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Sample records for 28-day repeated oral

  1. Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The study investigated the distribution of silver after 28 days repeated oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver acetate (AgAc) to rats. Oral administration is a relevant route of exposure because of the use of silver nanoparticles in products related to food and food contact materials. Results AgNPs were synthesized with a size distribution of 14 ± 4 nm in diameter (90% of the nanoparticle volume) and stabilized in aqueous suspension by the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The AgNPs remained stable throughout the duration of the 28-day oral toxicity study in rats. The organ distribution pattern of silver following administration of AgNPs and AgAc was similar. However the absolute silver concentrations in tissues were lower following oral exposure to AgNPs. This was in agreement with an indication of a higher fecal excretion following administration of AgNPs. Besides the intestinal system, the largest silver concentrations were detected in the liver and kidneys. Silver was also found in the lungs and brain. Autometallographic (AMG) staining revealed a similar cellular localization of silver in ileum, liver, and kidney tissue in rats exposed to AgNPs or AgAc. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanosized granules were detected in the ileum of animals exposed to AgNPs or AgAc and were mainly located in the basal lamina of the ileal epithelium and in lysosomes of macrophages within the lamina propria. Using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy it was shown that the granules in lysosomes consisted of silver, selenium, and sulfur for both AgNP and AgAc exposed rats. The diameter of the deposited granules was in the same size range as that of the administered AgNPs. No silver granules were detected by TEM in the liver. Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate that the organ distribution of silver was similar when AgNPs or AgAc were administered orally to rats. The presence of silver granules containing

  2. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-04-10

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  3. A repeated 28-day oral dose toxicity study of 17alpha-methyltestosterone in rats, based on the 'enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407' for screening the endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kazushi; Imazawa, Takayoshi; Nakamura, Hideaki; Furukawa, Fumio; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Hirose, Masao

    2002-01-01

    As part of the international validation project to establish the Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407, we performed a 28-day repeated-dose toxicity study of 17alpha-methyltestosterone, an exogenous androgen agonist. Special attention was paid to the sensitivity of additional parameters for detecting endocrine-related effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, based on the existing Test Guideline 407. Seven-week-old Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats were allocated to one of four groups, each consisting of ten males and ten females, and 17alpha-methyltestosterone was administered daily by gavage at doses of 0 (control), 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg body weight per day. Male rats were killed on the day after the 28th administration and females on the day of the diestrus stage during the 4 day period after the 28th administration. Male rats receiving 80 mg/kg 17alpha-methyltestosterone demonstrated decreases in testis and epididymis weights, atrophy of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells, and degenerated pachytene spermatocytes in the testes and degenerated germ cells in the epididymides as major alterations. Female rats showed abnormal estrous cycles, decreases in ovary and adrenal weights, increase in immature follicles with decreased corpus lutea in the ovaries at doses of 5 mg/kg and higher, as well as atrophy of zona reticularis in the adrenals and increase in mammary gland secretion at 20 mg/kg and above. Dilatation of the lumina and apoptosis of endometrial cells in the uterus, mucinification in the vagina and increase in serum follicle-stimulating hormone were seen with 80 mg/kg. Among the parameters examined in the present experimental system, effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone on endocrine-related organs were detected in organ weights and histopathological examination of both sexes, and in serum hormones and estrous cycle of females. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in the present study was estimated to be below 5 mg/kg per day. In particular

  4. Acute toxicity and the 28-day repeated dose study of a Siddha medicine Nuna Kadugu in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuna Kadugu (NK), a Siddha medicine prepared from leaves and fruits of Morinda Pubescens, used for the treatment of various skin diseases. Though NK has been widely used for several decades, no scientific report was available on its safety. Present study was undertaken to demonstrate the oral toxicity of NK in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicity studies were performed following OECD test guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with minor modifications. In acute oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 2000mg/kg b.wt., p.o and animals were observed for toxic signs at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 24 h and for next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. In repeated dose, the 28- day oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg b.wt./p.o/day. Two satellite groups (control and high dose) were also maintained to determine the delayed onset toxicity of NK. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Haematology, clinical biochemistry, electrolytes, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results In acute toxicity study, no treatment related death or toxic signs were observed with NK administration. In the repeated dose study, no significant differences in body weight changes, food / water intake, haematology, clinical biochemistry and electrolytes content were observed between control and NK groups. No gross pathological findings and difference in relative organ weights were observed between control and NK treated rats. Histopathological examination revealed no abnormalities with NK treatment. Conclusion Acute study reveals that the LD50 of NK is greater than 2000mg/kg, b.wt. in fasted female rats and can be classified as Category 5. 28-day repeated oral toxicity demonstrates that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level of NK is greater than 900 mg/kg b.wt./day, p.o in rats. There were no delayed effects

  5. 5-Day repeated inhalation and 28-day post-exposure study of graphene.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Hoon; Han, Sung Gu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Boo Wook; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Ee; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Keun Soo; Lee, Heon Sang; Song, Nam Woong; Ahn, Kangho; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has recently been attracting increasing attention due to its unique electronic and chemical properties and many potential applications in such fields as semiconductors, energy storage, flexible electronics, biosensors and medical imaging. However, the toxicity of graphene in the case of human exposure has not yet been clarified. Thus, a 5-day repeated inhalation toxicity study of graphene was conducted using a nose-only inhalation system for male Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of three groups (20 rats per group) were compared: (1) control (ambient air), (2) low concentration (0.68 ± 0.14 mg/m(3) graphene) and (3) high concentration (3.86 ± 0.94 mg/m(3) graphene). The rats were exposed to graphene for 6 h/day for 5 days, followed by recovery for 1, 3, 7 or 28 days. The bioaccumulation and macrophage ingestion of the graphene were evaluated in the rat lungs. The exposure to graphene did not change the body weights or organ weights of the rats after the 5-day exposure and during the recovery period. No statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, protein and albumin between the exposed and control groups. However, graphene ingestion by alveolar macrophages was observed in the exposed groups. Therefore, these results suggest that the 5-day repeated exposure to graphene only had a minimal toxic effect at the concentrations and time points used in this study.

  6. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm).

    PubMed

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-06-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions. PMID:25071922

  7. The combined oral contraceptive pill and the assumed 28-day cycle.

    PubMed

    Dowse, M St Leger; Gunby, A; Moncad, R; Fife, C; Smerdon, G; Bryson, P

    2007-07-01

    Some studies involving women taking the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) have on occasion assumed the COCP group to have a rigid 28-day pharmaceutically driven cycle. Anecdotal evidence suggests otherwise, with many women adjusting their COCP usage to alter the time between break-through bleeds for sporting and social reasons. A prospective field study involving 533 scuba diving females allowed all menstrual cycle lengths (COCP and non-COCP) to be observed for up to three consecutive years (St Leger Dowse et al. 2006). A total of 29% of women were COCP users who reported 3,241 cycles. Of these cycles, only 42% had a rigid 28-day cycle, with the remainder varying in length from 21 to 60 days. When performing studies involving the menstrual cycle, it should not be assumed that COCP users have a rigid confirmed 28-day cycle and careful consideration should be given to data collection and analysis. The effects of differing data interpretations are shown.

  8. Safety assessment of EPA-rich triglyceride oil produced from yeast: genotoxicity and 28-day oral toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Leigh A; MacKenzie, Susan A; Donner, Maria; Sykes, Greg P; Frame, Steven R; Gillies, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    The 28-day repeat-dose oral and genetic toxicity of eicosapentaenoic acid triglyceride oil (EPA oil) produced from genetically modified Yarrowia lipolytica yeast were assessed. Groups of rats received 0 (olive oil), 940, 1880, or 2820 mg EPA oil/kg/day, or fish oil (sardine/anchovy source) by oral gavage. Lower total serum cholesterol was seen in all EPA and fish oil groups. Liver weights were increased in the medium and high-dose EPA (male only), and fish oil groups but were considered non-adverse physiologically adaptive responses. Increased thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy was observed in male high-dose EPA and fish oil groups, and was considered to be an adaptive response to high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. No adverse test substance-related effects were observed on body weight, nutritional, or other clinical or anatomic pathology parameters. The oil was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames or mouse lymphoma assay, and was not clastogenic in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test. In conclusion, exposure for 28 days to EPA oil derived from yeast did not produce adverse effects at doses up to 2820 mg/kg/day and was not genotoxic. The safety profile of the EPA oil in these tests was comparable to a commercial fish oil.

  9. Oral 28-day and developmental toxicity studies of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Kieran; Tchabanenko, Kirill; Pawlosky, Robert; Carter, Emma; Knight, Nicholas S.; Murray, Andrew J.; Cochlin, Lowri E.; King, M. Todd; Wong, Andrea W.; Roberts, Ashley; Robertson, Jeremy; Veech, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    (R)-3-Hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (ketone monoester) has been developed as an oral source of ketones, which may be utilized for energy. In a 28-day toxicity study, Crl:WI (Wistar) rats received diets containing, as 30% of the calories, ketone monoester (12 and 15 g/kg body weight/day for male and female rats, respectively). Control groups received either carbohydrate- or fat-based diets. Rats in the test group consumed less feed and gained less weight than control animals; similar findings have been documented in studies of ketogenic diets. Between-group differences were noted in selected hematology, coagulation, and serum chemistry parameters; however, values were within normal physiological ranges and/or were not accompanied by other changes indicative of toxicity. Upon gross and microscopic evaluation, there were no findings associated with the ketone monoester. In a developmental toxicity study, pregnant Crl:WI (Han) rats were administered 2 g/kg body weight/day ketone monoester or water (control) via gavage on days 6 through 20 of gestation. No Caesarean-sectioning or litter parameters were affected by the test article. The overall incidence of fetal alterations was higher in the test group; however, there were no specific alterations attributable to the test substance. The results of these studies support the safety of ketone monoester. PMID:22504461

  10. Acute and 28-day sub-acute oral toxicity evaluation of two dietary bamboo charcoal powders in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhen-chao; Luo, Sha; Zhong, Yu-ting; Li, Xiao; Chen, Jin-yao; Zhang, Li-shi

    2015-04-01

    No data were available on the acute oral toxicity, short-term oral toxicity of vegetable carbon in animals. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of two commercially available dietary bamboo charcoal powders (BCP1 and BCP2). The size distribution of the two powders was determined by a Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer prior to the in vivo safety studies. For the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 11.24 g/kg body weight of BCP1 and BCP2 was given once orally to healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Mortality and clinical symptoms were observed and recorded for the first 30 min after treatment, at 4 h post-administration, and then at least once daily for 14 days after administration. In the repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study, BCP1 and BCP2 were administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg body weight for 28 days to SD rats. Animals were sacrificed and organs and blood samples were analyzed. Results showed that both BCP1 and BCP2 were micro-sized and various in size. In the acute toxicity and the repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity studies, BCP caused neither mortality nor visible signs of toxicity in rats. No significant differences were found in the relative organ weights or in biochemical parameters in BCP treated groups compared to a control group. No treatment-related histological changes were observed in the organs of these animals. Based on these data, it is concluded that the median lethal dose (LD50) of BCP for both male and female rats is more than 11.24 g/kg body weight and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is >11.24 g/kg body weight for 28 days.

  11. Repeated dose (28-day) administration of silver nanoparticles of varied size and coating does not significantly alter the indigenous murine gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Laura A; Bassis, Christine M; Walacavage, Kim; Hashway, Sara; Leroueil, Pascale R; Morishita, Masako; Maynard, Andrew D; Philbert, Martin A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobials in a number of applications, including topical wound dressings and coatings for consumer products and biomedical devices. Ingestion is a relevant route of exposure for AgNPs, whether occurring unintentionally via Ag dissolution from consumer products, or intentionally from dietary supplements. AgNP have also been proposed as substitutes for antibiotics in animal feeds. While oral antibiotics are known to have significant effects on gut bacteria, the antimicrobial effects of ingested AgNPs on the indigenous microbiome or on gut pathogens are unknown. In addition, AgNP size and coating have been postulated as significantly influential towards their biochemical properties and the influence of these properties on antimicrobial efficacy is unknown. We evaluated murine gut microbial communities using culture-independent sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments following 28 days of repeated oral dosing of well-characterized AgNPs of two different sizes (20 and 110 nm) and coatings (PVP and Citrate). Irrespective of size or coating, oral administration of AgNPs at 10 mg/kg body weight/day did not alter the membership, structure or diversity of the murine gut microbiome. Thus, in contrast to effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics, repeat dosing of AgNP, at doses equivalent to 2000 times the oral reference dose and 100-400 times the effective in vitro anti-microbial concentration, does not affect the indigenous murine gut microbiome.

  12. Phenolic acid protects of renal damage induced by ochratoxin A in a 28-days-oral treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Cariddi, L N; Escobar, F M; Sabini, M C; Campra, N A; Bagnis, G; Decote-Ricardo, D; Freire-de-Lima, C G; Mañas, F; Sabini, L I; Dalcero, A M

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the chlorogenic acid (ChlA) capacity to reverse the toxic effects induced by ochratoxin A (OTA) in a subacute toxicity test in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed orally by gavage for 28 days with OTA (0.4mg/kg bw/day), ChlA (5mg/kg bw/day) or the combination OTA (0.4mg/kg bw/day)+ChlA (5mg/kg bw/day). No deaths, no decrease in feed intake or body weight in any experimental group were recorded. The negative control group and the animals treated with ChlA alone showed no changes in any parameters evaluated. In OTA-treated group significant changes such as decrease in urine volume, proteinuria, occult blood, increase in serum creatinine values; decrease in absolute and relative kidney weight and characteristics histopathological lesions that indicated kidney damage were observed. However, limited effect on oxidative stress parameters were detected in kidneys of OTA-treated group. Animals treated with the combination OTA+ChlA were showed as negative control group in the evaluation of several parameters of toxicity. In conclusion, ChlA, at given concentration, improved biochemical parameters altered in urine and serum and pathological damages in kidneys induced by OTA exposure, showing a good protective activity, but not by an apparent antioxidant mechanism.

  13. Phenolic acid protects of renal damage induced by ochratoxin A in a 28-days-oral treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Cariddi, L N; Escobar, F M; Sabini, M C; Campra, N A; Bagnis, G; Decote-Ricardo, D; Freire-de-Lima, C G; Mañas, F; Sabini, L I; Dalcero, A M

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the chlorogenic acid (ChlA) capacity to reverse the toxic effects induced by ochratoxin A (OTA) in a subacute toxicity test in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed orally by gavage for 28 days with OTA (0.4mg/kg bw/day), ChlA (5mg/kg bw/day) or the combination OTA (0.4mg/kg bw/day)+ChlA (5mg/kg bw/day). No deaths, no decrease in feed intake or body weight in any experimental group were recorded. The negative control group and the animals treated with ChlA alone showed no changes in any parameters evaluated. In OTA-treated group significant changes such as decrease in urine volume, proteinuria, occult blood, increase in serum creatinine values; decrease in absolute and relative kidney weight and characteristics histopathological lesions that indicated kidney damage were observed. However, limited effect on oxidative stress parameters were detected in kidneys of OTA-treated group. Animals treated with the combination OTA+ChlA were showed as negative control group in the evaluation of several parameters of toxicity. In conclusion, ChlA, at given concentration, improved biochemical parameters altered in urine and serum and pathological damages in kidneys induced by OTA exposure, showing a good protective activity, but not by an apparent antioxidant mechanism. PMID:26987112

  14. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... indication of immunological effects and reproductive organ toxicity. (c) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards apply to this section. The... strains of young healthy adult animals should be employed. The females should be nulliparous and...

  15. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... indication of immunological effects and reproductive organ toxicity. (c) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards apply to this section. The... strains of young healthy adult animals should be employed. The females should be nulliparous and...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... indication of immunological effects and reproductive organ toxicity. (c) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards apply to this section. The... strains of young healthy adult animals should be employed. The females should be nulliparous and...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... indication of immunological effects and reproductive organ toxicity. (c) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards apply to this section. The... strains of young healthy adult animals should be employed. The females should be nulliparous and...

  18. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dose level. If interim sacrifices are planned, the number should be increased by the number of animals.... Measurements of food consumption should be made at least weekly. If the test substance is administered via the... requirements of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C.......

  19. Influence of coefficient of variation in determining significant difference of quantitative values obtained from 28-day repeated-dose toxicity studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsumi; Sakuratani, Yuki; Abe, Takemaru; Yamazaki, Kazuko; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Yamada, Jun; Hirose, Akihiko; Kamata, Eiichi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of coefficient of variation (CV) in determining significant difference of quantitative values of 28-day repeated-dose toxicity studies, we examined 59 parameters of 153 studies conducted in accordance with Chemical Substance Control Law in 12 test facilities. Sex difference was observed in 12 parameters and 10 parameters showed large CV in females. The minimum CV was 0.74% for sodium. CV of electrolytes was comparatively small, whereas enzymes had large CV. Large differences in CV were observed for major parameters among 7-8 test facilities. The changes in CV were grossly classified into 11. Our study revealed that a statistical significant difference is usually detected if there is a difference of 7% in mean values between the groups and the groups have a CV of about 7%. A parameter with a CV as high as 30% may be significantly different, if the difference of the mean between the groups is 30%. It would be ideal to use median value to assess the treatment-related effect, rather than mean, when the CV is very high. We recommend using CV of the body weight as a standard to judge the adverse effect level.

  20. 17alpha-methyltestosterone: 28-day oral toxicity study in the rat based on the "Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407" to detect endocrine effects.

    PubMed

    Wason, Sheila; Pohlmeyer-Esch, Gabriele; Pallen, Catherine; Palazzi, Xavier; Espuña, Gemma; Bars, Remi

    2003-11-01

    A 28-day oral gavage toxicity study in the rat with 17alpha-methyltestosterone was conducted as part of the international validation exercise on the modified Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407 (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris). Special emphasis was placed on the endocrine mediated effects exerted by 17alpha-methyltestosterone, a potent androgen agonist. The test compound was administered daily by oral gavage for at least 28 days to groups of 7-week-old-Wistar rats. Dose levels were 0, 10, 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight per day for males and 0, 10, 100 and 600 mg/kg body weight per day for females. In addition, and outside the remit of the enhanced protocol, testosterone levels in males, oestradiol levels in females and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in both sexes were measured, to provide a broader profile on the hormonally mediated effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone. Furthermore, stage-specific quantification of Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL)-labeled germ cells (apoptotic germ cells) in the seminiferous tubules was also performed, in an effort to demonstrate the precise stages in the spermatogenic cycle 17alpha-methyltestosterone exerts its effect. In this study, the most critical additional parameters contained in the Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407 for the detection of endocrine disruption were considered to be the histopathological assessment and organ weight data of endocrine-related tissues. Beyond the scope of this validation exercise, an increase in apoptosis in specific germ cell types was detected using the TUNEL assay in male rats treated at 200 and 40 mg/kg.

  1. Acute and sub-chronic (28 days) oral toxicity evaluation of tincture Baccharis trimera (Less) Backer in male and female rodent animals.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Andreia R H; Reginato, Fernanda Z; Guex, Camille G; Figueredo, Kássia C; da C Araldi, Isabel C; de Freitas, Robson B; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Mazzanti, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade; Hübscher, Gilberti H; de F Bauermann, Liliane

    2016-02-01

    The infusion of Baccharis trimera (Less) DC, popularly known as "carqueja" (broom), is popularly used in the treatment of hepatic and digestive problems. In this study, we evaluated the acute and sub-chronic oral toxicities of B. trimera tincture on male and female Wistar rats according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, guidelines 423 e 407, respectively). The B. trimera tincture was administered by oral gavage in a single dose (2000 mg/kg) in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg daily for 28 days. Blood was collected to analyze hematological and biochemical parameters. Kidneys and liver were homogenized to determine lipid peroxidation and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities. In acute treatment, tincture did not induce any signs of toxicity or mortality. Daily oral administration produced no significant changes in the hematological and biochemical parameters, except for the hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) that showed a reduction in both sexes. Moreover, the B. trimera tincture did not increase lipid peroxidation or affected ALA-D and CAT activities. In conclusion, the tincture of B. trimera may be considered relatively safe in this protocol.

  2. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-09-15

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB{sup +} interneurons, although the number of reelin{sup +} interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of

  3. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-09-15

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600mg/kg body weight/day for 28days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3(+) apoptotic cells. At ≥120mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥120mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥120mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB(+) interneurons, although the number of reelin(+) interneurons was unchanged. At 600mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells.

  4. A 28-day repeat dose toxicity study of steroidal glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Langkilde, Søren; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Schrøder, Malene; Meyer, Otto; Slob, Wout; Peijnenburg, Ad; Poulsen, Morten

    2009-06-01

    Glycoalkaloids alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine are naturally present toxicants in the potato plant (Solanumtuberosum). Human intake of high doses of glycoalkaloids has led to acute intoxication, in severe cases coma and death. Previous studies have indicated that the ratio of alpha-solanine to alpha-chaconine may determine the degree and nature of the glycoalkaloid toxicity in potatoes, as the toxicity of the two alkaloids act synergistically. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an altered ratio of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine would reduce the toxicity of the glycoalkaloids. The Syrian Golden hamster was given daily doses of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine by gavage for 28 days. Doses of up to 33.3 mg total glycoalkaloids/kg body weight were applied in ratios of 1:3.7 and 1:70 (alpha-solanine:alpha-chaconine). Administration of the highest doses of both ratios resulted in distended and fluid filled small intestines and stomach. Animals receiving the ratio with the reduced content of alpha-solanine were less affected compared to those receiving the other ratio. Gene expression profiling experiments were conducted using RNA from epithelial scrapings from the small intestines of the hamsters administered the highest doses of the glycoalkaloid treatments. In general, more differential gene expression was observed in the epithelial scrapings of the hamsters fed the ratio of 1:3.7. Mostly, pathways involved in lipid and energy metabolism were affected by the ratio of 1:3.7.

  5. A 28-day oral toxicity study of fermentation-derived cellulose, produced by Acetobacter aceti subspecies xylinum, in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Sano, Masashi; Kawabe, Mayumi; Tamano, Seiko; Kitamura, Satoshi; Omoto, Toshio; Asai, Iwao; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Hayashi, Shim-Mo

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate any adverse effect of fermentation-derived cellulose, produced by Acetobacter aceti subspecies xylinum, when administered to both sexes of F344 rats at dietary levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0% for 28 days. The treatment had no adverse effects on clinical signs, mortality, body weights and food and water consumption, or on urinalysis, ophthalmology, hematology, blood biochemistry, and histopathology findings. At necropsy, slight increased absolute and relative cecum weights, evident in females ingesting 2.5% and 5.0% dietary levels, were considered to be a physiological adaptation to the poorly absorbed fermentation-derived cellulose. The non-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) from the present study was concluded to be 5.0% in the diet (5,331 mg/kg body weights/day for males, and 5,230 mg/kg body weights/day for females).

  6. Safety profile and gender specific differences of a methanol extract of Eriosema laurentii (Leguminosae) in acute and subchronic (28 days) oral toxicity studies in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ateba, Sylvin Benjamin; Simo, Rudy Valdès; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Krenn, Liselotte; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2014-03-01

    Despite widespread use of Eriosema laurentii De Wild (Leguminosae) in West and Central Africa as herbal medicine and food additive the toxicity of this plant is unknown. Therefore, we performed the safety evaluation of a methanol extract (AEL). In acute toxicity, single oral administration of 2000mg/kg AEL caused neither toxicological symptoms nor mortality and the LD50 was estimated >5000mg/kg. In the subchronic oral toxicity, AEL induced no phenotypical signs of toxicity during and after treatment. Only a delayed decrease of relative spleen weight in males at the highest dose of 400mg/kg occurred. High density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly in females at 200 and 400mg/kg. Non-persistent increases in alanine aminotransferase activity within normal ranges were noted at 200mg/kg in males and at all doses in females. In males, AEL induced a decrease of white blood cell count at 400mg/kg, whereas lymphocytes increased at 200 and 400mg/kg and granulocytes at 400mg/kg. In females, no differences in haematological parameters occurred. Neither differences in bilirubin, creatinine and total protein levels were observed nor histological alterations in organs. The results indicate a broad safety margin for AEL.

  7. An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root, a herb-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activator, by oral gavage over 28 days induces gender-dependent hepatic hypertrophy in rats.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xianglu; Kim, Moon Sun; Su, Ning; Wen, Suping; Matsuo, Yukimi; Yamahara, Johji; Murray, Michael; Li, Yuhao

    2008-06-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha by natural and synthetic chemicals induces hepatic hypertrophy. An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root (SOW) is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. In the present study, it was found that SOW (100, 300 and 900mg/kg, once daily by oral gavage over a 28 day period) elicited dose-related increases in liver weight (LW) by 1.6%, 13.4% and 42.5%, respectively, and in the ratio of LW to body weight by 8.8%, 16.7% and 40.2%, respectively, in male rats. These effects were less pronounced in females. SOW selectively increased liver mass in male rats but Sudan red staining was not different, which indicates that hepatic lipid accumulation was similar in both genders. However, SOW even at the highest dosage did not influence serum ALT and AST activities in male or female rats. Moreover, SOW was found to activate PPAR-alpha in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of PPAR-alpha and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA expression. Thus, SOW-dependent PPAR-alpha activation may precede the development of the gender difference in hepatic hypertrophy; this process may be influenced by sex hormone status. PMID:18397819

  8. A 28-day oral gavage toxicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in CB6F1-non-Tg rasH2 mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Yong-Bum; Han, Ji-Seok; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Son, Hwa-Young

    2015-12-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is a well-known contaminant of foods containing hydrolyzed vegetable protein. However, limited toxicity data are available for the risk assessment of 3-MCPD and its carcinogenic potential is controversial. To evaluate the potential toxicity and determine the dose levels for a 26-week carcinogenicity test using Tg rasH2 mice, 3-MCPD was administered once daily by oral gavage at doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day for 28 days to male and female CB6F1-non-Tg rasH2 mice (N = 5 males and females per dose). The standard toxicological evaluations were conducted during the in-life and post-mortem phase. In the 100 mg/kg b.w./day group, 3 males and 1 female died during the study and showed clinical signs such as thin appearance and subdued behavior accompanied by significant decreases in mean b.w. Microscopy revealed tubular basophilia in the kidneys, exfoliated degenerative germ cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule of the testes, vacuolation in the brain, axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve, and cardiomyopathy in the 100, ≥25, ≥50, 100, and 100 mg/kg b.w./day groups, respectively. In conclusion, 3-MCPD's target organs were the kidneys, testes, brain, sciatic nerve, and heart. The "no-observed-adverse-effect level" (NOAEL) of 3-MCPD was ≤25 and 25 mg/kg b.w./day in males and females, respectively. PMID:26434797

  9. Problem Solving with Guided Repeated Oral Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Strobel, Debra

    2006-01-01

    Many students with disabilities require specialized instructional interventions and frequent progress monitoring in reading. The guided repeated oral reading technique promotes oral reading fluency while providing a reliable data-based monitoring system. This article emphasizes the importance of problem-solving when using this reading approach.

  10. Biochemical observation during 28 days of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Kambaut, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    With the completion of the 28-day flight of Skylab 2, the sum of biochemical data on human reaction to the weightless environment was significantly extended both quantitatively and qualitatively. The biochemical studies were divided into two broad categories. One group included the more routine blood studies similar to those used in everyday medical practice. The second category encompassed those analyses used to investigate more thoroughly the endocrinological and fluid changes first seen in the crewmembers following the Gemini, Apollo, and Soviet missions. Significant biochemical changes were observed that varied in magnitude and direction, but all disappeared shortly after return to earth. Most of changes indicate successful adaptation by the body to the combined stresses of weightlessness. Results of the biochemical observation are presented in the form of data tables and graphs.

  11. Evaluation of toxicity to triclosan in rats following 28 days of exposure to aerosol inhalation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Su; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Shim, Ilseob; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Pilje; Kim, Jong-Choon; Lee, Kyuhong

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the potential subchronic toxicity of triclosan (TCS) in rats following 28 days of exposure by repeated inhalation. Four groups of six rats of each sex were exposed to TCS-containing aerosols by nose-only inhalation of 0, 0.04, 0.13, or 0.40 mg/L for 6 h/day, 5 days/week over a 28-day period. During the study period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology were examined. At 0.40 mg/L, rats of both sexes exhibited an increase in the incidence of postdosing salivation and a decrease in body weight. Histopathological alterations were found in the nasal septum and larynx. There were no treatment-related effects in rats of either sex at ⩽0.13 mg/L. Under the present experimental conditions, the target organs in rats were determined to be the nasal cavity and larynx. The no-observed-adverse-effect concentration in rats was determined to be 0.13 mg/L.

  12. Improving Reading Rate Activities for EFL Students: Timed Reading and Repeated Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C. -S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of timed reading (TR) and repeated oral reading (RR) on 35 adult students of English as a foreign language. Students in the TR (n =18) and RR (n =17) groups read 52 and 26 passages respectively over a 13-week period. Reading rates and comprehension levels were measured at three occasions: pre-intervention,…

  13. Effects of Repeated Reading and Listening Passage Preview on Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Kristine D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Conley, Perry

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined the effectiveness of three fluency interventions (i.e., repeated reading, audio listening passage preview and teacher modeled listening passage preview) with a fifth grade student struggling with fluency skills. When compared to baseline, each intervention increased oral reading fluency by the end of the 7 weeks of…

  14. COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE
    Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1
    1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

  15. Downregulation of immediate-early genes linking to suppression of neuronal plasticity in rats after 28-day exposure to glycidol

    SciTech Connect

    Akane, Hirotoshi; Saito, Fumiyo; Shiraki, Ayako; Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Itahashi, Megu; Murakami, Tomoaki; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    We previously found that the 28-day oral toxicity study of glycidol at 200 mg/kg/day in rats resulted in axonopathy in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and aberrations in the late-stage of hippocampal neurogenesis targeting the process of neurite extension. To capture the neuronal parameters in response to glycidol toxicity, these animals were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling in four regions of cerebral and cerebellar architectures, followed by immunohistochemical analysis of selected gene products. Expression changes of genes related to axonogenesis and synaptic transmission were observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis at 200 mg/kg showing downregulation in most genes. In the corpus callosum, genes related to growth, survival and functions of glial cells fluctuated their expression. Immunohistochemically, neurons expressing gene products of immediate-early genes, i.e., Arc, Fos and Jun, decreased in their number in the dentate granule cell layer, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis. We also applied immunohistochemical analysis in rat offspring after developmental exposure to glycidol through maternal drinking water. The results revealed increases of Arc{sup +} neurons at 1000 ppm and Fos{sup +} neurons at ≥ 300 ppm in the dentate granule cell layer of offspring only at the adult stage. These results suggest that glycidol suppressed neuronal plasticity in the brain after 28-day exposure to young adult animals, in contrast to the operation of restoration mechanism to increase neuronal plasticity at the adult stage in response to aberrations in neurogenesis after developmental exposure. - Highlights: • Neuronal toxicity parameters after 28-day glycidol treatment were examined in rats. • Region-specific global gene expression profiling was conducted in brain regions. • Cortical tissues downregulated genes on axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. • Cortical tissues

  16. Toxicokinetics of naringin, a putative antitussive, after 184-day repeated oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Menghua; Yang, Cuiping; Zou, Wei; Guan, Xiaoling; Zheng, Wenyan; Lai, Li; Fang, Siqi; Cai, Shuxing; Su, Weiwei

    2011-05-01

    The toxicokinetic characteristics of naringin were investigated in rats that had been orally administered naringin extract, a candidate for oral treatment of cough, prepared from Citrus grandis "Tomentosa", at 50, 250, or 1250 mg/kg/day in a repeated-dose study for 1, 32, 93, or 184 days. Increased values of the mean systemic exposure were approximately proportional to increases in dose levels during all collection intervals; no saturation was observed. No significant differences in mean systemic exposure were observed between male and female rats. Results provide a reference for interpretation of toxicology findings and relevance to clinical safety issues.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin after single intravenous and repeat oral administration to cats.

    PubMed

    Albarellos, G A; Montoya, L; Landoni, M F

    2005-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in six cats after single intravenous (IV) and repeat oral (PO) administration at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg. Marbofloxacin serum concentration was analysed by microbiological assay using Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031 as micro-organism test. Serum marbofloxacin disposition was best described by bicompartmental and mono-compartmental open models with first-order elimination after IV and oral dosing respectively. After IV administration, distribution was rapid (T(1/2(d)) 0.23+/-0.24 h) and wide, as reflected by the steady-state volume of distribution of 1.01+/-0.15 L/kg. Elimination from the body was slow with a body clearance of 0.09+/-0.02 L/h kg and a T(1/2) of 7.98+/-0.57 h. After repeat oral administration, absorption half-life was 0.86+/-1.59 h and T(max) of 1.94+/-2.11 h. Bioavailability was almost complete (99+/-29%) with a peak plasma concentration at the steady-state of 1.97+/-0.61 mug/mL. Drug accumulation was not significant after six oral administrations. Calculation of efficacy predictors showed that marbofloxacin has good therapeutic profile against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC(50) value <0.25 microg/mL.

  18. Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Response Opportunities: A Comparison of Phrase Drill Error Correction with Repeated Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Daly, Edward J., III; Valleley, Rachel J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two oral reading fluency treatments (repeated readings and phrase drill error correction) which differ in the way they prompt student responding. Repeated readings (RR) and phrase drill (PD) error correction were alternated with a baseline and a reward condition within an alternating treatments design with…

  19. Comparison of distribution and toxicity following repeated oral dosing of different vanadium oxide nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Lee, Gwang-Hee; Yoon, Cheolho; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2016-10-01

    Vanadium is an important ultra-trace element derived from fuel product combustion. With the development of nanotechnology, vanadium oxide nanoparticles (VO NPs) have been considered for application in various fields, thus the possibility of release into the environment and human exposure is also increasing. Considering that verification of bioaccumulation and relevant biological responses are essential for safe application of products, in this study, we aimed to identify the physicochemical properties that determine their health effects by comparing the biological effects and tissue distribution of different types of VO NPs in mice. For this, we prepared five types of VO NPs, commercial (C)-VO2 and -V2O5 NPs and synthetic (S)-VO2, -V2O3, and -V2O5 NPs. While the hydrodynamic diameter of the two types of C-VO NPs was irregular and impossible to measure, those of the three types of S-VO NPs was in the range of 125-170nm. The S- and C-V2O5 NPs showed higher dissolution rates compared to other VO NPs. We orally dosed the five types of VO NPs (70 and 210μg/mouse, approximately 2 and 6mg/kg) to mice for 28 days and compared their biodistribution and toxic effects. We found that S-V2O5 and S-V2O3 NPs more accumulated in tissues compared to other three types of VO NPs, and the accumulated level was in order of heart>liver>kidney>spleen. Additionally, tissue levels of redox reaction-related elements and electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) were most clearly altered in the heart of treated mice. Notably, all S- and C-VO NPs decreased the number of WBCs at the higher dose, while total protein and albumin levels were reduced at the higher dose of S-V2O5 and S-V2O3 NPs. Taken together, we conclude that the biodistribution and toxic effects of VO NPs depend on their dissolution rates and size (surface area). Additionally, we suggest that further studies are needed to clarify effects of VO NPs on functions of the heart and the immune system.

  20. Behavioral toxicity and physiological changes from repeated exposure to fluorene administered orally or intraperitoneally to adult male Wistar rats: A dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Julie; Grova, Nathalie; Hidalgo, Sophie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Rychen, Guido; Bisson, Jean-François; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schroeder, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment by reason of its high volatility. Demonstrated to be a neurotoxicant through inhalation, it was also identified as a contributive PAH to food contamination. Since no data are available on its oral neurotoxicity, the purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral and physiological toxicity of repeated oral administration of fluorene to adult Wistar male rats. Animals were daily treated with fluorene at 1, 10 or 100mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. Administration was intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) to evaluate the influence of the route of exposure on fluorene toxicity. Following this period of treatment, animals in both groups were subjected to similar cognitive evaluations, namely anxiety (elevated-plus maze), locomotor activity (open-field) and learning and memory abilities (eight-arm maze and avoidance test of an aversive light stimulus), as well as physiological measurements. The behavioral testing occurred from the 28th to the 60th day of the experiment during which fluorene treatment continued uninterrupted. At the end of this period, the concentration levels of fluorene and of three of its monohydroxylated metabolites in blood and brain were determined using a GC-MS/MS method. The results demonstrated a reduction in rat anxiety level at the lowest doses administered (1 and 10mg/kg/day) regardless of the treatment route, whereas locomotor activity and learning abilities remained unchanged. Moreover, a less significant weight gain was noticed in animals i.p.- and p.o.-treated with 100mg/kg/day during the 28-day period of treatment, which, upon comparison with the three other groups, induced a body weight gap that was maintained throughout the experiment. Significant increases in relative liver weight were also observed in a dose-dependent manner in orally treated rats and only in animal treated i.p. with 100mg/kg/day. According to the dose, higher

  1. Comparative toxicity of silicon dioxide, silver and iron oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Seung-Hyun; You, Ji-Ran; Kim, Woo Ho; Jang, Ja-June; Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Doo Hyun; Jeong, Jayoung; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Che, Jeong-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    Although silicon dioxide (SiO2), silver (Ag) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in diverse applications from food to biomedicine, in vivo toxicities of these nanoparticles exposed via the oral route remain highly controversial. To examine the systemic toxicity of these nanoparticles, well-dispersed nanoparticles were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats daily over a 13-week period. Based on the results of an acute toxicity and a 14-day repeated toxicity study, 975.9, 1030.5 and 1000 mg kg(-1) were selected as the highest dose of the SiO2 , Ag and Fe2O3 nanoparticles, respectively, for the 13-week repeated oral toxicity study. The SiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles did not induce dose-related changes in a number of parameters associated with the systemic toxicity up to 975.9 and 1000 mg kg(-1) , respectively, whereas the Ag nanoparticles resulted in increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and calcium as well as lymphocyte infiltration in liver and kidney, raising the possibility of liver and kidney toxicity induced by the Ag nanoparticles. Compared with the SiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles showing no systemic distribution in all tissues tested, the Ag concentration in sampled blood and organs in the Ag nanoparticle-treated group significantly increased with a positive and/or dose-related trend, meaning that the systemic toxicity of the Ag nanoparticles, including liver and kidney toxicity, might be explained by extensive systemic distribution of Ag originating from the Ag nanoparticles. Our current results suggest that further study is required to identify that Ag detected outside the gastrointestinal tract were indeed a nanoparticle form or ionized form.

  2. Repeat Brachytherapy for Patients With Residual or Recurrent Tumors of Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji; Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kaida, Atushi; Miura, Masahiko

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze data from patients receiving repeat brachytherapy (re-BT) for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor in the oral cavity. Methods and Materials: Between January 2003 and December 2007, 62 patients who had undergone definitive BT as an initial treatment of oral cancer subsequently underwent re-BT for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumors at the diagnostic radiology and oncology department (Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital). Re-BT was performed 0.9-73 months (median, 5.7) after the initial BT. Au-198 grains were used as the re-BT source in all 62 patients, and an area of 0.8-6.3 cm{sup 2} (median, 3.1) was permanently irradiated with 60-110 Gy (median, 83) according to the system of Paterson-Parker. Results: The 2-year local control and overall survival rate was 53% and 66%, respectively, and local control significantly affected overall survival. Both local control and overall survival were affected by the initial tumor characteristics and the macroscopic appearance of the residual or recurrent tumor. Grade 3 or 4 complications were seen in 5 patients. The incidence of mandibular and mucosal complications was significantly related to a biologic effective dose of {alpha}/{beta} of 3 Gy to the surface of the gingiva and mucosa, respectively. Conclusion: Re-BT using Au-198 grains for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor after definitive BT in the oral cavity is effective and well tolerated.

  3. Same site submucosal tunneling for a repeat per oral endoscopic myotomy: A safe and feasible option

    PubMed Central

    Wehbeh, Antonios N; Mekaroonkamol, Parit; Cai, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a novel endoscopic procedure for achalasia treatment. Due to its novelty and high success rates, a repeat procedure is usually not warranted, making the feasibility and safety of such approach unknown. We report the first case of a successful repeat POEM done at the same site of a previously uncompleted POEM. An 84-year-old female with type 2 achalasia presented for a POEM procedure. The procedure was aborted at the end of tunneling and before myotomy due to hypotension, which later resolved spontaneously. POEM was re-attempted at the same site of the original tunnel 1 year afterward, and surprisingly we didn’t encounter any submucosal fibrosis. The procedure felt similar to a native POEM and a myotomy was performed uneventfully. Our case is the first to suggest that submucosal tunneling during a repeat POEM can be done at the same site. Hypotension during POEM is a rare complication that should be recognized as a potential result of tension capnothorax, it can however, be managed with close supportive care. PMID:27803774

  4. The Return Home: Transitioning from a 28-Day Remote Outdoor Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNatty, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges for students transitioning from the remote Te Kahu (pseudonym) outdoor education programme back into their home and school city environments. Students must develop methods of coping and readjust to society to continue the personal growth and process the learning affected through the 28-day programme. The…

  5. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of lung cells from Fischer 344 rats following 28 days of inhalation exposure to MWCNTs, plus 28 days and 90 days post-exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sik; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Choi, Byung Gil; Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Song, Kyung Seuk; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Gun Ho; Jeon, Kisoo; Ahn, Kang Ho; Yu, Il Je

    2014-03-01

    Despite their useful physico-chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) continue to cause concern over occupational and human health due to their structural similarity to asbestos. Thus, to evaluate the toxic and genotoxic effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on lung cells in vivo, eight-week-old rats were divided into four groups (each group = 25 animals), a fresh air control (0 mg/m(3)), low (0.17 mg/m(3)), middle (0.49 mg/m(3)), and high (0.96 mg/m(3)) dose group, and exposed to MWCNTs via nose-only inhalation 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 28 days. The count median length and geometric standard deviation for the MWCNTs determined by TEM were 330.18 and 1.72 nm, respectively, and the MWCNT diameters ranged from 10 to 15 nm. Lung cells were isolated from five male and five female rats in each group on day 0, day 28 (only from males) and day 90 following the 28-day exposure. The total number of animals used was 15 male and 10 female rats for each concentration group. To determine the genotoxicity of the MWCNTs, a single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was conducted on the rat lung cells. As a result of the exposure, the olive tail moments were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the male and female rats from all the exposed groups when compared with the fresh air control. In addition, the high-dose exposed male and middle and high-dose exposed female rats retained DNA damage, even 90 days post-exposure (p < 0.05). To investigate the mode of genotoxicity, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, TGF- β, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ) were also measured. For the male rats, the H2O2 levels were significantly higher in the middle (0 days post-exposure) and high- (0 days and 28 days post-exposure) dose groups (p < 0.05). Conversely, the female rats showed no changes in the H2O2 levels. The inflammatory cytokine levels in the

  6. Effect of repeated oral administration on taurocholate on hepatic excretory function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1981-07-01

    The effect of repeated administration of taurocholate on bile acid pool size, biliary composition and biliary excretory capacity for bile acids and two xenobiotics was determined. The bile acid pool was increased 50 to 60% by oral administration of sodium taurocholate (300--900 mg/kg, 10 ml/kg) every 12 hr for 2 days to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bile flow, biliary excretion of bile acids, cholesterol and phospholipid and the concentrations of phospholipid and bile acids in bile were increased in rats treated with 750 mg of taurocholate per kg. No effect was observed on Na+,K+ or Cl- levels. The biliary transport maximum for taurocholate was increased by 30% in rats treated with 750 mg/kg. In contrast, the plasma disappearance and biliary excretion of phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein and ouabain were not affected by taurocholate administration.

  7. Downregulation of immediate-early genes linking to suppression of neuronal plasticity in rats after 28-day exposure to glycidol.

    PubMed

    Akane, Hirotoshi; Saito, Fumiyo; Shiraki, Ayako; Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Itahashi, Megu; Murakami, Tomoaki; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    We previously found that the 28-day oral toxicity study of glycidol at 200mg/kg/day in rats resulted in axonopathy in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and aberrations in the late-stage of hippocampal neurogenesis targeting the process of neurite extension. To capture the neuronal parameters in response to glycidol toxicity, these animals were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling in four regions of cerebral and cerebellar architectures, followed by immunohistochemical analysis of selected gene products. Expression changes of genes related to axonogenesis and synaptic transmission were observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis at 200mg/kg showing downregulation in most genes. In the corpus callosum, genes related to growth, survival and functions of glial cells fluctuated their expression. Immunohistochemically, neurons expressing gene products of immediate-early genes, i.e., Arc, Fos and Jun, decreased in their number in the dentate granule cell layer, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis. We also applied immunohistochemical analysis in rat offspring after developmental exposure to glycidol through maternal drinking water. The results revealed increases of Arc(+) neurons at 1000ppm and Fos(+) neurons at ≥300ppm in the dentate granule cell layer of offspring only at the adult stage. These results suggest that glycidol suppressed neuronal plasticity in the brain after 28-day exposure to young adult animals, in contrast to the operation of restoration mechanism to increase neuronal plasticity at the adult stage in response to aberrations in neurogenesis after developmental exposure.

