestion of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can be an important route of uptake for aquatic organisms. Yet, knowledge of dietary bioavailability and toxicity of NPs is scarce. Here we used isotopically modified copper oxide (65CuO) NPs to characterize the processes governing their bioaccumulation in a freshwater snail after waterborne and dietborne exposures. Lymnaea stagnalis efficiently accumulated 65Cu after aqueous and dietary exposures to 65CuO NPs. Cu assimilation efficiency and feeding rates averaged 83% and 0.61 g g–1 d–1 at low exposure concentrations (–1), and declined by nearly 50% above this concentration. We estimated that 80–90% of the bioaccumulated 65Cu concentration in L. stagnalis originated from the 65CuO NPs, suggesting that dissolution had a negligible influence on Cu uptake from the NPs under our experimental conditions. The physiological loss of 65Cu incorporated into tissues after exposures to 65CuO NPs was rapid over the first days of depuration and not detectable thereafter. As a result, large Cu body concentrations are expected in L. stagnalis after exposure to CuO NPs. To the degree that there is a link between bioaccumulation and toxicity, dietborne exposures to CuO NPs are likely to elicit adverse effects more readily than waterborne exposures.

  15. Spatial distribution of PAHs and associated laboratory-measured bioaccumulation in New York/New Jersey waterways

    SciTech Connect

    Rosman, L.B.; Barrows, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment core samples from New York/New Jersey waterways within the Hudson-Raritan Estuary and Long Island Sound were collected to depths representative of dredging activity. Sediment was also collected from a reference site in the New York Bight as a comparison. Composited core sediments representing each waterway were analyzed for PAHs, sediment grain size, and total organic carbon. To assess bioaccumulation, sand worms (Nereis virens) and blunt-nose clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 28 days to sediment composites and to New York Bight sediment. Tissues were analyzed for the same constituents as the sediment samples, as well as for lipid content. The results highlight the range and magnitude of PAH concentrations in sediments of NY/NJ waterways. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged from undetected to 30,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). Tissues exposed to sediments from several waterways bioaccumulated organic compounds at concentrations as much as 10 times greater than those exposed to New York Bight sediments. The presence and extent of bioaccumulated compounds, along with benthic toxicity data, create a profile characterizing each waterway.

  16. Predicting PAH bioaccumulation and toxicity in earthworms exposed to manufactured gas plant soils with solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Van der Heijden, Stephan A; Kreitinger, Joseph P; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2007-11-01

    Soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites are often heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Current risk assessment methods that rely on total PAH concentrations likely overstate adverse effects of such soils since bioavailability is ignored. In this study, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied to estimate bioavailable PAH concentrations and toxicity in earthworms exposed to 15 MGP soils. In addition, PAH sorption to all soils (K0o values) was determined. The results showed a several orders of magnitude variation in Koc values, demonstrating that generic organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients will typically be overconservative at MGP sites. SPME-predicted bioaccumulation generally was within a factor of 10 of measured bioaccumulation (in earthworm bioassays), in contrast to current risk assessment model estimates that overpredicted bioaccumulation 10-10 000 times. Furthermore, on the basis of estimated total body residues of narcotic PAHs, SPME correctly predicted worm mortality observed during bioassays in the majority of cases. For MGP sites where current risk assessment procedures indicate concerns, SPME thus provides a useful tool for performing a refined, site-specific assessment. PMID:18044528

  17. Predicting PAH bioaccumulation and toxicity in earthworms exposed to manufactured gas plant soils with solid-phase microextraction

    SciTech Connect

    Michiel T.O. Jonker; Stephan A. van der Heijden; Joseph P. Kreitinger; Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-11-01

    Soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites are often heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Current risk assessment methods that rely on total PAH concentrations likely overstate adverse effects of such soils since bioavailability is ignored. In this study, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied to estimate bioavailable PAH concentrations and toxicity in earthworms exposed to 15 MGP soils. In addition, PAH sorption to all soils (K{sub oc} values) was determined. The results showed a several orders of magnitude variation in K{sub oc} values, demonstrating that generic organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients will typically be over-conservative at MGP sites. SPME-predicted bioaccumulation generally was within a factor of 10 of measured bioaccumulation (in earthworm bioassays), in contrast to current risk assessment model estimates that over predicted bioaccumulation 10-10,000 times. Furthermore, on the basis of estimated total body residues of narcotic PAHs, SPME correctly predicted worm mortality observed during bioassays in the majority of cases. For MGP sites where current risk assessment procedures indicate concerns, SPME thus provides a useful tool for performing a refined, site-specific assessment. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Comparison of bioaccumulation and biomarker responses in Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis after exposure to resuspended sediments.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, S; Hamer, B; Treursić, B; Möhlenkamp, C; Spira, D; Korlević, M; Reifferscheid, G; Claus, E