  8. A 4-week Repeated dose Oral Toxicity Study of Mecasin in Sprague-Dawley Rats to Determine the Appropriate Doses for a 13-week, Repeated Toxicity Test

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eunhye; Lee, Jongchul; Lee, Seongjin; Park, Manyong; Song, Inja; Son, Ilhong; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Dongwoung; Lee, Jongdeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated the 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity of gami-jakyak gamcho buja decoction (Mecasin) to develop safe treatments. Methods: In order to investigate the 4-week oral toxicity of Mecasin, we administered Mecasin orally to rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of Mecasin of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of body weight were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution of 10 mL/kg was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rate, weight, clinical signs, and gross findings for four weeks. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weights or food consumption between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Serum biochemistry revealed that some groups showed significant decrease in inorganic phosphorus (IP) (P < 0.05). During necropsy on the rats, one abnormal macroscopic feature, a slight loss of fur, was observed in the mid dosage (1,000 mg/ kg) male group. No abnormalities were observed in any other rats. In histopathological findings, the tubular basophilia and cast of the kidney and extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen were found. However, those changes were minimal and had occurred naturally or sporadically. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion: During this 4-week, repeated, oral toxicity test of Mecasin in SD rats, no toxicity changes due to Mecasin were observed in any of the male or the female rats in the high dosage group. Thus, we suggest that the doses in a 13-week, repeated test should be 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. PMID:26998389

  9. Repeated oral administration of capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours with prolonged stress-response in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y-J; Kim, J Y; Yoo, S B; Lee, J-H; Jahng, J W

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the psycho-emotional effects of repeated oral exposure to capsaicin, the principal active component of chili peppers. Each rat received 1 mL of 0.02 percent capsaicin into its oral cavity daily, and was subjected to behavioural tests following 10 daily administrations of capsaicin. Stereotypy counts and rostral grooming were significantly increased, and caudal grooming decreased, in capsaicin-treated rats during the ambulatory activity test. In elevated plus maze test, not only the time spent in open arms but also the percent arm entry into open arms was reduced in capsaicin-treated rats compared with control rats. In forced swim test, although swimming duration was decreased, struggling increased in the capsaicin group, immobility duration did not differ between the groups. Repeated oral capsaicin did not affect the basal levels of plasma corticosterone; however, the stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone was prolonged in capsaicin treated rats. Oral capsaicin exposure significantly increased c-Fos expression not only in the nucleus tractus of solitarius but also in the paraventricular nucleus. Results suggest that repeated oral exposure to capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours in rats, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in its pathophysiology. PMID:23938388

  10. Glycidol induces axonopathy and aberrations of hippocampal neurogenesis affecting late-stage differentiation by exposure to rats in a framework of 28-day toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Akane, Hirotoshi; Shiraki, Ayako; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Itahashi, Megu; Abe, Hajime; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-01-30

    Developmental exposure to glycidol induces aberrations of late-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring, whereas maternal animals develop axonopathy. To investigate the possibility whether similar effects on adult neurogenesis could be induced by exposure in a framework of 28-day toxicity study, glycidol was orally administered to 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage at 0, 30 or 200 mg/kg for 28 days. At 200 mg/kg, animals revealed progressively worsening gait abnormalities as well as histopathological and immunohistochemical changes suggestive of axonal injury as evidenced by generation of neurofilament-L(+) spheroids in the cerebellar granule layer and dorsal funiculus of the medulla oblongata, central chromatolysis in the trigeminal nerve ganglion cells and axonal degeneration in the sciatic nerves. At the same dose, animals revealed aberrations in neurogenesis at late-stage differentiation as evidenced by decreases of both doublecortin(+) and dihydropyrimidinase-like 3(+) cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and increased reelin(+) or calbindin-2(+) γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic interneurons and neuron-specific nuclear protein(+) mature neurons in the dentate hilus. These effects were essentially similar to that observed in offspring after maternal exposure to glycidol. These results suggest that glycidol causes aberrations in adult neurogenesis in the SGZ at the late stage involving the process of neurite extension similar to the developmental exposure study in a standard 28-day toxicity study.

  11. Effect of repeated oral therapeutic doses of methylphenidate on food intake and growth rate in rats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nausheen; Najam, Rahila

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system stimulants are known to produce anorexia. Previous data suggest that methylphenidate can have variable effects on caloric intake and growth rate. A dose-response study was performed to monitor caloric intake, liquid intake and growth rate in rats following repeated administration of human oral therapeutic doses 2 mg/kg/day, 5mg/kg/day and 8mg/kg/day of methylphenidate. We found that food intake and water intake, increased in all weeks and at all doses used in the study. Growth rate increased more at higher dose (8mg/kg/day) and at low dose (2mg/kg/day) of methylphenidate in 1(st) and 2(nd) week whereas more decreased by the above doses in 3(rd) week, suggesting that food stimulation leads to initial increase in growth rate but long term administration of methylphenidate attenuate growth rate that is not due to modulation of appetite but may be due to anxiety and increased activity produce by stimulants. A possible role of DA, 5HT receptors in modulation of appetite and anxiety is discussed.

  12. Evaluation of spontaneous baroreflex response after 28 days head down tilt bedrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughson, R. L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Butler, G. C.; Güell, A.; Gharib, C.

    The spontaneous baroreflex response was evaluated during supine rest and head up tilt (60°) before and immediately after a 28 day 6° HDT bedrest in 6 healthy adult men (age 30-42 years). Sequences of 3 or more beats where RR-interval and systolic blood pressure changed in the same direction were used to evaluate baroreflex response slope (BRS). Prior to bedrest, the mean BRS and RR-interval were 18.0 ± 3.9 ms/mm Hg and 926 ± 61 ms at rest and 10.5 ± 2.5 ms/mm Hg and 772 ± 63 ms during the first 10 min of 60° tilt. Following bedrest, these values changed to 15.6 ± 2.7 ms/mm Hg and 780 ± 53 ms at rest, and to 6.5 ± 1.2 ms/mm Hg and 636 ± 44 ms during tilt. Thus, (1) the spontaneous baroreflex can be evaluated in human subjects during experiments of orthostatic stress; (2) the baroreflex slope was reduced on going from supine to the head up tilt position; and (3) 28 days of bedrest reduced the spontaneous baroreflex slope.

  13. Mineral and nitrogen balance study - Results of metabolic observations on Skylab II 28-day orbital mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whedon, G. D.; Lutwak, L.; Reid, J.; Rambaut, P.; Whittle, M.; Smith, M.; Leach, C.

    1975-01-01

    The prediction that various stresses of flight, particularly weightlessness, would bring about significant derangements in the metabolism of the musculoskeletal system has been based on various balance-study observations of long-term immobilized or inactive bed rest. The three astronauts of Skylab II consumed a planned dietary intake of major metabolic elements in mixed foods and beverages and provided virtually complete collections of excreta for 31 days preflight, 28 days inflight, and 17 days postflight. Analyses showed that, in varying degree among the crewmen, urinary calcium increased gradually during flight in a pattern similar to that observed in bed-rest studies. Fecal calcium excretion did not change significantly, but calcium balance, owing to the urinary calcium rise, became either negative or less positive than in preflight measurement. Increased excretion and negative nitrogen and phosphorus balances inflight indicated appreciable loss of muscle tissue in all three crewmen. Significant losses also occurred inflight in potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Based on the similarity in pattern and degree between these observations of calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen loss, musculoskeletal integrity would not be threatened in space flights of up to at least 3 months. However, if similar changes occur in the planed Skylab flights for considerably more than 28 days, concern for capable musculoskeletal function should be serious for flights of very many months' duration.

  14. Novel three dimensional human endocervix cultures respond to 28-day hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevim Yildiz; Yu, Yanni; Burdette, Joanne E; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hope, Thomas J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Kim, J Julie

    2015-04-01

    The endocervix has both anatomical and biological functions that participate in the delicate balance between tolerance necessary for conception and protection from pathogens. Our goal was to develop a robust 3-dimensional (3D) endocervix model that was a reliable representation of the in vivo tissues and to identify the physiological responses to changing levels of steroid hormones during a 28-day time period. Human endocervical cells were grown on polystyrene scaffolds, and the morphologic and hormonal responses of cultured cells were assessed in response to fluctuating levels of estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4). Morphologically, the 3D cultures were composed of a mixed population of cells, including epithelial and stromal cells. Treatment with E2 and P4 (d 28) increased cell growth and proliferation as compared with no treatment control. Cells expressed estrogen receptor and P4 receptor and produced both neutral and acidic mucins, including Mucin 16. In addition, a 45-plex Luminex assay identified numerous factors secreted and regulated by hormones. Specifically, IL-1β and leukemia inhibitory factor significantly decreased in the presence of E2 and P4 as compared with the no hormone control at day 26. Cotreatment with RU486 (mifepristone) attenuated the inhibition of IL-1β and leukemia inhibitory factor secretion. In summary, a robust, novel 3D endocervical culture was developed, and physiologic responses to the menstrual cycle mimic of E2 and P4 levels for a period of 28 days were identified.

  15. Repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay: an investigation with 2-nitropropane, a hepatocarcinogen.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Satoru; Araki, Tetsuro; Nakajima, Mikio; Kusuoka, Osamu; Uchida, Keisuke; Sato, Norihiro; Tanabe, Yoko; Takahashi, Kaori; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Tsurui, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    The utility of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay in the detection of a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen was evaluated. In this paper, a rat hepatocarcinogen, 2-nitropropane (2-NP), was administered orally to young adult rats for 14 and 28 days without a partial hepatectomy or a mitogen, and the micronucleus induction in liver was examined using a simple method to isolate hepatocytes. In addition, a bone marrow micronucleus assay was conducted concomitantly. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes induced by 2-NP increased significantly in both the 14- and 28-day repeated-dose studies, while the bone marrow micronucleus assays were negative in each study. These results indicate that the RDLMN assay is useful for detecting a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen that is negative in bone marrow micronucleus assays and is a suitable in vivo genotoxicity test method for integration into a repeated-dose general toxicity study. PMID:25892624

  16. 28-Day inhalation toxicity of graphene nanoplatelets in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Kwon; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Ee; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Boo Wook; Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Gun Ho; Ahn, Kangho; Han, Sung Gu; Bello, Dhimiter; Yu, Il Je

    2016-09-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial, is now being used in many applications, such as electronics, biological engineering, filtration, lightweight and strong nanocomposite materials, and energy storage. However, there is a lack of information on the potential health effects of graphene in humans based on inhalation, the primary engineered nanomaterial exposure pathway in workplaces. Thus, an inhalation toxicology study of graphene was conducted using a nose-only inhalation system for 28 days (6 h/day and 5 days/week) with male Sprague-Dawley rats that were then allowed to recover for 1-, 28-, and 90-day post-exposure period. Animals were separated into 4 groups (control, low, moderate, and high) with 15 male rats (5 rats per time point) in each group. The measured mass concentrations for the low, moderate, and high exposure groups were 0.12, 0.47, and 1.88 mg/m(3), respectively, very close to target concentrations of 0.125, 0.5, and 2 mg/m(3). Airborne graphene exposure was monitored using several real-time instrumentation over 10 nm to 20 μm for size distribution and number concentration. The total and respirable elemental carbon concentrations were also measured using filter sampling. Graphene in the air and biological media was traced using transmission electron microscopy. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, the body weights and food consumption were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for blood biochemical tests, and the organ weights were measured. No dose-dependent effects were recorded for the body weights, organ weights, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammatory markers, and blood biochemical parameters at 1-day post-exposure and 28-day post-exposure. The inhaled graphenes were mostly ingested by macrophages. No distinct lung pathology was observed at the 1-, 28- and 90-day post-exposure. The inhaled graphene was translocated to lung

  17. 28-Day inhalation toxicity of graphene nanoplatelets in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Kwon; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Ee; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Boo Wook; Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Gun Ho; Ahn, Kangho; Han, Sung Gu; Bello, Dhimiter; Yu, Il Je

    2016-09-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial, is now being used in many applications, such as electronics, biological engineering, filtration, lightweight and strong nanocomposite materials, and energy storage. However, there is a lack of information on the potential health effects of graphene in humans based on inhalation, the primary engineered nanomaterial exposure pathway in workplaces. Thus, an inhalation toxicology study of graphene was conducted using a nose-only inhalation system for 28 days (6 h/day and 5 days/week) with male Sprague-Dawley rats that were then allowed to recover for 1-, 28-, and 90-day post-exposure period. Animals were separated into 4 groups (control, low, moderate, and high) with 15 male rats (5 rats per time point) in each group. The measured mass concentrations for the low, moderate, and high exposure groups were 0.12, 0.47, and 1.88 mg/m(3), respectively, very close to target concentrations of 0.125, 0.5, and 2 mg/m(3). Airborne graphene exposure was monitored using several real-time instrumentation over 10 nm to 20 μm for size distribution and number concentration. The total and respirable elemental carbon concentrations were also measured using filter sampling. Graphene in the air and biological media was traced using transmission electron microscopy. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, the body weights and food consumption were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for blood biochemical tests, and the organ weights were measured. No dose-dependent effects were recorded for the body weights, organ weights, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammatory markers, and blood biochemical parameters at 1-day post-exposure and 28-day post-exposure. The inhaled graphenes were mostly ingested by macrophages. No distinct lung pathology was observed at the 1-, 28- and 90-day post-exposure. The inhaled graphene was translocated to lung

  18. Aortic Coarctation 28 Days after an Arterial Switch Operation in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Toru; Higaki, Takashi; Okura, Masahiro; Kojima, Ai; Uchita, Shunji; Izutani, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Aortic coarctation rarely occurs after an arterial switch operation for D-transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum. We report the case of a neonate patient in whom aortic coarctation developed 28 days after an uncomplicated arterial switch operation. Preoperatively, the aorta was noted to have an irregular shape, but there was no pressure gradient across the lesion. The patient underwent successful reoperation to correct the coarctation. We hope that our report raises awareness of a rare early complication after arterial switch operation with intact ventricular septum, and the need to carefully monitor the aortic isthmus in patients who have aortic irregularities, even in the absence of a pressure gradient. PMID:27547151

  19. Toxicological evaluation of isopropylparaben and isobutylparaben mixture in Sprague-Dawley rats following 28 days of dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ji; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lim, Seong Kwang; Kim, Yeon Joo; Roh, Tae Hyun; Choi, Seul Min; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung Mu

    2015-11-01

    The alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (Parabens) have been of concern due to their probable endocrine disrupting property especially in baby consumer products. The safety of parabens for use as a preservative in cosmetics has come into controversy, and thus consumer demand for paraben-free products is ever increasing. Thus, more comprehensive studies are needed to conclusively determine the safety of the multiple prolonged exposure to parabens with cosmetic ingredients. This study was conducted to investigate the potential repeated 28 days dermal toxicity (50, 100, 300, or 600 mg/kg bw/day) of isopropylparaben (IPP), isobutylparaben (IBP), or the mixture of IPP and IBP in rats. There were no significant changes in body and organ weights in any group. However, histopathological examinations showed that weak or moderate skin damages were observed in female rats by macroscopic and microscopic evaluations. In female rats, no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of IPP with no skin lesion and IBP for skin hyperkeratosis, were estimated to be 600 mg/kg bw/day, and 50 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. With regard skin hyperkeratosis, the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of the mixture of IPP and IBP was estimated to be 50 mg/kg bw/day. Analysis of six serum hormones (estrogen, testosterone, insulin, T3, TSH, or FSH) in animals showed that only FSH was dose-dependently decreased in the mixture groups of 100 mg/kg bw/day or higher. These data suggest that the mixture of IPP and IBP showed a synergistic dermal toxicity in rats and should be considered for future use in consumer products.

  20. Tyms double (2R) and triple repeat (3R) confers risk for human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Alexandre Medeiros; Sant'Ana, Thalita Araújo; Gomes, Adriana Vieira; de Lacerda Vidal, Aurora Karla; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo

    2014-12-01

    The oral cancer is responsible for approximately 3 % of cases of cancer in Brazil. Epidemiological studies have associated low folate intake with an increased risk of epithelial cancers, including oral cancer. Folic acid has a key role in DNA synthesis, repair, methylation and this is the basis of explanations for a putative role for folic acid in cancer prevention. The role of folic acid in carcinogenesis may be modulated by polymorphism C677T in MTHFR and tandem repeats 2R/3R in the promoter site of TYMS gene that are related to decreased enzymatic activity and quantity and availability of the enzyme, respectively. These events cause a decrease in the synthesis, repair and DNA methylation, which can lead to a disruption in the expression of tumor suppressor genes as TP53. The objective of this study was investigate the distribution of polymorphisms C677T and tandem repeats 2R/3R associated with the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). 53 paraffin-embedded samples from patients who underwent surgery but are no longer at the institution and 43 samples collected by method of oral exfoliation by cytobrush were selected. 132 healthy subjects were selected by specialists at the dental clinics of the Faculdade de Odontologia de Pernambuco-FOP. The MTHFR genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP, and the TYMS genotyping was performed by conventional PCR. Fisher's Exact test at significant level of 5 %. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the strength of association between genotype frequency and OSCC development. The results were statistically significant for the tandem repeats of the TYMS gene (p = 0.015). The TYMS 2R3R genotype was significantly associated with the development of OSCC (OR = 3.582; 95 % CI 1.240-10.348; p = 0.0262) and also the genotype 3R3R (OR = 3.553; 95 % CI 1.293-9.760; p = 0.0345). When analyzed together, the TYMS 2R3R + 3R3R genotypes also showed association (OR = 3.518; 95 % CI 11.188-10.348; p

  1. ANALYTICAL RESULTS OF MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLE POURED JULY 25, 2012 - CURED 28 DAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A. D.; Best, D. R.; Reigel, M. M.

    2012-09-18

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use Colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. Samples 8.1.2, 8.2.2, 8.3.2, and 8.4.2 were received on 8/1/2012 and analyzed after curing for 28 days. The average total density measured by the ASTM method C 642 was 2.09 g/cm{sup 3}, within the lower bound of 1.88 g/cm{sup 3}. The average partial hydrogen density was 7.48E-02 g/cm{sup 3} as measured using method ASTM E 1311 and met the lower bound of 6.04E-02 g/cm{sup 3}. The average measured partial boron density was 1.71E-01 g/cm{sup 3} which met the lower bound of 1.65E-01 g/cm{sup 3} measured by the ASTM C 1301 method.

  2. Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Deborah K.; Pellicore, Linda S.

    2012-06-15

    Background: Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since ephedrine may have cardiovascular effects, the goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of various doses of bitter orange extract and pure synephrine in rats. Method: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with synephrine from two different extracts. One extract contained 6% synephrine, and the other extract contained 95% synephrine. Doses were 10 or 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight from each extract. Additionally, caffeine was added to these doses, since many dietary supplements also contain caffeine. Telemetry was utilized to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and QT interval in all rats. Results and conclusion: Synephrine, either as the bitter orange extract or as pure synephrine, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Animals treated with 95% synephrine showed minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure; more significant effects were observed with the bitter orange extract suggesting that other components in the botanical can alter these physiological parameters. The increases in heart rate and blood pressure were more pronounced when caffeine was added. None of the treatments affected uncorrected QT interval in the absence of caffeine.

  3. Acute and 28-Day Subacute Toxicity Studies of Hexane Extracts of the Roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chung-Tack; Kim, Myoung-Jun; Moon, Seol-Hee; Jeon, Yu-Rim; Hwang, Jae-Sik; Nam, Chunja; Park, Chong-Woo; Lee, Sun-Ho; Na, Jae-Bum; Park, Chan-Sung; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Jung-Min; Jang, Ho-Song; Park, Sun-Hee; Han, Kyoung-Goo; Choi, Young Whan

    2015-01-01

    Lithospermum erythrorhizon has long been used as a traditional oriental medicine. In this study, the acute and 28-day subacute oral dose toxicity studies of hexane extracts of the roots of L. erythrorhizon (LEH) were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the acute toxicity study, LEH was administered once orally to 5 male and 5 female rats at dose levels of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg. Mortality, clinical signs, and body weight changes were monitored for 14 days. Salivation, soft stool, soiled perineal region, compound-colored stool, chromaturia and a decrease in body weight were observed in the extract-treated groups, and no deaths occurred during the study. Therefore, the approximate lethal dose (ALD) of LEH in male and female rats was higher than 2,000 mg/kg. In the subacute toxicity study, LEH was administered orally to male and female rats for 28 days at dose levels of 25, 100, and 400 mg/kg/day. There was no LEH-related toxic effect in the body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, hematology, clinical chemistry and organ weights. Compound-colored (black) stool, chromaturia and increased protein, ketone bodies, bilirubin and occult blood in urine were observed in the male and female rats treated with the test substance. In addition, the necropsy revealed dark red discoloration of the kidneys, and the histopathological examination showed presence of red brown pigment or increased hyaline droplets in the renal tubules of the renal cortex. However, there were no test substance-related toxic effects in the hematology and clinical chemistry, and no morphological changes were observed in the histopathological examination of the kidneys. Therefore, it was determined that there was no significant toxicity because the changes observed were caused by the intrinsic color of the test substance. These results suggest that the no-observed-adverse-effect Level (NOAEL) of LEH is greater than 400 mg/kg/day in both sexes. PMID:26877842

  4. Repeated oral dosing with Listeria monocytogenes in mice as a model of central nervous system listeriosis in man.

    PubMed

    Altimira, J; Prats, N; López, S; Domingo, M; Briones, V; Domínguez, L; Marco, A

    1999-08-01

    Human listeriosis is a food-borne disease of immunosuppressed or previously healthy adults. The repeated oral administration of a sublethal dose (5x10(9)colony-forming units) of Listeria monocytogenes for 7 or 10 consecutive days led to the development of severe central nervous system (CNS) lesions in 25% of experimental mice. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed rhombencephalitis and ventriculitis as two distinct inflammatory patterns, resembling those seen in human listeriosis. This model would seem to be potentially useful for research on pathogenesis, predisposing factors and therapy in CNS listeriosis in man. 1999 W.B. Saunders and Company Ltd.

  5. Tamarind seed polysaccharide: a 28-day dietary study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, James T; Egawa, Hiroshi; Marone, Palma Ann; Bauter, Mark R; Kennepohl, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Forty male and 40 female Crl:SD® CD® IGS rats were fed diets containing 0, 40,000, 80,000, or 120,000 ppm tamarind seed polysaccharide (equivalent to 3450.8, 6738.9, or 10 597.1 mg/kg bw/day and 3602.1, 7190.1, or 10,690.7 mg/kg bw/day for males and females, respectively) for 28 days. Animals were observed for adverse clinical signs, body weight, feed consumption, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis values were recorded, and at the end of the study the rats underwent a full necropsy. Functional Observational Battery (FOB) and Motor Activity (MA) tests were performed on all animals. There were no mortalities, no clinical or ophthalmologic signs, body weight, body weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency, FOB or MA findings associated with the administration of tamarind seed polysaccharide. Initial statistically significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption resolved after the first week and were considered the result of reduced palatability. There were no adverse changes in hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry or urinalysis parameters in male or female rats considered the result of test substance administration. At necropsy, there were no macroscopic, histopathological findings, estrus cycle, or organ weight changes deemed related to administration of the test substance. Under the conditions of this study and based on the toxicological endpoints evaluated, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for tamarind seed polysaccharide in the diet was the highest concentration tested of 120,000 ppm (equivalent to 10,597 mg/kg bw/day and 10,691 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats, respectively).

  6. Tamarind seed polysaccharide: a 28-day dietary study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, James T; Egawa, Hiroshi; Marone, Palma Ann; Bauter, Mark R; Kennepohl, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Forty male and 40 female Crl:SD® CD® IGS rats were fed diets containing 0, 40,000, 80,000, or 120,000 ppm tamarind seed polysaccharide (equivalent to 3450.8, 6738.9, or 10 597.1 mg/kg bw/day and 3602.1, 7190.1, or 10,690.7 mg/kg bw/day for males and females, respectively) for 28 days. Animals were observed for adverse clinical signs, body weight, feed consumption, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis values were recorded, and at the end of the study the rats underwent a full necropsy. Functional Observational Battery (FOB) and Motor Activity (MA) tests were performed on all animals. There were no mortalities, no clinical or ophthalmologic signs, body weight, body weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency, FOB or MA findings associated with the administration of tamarind seed polysaccharide. Initial statistically significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption resolved after the first week and were considered the result of reduced palatability. There were no adverse changes in hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry or urinalysis parameters in male or female rats considered the result of test substance administration. At necropsy, there were no macroscopic, histopathological findings, estrus cycle, or organ weight changes deemed related to administration of the test substance. Under the conditions of this study and based on the toxicological endpoints evaluated, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for tamarind seed polysaccharide in the diet was the highest concentration tested of 120,000 ppm (equivalent to 10,597 mg/kg bw/day and 10,691 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats, respectively). PMID:23616144

  7. Metabolite profiles of rats in repeated dose toxicological studies after oral and inhalative exposure.

    PubMed

    Fabian, E; Bordag, N; Herold, M; Kamp, H; Krennrich, G; Looser, R; Ma-Hock, L; Mellert, W; Montoya, G; Peter, E; Prokudin, A; Spitzer, M; Strauss, V; Walk, T; Zbranek, R; van Ravenzwaay, B

    2016-07-25

    The MetaMap(®)-Tox database contains plasma-metabolome and toxicity data of rats obtained from oral administration of 550 reference compounds following a standardized adapted OECD 407 protocol. Here, metabolic profiles for aniline (A), chloroform (CL), ethylbenzene (EB), 2-methoxyethanol (ME), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofurane (THF), dosed inhalatively for six hours/day, five days a week for 4 weeks were compared to oral dosing performed daily for 4 weeks. To investigate if the oral and inhalative metabolome would be comparable statistical analyses were performed. Best correlations for metabolome changes via both routes of exposure were observed for toxicants that induced profound metabolome changes. e.g. CL and ME. Liver and testes were correctly identified as target organs. In contrast, route of exposure dependent differences in metabolic profiles were noted for low profile strength e.g. female rats dosed inhalatively with A or THF. Taken together, the current investigations demonstrate that plasma metabolome changes are generally comparable for systemic effects after oral and inhalation exposure. Differences may result from kinetics and first pass effects. For compounds inducing only weak changes, the differences between both routes of exposure are visible in the metabolome.

  8. BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL OUTCOMES OF REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN POSTNATAL/JUVENILE RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern has been raised regarding potential adverse effects on the nervous system following childhood exposure to chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl-O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl-phosphorothioate). This study examined the outcomes of daily oral dosing with chlorpyrifos, from early postnata...

  9. The Effects of Combining Repeated Reading with "Reading Mastery" on First Graders' Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Alice O.; Fredrick, Laura D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends the work of Frankhauser, Tso, and Martella (2001) using 6 first-grade students in a multiple baseline design across participants to determine if the addition of three repeated readings following "Reading Mastery I and II" (Engelmann & Bruner, 1995) lessons improves student fluency beyond that expected…

  10. Examining the Impact of Feedback and Repeated Readings on Oral Reading Fluency: Let's Not Forget Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Morena, Laura S.; Binder, Katherine S.; Foster, Tori E.

    2013-01-01

    Although extensive research supports repeated readings (RR) as an intervention for improving reading fluency, it largely ignores reading prosody, which is a key component of reading fluency. The current study extends the RR literature by examining the impact of RR on prosody and whether the content of directions and feedback might impact what…

  11. Dietary Lysine Responses of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary amino acid requirements are influenced by environmental conditions. Two experiments examined growth responses of Ross × Ross TP 16 male broilers fed diets varying in digestible (dig) Lys concentrations from 14 to 28 days of age under different environmental conditions. Experiment 1 was condu...

  12. Toxicity evaluation of zinc aluminium levodopa nanocomposite via oral route in repeated dose study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Hassan, Zurina; Tengku Azmi, Tengku Ibrahim; Hussein, Nor Fuzina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology, through nanomedicine, allowed drugs to be manipulated into nanoscale sizes for delivery to the different parts of the body, at the same time, retaining the valuable pharmacological properties of the drugs. However, efficient drug delivery and excellent release potential of these delivery systems may be hindered by possible untoward side effects. In this study, the sub-acute toxicity of oral zinc aluminium nanocomposite with and without levodopa was assessed using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines. No sign or symptom of toxicity was observed in orally treated rats with the nanocomposite at 5 and 500 mg/kg concentrations. Body weight gain, feeding, water intake, general survival and organosomatic index were not significantly different between control and treatment groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (169 ± 30 U/L), 5 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (172 ± 49 U/L), and 500 mg/kg layered double hydroxides (LDH) nanocomposite (175 ± 25 U/L) were notably elevated compared to controls (143 ± 05 U/L); but the difference were not significant ( p > 0.05). However, the differences in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio of 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (0.32 ± 0.12) and 500 mg/kg LDH nanocomposite (0.34 ± 0.12) were statistically significant ( p < 0.05) compared to the control (0.51 ± 0.07). Histology of the liver, spleen and brain was found to be of similar morphology in both control and experimental groups. The kidneys of 500-mg/kg-treated rats with levodopa nanocomposite and LDH nanocomposite were found to have slight inflammatory changes, notably leukocyte infiltration around the glomeruli. The ultra-structure of the neurons from the substantia nigra of nanocomposite-exposed group was similar to those receiving only normal saline. The observed result has suggested possible liver and renal toxicity in orally administered levodopa intercalated

  13. Kinetics and intrapulmonary disposition of tilmicosin after single and repeated oral bolus administrations to rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gallina, G; Lucatello, L; Drigo, I; Cocchi, M; Scandurra, S; Agnoletti, F; Montesissa, C

    2010-06-01

    Tilmicosin (TIM, Pulmotil) was administered to eight rabbits by oral gavage at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg body weight for 2, 5, and 7 days, and its plasma kinetics and intrapulmonary disposition were investigated. TIM concentrations in plasma samples collected after days 1 and 6 of treatment were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters, obtained by non-compartmental analysis of TIM plasma concentrations, did not show any significant variations between days 1 and 6. From the second day of treatment, TIM concentrations attained in lung tissue and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) exceeded those in plasma by 7- and 400-fold, respectively, and high levels were maintained in lung tissues during the entire treatment duration. After the first day of withdrawal, a fast decline in TIM levels in both plasma and lung tissue was observed, but in PAM, much higher concentrations were maintained after 3 days of TIM withdrawal.

  14. Examining the impact of feedback and repeated readings on oral reading fluency: let's not forget prosody.

    PubMed

    Ardoin, Scott P; Morena, Laura S; Binder, Katherine S; Foster, Tori E

    2013-12-01

    Although extensive research supports repeated readings (RR) as an intervention for improving reading fluency, it largely ignores reading prosody, which is a key component of reading fluency. The current study extends the RR literature by examining the impact of RR on prosody and whether the content of directions and feedback might impact what components of fluency are improved. Elementary students (N = 76) were randomly assigned to either a rate- or prosody-focused RR intervention. The study differs from existing RR research in that (a) students were average as opposed to struggling students, (b) prosody was evaluated, and (c) measures of prosody were objective as opposed to subjective. Results support previous research suggesting that RR improves fluency but indicate that the nature of the instruction and performance feedback provided to students influences the components of reading fluency (i.e., rate or prosody) that are improved.

  15. Evidence of the survival of ectopically transplanted oral mucosal epithelial stem cells after repeated wounding of cornea.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Yamato, Masayuki; Nishida, Kohji; Okano, Teruo

    2014-08-01

    Tissue engineering has become an essential tool in the development of regenerative medicine. We have developed cell sheet-based techniques for use in regenerative medicine that have already been successfully used in clinical applications. Native corneal epithelium is produced from limbal stem cells located in the transition zone between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a severe defect of the limbal stem cells leading to vision loss due to conjunctival epithelial invasion and neovascularization. Rabbit LSCD models were treated with transplantable autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell (OEC) sheets fabricated on temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces, after which, the ocular surfaces were clear and smooth with no observable defects. The central part of the reconstructed ocular surface was scraped and wounded, after which proliferating epithelial cells covered the scraped area within a few days. The ocular surfaces were clear and smooth even after repeated scrapings and consisted of only OECs or heterogeneously mixed with corneal epithelial cells. This study demonstrates that transplanted cell sheets containing oral mucosal epithelial stem cells could reconstruct the ocular surface to maintain cornea homeostasis; moreover, they provide an ideal microenvironment to support the proliferation of remaining native limbal stem cells.

  16. Supra-nutritional vitamin E supplementation for 28 days before slaughter maximises muscle vitamin E concentration in finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Jose, C G; Trezona, M; Moore, K L; Pluske, J R; Mullan, B P

    2015-12-01

    A 4 × 3 factorial experiment (n=8 pigs per treatment combination) was conducted with 96 female Landrace × Large White pigs to examine the required level of dietary vitamin E and optimum feeding duration before slaughter to maximise muscle vitamin E content in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle. The respective factors were four dietary levels of vitamin E (supplemented as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate; 35, 300, 500, and 700 IU/kg) and three feeding durations (14, 28 and 42 days before slaughter). Vitamin E concentration in the LTL was maximised at 6 mg/kg, which was achieved by feeding a 700 IU vitamin E diet for 28 days before slaughter (P<0.001). There was no further increase in the vitamin E content of the LTL by feeding the high vitamin E diet more than 28 days before slaughter. PMID:26313847

  17. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days... Fire protection Law enforcement 28 212 171 27 204 165 26 197 159 25 189 153 24 182 147 23 174 141 22 167 134 21 159 128 20 151 122 19 144 116 18 136 110 17 129 104 16 121 98 15 114 92 14 106 86 13 98...

  18. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days... Fire protection Law enforcement 28 212 171 27 204 165 26 197 159 25 189 153 24 182 147 23 174 141 22 167 134 21 159 128 20 151 122 19 144 116 18 136 110 17 129 104 16 121 98 15 114 92 14 106 86 13 98...

  19. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days... Fire protection Law enforcement 28 212 171 27 204 165 26 197 159 25 189 153 24 182 147 23 174 141 22 167 134 21 159 128 20 151 122 19 144 116 18 136 110 17 129 104 16 121 98 15 114 92 14 106 86 13 98...

  20. Toxicity of Smokeless Tobacco Extract after 184-Day Repeated Oral Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chenlin; Zhang, Ziteng; Liu, Yangang; Zong, Ying; Chen, Yongchun; Du, Xiuming; Chen, Jikuai; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Jinlian; Cui, Shufang; Lu, Guocai

    2016-01-01

    The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) is growing rapidly and globally. The consumption of ST is associated with an increased risk for developing chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and myocardial infarction, and has led to many public health problems. It is very important to access the toxicity of ST. This experiment presents data from 184-day toxicology studies in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats designed to characterize the chronic effects of a smokeless tobacco extract (STE). The control group and treatment groups were matched for a range of nicotine levels. Animals were given STE by oral gavage with doses of 3.75 (low-dose), 7.50 (mid-dose) and 15.00 (high-dose) mg·nicotine/kg body weight/day for 184 days, followed by 30 days for recovery. Variables evaluated included body weights, feed consumption, clinical observations, clinical and anatomic pathology (including organ weights), and histopathology. Decreased body weights and organ weights (heart, liver and kidney) were found in animals in the mid-dose and high-dose groups. STE also showed moderate and reversible toxicity in esophagus, stomach, liver, kidney and lung. PMID:26959038

  1. Evaluation of 2-week repeated oral dose toxicity of 100 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Je-Won; Hong, Eun-Taek; Lee, In-Chul; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Park, Jong-Il; Seong, Nak-Won; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Yun, Hyo-In

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify subacute oral dose toxicity of positively charged 100 nm zinc oxide (ZnOAE100[+]) nanoparticles (NPs) in Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOAE100[+] NPs were administered to rats of each sex by gavage at 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 14 days. During the study period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weight, and histopathology were examined. Increased mortality and clinical signs, decreased body weight, feed consumption, hemoglobin (HB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet (PT), and lymphocyte (LYM) and increased white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils (NEUs), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and histopathological alterations in the spleen, stomach, and pancreas were observed at 2,000 mg/kg/day. Increased clinical signs, decreased body weight, feed consumption, HB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and LYM and increased WBCs, NEUs, ALP, and histopathological alterations in the spleen, stomach, and pancreas were seen at 1,000 mg/kg/day. Increased clinical signs, decreased MCV and MCH and increased histopathological alterations in the stomach and pancreas were found at 500 mg/kg/day. These results suggest that the target organs were the spleen, stomach, and pancreas in rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was <500 mg/kg for both sexes. PMID:26472967

  2. Toxicity of Smokeless Tobacco Extract after 184-Day Repeated Oral Administration in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenlin; Zhang, Ziteng; Liu, Yangang; Zong, Ying; Chen, Yongchun; Du, Xiuming; Chen, Jikuai; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Jinlian; Cui, Shufang; Lu, Guocai

    2016-03-04

    The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) is growing rapidly and globally. The consumption of ST is associated with an increased risk for developing chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and myocardial infarction, and has led to many public health problems. It is very important to access the toxicity of ST. This experiment presents data from 184-day toxicology studies in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats designed to characterize the chronic effects of a smokeless tobacco extract (STE). The control group and treatment groups were matched for a range of nicotine levels. Animals were given STE by oral gavage with doses of 3.75 (low-dose), 7.50 (mid-dose) and 15.00 (high-dose) mg · nicotine/kg body weight/day for 184 days, followed by 30 days for recovery. Variables evaluated included body weights, feed consumption, clinical observations, clinical and anatomic pathology (including organ weights), and histopathology. Decreased body weights and organ weights (heart, liver and kidney) were found in animals in the mid-dose and high-dose groups. STE also showed moderate and reversible toxicity in esophagus, stomach, liver, kidney and lung.

  3. The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral administration of [60]fullerene.

    PubMed

    Baati, Tarek; Bourasset, Fanchon; Gharbi, Najla; Njim, Leila; Abderrabba, Manef; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid; Szwarc, Henri; Moussa, Fathi

    2012-06-01

    Countless studies showed that [60]fullerene (C(60)) and derivatives could have many potential biomedical applications. However, while several independent research groups showed that C(60) has no acute or sub-acute toxicity in various experimental models, more than 25 years after its discovery the in vivo fate and the chronic effects of this fullerene remain unknown. If the potential of C(60) and derivatives in the biomedical field have to be fulfilled these issues must be addressed. Here we show that oral administration of C(60) dissolved in olive oil (0.8 mg/ml) at reiterated doses (1.7 mg/kg of body weight) to rats not only does not entail chronic toxicity but it almost doubles their lifespan. The effects of C(60)-olive oil solutions in an experimental model of CCl(4) intoxication in rat strongly suggest that the effect on lifespan is mainly due to the attenuation of age-associated increases in oxidative stress. Pharmacokinetic studies show that dissolved C(60) is absorbed by the gastro-intestinal tract and eliminated in a few tens of hours. These results of importance in the fields of medicine and toxicology should open the way for the many possible -and waited for- biomedical applications of C(60) including cancer therapy, neurodegenerative disorders, and ageing.

  4. Toxicity of Smokeless Tobacco Extract after 184-Day Repeated Oral Administration in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenlin; Zhang, Ziteng; Liu, Yangang; Zong, Ying; Chen, Yongchun; Du, Xiuming; Chen, Jikuai; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Jinlian; Cui, Shufang; Lu, Guocai

    2016-03-01

    The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) is growing rapidly and globally. The consumption of ST is associated with an increased risk for developing chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and myocardial infarction, and has led to many public health problems. It is very important to access the toxicity of ST. This experiment presents data from 184-day toxicology studies in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats designed to characterize the chronic effects of a smokeless tobacco extract (STE). The control group and treatment groups were matched for a range of nicotine levels. Animals were given STE by oral gavage with doses of 3.75 (low-dose), 7.50 (mid-dose) and 15.00 (high-dose) mg · nicotine/kg body weight/day for 184 days, followed by 30 days for recovery. Variables evaluated included body weights, feed consumption, clinical observations, clinical and anatomic pathology (including organ weights), and histopathology. Decreased body weights and organ weights (heart, liver and kidney) were found in animals in the mid-dose and high-dose groups. STE also showed moderate and reversible toxicity in esophagus, stomach, liver, kidney and lung. PMID:26959038

  5. A 90 day repeated oral toxicity study on plantamajoside concentrate from Plantago asiatica.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung-Gyu; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Chung-Oui; Won, Hye-Jin; Park, Ho-Young; Ryu, Yung-Sun; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kim, Kyoung-Heon; Park, Kuen-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2007-12-01

    Plantago asiatica is distributed widely in East Asia. Since ancient times it has been used as a diuretic to treat acute urinary infections, and as an antiinflammatory, antiasthmatic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatitis drug. The major compound, plantamajoside from P. asiatica, which is used as a marker compound in chemotaxonomic studies, was reported to have antibacterial activity, inhibition activity against cAMP phosphodiesterase and 5-lipoxygenase and antioxidant activity. However, there are no reports on the safety of plantamajoside. This study assessed the toxic effects of plantamajoside concentrate (PC), the purity of which was above 80%, in rats following administration at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for 13 weeks, as recommended by the OECD guidelines. The results showed that there were no differences in body weight, food intake, water consumption, relative organ weight or the hematological and serum biochemical values among the different dosage groups. No death or abnormal clinical signs were observed during the experimental period. Therefore, the results suggested that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the PC in rats after oral administration is considered to be greater than 2000 mg/kg in rats under the conditions employed in this study. PMID:17622978

  6. A 13-week repeated-dose oral toxicity and bioaccumulation of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Sim, Jaehoon; Kim, Younghun; Han, Beom Seok; Yoon, Cheolho; Lee, Somin; Cho, Myung-Haing; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Because of an increase in the commercial applications of manufactured nanoparticles, the issue of potential adverse health effects of nanoparticles following intended or unintended exposure is rapidly gaining attention. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (AlNPs, rod-type, 1.5, 3, and 6 mg/kg) after oral administration to mice for 13 weeks. Compared with the control group, the consumption of diet and drinking water and body weight gain decreased in the group treated with AlNPs. The group treated with 6 mg/kg AlNPs also showed a marked elevation in the count of white blood cells that associated with a significant decrease and increase to the proportion of eosinophils and lymphocytes, respectively. In addition, the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 increased in a dose-dependent manner in the treated groups. Furthermore, AlNPs showed the highest accumulation in the liver and kidneys compared with the control group, increased the lactate dehydrogenase level in the blood, and induced the development of a pathological lesion in the liver and kidneys. Taken together, we suggest that the target organs of rod-type AlNPs may be the liver, kidneys and the immune system, and the not-observed adverse effect level may be lower than 6 mg/kg.

  7. Repeated dose oral toxicity of Trivanga Bhasma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Jamadagni, Pallavi S.; Jamadagni, Shrirang B.; Singh, Rajendrakumar; Gaidhani, Sudesh N.; Upadhyay, Sachchidanand; Hazra, Jayram

    2013-01-01

    Trivanga Bhasma, a metallic preparation containing Bhasmas of Naga (lead), Vanga (tin) and Yashada (zinc), was studied for repeated dose toxicity in Swiss albino mice to estimate No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) or No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). A total of 80 Swiss albino mice of either sex with an average body weight of 28-30 g were equally divided into four groups (Group I, II, III, and IV). Group I served as control and was given vehicle (honey: water in 2:3 ratio) Group II, III, and IV received Trivanga Bhasma @ 7.8, 39.5,and 78 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. The effect of drug was assessed on body weight, feed and water consumption changes, hematological, and histopathological parameters. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed and examined for gross pathological changes. Histopathological evaluation was performed for control and high dose group. Trivanga Bhasma was found to be safe. No significant clinical signs were noted in all groups studied. No major alterations were observed during histopathological evaluation. Hence, dose rate of 78 mg/kg body weight was established as NOAEL. It is suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses and in a different species so as to establish target organ of toxicity. PMID:24049417

  8. Ovine rumen papillae biopsy via oral endoscopy; a rapid and repeatable method for serial sampling

    PubMed Central

    McRae, KM; Schultz, M; Mackintosh, CG; Shackell, GH; Martinez, MF; Knowler, KJ; Williams, M; Ho, C; Elmes, SN; McEwan, JC

    2016-01-01

    approach to repeated rumen biopsies compared with serial slaughter or use of cannulated animals. PMID:26642120

  9. Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the English Oral Reading Fluency of L2 Students with Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi; Charalambous, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of new technologies has been extensively explored in different aspects of language learning pedagogy. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact Repeated Reading activity, supported by iPod Touch could have on the English Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of second language university students with Special…

  10. Effects of 28-Day Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Isokinetic Exercise Performance and Body Composition in Female Masters Athletes.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E; Kavouras, Stavros A; DiBrezzo, Ro; Turner, Ronna; Baum, Jamie I; Stone, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Beta-alanine (BA) supplementation increases exercise performance due to increases in the intramuscular lactate buffer, carnosine. Females are more sensitive to these increases and results are further pronounced in trained individuals. Baseline intramuscular carnosine levels also naturally decrease with age; therefore, trained older females may experience augmented benefits from BA supplementation. However, the ability of BA to increase lower-body isokinetic strength (ISO) in female masters athletes (MA) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of BA supplementation on ISO, handgrip strength (HG), and body composition in female MA cyclists. Twenty-two subjects participated in this double-blind randomized study. Subjects were randomized into 2 groups (placebo [PLA] = 8 g dextrose; BA = 800 mg + 8 g dextrose) and supplemented 4 times per day for 28 days. ISO, HG, and body composition were evaluated at baseline and at the same day/time each week over the 28-day intervention. No differences existed between groups at baseline or at the 7, 14, and 21 days time points for any variables (p > 0.05). When evaluating ISO (isokinetic) after 28 days, total work performed during the final third of the assessment (24.0 vs. -16.8% change) in flexion and average peak torque (5.4 vs. 2.9% change) in extension were significantly increased from baseline in BA compared with PLA (p ≤ 0.05). No differences existed for HG or body composition after supplementation. Twenty-eight days of BA supplementation increased peak torque and work completed, indicating BA improves lower-body exercise performance in female MA.

  11. Effects of 28 days silicon dioxide aerosol exposure on respiratory parameters, blood biochemical variables and lung histopathology in rats.

    PubMed

    Deb, Utsab; Lomash, Vinay; Raghuvanshi, Suchita; Pant, S C; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2012-11-01

    Inhalation toxicity of silicon dioxide aerosol (150, 300 mg/m(3)) daily over a period of 28 days was carried out in rats. The changes in respiratory variables during the period of exposure were monitored using a computer programme that recognizes the modifications of the breathing pattern. Exposure to the aerosol caused a time dependent decrease in tidal volume, with an increase in respiratory frequency compared to the control. Biochemical variables and histopathological observation were noted at 28th day following the start of exposure. Biochemical markers of silica induced lung injury like plasma alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and angiotensine converting enzyme activities increased in a concentration dependent manner compared to control. Increase in the plasma enzymatic activities indicates endothelial lung damage, increased lung membrane permeability. Histopathological observation of the lungs confirmed concentration dependent granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and proteinacious degeneration. Aggregates of mononuclear cells with entrapped silica particles circumscribed by fibroblast were observed in 300 mg/m(3) silica aerosol exposed group at higher magnification. Decrease in tidal volume and increase in respiratory frequency might be due to the thickening of the alveolar wall leading to a decreased alveolar volume and lowered elasticity of the lung tissue. The trends in histological and biochemical data are in conformity with the respiratory data in the present study. This study reports for the first time, the changes in respiratory variables during silica aerosol exposure over a period of 28 days.

  12. Inhibition of prolactin with bromocriptine for 28days increases blood-brain barrier permeability in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, H; Ramirez, M; Ramirez-Lee, M A; Ali, S F; Gonzalez, C

    2015-08-20

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is necessary for the proper function of the brain. Its maintenance is regulated by endogenous factors. Recent evidences suggest prolactin (PRL) regulates the BBB properties in vitro, nevertheless no evidence of these effects have been reported in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of PRL in the maintenance of the BBB in the rat. Male Wistar rats were treated with Bromocriptine (Bromo) to inhibit PRL production for 28days in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BBB permeability was evaluated through the Evans Blue dye and fluorescein-dextran extravasation as well as through edema formation. The expression of claudin-5, occludin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the PRL receptor (PRLR) was evaluated through western blot. Bromo reduced the physiological levels of PRL at 28days. At the same time, Bromo increased BBB permeability and edema formation associated with a decrement in claudin-5 and occludin and potentiated the increase in BBB permeability induced by LPS. However, no neuroinflammation was detected, since the expression of GFAP was unchanged, as well as the expression of the PRLR. These data provide the first evidence that inhibition of PRL with Bromo affects the maintenance of the BBB through modulating the expression of tight junction proteins in vivo.

  13. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of different β-cyclodextrin-based nanosponge formulations.

    PubMed

    Shende, Pravin; Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Gaud, R S; Deshmukh, Kiran; Cavalli, Roberta; Trotta, Francesco; Caldera, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    Nanosponges (NS) show promising results in different fields such as medicine, agriculture, water purification, fire engineering and so on. The present study was designed to evaluate toxicity of different NS formulations (namely, S1-S6) synthesized with different cross-linking agents such as carbonyl diimidazole, pyromellitic dianhydride and hexamethylene diisocynate; and preparation methods in experimental animals. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of formulations were carried out as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively. For acute toxicity study, formulations were administered to female rats at doses of 300 and 2000 mg/kg orally. The general behaviour of the rats was continuously monitored for 1 h after dosing, periodically during the first 24 h and daily thereafter for a total of 14 days. On day 14, animals were fasted overnight, weighed, and sacrificed. After sacrification, animals were subjected to necropsy. For repeated dose toxicity study, rats of either sex were orally administered with formulations at the dose of 300 mg/kg per day for a period of 28 days. The maximally tolerated dose of all formulations was found to be 2000 mg/kg. Repeated administration of formulations for 28 days did not show any significant changes in haematological and biochemical parameters in experimental animals. These results indicate that the formulations are safe, when tested in experimental animals.

  14. Effect of the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran on allergic lung inflammation induced by repeated house dust mite administration in mice.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Johannes D; Berkhout, Lea C; de Stoppelaar, Sacha F; Yang, Jack; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Meijers, Joost C M; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-10-15

    Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways; asthma patients are hampered by recurrent symptoms of dyspnoea and wheezing caused by bronchial obstruction. Most asthma patients suffer from chronic allergic lung inflammation triggered by allergens such as house dust mite (HDM). Coagulation activation in the pulmonary compartment is currently recognized as a feature of allergic lung inflammation, and data suggest that coagulation proteases further drive inflammatory mechanisms. Here, we tested whether treatment with the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran attenuates allergic lung inflammation in a recently developed HDM-based murine asthma model. Mice were fed dabigatran (10 mg/g) or placebo chow during a 3-wk HDM airway exposure model. Dabigatran treatment caused systemic thrombin inhibitory activity corresponding with dabigatran levels reported in human trials. Surprisingly, dabigatran did not lead to inhibition of HDM-evoked coagulation activation in the lung as measured by levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes and D-dimer. Repeated HDM administration caused an influx of eosinophils and neutrophils into the lungs, mucus production in the airways, and a T helper 2 response, as reflected by a rise in bronchoalveolar IL-4 and IL-5 levels and a systemic rise in IgE and HDM-IgG1. Dabigatran modestly improved HDM-induced lung pathology (P < 0.05) and decreased IL-4 levels (P < 0.01), without influencing other HDM-induced responses. Considering the limited effects of dabigatran in spite of adequate plasma levels, these results argue against clinical evaluation of dabigatran in patients with asthma.

  15. Utility of models to predict 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions: an updated systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip R; Roberts, Pamela; Goh, Louise; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update previous systematic review of predictive models for 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions. Design Systematic review. Setting/data source CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE from 2011 to 2015. Participants All studies of 28-day and 30-day readmission predictive model. Outcome measures Characteristics of the included studies, performance of the identified predictive models and key predictive variables included in the models. Results Of 7310 records, a total of 60 studies with 73 unique predictive models met the inclusion criteria. The utilisation outcome of the models included all-cause readmissions, cardiovascular disease including pneumonia, medical conditions, surgical conditions and mental health condition-related readmissions. Overall, a wide-range C-statistic was reported in 56/60 studies (0.21–0.88). 11 of 13 predictive models for medical condition-related readmissions were found to have consistent moderate discrimination ability (C-statistic ≥0.7). Only two models were designed for the potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions and had C-statistic >0.8. The variables ‘comorbidities’, ‘length of stay’ and ‘previous admissions’ were frequently cited across 73 models. The variables ‘laboratory tests’ and ‘medication’ had more weight in the models for cardiovascular disease and medical condition-related readmissions. Conclusions The predictive models which focused on general medical condition-related unplanned hospital readmissions reported moderate discriminative ability. Two models for potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions showed high discriminative ability. This updated systematic review, however, found inconsistent performance across the included unique 73 risk predictive models. It is critical to define clearly the utilisation outcomes and the type of accessible data source before the selection of the predictive model. Rigorous validation of the predictive models with moderate-to-high discriminative

  16. Trends of 28 days case fatality rate after first acute myocardial infarction in Isfahan, Iran, from 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Mahdi; Hosseini, Shidokht; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Salehiniya, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Khazaei, Salman; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of the present study was the analysis of the trends in case fatality rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Isfahan, Iran. This analysis was performed based on gender, age groups, and type of AMI according to the International Classification of Diseases, version 10, during 2000-2009. METHODS Disregarding the Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA), this cohort study considered all AMI events registered between 2000 and 2009 in 13 hospitals in Isfahan. All patients were followed for 28 days. In order to assess the case fatality rate, the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and to compare survival rate, log-rank test were used. Using the Cox regression model, 28 days case fatality hazard ratio (HR) was calculated. RESULTS In total, 12,900 patients with first AMI were entered into the study. Among them, 9307 (72.10%) were men and 3593 (27.90%) women. The mean age in all patients increased from 61.36 ± 12.19 in 2000-2001 to 62.15 ± 12.74 in 2008-2009, (P = 0.0070); in women, from 65.38 ± 10.95 to 67.15 ± 11.72 (P = 0.0200), and in men, from 59.75 ± 12.29 to 59.84 ± 12.54 (P = 0.0170),. In addition, the 28 days case fatality rate in 2000-2009 had a steady descending trend. Thus, it decreased from 11.20% in 2000-2001 to 07.90% in 2008-2009; in men, from 09.20% to 06.70%, and in women, from 16.10% to 10.90%. During the study, HR of case fatality rate in 2000-2001 declined; therefore, in 2002-2003, it was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.77-1.11], in 2004-2005, 0.88 (95% CI = 0.73-1.04), in 2006-2007, 0.67 (95% CI = 0.56-0.82), and in 2008-2009, 0.69 (95% CI = 0.56-0.82). CONCLUSION In Isfahan, a reduction was observable in the trend of case fatality rate in both genders and all age groups. Thus, there was a 29.46% reduction in case fatality rate (27.17% in men, 32.29% in women) during the study period. PMID:26478731

  17. Comparison of methionine sources around requirement levels using a methionine efficacy method in 0 to 28 day old broilers.

    PubMed

    Agostini, P S; Dalibard, P; Mercier, Y; Van der Aar, P; Van der Klis, J D

    2016-03-01

    The addition of methionine in the poultry feed industry is still facing the relative efficacy dilemma between DL-methionine (DLM) and hydroxy-methionine (HMTBA). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dietary DLM and HMTBA on broiler performance at different levels of total sulfur amino acids (TSAA). The treatments consisted of a basal diet without methionine addition, and 4 increasing methionine doses for both sources resulting in TSAA/Lysine ratios from 0.62 to 0.73 in the starter phase and 0.59 to 0.82 in the grower phase. The comparison of product performance was performed by three-way ANOVA analysis and by methionine efficacy calculation as an alternative method of comparison. Growth results obtained during the starter phase with the different methionine supplementations did not show significant growth responses to TSAA levels, indicating a lower methionine requirement in the starter phase than currently assumed. However, a significant methionine dose effect was obtained for the period 10 to 28 day of age and for the entire growth period of 0 to 28 day of age. Excepting a significant gender effect, the statistical analysis did not allow for the discrimination of methionine sources, and no interaction between source and dose level was observed up to 28 days of age. A significant interaction between source and dose level was observed for methionine efficacy for the grower phase, and the total growth period showed better HMTBA efficacy at higher TSAA value. The exponential model fitted to each methionine source for body weight response depending on methionine intake or for feed conversion ratio (FCR) depending on methionine doses did not allow the methionine sources to be distinguished. Altogether, these results conclude that methionine sources lead to similar performances response when compared at TSAA values around the broiler requirement level. These results also showed that at TSAA values above requirement, HMTBA had a better methionine efficacy

  18. Repeat Confirmatory Testing for Persons with Discordant Whole Blood and Oral Fluid Rapid HIV Test Results: Findings from Post Marketing Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Laura G.; MacKellar, Duncan A.; Ethridge, Steven F.; Zhu, Julia H.; Owen, S. Michele; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB), immunofluorescent assay (IFA) or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)). When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result), repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. Methodology Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. Principal Findings Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6%) were reactive: of these, 2417 (93%) had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7%) had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52%) persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19%) were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81%) were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative) (p<0.001) and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum) (p<0.001). Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex) were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9)]. Conclusions Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for persons

  19. Nutrition Composition and Single, 14-Day and 13-Week Repeated Oral Dose Toxicity Studies of the Leaves and Stems of Rubus coreanus Miquel.

    PubMed

    Om, Ae-Son; Song, Yu-Na; Noh, GeonMin; Kim, HaengRan; Choe, JeongSook

    2016-01-08

    The leaves and stems of the plant Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCMLS) are rich in vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals which have antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and anti-cancer effects. However, RCMLS is not included in the Korean Food Standards Codex due to the lack of safety assurance concerning RCMLS. We evaluated single and repeated oral dose toxicity of RCMLS in Sprague-Dawley rats. RCMLS did not induce any significant toxicological changes in both male and female rats at a single doses of 2500 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathology at doses of 625, 1250, and 2500 mg/kg/day. The LD50 and LOAEL of RCMLS might be over 2500 mg/kg body weight/day and no target organs were identified. Therefore, this study revealed that single and repeated oral doses of RCMLS are safe.

  20. Nutrition Composition and Single, 14-Day and 13-Week Repeated Oral Dose Toxicity Studies of the Leaves and Stems of Rubus coreanus Miquel.

    PubMed

    Om, Ae-Son; Song, Yu-Na; Noh, GeonMin; Kim, HaengRan; Choe, JeongSook

    2016-01-01

    The leaves and stems of the plant Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCMLS) are rich in vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals which have antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and anti-cancer effects. However, RCMLS is not included in the Korean Food Standards Codex due to the lack of safety assurance concerning RCMLS. We evaluated single and repeated oral dose toxicity of RCMLS in Sprague-Dawley rats. RCMLS did not induce any significant toxicological changes in both male and female rats at a single doses of 2500 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathology at doses of 625, 1250, and 2500 mg/kg/day. The LD50 and LOAEL of RCMLS might be over 2500 mg/kg body weight/day and no target organs were identified. Therefore, this study revealed that single and repeated oral doses of RCMLS are safe. PMID:26760987

  1. Integration of Pig-a, micronucleus, chromosome aberration and comet assay endpoints in a 28-day rodent toxicity study with urethane

    PubMed Central

    Stankowski, Leon F.; Aardema, Marilyn J.; Lawlor, Timothy E.; Pant, Kamala; Roy, Shambhu; Xu, Yong; Elbekai, Reem

    2015-01-01

    As part of the international Pig-a validation trials, we examined the induction of Pig-a mutant reticulocytes and red blood cells (RETCD59− and RBCCD59−, respectively) in peripheral blood of male Sprague Dawley® rats treated with urethane (25, 100 and 250mg/kg/day) or saline by oral gavage for 29 days. Additional endpoints integrated into this study were: micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) in peripheral blood; chromosome aberrations (CAb) and DNA damage (%tail intensity via the comet assay) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL); micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) in bone marrow; and DNA damage (comet) in various organs at termination (the 29th dose was added for the comet endpoint at sacrifice). Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS; 200mg/kg/day on Days 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 27, 28 and 29) was evaluated as the concurrent positive control (PC). All animals survived to termination and none exhibited overt toxicity, but there were significant differences in body weight and body weight gain in the 250-mg/kg/day urethane group, as compared with the saline control animals. Statistically significant, dose-dependent increases were observed for urethane for: RETCD59− and RBCCD59− (on Days 15 and 29); MN-RET (on Days 4, 15 and 29); and MN-PCE (on Day 29). The comet assay yielded positive results in PBL (Day 15) and liver (Day 29), but negative results for PBL (Days 4 and 29) and brain, kidney and lung (Day 29). No significant increases in PBL CAb were observed at any sample time. Except for PBL CAb (likely due to excessive cytotoxicity), EMS-induced significant increases in all endpoints/tissues. These results compare favorably with earlier in vivo observations and demonstrate the utility and sensitivity of the Pig-a in vivo gene mutation assay, and its ability to be easily integrated, along with other standard genotoxicity endpoints, into 28-day rodent toxicity studies. PMID:25934985

  2. 28 day modulation of global lightning activity and its relation to tropical cloud coverage and solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Fukunishi, H.

    2005-12-01

    In order to investigate characteristics of global lightning activity changes, we analyzed Schumann resonance (SR) spectral intensity variation using 1-100 Hz ELF magnetic field waveform data obtained at Syowa station (69.0°S, 39.6°E) for the period between February 2000 and January 2003. We calculated dynamic spectra of ELF data with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method and extracted spectral powers at the first three resonance modes (8, 14, 20 Hz) as a function of day. Then, we calculated a power spectrum of the SR spectral intensity variation. It is found that there are steep peaks at 28 and 11, and multiple peaks around ~4-6 days. Though it is suggested that the ~10 and ~5 day periodicities are highly associated with planetary wave activity in the tropical region, clear evidence for the presence of the 28 day periodicity over three years has been found for the first time in this study. As a next step, we analyzed the composite infrared cloud images to examine the relationship between the SR spectral intensity variation and the variation of the tropical cloud coverage. From the cross-spectral analysis between these variations it is found that the cross spectrum showed a steep peak at the 24 day period and that the phase histogram showed the clear anti-phase relation. The discovered anti-phase relation may be best explained by the decrease of lightning activity, driven by the decrease of the heat flux and the convective available potential energy (CAPE) needed to induce thunderstorms. Further, we performed dynamic cross-spectral analysis between the SR spectral intensity variation and solar and geomagnetic activity parameters such as F10.7 index, sunspot number, Kp index , Dst index, cosmic ray flux, and relativistic electron and ion fluxes measured by the GOES-8 satellite. Though the cross-spectrum peaks in the period range from 20 to 30 day, the coherence values in this period range are estimated to be less than 0.6. In addition, there is no clear one

  3. Cellular distribution of cell cycle-related molecules in the renal tubules of rats treated with renal carcinogens for 28 days: relationship between cell cycle aberration and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Taniai, Eriko; Hayashi, Hitomi; Yafune, Atsunori; Watanabe, Maiko; Akane, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    Some renal carcinogens can induce karyomegaly, which reflects aberrant cell division in the renal tubules, from the early stages of exposure. To clarify the cell cycle-related changes during the early stages of renal carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of tubular cells in male F344 rats treated with carcinogenic doses of representative renal carcinogens for 28 days. For this purpose, the karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens ochratoxin A (OTA), ferric nitrilotriacetic acid, and monuron, and the non-karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and potassium bromate were examined. For comparison, a karyomegaly-inducing non-carcinogen, p-nitrobenzoic acid, and a non-carcinogenic non-karyomegaly-inducing renal toxicant, acetaminophen, were also examined. The outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM) and the cortex + OSOM were subjected to morphometric analysis of immunoreactive proximal tubular cells. Renal carcinogens, irrespective of their karyomegaly-inducing potential, increased proximal tubular cell proliferation accompanied by an increase in topoisomerase IIα-immunoreactive cells, suggesting a reflection of cell proliferation. Karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens increased nuclear Cdc2-, γH2AX-, and phosphorylated Chk2-immunoreactive cells in both areas, the former two acting in response to DNA damage and the latter one suggestive of sustained G₂. OTA, an OSOM-targeting carcinogen, could easily be distinguished from untreated controls and non-carcinogens by evaluation of molecules responding to DNA damage and G₂/M transition in the OSOM. Thus, all renal carcinogens examined facilitated proximal tubular proliferation by repeated short-term treatment. Among these, karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens may cause DNA damage and G₂ arrest in the target tubular cells.

  4. Assessing sediment toxicity from navigational pools of the Upper Mississippi River using a 28-day Hyalella azteca test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemble, N.E.; Brunson, E.L.; Canfield, T.J.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the extent of sediment contamination in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) system after the flood of 1993, sediment samples were collected from 24 of the 26 navigational pools in the river and from one site in the Saint Croix River in the summer of 1994. Whole-sediment tests were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca for 28 days measuring the effects on survival, growth, and sexual maturation. Amphipod survival was significantly reduced in only one sediment (13B) relative to the control and reference sediments. Body length of amphipods was significantly reduced relative to the control and reference sediments in only one sample (26C). Sexual maturation was not significantly reduced in any treatment when compared to the control and reference sediments. No significant correlations were observed between survival, growth, and maturation to either the physical or chemical characteristics of the sediment samples from the river. When highly reliable effect range medians (ERMs) were used to evaluate sediment chemistry, 47 of 49 (96%) of the samples were correctly classified as nontoxic. These results indicate that sediment samples from the Upper Mississippi River are relatively uncontaminated compared to other areas of known contamination in the United States.

  5. Psychomotor performance during a 28 day head-down tilt with and without lower body negative pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traon, A. Pavy-le; de Feneyrols, A. Rous; Cornac, A.; Abdeseelam, R.; N'uygen, D.; Lazerges, M.; Güell, A.; Bes, A.

    Several factors may affect psychomotor performance in space: sensory-motor changes, sleep disturbances, psychological modifications induced by the social isolation and confinement. However, psychomotor performance is difficult to assess. A battery of standardized and computerized tests, so-called "Automated Portable Test System" (APTS) was devised to ascertain the cognitive, perceptive and motor abilities and their possible fluctuations according to environmental effects. Antiorthostatic bedrest, often used to simulate weightlessness, (particularly cardiovascular modifications) also constitutes a situation of social confinement and isolation. During two bedrest experiments (with head-down tilt of -6°) of 28 days each, we intended to assess psychomotor performance of 6 males so as to determine whether: —on the one hand, it could be altered by remaining in decubitus; —on the other, the Lower Body Negative Pressure sessions, designed to prevent orthostatic intolerance back on Earth, could improve the performance. To accomplish this, part of the APTS tests as well as an automated perceptive attention test were performed. No downgrading of psychomotor performance was observed. On the contrary, the tasks were more accurately performed over time. In order to assess the experimental conditions on the acquisition phase, the learning curves were modelled. A beneficial effect of the LBNP sessions on simple tests involving the visual-motor coordination and attention faculties can only be regarded as a mere trend. Methods used in this experiment are also discussed.

  6. Toxicological assessment of β-(1-->6)-glucan (lasiodiplodan) in mice during a 28-day feeding study by gavage.

    PubMed

    Túrmina, Janaína A; Carraro, Emerson; Alves da Cunha, Mário A; Dekker, Robert F H; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dos Santos, Fábio Seidel; Silva, Luiz A; Malfatti, Carlos R M

    2012-01-01

    Studies evaluating the toxicity caused by fungal exopolysaccharides of the β-(1-->6)-D-glucan type are rare. In this study, the toxicological effects of sub-chronic treatments with lasiodiplodan (β-(1-->6)-D-glucan from Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI) were evaluated in mice through the assessment of biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. Thirty-two mice (16 male, 16 female) were used in this study divided in two groups; one group received lasiodiplodan (50 mg/kg body weight) daily for 28 days via gavage, and another (control group) received saline during the same period. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture for hematological and biochemical analyses. Liver, heart, kidney, and spleen were collected for histopathological analysis. Statistical analysis was performed through one-way analysis of variance and only p < 0.05 F-values were presented. Significant reduction in blood glucose in the male group (35%; p < 0.01), transaminases activity in both sexes (AST and ALT; ~35%; p < 0.05), and urea (20%; p < 0.01) in the female group was observed with the lasiodiplodan treatment. The results showed that sub-chronic treatments with lasiodiplodan did not generate hematological and histopathological alterations leading to signs of toxicity in healthy mice, independent of gender. PMID:23208465

  7. Attenuated poxvirus-based simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines given in infancy partially protect infant and juvenile macaques against repeated oral challenge with virulent SIV.

    PubMed

    Van Rompay, Koen K A; Abel, Kristina; Lawson, Jonathan R; Singh, Raman P; Schmidt, Kimberli A; Evans, Thomas; Earl, Patricia; Harvey, Danielle; Franchini, Genoveffa; Tartaglia, James; Montefiori, David; Hattangadi, Shilpa; Moss, Bernard; Marthas, Marta L

    2005-02-01

    An infant macaque model was developed to test pediatric vaccine candidates aimed at reducing HIV transmission through breast-feeding. Infant macaques were given multiple immunizations during the first 3 weeks of life with recombinant poxvirus vaccines expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) structural proteins Gag, Pol, and Env (ALVAC-SIV or modified vaccinia virus Ankara [MVA]-SIV). After repeated daily oral inoculations with virulent SIVmac251 at 4 weeks of age, significantly fewer ALVAC-SIV-immunized infants were infected compared with unimmunized infants. Monkeys not infected after oral challenge in infancy were rechallenged at 16 months of age or older by repeated weekly oral SIV exposure; unimmunized animals were infected after fewer SIV exposures than were animals vaccinated with ALVAC-SIV or MVA-SIV. When infected, ALVAC-SIV- and MVA-SIV-vaccinated animals also had reduced viremia compared with unimmunized animals. The results of these investigations suggest that immunization of human infants with poxvirus-based HIV vaccine candidates may offer protection against early and late HIV infection through breastfeeding.

  8. D-aspartic acid supplementation combined with 28 days of heavy resistance training has no effect on body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Darryn S; Leutholtz, Brian

    2013-10-01

    It was hypothesized that D-aspartic acid (D-ASP) supplementation would not increase endogenous testosterone levels or improve muscular performance associated with resistance training. Therefore, body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormone levels associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis were studied after 28 days of resistance training and D-ASP supplementation. Resistance-trained men resistance trained 4 times/wk for 28 days while orally ingesting either 3 g of placebo or 3 g of D-ASP. Data were analyzed with 2 × 2 analysis of variance (P < .05). Before and after resistance training and supplementation, body composition and muscle strength, serum gonadal hormones, and serum D-ASP and d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) were determined. Body composition and muscle strength were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (P < .05) but not different from one another (P > .05). Total and free testosterone, luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and estradiol were unchanged with resistance training and D-ASP supplementation (P > .05). For serum D-ASP and DDO, D-ASP resulted in a slight increase compared with baseline levels (P > .05). For the D-ASP group, the levels of serum DDO were significantly increased compared with placebo (P < .05). The gonadal hormones were unaffected by 28 days of D-ASP supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. Therefore, at the dose provided, D-ASP supplementation is ineffective in up-regulating the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and has no anabolic or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle.

  9. Analysis of public oral toxicity data from REACH registrations 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Maertens, Alexandra; Russo, Daniel P; Rovida, Costanza; Zhu, Hao; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The European Chemicals Agency, ECHA, made available a total of 13,832 oral toxicity studies for 8,568 substances up to December 2014. 75% of studies were from the retired OECD Test Guideline 401 (11% TG 420, 11% TG 423 and 1.5% TG 425). Concordance across guidelines, evaluated by comparing LD50 values ≥ 2000 or < 2000 mg/kg body weight from chemicals tested multiple times between different guidelines, was at least 75% and for their own repetition more than 90%. In 2009, Bulgheroni et al. created a simple model for predicting acute oral toxicity using no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) from 28-day repeated dose toxicity studies in rats. This was reproduced here for 1,625 substances. In 2014, Taylor et al. suggested no added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test given the availability of a low 28-day study with some constraints. We confirm that the 28-day NOAEL is predictive (albeit imperfectly) of 90-day NOAELs, however, the suggested constraints did not affect predictivity. 1,059 substances with acute oral toxicity data (268 positives, 791 negatives, all Klimisch score 1) were used for modeling: The Chemical Development Kit was used to generate 27 molecular descriptors and a similarity-informed multilayer perceptron showing 71% sensitivity and 72% specificity. Additionally, the k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm indicated that similarity-based approaches alone may be poor predictors of acute oral toxicity, but can be used to inform the multilayer perceptron model, where this was the feature with highest information value. PMID:26863198

  10. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP. PMID:26251593

  11. Cholesterol reduction and lack of genotoxic or toxic effects in mice after repeated 21-day oral intake of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Celso A R A; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Takahira, Regina K; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Barbisan, Luís F; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) is currently used in traditional folk medicine. Although this species presents widespread use, there are no scientific data on its efficacy or safety after repeated treatments. Therefore, this work investigated the toxicity and genotoxicity of this lemongrass's essential oil (EO) in male Swiss mice. The single LD(50) based on a 24h acute oral toxicity study was found to be around 3500 mg/kg. In a repeated-dose 21-day oral toxicity study, mice were randomly assigned to two control groups, saline- or Tween 80 0.01%-treated groups, or one of the three experimental groups receiving lemongrass EO (1, 10 or 100mg/kg). No significant changes in gross pathology, body weight, absolute or relative organ weights, histology (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, stomach, spleen and urinary bladder), urinalysis or clinical biochemistry were observed in EO-treated mice relative to the control groups. Additionally, blood cholesterol was reduced after EO-treatment at the highest dose tested. Similarly, data from the comet assay in peripheral blood cells showed no genotoxic effect from the EO. In conclusion, our findings verified the safety of lemongrass intake at the doses used in folk medicine and indicated the beneficial effect of reducing the blood cholesterol level.

  12. Integration of Pig-a, micronucleus, chromosome aberration and comet assay endpoints in a 28-day rodent toxicity study with urethane.

    PubMed

    Stankowski, Leon F; Aardema, Marilyn J; Lawlor, Timothy E; Pant, Kamala; Roy, Shambhu; Xu, Yong; Elbekai, Reem

    2015-05-01

    As part of the international Pig-a validation trials, we examined the induction of Pig-a mutant reticulocytes and red blood cells (RET(CD59-) and RBC(CD59-), respectively) in peripheral blood of male Sprague Dawley(®) rats treated with urethane (25, 100 and 250mg/kg/day) or saline by oral gavage for 29 days. Additional endpoints integrated into this study were: micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) in peripheral blood; chromosome aberrations (CAb) and DNA damage (%tail intensity via the comet assay) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL); micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) in bone marrow; and DNA damage (comet) in various organs at termination (the 29th dose was added for the comet endpoint at sacrifice). Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS; 200mg/kg/day on Days 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 27, 28 and 29) was evaluated as the concurrent positive control (PC). All animals survived to termination and none exhibited overt toxicity, but there were significant differences in body weight and body weight gain in the 250-mg/kg/day urethane group, as compared with the saline control animals. Statistically significant, dose-dependent increases were observed for urethane for: RET(CD59-) and RBC(CD59-) (on Days 15 and 29); MN-RET (on Days 4, 15 and 29); and MN-PCE (on Day 29). The comet assay yielded positive results in PBL (Day 15) and liver (Day 29), but negative results for PBL (Days 4 and 29) and brain, kidney and lung (Day 29). No significant increases in PBL CAb were observed at any sample time. Except for PBL CAb (likely due to excessive cytotoxicity), EMS-induced significant increases in all endpoints/tissues. These results compare favorably with earlier in vivo observations and demonstrate the utility and sensitivity of the Pig-a in vivo gene mutation assay, and its ability to be easily integrated, along with other standard genotoxicity endpoints, into 28-day rodent toxicity studies.

  13. 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of UP446, a combination of defined extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The needs for relatively safe botanical alternatives to relieve symptoms associated to arthritis have continued to grow in parallel with the ageing population. UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used as over the counter joint care dietary supplements and a prescription medical food. Significant safety data have been documented in rodents and human for this composition. Here we evaluated the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446 in beagle dogs following a 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study. UP446 at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered orally to beagle dogs for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery group from the high dose (1000 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups were included. No morbidity or mortality was observed for the duration of the study. No significant differences between groups in body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, electrocardiograms, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology were documented. Emesis, loose feces and diarrhea were noted in both genders at the 1000 mg/kg treatment groups. These clinical signs were considered to be reversible as they were not evident in the recovery period. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 500 mg/kg/day both in male and female beagle dogs. PMID:27125835

  14. Correlation analysis of hypothalamic mRNA levels of appetite regulatory neuropeptides and several metabolic parameters in 28-day-old layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Aoki, Koji; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Various lines of evidence suggest that appetite-related neuropeptides in the hypothalamus are regulated by adiposity signals such as leptin and insulin in mammals. In the present study, we examined age-dependent changes in the weight of abdominal fat and hypothalamic mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY, an orexigenic neuropeptide) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC, a precursor of anorexigenic neuropeptides) in growing chickens at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of age. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased after 14 days of age, whereas hypothalamic POMC mRNA levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased at 28 days of age. The percentage of abdominal fat was significantly increased after 14 days of age in chickens. We next examined the correlation of hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA levels and several parameters at 28 days of age. There were no significant correlations between hypothalamic mRNA levels of NPY or POMC and the percentage of abdominal fat. These findings suggest that the gene expressions of NPY and POMC do not depend on adiposity in chickens, at least in 28-day-old layer chickens.

  15. Hypoalbuminemia, Low Base Excess Values, and Tachypnea Predict 28-Day Mortality in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Patients in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Min Ho; Choa, Minhong; You, Je Sung; Lee, Hye Sun; Hong, Jung Hwa; Chung, Sung Phil; Park, Incheol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to develop a new nomogram that can predict 28-day mortality in severe sepsis and/or septic shock patients using a combination of several biomarkers that are inexpensive and readily available in most emergency departments, with and without scoring systems. Materials and Methods We enrolled 561 patients who were admitted to an emergency department (ED) and received early goal-directed therapy for severe sepsis or septic shock. We collected demographic data, initial vital signs, and laboratory data sampled at the time of ED admission. Patients were randomly assigned to a training set or validation set. For the training set, we generated models using independent variables associated with 28-day mortality by multivariate analysis, and developed a new nomogram for the prediction of 28-day mortality. Thereafter, the diagnostic accuracy of the nomogram was tested using the validation set. Results The prediction model that included albumin, base excess, and respiratory rate demonstrated the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of 0.8173 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7605–0.8741]. The logistic analysis revealed that a conventional scoring system was not associated with 28-day mortality. In the validation set, the discrimination of a newly developed nomogram was also good, with an AUC value of 0.7537 (95% CI, 0.6563–0.8512). Conclusion Our new nomogram is valuable in predicting the 28-day mortality of patients with severe sepsis and/or septic shock in the emergency department. Moreover, our readily available nomogram is superior to conventional scoring systems in predicting mortality. PMID:27593863

  16. Determination of the acute and repeated oral toxicity of halocarbon oil, series 27-S. Interim report, December 1986-November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kinkead, E.R.; Culpepper, B.T.; Henry, S.S.; Szotak, P.S.; Flemming, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    Halocarbon 27-S (HC 27-S), a polymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), is used as a lubricating oil for pumps in hyperbaric chambers. Although monomeric CTFE has been shown to produce renal lesions in rats, the toxicity of CTFE polymers has not been investigated. Following a single dose of 5 g HC 27-S, no signs of toxicity were noted and no lesions observed at sacrifice 14 days following treatment. To assess the toxicity of repeated exposure to HC 27-S, three groups (n=5) of male and female rats were dosed with 2.5 g HC 27-S/kg for 7 or 21 consecutive days. Groups were sacrificed at 7, 21, and 35 days after the initial dose. Decreased water consumption and urine output were apparent in all test groups. Significant increase in fluoride excretion was noted in 24-hr urine samples collected periodically during the study. The increased fluoride burden in treated animals appeared sufficient to alter bone calcium/phosphate ratios in male but not female rats. Increased liver and kidney weights were observed in all treated rats on all assessment days. Gross liver enlargement and hepatocellular cytomegaly indicated that the liver is probably the primary target organ following repeated administration of HC 27-S.

  17. Effects of repeated oral doses of dexnorfenfluramine on 5-HT levels and 5-HT uptake sites in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, M; Bergami, A; Caltavuturo, C; Valle, F D; Mennini, T; Caccia, S

    1996-11-15

    The effects of oral dexnorfenfluramine (DNF; 1-4 mg/kg, twice daily for 4 days), the active metabolite of dexfenfluramine, were examined on rat regional brain indole contents and [3H]citalopram binding. Two hours after the last dose, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were dose-dependently lowered at doses above 1.5 mg/kg, with slight regional differences. Cortical 5-HT uptake sites were reduced only at the highest dose. Above 2 mg/kg DNF also caused a more lasting reduction (4 weeks) of regional indoles and cortical 5-HT uptake sites. At this longer time while the decrease in hippocampal 5-HT levels and cortical 5-HT uptake sites remained essentially constant, cortical and striatal 5-HT levels were lowered less than at 2 h, suggesting a return toward control values.

  18. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing HSP65 and Tandemly Repeated P277 Reduces the Incidence of Type I Diabetes in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanjun; Liu, Jingjing; Hou, Jing; Dong, Yuankai; Lu, Yong; Jin, Liang; Cao, Rongyue; Li, Taiming; Wu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is an autoimmune disease that gradually destroys insulin-producing beta-cells. We have previously reported that mucosal administration of fusion protein of HSP65 with tandem repeats of P277 (HSP65-6P277) can reduce the onset of DM1 in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. To deliver large amounts of the fusion protein and to enhance long-term immune tolerance effects, in the present study, we investigated the efficacy of using orally administrated L. lactis expressing HSP65-6P277 to reduce the incidence of DM1 in NOD mice. L. lactis strain NZ9000 was engineered to express HSP65-6P277 either constitutively or by nisin induction. After immunization via gavage with the recombinant L. lactis strains to groups of 4-week old female NOD mice for 36 weeks, we observed that oral administration of recombinant L. Lactis resulted in the prevention of hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulitis. Immunologic analysis showed that treatment with recombinant L. lactis induced HSP65- and P277- specific T cell immuno-tolerance, as well as antigen-specific proliferation of splenocytes. The results revealed that the DM1-preventing function was in part caused by a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Orally administered recombinant L. lactis delivering HSP65-6P277 may be an effective therapeutic approach in preventing DM1. PMID:25157497

  19. Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe; Weitz, Karl K.; Wu, Hong; Gies, Richard A.; Moore, Dean A.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2006-05-01

    Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or {approx}1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and ?-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anethetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to PB-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r2=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24 hr post-dosing and a decrease in ?-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These

  20. Modularity of the oral jaws is linked to repeated changes in the craniofacial shape of african cichlids.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Kevin J; Cooper, W James; Albertson, R Craig

    2011-01-01

    The African cichlids of the East-African rift-lakes provide one of the most dramatic examples of adaptive radiation known. It has long been thought that functional decoupling of the oral and pharyngeal jaws in cichlids has facilitated their explosive evolution. Recent research has also shown that craniofacial evolution from radiations in lakes Victoria, Malawi, and Tanganyika has occurred along a shared primary axis of shape divergence, whereby the preorbital region of the skull changes in a manner that is, relatively independent from other head regions. We predicted that the preorbital region would comprise a variational module and used an extensive dataset from each lake that allowed us to test this prediction using a model selection approach. Our findings supported the presence of a preorbital module across all lakes, within each lake, and for Malawi, within sand and rock-dwelling clades. However, while a preorbital module was consistently present, notable differences were also observed among groups. Of particular interest, a negative association between patterns of variational modularity was observed between the sand and rock-dwelling clades, a patter consistent with character displacement. These findings provide the basis for further experimental research involving the determination of the developmental and genetic bases of these patterns of modularity.

  1. Modularity of the Oral Jaws Is Linked to Repeated Changes in the Craniofacial Shape of African Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Kevin J.; Cooper, W. James; Albertson, R. Craig

    2011-01-01

    The African cichlids of the East-African rift-lakes provide one of the most dramatic examples of adaptive radiation known. It has long been thought that functional decoupling of the oral and pharyngeal jaws in cichlids has facilitated their explosive evolution. Recent research has also shown that craniofacial evolution from radiations in lakes Victoria, Malawi, and Tanganyika has occurred along a shared primary axis of shape divergence, whereby the preorbital region of the skull changes in a manner that is, relatively independent from other head regions. We predicted that the preorbital region would comprise a variational module and used an extensive dataset from each lake that allowed us to test this prediction using a model selection approach. Our findings supported the presence of a preorbital module across all lakes, within each lake, and for Malawi, within sand and rock-dwelling clades. However, while a preorbital module was consistently present, notable differences were also observed among groups. Of particular interest, a negative association between patterns of variational modularity was observed between the sand and rock-dwelling clades, a patter consistent with character displacement. These findings provide the basis for further experimental research involving the determination of the developmental and genetic bases of these patterns of modularity. PMID:21716745

  2. T cell chemo-vaccination effects after repeated mucosal SHIV exposures and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Ellen N; Adams, Debra R; Youngpairoj, Ae S; Luo, Wei; Zheng, Qi; Cong, Mian-er; Aung, Wutyi; Mitchell, James; Otten, Ron; Hendry, R Michael; Heneine, Walid; McNicholl, Janet; Garcia-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2011-04-26

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with anti-viral drugs is currently in clinical trials for the prevention of HIV infection. Induction of adaptive immune responses to virus exposures during anti-viral drug administration, i.e., a "chemo-vaccination" effect, could contribute to PrEP efficacy. To study possible chemo-vaccination, we monitored humoral and cellular immune responses in nine rhesus macaques undergoing up to 14 weekly, low-dose SHIV(SF162P3) rectal exposures. Six macaques concurrently received PrEP with intermittent, oral Truvada; three were no-PrEP controls. PrEP protected 4 macaques from infection. Two of the four showed evidence of chemo-vaccination, because they developed anti-SHIV CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; SHIV-specific antibodies were not detected. Control macaques showed no anti-SHIV immune responses before infection. Chemo-vaccination-induced T cell responses were robust (up to 3,940 SFU/10(6) PBMCs), predominantly central memory cells, short-lived (≤22 weeks), and appeared intermittently and with changing specificities. The two chemo-vaccinated macaques were virus-challenged again after 28 weeks of rest, after T cell responses had waned. One macaque was not protected from infection. The other macaque concurrently received additional PrEP. It remained uninfected and T cell responses were boosted during the additional virus exposures. In summary, we document and characterize PrEP-induced T cell chemo-vaccination. Although not protective after subsiding in one macaque, chemo-vaccination-induced T cells warrant more comprehensive analysis during peak responses for their ability to prevent or to control infections after additional exposures. Our findings highlight the importance of monitoring these responses in clinical PrEP trials and suggest that a combination of vaccines and PrEP potentially might enhance efficacy.

  3. Integrating Computer Assisted Language Learning into Out-of-Class Extended Learning: The Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the Oral Reading Fluency of English for Specific Academic Purposes Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi

    2015-01-01

    By using the formative experiment, this study investigated how an instructional intervention, consisting of a Repeated Reading (RR) technique and an iPod Touch, helped achieve a valued pedagogical goal, that of enhancing the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of sixteen English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) first-year university students. Students…

  4. Oral Streptococci Utilize a Siglec-Like Domain of Serine-Rich Repeat Adhesins to Preferentially Target Platelet Sialoglycans in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lingquan; Bensing, Barbara A.; Thamadilok, Supaporn; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Chen, Xi; Ruhl, Stefan; Sullam, Paul M.; Varki, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Damaged cardiac valves attract blood-borne bacteria, and infective endocarditis is often caused by viridans group streptococci. While such bacteria use multiple adhesins to maintain their normal oral commensal state, recognition of platelet sialoglycans provides an intermediary for binding to damaged valvular endocardium. We use a customized sialoglycan microarray to explore the varied binding properties of phylogenetically related serine-rich repeat adhesins, the GspB, Hsa, and SrpA homologs from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis species, which belong to a highly conserved family of glycoproteins that contribute to virulence for a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens. Binding profiles of recombinant soluble homologs containing novel sialic acid-recognizing Siglec-like domains correlate well with binding of corresponding whole bacteria to arrays. These bacteria show multiple modes of glycan, protein, or divalent cation-dependent binding to synthetic glycoconjugates and isolated glycoproteins in vitro. However, endogenous asialoglycan-recognizing clearance receptors are known to ensure that only fully sialylated glycans dominate in the endovascular system, wherein we find these particular streptococci become primarily dependent on their Siglec-like adhesins for glycan-mediated recognition events. Remarkably, despite an excess of alternate sialoglycan ligands in cellular and soluble blood components, these adhesins selectively target intact bacteria to sialylated ligands on platelets, within human whole blood. These preferred interactions are inhibited by corresponding recombinant soluble adhesins, which also preferentially recognize platelets. Our data indicate that circulating platelets may act as inadvertent Trojan horse carriers of oral streptococci to the site of damaged endocardium, and provide an explanation why it is that among innumerable microbes that gain occasional access to the bloodstream, certain viridans group streptococci have a

  5. Prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction based on gender in Isfahan, Iran (2000-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Mahdi; Hosseini, Shidokht; Salehiniya, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Khazaei, Salman; Soltani, Shahin; Sarrafkia, Ali; Golshahi, Jafar; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Determinant prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) based on gender in teen year’s period in Isfahan, Iran, was the aim of this study. METHODS This study is a prospective hospital-based study that consisted, all patients with AMI admitted to all hospitals (private and universal hospitals) in Isfahan and Najafabad (Iran) during 2000-2009. To determinant the prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients based on gender, analysis conducted separately for male and female. In analysis, we use of t-test, log Rank tests, Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS Short-term (28 days) survival rate was 92.5% in male and 86.7% in female (P < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of death for age group 80 years and older was 12.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.14-31.3] in male and 8.78 (95% CI: 1.2-63.1) in female. HR for acute transmural MI of the unspecified site in male was 8.9 (95% CI: 4.68-16.97) and in female 9.33 (95% CI: 4.42-19.7). HR for receive of streptokinase in male was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94-1.31) and in female was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.84). CONCLUSION Short-term survival rate in male was a higher than female. In male age, anatomic location of MI and hospital status and in female streptokinase use and anatomic location of MI was the most important prognostic factors of survival in-patient with AMI in Isfahan. PMID:26862341

  6. Incremental effects of 28 days of beta-alanine supplementation on high-intensity cycling performance and blood lactate in masters female cyclists.