    2012-05-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is widely used as sentinel organism for the assessment of environmental contamination in freshwater environments. However, in the River Rhine (Germany), the D. polymorpha population is declining, whereas the closely related quagga mussel D. bugensis is found in high numbers at some sites. In the present laboratory study, D. polymorpha and D. bugensis were exposed to resuspended native sediments for ≤2 weeks. Wet sediments (<63 μm, 100 mg l(-1) dry weight) were used as surrogate suspended particulate matter to mimic one of the mussels' main uptake route for chemicals. The sediments were sampled in (1) the River Elbe in Dessau, a site known to be highly polluted with, e.g., organochlorine (OC) pesticides and (2) at a relatively unpolluted site in Havelberg in the River Havel, one of the Elbe's tributaries. Chemical analysis of persistent OC compounds (seven polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], DDT and its metabolites (DDX), hexachlorocylohexanes [HCHs], and hexachlorobenzene [HCB]) in soft tissue of mussels showed significantly greater values of PCBs 101, 118, 153, 138, 180, the sum of seven PCBs, and p,p'-DDD in D. bugensis compared with D. polymorpha. Fourteen days of exposure to Dessau sediment increased the concentration of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD, as well as the sum of DDX, in both species compared with Havelberg sediment. Interspecific differences were less pronounced when regarding chemical concentrations with lipid content instead of dry-weight of tissue because D. bugensis had greater levels of total lipid than D. polymorpha. DNA damage in gills, as measured with the comet assay, was greater in D. bugensis compared with D. polymorpha. Simultaneously, the content of heat-shock protein (hsp70) in gills was greater in D. polymorpha than in D. bugensis. DNA damage and hsp70 were not induced by exposure time or sediment type. This study shows that D. bugensis and D. polymorpha may differ in their bioaccumulation potential of

  19. Interactions of waterborne and dietborne Pb in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: Bioaccumulation, physiological responses, and chronic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Derek; Ng, Tania Y-T; Chowdhury, M Jasim; Wood, Chris M

    2016-08-01

    In Pb-contaminated environments, simultaneous exposure to both waterborne and dietborne Pb is likely to occur. This study examined the potential interactive effects of these two pathways in juvenile rainbow trout that were exposed to Pb in the water alone, in the diet alone, and in combination for 7 weeks. The highest waterborne Pb concentration tested (110μgL(-1)) was approximately equivalent to the 7-week LC20 (97μgL(-1)) measured in a separate trial, while the lowest was a concentration often measured in contaminated environments (8.5μgL(-1)). The live diet (10% daily ration on a wet mass basis) consisted of oligochaete worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) pre-exposed for 28days to the same waterborne Pb concentration, and the highest dietary dosing rate to the trout was 12.6μg Pb g fish(-1)day(-1). With waterborne exposure, whole body Pb burden increased to a greater extent in the worms than in the fish. Nonetheless, in trout waterborne exposure still resulted in 20-60-fold greater Pb accumulation compared to dietborne Pb exposure. However, combined exposure to both waterborne and dietborne Pb reduced the whole body accumulation extensively at waterborne Pb>50μgL(-1), with similar antagonistic interaction in liver and carcass (but not gill or gut) at a lower threshold of 20μgL(-1). Growth effects in trout were minimal with marginal reductions in the dietborne and combined exposures seen only at 110μgL(-1). Chronic Pb exposure reduced lipid and carbohydrates level in the worms by 50% and 80% respectively, while protein was unchanged, so growth effects in trout may have been of indirect origin. After 7 weeks, Ca(2+) homeostasis in the trout was unaffected, but there were impacts on Na(+). Blood Na(+) was reduced in waterborne and dietborne exposures, while gut Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities were reduced in waterborne and combined exposures. This study is the