    PubMed

    Glenn, J M; Gray, M; Stewart, R; Moyen, N E; Kavouras, S A; DiBrezzo, R; Turner, R; Baum, J

    2015-12-01

    Within the aging population, there exists a subset of individuals termed masters athletes (MA). As masters-level competition increases in popularity, MA must find methods to enhance individual athletic performance. Longitudinal beta-alanine (BA) supplementation is suggested to enhance physical capability during exercise; however, these effects have not been evaluated in MA. To examine the longitudinal effects of BA on time to exhaustion (TTE), total work completed (TWC), and lactate clearance in female MA cyclists. Twenty-two female MA (age = 53.3 ± 1.0) participated in this double-blind design. Subjects were randomly assigned to BA (n = 11; 800 mg BA + 8 g dextrose) or placebo (PLA; n = 11; 8 g dextrose) groups and supplemented 4 doses/day over 28 days. Every 7 days, subjects completed a cycling TTE at 120% VO2max, and TWC was calculated. Blood lactate was measured at baseline, immediate post, and 20-min post each TTE. No significant differences existed between groups for any variable at baseline (p > 0.05). After 28 days supplementation, BA had greater TTE (23 vs 1% change) and TWC (21 vs 2% change) than PLA (p < 0.05). Following the 20-min TTE recovery, lactate was 24% lower in BA compared to PLA (4.35 vs. 5.76 mmol/L, respectively). No differences existed for variables during intermittent weeks. 28 days of BA supplementation increased cycling performance via an enhanced time to exhaustion and total work completed with associated lactate clearance during passive rest in female MA.

  7. Incremental effects of 28 days of beta-alanine supplementation on high-intensity cycling performance and blood lactate in masters female cyclists.

    PubMed

    Glenn, J M; Gray, M; Stewart, R; Moyen, N E; Kavouras, S A; DiBrezzo, R; Turner, R; Baum, J

    2015-12-01

    Within the aging population, there exists a subset of individuals termed masters athletes (MA). As masters-level competition increases in popularity, MA must find methods to enhance individual athletic performance. Longitudinal beta-alanine (BA) supplementation is suggested to enhance physical capability during exercise; however, these effects have not been evaluated in MA. To examine the longitudinal effects of BA on time to exhaustion (TTE), total work completed (TWC), and lactate clearance in female MA cyclists. Twenty-two female MA (age = 53.3 ± 1.0) participated in this double-blind design. Subjects were randomly assigned to BA (n = 11; 800 mg BA + 8 g dextrose) or placebo (PLA; n = 11; 8 g dextrose) groups and supplemented 4 doses/day over 28 days. Every 7 days, subjects completed a cycling TTE at 120% VO2max, and TWC was calculated. Blood lactate was measured at baseline, immediate post, and 20-min post each TTE. No significant differences existed between groups for any variable at baseline (p > 0.05). After 28 days supplementation, BA had greater TTE (23 vs 1% change) and TWC (21 vs 2% change) than PLA (p < 0.05). Following the 20-min TTE recovery, lactate was 24% lower in BA compared to PLA (4.35 vs. 5.76 mmol/L, respectively). No differences existed for variables during intermittent weeks. 28 days of BA supplementation increased cycling performance via an enhanced time to exhaustion and total work completed with associated lactate clearance during passive rest in female MA. PMID:26255281

  8. Immunotoxicological profile of chloramine in female B6C3F1 mice when administered in the drinking water for 28 days.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tai L; Germolec, Dori R; Collins, Bradley J; Luebke, Robert W; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L

    2011-01-01

    Monochloramine has been used to provide a disinfecting residual in water distribution systems where it is difficult to maintain an adequate free-chlorine residual or where disinfection by-product formation is of concern. The goal of this study was to characterize the immunotoxic effects of chloramine in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice when administered via the drinking water. Mice were exposed to chloramine-containing deionized tap water at 2, 10, 20, 100, or 200 ppm for 28 days. No statistically significant differences in drinking water consumption, body weight, body weight gain, organ weights, or hematological parameters between the exposed and control animals were noted during the experimental period. There were no changes in the percentages and numbers of total B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages in the spleen. Exposure to chloramine did not affect the IgM antibody-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or anti-SRBC IgM antibody production. Minimal effects, judged to be biologically insignificant, were observed in the mixed-leukocyte response and NK activity. In conclusion, chloramine produced no toxicological and immunotoxic effects in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice when administered for 28 days in the drinking water at concentrations ranging from 2-200 ppm.

  9. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) DNA adduct formation in DNA repair–deficient p53 haploinsufficient [Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−)] and wild-type mice fed BP and BP plus chlorophyllin for 28 days

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Miriam C.

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated DNA damage (DNA adduct formation) after feeding benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to wild-type (WT) and cancer-susceptible Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−) mice deficient in nucleotide excision repair and haploinsufficient for the tumor suppressor p53. DNA damage was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ES-MS/MS), which measures r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N 2-deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPdG), and a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA), using anti-r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)–DNA antiserum, which measures both BPdG and the other stable BP-DNA adducts. When mice were fed 100 ppm BP for 28 days, BP-induced DNA damage measured in esophagus, liver and lung was typically higher in Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−) mice, compared with WT mice. This result is consistent with the previously observed tumor susceptibility of Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−) mice. BPdG, the major DNA adduct associated with tumorigenicity, was the primary DNA adduct formed in esophagus (a target tissue in the mouse), whereas total BP-DNA adducts predominated in higher levels in the liver (a non-target tissue in the mouse). In an attempt to lower BP-induced DNA damage, we fed the WT and Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−) mice 0.3% chlorophyllin (CHL) in the BP-containing diet for 28 days. The addition of CHL resulted in an increase of BP–DNA adducts in esophagus, liver and lung of WT mice, a lowering of BPdG in esophagi of WT mice and livers of Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−) mice and an increase of BPdG in livers of WT mice. Therefore, the addition of CHL to a BP-containing diet showed a lack of consistent chemoprotective effect, indicating that oral CHL administration may not reduce PAH–DNA adduct levels consistently in human organs. PMID:22828138

  10. Detection of diazepam in urine, hair and preserved oral fluid samples with LC-MS-MS after single and repeated administration of Myolastan and Valium.

    PubMed

    Laloup, Marleen; Fernandez, Maria Del Mar Ramirez; Wood, Michelle; Maes, Viviane; De Boeck, Gert; Vanbeckevoort, Yvan; Samyn, Nele

    2007-08-01

    Sedative agents are used to facilitate sexual assault due to their ability to render the victim passive, submissive and unable to resist. The primary pharmacological effect of the benzodiazepine tetrazepam is muscle relaxation, whereas the benzodiazepine diazepam acts on the central nervous system (CNS) exerting mainly sedation effects. Therefore, contrary to tetrazepam, diazepam is an often-abused drug, which can potentially be used as a date-rape drug. In this study, we describe the detection of low amounts of diazepam in Myolastan (Sanofi-Synthelabo S.A., Brussels, Belgium) and Epsipam (Will-Pharma, Wavre, Belgium) 50 mg tablet preparations by LC-MS-MS, GC-FID and HPLC-DAD. Considering the important forensic implication of this finding, a study was conducted with volunteers receiving a single or repeated dosage of Myolastan. Urine, hair and preserved oral fluid samples were analysed using a previously described sensitive and specific LC-MS-MS detection method allowing for the simultaneous quantification of tetrazepam, diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam. This study demonstrates that diazepam can be observed in urine samples even after a single dose of Myolastan. In addition, maintaining therapy for 1 week results in the detection of both diazepam and nordiazepam in urine samples and of diazepam in the first hair segment. Importantly, comparing urine and hair samples after a single intake of diazepam versus the single and 1 week administration of Myolastan shows that the possible metabolic conversion of tetrazepam to diazepam is a more plausible explanation for the detection of diazepam in biological samples after the intake of Myolastan. As such, these results reveal that the presence of diazepam and/or nordiazepam in biological samples from alleged drug-facilitated assault cases should be interpreted with care. PMID:17468852

  11. Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Moon, Jordan R; Fairman, Ciaran M; Spradley, Brandon D; Tai, Chih-Yin; Falcone, Paul H; Carson, Laura R; Mosman, Matt M; Joy, Jordan M; Kim, Michael P; Serrano, Eric R; Esposito, Enrico N

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of consuming a preworkout supplement (SUP) containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days. We hypothesized that little to no changes in kidney and liver clinical blood markers or resting heart rate and blood pressure (BP) would be observed. In addition, we hypothesized that body composition and performance would improve in recreationally active males after 28 days of supplementation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, participants were randomly assigned to ingest one scoop of either the SUP or placebo every day for 28 days, either 20 minutes before exercise or ad libitum on nonexercise days. Resting heart rate and BP, body composition, and fasting blood samples were collected before and after supplementation. Aerobic capacity as well as muscular strength and endurance were also measured. Significant (P < .05) main effects for time were observed for resting heart rate (presupplementation, 67.59 ± 7.90 beats per minute; postsupplementation, 66.18 ± 7.63 beats per minute), systolic BP (presupplementation, 122.41 ± 11.25 mm Hg; postsupplementation, 118.35 ± 11.58 mm Hg), blood urea nitrogen (presupplementation, 13.12 ± 2.55 mg/dL; postsupplementation, 15.24 ± 4.47 mg/dL), aspartate aminotransferase (presupplementation, 34.29 ± 16.48 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.76 ± 4.71 IU/L), and alanine aminotransferase (presupplementation, 32.76 ± 19.72 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.88 ± 9.68 IU/L). Significant main effects for time were observed for body fat percentage (presupplementation, 15.55% ± 5.79%; postsupplementation, 14.21% ± 5.38%; P = .004) and fat-free mass (presupplementation, 70.80 ± 9.21 kg; postsupplementation, 71.98 ± 9.27 kg; P = .006). A significant decrease in maximal oxygen consumption (presupplementation, 47.28 ± 2.69 mL/kg per minute; postsupplementation, 45.60 ± 2.81 mL/kg per minute) and a significant increase in percentage of

  12. Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Moon, Jordan R; Fairman, Ciaran M; Spradley, Brandon D; Tai, Chih-Yin; Falcone, Paul H; Carson, Laura R; Mosman, Matt M; Joy, Jordan M; Kim, Michael P; Serrano, Eric R; Esposito, Enrico N

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of consuming a preworkout supplement (SUP) containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days. We hypothesized that little to no changes in kidney and liver clinical blood markers or resting heart rate and blood pressure (BP) would be observed. In addition, we hypothesized that body composition and performance would improve in recreationally active males after 28 days of supplementation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, participants were randomly assigned to ingest one scoop of either the SUP or placebo every day for 28 days, either 20 minutes before exercise or ad libitum on nonexercise days. Resting heart rate and BP, body composition, and fasting blood samples were collected before and after supplementation. Aerobic capacity as well as muscular strength and endurance were also measured. Significant (P < .05) main effects for time were observed for resting heart rate (presupplementation, 67.59 ± 7.90 beats per minute; postsupplementation, 66.18 ± 7.63 beats per minute), systolic BP (presupplementation, 122.41 ± 11.25 mm Hg; postsupplementation, 118.35 ± 11.58 mm Hg), blood urea nitrogen (presupplementation, 13.12 ± 2.55 mg/dL; postsupplementation, 15.24 ± 4.47 mg/dL), aspartate aminotransferase (presupplementation, 34.29 ± 16.48 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.76 ± 4.71 IU/L), and alanine aminotransferase (presupplementation, 32.76 ± 19.72 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.88 ± 9.68 IU/L). Significant main effects for time were observed for body fat percentage (presupplementation, 15.55% ± 5.79%; postsupplementation, 14.21% ± 5.38%; P = .004) and fat-free mass (presupplementation, 70.80 ± 9.21 kg; postsupplementation, 71.98 ± 9.27 kg; P = .006). A significant decrease in maximal oxygen consumption (presupplementation, 47.28 ± 2.69 mL/kg per minute; postsupplementation, 45.60 ± 2.81 mL/kg per minute) and a significant increase in percentage of

  13. The Diet of Inmates: An Analysis of a 28-Day Cycle Menu Used in a Large County Jail in the State of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Cook, Emma A; Lee, Yee Ming; White, B Douglas; Gropper, Sareen S

    2015-10-01

    Given the many well-documented relationships between diet and health, growing medical care expenses for those incarcerated, and limited information on foods served in correctional facilities, this study examined the nutritional adequacy of a 28-day cycle menu used in a large county jail in Georgia. When compared with Dietary Reference Intakes, provisions of energy (female inmates only), sodium, saturated fat, and cholesterol exceeded recommendations. Magnesium, potassium, and vitamins A, D, and E met less than two thirds of recommendations. Compared with MyPlate recommendations, grains were overrepresented, while vegetables, fruits, and dairy were underrepresented in the menu. Small menu changes could improve the menu's nutrient content and potentially increase inmates' health and well-being. PMID:26276135

  14. Evaluation of repeated dose micronucleus assays of the liver using N-nitrosopyrrolidine: a report of the collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Izumi; Hagioa, Soichiro; Furukawa, Satoshi; Abe, Masayoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Hayashi, Seigo; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay has the potential to detect liver carcinogens, and can be integrated into a general toxicological study. To assess the performance of the assay, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was tested in 14- or 28-day RDLMN assays. NPYR was orally administered to rats at a daily dose of 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg. One day after the last administration, a portion of the liver was removed and hepatocyte micronucleus (MN) specimens were prepared by the new method recently established by Narumi et al. In addition, a bone marrow MN assay and a histopathological examination of the liver were conducted. The detection of Phospho-Histone H3 was performed by immunohistochemistry to evaluate the proliferation rate of hepatocytes. The results showed significant increase in the number of micronucleated hepatocytes and Phospho-Histone H3-positive cells from the lowest dose in both 14- and 28-day RDLMN assays. On the other hand, the bone marrow MN assay yielded a negative result, which was in accordance with the existing report of the bone marrow MN assay using mice. Upon histopathological examination, inflammatory lesions and hypertrophy were noted, which may explain the increase in the hepatocyte proliferation and the enhancement of MN induction by NPYR. Our findings indicate that the RDLMN assay could be a useful tool for comprehensive risk assessment of carcinogenicity by providing information on both genotoxicity and histopathology when integrated into a general repeat dosing toxicity assay.

  15. VS411 Reduced Immune Activation and HIV-1 RNA Levels in 28 Days: Randomized Proof-of-Concept Study for AntiViral-HyperActivation Limiting Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lori, Franco; De Forni, Davide; Katabira, Elly; Baev, Denis; Maserati, Renato; Calarota, Sandra A.; Cahn, Pedro; Testori, Marco; Rakhmanova, Aza; Stevens, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background A new class of antiretrovirals, AntiViral-HyperActivation Limiting Therapeutics (AV-HALTs), has been proposed as a disease-modifying therapy to both reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels and the excessive immune activation now recognized as the major driver of not only the continual loss of CD4+ T cells and progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), but also of the emergence of both AIDS-defining and non-AIDS events that negatively impact upon morbidity and mortality despite successful (ie, fully suppressive) therapy. VS411, the first-in-class AV-HALT, combined low-dose, slow-release didanosine with low-dose hydroxycarbamide to accomplish both objectives with a favorable toxicity profile during short-term administration. Five dose combinations were administered as VS411 to test the AV-HALT Proof-of-Concept in HIV-1-infected subjects. Methods Multinational, double-blind, 28-day Phase 2a dose-ranging Proof-of-Concept study of antiviral activity, immunological parameters, safety, and genotypic resistance in 58 evaluable antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected adults. Randomization and allocation to study arms were carried out by a central computer system. Results were analyzed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, ANCOVA, and two-tailed paired t tests. Results VS411 was well-tolerated, produced significant reductions of HIV-1 RNA levels, increased CD4+ T cell counts, and led to significant, rapid, unprecedented reductions of immune activation markers after 28 days despite incomplete viral suppression and without inhibiting HIV-1-specific immune responses. The didanosine 200 mg/HC 900 mg once-daily formulation demonstrated the greatest antiviral efficacy (HIV-1 RNA: −1.47 log10 copies/mL; CD4+ T cell count: +135 cells/mm3) and fewest adverse events. Conclusions VS411 successfully established the Proof-of-Concept that AV-HALTs can combine antiviral efficacy with rapid, potentially beneficial reductions in the excessive immune system

  16. The Effect of Repeated Reading Instruction on Oral Reading Fluency and Its Impact on Reading Comprehension of Grade 5 English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, W. Maria

    2011-01-01

    The Problem. In its meta-analysis on teaching children to read, U.S. National Reading Panel (NICHD & NIH, 2000) found repeated reading to be an effective technique for reading instruction. Specifically, the report determined that repeated reading procedures had a positive impact on word recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of…

  17. Perinatal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the lamb. IV. Testicular responsiveness to hCG from 1 through 28 days of life.

    PubMed

    Hamel, R; Forest, M G; Haour, F; Polychronakos, C; Charpenet, G; Gibb, W; Collu, R; Durcharme, J R

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have shown the existence of an early postnatal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) in the male lamb which was present at 2 and 4 weeks of age. In order to define more precisely the time sequence of HPGA activity, we have studied the in vivo and in vitro testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) of the immature lamb at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. Plasma testosterone (T) increments (delta) after hCG were lower in 1-day-old animals than in other age groups. Testicular concentrations of T, dehydroepiandrosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone increased from 1 to 14 days. Testicular 17, 20 lyase activity rose significantly with age but was not influenced by hCG. hCG and dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased significantly the T production by enriched interstitial cell preparation at 1, 3, and 7 days, the greatest response being found at 7 days. hCG also increased significantly the T production at 14 days. These data suggest that the lamb testis has the capacity to respond to hCG in vivo and to various stimuli vitro from the 1st day of life and that the response reaches a plateau from 2 to 4 weeks after birth.

  18. Safety assessment of SDA soybean oil: results of a 28-day gavage study and a 90-day/one generation reproduction feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Bruce G; Lemen, Joan K; Ahmed, Gulam; Miller, Kathleen D; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie; Fleeman, Tammye

    2008-12-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in the diet reduce risk of cardiac mortality. Fish oils are a dietary source of LC-PUFAs (EPA, DHA) but intake is low in Western diets. Adding beneficial amounts of LC-PUFAs to foods is limited by their instability and potential to impart off-flavors. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a precursor of EPA in man, is more stable than EPA/DHA in food matrices. SDA is present in fish oils (0.5-4%) and in nutraceuticals (echium, borage oil). Genes for Delta6, Delta15 desaturases were introduced into soybeans that convert linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid to SDA (15-30% fatty acids). Since addition of SDA soybean oil into human foods increases SDA intake, toxicology studies were undertaken to assess its safety. In a 28-day pilot study, rats were gavaged with SDA soybean oil at dosages up to 3g/kg body weight/day; no treatment-related adverse effects were observed. A 90-day/one generation rat reproduction study was subsequently conducted where SDA soybean oil was added to diets to provide daily doses of 1.5 and 4 g/kg body weight. There were no treatment-related adverse effects on parental animals or on reproductive performance and progeny development. PMID:18804141

  19. Absence of adverse effects of sodium metabisulphite in manufactured biscuits: results of subacute (28-days) and subchronic (85-days) feeding studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Ribera, D; Jonker, D; Narbonne, J F; O'Brien, J; Antignac, E

    2001-02-01

    Sulphites are extensively used in the food and drinks industry. Their toxicity has been previously evaluated by addition to the diet or drinking water of laboratory animals. Because interactions between sulphites and food constituents occur, the present work was conducted to determine the subacute and subchronic toxicity of sulphite-bound compounds in a finished product: manufactured biscuits. The studies were performed on Sprague Dawley, rats for 28 and 85 days of dietary exposure. Diets were prepared from sulphited or untreated (controls) biscuits with the addition of sugar, protein, vitamins and minerals according to the nutritional requirements of the animals. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered diets containing sulphited biscuits at levels of 0, 10, 35 and 75%, corresponding to 10-15, 35-45, 150-170 and 310-340 mg SO2/kg diet. In both studies, no death or clinical abnormalities were reported. Growth rate, food consumption and food conversion efficiency were not affected by treatment. No dose-related changes were observed for haematology, clinical chemistry, ocular examination, renal-function, urinalysis, organ weights or gross and microscopic examinations. The liver concentrations of vitamins A, B1, C and E were not significantly changed except for an increase in vitamin E in high-dose males after 28 days' exposure. Based on these data, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of sulphites in baked biscuits was judged to be 310 mg SO2/kg diet or 25 mg/kg body weight/day.

  20. In Silico Modeling for the Prediction of Dose and Pathway-Related Adverse Effects in Humans From In Vitro Repeated-Dose Studies.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sebastian; Maggioni, Silvia; Bucher, Joachim; Mueller, Daniel; Niklas, Jens; Shevchenko, Valery; Mauch, Klaus; Heinzle, Elmar; Noor, Fozia

    2016-01-01

    Long-term repeated-dose toxicity is mainly assessed in animals despite poor concordance of animal data with human toxicity. Nowadays advanced human in vitro systems, eg, metabolically competent HepaRG cells, are used for toxicity screening. Extrapolation of in vitro toxicity to in vivo effects is possible by reverse dosimetry using pharmacokinetic modeling. We assessed long-term repeated-dose toxicity of bosentan and valproic acid (VPA) in HepaRG cells under serum-free conditions. Upon 28-day exposure, the EC50 values for bosentan and VPA decreased by 21- and 33-fold, respectively. Using EC(10) as lowest threshold of toxicity in vitro, we estimated the oral equivalent doses for both test compounds using a simplified pharmacokinetic model for the extrapolation of in vitro toxicity to in vivo effect. The model predicts that bosentan is safe at the considered dose under the assumed conditions upon 4 weeks exposure. For VPA, hepatotoxicity is predicted for 4% and 47% of the virtual population at the maximum recommended daily dose after 3 and 4 weeks of exposure, respectively. We also investigated the changes in the central carbon metabolism of HepaRG cells exposed to orally bioavailable concentrations of both drugs. These concentrations are below the 28-day EC(10) and induce significant changes especially in glucose metabolism and urea production. These metabolic changes may have a pronounced impact in susceptible patients such as those with compromised liver function and urea cycle deficiency leading to idiosyncratic toxicity. We show that the combination of modeling based on in vitro repeated-dose data and metabolic changes allows the prediction of human relevant in vivo toxicity with mechanistic insights. PMID:26420750

  1. A phase II trial of oral gimatecan for recurrent glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jethro; Wen, Patrick Y; Abrey, Lauren E; Fadul, Camilo E; Drappatz, Jan; Salem, Nadia; Supko, Jeffrey G; Hochberg, Fred

    2013-02-01

    Gimatecan is a lipophilic oral camptothecin analogue with preclinical activity in glioma models. We conducted a multicenter phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy of gimatecan in adults with recurrent glioblastoma. Eligibility criteria included ≤1 prior treatment for recurrent disease, age ≥18, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, and normal organ function. Patients taking enzyme-inducing anti-seizure medications were excluded. Gimatecan 1.22 mg/m(2) was given orally once daily for 5 consecutive days during each 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 6 months. A Simon 2-stage optimal design was used in which 19 patients were evaluated in the 1st stage, with an additional 36 patients accrued if >4 patients in stage 1 achieved PFS at 6 months. 29 patients were enrolled in the study, with median age of 58 years (range, 25-77 years); 58.6 % female. All patients received prior surgery, radiation therapy, and at least one chemotherapy regimen. The daily dose was reduced to 1.0 mg/m(2) after four of the first 10 patients experienced grade 4 hematologic toxicity. Treatment-related grade 3/4 toxicities included thrombocytopenia (17.2 %), leukopenia (17.2 %) and neutropenia (10.3 %). None of the 19 patients treated at 1.0 mg/m(2)/day experienced grade 4 hematologic toxicity. One patient had a partial radiographic response by modified Macdonald criteria. Only 3 patients (12 %) were progression-free at 6 months. Median time to progression was 12.0 weeks (7.0, 17.0).Treatment with gimatecan 1.0 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days, repeated every 28-days showed minimal efficacy.

  2. In vivo study with quartz-containing ceramic dusts: Inflammatory effects of two factory samples in lungs after intratracheal instillation in a 28-day study with rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzenberg, O.; Ziemann, C.; Hansen, T.; Ernst, H.; Jackson, P.; Cartlidge, D.; Brown, R.

    2009-02-01

    As various quartz polymorphs react differently in lungs, a differentiation of effects is needed while setting occupational exposure levels. The objective of this European Collective Research Project SILICERAM was to characterize differences in biological activity of four quartz species, i.) 2 quartz-containing materials collected at typical ceramic manufacturing sites (Tableware granulate, TG and Tableware cast, TC) versus ii.) a designed ceramic dust sample (Contrived Sample, CS) and iii.) ground quartz DQ12 (well-characterised standard quartz (Positive Control, PC) and TiO2 (negative control). TG and TC had been selected as the most promising two candidates based on a preceding in vitro screening of 5 factory samples. Total doses of 5 mg per rat of the TG and TC, 1.1 mg of the CS and 0.33 mg of the PC corresponding to 0.29, 0.16, 0.29 and 0.29 mg quartz per rat, respectively, were administered to rats by intratracheal instillation. After 3 days, bronchoalveolar lavagate (BAL) analysis resulted in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) levels of 15%, 25%, 0.6% and 25% in the TG, TC, CS and PC groups, respectively. At 28 days, the values were 29%, 20%, 7% and 45%. Histopathologically, the TG and TC groups showed very slight to slight effects, the PC group, however, stronger effects after the same period. In conclusion, the following ranking was found: PC > TG > TC > CS > TiO2 > Vehicle Control. Thus, a clear differentiation of effects for TG and TC, CS and PC was found. From a regulatory point of view, the substance-specific toxic potentials of TG and TC may need to be considered when devising occupational exposure limits.

  3. No increases in biomarkers of genetic damage or pathological changes in heart and brain tissues in male rats administered methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) for 28 days.

    PubMed

    Witt, Kristine L; Malarkey, David E; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Davis, Jeffrey P; Kissling, Grace E; Caspary, William; Travlos, Gregory; Recio, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Following a 2005 report of chromosomal damage in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were treated with the commonly prescribed medication methylphenidate (MPH), numerous studies have been conducted to clarify the risk for MPH-induced genetic damage. Although most of these studies reported no changes in genetic damage endpoints associated with exposure to MPH, one recent study (Andreazza et al. [2007]: Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31:1282-1288) reported an increase in DNA damage detected by the Comet assay in blood and brain cells of Wistar rats treated by intraperitoneal injection with 1, 2, or 10 mg/kg MPH; no increases in micronucleated lymphocyte frequencies were observed in these rats. To clarify these findings, we treated adult male Wistar Han rats with 0, 2, 10, or 25 mg/kg MPH by gavage once daily for 28 consecutive days and measured micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequencies in blood, and DNA damage in blood, brain, and liver cells 4 hr after final dosing. Flow cytometric evaluation of blood revealed no significant increases in MN-RET. Comet assay evaluations of blood leukocytes and cells of the liver, as well as of the striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of the brain showed no increases in DNA damage in MPH-treated rats in any of the three treatment groups. Thus, the previously reported observations of DNA damage in blood and brain tissue of rats exposed to MPH for 28 days were not confirmed in this study. Additionally, no histopathological changes in brain or heart, or elevated serum biomarkers of cardiac injury were observed in these MPH-exposed rats.

  4. Efficacy and safety of extended dosing schedules of CC-486 (oral azacitidine) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Manero, G; Gore, S D; Kambhampati, S; Scott, B; Tefferi, A; Cogle, C R; Edenfield, W J; Hetzer, J; Kumar, K; Laille, E; Shi, T; MacBeth, K J; Skikne, B

    2016-04-01

    CC-486, the oral formulation of azacitidine (AZA), is an epigenetic modifier and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of hematologic malignancies. CC-486 administered for 7 days per 28-day treatment cycle was evaluated in a phase 1 dose-finding study. AZA has a short plasma half-life and DNA incorporation is S-phase-restricted; extending CC-486 exposure may increase the number of AZA-affected diseased target cells and maximize therapeutic effects. Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) received 300 mg CC-486 once daily for 14 days (n=28) or 21 days (n=27) of repeated 28-day cycles. Median patient age was 72 years (range 31-87) and 75% of patients had International Prognostic Scoring System Intermediate-1 risk MDS. Median number of CC-486 treatment cycles was 7 (range 2-24) for the 14-day dosing schedule and 6 (1-24) for the 21-day schedule. Overall response (complete or partial remission, red blood cell (RBC) or platelet transfusion independence (TI), or hematologic improvement) (International Working Group 2006) was attained by 36% of patients receiving 14-day dosing and 41% receiving 21-day dosing. RBC TI rates were similar with both dosing schedules (31% and 38%, respectively). CC-486 was generally well-tolerated. Extended dosing schedules of oral CC-486 may provide effective long-term treatment for patients with lower-risk MDS. PMID:26442612

  5. Efficacy and safety of extended dosing schedules of CC-486 (oral azacitidine) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Manero, G; Gore, S D; Kambhampati, S; Scott, B; Tefferi, A; Cogle, C R; Edenfield, W J; Hetzer, J; Kumar, K; Laille, E; Shi, T; MacBeth, K J; Skikne, B

    2016-04-01

    CC-486, the oral formulation of azacitidine (AZA), is an epigenetic modifier and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of hematologic malignancies. CC-486 administered for 7 days per 28-day treatment cycle was evaluated in a phase 1 dose-finding study. AZA has a short plasma half-life and DNA incorporation is S-phase-restricted; extending CC-486 exposure may increase the number of AZA-affected diseased target cells and maximize therapeutic effects. Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) received 300 mg CC-486 once daily for 14 days (n=28) or 21 days (n=27) of repeated 28-day cycles. Median patient age was 72 years (range 31-87) and 75% of patients had International Prognostic Scoring System Intermediate-1 risk MDS. Median number of CC-486 treatment cycles was 7 (range 2-24) for the 14-day dosing schedule and 6 (1-24) for the 21-day schedule. Overall response (complete or partial remission, red blood cell (RBC) or platelet transfusion independence (TI), or hematologic improvement) (International Working Group 2006) was attained by 36% of patients receiving 14-day dosing and 41% receiving 21-day dosing. RBC TI rates were similar with both dosing schedules (31% and 38%, respectively). CC-486 was generally well-tolerated. Extended dosing schedules of oral CC-486 may provide effective long-term treatment for patients with lower-risk MDS.

  6. Efficacy and safety of extended dosing schedules of CC-486 (oral azacitidine) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Manero, G; Gore, S D; Kambhampati, S; Scott, B; Tefferi, A; Cogle, C R; Edenfield, W J; Hetzer, J; Kumar, K; Laille, E; Shi, T; MacBeth, K J; Skikne, B

    2016-01-01

    CC-486, the oral formulation of azacitidine (AZA), is an epigenetic modifier and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of hematologic malignancies. CC-486 administered for 7 days per 28-day treatment cycle was evaluated in a phase 1 dose-finding study. AZA has a short plasma half-life and DNA incorporation is S-phase-restricted; extending CC-486 exposure may increase the number of AZA-affected diseased target cells and maximize therapeutic effects. Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) received 300 mg CC-486 once daily for 14 days (n=28) or 21 days (n=27) of repeated 28-day cycles. Median patient age was 72 years (range 31–87) and 75% of patients had International Prognostic Scoring System Intermediate-1 risk MDS. Median number of CC-486 treatment cycles was 7 (range 2–24) for the 14-day dosing schedule and 6 (1–24) for the 21-day schedule. Overall response (complete or partial remission, red blood cell (RBC) or platelet transfusion independence (TI), or hematologic improvement) (International Working Group 2006) was attained by 36% of patients receiving 14-day dosing and 41% receiving 21-day dosing. RBC TI rates were similar with both dosing schedules (31% and 38%, respectively). CC-486 was generally well-tolerated. Extended dosing schedules of oral CC-486 may provide effective long-term treatment for patients with lower-risk MDS. PMID:26442612

  7. Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using 2,4-dinitrotoluene: a report of a collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akihisa; Tsuchiyama, Hiromi; Asaoka, Yoshiji; Hirakata, Mikito; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Oshida, Keiyu; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2015-03-01

    The liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect liver carcinogens by repeated dosing, and could be expected to be integrated into repeated-dose toxicity studies using a hepatocyte isolation method without the traditional in situ collagenase perfusion. In this study, to assess the performance of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), which is a rodent liver carcinogen, was administered orally to male rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day once daily for 14 or 28 consecutive days, and the frequencies of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) and micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) were examined. Significant increases in the MNHEPs were observed at 50 mg/kg/day or more in the 14-day treatment, and 50 and 100 mg/kg/day in the 28-day treatment. These increases were dependent on both the dose and the number of administrations, which indicates the possibility that the MNHEPs accumulate as a result of repeated dosing. In contrast, no increase in the MNIMEs was observed. In conclusion, the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats is sufficiently sensitive to detect the genotoxicity of 2,4-DNT at a low dose.

  8. Nitrogen removal and mass balance in newly-formed Myriophyllum aquaticum mesocosm during a single 28-day incubation with swine wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Shunan; Wang, Yi; Li, Yong; Xiao, Runlin; Li, Hongfang; He, Yang; Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Di; Li, Xi; Wu, Jinshui

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this research was to assess the applicability of Myriophyllum (M.) aquaticum for swine wastewater treatment. Nitrogen (N) removal processes were investigated in M. aquaticum mesocosms with swine wastewater (SW), 50% diluted swine wastewater (50% SW), and two strengths of synthetic wastewater, 200 mg [Formula: see text] L(-1) (200 [Formula: see text] ) and 400 mg [Formula: see text] L(-1) (400 [Formula: see text] ). During a 28-day incubation period, the average [Formula: see text] and TN removal rates were 99.8% and 94.2% for 50% SW and 99.8% and 93.8% for SW, which were greater than 86.5% and 83.7% for 200 [Formula: see text] , and 73.7% and 74.1% for 400 [Formula: see text] , respectively. A maximum areal total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of 157.8 mg N m(-2) d(-1) was found in M. aquaticum mesocosms with SW. During the incubation period, the observed dynamics of [Formula: see text] concentrations in water and gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nirK and nirS in soil unraveled strong nitrification and denitrification processes occurring in M. aquaticum mesocosms with swine wastewater. The N mass balance analysis indicated that plant uptake and soil N accumulation accounted for 17.9-42.2% and 18.0-43.8% of the initial TN load, respectively. The coupled nitrification and denitrification process was calculated to account for, on average, 36.8% and 62.8% of TN removal for 50% SW and SW, respectively. These findings demonstrated that the N uptake by M. aquaticum contributed to a considerable proportion of N removal. In particular, the activities of ammonia-oxidizing and denitrification microbes responsible for nitrification and denitrification processes in M. aquaticum mesocosm accelerated [Formula: see text] and TN removal from swine wastewater.

  9. Altered autonomic regulation of cardiac function during head-up tilt after 28-day head-down bed-rest with counter-measures.

    PubMed

    Hughson, R L; Yamamoto, Y; Maillet, A; Fortrat, J O; Pavy-Le Traon, A; Butler, G C; Güell, A; Gharib, C

    1994-05-01

    The effects of 28 days continuous 6 degrees head-down tilt bed-rest on heart rate variability and the slope of the spontaneous arterial baroreflex were evaluated during supine rest and the first 10 min of 60 degrees head-up tilt. Twelve healthy men were assigned to either a no counter-measure (No-CM), or a counter-measure (CM) group so that there was no difference in maximal oxygen uptake. Counter-measures consisted of short-term, high resistance exercise for 6 days per week from days 7-28, and lower body negative pressure (-28 mmHg) for 15 min on days 16, 18, 20 and 22-28. In spite of balanced between-group fitness, mean RR-interval was different between the No-CM and the CM group prior to bed-rest, but neither this nor any other variables showed significant counter-measure by bed-rest interaction effects. Therefore, all data presented are from the main effects of bed-rest or tilt from the analysis of variance. RR-interval was reduced significantly by bed-rest and by tilt (P < 0.0001). Indicators from spectral analysis of heart-rate variability suggested reduced parasympathetic nervous system activity with bed-rest (P < 0.01) and head-up tilt (P < 0.05), and increased sympathetic nervous system activity after bed-rest (P < 0.01). An indicator of complexity of cardiovascular control mechanisms, taken from the slope (beta) of log spectral power vs. log frequency relationship, suggested reduced complexity with bed-rest (P < 0.05) and head-up tilt (P < 0.01). The spontaneous baroreflex slope was reduced significantly by bed-rest (P < 0.03) and by head-up tilt (P < 0.04). Taken together, these data support the concept of altered autonomic nervous system function in the aetiology of cardiovascular deconditioning with bed-rest or space travel; and it would appear that no benefit is derived from these specific counter-measures.

  10. A 90-day repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in rats (with functional observational battery and motor activity determinations).

    PubMed

    Chengelis, Christopher P; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Radovsky, Ann; Shinohara, Motoki

    2009-06-01

    Possible toxic effects of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) were evaluated when administered orally by gavage to rats at levels up to 200mg/kg/day for 90 days. Lower body weight gains were noted in the 10, 50 and 200mg/kg/day group males (not dose-responsive) throughout dosing. Other changes included lower red blood cell parameters, higher reticulocyte counts and lower globulin in the 200mg/kg/day group males and females, higher liver enzymes in males at 50 and 200mg/kg/day, lower total protein and higher albumin/globulin ratio, and lower cholesterol, calcium in males at 200mg/kg/day. Minimal centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy was present in 200mg/kg/day group males and correlated with higher liver weights and slightly higher peroxisome beta oxidation activity at the end of the dosing period. Based on liver histopathology and liver weight changes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for oral administration was 50mg/kg/day for males and 200mg/kg/day for females.

  11. Safety Evaluation of Multiple Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus in Wistar Rats Based on the Ames Test and a 28-Day Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Sew-Fen; Huang, Quan-Rong; Chou, Lan-Chun; Huang, Chun-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Three lactic acid bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, HK006, and HK109, and Pediococcus pentosaceus PP31 exhibit probiotic potential as antiallergy agents, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the safety of these new strains requires evaluation when isolated from infant faeces or pickled cabbage. Multiple strains (HK006, HK109, and PP31) were subject to a bacterial reverse mutation assay and a short-term oral toxicity study. The powder product exhibited mutagenic potential in Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA98 and TA1535 (with or without metabolic activation). In the short-term oral toxicity study, rats received a normal dosage of 390 mg/kg/d (approximately 9 × 109 CFU/kg/d) or a high dosage of 1950 mg/kg/d (approximately 4.5 × 1010 CFU/kg/d) for 28 d. No adverse effects were observed regarding the general condition, behaviour, growth, feed and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry indices, organ weights, or histopathologic analysis of the rats. These studies have demonstrated that the consumption of multiple bacterial strains is not associated with any signs of mutagenicity of S. Typhimurium or toxicity in Wistar rats, even after consuming large quantities of bacteria. PMID:25379552

  12. Repeated Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…

  13. Oral cenesthopathy.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Miura, Anna; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Uezato, Akihito; Toriihara, Akira; Nishikawa, Toru; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cenesthopathy is characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations and is classified as a 'delusional disorder, somatic type' or 'somatoform disorder' according to the DSM 5. The oral cavity is one of the frequent sites of cenesthopathy, thus the term 'oral cenesthopathy.' Patients with oral cenesthopathy complain of unusual sensations without corresponding abnormal findings in the oral area, such as excessive mucus secretion, a slimy sensation, or a feeling of coils or wires being present within the oral region. They usually visit multiple dentists rather than psychiatrists. Without a proper diagnosis, they repeatedly pursue unnecessary surgical procedures to remove their 'foreign body'. This sometimes creates a dilemma between the dentists and patients. The nosography of oral cenesthopathy has been discussed in some case reports and reviews but is overlooked in mainstream medicine. This review focuses on the various aspects of oral cenesthopathy. The estimated prevalence of cenesthopathy was 0.2 to 1.9 % in a study done at a Japanese university psychiatry clinic and 27 % in a study done at a Japanese psychosomatic dentistry clinic. Oral cenesthopathy do not have clear disposition, while some studies reported that elderly women were most commonly affected. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. However, recent studies have suggested a right > left asymmetrical pattern of the cerebral blood flow of patients with oral cenesthopathy. Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy might be effective in some cases, though it is known to be intractable. To date, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, classification and treatment of oral cenesthopathy are unknown due to the few reports on the disorder, though there are a few case reports. To overcome this difficult medical condition, clinico-statistical and case-control studies done under rigorous criteria and with a large sample size are required. PMID

  14. Assessment of the safety of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin: reverse mutation assay, acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity in rats, and acute no-effect level for diarrhea in humans.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    A series of safety assessments were performed on hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin prepared by converting the reducing terminal glucose of resistant maltodextrin into sorbitol. The reverse mutation assay did not show mutagenicity. Acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats showed no death was observed in any groups, including the group receiving the highest single dose of 10 g/kg body weight or the highest dose of 5 g/kg body weight per day for 90 days. Mucous or watery stools were observed in the hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin treatment group on the acute study, which were transient and were associated with the osmotic pressure caused by intake of the high concentrations. Subchronic study showed dose-dependent increases in the weights of cecum alone, cecal contents alone, and cecum with cecal contents as well as hypertrophy of the cecal mucosal epithelium, which are considered to be common physiological responses after intake of indigestible carbohydrates. These results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin was 10 g/kg body weight or more on the acute oral toxicity study and 5.0 g/kg body weight/day or more on the 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study in rats. Further study performed in healthy adult humans showed that the acute no-effect level of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin for diarrhea was 0.8 g/kg body weight for men and more than 1.0 g/kg body weight for women. The results of the current safety assessment studies suggest that hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin is safe for human consumption.

  15. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  16. [Clinical and instrumental evaluation by multiple colonic manometry of tiropramide, trimebutine and octylonium bromide in irritable colon. II. Repeated oral administration].

    PubMed

    Galeone, M; Benazzi, E; Bossi, M; Moise, G; Riva, A; Stock, F

    1986-01-01

    Sixty out-patients with acute or sub-acute irritable colon were randomly allocated to receive 3 daily doses of 100 mg tiropramide, 150 mg trimebutine maleate or 20 mg octilonium bromide, orally during 5 consecutive days. Before and after treatment, multiple colonic manometry was performed, monitoring tonus, intensity and frequency of sinusoid contraction waves, transitories and vibrations, as well as the voluntary contraction capacity. Before treatment and after 2 and 5 days, the specific symptoms were also monitored, scored and recorded. Significant variations in tonus were not observed with any drug, but while tiropramide left unmodified the voluntary contractile ability, a significant inhibition was observed with trimebutine and, mainly, with octilonium. The overall power of spontaneous colonic contractions did not vary significantly with any drug. However, while with tiropramide a significant redistribution of muscular power was observed so as to increase propulsion waves and to decrease the ineffective transitory and vibrational contractions, with octilonium and trimebutine no clinically relevant redistribution of the power wasted in transient spasms was observed. Based on these observations, tiropramide was considered to be at least as effective an antispasmodic as octilonium and at least as effective a synchronizer as trimebutine, but was different from both reference drugs because it was the only one to act simultanously as both an antispasmodic and a synchronizer. The three drugs produced an improvement in each and all monitored symptoms as well as in the overall symptom intensity. Tiropramide, however, produced an improvement significantly faster, more progressively and to a greater extent than either reference drug.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3714757

  17. Evaluation of repeated dose micronucleus assays of the liver and gastrointestinal tract using potassium bromate: a report of the collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    PubMed

    Okada, Emiko; Fujiishi, Yohei; Narumi, Kazunori; Kado, Shoichi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Ohyama, Wakako

    2015-03-01

    The food additive potassium bromate (KBrO3) is known as a renal carcinogen and causes chromosomal aberrations in vitro without metabolic activation and in vivo in hematopoietic and renal cells. As a part of a collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study group, which is a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, we administered KBrO3 to rats orally for 4, 14, and 28 days and examined the micronucleated (MNed) cell frequency in the liver, glandular stomach, colon, and bone marrow to confirm whether the genotoxic carcinogen targeting other than liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract was detected by the repeated dose liver and GI tract micronucleus (MN) assays. In our study, animals treated with KBrO3 showed some signs of toxicity in the kidney and/or stomach. KBrO3 did not increase the frequency of MNed cells in the liver and colon in any of the repeated dose studies. However, KBrO3 increased the frequency of MNed cells in the glandular stomach and bone marrow. Additionally, the MNed cell frequency in the glandular stomach was not significantly affected by the difference in the length of the administration period. These results suggest that performing the MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first tissue to contact agents after oral ingestion, is useful for evaluating the genotoxic potential of chemicals and that the glandular stomach MN assay could be integrated into general toxicity studies.

  18. Citrus aurantium L. essential oil exhibits anxiolytic-like activity mediated by 5-HT1A-receptors and reduces cholesterol after repeated oral treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current treatments for anxiety disorders and depression have multiple adverse effects in addition to a delayed onset of action, which has prompted efforts to find new substances with potential activity in these disorders. Citrus aurantium was chosen based on ethnopharmacological data because traditional medicine refers to the Citrus genus as useful in diminishing the symptoms of anxiety or insomnia, and C. aurantium has more recently been proposed as an adjuvant for antidepressants. In the present work, we investigated the biological activity underlying the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of C. aurantium essential oil (EO), the putative mechanism of the anxiolytic-like effect, and the neurochemical changes in specific brain structures of mice after acute treatment. We also monitored the mice for possible signs of toxicity after a 14-day treatment. Methods The anxiolytic-like activity of the EO was investigated in a light/dark box, and the antidepressant activity was investigated in a forced swim test. Flumazenil, a competitive antagonist of benzodiazepine binding, and the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 were used in the experimental procedures to determine the mechanism of action of the EO. To exclude false positive results due to motor impairment, the mice were submitted to the rotarod test. Results The data suggest that the anxiolytic-like activity observed in the light/dark box procedure after acute (5 mg/kg) or 14-day repeated (1 mg/kg/day) dosing was mediated by the serotonergic system (5-HT1A receptors). Acute treatment with the EO showed no activity in the forced swim test, which is sensitive to antidepressants. A neurochemical evaluation showed no alterations in neurotransmitter levels in the cortex, the striatum, the pons, and the hypothalamus. Furthermore, no locomotor impairment or signs of toxicity or biochemical changes, except a reduction in cholesterol levels, were observed after treatment with the EO. Conclusion

  19. Distribution of radio-labeled N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine in Sprague-Dawley rats and its effect on glutathione metabolism following single and repeat dosing by oral gavage.

    PubMed

    Arfsten, Darryl P; Johnson, Eric W; Wilfong, Erin R; Jung, Anne E; Bobb, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    were measured in the skin and kidney in association with repeat administration of 1,200 mg/kg NAC. Glutathione peroxidase (GxP) activity was increased in the skin, kidney, and liver suggesting that oxidative stress was occurring in these tissues in response to repeat dosing with NAC. Overall, the results of this study present the possibility that NAC could provide some benefit in preventing or reducing toxicity related to exposure to chemical irritants (particularly sulfur mustard) in some tissues by increasing tissue NAC and/or cysteine levels, GSH concentrations, and GST activity. However, follow-on studies in animals are needed to confirm that oral administration of single and multiple doses of NAC can significantly reduce skin, eye, and lung toxicity associated with sulfur mustard exposure. The finding that GxP activity is elevated, albeit transiently, following repeat administration of NAC suggests that repeat administration of NAC may induce oxidative stress in some tissues and further studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  20. Clenbuterol residues in pig muscle after repeat administration in a growth-promoting dose.

    PubMed

    Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana; Persi, Nina; Vahcić, Nada

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of clenbuterol residues in muscle tissue of pigs after repeat administration in a growth-promoting dose. An anabolic dose of clenbuterol (20 μg/kg body mass per day) was administered orally to experimental group (n=12) for 28 days, whereas control animals (n=3) were left untreated. Clenbuterol treated pigs were randomly sacrificed (n=3) on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of treatment discontinuation and clenbuterol residues determined in muscle tissue. Determination of residual clenbuterol was by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a screening method and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as a confirmation method. The highest clenbuterol content in the muscle of treated animals was recorded on day 0 of treatment cessation (4.40±0.37 ng/g) and significantly (p<0.05) exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.1 ng/g. On day 3 of withdrawal, it was 0.49±0.22 ng/g and on day 7 0.10±0.02 ng/g (at MRL); on day 14 of treatment discontinuation, clenbuterol content was below the limit of detection (<0.1 ng/g) in all samples. Administration of clenbuterol as a growth promoter in pig production could lead to residues in meat for human consumption up to 7 days after treatment discontinuation.

  1. Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Claire A.

    2010-01-01

    An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

  2. Oral Transliterating. NETAC Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Claire A.

    2005-01-01

    An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the deaf person, inaudibly repeats the spoken message for the deaf person, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called…

  3. Evaluating a Group Repeated Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klubnik, Cynthia Adele

    2009-01-01

    Fluency has been identified as an important component of effective reading instruction, and repeated reading has been shown to improve oral reading fluency. In order to improve the efficiency of repeated reading interventions, more research is needed on the effectiveness of small group reading interventions. An alternating treatments, single…

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous ifosfamide/mesna/methylene blue therapy.

    PubMed

    Aeschlimann, C; Küpfer, A; Schefer, H; Cerny, T

    1998-09-01

    Oral treatment with ifosfamide results in dose-limiting encephalopathy. Methylene blue is effective in reversal and prophylaxis of this side effect. In the present study, the pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide after iv and po therapy in combination with prophylactic administration of methylene blue were investigated. Nine patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer were treated by a combination of ifosfamide (3 days), sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (4 days), and etoposide (8 days). Cycles were repeated every 28 days. Ifosfamide was administered orally, with the exception of one of the first two cycles, when it was administered as a short infusion (randomly assigned). The patients received methylene blue in doses of 50 mg po 3 times daily; an initial dose of 50 mg was given the evening before chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected over the entire treatment period, and concentrations of ifosfamide and its major metabolite, 2-chloroethylamine, were measured by gas liquid chromatography. By the same technique, 2- and 3-dechloroethylifosfamide were determined in plasma and urine. Overall alkylating activity in urine was assayed by reaction of the alkylating metabolites with 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. The chemotherapeutic regimen was well-tolerated by all of the patients studied. There was no evidence of a shift in the metabolic pattern dependent on the route of administration. From the data, we conclude that methylene blue has a neuroprotective effect and that the pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide are not influenced by its comedication.

  5. Toxicity of aerosols of nicotine and pyruvic acid (separate and combined) in Sprague-Dawley rats in a 28-day OECD 412 inhalation study and assessment of systems toxicology.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Blaine; Esposito, Marco; Verbeeck, Jan; Boué, Stéphanie; Iskandar, Anita; Vuillaume, Gregory; Leroy, Patrice; Krishnan, Subash; Kogel, Ulrike; Utan, Aneli; Schlage, Walter K; Bera, Monali; Veljkovic, Emilija; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of nebulized nicotine (Nic) and nicotine/pyruvic acid mixtures (Nic/Pyr) was characterized in a 28-day Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 412 inhalation study with additional transcriptomic and lipidomic analyses. Sprague-Dawley rats were nose-only exposed, 6 h/day, 5 days/week to filtered air, saline, nicotine (50 µg/l), sodium pyruvate (NaPyr, 33.9 µg/l) or equimolar Nic/Pyr mixtures (18, 25 and 50 µg nicotine/l). Saline and NaPyr caused no health effects, but rats exposed to nicotine-containing aerosols had decreased body weight gains and concentration-dependent increases in liver weight. Blood neutrophil counts were increased and lymphocyte counts decreased in rats exposed to nicotine; activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase were increased, and levels of cholesterol and glucose decreased. The only histopathologic finding in non-respiratory tract organs was increased liver vacuolation and glycogen content. Respiratory tract findings upon nicotine exposure (but also some phosphate-buffered saline aerosol effects) were observed only in the larynx and were limited to adaptive changes. Gene expression changes in the lung and liver were very weak. Nic and Nic/Pyr caused few significant changes (including Cyp1a1 gene upregulation). Changes were predominantly related to energy metabolism and fatty acid metabolism but did not indicate an obvious toxicity-related response. Nicotine exposure lowered plasma lipids, including cholesteryl ester (CE) and free cholesterol and, in the liver, phospholipids and sphingolipids. Nic, NaPyr and Nic/Pyr decreased hepatic triacylglycerol and CE. In the lung, Nic and Nic/Pyr increased CE levels. These data suggest that only minor biologic effects related to inhalation of Nic or Nic/Pyr aerosols were observed in this 28-day study.

  6. Influence of repeated preexposure to arsenic on acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress in liver of male rats.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath; Sankar, Palanisamy

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated whether repeated arsenic preexposure can increase acetaminophen-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Rats were exposed to arsenic (25 ppm; rat equivalent concentration of maximum groundwater contamination level) via drinking water for 28 days. Next day, they were given single oral administration of acetaminophen (420 or 1000 mg/kg b.w.). Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by assessing serum biomarkers, cytochrome-P450 (CYP) content, CYP3A4- and CYP2E1-dependent enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants. Arsenic or acetaminophen increased serum ALT and AST activities and depleted CYP. Arsenic decreased, but acetaminophen increased CYP-dependent enzyme activities. These agents independently increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidants. Arsenic did not alter the effects of acetaminophen on serum biomarkers, caused further CYP depletion and decreased acetaminophen-mediated induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Arsenic enhanced the lower dose of acetaminophen-mediated lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion with no further alterations in enzymatic antioxidants. However, arsenic attenuated the higher dose-mediated lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion with improvement in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, further decrease in catalase and no alterations in superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities. Results show that arsenic preexposure increased the susceptibility of rats to hepatic oxidative stress induced by the lower dose of acetaminophen, but reduced the oxidative stress induced by the higher dose.

  7. Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with 22 chemicals using young adult rats: summary of the collaborative study by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) - Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS).

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shuichi; Ohyama, Wakako; Takashima, Rie; Shimada, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Kazumi; Kawakami, Satoru; Uno, Fuyumi; Sui, Hajime; Shimada, Yasushi; Imamura, Tadashi; Matsumura, Shoji; Sanada, Hisakazu; Inoue, Kenji; Muto, Shigeharu; Ogawa, Izumi; Hayashi, Aya; Takayanagi, Tomomi; Ogiwara, Yosuke; Maeda, Akihisa; Okada, Emiko; Terashima, Yukari; Takasawa, Hironao; Narumi, Kazunori; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Sano, Masaki; Ohashi, Nobuyuki; Morita, Takeshi; Kojima, Hajime; Honma, Masamitsu; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect hepatocarcinogens. We conducted a collaborative study to assess the performance of this assay and to evaluate the possibility of integrating it into general toxicological studies. Twenty-four testing laboratories belonging to the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group, a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, participated in this trial. Twenty-two model chemicals, including some hepatocarcinogens, were tested in 14- and/or 28-day RDLMN assays. As a result, 14 out of the 16 hepatocarcinogens were positive, including 9 genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, which were reported negative in the bone marrow/peripheral blood micronucleus (MN) assay by a single treatment. These outcomes show the high sensitivity of the RDLMN assay to hepatocarcinogens. Regarding the specificity, 4 out of the 6 non-liver targeted genotoxic carcinogens gave negative responses. This shows the high organ specificity of the RDLMN assay. In addition to the RDLMN assay, we simultaneously conducted gastrointestinal tract MN assays using 6 of the above carcinogens as an optional trial of the collaborative study. The MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first contact site of the test chemical when administered by oral gavage, was able to detect chromosomal aberrations with 3 test chemicals including a stomach-targeted carcinogen. The treatment regime was the 14- and/or 28-day repeated-dose, and the regime is sufficiently promising to incorporate these methods into repeated-dose toxicological studies. The outcomes of our collaborative study indicated that the new techniques to detect chromosomal aberrations in vivo in several tissues worked successfully.

  8. Effect of Beta alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Ducker, Kagan J; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen E

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate if combining beta alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation could lead to enhanced repeated-sprint performance in team-sport athletes, beyond what is possible with either supplement alone. Participants (n = 24) completed duplicate trials of a repeated-sprint test (3 sets; 6 × 20 m departing every 25 seconds, 4 minutes active recovery between sets) and were then allocated into 4 groups as follows: BA only (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute sodium chloride placebo); NaHCO3 only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute NaHCO3); BA/NaHCO3 (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute NaHCO3); placebo only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute sodium chloride placebo), then completed duplicate trials postsupplementation. Sodium bicarbonate alone resulted in moderate effect size (d = 0.40-0.71) and "likely" and "very likely" benefit for overall total sprint times (TST) and for each individual set and for first sprint (sets 2 and 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3). Combining BA and NaHCO3 resulted in "possible" to "likely" benefits for overall TST and for sets 2 and 3. First sprint (set 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3) also showed "likely" benefit after this trial. The BA and placebo groups showed no differences in performance after supplementation. In conclusion, these results indicate that supplementation with acute NaHCO3 improved repeated-sprint performance more than either a combination of NaHCO3 and BA or BA alone.

  9. Reexamination of pharmacokinetics of oral testosterone undecanoate in hypogonadal men with a new self-emulsifying formulation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Anthony Y; Htun, Michelle; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Diaz-Arjonilla, Maruja; Dudley, Robert E; Faulkner, Sandra; Bross, Rachelle; Leung, Andrew; Baravarian, Sima; Hull, Laura; Longstreth, James A; Kulback, Steven; Flippo, Gregory; Wang, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Many hypogonadal men prefer oral testosterone (T) treatment. Oral T undecanoate (TU) is available in many countries, but not in the United States. We aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics of oral TU in a new self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulation. Pharmacokinetics studies were conducted in 3 parts: 12 hypogonadal men were enrolled in 2 centers for a 1-day dosing study; 29 participants were enrolled from 3 centers for a 7-day dosing study; and 15 participants were enrolled from 1 center for a 28-day dosing study. Serial blood samples for serum sex hormone measurements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were drawn for up to 36 hours after oral TU administration. Mean serum T levels (C(avg)) after oral dosing of T 200 mg as TU twice daily with food were within the adult male range in most participants in the 1-, 7-, and 28-day dosing studies but were much lower in the fasting state. The dose-proportional increase in C(avg) of serum T after oral T 300 mg twice daily resulted in more participants with supraphysiologic serum T levels. In the 28-day study, trough serum T reached a steady state at day 7. Serum dihydrotestosterone and estradiol levels tracked serum T concentration. Dihydrotestosterone-testosterone ratios increased 3-fold after oral TU administration. Oral T 200 mg twice daily as TU in a new SEDDS formulation may be a viable therapy for hypogonadal men. PMID:21474786

  10. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of ammonium perfluorobutyrate in rats: Twenty-eight-day and ninety-day oral gavage studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequential 28-day and 90-day oral toxicity studies were performed in male and female rats with ammonium perfluorobutyrate (NH4+PFBA) at doses up to 150 and 30 mg/kg/d, respectively. Ammonium perfluorooctanoate was used as a comparator at a dose of 30 mg/kg/d in the 28-d study. Fe...

  12. A Repeat Look at Repeating Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    A "repeating pattern" is a cyclical repetition of an identifiable core. Children in the primary grades usually begin pattern work with fairly simple patterns, such as AB, ABC, or ABB patterns. The unique letters represent unique elements, whereas the sequence of letters represents the core that is repeated. Based on color, shape,…

  13. URINE MUTAGENICITY AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF THE DRINKING WATER MUTAGEN, 3-CHLORO-4-(DICHLOROMETHYL)-5-HYDROXY-2[5H]-FURANONE (MX), FOLLOWING REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION TO MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity analysis of urine from rats treated by oral gavage with MX at a dose of 64 mg/kg for 14 days revealed that only 0.3% of the administered compound was excreted in a genotoxically active form. At lower doses, mutagenicity was not detectable. No evidence of micronucleus...

  14. URINE MUTAGENICITY AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF THE DRINKING WATER MUTAGEN, 3-CHLORO-4-(DICHLOROMETHYL)-5-HYDROX-2[5H]-FURANONE (MX), FOLLOWING REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION TO MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity analysis of urine from rats treated by oral gavage with MX at a dose of 64 mg/kg for 14 days revealed that only 0.3% of the administered cmpound was excreted in a genotoxically active form. At lower doses, mutagenicity was not detectable. No evidence of micronucleu...

  15. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  16. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  17. Assessment of methyl methanesulfonate using the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Muto, Shigeharu; Yamada, Katsuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Iwase, Yumiko; Uno, Yoshifumi

    2015-03-01

    A repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats was conducted with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) as a part of a collaborative study supported by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test/the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group. MMS is a classical DNA-reactive carcinogen, but it is not a liver carcinogen. In the first experiment (14-day study), MMS was administered per os to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats every day for 14 days at a dose of 12.5, 25, or 50mg/kg/day. In the second experiment (28-day study), 6-week-old male SD rats were treated with MMS at 7.5, 15, or 30mg/kg/day for 28 days, because the highest dose used in the 14-day study (50mg/kg/day) caused mortality. Hepatocyte and bone marrow cell specimens were prepared on the day after the final dose. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) in the liver and that of micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) in the bone marrow were evaluated. Exposure to 50mg/kg/day MMS for 14 days resulted in an increased frequency of MNHEPs, but MMS had no effect on the frequency of MNHEPs in the rats exposed to the chemical for 28 days at doses up to 30mg/kg/day. MMS induced MNIMEs production at doses of 25 and 50mg/kg/day in the 14-day study and at doses of 15 and 30mg/kg/day in the 28-day study. Overall, the effect of MMS on the frequency of MNHEPs was considered to be equivocal.

  18. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  19. Effects of Oral Administration of Chitin Nanofiber on Plasma Metabolites and Gut Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kazuo; Izumi, Ryotaro; Kawata, Mari; Nagae, Tomone; Osaki, Tomohiro; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Morimoto, Minoru; Izawa, Hironori; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of chitin nanofibers (CNFs) and surface-deacetylated (SDA) CNFs on plasma metabolites using metabolome analysis. Furthermore, we determined the changes in gut microbiota and fecal organic acid concentrations following oral administrations of CNFs and SDACNFs. Healthy female mice (six-week-old) were fed a normal diet and administered tap water with 0.1% (v/v) CNFs or SDACNFs for 28 days. Oral administration of CNFs increased plasma levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Oral administration of SDACNFs affected the metabolisms of acyl-carnitines and fatty acids. The fecal organic level analysis indicated that oral administration of CNFs stimulated and activated the functions of microbiota. These results indicate that oral administration of CNFs increases plasma levels of ATP and 5-HT via activation of gut microbiota. PMID:26378523

  20. Effects of Oral Administration of Chitin Nanofiber on Plasma Metabolites and Gut Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kazuo; Izumi, Ryotaro; Kawata, Mari; Nagae, Tomone; Osaki, Tomohiro; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Morimoto, Minoru; Izawa, Hironori; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of chitin nanofibers (CNFs) and surface-deacetylated (SDA) CNFs on plasma metabolites using metabolome analysis. Furthermore, we determined the changes in gut microbiota and fecal organic acid concentrations following oral administrations of CNFs and SDACNFs. Healthy female mice (six-week-old) were fed a normal diet and administered tap water with 0.1% (v/v) CNFs or SDACNFs for 28 days. Oral administration of CNFs increased plasma levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Oral administration of SDACNFs affected the metabolisms of acyl-carnitines and fatty acids. The fecal organic level analysis indicated that oral administration of CNFs stimulated and activated the functions of microbiota. These results indicate that oral administration of CNFs increases plasma levels of ATP and 5-HT via activation of gut microbiota. PMID:26378523

  1. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  2. An 18-Month Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Repeated Courses of Inhaled Aztreonam Lysine in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Oermann, Christopher M.; Retsch-Bogart, George Z.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Gibson, Ronald L.; McCoy, Karen S.; Montgomery, A. Bruce; Cooper, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) causes morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Additional anti-PA therapies are needed to improve health status and health-related quality of life. AIR-CF3 was an international 18-month, open-label study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of repeated courses of aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI, now marketed as Cayston®) in patients aged ≥6 years with CF and PA infection who previously participated in one of two Phase 3 studies: AIR-CF1 or AIR-CF2. Patients received up to nine courses (28 days on/28 days off) of 75 mg AZLI two (BID) or three times daily (TID) based on randomization in the previous trials. 274 patients, mean age 28.5 years (range: 8–74 years), participated. Mean treatment adherence was high (92.0% BID group, 88.0% TID group). Hospitalization rates were low and adverse events were consistent with CF With each course of AZLI, FEV1 and scores on the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised Respiratory Symptomscale improved and bacterial density in sputum was reduced. Benefits waned in the 28 days off therapy, but weight gain was sustained over the 18months. There were no sustained decreases in PA susceptibility. A dose response was observed; AZLI TID-treated patients demonstrated greater improvements in lung function and respiratory symptoms over 18 months. Repeated intermittent 28-day courses of AZLI treatment were well tolerated. Clinical benefits in pulmonary function, health-related quality of life, and weight were observed with each course of therapy. AZLI is a safe and effective new therapy in patients with CF and PA airway infection. PMID:20672296

  3. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  4. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  5. Facilitating English-Language Learners' Oral Reading Fluency with Digital Pen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Tan, Chia-Chen; Lo, Bey-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is an indicator of overall reading competence. Many studies have claimed that repeated reading can promote oral reading fluency. Currently, novel Web- or computer-based reading technologies offer interactive digital materials that promote English oral reading fluency using the repeated reading strategy; however, paper-based…

  6. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  7. Honesty through repeated interactions.

    PubMed

    Rich, Patricia; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2016-04-21

    In the study of signaling, it is well known that the cost of deception is an essential element for stable honest signaling in nature. In this paper, we show how costs for deception can arise endogenously from repeated interactions between individuals. Utilizing the Sir Philip Sidney game as an illustrative case, we show that repeated interactions can sustain honesty with no observable signal costs, even when deception cannot be directly observed. We provide a number of potential experimental tests for this theory which distinguish it from the available alternatives.

  8. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFelice, Audrey

    2012-10-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 19 Program 12771.

  9. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chris

    2011-10-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 18 Program 12410.

  10. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFelice, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 20 Program 13140.

  11. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 17 Program 11851.

  12. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  13. All-optical repeater.

    PubMed

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  14. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  15. Behavioral effects following repeated exposure to hexachloronaphthalene in rats.

    PubMed

    Kilanowicz, Anna; Wiaderna, Dorota; Lutz, Piotr; Szymczak, Wieslaw

    2012-06-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), including hexachloronaphthalene (HxCN), are widespread global environmental contaminants. Our experiments were aimed at assessing HxCN effects on motor behavior, long-term memory, pain sensitivity, magnitude of stress-induced analgesia, auditory function and sensorimotor gating, following repeated intragastric administration (28 days) of HxCN at 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight. Three weeks after the exposure termination, male Wistar rats were subjected to the neurobehavioral tests battery performed in the following order: open-field test, passive avoidance test, hot-plate test and acoustic startle response test. Repeated administration of HxCN induced disorders of motivational processes manifested by: anorectic effect caused by aphagia and adipsia; significantly reduced motor activity (hypokinesia); impaired long-term memory and acquired passive avoidance reaction; reduced pain threshold and shortened duration of anxiety reaction after pain stimulus (sensory neglect). Some of these neurobehavioral effects (impaired long-term memory, reduced pain threshold and stress-induced analgesia) were observed at 0.3 mgHxCN/kg body weight without any signs of overt toxicity. The outcome of our study shows that HxCN, like other compounds of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) group, creates a potential risk of behavioral changes in the central nervous system in the general population as a result of environmental exposure.

  16. Ampicillin Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... capsule, liquid, and pediatric drops to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ... blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin), atenolol (Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell ...

  17. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  18. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  19. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  20. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  1. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  2. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  3. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  4. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-10-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] "top scoring pairs" polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (<3%), the study was closed. Although we were unable to conclude whether enriching for a subset of second/third line pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible.

  5. Metabolism of 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (pyridalyl) in rats after repeated oral administration and a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in brown and white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Hirohisa; Matsunaga, Haruyuki; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naohiko; Kaneko, Hideo

    2010-05-01

    Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated oral administration of 14C-2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3- [5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (14C-pyridalyl) at 5 mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days, and 14C excretion, 14C concentration in tissues, and the metabolic fate were determined. Most 14C was excreted into feces. The 14C concentrations in the blood and tissues attained steady-state levels at days 6 to 10, whereas those in white adipose tissues increased until day 14. Tissue 14C concentrations were highest in brown and white adipose tissue (38.37-57.50 ppm) but were 5.60 ppm or less in all the other tissues. Total 14C residues in blood and tissues on the 27th day after the first administration accounted for 2.6 to 3.2% of the total dose. A major fecal metabolite resulted from O-dealkylation. Analysis of metabolites in tissues revealed that the majority of 14C in perirenal adipose tissue and lungs was pyridalyl, accounting for greater than 90 and 60%, respectively, of the total, whereas a major metabolite in whole blood, kidneys, and liver was a dehalogenated metabolite. The experimental data were simulated with simple physiologically based pharmacokinetics using four-compartment models with assumption of lymphatic absorption and membrane permeability in adipose tissues. The different kinetics in brown and white adipose tissues was reasonably predicted in this model, with large distribution volume in adipose tissues and high hepatic clearance in liver. Sex-related difference of pyridalyl concentration in liver was considered to be a result of different unbound fraction times the hepatic intrinsic clearance (f x CL(int)) of 1.8 and 12 l/h for male and female, respectively. PMID:20164113

  6. Using Repeated Reading to Improve Reading Speed and Comprehension in Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated whether children with visual impairments who receive repeated reading instruction exhibit an increase in their oral reading rate and comprehension and a decrease in oral reading error rates. Methods: A single-subject, changing-criterion design replicated across three participants was used to demonstrate the…

  7. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  8. Repeated measures with zeros.

    PubMed

    Berk, K N; Lachenbruch, P A

    2002-08-01

    Consider repeated measures data with many zeros. For the case with one grouping factor and one repeated measure, we examine several models, assuming that the nonzero data are roughly lognormal. One of the simplest approaches is to model the zeros as left-censored observations from the lognormal distribution. A random effect is assumed for subjects. The censored model makes a strong assumption about the relationship between the zeros and the nonzero values. To check on this, you can instead assume that some of the zeros are 'true' zeros and model them as Bernoulli. Then the other values are modeled with a censored lognormal. A logistic model is used for the Bernoulli p, the probability of a true nonzero. The fit of the pure left-censored lognormal can be assessed by testing the hypothesis that p is 1, as described by Moulton and Halsey. The model can also be simplified by omitting the censoring, leaving a logistic model for the zeros and a lognormal model for the nonzero values. This is approximately equivalent to modeling the zero and nonzero values separately, a two-part model. In contrast to the censored model, this model assumes only a slight relationship (a covariance component) between the occurrence of zeros and the size of the nonzero values. The models are compared in terms of an example with data from children's private speech. PMID:12197298

  9. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  10. A Comparison of Two Reading Fluency Methods: Repeated Readings to a Fluency Criterion and Interval Sprinting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers have used the method of repeated readings to build oral reading fluency in students with and without special needs. A new fluency building intervention called interval sprinting uses shorter timing intervals (i.e., sprints) across a passage. This study used an alternating treatment design to compare repeated readings and interval…

  11. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  12. Intra-oral PTH administration promotes tooth extraction socket healing.

    PubMed

    Kuroshima, S; Kovacic, B L; Kozloff, K M; McCauley, L K; Yamashita, J

    2013-06-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration increases systemic and craniofacial bone mass. However, the effect of PTH therapy on healing of tooth extraction sites is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of PTH therapy on tooth extraction socket healing and to examine whether PTH intra-oral injection promotes healing. The mandibular first molars were extracted in rats, and subcutaneous PTH was administered intermittently for 7, 14, and 28 days. In a second study, maxillary second molars were extracted, and PTH was administered by either subcutaneous or intra-oral injection to determine the efficacy of intra-oral PTH administration. Healing was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses. PTH therapy accelerated the entire healing process and promoted both hard- and soft-tissue healing by increasing bone fill and connective tissue maturation. PTH therapy by intra-oral injection was as effective as subcutaneous injection in promoting tooth extraction socket healing. The findings suggest that PTH therapy promotes tooth extraction socket healing and that intra-oral injections can be used to administer PTH.

  13. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  14. Oral Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

  15. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  16. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable.

  17. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  18. RepeatsDB: a database of tandem repeat protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Di Domenico, Tomás; Potenza, Emilio; Walsh, Ian; Gonzalo Parra, R.; Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Piovesan, Damiano; Ihsan, Awais; Ferrari, Carlo; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2014-01-01

    RepeatsDB (http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is a database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Tandem repeats pose a difficult problem for the analysis of protein structures, as the underlying sequence can be highly degenerate. Several repeat types haven been studied over the years, but their annotation was done in a case-by-case basis, thus making large-scale analysis difficult. We developed RepeatsDB to fill this gap. Using state-of-the-art repeat detection methods and manual curation, we systematically annotated the Protein Data Bank, predicting 10 745 repeat structures. In all, 2797 structures were classified according to a recently proposed classification schema, which was expanded to accommodate new findings. In addition, detailed annotations were performed in a subset of 321 proteins. These annotations feature information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units. RepeatsDB is an ongoing effort to systematically classify and annotate structural protein repeats in a consistent way. It provides users with the possibility to access and download high-quality datasets either interactively or programmatically through web services. PMID:24311564

  19. Oral perception in tongue thrust and other oral habits.

    PubMed

    Dahan, J S; Lelong, O; Celant, S; Leysen, V

    2000-10-01

    Oral stereognosis is the ability of the mouth to recognize shape and texture. Oral shape recognition is sensitive to repetition and to topical mucosal anesthesia. Age, upper and lower arch perimeter, and labiolingual dysfunction also interact with oral stereognosis. The purpose of this investigation was to define the influence of age, arch size, and oral dysfunction on oral stereognosis when submitted to repeated trials. Fifty subjects were selected before orthodontic treatment. Each subject underwent 4 trials: T1 and T4 without anesthesia and strictly similar, T2 with topical anesthesia of the tongue, and T3 with topical anesthesia of the palate. Five test pieces or stimuli were used. The recognition time (RT) of each stimulus, the perimeter of upper and lower anterior dental arch, and the labiolingual dysfunction index (LLDI) were the main variables statistically evaluated. Subjects with a mild degree of dysfunction needed more time to recognize the stimuli in T3 when compared with T2. The number of RT3 > RT2 was 2.5 +/- 1.12 in the group with a low LLDI (12 +/- 1.5), and 1.57 +/- 0.63 in the group with an LLDI of 16 +/- 2.5 (P >.05). This may be attributed to different manipulation of the test pieces between the 2 groups, which could have been modified through sensory deprivation. Bolus recognition before the swallowing act needs to be paralleled to stereognostic performance.

  20. Evaluation of safety and human tolerance of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Burton, J P; Cowley, S; Simon, R R; McKinney, J; Wescombe, P A; Tagg, J R

    2011-09-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is naturally a predominant member of the human oropharynx and the commercial probiotic strain K12 has been consumed for more than a decade. The present study examines the health responses of human volunteers to oral ingestion of high doses of S. salivarius K12. A randomized group of 53 subjects received a dose of 1 × 10(10)cfu S. salivarius K12 (N=25) or placebo (N=28) for 28 days, followed by a 28-day wash out period. Blood, urine and saliva samples were collected at baseline and following treatment and analyzed, while the oral and gastrointestinal tolerance of the subjects to the dosing regimen was determined by use of questionnaires. Adverse events (AE)s were recorded for both groups. No statistically significant differences between the probiotic and placebo treated groups were detected in either the blood clinical chemistry or hematology results (P>0.05). The questionnaire responses of the subjects indicated that both treatments were well tolerated. The frequency and intensity of AEs was similar in the two groups. This data demonstrates that the daily ingestion of S. salivarius K12 over a 28-day period does not adversely affect the human host and supports the safety of its oral delivery in a food-based carrier. PMID:21722694

  1. Safety of fluralaner, a novel systemic antiparasitic drug, in MDR1(-/-) Collies after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for dogs providing long-acting flea- and tick-control after a single oral dose. This study investigated the safety of oral administration of fluralaner at 3 times the highest expected clinical dose to Multi Drug Resistance Protein 1 (MDR1(-/-)) gene defect Collies. Methods Sixteen Collies homozygous for the MDR1 deletion mutation were included in the study. Eight Collies received fluralaner chewable tablets once at a dose of 168 mg/kg; eight sham dosed Collies served as controls. All Collies were clinically observed until 28 days following treatment. Results No adverse events were observed subsequent to fluralaner treatment of MDR1(-/-) Collies at three times the highest expected clinical dose. Conclusions Fluralaner chewable tablets are well tolerated in MDR1(-/-) Collies following oral administration. PMID:24602342

  2. Saturation of repeated quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapasalo, Erkka; Heinosaari, Teiko; Kuramochi, Yui

    2016-08-01

    We study sequential measurement scenarios where the system is repeatedly subjected to the same measurement process. We first provide examples of such repeated measurements where further repetitions of the measurement do not increase our knowledge on the system after some finite number of measurement steps. We also prove, however, that repeating the Lüders measurement of an unsharp two-outcome observable never saturates in this sense, and we characterize the observable measured in the limit of infinitely many repetitions. Our result implies that a repeated measurement can be used to correct the inherent noise of an unsharp observable.

  3. [Adhesins of oral streptococci].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Urano-Tashiro, Yumiko; Konishi, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Oral streptococci comprise a numerically prominent group of oral bacteria that occur primarily on the human tooth surface as members of the biofilm community, commonly referred to as dental plaque. These streptococci are not only causative of dental caries and are primers for colonization of periodontopathic bacteria, but also well known for their ability to colonize damaged heart valves, identified most frequently as primary etiological agents of infective endocarditis. A number of streptococcal cell surface components are known to contribute to colonization of the tooth surface including putative adhesins recognizing host sialic acid (sialic acid-binding adhesins). Interactions mediated by these adhesins include the attachment of these bacteria to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite and their adhesion to erythrocytes, both of which are abolished or reduced by sialidase pretreatment of the corresponding host sialoglycoconjugate receptors. The sialic acid-binding adhesin on Streptococcus gordonii, an early colonizer on the tooth surface, has been molecularly analyzed. The adhesin, Hsa (203-kDa protein), consists of an N-terminal non repetitive region (NR1) including a signal sequence, a relatively short serine-rich region (SR1), a second non repetitive region (NR2), a long serine-rich region (SR2) containing 113 dodecapeptide repeats accounting for 75% of the whole protein, and a C-terminal cell wall anchoring domain. Therefore, it has been suggested that NR2, the putative sialic acid-binding domain of Hsa, is presented on the bacterial surface at the end of a long molecular stalk formed by SR2. The present review deals with the function and pathogenicity of oral streptococcal adhesins. PMID:23727707

  4. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  5. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  6. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  7. Estimating repeatability of egg size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Rockwell, R.F.; Sedinger, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Measures of repeatability have long been used to assess patterns of variation in egg size within and among females. We compared different analytical approaches for estimating repeatability of egg size of Black Brant. Separate estimates of repeatability for eggs of each clutch size and laying sequence number varied from 0.49 to 0.64. We suggest that using the averaging egg size within clutches results in underestimation of variation within females and thereby overestimates repeatability. We recommend a nested design that partitions egg-size variation within clutches, among clutches within females, and among females. We demonstrate little variation in estimates of repeatability resulting from a nested model controlling for egg laying sequence and a nested model in which we assumed laying sequence was unknown.

  8. All-photonic quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories.

  9. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  10. Comparative efficacy of intranasal and oral vaccines against Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J A; Gow, S P; Waldner, C L; Shields, S; Wappel, S; Bowers, A; Lacoste, S; Xu, Z; Ball, E

    2016-06-01

    In order to determine the comparative efficacy of vaccines administered intranasally or orally to protect puppies from disease subsequent to experimental infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), a randomized controlled trial was performed using 48 approximately 8-week-old specific pathogen free, Bb naive Beagle puppies. Puppies were randomized into three groups and administered vaccines containing Bb intranasally or orally, or a placebo intranasally. Twenty-one days later, all dogs were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of Bb. Clinical signs, nasal bacterial shedding and immune responses were monitored for 28 days after challenge. Intranasally vaccinated puppies had significantly lower rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing (i.e. were less sick clinically) than control puppies. The distinction between the orally vaccinated puppies and the control puppies was less consistent. The orally vaccinated puppies had less coughing and less retching than the control puppies, but nasal discharge and sneezing did not differ from control animals. Orally vaccinated puppies had higher rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing than the intranasally vaccinated puppies. Although both intranasal and oral Bb vaccines stimulated immune responses associated with disease sparing following Bb infection, the intranasal route of delivery conferred superior clinical outcomes. The observed difference in clinical efficacy suggests the need to question the rationale for the use of currently available orally administered Bb vaccines. PMID:27256028

  11. Comparative efficacy of intranasal and oral vaccines against Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J A; Gow, S P; Waldner, C L; Shields, S; Wappel, S; Bowers, A; Lacoste, S; Xu, Z; Ball, E

    2016-06-01

    In order to determine the comparative efficacy of vaccines administered intranasally or orally to protect puppies from disease subsequent to experimental infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), a randomized controlled trial was performed using 48 approximately 8-week-old specific pathogen free, Bb naive Beagle puppies. Puppies were randomized into three groups and administered vaccines containing Bb intranasally or orally, or a placebo intranasally. Twenty-one days later, all dogs were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of Bb. Clinical signs, nasal bacterial shedding and immune responses were monitored for 28 days after challenge. Intranasally vaccinated puppies had significantly lower rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing (i.e. were less sick clinically) than control puppies. The distinction between the orally vaccinated puppies and the control puppies was less consistent. The orally vaccinated puppies had less coughing and less retching than the control puppies, but nasal discharge and sneezing did not differ from control animals. Orally vaccinated puppies had higher rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing than the intranasally vaccinated puppies. Although both intranasal and oral Bb vaccines stimulated immune responses associated with disease sparing following Bb infection, the intranasal route of delivery conferred superior clinical outcomes. The observed difference in clinical efficacy suggests the need to question the rationale for the use of currently available orally administered Bb vaccines.

  12. [Oral pain].

    PubMed

    Benslama, Lotfi

    2002-02-15

    Pain, a major symptom of stomatological disease, usually leads to a specialist consultation. Most commonly it is caused by dental caries and differs in nature and in intensity according to the stage of disease: dentinitis, pulpitis, desmodontitis and dental abscess. Added to this is peridental pain and the pre- and post-operative pains related to these diseases. Almost all oral-maxillary pathology is painful, be it boney such as in osteomyelitis and fractures, mucosal in gingivo-stomatitis and aphthous ulcers, or tumourous. However, besides the "multidisciplinary" facial pains such as facial neuralgia and vascular pain, two pain syndromes are specific to stomatology: pain of the tempero-mandibular joint associated with problems of the bite and glossodynia, a very common somatic expression of psychological problems.

  13. [Oral contraception].

    PubMed

    Guillat, J C

    1980-04-20

    OC (oral contraception) includes the combined and sequential methods, postcoital and progestin only contraception, mini pills, and macro pills. The mechanism of action of OC modifies the hypothalamo-hypophysary secretion, the uterine mucosa, and the cervical mucus. Effectiveness of OC is nearly 100%; prescription of OC requires a complete clinical and biological evaluation of the patient. Contraindications to OC are any form of cancer, hypertension, vascular or thrombotic antecedents, obesity, tabagism, diabetes. OC users must be checked at least every 6 months, and treatment can last, if there are no evident signs of side effects, until about age 40. The most commonly known side effects of OC are menstruation disorders, cardio- and cerebrovascular effects, hepatic and metabolic effects; there is no evidence that OC can cause carcinogenic effects, but it can increase teratogenic risk. The association of OC with such drugs as Rifampicine, anticonvulsants and/or tranquillizers, can nullify contraceptive effectiveness. PMID:6900393

  14. Protein Repeats from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Turjanski, Pablo; Parra, R Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Becher, Verónica; Ferreiro, Diego U

    2016-01-01

    Some natural proteins display recurrent structural patterns. Despite being highly similar at the tertiary structure level, repeating patterns within a single repeat protein can be extremely variable at the sequence level. We use a mathematical definition of a repetition and investigate the occurrences of these in sequences of different protein families. We found that long stretches of perfect repetitions are infrequent in individual natural proteins, even for those which are known to fold into structures of recurrent structural motifs. We found that natural repeat proteins are indeed repetitive in their families, exhibiting abundant stretches of 6 amino acids or longer that are perfect repetitions in the reference family. We provide a systematic quantification for this repetitiveness. We show that this form of repetitiveness is not exclusive of repeat proteins, but also occurs in globular domains. A by-product of this work is a fast quantification of the likelihood of a protein to belong to a family. PMID:27044676

  15. Protein Repeats from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Turjanski, Pablo; Parra, R Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Becher, Verónica; Ferreiro, Diego U

    2016-04-05

    Some natural proteins display recurrent structural patterns. Despite being highly similar at the tertiary structure level, repeating patterns within a single repeat protein can be extremely variable at the sequence level. We use a mathematical definition of a repetition and investigate the occurrences of these in sequences of different protein families. We found that long stretches of perfect repetitions are infrequent in individual natural proteins, even for those which are known to fold into structures of recurrent structural motifs. We found that natural repeat proteins are indeed repetitive in their families, exhibiting abundant stretches of 6 amino acids or longer that are perfect repetitions in the reference family. We provide a systematic quantification for this repetitiveness. We show that this form of repetitiveness is not exclusive of repeat proteins, but also occurs in globular domains. A by-product of this work is a fast quantification of the likelihood of a protein to belong to a family.

  16. Protein Repeats from First Principles

    PubMed Central

    Turjanski, Pablo; Parra, R. Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Becher, Verónica; Ferreiro, Diego U.

    2016-01-01

    Some natural proteins display recurrent structural patterns. Despite being highly similar at the tertiary structure level, repeating patterns within a single repeat protein can be extremely variable at the sequence level. We use a mathematical definition of a repetition and investigate the occurrences of these in sequences of different protein families. We found that long stretches of perfect repetitions are infrequent in individual natural proteins, even for those which are known to fold into structures of recurrent structural motifs. We found that natural repeat proteins are indeed repetitive in their families, exhibiting abundant stretches of 6 amino acids or longer that are perfect repetitions in the reference family. We provide a systematic quantification for this repetitiveness. We show that this form of repetitiveness is not exclusive of repeat proteins, but also occurs in globular domains. A by-product of this work is a fast quantification of the likelihood of a protein to belong to a family. PMID:27044676

  17. Vaginal impact of the oral administration of total freeze-dried culture of LCR 35 in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Bohbot, J M; Cardot, J M

    2012-01-01

    The use of probiotics in the prevention or treatment of some vaginal infections has been the subject of numerous studies. To assess the presence of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus (LCR35) in the vagina after an oral administration, an open randomised pilot study was conducted on 20 healthy women of child-bearing age. Materials and Methods. 2 groups of 10 women were given a 28-day oral course, that is, at least 108 CFU/day (group 1) or 2 × 108 CFU/day (group 2) of LCR35. Nugent score and vaginal screening for LCR35 were undertaken before and after 28 days of treatment. Results. The mean Nugent score decreased in group 1 (-0,2) as well as in group 2 (-0,3). 10% of women in group 1 versus 40% of women in group 2 were carrying LCR35 at the end of the trial. Conclusion. LCR35, at the minimal dose of 2 × 108 CFU/day, can return the Nugent score to normal in healthy women of child-bearing age, by means of a well-tolerated vaginal temporary presence. Phase III clinical trials will specify the preventive or curative impact of this orally administered strain on a range of vaginal disorders such as bacterial vaginosis or vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  18. Oral Health in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin; Haber, Judith; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Bella, Abigail; Vasilyeva, Anna; Lange Kessler, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is crucial to overall health. Because of normal physiologic changes, pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of oral health. Pregnant women and their providers need more knowledge about the many changes that occur in the oral cavity during pregnancy. In this article we describe the importance of the recognition, prevention, and treatment of oral health problems in pregnant women. We offer educational strategies that integrate interprofessional oral health competencies. PMID:27281467

  19. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  20. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol. PMID:25903096

  1. Metabolic and Community Synergy of Oral Bacteria in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Nielson T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oral periodontopathic bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum has been repeatedly associated with colorectal tumors. Molecular analysis has identified specific virulence factors that promote tumorigenesis in the colon. However, other oral community members, such as members of the Porphyromonas spp., are also found with F. nucleatum on colonic tumors, and thus, narrow studies of individual pathogens do not take community-wide virulence properties into account. A broader view of oral bacterial physiology and pathogenesis identifies two factors that could promote colonization and persistence of oral bacterial communities in the colon. The polymicrobial nature of oral biofilms and the asaccharolytic metabolism of many of these species make them well suited to life in the microenvironment of colonic lesions. Consideration of these two factors offers a novel perspective on the role of oral microbiota in the initiation, development, and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:27303740

  2. Do Twelfths Terminate or Repeat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Rebecca; Burnison, Erica

    2015-01-01

    When finding the decimal equivalent of a fraction with 12 in the denominator, will it terminate or repeat? This question came from a seventh grader in author Erica Burnison's class as the student was pondering a poster generated by one of her classmates. Not only was the question intriguing, but it also affirmed the belief in the power of…

  3. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... mobile repeaters by public safety licensees on certain frequencies in the VHF band. DATES: Submit..., CART, etc.) by email: FCC504@fcc.gov or phone: 202-418- 0530 or TTY: 202-418-0432. For detailed... Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (May 1, 1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using...

  4. Repeat Pregnancies among Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Lewis, Steven M.; Lohr, Mary Jane; Spencer, Michael S.; White, Rachelle D.

    1997-01-01

    Reports the results of an event history analysis of rapidly repeated pregnancies among a sample of 170 adolescents. Results show that the best fitting model for these girls included two proximate determinants of pregnancy, contraceptive use, and other factors. Findings indicate that such pregnancies among teenagers are somewhat predictable. (RJM)

  5. Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins and Cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.

    2009-10-16

    Cyanobacteria are unique in many ways and one unusual feature is the presence of a suite of proteins that contain at least one domain with a minimum of eight tandem repeated five-residues (Rfr) of the general consensus sequence A[N/D]LXX. The function of such pentapeptide repeat proteins (PRPs) are still unknown, however, their prevalence in cyanobacteria suggests that they may play some role in the unique biological activities of cyanobacteria. As part of an inter-disciplinary Membrane Biology Grand Challenge at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) and Washington University in St. Louis, the genome of Cyanothece 51142 was sequenced and its molecular biology studied with relation to circadian rhythms. The genome of Cyanothece encodes for 35 proteins that contain at least one PRP domain. These proteins range in size from 105 (Cce_3102) to 930 (Cce_2929) kDa with the PRP domains ranging in predicted size from 12 (Cce_1545) to 62 (cce_3979) tandem pentapeptide repeats. Transcriptomic studies with 29 out of the 35 genes showed that at least three of the PRPs in Cyanothece 51142 (cce_0029, cce_3083, and cce_3272) oscillated with repeated periods of light and dark, further supporting a biological function for PRPs. Using X-ray diffraction crystallography, the structure for two pentapeptide repeat proteins from Cyanothece 51142 were determined, cce_1272 (aka Rfr32) and cce_4529 (aka Rfr23). Analysis of their molecular structures suggests that all PRP may share the same structural motif, a novel type of right-handed quadrilateral β-helix, or Rfr-fold, reminiscent of a square tower with four distinct faces. Each pentapeptide repeat occupies one face of the Rfr-fold with four consecutive pentapeptide repeats completing a coil that, in turn, stack upon each other to form “protein skyscrapers”. Details of the structural features of the Rfr-fold are reviewed here together with a discussion for the possible role of end

  6. Oral malodor: philosophical and practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bosy, A

    1997-03-01

    Although oral malodor or bad breath is an unpleasant condition experienced by most individuals, it typically results in transient discomfort. At least 50 per cent of the population suffer from chronic oral malodor, however, and approximately half of these individuals experience a severe problem that creates personal discomfort and social embarrassment. The mouth air of chronic malodor sufferers is tainted with compounds such as hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and organic acids, which produce a stream of foul air that is gravely offensive to the people in their vicinity. Sufferers often make desperate attempts to mask their oral malodor with mints and chewing gum, compulsive brushing, and repeatedly rinsing with commercial mouthwashes. While dental diseases have been strongly associated with this condition, there is considerable evidence that dentally healthy individuals can exhibit significant levels of mouth odor. Proteolytic activity by microorganisms residing on the tongue and teeth results in foul-smelling compounds, and is the most common cause of oral malodor. A specialized device called the halimeter is available to measure the volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air. Many of the manufacturers of bad breath remedies claim that their products contain antibacterial mechanisms with sufficient strength to control oral malodor over long periods of time. None, however, effectively eliminate the problem. Interest in oral malodor research and clinical treatment has increased in the last few years, and this distressing problem is finally getting the attention it deserves. PMID:9086681

  7. [Oral viral infections].

    PubMed

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  8. Acceptability and tolerability of levetiracetam oral solution for the treatment of partial-onset seizures: the SOLUCIÓN study.

    PubMed

    Matías-Guíu, J; Molins, A; Mauri, J A; Villar, E

    2010-09-01

    This cross-sectional, observational study evaluated the use of levetiracetam oral solution in usual clinical practice. Patients ≥ 16 years with partial-onset seizures (had received levetiracetam oral solution for ≥ 28 days) completed a study questionnaire assessing overall acceptability of levetiracetam oral solution, specific organoleptic characteristics (taste, taste intensity, aftertaste), ease of use and convenience. Tolerability was assessed by evaluating adverse events. Of 389 patients, 92.8% (361/389) were evaluable for acceptability, all (389) for tolerability; 65.3% (236/361) rated levetiracetam oral solution very acceptable or acceptable, 41.5% (150/361) pleasant or very pleasant, 54.3% (196/361) neither strong nor mild taste intensity and indicated the drug left an aftertaste (most stated aftertaste did not bother them), 75.3% very easy or easy to use and 61.8% very convenient or convenient to use. There was a positive relationship between overall acceptability of levetiracetam oral solution and favorable responses for organoleptic characteristics, ease of use, convenience and patients' evaluation of treatment compliance (P < 0.0001 for each). Of the 176/353 who previously received another antiepileptic drug and reported preference for a medication, 72.2% (127/176) preferred levetiracetam oral solution and 39/389 (10%) reported adverse events. Levetiracetam oral solution demonstrated a high degree of patient acceptability in adult patients with partial-onset seizures and was well tolerated. PMID:21069102

  9. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  10. The Effects of Repeated Readings on the Development of Lower Identification Skills of FL Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Etsuo

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of repeated readings of a passage in a foreign language (English) on the ability of slow beginning readers at a Japanese university to increase their oral and silent reading rates. Results indicate that, for practice passages, silent reading rates increased significantly. This transfer of practice effects to a new passage…

  11. ACCUMULATION AND METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER REPEATED ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation and metabolism of arsenic in mice after repeated oral administration of arsenate, Hughes, M. F., Kenyon, E. M., Edwards, B. C., Mitchell, C. T., Del Razo, L. M., and Thomas,
    D. J.

    The human carcinogen inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a pervasive environmental ...

  12. Comparing the Efficiency of Repeated Reading and Listening-While-Reading to Improve Fluency and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Marsicano, Richard; Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2015-01-01

    An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of two reading fluency interventions on the oral reading fluency and maze accuracy of four fourth-grade students. Also, by taking into account time spent in intervention, the efficiency of the two interventions was compared. In the adult-mediated repeated reading (RR) condition,…

  13. Reciprocal Peer Tutoring and Repeated Reading: Increasing Practicality Using Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oddo, Maria; Barnett, David W.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the efficacy of peer-mediated repeated reading (RR) interventions carried out by student dyads. This research extends the existing research by investigating the impact of RR on oral reading fluency and comprehension when carried out by a teacher in small groups of fourth-grade students. Outcomes were analyzed…

  14. TAK-228 (formerly MLN0128), an investigational oral dual TORC1/2 inhibitor: A phase I dose escalation study in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, Irene M; Siegel, David S; Vij, Ravi; Berdeja, Jesus G; Richardson, Paul G; Neuwirth, Rachel; Patel, Chirag G; Zohren, Fabian; Wolf, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    The PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways are frequently dysregulated in multiple human cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). This was the first clinical study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, maximal-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics, and preliminary clinical activity of TAK-228, an oral TORC1/2 inhibitor, in patients with MM, NHL, or WM. Thirty-nine patients received TAK-228 once daily (QD) at 2, 4, 6, or 7 mg, or QD for 3 days on and 4 days off each week (QDx3d QW) at 9 or 12 mg, in 28-day cycles. The overall median age was 61.0 years (range 46-85); 31 patients had MM, four NHL, and four WM. Cycle 1 DLTs occurred in five QD patients (stomatitis, urticaria, blood creatinine elevation, fatigue, and nausea and vomiting) and four QDx3d QW patients (erythematous rash, fatigue, asthenia, mucosal inflammation, and thrombocytopenia). The MTDs were determined to be 4 mg QD and 9 mg QDx3d QW. Thirty-six patients (92%) reported at least one drug-related toxicity; the most common grade ≥3 drug-related toxicities were thrombocytopenia (15%), fatigue (10%), and neutropenia (5%). TAK-228 exhibited a dose-dependent increase in plasma exposure and no appreciable accumulation with repeat dosing; mean plasma elimination half-life was 6-8 hr. Of the 33 response-evaluable patients, one MM patient had a minimal response, one WM patient achieved partial response, one WM patient had a minor response, and 18 patients (14 MM, two NHL, and two WM) had stable disease. These findings encourage further studies including combination strategies. PMID:26800393

  15. TAK-228 (formerly MLN0128), an investigational oral dual TORC1/2 inhibitor: A phase I dose escalation study in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, Irene M; Siegel, David S; Vij, Ravi; Berdeja, Jesus G; Richardson, Paul G; Neuwirth, Rachel; Patel, Chirag G; Zohren, Fabian; Wolf, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    The PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways are frequently dysregulated in multiple human cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). This was the first clinical study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, maximal-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics, and preliminary clinical activity of TAK-228, an oral TORC1/2 inhibitor, in patients with MM, NHL, or WM. Thirty-nine patients received TAK-228 once daily (QD) at 2, 4, 6, or 7 mg, or QD for 3 days on and 4 days off each week (QDx3d QW) at 9 or 12 mg, in 28-day cycles. The overall median age was 61.0 years (range 46-85); 31 patients had MM, four NHL, and four WM. Cycle 1 DLTs occurred in five QD patients (stomatitis, urticaria, blood creatinine elevation, fatigue, and nausea and vomiting) and four QDx3d QW patients (erythematous rash, fatigue, asthenia, mucosal inflammation, and thrombocytopenia). The MTDs were determined to be 4 mg QD and 9 mg QDx3d QW. Thirty-six patients (92%) reported at least one drug-related toxicity; the most common grade ≥3 drug-related toxicities were thrombocytopenia (15%), fatigue (10%), and neutropenia (5%). TAK-228 exhibited a dose-dependent increase in plasma exposure and no appreciable accumulation with repeat dosing; mean plasma elimination half-life was 6-8 hr. Of the 33 response-evaluable patients, one MM patient had a minimal response, one WM patient achieved partial response, one WM patient had a minor response, and 18 patients (14 MM, two NHL, and two WM) had stable disease. These findings encourage further studies including combination strategies.

  16. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  17. Observations of Soft Gamma Repeaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2004-01-01

    Magnetars (Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars) are a subclass of neutron stars characterized by their recurrent X-ray bursts. While in an active (bursting) state (lasting anywhere between days and years), they are emit&ng hundreds of predominantly soft (kT=30 kev), short (0.1-100 ms long) events. Their quiescent source x-ray light ewes exhibit puhlions rotational period rate changes (spin-down) indicate that their magnetic fields are extremely high, of the order of 10^14- 10^l5 G. Such high B-field objects, dubbed "magnetars", had been predicted to exist in 1992, but the first concrete observational evidence were obtained in 1998 for two of these sources. I will discuss here the history of Soft Gamma Repeaters, and their spectral, timing and flux characteristics both in the persistent and their burst emission.

  18. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  19. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  20. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  1. A repeating fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star. PMID:26934226

  2. A repeating fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  3. Repeat film analysis and its implications for quality assurance in dental radiology: An institutional case study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Shruthi; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Acharya, Shashidhar

    2015-01-01

    Context: The goal of any radiologist is to produce the highest quality diagnostic radiographs, while keeping patient exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the reasons for radiograph rejections through a repeat film analysis in an Indian dental school. Settings and Design: An observational study conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Materials and Methods: During a 6-month study period, a total of 9,495 intra-oral radiographs and 2339 extraoral radiographs taken in the Radiology Department were subjected to repeat film analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS Version 16. Descriptive analysis used. Results: The results showed that the repeat rates were 7.1% and 5.86% for intraoral and extraoral radiographs, respectively. Among the causes for errors reported, positioning error (38.7%) was the most common, followed by improper angulations (26.1%), and improper film placement (11.2%) for intra-oral radiographs. The study found that the maximum frequency of repeats among extraoral radiographs was for panoramic radiographs (49%) followed by lateral cephalogram (33%), and paranasal sinus view (14%). It was also observed that repeat rate of intraoral radiographs was highest for internees (44.7%), and undergraduate students (28.2%). Conclusions: The study pointed to a need for more targeted interventions to achieve the goal of keeping patient exposure ALARA in a dental school setting. PMID:26321841

  4. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  5. Bibliography on Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waserman, Manfred J., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography covers articles and books dealing with oral history published between 1950 and 1970. In addition to works treating oral history as a methodology for historical discovery, the guide includes a separate annotated list of twenty selected books that use oral history material in the development of their themes and…

  6. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  8. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  9. Essentials of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  10. Infant oral health and oral habits.

    PubMed

    Nowak, A J; Warren, J J

    2000-10-01

    Many oral diseases and conditions, including dental caries (cavities) and malocclusions, have their origins early in life. Prudent anticipatory guidance by the medical and dental professions can help prevent many of the more common oral health problems. This article provides information on the rationale for early dental examination and instructions for pediatric and family practitioners in scheduling and conducting an early oral intervention appointment. In addition, feeding practices, non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, and bruxing are discussed, including their effects on orofacial growth and development.

  11. Subacute and Reproductive Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Hydroethanolic Extract of Jacaranda decurrens Roots in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joyce Alencar; Arruda, Aline; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Piccinelli, Ana Cláudia; Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Diana; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença (Bignoniaceae) is a species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Previous findings from our group reported scientifically that J. decurrens has anti-inflammatory efficacy. However, more toxicological studies are needed to support and ensure its safe use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of a prolonged treatment with hydroethanolic root extract of J. decurrens (EJD) on hematological, biochemical, and reproductive parameters in adult male rats. The animals received by oral gavage 0; 250; 500; or 1000 mg/kg body weight of EJD for 28 days. After the treatment, biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and reproductive parameters were analyzed. The EJD treatment did not cause adverse effects on body weight gain, feed and water consumption, hematological and biochemical profiles, or histopathological analysis of liver and kidney. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in reproductive parameters, such as sperm production, number of sperm in the epididymis, and sperm morphology. These results demonstrate the absence of subacute toxicity as a result of the oral treatment with EJD for 28 days in adult male rats. However, other studies should be performed to evaluate the total safety of this plant. PMID:24348699

  12. Quantification of telomerase activity in normal oral mucosal tissue and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Arpita; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.; Sattur, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The role of telomeres and telomerase in oral cancer is an area of much recent interest. The understanding of the role of telomere biology, the end replication problem leading to genomic instability and the reactivation of telomerase, is absolutely critical to our understanding of oral cancer, and more so, to our ability of early diagnosis and developing novel therapies and cancer prevention approaches. The aim of the present study was to quantify telomerase activity (TA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral mucosa and assess the role of telomerase as diagnostic and prognostic marker of oral malignancy. Materials and Methods: We quantified TA in 45 patients with OSCC and 20 normal oral mucosal specimens using polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay and compared it with the clinical status and grade of malignancy. Results: TA was detected in 89% of malignant and 5% of normal oral mucosal tissue. The TA levels ranged from 0.28 to 6.91 (mean 2.05, standard deviation [SD] 1.33) in OSCC and 0.21 to 1.09 (mean 0.54, SD 0.27) in normal oral mucosa. There was no relationship between TA levels and clinical stages, site of the lesion, history of adverse habits, or sex of the patient. However, under the WHO classification, there were significant differences (P < 0.00) between Grades I, II, and III. Furthermore, increasing age of the patient significantly correlated with TA. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that activation of TA is frequent in OSCC. Statistically significant difference in quantified telomerase levels of OSCC and normal oral mucosa (P < 0.00) demonstrates the significant clinical usefulness of telomerase activation as a valuable marker for diagnosis while significant correlation of TA with grades of malignancy indicates its effectiveness as marker for prognosis of OSCC.

  13. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  14. Reproducibility and validity of oral visual inspection by trained health workers in the detection of oral precancer and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, B.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Sunilkumar, K. B.; Kuruvila, B.; Pisani, P.; Nair, M. K.

    1997-01-01

    A randomized intervention trial is in progress in Kerala, India, to evaluate the effectiveness of oral visual inspection by trained health workers (HWs) in the prevention of oral cancer. Fourteen health workers with college graduation as the basic qualification were trained in oral visual inspection to identify oral cancers and precancers among the participants of the screening trial and to refer them for further confirmation and management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the screening test provided by the health worker against the reference oral visual findings of three physicians. A total of 2069 subjects who had already been examined were re-examined by the health workers and physicians. The sensitivity and the specificity of the oral visual inspection were 94.3% and 99.3% respectively. There was moderate agreement between the findings of the initial and the repeat mouth examinations carried out by the health workers, which were on average 6 months apart. There was almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.85) between the findings of the health workers and the physicians in identifying the different types of oral precancerous lesions. The findings of our study indicate that it is possible to train resource persons to perform the oral cancer screening test as accurately as doctors, although experience appears to be a crucial component of health workers' accuracy. The efficacy of such an approach to reduce the incidence of and mortality from oral cancer, however, remains to be proven. PMID:9252209

  15. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  16. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity...

  17. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity...

  18. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity...

  19. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity...

  20. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity...

  1. Induction of hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase by oral methaqualone consumption.

    PubMed

    Kaur, S; Ali, B

    1982-11-01

    Repeated oral administration of methaqualone (100 mg/kg/day) to rats for 6 consecutive days evoked approximately two and a half fold increase in p-nitrophenol glucuronidation by hepatic microsomes. Interestingly, the magnitude of UDP-glucuronyltransferase stimulation by methaqualone, when assessed in crude liver homogenate, was comparable to that obtained with isolated microsomes.

  2. Assessment as a Strategy to Increase Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Maria S.; Munger, Kristen A.; Clonan, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    For students with reading disabilities who experience difficulties with oral reading fluency, school-based interventions frequently focus on increasing speed through interventions such as repeated readings of texts. Students may not respond adequately to such "fluency only" interventions if the underlying skills that lead to fluent reading are…

  3. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  4. Relationship between brain accumulation of manganese and aberration of hippocampal adult neurogenesis after oral exposure to manganese chloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Kikuchihara, Yoh; Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kato, Mizuho; Wang, Liyun; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    We previously found persistent aberration of hippocampal adult neurogenesis, along with brain manganese (Mn) accumulation, in mouse offspring after developmental exposure to 800-ppm dietary Mn. Reduction of parvalbumin (Pvalb)(+) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus along with promoter region hypermethylation are thought to be responsible for this aberrant neurogenesis. The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between the induction of aberrant neurogenesis and brain Mn accumulation after oral Mn exposure as well as the responsible mechanism in young adult animals. We used two groups of mice with 28- or 56-day exposure periods to oral MnCl2·xH2O at 800 ppm as Mn, a dose sufficient to lead to aberrant neurogenesis after developmental exposure. A third group of mice received intravenous injections of Mn at 5-mg/kg body weight once weekly for 28 days. The 28-day oral Mn exposure did not cause aberrations in neurogenesis. In contrast, 56-day oral exposure caused aberrations in neurogenesis suggestive of reductions in type 2b and type 3 progenitor cells and immature granule cells in the dentate subgranular zone. Brain Mn accumulation in 56-day exposed cases, as well as in directly Mn-injected cases occurred in parallel with reduction of Pvalb(+) GABAergic interneurons in the dentate hilus, suggesting that this may be responsible for aberrant neurogenesis. For reduction of Pvalb(+) interneurons, suppression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling of mature granule cells may occur via suppression of c-Fos-mediated neuronal plasticity due to direct Mn-toxicity rather than promoter region hypermethylation of Pvalb.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of oral ivabradine in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Riesen, S C; Ni, W; Carnes, C A; Lindsey, K J; Phelps, M A; Schober, K E

    2011-10-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the measurement of the novel heart rate-lowering drug ivabradine and its major metabolite, S-18982, was cross-validated in the plasma of eight healthy cats. Plasma concentrations were then determined after single and repeated oral administration of ivabradine. Individual plasma concentrations versus time from each cat were used in compartmental analysis using the commercially available software WinNonlin. Both ivabradine and S-18982 reached their maximum concentrations of 103.33 and 3.86 ng/mL within 1 h. Following repeated administration, areas under the plasma concentration-time curves for ivabradine and S-18982 did not significantly increase. Two-compartmental and one-compartmental models with first-order input and elimination provided the best fit to the data for ivabradine and S-18982, respectively. Both models were combined to produce a single 4-compartment model characterizing ivabradine and S-18982 pharmacokinetics. The results of this study indicate that repeated oral doses of ivabradine produced plasma drug concentrations suitable for 12-h dosing intervals in healthy cats. Furthermore, the analytical assay and combined ivabradine/S-18982 model provide tools for further evaluation of ivabradine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in future studies in cats.

  6. Advances in Oral Coagulants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews current and future treatment practices concerning oral anticoagulants. In the second decade of the 21st millennium clinicians can finally treat thrombotic disease with long-awaited new oral anticoagulant medications. In addition, improvements have been made in managing warfarin, the traditional but far from obsolete medication. The first part of this review will cover current advances with warfarin treatment. The second portion will discuss specific active coagulation factor inhibitors, the new oral anticoagulants.

  7. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. PMID:25871419

  8. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  9. A Semiparametric Bayesian Model for Repeatedly Repeated Binary Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Fernando A.; Müller, Peter; Rosner, Gary L.; Relling, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We discuss the analysis of data from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays comparing tumor and normal tissues. The data consist of sequences of indicators for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and involve three nested levels of repetition: chromosomes for a given patient, regions within chromosomes, and SNPs nested within regions. We propose to analyze these data using a semiparametric model for multi-level repeated binary data. At the top level of the hierarchy we assume a sampling model for the observed binary LOH sequences that arises from a partial exchangeability argument. This implies a mixture of Markov chains model. The mixture is defined with respect to the Markov transition probabilities. We assume a nonparametric prior for the random mixing measure. The resulting model takes the form of a semiparametric random effects model with the matrix of transition probabilities being the random effects. The model includes appropriate dependence assumptions for the two remaining levels of the hierarchy, i.e., for regions within chromosomes and for chromosomes within patient. We use the model to identify regions of increased LOH in a dataset coming from a study of treatment-related leukemia in children with an initial cancer diagnostic. The model successfully identifies the desired regions and performs well compared to other available alternatives. PMID:19746193

  10. Repeated paroxetine treatment reverses anhedonia induced in rats by chronic mild stress or dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Casarotto, P C; Andreatini, R

    2007-11-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, in the sucrose preference test in rats. Rats treated acutely with dexamethasone (5-10 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in sucrose preference (anhedonia) in comparison to vehicle treated rats, although 1 mg/kg dexamethasone did not alter the sucrose preference. Daily paroxetine treatment (10 g/kg, i.p., 14 days) reversed the anhedonic effect of acute dexamethasone (5 mg/kg), while causing no increased sucrose preference in rats that received dexamethasone vehicle. The paroxetine vehicle treated rats showed anhedonia even 14 days after acute dexamethasone administration. Paroxetine (10 mk/kg, i.p. for 28 days) also reversed anhedonia induced by chronic mild stress (8 weeks). In conclusion, acute dexamethasone induced an enduring anhedonic state that was reversed by repeated paroxetine treatment. Thus, the present study adds new data to the evidence supporting an important role for glucocorticoid in depression.

  11. Repeated checking causes memory distrust.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Marcel; Kindt, Merel

    2003-03-01

    This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits perceptual processing; (3) inhibited perceptual processing makes recollections less vivid and detailed and finally; (4) reduction in vividness and detail promotes distrust in memory. An interactive computer animation was developed in which participants had to perform checking rituals on a virtual gas stove. Two separate experiments were carried out with n=39 (Experiment I) and n=40 (Experiment II) healthy participants. In both studies, the control group and the experimental group were given the same pre-test and post-test on the virtual gas stove. In between, the experimental group engaged in 'relevant checking', i.e. checking the gas stove, while the control group engaged in 'irrelevant checking', i.e. checking virtual light bulbs. In both experiments there were powerful effects of repeated 'relevant checking': while actual memory accuracy remained unaffected, the vividness and detail of the recollections were greatly reduced. Most pertinently, in both experiments relevant checking undermined confidence in memory. No such effects were observed in the control group. One might argue that the pre-test/post-test design may have made the control group anticipate a memory assessment at the post-test and that this artifact made them relatively alert producing memory confidence at post test that was artificially high. A third experiment was carried out (n=2 x 20) in which no pre-test was given while, other than that, Experiment III was identical to the first two experiments. Results confirmed earlier findings: compared to the irrelevant checking control group, recollections in the relevant checking group were non-vivid, non-detailed while confidence in memory was low. The theory

  12. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer. PMID:27482300

  13. Tumor dynamics in response to antiangiogenic therapy with oral metronomic topotecan and pazopanib in neuroblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Mokhtari, Reza Bayat; Oliveira, Indhira Dias; Islam, Syed; Toledo, Silvia Regina Caminada; Yeger, Herman; Baruchel, Sylvain

    2013-08-01

    Metronomic chemotherapy, combined with targeted antiangiogenic drugs, has demonstrated significant anticancer efficacy in various studies. Though, tumors do acquire resistance. Here, we have investigated the effect of prolonged therapy with oral metronomic topotecan and pazopanib on tumor behavior in a neuroblastoma mouse xenograft model. SK-N-BE(2) xenograft-bearing mice were treated with either of the following regimens (daily, orally): vehicle (control), 150 mg/kg pazopanib, 1.0 mg/kg topotecan, and combination of topotecan and pazopanib. Planned durations of treatment for each regimen were 28, 56, and 80 days or until the end point, after which animals were sacrificed. We found that only combination-treated animals survived until 80 days. Combination halted tumor growth for up to 50 days, after which gradual growth was observed. Unlike single agents, all three durations of combination significantly lowered microvessel densities compared to the control. However, the tumors treated with the combination for 56 and 80 days had higher pericyte coverage compared to control and those treated for 28 days. The proliferative and mitotic indices of combination-treated tumors were higher after 28 days of treatment and comparable after 56 days and 80 days of treatment compared to control. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that combination treatment increased the hypoxia and angiogenic expression. Immunohistochemistry for Glut-1 and hexokinase II expression revealed a metabolic switch toward elevated glycolysis in the combination-treated tumors. We conclude that prolonged combination therapy with metronomic topotecan and pazopanib demonstrates sustained antiangiogenic activity but also incurs resistance potentially mediated by elevated glycolysis.

  14. An unusual case of homicide by use of repeated administration of organophosphate insecticides.

    PubMed

    De Letter, E A; Cordonnier, J A C M; Piette, M H A

    2002-03-01

    We present an unusual murder case by use of repeated administration of organophosphate insecticides. A 49-year-old woman suffering from mental retardation, epileptic fits and acromegaly was poisoned by her husband. At first, her death was considered as a 'sudden and unexpected' natural death. Abdominal abscesses of pancreatic origin found at autopsy were compatible with repeated administration of pesticides with anticholinergic action. In her medical history at least one episode consistent with an organophosphate intoxication was retrieved. Thorough inquiry revealed that the victim had ingested phosphamidon and/or omethoate orally. Organophosphate intoxication should be considered when unexplained neurological symptoms are associated with pancreatic disturbances.

  15. Modeling Repeatedly Flaring δ Sunspots.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-03-11

    Active regions (ARs) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into α, β, γ, and δ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the δ sunspots are known to be superactive and produce the most x-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin subphotospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic δ sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  16. TOO Observations Soft Gamma Repeaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanParadijs, J.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the project was to study the X-ray properties of the persistent and burst emission of Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs) during periods of burst activity. We monitored this activity with BATSE on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, and made X-ray observations with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). SGR1806-20 became active in October 1996. We made observations with the PCA on the RXTE in November 1996. In the RXTE data we detected several hundred brief SGR events, which occurred in clear bunches, and persistent emission. From a Fouder analysis of the persistent emission (excluding time intervals with bursts) we found a period of 7.47 s. These pulsations are also present in RXTE data taken several weeks later (PI Dr. T. Strohmayer), which were combined with our data. Comparison with ASCA data taken in 1993 and 1995 shows that the period, which reflects the spin of a neutron star, increases on a time scale of 1500 years. These results show that SGR1 806-20 is a neutron star with a superstrong magnetic field (about 1"15) Gauss), thereby establishing, for the first time, the existence of magnetars.

  17. Observations of Soft Gamma Repeaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2005-01-01

    Magnetars (Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars) are a subclass of neutron stars characterized by their recurrent X-ray bursts. While in an active (bursting) state (lasting anywhere between days and years), they are emitting hundreds of predominantly soft (kl'=30 kev), short (0.1 - 100 ms long) events. Their quiescent source X-ray light curves exhibit pulsations in the narrow range of 5-1 1 s; estimates of these rotational period rate changes (spin-down) indicate that their magnetic fields are extremely high, of the order of 10A14-10A15 G. Such high B-field objects, dubbed "magnetars", had been predicted to exist in 1992, but the first concrete observational evidence was obtained in 1998 for two of these sources. Very recently, SGR1806-20 emitted a giant flare, which was detected in the radio with a multitude of telescopes under an extensive international campaign. These observations have revealed exciting new results, never seen before in any of the other magnetar sources. I will discuss here these results and their relevance to our understanding of the nature of magnetars.

  18. Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

  19. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

  20. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  1. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  2. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system. PMID:24313425

  3. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    PubMed

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  4. Competition impedes the recovery of Daphnia magna from repeated insecticide pulses.

    PubMed

    Dolciotti, Ida; Foit, Kaarina; Herkelrath, Anna; Liess, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    The effects of multiple insecticide pulses on non-target organisms have rarely been investigated in combination with relevant biotic interactions, such as competition. In this study, we examined the effects of two repeated pulses of the insecticide pirimicarb (3, 10, 24 μg/L) on populations of Daphnia magna with or without competition. To investigate the influence of competition, half of the test systems were supplemented with the pirimicarb-insensitive species Culex pipiens. The pesticide pulses were followed by a recovery period of 28 days, which corresponded to approximately three generation times for D. magna. The one-species setup with the Daphnia populations and the two-species setup with both the Daphnia and Culex populations had a precontamination period of 30 days so that intra- and interspecific competitions were present prior to the insecticide pulse. Short-term effects on the survival of the Daphnia population were observed in both setups immediately after each insecticide pulse at the highest concentration level. In the one-species setup, the short-term effects on population survival were increased by intraspecific competition. However, the Daphnia populations in the one-species setup recovered and reached the control level within approximately two weeks after each insecticide pulse. In contrast, in the two-species setup at the highest concentration, we observed culmination of insecticide effects: the Daphnia populations did not recover and their abundance was below the control level until the end of the observation time. Their recovery was impeded by the presence of the competing species C. pipiens for at least four weeks. At low concentrations, no culmination of effects was observed. We conclude that repeated toxicant pulses on populations that are challenged with interspecific competition may result in a multigenerational culmination of toxicant effects.

  5. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  6. Understanding and identifying amino acid repeats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong; Nijveen, Harm

    2014-07-01

    Amino acid repeats (AARs) are abundant in protein sequences. They have particular roles in protein function and evolution. Simple repeat patterns generated by DNA slippage tend to introduce length variations and point mutations in repeat regions. Loss of normal and gain of abnormal function owing to their variable length are potential risks leading to diseases. Repeats with complex patterns mostly refer to the functional domain repeats, such as the well-known leucine-rich repeat and WD repeat, which are frequently involved in protein–protein interaction. They are mainly derived from internal gene duplication events and stabilized by ‘gate-keeper’ residues, which play crucial roles in preventing inter-domain aggregation. AARs are widely distributed in different proteomes across a variety of taxonomic ranges, and especially abundant in eukaryotic proteins. However, their specific evolutionary and functional scenarios are still poorly understood. Identifying AARs in protein sequences is the first step for the further investigation of their biological function and evolutionary mechanism. In principle, this is an NP-hard problem, as most of the repeat fragments are shaped by a series of sophisticated evolutionary events and become latent periodical patterns. It is not possible to define a uniform criterion for detecting and verifying various repeat patterns. Instead, different algorithms based on different strategies have been developed to cope with different repeat patterns. In this review, we attempt to describe the amino acid repeat-detection algorithms currently available and compare their strategies based on an in-depth analysis of the biological significance of protein repeats. PMID:23418055

  7. Approaching improved adhesive bonding repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlette, Christian; Müller, Tobias; Roβmann, Jürgen; Brecher, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Today, the precision of micro-optics assembly is mostly limited by the accuracy of the bonding process ― and in the case of adhesive bonding by the prediction and compensation of adhesive shrinkage during curing. In this contribution, we present a novel approach to address adhesive bonding based on hybrid control system theory. In hybrid control, dynamic systems are described as "plants" which produce discrete and/or continuous outputs from given discrete and/or continuous inputs, thus yielding a hybrid state space description of the system. The task of hybrid controllers is to observe the plant and to generate a discrete and/or continuous input sequence that guides or holds the plant in a desired target state region while avoiding invalid or unwanted intermediate states. Our approach is based on a series of experiments carried out in order to analyze, define and decouple the dependencies of adhesive shrinkage on multiple parameters, such as application geometries, fixture forces and UV intensities. As some of the dependencies describe continuous effects (e.g. shrinkage from UV intensity) and other dependencies describe discrete state transitions (e.g. fixture removal during curing), the resulting model of the overall bonding process is a hybrid dynamic system in the general case. For this plant model, we then propose a concept of sampling-based parameter search as a basis to design suitable hybrid controllers, which have the potential to optimize process control for a selection of assembly steps, thus improving the repeatability of related production steps like beam-shaping optics or mounting of turning mirrors for fiber coupling.

  8. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  9. Repeated readings and science: Fluency with expository passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated readings to a fluency criterion (RRFC) for seven students with disabilities using science text. The study employed a single subject design, specifically, two multiple probe multiple baselines across subjects, to evaluate the effects of the RRFC intervention. Results indicated that students met criterion (200 or more correct words per minute with 2 or fewer errors) on four consecutive passages. A majority of students displayed accelerations to correct words per minute and decelerations to incorrect words per minute on successive initial, intervention readings suggesting reading transfer. Students' reading scores during posttest and maintenance out performed pre-test and baseline readings provided additional measures of reading transfer. For a relationship to comprehension, students scored higher on oral retell measures after meeting criterion as compared to initial readings. Overall, the research findings suggested that the RRFC intervention improves science reading fluency for students with disabilities, and may also indirectly benefit comprehension.

  10. De Novo Repeat Classification and Fragment Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Pevzner, Paul A.; Tang, Haixu; Tesler, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Repetitive sequences make up a significant fraction of almost any genome, and an important and still open question in bioinformatics is how to represent all repeats in DNA sequences. We propose a new approach to repeat classification that represents all repeats in a genome as a mosaic of sub-repeats. Our key algorithmic idea also leads to new approaches to multiple alignment and fragment assembly. In particular, we show that our FragmentGluer assembler improves on Phrap and ARACHNE in assembly of BACs and bacterial genomes. PMID:15342561

  11. Tandem repeats derived from centromeric retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tandem repeats are ubiquitous and abundant in higher eukaryotic genomes and constitute, along with transposable elements, much of DNA underlying centromeres and other heterochromatic domains. In maize, centromeric satellite repeat (CentC) and centromeric retrotransposons (CR), a class of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons, are enriched at centromeres. Some satellite repeats have homology to retrotransposons and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expansion, contraction as well as homogenization of tandem repeats. However, the origin and evolution of tandem repeat loci remain largely unknown. Results CRM1TR and CRM4TR are novel tandem repeats that we show to be entirely derived from CR elements belonging to two different subfamilies, CRM1 and CRM4. Although these tandem repeats clearly originated in at least two separate events, they are derived from similar regions of their respective parent element, namely the long terminal repeat (LTR) and untranslated region (UTR). The 5′ ends of the monomer repeat units of CRM1TR and CRM4TR map to different locations within their respective LTRs, while their 3′ ends map to the same relative position within a conserved region of their UTRs. Based on the insertion times of heterologous retrotransposons that have inserted into these tandem repeats, amplification of the repeats is estimated to have begun at least ~4 (CRM1TR) and ~1 (CRM4TR) million years ago. Distinct CRM1TR sequence variants occupy the two CRM1TR loci, indicating that there is little or no movement of repeats between loci, even though they are separated by only ~1.4 Mb. Conclusions The discovery of two novel retrotransposon derived tandem repeats supports the conclusions from earlier studies that retrotransposons can give rise to tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes. Analysis of monomers from two different CRM1TR loci shows that gene conversion is the major cause of sequence variation. We propose that successive intrastrand deletions

  12. Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Lee, Somin; Ahn, Kyu Sup; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Sik; Ko, Hyuk Ju; Lee, Jin Kyu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Mi; Lim, Jeong Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource. PMID:27123167

  13. Medical Castration Using the Investigational Oral GnRH Antagonist TAK-385 (Relugolix): Phase 1 Study in Healthy Males

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongliang; Faessel, Hélène M.; Saad, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Context: TAK-385 is a highly selective, oral, nonpeptide GnRH antagonist being investigated as a possible prostate cancer treatment. Objective: The objectives were to evaluate safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TAK-385 on LH and testosterone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a three-part, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 dose-escalation study in 176 healthy male UK volunteers. Interventions: Part 1, single doses of TAK-385 (0 [placebo], 80, 120, 180, or 360 mg). Part 2, 14-day TAK-385 (0, 20, 40, 80, or 180 mg) daily. Part 3, 28-day TAK-385 (40 [with loading dose], 60, 80, or 160 mg) or placebo daily. Parts 2 and 3 included men aged 40–75 years. Main Outcome Measures: Main outcome measures included plasma concentrations of TAK-385, LH, and testosterone. Results: Oral TAK-385 was readily absorbed, and steady state was reached in ≤14 days. Food reduced TAK-385 systemic exposure by 47–52%. Mean serum testosterone levels declined ≤6 hours after TAK-385 administration. Loading doses up to 360 mg on day 1 or 360 mg on day 1 followed by 240 mg on day 2 reduced the time to achieve castrate testosterone levels from ≥7 to <3 days. TAK-385 doses ≥80 mg/d achieved sustained medical castration and trough TAK-385 concentrations >4 ng/mL. After discontinuation of TAK-385 on day 28, testosterone levels normalized in most subjects in ≤ 28 days. Common adverse events included bradycardia, headache, and hot flush (all grade ≤2). Conclusions: Oral TAK-385 (40–180 mg/d) was well tolerated and effectively lowered testosterone in healthy men. Planned phase 2 doses in men with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer are 80 and 120 mg/d. PMID:26502357

  14. The enhancement of the subacute repeat dose toxicity test OECD TG 407 for the detection of endocrine active chemicals: comparison with toxicity tests of longer duration.

    PubMed

    Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Hofmann, Andreas; Owens, J William; Freyberger, Alexius

    2007-04-01

    The OECD conventional 28-day repeat dose toxicity test (OECD TG 407) is widely employed in the initial hazard identification and characterization for commercial chemicals. The OECD has recently undertaken an international effort to "enhance" the conventional 28-day repeat dose toxicity test (OECD TG 407) in order to ensure that chemicals acting through (anti)estrogenic, (anti)androgenic, and (anti)thyroid mechanisms are identified. The enhancements include additional parameters based on the respective target organs from the male and female reproductive tracts, the thyroid, and circulating hormone levels. Ten chemicals with known endocrine modes of action and different potencies were administered using the "enhanced TG 407" test protocol to investigate the performance of this procedure. In the present evaluation, these "enhanced TG 407" protocol results, drawn from a report of the OECD validation studies, are compared to studies of the same or similar chemicals with longer and/or in utero exposures in order to evaluate the capability of the this "enhanced TG 407" in identifying the chemicals' mode of action. The major conclusions that can be drawn from these comparisons are: 1. The "enhanced TG 407" will reliably identify chemicals with a strong to moderate potential to act through endocrine modes of action on the gonads and the thyroid. In addition, this test method gives a first indication for the dose-related potency. 2. Substances with a low potency for an endocrine mode of action, i.e., having only marginal effects in the most comprehensive in vivo studies such as multi-generation studies, may not elicit clear endocrine-related effects in the "enhanced TG 407". In these cases, the primary or principal effects observed will be driven by other toxic actions of the test materials in the "enhanced TG 407". 3. It may be concluded from the present database that prolongation of exposure from 28 days up to 90 days is unlikely to improve the chance of detecting an

  15. Etiology of oral habits.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  16. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  17. Skeletal Muscle Inflammation Following Repeated Bouts of Lengthening Contractions in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Deyhle, Michael R.; Gier, Amanda M.; Evans, Kaitlyn C.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Nelson, W. Bradley; Parcell, Allen C.; Hyldahl, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle responds to exercise-induced damage by orchestrating an adaptive process that protects the muscle from damage by subsequent bouts of exercise, a phenomenon called the repeated bout effect (RBE). The mechanisms underlying the RBE are not understood. We hypothesized that an attenuated inflammation response following a repeated bout of lengthening contractions (LC) would be coincidental with a RBE, suggesting a potential relationship. Fourteen men (n = 7) and women (n = 7) completed two bouts of lengthening contractions (LC) separated by 28 days. Muscle biopsies were taken before the first bout (B1) from the non-exercised leg, and from the exercised leg 2- and 27-d post-B1 and 2-d following the second bout (B2). A 29-plex cytokine array identified alterations in inflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemistry quantified inflammatory cell infiltration and major histocompatibility complex class 1 (MHC-1). Muscle soreness was attenuated in the days following B2 relative to B1, indicating a RBE. Intramuscular monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP1) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10) increased following B2 relative to the pre-exercise sample (7–52 and 11–36 pg/ml, respectively p < 0.05). Interleukin 4 (IL4) decreased (26–13 pg/ml, p < 0.05) following B2 relative to the pre-exercise sample. Infiltration of CD68+ macrophages and CD8+ T-cells were evident following B2, but not B1. Moreover, CD8+ T-cells were observed infiltrating apparently necrotic muscle fibers. No changes in MHC-1 were found. We conclude that inflammation is not attenuated following a repeated bout of LC and that CD8+ T-cells may play a role in muscle adaptation following LC. Moreover, it appears that the muscle or the immune system becomes sensitized to an initial bout of damaging exercise such that inflammatory cell infiltration into the muscle is enhanced upon a repeated bout of damaging exercise. PMID:26793125

  18. Research and Teaching: Think before (and after) You Speak: Practice and Self-Reflection Bolster Oral Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Eleanor; Bravo, Adriana; Porzecanski, Ana Luz; Burks, Romi L.; Linder, Joshua; Langen, Tom; Fernandez, Denny; Ruby, Douglas; Bynum, Nora

    2016-01-01

    In this study, conservation biology faculty and practitioners from across the United States designed classroom exercises and teaching interventions intended to bolster oral communication skills. Through repeated oral presentation assignments integrated into course requirements, the authors examined individual student learning gains via…

  19. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  20. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  1. The Effects of Repeaters on Test Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrulis, Richard S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The effects of repeaters (testees included in both administrations of two forms of a test) on the test equating process are examined. It is shown that repeaters do effect test equating and tend to lower the cutoff point for passing the test. (JKS)

  2. The Effects of Repeaters on Test Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrulis, Richard S.; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish the effects of repeaters on test equating. Since consideration was not given to repeaters in test equating, such as in the derivation of equations by Angoff (1971), the hypothetical effect needed to be established. A case study was examined which showed results on a test as expected; overall mean…

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

  4. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering and save lives ... National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private, non-profit society of distinguished scholars. Established by an Act ...

  5. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema). Olodaterol oral inhalation is in ...

  6. Oral hypoglycemics overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient There are many types of oral hypoglycemics. The poisonous ingredient depends on ...

  7. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 years of age and older. Budesonide suspension (liquid) for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Respules) is used in ... of inhalations even if it still contains some liquid and continues to release a spray when it ...

  8. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  9. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  10. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  11. Zomepirac sodium vs APC with codeine for oral surgery pain.

    PubMed

    Mehlisch, D R; Joy, E D

    1981-06-01

    In this double-blind, repeat-dose study, 323 outpatients with moderate to severe pain after oral surgery assessed zomepirac sodium, a new oral, single-entity, nonnarcotic analgesic, and APC with codeine, 30 mg, a reference standard. Pain relief obtained with 100 mg of zomepirac sodium was significantly superior to that of APC with codeine, 30 mg; 50 mg of zomepirac sodium was as effective as the reference drug. The analgesic acceptability was highest for 100 mg of zomepirac sodium. Both doses of this new drug produced significantly fewer adverse reactions than APC with codeine, 30 mg.

  12. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Patrick J; Kobs, Christina L; Gibbs, Seth T; Hong, Peter; Matthews, Claire M; Patton, Kristen M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edgar J

    2016-09-01

    Potassium cyanide (KCN) is an inhibitor of cytochrome C oxidase causing rapid death due to hypoxia. A well-characterized model of oral KCN intoxication is needed to test new therapeutics under the Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. Clinical signs, plasma pH and lactate concentrations, biomarkers, histopathology, and cyanide and thiocyanate toxicokinetics were used to characterize the pathology of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice. The acute oral LD50s were determined to be 11.8, 11.0, 10.9, and 9.9 mg/kg in water for adult male, adult female, juvenile male, and juvenile female mice, respectively. The time to death was rapid and dose dependent; juvenile mice had a shorter mean time to death. Juvenile mice displayed a more rapid onset and higher incidence of seizures. The time to observance of respiratory signs and prostration was rapid, but mice surviving beyond 2 hours generally recovered fully within 8 hours. At doses up to the LD50, there were no gross necropsy or microscopic findings clearly attributed to administration of KCN in juvenile or adult CD-1 mice from 24 hours to 28 days post-KCN challenge. Toxicokinetic analysis indicated rapid uptake, metabolism, and clearance of plasma cyanide. Potassium cyanide caused a rapid, dose-related decrease in blood pH and increase in serum lactate concentration. An increase in fatty acid-binding protein 3 was observed at 11.5 mg/kg KCN in adult but not in juvenile mice. These studies provide a characterization of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice that can be used to screen or conduct preclinical efficacy studies of potential countermeasures.

  13. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight.

  14. Personality and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  15. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  16. [Dementia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Wierink, C D; de Baat, C

    2009-02-01

    The first part of this article is a translation of an editorial which appeared in the journal Gerodontology. The author warns that a great increase is expected in the number of dementia patients in the United Kingdom and he argues that care for these patients be given a high place on the national agenda. Dementia was also a major issue at the meeting of the International Association for Dental Research in March 2007. Several international studies presented there indicated that elderly people with dementia constitute a group at risk with respect to oral health. In the evaluation of the editorial, the situation in The Netherlands is described. There is also serious concern in The Netherlands about the statistics with respect to dementia. Due to the growing number of frail elderly people having a natural dentition, the need for professional oral care will increase. General practitioners have the important task of providing adequate oral health care for elderly people suffering from dementia who are still living at home. Guidelines for Oral Care, having to do with the improvement of oral care in institutions, appeared recently. With the guidelines, a good basis for developing adequate oral health care of frail elderly people is available. However, the implementation of these guidelines will require some attention. PMID:19280891

  17. Personality and oral health.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry.

  18. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  19. Pharmacogenetics of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Matthijs L.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Tkáč, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) are used for more than a half-century in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Only in the last five years, intensive research has been conducted in the pharmacogenetics of these drugs based mainly on the retrospective register studies, but only a handful of associations detected in these studies were replicated. The gene variants in CYP2C9, ABCC8/KCNJ11, and TCF7L2 were associated with the effect of sulfonylureas. CYP2C9 encodes sulfonylurea metabolizing cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C9, ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes encode proteins constituting ATP-sensitive K+ channel which is a therapeutic target for sulfonylureas, and TCF7L2 is a gene with the strongest association with type 2 diabetes. SLC22A1, SLC47A1, and ATM gene variants were repeatedly associated with the response to metformin. SLC22A1 and SLC47A1 encode metformin transporters OCT1 and MATE1, respectively. The function of a gene variant near ATM gene identified by a genome-wide association study is not elucidated so far. The first variant associated with the response to gliptins is a polymorphism in the proximity of CTRB1/2 gene which encodes chymotrypsinogen. Establishment of diabetes pharmacogenetics consortia and reduction in costs of genomics might lead to some significant clinical breakthroughs in this field in a near future. PMID:24324494

  20. Native DNA repeats and methylation in Ascobolus.

    PubMed Central

    Goyon, C; Rossignol, J L; Faugeron, G

    1996-01-01

    We identified two classes of native dispersed DNA repeats in the Ascobolus genome. The first class consisted of several kilobase long, methylated repeats. These repeats, named Mars (methylated Ascobolus repeated sequences), fell in one family of LINE-like elements and in three families of LTR-containing retrotransposable elements. The methylation features of Mars elements were those expected if they were natural targets for the MIP (methylation induced premeiotically) previously discovered in Ascobolus. The second class consisted of short repeats, approximately 100 bp long, corresponding to 5S rRNA and tRNA genes. As expected from their size, which was too small to allow MIP to occur, they were unmethylated, as were 26 kb of unique sequences tested. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that MIP is targeted at natural DNA repeats and constitutes a defensive process against the detrimental consequences of the spreading of mobile elements throughout the genome. The 9 kb tandem repeats harbouring the 28S, 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes displayed methylation features suggesting that rDNA methylation proceeds through a process other than MIP. PMID:8811089

  1. Finding and Characterizing Repeats in Plant Genomes.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Jacques; Peterlongo, Pierre; Tempel, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Plant genomes contain a particularly high proportion of repeated structures of various types. This chapter proposes a guided tour of available software that can help biologists to look for these repeats and check some hypothetical models intended to characterize their structures. Since transposable elements are a major source of repeats in plants, many methods have been used or developed for this large class of sequences. They are representative of the range of tools available for other classes of repeats and we have provided a whole section on this topic as well as a selection of the main existing software. In order to better understand how they work and how repeats may be efficiently found in genomes, it is necessary to look at the technical issues involved in the large-scale search of these structures. Indeed, it may be hard to keep up with the profusion of proposals in this dynamic field and the rest of the chapter is devoted to the foundations of the search for repeats and more complex patterns. The second section introduces the key concepts that are useful for understanding the current state of the art in playing with words, applied to genomic sequences. This can be seen as the first stage of a very general approach called linguistic analysis that is interested in the analysis of natural or artificial texts. Words, the lexical level, correspond to simple repeated entities in texts or strings. In fact, biologists need to represent more complex entities where a repeat family is built on more abstract structures, including direct or inverted small repeats, motifs, composition constraints as well as ordering and distance constraints between these elementary blocks. In terms of linguistics, this corresponds to the syntactic level of a language. The last section introduces concepts and practical tools that can be used to reach this syntactic level in biological sequence analysis. PMID:26519414

  2. Finding and Characterizing Repeats in Plant Genomes.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Jacques; Peterlongo, Pierre; Tempel, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Plant genomes contain a particularly high proportion of repeated structures of various types. This chapter proposes a guided tour of available software that can help biologists to look for these repeats and check some hypothetical models intended to characterize their structures. Since transposable elements are a major source of repeats in plants, many methods have been used or developed for this large class of sequences. They are representative of the range of tools available for other classes of repeats and we have provided a whole section on this topic as well as a selection of the main existing software. In order to better understand how they work and how repeats may be efficiently found in genomes, it is necessary to look at the technical issues involved in the large-scale search of these structures. Indeed, it may be hard to keep up with the profusion of proposals in this dynamic field and the rest of the chapter is devoted to the foundations of the search for repeats and more complex patterns. The second section introduces the key concepts that are useful for understanding the current state of the art in playing with words, applied to genomic sequences. This can be seen as the first stage of a very general approach called linguistic analysis that is interested in the analysis of natural or artificial texts. Words, the lexical level, correspond to simple repeated entities in texts or strings. In fact, biologists need to represent more complex entities where a repeat family is built on more abstract structures, including direct or inverted small repeats, motifs, composition constraints as well as ordering and distance constraints between these elementary blocks. In terms of linguistics, this corresponds to the syntactic level of a language. The last section introduces concepts and practical tools that can be used to reach this syntactic level in biological sequence analysis.

  3. The child accident repeater: a review.

    PubMed

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  4. Do gamma-ray burst sources repeat?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Blumenthal, G.; Brock, M.

    1994-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic ad the two-point angular correlation function. We find the data to be consistent with the hypothesis that burst sources do not repeat; however, a repeater fraction of up to about 20% of the bursts cannot be excluded.

  5. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  6. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  7. The Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing. PMID:27161350

  8. The Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing.

  9. Orally administered grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, E; Weeke, B

    1983-11-01

    In 1900 it was claimed that oral administration of ragweed could be used for the hyposensitization of hay fever patients. Several uncontrolled trials have been published, all showing an effect of oral hyposensitization. Only one study was controlled and showed no effect of oral hyposensitization. It was decided to undertake controlled clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of orally administered enteric-coated grass pollen tablets in patients with hay fever. The actual grass pollen dose in the first trial was 30 times the dose that is normally recommended for preseasonal oral pollen hyposensitization using pollen aqueous solution or pollen powder. The safety study will be described here. Twelve young adults with a history of grass pollen hay fever positive skin prick test and positive nasal provocation test with extracts of timothy grass pollen were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups with four patients in each group taking enteric-coated Conjuvac Timothy tablets or enteric-coated Whole Timothy pollen tablets or enteric-coated placebo tablets. The study was double blind. Preseasonally, the patients received 342,500 PNU and in total they received 4,500,000 PNU during 6 months. The patients receiving active treatment did not have any side effects. No significant changes were shown in the skin and nasal reactivity to grass pollen during the study. Neither were there any changes in timothy-specific IgE, IgG, total IgE nor histamine liberation from basophils.

  10. DNA Triplet Repeat Expansion and Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ravi R.; Pluciennik, Anna; Napierala, Marek; Wells, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a conserved antimutagenic pathway that maintains genomic stability through rectification of DNA replication errors and attenuation of chromosomal rearrangements. Paradoxically, mutagenic action of mismatch repair has been implicated as a cause of triplet repeat expansions that cause neurological diseases such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. This mutagenic process requires the mismatch recognition factor MutSβ and the MutLα (and/or possibly MutLγ) endonuclease, and is thought to be triggered by the transient formation of unusual DNA structures within the expanded triplet repeat element. This review summarizes the current knowledge of DNA mismatch repair involvement in triplet repeat expansion, which encompasses in vitro biochemical findings, cellular studies, and various in vivo transgenic animal model experiments. We present current mechanistic hypotheses regarding mismatch repair protein function in mediating triplet repeat expansions and discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting the mismatch repair pathway. PMID:25580529

  11. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  12. Electrochemical telomerase assay for screening for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Mana; Kodama, Masaaki; Sato, Shinobu; Tomoeda-Mori, Kumiko; Haraguchi, Kazuya; Habu, Manabu; Takenaka, Shigeori; Tominaga, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Telomerase has long been known to be a marker for cancer. We have developed a new method of detecting it: the electrochemical telomerase assay (ECTA). We have previously confirmed that the assay is easier to do and more precise than the conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol, which is currently the most widely used. Here we describe a pilot study made to establish a screening system for oral cancer using ECTA. We evaluated three types of clinical samples obtained from 44 patients with oral cancer and 26 healthy volunteers: exfoliated cells from the whole oral cavity, exfoliated cells from local lesions, and tissue from the lesion itself. The current increase ratio (Δi) obtained by ECTA was significantly higher in the oral cancer group for each type of sampling used. The threshold value for Δi was 19% when calculated by analysis of receiver-operating characteristic curves. Sensitivity and specificity values were 86% and 85% for cells from the oral cavity, 82% and 85% in cells from local lesions, and 95% and 92% in cells from the tumour itself, respectively. There were also no significant differences in sensitivity and specificity associated with age, size of tumour, site of lesion, or degree of malignancy. ECTA therefore seems to be a promising assay for screening for oral cancer. PMID:26821842

  13. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; Červenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  14. Repeat hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, R; Bismuth, H; Castaing, D; Waechter, F; Navarro, F; Abascal, A; Majno, P; Engerran, L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors assess the long-term results of repeat hepatectomies for recurrent metastases of colorectal cancer and determine the factors that can predict survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Safer techniques of hepatic resection have allowed surgeons to consider repeat hepatectomy for colorectal metastases in an increasing number of patients. However, higher operative bleeding and increased morbidity have been reported after repeat hepatectomies, and the long-term benefit of these procedures needs to be evaluated. STUDY POPULATION: Sixty-four patients from a group of 243 patients resected for colorectal liver metastases were submitted to 83 repeat hepatectomies (64 second, 15 third, and 4 fourth hepatectomies). Combined extrahepatic surgery was performed in 21 (25%) of these 83 repeat hepatectomies. RESULTS: There was no intraoperative or postoperative mortality. Operative bleeding was not significantly increased in repeat hepatectomies as compared to first resections. Morbidity and duration of hospital stay were comparable to first hepatectomies. Overall and disease-free survival after a second hepatectomy were 60% and 42%, respectively, at 3 years and 41% and 26%, respectively, at 5 years. Factors of prognostic value on univariate analysis included the curative nature of first and second hepatectomies (p = 0.04 and p = 0.002, respectively), an interval between the two procedures of more than 1 year (p = 0.003), the number of recurrent tumors (p = 0.002), serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels (p = 0.03), and the presence of extrahepatic disease (p = 0.03). Only the curative nature of the second hepatectomy and an interval of more than 1 year between the two procedures were independently related to survival on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat hepatectomies can provide long-term survival rates similar to those of first hepatectomies, with no mortality and comparable morbidity. Combined extrahepatic surgery can be required to achieve tumor

  15. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  16. [Oral problems in divers].

    PubMed

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  17. Miconazole in oral candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Brincker, H

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four patients were treated with oral miconazole (250 mg) for a total of 35 episodes of oral candidiasis. Sixteen had various forms of leukaemia and all were massively predisposed to fungal infection because of granulocytopenia and treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics. Clinical cure was observed in all 35 of the treated episodes, with a mean treatment time of five days, cure being observed in two to three days. When patients violating the protocol were excluded, the mycological cure rate was 97%. In 21 episodes there was a recurrence less than one month after miconazole treatment, probably because of reinfection. No side-effects ascribable to miconazole were observed, even in the severely debilitated patients, and the orally administered drug appeared to be superior to other commercially available antimycotic preparations. Images p29-a PMID:122644

  18. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    PubMed

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors. PMID:16421768

  19. Assessment of Oral Toxicity and Safety of Pentamethylchromanol (PMCol), A Potential Chemopreventative Agent, in Rats and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lindeblad, Matthew; Kapetanovic, Izet M.; Kabirov, Kasim K.; Detrisac, Carol J.; Dinger, Nancy; Mankovskaya, Irina; Zakharov, Alexander; Lyubimov, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMCol) was administered by gavage in rats for 28 days at dose levels of 0, 100, 500, and 2000 mg/kg/day. PMCol administration induced decreases in body weight gains and food consumption, hepatotoxicity (increased TBILI, ALB, ALT, TP; increased relative liver weights; increased T4 and TSH), nephrotoxicity (increased BUN and BUN/CREAT, histopathology lesions), effect on lipid metabolism (increased CHOL), anemia, increase in WBC counts (total and differential), coagulation (FBGN↑and PT↓) and hyperkeratosis of the nonglandular stomach in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group (in one or both sexes). In the 500 mg/kg/day dose group, toxicity was seen to a lesser extent. In the 100 mg/kg/day dose group, only increased CHOL (females) was observed. To assess the toxicity of PMCol in male dogs it was administered orally by capsule administration for 28 days at dose levels of 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg/day (4 male dogs/dose group). PMCol treatment at 800 mg/kg/day resulted in pronounced toxicity to the male dogs. Target organs of toxicity were liver and thymus. Treatment at 200 mg/kg/day resulted in toxicity consistent with slight adverse effect on the liver only. The results of the safety pharmacology study indicate that doses of 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg administered orally did not have an effect on the QT interval, blood pressures and body temperatures following dosing over a 24-hour recording period. Under the conditions of this study, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for daily oral administration of PMCol by gavage for 28 days to male rats was 100 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/kg in male dogs. In female rats, the NOAEL was not established due to statistically significant and biologically meaningful increases in CHOL level seen in the 100 mg/kg/day dose group. The results of these studies indicated that administration of PMCol at higher dose levels resulted in severe toxicity in dogs and moderate toxicity in rats, however, administration at

  20. The human oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Floyd E; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J; Tanner, Anne C R; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G

    2010-10-01

    The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease.

  1. Structures of designed armadillo-repeat proteins show propagation of inter-repeat interface effects.

    PubMed

    Reichen, Christian; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Hansen, Simon; Grütter, Markus G; Plückthun, Andreas; Mittl, Peer R E

    2016-01-01

    The armadillo repeat serves as a scaffold for the development of modular peptide-recognition modules. In order to develop such a system, three crystal structures of designed armadillo-repeat proteins with third-generation N-caps (YIII-type), four or five internal repeats (M-type) and second-generation C-caps (AII-type) were determined at 1.8 Å (His-YIIIM4AII), 2.0 Å (His-YIIIM5AII) and 1.95 Å (YIIIM5AII) resolution and compared with those of variants with third-generation C-caps. All constructs are full consensus designs in which the internal repeats have exactly the same sequence, and hence identical conformations of the internal repeats are expected. The N-cap and internal repeats M1 to M3 are indeed extremely similar, but the comparison reveals structural differences in internal repeats M4 and M5 and the C-cap. These differences are caused by long-range effects of the C-cap, contacting molecules in the crystal, and the intrinsic design of the repeat. Unfortunately, the rigid-body movement of the C-terminal part impairs the regular arrangement of internal repeats that forms the putative peptide-binding site. The second-generation C-cap improves the packing of buried residues and thereby the stability of the protein. These considerations are useful for future improvements of an armadillo-repeat-based peptide-recognition system. PMID:26894544

  2. The Oral Cancer Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer is increasing every year. The issues that this epidemic brings are as wide ranging as changes in patient/community education, dental practice systems/ protocols, risk management and investigating new technologies for enhanced detection. The dentist, along with the entire dental team, must continually make every effort to save lives through early detection along with educating patients and our communities about the risk factors for oral cancer. With everyone's efforts, we can stop the growth of this terrible epidemic. PMID:27220177

  3. Oral Myiasis : Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Roszalina; Abd Rahman, Roslan

    2002-01-01

    Myiasis occurs when living tissues of mammals are invaded by eggs or larvae of flies, mainly from the order of Diptera. Most of the previousty reported cases are in the tropics and they were usually associated with inadequate personal hygiene, sometimes with poor manual dexterity. This report describes two cases of oral myiasis in cerebral palsy patients in Seremban General Hospital, Malaysia. This article also discusses the therapeutic property of maggots and highlights the importance of oral health care in the special needs patients. PMID:22844224

  4. An Investigation of the Influence of the Theory of Automaticity and the Impact of Repeated Reading on the Fluency and Comprehension Skills of Eighth Grade Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Rodney Michael

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method study examined the use of repeated reading with eighteen, eighth grade special education and regular education students. The purpose was to study use of repeated reading's structured, systematic, oral reading intervention while also seeking to further analyze LaBerge and Samuels' "Theory of Automaticity"…

  5. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

  6. Efficacy of oral Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 on microflora and antioxidant in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-gui; Xu, Hai-bo; Xu, Feng; Zeng, Zhe-ling; Wei, Hua

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine whether Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, a species of colonic microflora in humans, is involved in the intestinal tract of mice. This study was also conducted to determine the antioxidant activity of this species by evaluating different microbial populations and reactive oxygen species isolated from feces and intestinal contents for 28 days of oral administration. Microbial diversities were assessed through bacterial culture techniques, PCR-DGGE, and real-time PCR. This study showed that the intake of B. bifidum ATCC 29521 significantly (p < 0.05) improved the ecosystem of the intestinal tract of BALB/c mice by increasing the amount of probiotics (Lactobacillus intestinalis and Lactobacillus crispatus) and by reducing unwanted bacterial populations (Enterobacter, Escherichia coli). Antioxidative activities of incubated cell-free extracts were evaluated through various assays, including the scavenging ability of DPPH radical (64.5% and 67.54% (p < 0.05), respectively, at 21 days in nutrients and 28 days in MRS broth), superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical (85% and 61.5% (p < 0.05), respectively, at intestinal contents in nutrients and 21 days in MRS broth). Total reducing power (231.5 μmol/L (p < 0.05), 14 days in MRS broth) and mRNA level of genes related to oxidative stress were also determined. Results indicated that B. bifidum ATCC 29521 elicits a beneficial effect on murine gut microbiota and antioxidant activities compared with the control samples. This species can be considered as a potential bioresource antioxidant to promote health. Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 may also be used as a promising material in microbiological and food applications. PMID:26863255

  7. Gametocyte clearance dynamics following oral artesunate treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malian children.

    PubMed

    Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Maiga, Amelia W; Ouologuem, Dinkorma; Fofana, Bakary; Sagara, Issaka; Dembele, Demba; Toure, Sekou; Sanogo, Kassim; Dama, Souleymane; Sidibe, Bakary; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies decrease Plasmodium gametocyte carriage. However, the role of artesunate in monotherapy in vivo, the mechanisms involved, and the utility of gametocyte carriage as a potential tool for the surveillance of antimalarial resistance are poorly understood. In 2010-2011, we conducted an open-label, prospective efficacy study of artesunate as monotherapy in children 1-10 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bougoula-Hameau, Mali. Standard oral doses of artesunate were administered for 7 days and patients were followed up for 28 days. The data were compared to a similar study conducted in 2002-2004. Of 100 children enrolled in the 2010-2011 study, 92 were analyzed and compared to 217 children enrolled in the 2002-2004 study. The proportion of gametocyte carriers was unchanged at the end of treatment (23% at baseline vs. 24% on day 7, p = 1.0) and did not significantly decline until day 21 of follow-up (23% vs. 6%, p = 0.003). The mean gametocyte density at inclusion remained unchanged at the end of treatment (12 gametocytes/μL vs. 16 gametocytes/μL, p = 0.6). Overall, 46% of the 71 initial non-carriers had gametocytes detected by day 7. Similar results were found in the 2002-2004 study. In both studies, although gametocyte carriage significantly decreased by the end of the 28-day follow-up, artesunate did not clear mature gametocytes during treatment and did not prevent the appearance of new stage V gametocytes as assessed by light microscopy. Baseline gametocyte carriage was significantly higher 6 years after the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this setting. PMID:26839003

  8. Gametocyte clearance dynamics following oral artesunate treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malian children

    PubMed Central

    Djimde, Abdoulaye A.; Maiga, Amelia W.; Ouologuem, Dinkorma; Fofana, Bakary; Sagara, Issaka; Dembele, Demba; Toure, Sekou; Sanogo, Kassim; Dama, Souleymane; Sidibe, Bakary; Doumbo, Ogobara K.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies decrease Plasmodium gametocyte carriage. However, the role of artesunate in monotherapy in vivo, the mechanisms involved, and the utility of gametocyte carriage as a potential tool for the surveillance of antimalarial resistance are poorly understood. In 2010–2011, we conducted an open-label, prospective efficacy study of artesunate as monotherapy in children 1–10 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bougoula-Hameau, Mali. Standard oral doses of artesunate were administered for 7 days and patients were followed up for 28 days. The data were compared to a similar study conducted in 2002–2004. Of 100 children enrolled in the 2010–2011 study, 92 were analyzed and compared to 217 children enrolled in the 2002–2004 study. The proportion of gametocyte carriers was unchanged at the end of treatment (23% at baseline vs. 24% on day 7, p = 1.0) and did not significantly decline until day 21 of follow-up (23% vs. 6%, p = 0.003). The mean gametocyte density at inclusion remained unchanged at the end of treatment (12 gametocytes/μL vs. 16 gametocytes/μL, p = 0.6). Overall, 46% of the 71 initial non-carriers had gametocytes detected by day 7. Similar results were found in the 2002–2004 study. In both studies, although gametocyte carriage significantly decreased by the end of the 28-day follow-up, artesunate did not clear mature gametocytes during treatment and did not prevent the appearance of new stage V gametocytes as assessed by light microscopy. Baseline gametocyte carriage was significantly higher 6 years after the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this setting. PMID:26839003

  9. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling After Repeated Administrations of RBP-6000, a New, Subcutaneously Injectable, Long-Acting, Sustained-Release Formulation of Buprenorphine, for the Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Laffont, Celine M; Gomeni, Roberto; Heidbreder, Christian; Jones, J P; Nasser, Azmi F

    2016-07-01

    RBP-6000 is a novel sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid use disorder, which has been designed for once-monthly (28 days) subcutaneous (SC) injections. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed to describe the time course of buprenorphine plasma concentrations after repeated SC injections of RBP-6000 at 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg in treatment-seeking opioid-dependent subjects previously on sublingual buprenorphine (Subutex(®) ) treatment. The μ-opioid receptor occupancy was predicted using a previously developed PK/PD Emax model. The results of the population PK analysis jointly with the predicted level of μ-opioid receptor occupancy provided quantitative criteria for clinical dose selection for RBP-6000: the dose of 300 mg every 28 days seems appropriate for immediately achieving an effective exposure after the first SC injection and to maintain effective levels of exposure during chronic treatment. Furthermore, simulations conducted to evaluate the potential impact of a holiday in drug intake indicated that in the unexpected event of a 2-week holiday, levels of μ-opioid receptor occupancy remained consistently above 70% with no significant loss of drug efficacy. This analysis indicated that RBP-6000 has the potential for becoming an effective treatment for opioid-dependent subjects by addressing compliance issues associated with the current once-a-day treatments.

  10. Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If

  11. Stalled DNA Replication Forks at the Endogenous GAA Repeats Drive Repeat Expansion in Friedreich's Ataxia Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Jeannine; Bhalla, Angela D; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Puckett, James W; Dervan, Peter B; Rosenwaks, Zev; Napierala, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the expansion of GAA repeats located in the Frataxin (FXN) gene. The GAA repeats continue to expand in FRDA patients, aggravating symptoms and contributing to disease progression. The mechanism leading to repeat expansion and decreased FXN transcription remains unclear. Using single-molecule analysis of replicated DNA, we detected that expanded GAA repeats present a substantial obstacle for the replication machinery at the FXN locus in FRDA cells. Furthermore, aberrant origin activation and lack of a proper stress response to rescue the stalled forks in FRDA cells cause an increase in 3'-5' progressing forks, which could enhance repeat expansion and hinder FXN transcription by head-on collision with RNA polymerases. Treatment of FRDA cells with GAA-specific polyamides rescues DNA replication fork stalling and alleviates expansion of the GAA repeats, implicating DNA triplexes as a replication impediment and suggesting that fork stalling might be a therapeutic target for FRDA.

  12. Stalled DNA Replication Forks at the Endogenous GAA Repeats Drive Repeat Expansion in Friedreich's Ataxia Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Jeannine; Bhalla, Angela D; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Puckett, James W; Dervan, Peter B; Rosenwaks, Zev; Napierala, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the expansion of GAA repeats located in the Frataxin (FXN) gene. The GAA repeats continue to expand in FRDA patients, aggravating symptoms and contributing to disease progression. The mechanism leading to repeat expansion and decreased FXN transcription remains unclear. Using single-molecule analysis of replicated DNA, we detected that expanded GAA repeats present a substantial obstacle for the replication machinery at the FXN locus in FRDA cells. Furthermore, aberrant origin activation and lack of a proper stress response to rescue the stalled forks in FRDA cells cause an increase in 3'-5' progressing forks, which could enhance repeat expansion and hinder FXN transcription by head-on collision with RNA polymerases. Treatment of FRDA cells with GAA-specific polyamides rescues DNA replication fork stalling and alleviates expansion of the GAA repeats, implicating DNA triplexes as a replication impediment and suggesting that fork stalling might be a therapeutic target for FRDA. PMID:27425605

  13. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases. PMID:27271597

  14. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  15. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    SciTech Connect

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. |

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  16. Oral Communication in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnion, John E.; Thomas, Edward G.

    Helping young executives develop oral communication skills is an important task of business schools. A course that requires informal, timed, extemporaneous talks as well as extended formal presentations allows students the opportunity to be evaluated by their peers and by faculty members as they grow in their ability to communicate. Formal…

  17. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

  18. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  19. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  20. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  1. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  2. Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... 70.1% have periodontal disease. Periodontal Disease is higher in men than women, and greatest among Mexican Americans and Non-Hispanic blacks, and those with less than a high school education. Healthy People 2020 Works to Eliminate Oral Health ...

  3. Oral Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwestern Cooperative Educational Lab., Albuquerque, NM.

    The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory is currently field testing a set of instructional materials for teaching English language speaking and listening skills in preschool and first grade classes. The Oral Language Program (OLP) is directed at providing non-English speaking youngsters with a fluent, independent speaking ability in…

  4. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product. PMID:21091163

  5. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  6. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Moharamzadeh, K; Colley, H; Murdoch, C; Hearnden, V; Chai, W L; Brook, I M; Thornhill, M H; Macneil, S

    2012-07-01

    Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as cancer, Candida, and bacterial invasion have been developed as alternatives to animal models for investigation of disease phenomena, their progression, and treatment, including evaluation of drug delivery systems. The introduction of 3D oral mucosal reconstructs has had a significant impact on the approaches to biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials and oral healthcare products as well as the study of implant-soft tissue interfaces. This review article discusses the recent advances in tissue engineering and applications of tissue-engineered human oral mucosa.

  7. Practical pearls for oral procedures.

    PubMed

    Davari, Parastoo; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    We provide an overview of clinically relevant principles of oral surgical procedures required in the workup and management of oral mucosal diseases. An understanding of the fundamental concepts of how to perform safely and effectively minor oral procedures is important to the practicing dermatologist and can minimize the need for patient referrals. This chapter reviews the principles of minor oral procedures, including incisional, excisional, and punch biopsies, as well as minor salivary gland excision. Pre- and postoperative patient care is also discussed.

  8. Tuberculosis masquerading as oral malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, S.; Thakkar, Purvi; Dcruz, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is a rare condition. A 55-year-old labourer was referred as a case of oral cancer for further management. The patient had no systemic symptoms. Biopsy of the lesion revealed caseating granulomatous inflammation. Chest X-ray and sputum revealed evidence of asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. The purpose of this paper is to sensitize clinicians to consider oral tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with an Non-healing oral cavity ulcer. PMID:22557791

  9. New Oral Therapies for Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien; Dong, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oral therapies for psoriasis, including methotrexate, cyclosporine, and acitretin, have generally unfavorable safety profiles and are not ideal for long-standing use. Thus, new oral therapies are necessary for patients with more moderate disease, patients who prefer oral treatments to injectable biologies, and patients who failed conventional therapies. The authors review here the clinical and safety evidence of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, apremilast, janus kinase inhibitors, including tofacitinib, and fumarie acid esters as additional options in oral psoriasis therapy.

  10. New Oral Therapies for Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien; Dong, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oral therapies for psoriasis, including methotrexate, cyclosporine, and acitretin, have generally unfavorable safety profiles and are not ideal for long-standing use. Thus, new oral therapies are necessary for patients with more moderate disease, patients who prefer oral treatments to injectable biologies, and patients who failed conventional therapies. The authors review here the clinical and safety evidence of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, apremilast, janus kinase inhibitors, including tofacitinib, and fumarie acid esters as additional options in oral psoriasis therapy. PMID:27672415

  11. Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Forrest, S; Ackley, D H; Perelson, A S

    1999-11-23

    Conclusions have differed in studies that have compared vaccine efficacy in groups receiving influenza vaccine for the first time to efficacy in groups vaccinated more than once. For example, the Hoskins study [Hoskins, T. W., Davis, J. R., Smith, A. J., Miller, C. L. & Allchin, A. (1979) Lancet i, 33-35] concluded that repeat vaccination was not protective in the long term, whereas the Keitel study [Keitel, W. A., Cate, T. R., Couch, R. B., Huggins, L. L. & Hess, K. R. (1997) Vaccine 15, 1114-1122] concluded that repeat vaccination provided continual protection. We propose an explanation, the antigenic distance hypothesis, and test it by analyzing seven influenza outbreaks that occurred during the Hoskins and Keitel studies. The hypothesis is that variation in repeat vaccine efficacy is due to differences in antigenic distances among vaccine strains and between the vaccine strains and the epidemic strain in each outbreak. To test the hypothesis, antigenic distances were calculated from historical hemagglutination inhibition assay tables, and a computer model of the immune response was used to predict the vaccine efficacy of individuals given different vaccinations. The model accurately predicted the observed vaccine efficacies in repeat vaccinees relative to the efficacy in first-time vaccinees (correlation 0.87). Thus, the antigenic distance hypothesis offers a parsimonious explanation of the differences between and within the Hoskins and Keitel studies. These results have implications for the selection of influenza vaccine strains, and also for vaccination strategies for other antigenically variable pathogens that might require repeated vaccination. PMID:10570188

  12. Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Forrest, S; Ackley, D H; Perelson, A S

    1999-11-23

    Conclusions have differed in studies that have compared vaccine efficacy in groups receiving influenza vaccine for the first time to efficacy in groups vaccinated more than once. For example, the Hoskins study [Hoskins, T. W., Davis, J. R., Smith, A. J., Miller, C. L. & Allchin, A. (1979) Lancet i, 33-35] concluded that repeat vaccination was not protective in the long term, whereas the Keitel study [Keitel, W. A., Cate, T. R., Couch, R. B., Huggins, L. L. & Hess, K. R. (1997) Vaccine 15, 1114-1122] concluded that repeat vaccination provided continual protection. We propose an explanation, the antigenic distance hypothesis, and test it by analyzing seven influenza outbreaks that occurred during the Hoskins and Keitel studies. The hypothesis is that variation in repeat vaccine efficacy is due to differences in antigenic distances among vaccine strains and between the vaccine strains and the epidemic strain in each outbreak. To test the hypothesis, antigenic distances were calculated from historical hemagglutination inhibition assay tables, and a computer model of the immune response was used to predict the vaccine efficacy of individuals given different vaccinations. The model accurately predicted the observed vaccine efficacies in repeat vaccinees relative to the efficacy in first-time vaccinees (correlation 0.87). Thus, the antigenic distance hypothesis offers a parsimonious explanation of the differences between and within the Hoskins and Keitel studies. These results have implications for the selection of influenza vaccine strains, and also for vaccination strategies for other antigenically variable pathogens that might require repeated vaccination.

  13. Testicular toxicity in rat to repeated oral administration of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (Thiram).

    PubMed

    Mishra, V K; Srivastava, M K; Raizada, R B

    1998-04-01

    Thiram was administered to male rats through gavage at doses 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg/day for 180 and 360 days. Thiram has caused marginal increase in the relative weight of testes and epididymis and decrease in the weight of seminal vesicle and prostate. Marked degenerative changes were observed in seminiferous tubules together with alterations in testicular enzyme profile. The activity of testicular enzymes such as ACP, SDH and ATPase (Na+ + K+ dependent) was decreased whereas activity of LDH, G-6-PDH and ALP increased. The levels of serum cholesterol and testicular free sialic acid were enhanced, while the level of testicular protein was lowered. It is evident from the present study that long term treatment of thiram at tested dose levels has resulted in dose and time dependent morphological and biochemical changes in testes of rat.

  14. Serum concentrations of methaqualone after repeated oral doses of a combination formulation to human subjects.

    PubMed

    White, C; Doyle, E; Chasseaud, L F; Taylor, T

    1976-09-30

    Concentrations of methaqualone have been measured in the serum of five male human subjects receiving five consecutive evening doses of a combination formulation containing methaqualone (250 mg), carbromal (300 mg) and benactyzine (0.33 mg) in each tablet. After administration of the first dose, mean peak serum concentrations of methaqualone (1.2 mug/ml) occurred at 3 h. After obtaining peak levels, mean concentrations of methaqualone declined rapidly during the next 6 h and thereafter more slowly during the next 18 h. After administration of the last (fifth) dose, mean peak serum concentrations of methaqualone (1.9 mug/ml; 1.5 mug/ml above the predose level) occurred at 2 h. After attaining peak levels, mean concentrations of methaqualone declined rapidly during the next 6 h, and thereafter more slowly, with a half-life of approximately 10 h. Mean concentrations of methaqualone in serum samples 24 h after the second, third, fourth or fifth doses were not significantly different (0.3 mug/ml - 0.6 mug/ml) during this period of dosing. This suggests that significant accumulation of methaqualone in the serum did not occur during a period of five consecutive evening doses of the combination formulation.

  15. Scaffolded Silent Reading: A Complement to Guided Repeated Oral Reading that Works!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Jones, Cindy D.; Fawson, Parker C.; Smith, John A.

    2008-01-01

    An effective alternative to the traditional classroom practice of Silent Sustained Reading (SSR) called Scaffolded Silent Reading (ScSR), is described in detail in this article. An implementation of ScSR in a third-grade classroom is presented. Quantitative and qualitative results from a year-long field experiment are reported in which ScSR is…

  16. Safety assessment of dietary bamboo charcoal powder: a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zhenchao, Jia; Yuting, Zhong; Jiuming, Yan; Yedan, Lu; Yang, Song; Jinyao, Chen; Lishi, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable carbon has been used as food additive in EU (E153) and China for many years; however, no experimental data have been available on its dietary safety. This study was designed to evaluate the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of bamboo charcoal powder (BCP). In the study of subchronic oral toxicity, BCP was administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg BW for 90 days to SD rats. Additional satellite groups from the control group and high dose group were observed for a 28-day recovery period. At the end of the treatment and recovery periods, animals were sacrificed, and their organs were weighed and blood samples were collected. The toxicological endpoints observed included clinical signs, food consumption, body and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters, macroscopic and microscopic examinations. The results showed no significant differences between the BCP treated groups and control group. The genotoxicity of BCP was assessed with the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and a combination of comet assay and mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus protocol. The results did not reveal any genotoxicity of BCP. Based on our study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for BCP is 11.24 g/kg BW/day.

  17. Passive Immunization with Milk Produced from an Immunized Cow Prevents Oral Recolonization by Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Mitoma, Morihide; Oho, Takahiko; Nakano, Yoshio; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Okano, Kaoru; Nakano, Yutaka; Fukuyama, Masataka; Fujihara, Noboru; Nada, Youichi; Koga, Toshihiko

    2001-01-01

    Cell surface protein antigen (PAc) and water-insoluble glucan-synthesizing enzyme (GTF-I) produced by cariogenic Streptococcus mutans are two major factors implicated in the colonization of the human oral cavity by this bacterium. We examined the effect of bovine milk, produced after immunization with a fusion protein of functional domains of these proteins, on the recolonization of S. mutans. To prepare immune milk, a pregnant Holstein cow was immunized with the fusion protein PAcA-GB, a fusion of the saliva-binding alanine-rich region (PAcA) of PAc and the glucan-binding (GB) domain of GTF-I. After eight adult subjects received cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) treatment, one subgroup (n = 4) rinsed their mouths with immune milk and a control group (n = 4) rinsed with nonimmune milk. S. mutans levels in saliva and dental plaque decreased after CPC treatment in both groups. Mouth rinsing with immune milk significantly inhibited recolonization of S. mutans in saliva and plaque. On the other hand, the numbers of S. mutans cells in saliva and plaque in the control group increased immediately after the CPC treatment and surpassed the baseline level 42 and 28 days, respectively, after the CPC treatment. The ratios of S. mutans to total streptococci in saliva and plaque in the group that received immune milk were lower than those in the control group. These results suggest that milk produced from immunized cow may be useful for controlling S. mutans in the human oral cavity. PMID:11687453

  18. Preferential induction of the AhR gene battery in HepaRG cells after a single or repeated exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Julie Josse, Rozenn Lambert, Carine Antherieu, Sebastien Laurent, Veronique Loyer, Pascal Robin, Marie-Anne Guillouzo, Andre

    2010-11-15

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are two of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) produced during cooking of meat, fish and poultry. Both HAA produce different tumor profiles in rodents and are suspected to be carcinogenic in humans. In order to better understand the molecular basis of HAA toxicity, we have analyzed gene expression profiles in the metabolically competent human HepaRG cells using pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays, after either a single (24-h) or a repeated (28-day) exposure to 10 {mu}M PhIP or MeIQx. The most responsive genes to both HAA were downstream targets of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR): CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 after both time points and CYP1B1 and ALDH3A1 after 28 days. Accordingly, CYP1A1/1A2 induction in HAA-treated HepaRG cells was prevented by chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of the AhR. Consistently, HAA induced activity of the CYP1A1 promoter, which contains a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). In addition, several other genes exhibited both time-dependent and compound-specific expression changes with, however, a smaller magnitude than previously reported for the prototypical AhR target genes. These changes concerned genes mainly related to cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In conclusion, these results identify the AhR gene battery as the preferential target of PhIP and MeIQx in HepaRG cells and further support the hypothesis that intake of HAA in diet might increase human cancer risk.

  19. Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M.A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-01-01

    Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing Methods. A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ``oral and perioral, piercing ´´, ``oral, piercing and disease”, ``recessions and oral piercing´´. It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series Results. A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. Conclusion. Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. Clinical implications. Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures. PMID:19444317

  20. CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENRY, MABEL WRIGHT, ED.

    IDEAS FOR THE CREATIVE USE OF ORAL LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SYMPOSIUM. PART 1, "THE NEED FOR CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE" BY M.W. HENRY, IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES AND THE ACQUISITION OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS. PART 2, "CHORIC INTERPRETATION" BY…

  1. Social disparity and oral health.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Bresciani, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    There is a clear reported association between social disparity and oral health, for example, between dental caries and malnutrition in children. This fact is detected in several studies, and also found amongst the Brazilian population. However, several efforts have been made to improve the quality of life of the population and to achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goals. Oral health is a branch to be improved among these goals. The Brazilian experience has been drawing the attention of authorities, insofar as there have been direct improvements in oral health through state oral health programs, and also indirect results by improving the quality of life of the population. Included within the Brazilian oral health programs are the Family Health Program and Smiling Brazil Program. The former is a global healthcare program which involves primary oral healthcare, while the latter is a specialized oral care program. Among the social programs that would indirectly improve oral health are Family Stipend and the Edmond and Lily Safra International Institute of Neuroscience of Natal (ELS-IINN). In conclusion, although oral health problems are related to socioeconomic factors, the implementation of primary oral health programs and programs to improve the population's quality of life may directly or indirectly improve the oral health scenario. This fact is being observed in Brazil, where the oral health policies have changed, and social programs have been implemented.

  2. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  3. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kiran; Shilpasree, A S; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-05-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  4. 47 CFR 1.297 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 1.297 Section 1.297... Actions in Hearing Proceedings § 1.297 Oral argument. Oral argument with respect to any contested... oral argument....

  5. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Cancer starts when cells in ... the parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

  6. Jet Fuel Kerosene is not Immunosuppressive in Mice or Rats Following Inhalation for 28 Days

    PubMed Central

    White, Kimber L.; DeLorme, Michael P.; Beatty, Patrick W.; Smith, Matthew J.; Peachee, Vanessa L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that inhalation of JP-8 aviation turbine fuel is immunosuppressive. However, in some of those studies, the exposure concentrations were underestimated, and percent of test article as vapor or aerosol was not determined. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the observed effects are attributable to the base hydrocarbon fuel (jet fuel kerosene) or to the various fuel additives in jet fuels. The present studies were conducted, in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, to evaluate the effects of jet fuel kerosene on the immune system, in conjunction with an accurate, quantitative characterization of the aerosol and vapor exposure concentrations. Two female rodent species (B6C3F1 mice and Crl:CD rats) were exposed by nose-only inhalation to jet fuel kerosene at targeted concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/m3 for 6 h daily for 28 d. Humoral, cell-mediated, and innate immune functions were subsequently evaluated. No marked effects were observed in either species on body weights, spleen or thymus weights, the T-dependent antibody-forming cell response (plaque assay), or the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. With a few exceptions, spleen cell numbers and phenotypes were also unaffected. Natural killer (NK) cell activity in mice was unaffected, while the NK assessment in rats was not usable due to an unusually low response in all groups. These studies demonstrate that inhalation of jet fuel kerosene for 28 d at levels up to 2000 mg/m3 did not adversely affect the functional immune responses of female mice and rats. PMID:24028664

  7. Tenderness of pasture versus grain fed beef aged 14 and 28 days

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer interest in pasture versus grain fed beef has been on the rise in recent years. This interest could be sparked by the public’s concerns of beef management techniques and processing impacts on the nutrition and safety of their food, as well as the environmental impact of each management type...

  8. Toxicologic evaluation of tungsten: 28-day inhalation study of tungsten blue oxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Narayanan; Hu, Shu-Chieh; Sullivan, Dennis; Muzzio, Miguel; Detrisac, Carol J; Venezia, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity and toxicokinetics of tungsten blue oxide (TBO) were examined. TBO is an intermediate in the production of tungsten powder, and has shown the potential to cause cellular damage in in vitro studies. However, in vivo evidence seems to indicate a lack of adverse effects. The present study was undertaken to address the dearth of longer-term inhalation toxicity studies of tungsten oxides by investigating the biological responses induced by TBO when administered via nose-only inhalation to rats at levels of 0.08, 0.325, and 0.65 mg TBO/L of air for 6 h/day for 28 consecutive days, followed by a 14-day recovery period. Inhaled TBO was absorbed systemically and blood levels of tungsten increased as inhaled concentration increased. Among the tissues analyzed for tungsten levels, lung, femur and kidney showed increased levels, with lung at least an order of magnitude greater than kidney or femur. By exposure day 14, tungsten concentration in tissues had reached steady-state. Increased lung weight was noted for both terminal and recovery animals and was attributed to deposition of TBO in the lungs, inducing a macrophage influx. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed a dose-related increase in alveolar pigmented macrophages, alveolar foreign material and individual alveolar foamy macrophages in lung. After a recovery period there was a slight reduction in the incidence and severity of histopathological findings. Based on the absence of other adverse effects, the increased lung weights and the microscopic findings were interpreted as nonadverse response to exposure and were not considered a specific reaction to TBO.

  9. Relative toxicity of bifenthrin to Hyalella azteca in 10 day versus 28 day exposures.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Petersen, Megan A; Jennings, Lydia L; Fojut, Tessa L; Vasquez, Martice E; Siegler, Catherine; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2015-04-01

    Many watersheds in the Central Valley region of California are listed as impaired due to pyrethroid-associated sediment toxicity. The Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board is developing numeric sediment quality criteria for pyrethroids, beginning with bifenthrin. Criteria are being developed using existing data, along with data from 10 d and 28 d toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca conducted as part of the current study. A single range-finder and 2 definitive tests were conducted for each test duration. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s), as well as LC20s and inhibition concentrations (IC20s) were calculated based on measured whole sediment bifenthrin concentrations and interstitial water concentrations. Sediment LC50s were also corrected for organic C content. Average LC50s were not significantly different in 10 d versus 28 d tests with H. azteca: 9.1 and 9.6 ng/g bifenthrin for 10 d and 28 d tests, respectively. Average LC20 values were also similar with concentrations at 7.1 and 7.0 for 10 d and 28 d tests, respectively. Bifenthrin inhibition concentrations (IC20s) based on amphipod growth were variable, particularly in the 28 d tests, where a clear dose-response relationship was observed in only 1 of the definitive experiments. Average amphipod growth IC20s were 3.9 and 9.0 ng/g for 10 d and 28 d tests, respectively. Amphipod growth calculated as biomass resulted in IC20s of 4.1 and 6.3 ng/g for the 10 d and 28 d tests, respectively. Lack of a clear growth effect in the longer term test may be related to the lack of food adjustment to account for amphipod mortality in whole sediment exposures. The average C-corrected LC50s were 1.03 and 1.09 μg/g OC for the 10 d and 28 d tests, respectively. Interstitial water LC50s were determined as the measured dissolved concentration of bifenthrin relative to interstitial water dissolved organic carbon. The average LC50s for dissolved interstitial water bifenthrin were 4.23 and 4.28 ng/L for the 10 d and 28 d tests, respectively. In addition, a set of 10 d and 28 d tests were conducted at 15 °C to assess the relative toxicity of bifenthrin at a lower temperature than the standard 23 °C test temperature. These results showed that bifenthrin was more toxic at the lower temperature, with LC50s of 5.1 and 3.4 ng/g bifenthrin in 10 d and 28 d tests, respectively. Amphipod growth at 15 °C after a 28 d exposure resulted in the lowest effect concentration of all experiments conducted (IC20 = 0.61 ng/g). This article discusses how bifenthrin dose-response data from 10 d and 28 d exposures inform development of sediment quality criteria for this pesticide for California Central Valley watersheds.

  10. Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure for 28 days affects glucose homeostasis and induces insulin hypersensitivity in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shengmin; Zhang, Hongxia; Zheng, Fei; Sheng, Nan; Guo, Xuejiang; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used in many applications due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Because of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndromes, including obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, concern has arisen about the roles of environmental pollutants in such diseases. Earlier epidemiologic studies showed a potential association between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and glucose metabolism, but how PFOA influences glucose homeostasis is still unknown. Here, we report on the modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-serine/threonine protein kinase (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathway in the livers of mice after 28 d of exposure to PFOA. Compared with normal mice, PFOA exposure significantly decreased the expression of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein and affected the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in the liver. Tolerance tests further indicated that PFOA exposure induced higher insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice. Biochemical analysis revealed that PFOA exposure reduced hepatic glycogen synthesis, which might be attributed to gluconeogenesis inhibition. The levels of several circulating proteins were altered after PFOA exposure, including proteins potentially related to diabetes and liver disease. Our results suggest that PFOA affected glucose metabolism and induced insulin hypersensitivity in mice.

  11. Rate analysis for a hybrid quantum repeater

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardes, Nadja K.; Loock, Peter van

    2011-01-15

    We present a detailed rate analysis for a hybrid quantum repeater assuming perfect memories and using optimal probabilistic entanglement generation and deterministic swapping routines. The hybrid quantum repeater protocol is based on atomic qubit-entanglement distribution through optical coherent-state communication. An exact, analytical formula for the rates of entanglement generation in quantum repeaters is derived, including a study on the impacts of entanglement purification and multiplexing strategies. More specifically, we consider scenarios with as little purification as possible and we show that for sufficiently low local losses, such purifications are still more powerful than multiplexing. In a possible experimental scenario, our hybrid system can create near-maximally entangled (F=0.98) pairs over a distance of 1280 km at rates of the order of 100 Hz.

  12. Do gamma-ray burst sources repeat?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb, 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter, 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al., 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and the two-point angular correlation function. We find the data to be consistent with the hypothesis that burst sources do not repeat; however, a repeater fraction of up to about 20% of the observed bursts cannot be excluded.

  13. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Aubuchon, Adam C.; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Balamucki, Christopher J.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  14. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  15. The puzzle of the triple repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, V.

    1993-06-04

    Two years ago, when researchers discovered the gene that causes a hereditary form of mental retardation known as fragile-X syndrome, they also turned up a mutation so unexpected geneticists are still scratching their heads over it. The defect, which makes genes balloon in size by adding extra copies of a three base-pair repeated sequence of DNA, was the first of its kind. Despite decades of study, nothing like it had ever been seen in any of the species that laid the foundations for modern genetics: bacteria, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the mouse. The mutations caused by these expanding trinucleotide repeats turned out be common causes of human disease. In the past 2 years, they have been fingered as the culprits in three hereditary disorders besides fragile-X syndrome: myotronic dystrophy, spinobullar muscular atrophy (also known as Kennedy's disease), and just this March-Huntington's disease. The FMR-1 gene, which is the one at fault in fragile-X syndrome, shows just how much the trinucleotide repeats can expand. The normal gene carries at most 50 copies of the CGG trinucleotide. But in children who inherit the gene from these carriers and actually develop mental retardation and the other fragile-X symptoms, the FMR-1 gene may have hundreds to thousands of CGG repeats. Huge expansions of another trinucleotide repeat (CTG) can also occur from one generation to the next in the gene that causes myotonic dystrophy (DM), while smaller, although no less devastating, expansions in the CAG trinucleotide repeat lead to Huntington's and Kennedy's diseases.

  16. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of Cr(VI) in the oral mucosa of Big Blue® transgenic F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Suh, Mina; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of oral tumors in F344 rats in a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. These tumors primarily occurred at 180 ppm Cr(VI) and appeared to originate from the gingival mucosa surrounding the upper molar teeth. To investigate whether these tumors could have resulted from a mutagenic mode of action (MOA), a transgenic mutation assay based on OECD Test Guideline 488 was conducted in Big Blue(®) TgF344 rats. The mutagenic oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) served as a positive control. Mutant frequency was measured in the inner gingiva with adjacent palate, and outer gingiva with adjacent buccal tissue. Exposure to 10 ppm 4-NQO in drinking water for 28 days increased mutant frequency in the cII transgene significantly, from 39.1 ± 7.5 × 10(-6) to 688 ± 250 × 10(-6) in the gingival/buccal region, and from 49.8 ± 17.8 × 10(-6) to 1818 ± 362 × 10(-6) in the gingival/palate region. Exposure to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase the mutant frequency in the gingival/buccal (44.4 ± 25.4 × 10(-6)) or the gingival/palate (57.8 ± 9.1 × 10(-6)) regions relative to controls. These data indicate that high (∼180,000 times expected human exposure), tumorigenic concentrations of Cr(VI) did not significantly increase mutations in the gingival epithelium, and suggest that Cr(VI) does not act by a mutagenic MOA in the rat oral cavity. PMID:26010270

  17. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of Cr(VI) in the oral mucosa of Big Blue® transgenic F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Suh, Mina; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of oral tumors in F344 rats in a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. These tumors primarily occurred at 180 ppm Cr(VI) and appeared to originate from the gingival mucosa surrounding the upper molar teeth. To investigate whether these tumors could have resulted from a mutagenic mode of action (MOA), a transgenic mutation assay based on OECD Test Guideline 488 was conducted in Big Blue(®) TgF344 rats. The mutagenic oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) served as a positive control. Mutant frequency was measured in the inner gingiva with adjacent palate, and outer gingiva with adjacent buccal tissue. Exposure to 10 ppm 4-NQO in drinking water for 28 days increased mutant frequency in the cII transgene significantly, from 39.1 ± 7.5 × 10(-6) to 688 ± 250 × 10(-6) in the gingival/buccal region, and from 49.8 ± 17.8 × 10(-6) to 1818 ± 362 × 10(-6) in the gingival/palate region. Exposure to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase the mutant frequency in the gingival/buccal (44.4 ± 25.4 × 10(-6)) or the gingival/palate (57.8 ± 9.1 × 10(-6)) regions relative to controls. These data indicate that high (∼180,000 times expected human exposure), tumorigenic concentrations of Cr(VI) did not significantly increase mutations in the gingival epithelium, and suggest that Cr(VI) does not act by a mutagenic MOA in the rat oral cavity.

  18. Temporally multiplexed quantum repeaters with atomic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Christoph; Riedmatten, Hugues de; Afzelius, Mikael

    2010-07-15

    We propose a temporally multiplexed version of the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller (DLCZ) quantum-repeater protocol using controlled inhomogeneous spin broadening in atomic gases. A first analysis suggests that the advantage of multiplexing is negated by noise due to spin-wave excitations corresponding to unobserved directions of Stokes photon emission. However, this problem can be overcome with the help of a moderate-finesse cavity which is in resonance with Stokes photons, but invisible to the anti-Stokes photons. Our proposal promises greatly enhanced quantum repeater performance with atomic gases.

  19. Effect of Repeated Evaluation and Repeated Exposure on Acceptability Ratings of Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zervakis, Jennifer; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated evaluation and repeated exposure on grammatical acceptability ratings for both acceptable and unacceptable sentence types. In Experiment 1, subjects in the Experimental group rated multiple examples of two ungrammatical sentence types (ungrammatical binding and double object with dative-only verb),…

  20. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  1. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Crude Antifungal Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hee-Kyoung; Chang, Hae-Choon; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and subacute oral toxicity of crude antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the acute toxicity study, the crude antifungal compounds (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 g/kg) did not produce mortality, significant changes in general behavior, or changes in the gross appearance of the organs. In the subacute toxicity study, the crude antifungal compounds were administered orally to rats at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg daily for 28 days. There were no test article-related deaths, abnormal clinical signs, or body weight changes. The study also showed no significant differences between the control and treated groups in hematological and serum biochemical parameters, histopathological examination, or any other findings. These results suggest that acute or subacute oral administration of crude antifungal compounds from L. plantarum HD1 is not toxic in rats. PMID:26451356

  2. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P < 0.05) in the body weights, organ weights and haemato-biochemical parameters in any of the dose levels. No treatment related gross/histopathological lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic.

  3. Management of oral cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. E.; Langdon, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Oral cancer is a serious disease that is on the increase. The most pressing need is early recognition and referral for specialist treatment. Too many cases present with advanced tumours. Radiotherapy and surgery remain the primary modalities of curative treatment, but understanding of tumour pathology and developments in surgical and radiotherapeutic technique have combined to produce a rational approach to management. In many instances 'radical' methods of surgical access can be combined with a more 'conservative' resection of the mandible or cervical lymph nodes. One-stage reconstructive procedures, often incorporating osteotomy techniques, miniature bone plating and free tissue transfer, have minimised the morbidity and functional deficit so often seen after earlier operations. All surgeons involved in the modern management of oral cancer should have expertise in these techniques or be part of a team which can provide them. PMID:8540656

  4. Damaging oral habits.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results.

  5. Studies in oral leukoplakias

    PubMed Central

    Pindborg, J. J.; Kiær, Joyce; Gupta, P. C.; Chawla, T. N.

    1967-01-01

    Oral carcinoma has been shown to be correlated with the use of tobacco in various parts of India. In a large-scale dental survey conducted in Lucknow, Bombay and Bangalore various precancerous conditions were investigated and studied for their possible relation to smoking and chewing habits. This paper reports the prevalence of oral leukoplakia among 10 000 dental-clinic patients in Lucknow and the correlation of the condition with the use of tobacco and betel nut in the study population. The results show that leukoplakia is far more prevalent among users of tobacco, betel nut or both than among non-users. A strikingly high frequency was found among smokers of the local cigarette, the bidi. PMID:5300044

  6. Oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Olson, Meredith A; Rogers, Roy S; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that can affect the skin, hair, nails, and mucosal surfaces. Mucosal sites of involvement include oral, genital, ocular, otic, esophageal, and, less commonly, bladder, nasal, laryngeal, and anal surfaces. Oral lichen planus is a mucosal variant of lichen planus, which tends to affect women more often than men, with a typically more chronic course and potential for significant morbidity. Treatment can be challenging, and there is potentially a low risk of malignant transformation; however, therapeutic benefits can be obtained with various topical and systemic medications. Clinical monitoring is recommended to ensure symptomatic control. Increasing awareness and recognition of this entity have continued to fuel advances in therapy and in our understanding of the disease. PMID:27343965

  7. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  8. Structures of designed armadillo-repeat proteins show propagation of inter-repeat interface effects

    PubMed Central

    Reichen, Christian; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Hansen, Simon; Grütter, Markus G.; Plückthun, Andreas; Mittl, Peer R. E.

    2016-01-01

    The armadillo repeat serves as a scaffold for the development of modular peptide-recognition modules. In order to develop such a system, three crystal structures of designed armadillo-repeat proteins with third-generation N-caps (YIII-type), four or five internal repeats (M-type) and second-generation C-caps (AII-type) were determined at 1.8 Å (His-YIIIM4AII), 2.0 Å (His-YIIIM5AII) and 1.95 Å (YIIIM5AII) resolution and compared with those of variants with third-generation C-caps. All constructs are full consensus designs in which the internal repeats have exactly the same sequence, and hence identical conformations of the internal repeats are expected. The N-cap and internal repeats M1 to M3 are indeed extremely similar, but the comparison reveals structural differences in internal repeats M4 and M5 and the C-cap. These differences are caused by long-range effects of the C-cap, contacting molecules in the crystal, and the intrinsic design of the repeat. Unfortunately, the rigid-body movement of the C-terminal part impairs the regular arrangement of internal repeats that forms the putative peptide-binding site. The second-generation C-cap improves the packing of buried residues and thereby the stability of the protein. These considerations are useful for future improvements of an armadillo-repeat-based peptide-recognition system. PMID:26894544

  9. Glycosyltransferase-mediated Sweet Modification in Oral Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, F.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial glycosyltransferases play important roles in bacterial fitness and virulence. Oral streptococci have evolved diverse strategies to survive and thrive in the carbohydrate-rich oral cavity. In this review, we discuss 2 important biological processes mediated by 2 distinct groups of glycosyltransferases in oral streptococci that are important for bacterial colonization and virulence. The first process is the glycosylation of highly conserved serine-rich repeat adhesins by a series of glycosyltransferases. Using Streptococcus parasanguinis as a model, we highlight new features of several glycosyltransferases that sequentially modify the serine-rich glycoprotein Fap1. Distinct features of a novel glycosyltransferase fold from a domain of unknown function 1792 are contrasted with common properties of canonical glycosyltransferases. The second biological process we cover is involved in building sticky glucan matrix to establish cariogenic biofilms by an important opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus mutans through the action of a family of 3 glucosyltransferases. We focus on discussing the structural feature of this family as a glycoside hydrolase family of enzymes. While the 2 processes are distinct, they all produce carbohydrate-coated biomolecules, which enable bacteria to stick better in the complex oral microbiome. Understanding the making of the sweet modification presents a unique opportunity to develop novel antiadhesion and antibiofilm strategies to fight infections by oral streptococci and beyond. PMID:25755271

  10. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  11. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  12. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature. PMID:27352462

  13. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.

  14. [Oral candidiasis and dentures].

    PubMed

    Ahariz, M; Loeb, I; Courtois, P

    2010-04-01

    Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus usually colonize the human oral cavity. Immunocompromised patients or individuals with an imbalance of their oral microflora can develop yeast infections from this reservoir. However, saliva protects oral mucosa against candidosis; in turn, dry mouth is associated with increased yeast counts and candidosis risk. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown Candida incorporation into biofilms covering different biomaterials such as dentures: these biofilms may be an increased risk factor for invasive candidosis when the host immune system is compromised. Daily denture brushing is recommended to all wearers. Family or healthcare workers must take over this task when there is autonomy loss, especially in the elderly. In case of candidosis in denture wearers, decontamination of dentures is mandatory. Antimycotics (azoles, nystatin) must be kept for curative treatments of infected patients; they are less active against Candida biofilms on dentures and could lead to emergent resistance if applied daily to dentures against yeast colonization. There are several antiphlogistic solutions with antifungal properties. Nevertheless, literature data does not integrate all aspects of denture care: welfare of denture wearers, prevention of candidosis, biomaterial defects after decontamination processing, and taking into account possible Candida biofilm development. Daily brushing of dentures remains the key recommendation.

  15. Testing Multiple Outcomes in Repeated Measures Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates procedures for controlling the familywise error rate (FWR) when testing hypotheses about multiple, correlated outcome variables in repeated measures (RM) designs. A content analysis of RM research articles published in 4 psychology journals revealed that 3 quarters of studies tested hypotheses about 2 or more outcome…

  16. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  17. Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

  18. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term “junk DNA” has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide, and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasized following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease) and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA) in 1991. In this review, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases. PMID:26733936

  19. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term "junk DNA" has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide, and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasized following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease) and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA) in 1991. In this review, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases. PMID:26733936

  20. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  1. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  2. Longer-baseline telescopes using quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Daniel; Jennewein, Thomas; Croke, Sarah

    2012-08-17

    We present an approach to building interferometric telescopes using ideas of quantum information. Current optical interferometers have limited baseline lengths, and thus limited resolution, because of noise and loss of signal due to the transmission of photons between the telescopes. The technology of quantum repeaters has the potential to eliminate this limit, allowing in principle interferometers with arbitrarily long baselines. PMID:23006349

  3. Human adaptation to repeated cold immersions.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, F S; Tipton, M J

    1988-01-01

    1. The present investigation was designed to examine human adaptation to intermittent severe cold exposure and to assess the effect of exercise on any adaptation obtained. 2. Sixteen subjects were divided into two equal groups. Each subject performed ten head-out immersions; two into thermoneutral water which was then cooled until they shivered vigorously, and eight into water at 15 degrees C for 40 min. During the majority of the 15 degrees C immersions, one group (dynamic group) exercised whilst the other (static group) rested. 3. Results showed that both groups responded to repeated cold immersions with a reduction in their initial responses to cold. The time course of these reductions varied, however, between responses. 4. Only the static group developed a reduced metabolic response to prolonged resting immersion. 5. It is concluded that repeated resting exposure to cold was the more effective way of producing an adaptation. The performance of exercise during repeated exposure to cold prevented the development of an adaptive reduction in the metabolic response to cold during a subsequent resting immersion. In addition, many of the adaptations obtained during repeated resting exposure were overridden or masked during a subsequent exercising immersion. PMID:3411500

  4. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in women with repeated miscarriages.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard, I; Daniel, V; Link, S; Monga, B; Runnebaum, B

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate a possible etiological role of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the pathogenesis of repeated miscarriages. The blood levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons [CHCs: pentachlorophenol, hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) group, polychlorinated biphenyls] were determined in 89 women with repeated miscarriages, who were referred to the University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Heidelberg for investigations between 1989 and 1993, and compared to a previously investigated reference population. In more than 20% of the women, at least one of the CHC levels exceeded the reference range. CHC levels did not differ significantly between women with primary or secondary and early or late miscarriages; neither did they differ between women with hormonal or immunological disorders as causes of repeated miscarriages or women with idiopathic repeated miscarriages. No significant associations were detected between CHC levels and further conceptions or the outcome of further pregnancies. As significant associations were found between increasing CHC blood concentrations and immunological and hormonal changes, CHCs may have an impact on the pregnancy course in certain cases. PMID:9755145

  6. Repeat abortions in New York City, 2010.

    PubMed

    Toprani, Amita; Cadwell, Betsy L; Li, Wenhui; Sackoff, Judith; Greene, Carolyn; Begier, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to describe factors associated with the number of past abortions obtained by New York City (NYC) abortion patients in 2010. We calculated rates of first and repeat abortion by age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood-level poverty and the mean number of self-reported past abortions by age, race/ethnicity, neighborhood-level poverty, number of living children, education, payment method, marital status, and nativity. We used negative binomial regression to predict number of past abortions by patient characteristics. Of the 76,614 abortions reported for NYC residents in 2010, 57% were repeat abortions. Repeat abortions comprised >50% of total abortions among the majority of sociodemographic groups we examined. Overall, mean number of past abortions was 1.3. Mean number of past abortions was higher for women aged 30-34 years (1.77), women with ≥5 children (2.50), and black non-Hispanic women (1.52). After multivariable regression, age, race/ethnicity, and number of children were the strongest predictors of number of past abortions. This analysis demonstrates that, although socioeconomic disparities exist, all abortion patients are at high risk for repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion. PMID:25779755

  7. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    PubMed

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence. PMID:27012819

  8. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  9. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  10. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  11. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  12. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  13. Cumulative Intertrial Inhibition in Repeated Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    In the present study the author examined visual search when the items remain visible across trials but the location of the target varies. Reaction times for inefficient search cumulatively increased with increasing numbers of repeated search trials, suggesting that inhibition for distractors carried over successive trials. This intertrial…

  14. Lithium chloride administration prevents spatial learning and memory impairment in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice by depressing apoptosis and increasing BDNF expression in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingyue; Jin, Wei; Zhao, Haifeng; Xiao, Yining; Jia, Yanqiu; Yin, Yu; Jiang, Xin; Xu, Jing; Meng, Nan; Lv, Peiyuan

    2015-09-15

    Lithium has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, but the preventive and treated role on cognition impairment and the underlying mechanisms have not been determined. In the present study, C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce the learning and memory deficits. 2 mmol/kg or 5 mmol/kg of lithium chloride (LiCl) was injected intraperitoneally per day before (for 7 days) or post (for 28 days) the operation. This repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced dynamic overexpression of ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and BDNF in hippocampus of mice. LiCl pretreatment and treatment significantly decreased the escape latency and increased the percentage of time that the mice spent in the target quadrant in Morris water maze. 2 mmol/kg LiCl evidently reversed the morphologic changes, up-regulated the survival neuron count and increased the BDNF gene and protein expression. 5 mmol/kg pre-LiCl significantly increased IR-stimulated reduce of Bcl-2/Bax and p-CREB/CREB. These results described suggest that pre-Li and Li treatment may induce a pronounced prevention on cognitive impairment. These effects may relay on the inhibition of apoptosis and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression.

  15. Effects of repeated doses of aspartame on serotonin and its metabolite in various regions of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R P; Coulombe, R A

    1987-08-01

    Following a finding that single doses (approximating to average intakes and to potential 'over-use') of aspartame administered orally to mice caused significant increases in norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations in various brain regions, the effect of repeated exposure to aspartame was studied. Male CD-1 mice were given a daily oral dose of 0, 13, 133 or 650 mg/kg for 30 days and 1 day after the last dose the animals were decapitated and their brain regions were quickly isolated. Analyses of the different regions for catecholamine and indoleamine neurotransmitters and their major metabolites indicated that the increases in adrenergic chemicals observed shortly after a single exposure were not apparent after repeated dosing. In contrast, concentrations of serotonin and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, were decreased in several regions. An increased supply of phenylalanine may be responsible for a decrease in tryptophan uptake by the brain tissue or for a depression in tryptophan conversion to serotonin.

  16. The Influence of Task Repetition and Task Structure on EFL Learners' Oral Narrative Retellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeedi, Masoud; Rahimi Kazerooni, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study which attempted to explore the influence of repeating two different types of narrative tasks on complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) in the oral production of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). For this purpose, the effects of four conditions (i.e. no task repetition with a loosely…

  17. Programming for Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency Using Computer-Assisted Instruction and Changing Fluency Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Starr E.; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Robinson-Ervin, Porsha

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supplemental repeated reading intervention delivered through a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on the oral reading fluency (ORF), comprehension, and generalization of second graders who were at risk for reading failure. Six students received the Read Naturally Software Edition (RNSE) treatment…

  18. An Alternating Treatments Comparison of Oral and Total Communication Training with Minimally Verbal Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Lori A.; Barrett, Rowland P.

    1984-01-01

    The study compared effects of oral speech with total communication (speech plus sign language) training on the ability of mild mentally retarded children (four-eight years old) to repeat four-word sentences. Results pointed to the superiority of the total communication approach in facilitating sentence repetition. (Author)

  19. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  20. Fluent Reading as the Improvement of Stimulus Control: Additive Effects of Performance-Based Interventions to Repeated Reading on Students' Reading and Error Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Martens, Brian K.; Dobson, Robin L.; Weinstein, Kristen S.; Gardner, Kate B.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of adding performance-based interventions to a skill-based intervention on oral reading fluency was examined with 3 elementary students identified as having difficulty with reading. Two performance-based interventions were combined with the skill-based intervention Repeated Reading (RR) to create the three instructional packages…

  1. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  2. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  3. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  4. Oral contraceptives and dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Cholst, I N; Carlon, A T

    1987-01-01

    This artical examines the risks and benefits associated with use of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) by adolescents and the various alternatives and methods of prescribing OCPs. Any adolescent who is either sexually active or contemplating sexual activity should be offered a contraceptive method that is appropriate to her individual needs. The contraceptive needs to be highly effective, safe and within the means and desires of the adolescent. For the majority of teenagers, the contraceptive of choice will be the OCP. The IUD should almost never be prescribed to the adolescent. Most OCPs marketed today are combination pills containing both an estrogen and a progestin in each pill. A variety of contraceptive actions combines to create a contraceptive method that is 99.3-99.9% effective. OCPs provide some protection against the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Oral contraceptives also decrease the incidence of anemia by decreasing the amount and duration of menstrual flow. Ovarian cysts do not form in the ovaries of the OCP user. On the other hand, a serious risk of the use of OCPs is the increased danger of thromboembolic events including deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, and myocardial infarction. The increased risk of myocardial infarction in OCP users is additive with other risk factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and age. OCP use seems to provide some protection against development of endometrial or ovarian cancer. Oral contraceptives are associated with the development of benign hepatocellular adenomas. A variety of metabolic and hormonal alterations also occur in pill users. Most appropriate for the adolescent is a formulation containing a low dose of estrogen because of the decreased risk of thromboembolic complications. Dysmenorrhea effects more than 1/2 of female adolescents, and can best be treated with ibuprofen.

  5. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruneau, Laurent; Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco

    2014-07-15

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

  6. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    PubMed

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  7. Emergence of Fairness in Repeated Group Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Segbroeck, S.; Pacheco, J. M.; Lenaerts, T.; Santos, F. C.

    2012-04-01

    Often groups need to meet repeatedly before a decision is reached. Hence, most individual decisions will be contingent on decisions taken previously by others. In particular, the decision to cooperate or not will depend on one’s own assessment of what constitutes a fair group outcome. Making use of a repeated N-person prisoner’s dilemma, we show that reciprocation towards groups opens a window of opportunity for cooperation to thrive, leading populations to engage in dynamics involving both coordination and coexistence, and characterized by cycles of cooperation and defection. Furthermore, we show that this process leads to the emergence of fairness, whose level will depend on the dilemma at stake.

  8. Predictability of repeating earthquakes near Parkfield, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechar, J. Douglas; Nadeau, Robert M.

    2012-07-01

    We analyse sequences of repeating microearthquakes that were identified by applying waveform coherency methods to data from the Parkfield High-Resolution Seismic Network. Because by definition all events in a sequence have similar magnitudes and locations, the temporal behaviour of these sequences is naturally isolated, which, coupled with the high occurrence rates of small events, makes these data ideal for studying interevent time distributions. To characterize the temporal predictability of these sequences, we perform retrospective forecast experiments using hundreds of earthquakes. We apply three variants of a simple algorithm that produces sequence-specific, time-varying hazard functions, and we find that the sequences are predictable. We discuss limitations of these data and, more generally, challenges in identifying repeating events, and we outline the potential implications of our results for understanding the occurrence of large earthquakes.

  9. Case report: repeated neonaticides in Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Funayama, M; Ikeda, T; Tabata, N; Azumi, J; Morita, M

    1994-02-01

    Five cases of repeated neonaticides were reported in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan, during the 10 years from 1983 to 1992. Four or more neonates were involved in each case by each mother. All the suspected mothers were not mentally ill. Two of them were single and the rest were married. Each husband was not aware of the pregnancy of his wife, because he was away from home very often. The main motive of murder seemed to be economic and/or to save appearances. Sentences were 1 year penal servitude with a stay of 3 years for one case, but 30-42 months in prison for the other four cases. We rarely find reports of repeated infanticides committed by the same mother in European countries and the United States.

  10. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  11. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes. PMID:25126053

  12. Interoperability in encoded quantum repeater networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Shota; Choi, Byung-Soo; Devitt, Simon; Suzuki, Shigeya; Van Meter, Rodney

    2016-04-01

    The future of quantum repeater networking will require interoperability between various error-correcting codes. A few specific code conversions and even a generalized method are known, however, no detailed analysis of these techniques in the context of quantum networking has been performed. In this paper we analyze a generalized procedure to create Bell pairs encoded heterogeneously between two separate codes used often in error-corrected quantum repeater network designs. We begin with a physical Bell pair and then encode each qubit in a different error-correcting code, using entanglement purification to increase the fidelity. We investigate three separate protocols for preparing the purified encoded Bell pair. We calculate the error probability of those schemes between the Steane [[7,1,3

  13. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    PubMed

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  14. Quantum repeater with continuous variable encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linshu; Albert, Victor V.; Michael, Marios; Muralidharan, Sreraman; Zou, Changling; Jiang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    Quantum communication enables faithful quantum state transfer between different parties and protocols for cryptographic purposes. However, quantum communication over long distances (>1000km) remains challenging due to optical channel attenuation. This calls for investigation on developing novel encoding schemes that correct photon loss errors efficiently. In this talk, we introduce the generalization of multi-component Schrödinger cat states and propose to encode quantum information in these cat states for ultrafast quantum repeaters. We detail the quantum error correction procedures at each repeater station and characterize the performance of this novel encoding scheme given practical imperfections, such as coupling loss. A comparison with other quantum error correcting codes for bosonic modes will be discussed.

  15. Evolution and recombination of bovine DNA repeats.

    PubMed

    Jobse, C; Buntjer, J B; Haagsma, N; Breukelman, H J; Beintema, J J; Lenstra, J A

    1995-09-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattle, sheep, and goat is also present in Cervidae (deer) and apparently predates the Bovidae. However, the other components of the bovine satellites were amplified after the divergence of the cattle and the Caprinae (sheep and goat). A 23-bp motif, which as subrepeat of two major satellites occupies 5% of the cattle genome, emerged only after the split of the water buffalo and other cattle species. During the evolution of the Bovidae the satellite repeat units were shaped by recombination events involving subrepeats, other satellite components, and SINE elements. Differences in restriction sites of homologous satellites indicate a continuing rapid horizontal spread of new sequence variants.

  16. Oral epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Guledgud, Mahima V.; Patil, Karthikeya

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HE) is an intermediate malignant potential vascular neoplasm with uncertain clinical behavior, wide variations in microscopic findings, and prognosis. According to the World Health Organization (2002) classification, epithelioid HE has been considered under malignant tumors which rarely metastasize. The epithelioid variant, the most aggressive one, has similar gender predilection and sporadic occurrence in children. The patients usually present with an asymptomatic oral mass whereas few cases may report with the painful bleeding lesion. We attempt to present a case in an adolescent male with previously never described biological behavior, diverse histopathological features, and immunohistochemistry findings. PMID:26681871

  17. Oral argument set.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court will hear oral arguments in the case of [name removed]. [Name removed], a U.S. [Name removed] Major who violated orders by not telling two women with whom he had unprotected sex about his HIV status. The high court will decide whether [name removed]'s court-martial violates double jeopardy and ex post facto clauses of the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces said the Air Force's move to dismiss [name removed] following his conviction was an unconstitutional second punishment for the same offense. PMID:11366390

  18. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  19. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

    2015-06-01

    Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions.

  20. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

    2015-06-01

    Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions. PMID:25892249

  1. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  2. Automatic-repeat-request error control schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Miller, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Error detection incorporated with automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) is widely used for error control in data communication systems. This method of error control is simple and provides high system reliability. If a properly chosen code is used for error detection, virtually error-free data transmission can be attained. Various types of ARQ and hybrid ARQ schemes, and error detection using linear block codes are surveyed.

  3. A New Property of Repeating Decimals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arledge, Jane; Tekansik, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    As extended by Ginsberg, Midi's theorem says that if the repeated section of a decimal expansion of a prime is split into appropriate blocks and these are added, the result is a string of nines. We show that if the expansion of 1/p[superscript n+1] is treated the same way, instead of being a string of nines, the sum is related to the period of…

  4. Agreement and repeatability of an infrared thermometer.

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Good, Angela; Mueller, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Recently, manufacturers have devised thermometers for home use by patients, such as the TempTouch Infrared Thermometer (TTIR; Diabetica Solutions, San Antonio, TX), which is designed with a long handle that can be used for self-monitoring localized skin temperature of the feet and legs. This study assessed the level of agreement and repeatability of the TTIR compared to a thermistor-type thermometer (TT; PeriFlux, 5020 Temperature Unit, Perimed, Stockholm, Sweden), the reference standard. In 17 healthy subjects, localized skin temperature was measured 8 cm above the right medial malleolus at baseline (Time 1), after a 10-minute rest period (Time 2), and after 10 minutes of cold provocation (Time 3) with a cryotherapy gel wrap placed around the lower legs using the TTIR and TT for temperature measurement. Scatter plots and correlation coefficients showed strong positive relationships between the two measurement methods at all three time points (Time 1: r = 0.95; Time 2: r = 0.97; and, Time 3: r = 0.87). Results showed a reasonable level of agreement between the two methods at Times 1 and 2 but not after cold provocation. Agreement between the methods appears to be better than repeatability within each method. Results for repeatability from both the TT and TTIR were very similar suggesting that there was a systematic bias with increasing temperatures between Time 1 and Time 2.

  5. Genomic Repeat Abundances Contain Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W.; Kelly, Laura J.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution. PMID:25261464

  6. Genomic repeat abundances contain phylogenetic signal.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W; Kelly, Laura J; Leitch, Ilia J; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution.

  7. Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas

    SciTech Connect

    Kano, Hideyuki; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay M.Ch.; Flannery, Thomas J.; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for acoustic neuromas, we assessed tumor control, clinical outcomes, and the risk of adverse radiation effects in patients whose tumors progressed after initial management. Methods and Materials: During a 21-year experience at our center, 1,352 patients underwent SRS as management for their acoustic neuromas. We retrospectively identified 6 patients who underwent SRS twice for the same tumor. The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-71 years). All patients had imaging evidence of tumor progression despite initial SRS. One patient also had incomplete surgical resection after initial SRS. All patients were deaf at the time of the second SRS. The median radiosurgery target volume at the time of the initial SRS was 0.5 cc and was 2.1 cc at the time of the second SRS. The median margin dose at the time of the initial SRS was 13 Gy and was 11 Gy at the time of the second SRS. The median interval between initial SRS and repeat SRS was 63 months (range, 25-169 months). Results: At a median follow-up of 29 months after the second SRS (range, 13-71 months), tumor control or regression was achieved in all 6 patients. No patient developed symptomatic adverse radiation effects or new neurological symptoms after the second SRS. Conclusions: With this limited experience, we found that repeat SRS for a persistently enlarging acoustic neuroma can be performed safely and effectively.

  8. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  9. Oral lichen planus in childhood.

    PubMed

    Laeijendecker, Ronald; Van Joost, Theodoor; Tank, Bhupendra; Oranje, Arnold P; Neumann, H A Martino

    2005-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is rare in childhood, and only a few reports on this subject have appeared in the literature. Our objective was to report individual cases of oral lichen planus in childhood from our practice and to review the literature on this subject. We recruited patients younger than 18 years with oral lichen planus and documented several clinical aspects, the histopathology, patch tests, and blood examination findings. Three patients from about 10,000 dermatology patients younger than 18 years seen from 1994 to 2003 were included. Of these three, an Asian girl aged 11 years had an asymptomatic, hyperkeratotic variant of oral lichen planus, which disappeared without any treatment after 1 year. An Asian boy aged 16 years had an erosive oral lichen planus with severe pain, which healed after intensive local and systemic treatment in 2 years. A Caucasian girl aged 14 years had a hyperkeratotic variant with a little soreness, which disappeared with local treatment after 3 months. Our findings indicated that oral lichen planus in childhood is rare and therefore at present it is not possible to draw firm conclusions considering its nature and etiology. Oral lichen planus in childhood seems to occur preferentially in those of Asian race. The clinical features resemble those of oral lichen planus in adults. However, generally the prognosis of oral lichen planus in childhood seems to be more favorable than in adults.

  10. Parietal cheiro-oral syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Y; Watanabe, T; Ogura, A

    2000-12-01

    Cheiro-oral syndrome due to a parietal lesion has been reported in conjuction with a brain tumor, infarction and migraine. Only six reports of cheiro-oral syndrome due to a parietal infarction have been reported to date. We treated a 45-year-old woman with cheiro-oral syndrome due to a parietal infarction. Her sensory disturbance was characterized by paresthesia in the lower face and hand on the left side, and severe involvement of stereognosis and graphesthesia in the left hand. The pathogenesis of parietal cheiro-oral syndrome is discussed.

  11. Practical pearls for oral procedures.

    PubMed

    Davari, Parastoo; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    We provide an overview of clinically relevant principles of oral surgical procedures required in the workup and management of oral mucosal diseases. An understanding of the fundamental concepts of how to perform safely and effectively minor oral procedures is important to the practicing dermatologist and can minimize the need for patient referrals. This chapter reviews the principles of minor oral procedures, including incisional, excisional, and punch biopsies, as well as minor salivary gland excision. Pre- and postoperative patient care is also discussed. PMID:27343958

  12. Identification of repeat structure in large genomes using repeat probability clouds.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wanjun; Castoe, Todd A; Hedges, Dale J; Batzer, Mark A; Pollock, David D

    2008-09-01

    The identification of repeat structure in eukaryotic genomes can be time-consuming and difficult because of the large amount of information ( approximately 3 x 10(9) bp) that needs to be processed and compared. We introduce a new approach based on exact word counts to evaluate, de novo, the repeat structure present within large eukaryotic genomes. This approach avoids sequence alignment and similarity search, two of the most time-consuming components of traditional methods for repeat identification. Algorithms were implemented to efficiently calculate exact counts for any length oligonucleotide in large genomes. Based on these oligonucleotide counts, oligonucleotide excess probability clouds, or "P-clouds," were constructed. P-clouds are composed of clusters of related oligonucleotides that occur, as a group, more often than expected by chance. After construction, P-clouds were mapped back onto the genome, and regions of high P-cloud density were identified as repetitive regions based on a sliding window approach. This efficient method is capable of analyzing the repeat content of the entire human genome on a single desktop computer in less than half a day, at least 10-fold faster than current approaches. The predicted repetitive regions strongly overlap with known repeat elements as well as other repetitive regions such as gene families, pseudogenes, and segmental duplicons. This method should be extremely useful as a tool for use in de novo identification of repeat structure in large newly sequenced genomes.

  13. Improving the Oral Health of Residents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An Oral Health Strategy and Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, Catherine J.; Johnson, Knowlton W.; Abadi, Melissa; Thompson, Kirsten; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Young, Linda; Zaksek, Brigit

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an oral health (OH) strategy and pilot study focusing on individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) living in group homes. The strategy consists of four components: (1) planned action in the form of the behavioral contract and caregiver OH action planning; (2) capacity building through didactic and observation learning training; (3) environmental adaptations consisting of additional oral heath devices and strategies to create a calm atmosphere; and (4) reinforcement by post-training coaching. A pilot study was conducted consisting of pre- and post-assessment data collected one week before and one week after implementing a one-month OH strategy. The study sample comprised 11 group homes with 21 caregivers and 25 residents with IDD from one service organization in a Midwestern city. A process evaluation found high-quality implementation of the OH strategy as measured by dosage, fidelity, and caregiver reactions to implementing the strategy. Using repeated cross-sectional and repeated measures analyses, we found statistically significant positive changes in OH status and oral hygiene practices of residents. Caregiver self-efficacy as a mechanism of change was not adequately evaluated; however, positive change was found in some but not all types of caregiver OH support that were assessed. Lessons learned from implementing the pilot study intervention and evaluation are discussed, as are the next steps in conducting an efficacy study of the OH strategy. PMID:25137553

  14. Improving the oral health of residents with intellectual and developmental disabilities: an oral health strategy and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Catherine J; Johnson, Knowlton W; Abadi, Melissa; Thompson, Kirsten; Shamblen, Stephen R; Young, Linda; Zaksek, Brigit

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an oral health (OH) strategy and pilot study focusing on individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) living in group homes. The strategy consists of four components: (1) planned action in the form of the behavioral contract and caregiver OH action planning; (2) capacity building through didactic and observation learning training; (3) environmental adaptations consisting of additional oral heath devices and strategies to create a calm atmosphere; and (4) reinforcement by post-training coaching. A pilot study was conducted consisting of pre- and post-assessment data collected 1 week before and 1 week after implementing a 1-month OH strategy. The study sample comprised 11 group homes with 21 caregivers and 25 residents with IDD from one service organization in a Midwestern city. A process evaluation found high-quality implementation of the OH strategy as measured by dosage, fidelity, and caregiver reactions to implementing the strategy. Using repeated cross-sectional and repeated measures analyses, we found statistically significant positive changes in OH status and oral hygiene practices of residents. Caregiver self-efficacy as a mechanism of change was not adequately evaluated; however, positive change was found in some but not all types of caregiver OH support that were assessed. Lessons learned from implementing the pilot study intervention and evaluation are discussed, as are the next steps in conducting an efficacy study of the OH strategy. PMID:25137553

  15. Adult Dental Health Survey 2009: implications of findings for clinical practice and oral health policy.

    PubMed

    Watt, R G; Steele, J G; Treasure, E T; White, D A; Pitts, N B; Murray, J J

    2013-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series reporting on the results of the 2009 Adult Dental Health Survey. Since 1968 national adult surveys have been repeated every decade with broadly similar methods providing a unique overview of trends in oral health over a 40-year period. This paper aims to explore the implications for dentists and oral health policy of the key results from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009. Although repeat, cross-sectional, epidemiological surveys provide very valuable data on trends in disease patterns, they do not provide answers to test causal relationships and therefore cannot identify the causes for the significant improvements in oral health over the last 40 years. Evidence would indicate, however, that broad societal shifts in population norms and behaviours, combined with changes in clinical diagnostic criteria, treatment planning and clinical procedures are the main reasons for the changes that have taken place. Key implications of the survey results include the need to monitor, support and maintain the good state of oral health of the increasing proportion of younger adults with relatively simple treatment needs. A smaller number of young and middle aged adults but a significant proportion of older adults will have far more complex treatment needs requiring advanced restorative and periodontal care. Future oral health policy will need to address oral health inequalities, encourage skill mix and promote and facilitate the dental profession to deliver appropriate and high quality care relevant to the needs of their local population.

  16. Repeated buckling of composite shear panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Josef; Weller, Tanchum

    1990-01-01

    Failures in service of aerospace structures and research at the Technion Aircraft Structures Laboratory have revealed that repeatedly buckled stiffened shear panels might be susceptible to premature fatigue failures. Extensive experimental and analytical studies have been performed at Technion on repeated buckling, far in excess of initial buckling, for both metal and composite shear panels with focus on the influence of the surrounding structure. The core of the experimental investigation consisted of repeated buckling and postbuckling tests on Wagner beams in a three-point loading system under realistic test conditions. The effects of varying sizes of stiffeners, of the magnitude of initial buckling loads, of the panel aspect ratio and of the cyclic shearing force, V sub cyc, were studied. The cyclic to critical shear buckling ratios, (V sub cyc/V sub cr) were on the high side, as needed for efficient panel design, yet all within possible flight envelopes. The experiments were supplemented by analytical and numerical analyses. For the metal shear panels the test and numerical results were synthesized into prediction formulas, which relate the life of the metal shear panels to two cyclic load parameters. The composite shear panels studied were hybrid beams with graphite/epoxy webs bonded to aluminum alloy frames. The test results demonstrated that composite panels were less fatigue sensitive than comparable metal ones, and that repeated buckling, even when causing extensive damage, did not reduce the residual strength by more than 20 percent. All the composite panels sustained the specified fatigue life of 250,000 cycles. The effect of local unstiffened holes on the durability of repeatedly buckled shear panels was studied for one series of the metal panels. Tests on 2024 T3 aluminum panels with relatively small unstiffened holes in the center of the panels demonstrated premature fatigue failure, compared to panels without holes. Preliminary tests on two graphite

  17. Apixaban and oral implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword “apixaban” for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment. Key words:Apixaban, dental treatment, dental implications. PMID:26535102

  18. [Oral jewelry: a review].

    PubMed

    Jeger, Franziska; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Oral jewelry is popular. One of the most widely spread types are so-called tooth diamonds made of composite materials which are applied to the teeth with an adhesive. Note that parents are required to sign a release form for under-aged patients in Switzerland. Tooth cap grills and gold teeth are considered status symbols within the Hip-Hop fashion scene. However, tooth ornaments favour the accumulation of plaque and can diminish the ability to articulate. With respect to jewelry in oral soft tissue especially tongue and lip piercings are of significance to dentists. Besides the systemic complications, which are mostly caused by a lack of hygiene or the failure of noting medical contraindications by the piercer, local complications occur frequently. After surgery, pain, swelling, infections as well as hemorrhages or hematomas can be observed. Long-term effects can be problematic: gingival recession can be discernes mainly in the case of lip piercings the loss of hard tooth substance in the case of tongue piercings. Because of that, conservation therapies can become indespensable. Patients wearing dental jewelry have to be aware of risks of tooth damage, and they regularly have to undergo dental check-ups. Information campaigns--for dentists as well as patients--are necessary.

  19. Archives, Oral History and Oral Tradition: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, William W.; Mazikana, Peter C.

    This Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) report provides information on the nature of oral tradition/history; the role of recorded oral history as documentation in the absence of written records, or as a supplement where written records exist; problems in recording and administering such materials; and basic considerations involved in…

  20. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication.