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Sample records for 28-mesh coal fines

  1. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D.

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  2. Washability of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the theoretical beneficiation potential of US coals when pulverized down to 44 microns, (2) to determine the effects of fine grinding on the liberation of ash, pyritic sulfur, and other impurities, and (3) to assess the impact of their removal on oil and gas replacement, environmental regulations, and specification feedstocks for emerging coal utilization technologies. With the emphasis on fine coal cleaning, we have developed a centrifugal float-sink technique for coals crushed down to 44 microns. Employing this technique will provide a complete fine coal gravimetric evaluation of US coals crushed down to 44 microns. Parallel research is being conducted through in-house studies by PETC, and contracts with the University of Alaska, the University of North Dakota, and Commercial Testing and Engineering, Inc. Results thus far have been encouraging for selected Northern Appalachian Region Coals (NAR), which have shown pyritic sulfur, SO/sub 2/ emission, and ash reductions of 94, 60, and 82%, respectively, for the float 1.30 specific gravity product. However, the data evaluated for several samples indicate a possible problem in the yield/ash relationship for the float 1.30 specific gravity products for samples crushed to 75 and 44 microns top size. Thus, testing was begun to try to resolve these anomalies in the data. Test results using surface active agents, a reverse order of float-sink, and sample pre-heat techniques have been promising. These modifications to the standard technique resulted in an increase in weight recovery of float 1.30 specific gravity material and a decrease in ash content for each of the other specific gravity fractions, thus showing an improvement in the yield/ash relationship.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  4. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  5. Process for cleaning fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, R.E.

    1981-08-04

    A process for the wet concentration and cleaning of fine coal is provided which comprises the steps of desliming and thickening a dilute slurry of fine coal and contaminant particles having a size of less than about 10 mm by introducing the same to a hydrocyclone separator to retain a slurry of particles having a size greater than about 0.1 mm, wet concentrating the last-named slurry and removing the heavier contaminant particles by introducing it to an autogenous dense medium separation vessel having a manifold for injecting water at an intermediate level and controlling the underflow of heavier than coal particles to maintain a fluidized bed of heavier particles and causing a slurry of the lighter coal particles to overflow, and concentrating and dewatering the overflow by means of a static or vibratory sizing screen.

  6. Method for cleaning fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.

    1985-07-16

    A method for cleaning fine coal is provided which includes: mixing the coal with a fluid of such a specific gravity that clean coal particles would float while refuse particles would sink therein, pretreating the coalfluid slurry by adding a surfactant, subjecting the mixture to ultrasonic dispersion, and separating the entire mixture into higher and lower specific gravity fluid streams by means of centrifugal separation. The fluid of the chosen specific gravity and the surfactant may be recovered from the fluid streams and recycled if desired.

  7. Process for recovering fine coal particles from slurry of finely divided coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, K.; Ogino, E.; Yoshii, N.

    1982-08-24

    Fine coal particles are recovered from a slurry of finely divided coal by mixing coarsely divided coal and a binder together to cause the binder to adhere to the surfaces of the coarsely divided coal pieces, mixing the slurry with the coal pieces having the binder adhered thereto to cause fine coal particles to adhere to the binder over the surfaces of the coal pieces serving as nuclei and thereby form agglomerates, and separating the agglomerates from the remaining slurry portion to recover the fine coal particles along with the coarsely divided coal and the binder.

  8. Fine coal flotation in a centrifugal field with an air sparged hydrocyclone

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.; van Camp, M.C.

    1982-11-01

    Preliminary results are reported for the design and development of a pilot-scale air-sparged hydrocyclone for cleaning fine coal (590 ..mu..m, - 28 mesh) containing 24% ash and 1.6% sulphur. The principle of separation is the flotation of hydrophobic coal particles in the centrifugal field generated by the fluid flow in the air-sparged hydrocyclone. This 152 mm hydrocyclone has a nominal capacity of 0.9 ton/h, and experimental results suggest that separations vastly superior to a water-only cyclone are possible. In addition, the separation efficiency is as good, if not better, than that achieved with conventional flotation cells. Typical results indicate that 75% clean coal can be recovered at 15% ash leaving a tailing product of almost 50% ash.

  9. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research & Development Center (Amax R&D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  11. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  12. Granuflow and Mulled coal: Alternative processes for fine coal recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.E.

    1999-07-01

    Granuflow and Mulled Coal were developed in parallel to enhance the ability to recover and process wet coal fines. There are some similarities in the processes; however, the end products are quite different. This paper will compare the properties of the two products prepared from the same coal and identify the unique properties of each. Criteria for selecting between the two processes, including cost, will be discussed.

  13. A dynamics model for fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Youjun, T.; Maixi, L.

    1999-07-01

    Through a large amount of experiments, this article studied the effect of the entrapment of water flow on the fine coal flotation during the flotation, and also investigated the relation between the constant of water flotation rate and different operation variables, and resulted in its equation. The water-recycling model is determined, and finally, the dynamics model on relation between the recovery of fine particle and the water recovery in concentration is established. The equation about ash of fine clean coal in any flotation time is derived by introduction of de-ashed coefficient.

  14. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  15. Engineereing development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-02-18

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. The project has three major objectives: The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  16. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee's Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

  17. Fine coal washability of Alaskan coals

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.

    1984-01-25

    Technical problems involving sample pulverization and dispersion of solids during centrifugal float sink process have been solved. Work has been completed on seven samples. The seven represent five coal fields ranging in rank from subbituminous C to high volatile B bituminous. We are confident the system developed will work for all 50 samples needed to be processed under the grant. Results presented in the attached tables show washability analysis of samples crushed to 65 mesh, 200 mesh and 325 mesh sizes. Proximate and Ultimate analysis of 1.6 Float and Sink products of samples crushed to 325 mesh are also presented. With the exception of major oxide analysis of 1.6 float and sink products work on the seven samples is complete. We are awaiting installation of our newly purchased Spectraspan V ICP/DCP system for completion of this phase of the program. 11 tables.

  18. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United Stat

    1991-05-15

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. Research topics covered during this quarter include the characterization of the base coals, various flotation studies on optimization and pyrite rejection, and a detailed flotation kinetic study. The effect of hexanol, butanol, dodecane, and polyethylene glycol on flotation is described. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying weathered degrees, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals if weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 35 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and the solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will be performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing.

  20. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  2. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  3. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  4. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United

    1991-07-30

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. The results of this research are to be made available to ICF Kaiser Engineers who are currently working on the Engineering Development of Advanced Flotation under a separate contract with DOE under the Acid Rain Control Initiative program. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying degrees of weathering, namely, open to the atmosphere, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 29 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. Hydrocyclone separation of coal refuse fines

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, H.B.

    1983-12-01

    The following conclusions are drawn from the research reported herein: (1) The experimental hydrocyclone apparatus, designed to allow control of the vortex finder length, overflow diameter, underflow diameter, cone angle, and inlet flow rate, is a suitable system for determining the effect of each variable stated on the washing of coal refuse fines. (2) Color-coded spheres of different diameters and specific gravities correlate well as a model of coal refuse fines in the range of 0.0937 inches and larger, insofar as their size and density responding to hydrocyclone separation. (3) Data taken on two experimental systems, using coal refuse fines samples from a gob pile, verify the dimensional analysis by their good correlation. The data collected can be assumed as a guide to geometrically similar hydrocyclones of different sizes. (4) The concentration of solids used during this work was not investigated but is considered a variable of importance in application. (5) Using the experimental hydrocyclone system and spheres along with the concepts of dimensional analysis and similitude, design curves can be generated showing the effect of each parameter on specific gravity separation. (6) Based on the guidance of the design curves, and confirmed by experimentation, a hydrocyclone configuration is recommended for separation of coal refuse fines. (7) Small changes in the vortex finder length causes significant changes in the specific gravity of solids reporting to the overflow. (8) Gob should be pre-screened to remove clay. At that time the undersize material should be sent to a settling pond to be handled as settling pond fines if handled any more at all. 22 references, 44 figures, 16 tables.

  6. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The contract objective was to demonstrate Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc., (AED) Ultrafine Coal (UFC) electrostatic physical fine coal cleaning process as capable of: producing clean coal products of no greater than 2% ash; significantly reducing the pyritic sulfur content below that achievable with state-of-the-art coal cleaning; recovering over 80% of the available energy content in the run-of-mine coal; producing product and refuse with surface moisture below 30%. Originally the demonstration was to be of a Charger/Disc System at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) at Homer City, Pennsylvania. As a result of the combination of Charger/Disc System scale-up problems and parallel development of an improved Vertical-Belt Separator, DOE issued a contract modification to perform additional laboratory testing and optimization of the UFC Vertical-Belt Separator System at AED. These comparative test results, safety analyses and an economic analysis are discussed in this report. 29 refs., 25 figs., 41 tabs.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-07-28

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 to June 30, 1993. The project has three major objectives: (1) the primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) a secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics; and (3) a third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-05-06

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effectve replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustars currently under development. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals fbr clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 51-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress, made during the 6th quarter of the project from January 1 to March 31, 1994. The project has three major objectives: (1) The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. (3) A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  9. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the sixth quarter, January 1, 1992--March 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.; Cho, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    Collector dispersion plays an important role in fine coal flotation because the hydrophobicity and thus flotation rate/selectivity may be increased by dispersing the collector. In this study, four modes of collector dispersion techniques were tested. They were mechanical agitation, ultrasonic energy dispersed collector addition, atomized collector addition, and gasified collector addition. These methods were tested on the flotation of four different ranks of the coal samples of -600{mu}m size (-30 mesh US sieve, or -28 mesh Tyler sieve). In addition to flotation experiments, induction time of bubble attachment to the bed of fine coal particles was measured. The ultrasonic energy dispersed and atomized collector addition techniques enhanced flotation yield and most significantly improved the kinetics of fine coal flotation. The gasified collector flotation method could increase the selectivity of separation and decrease the collector consumption. The combustible recovery by the gasified collector flotation was lower than that by the conventional method but the selectivity by the former method was higher than that by the latter method. Application of the four different collector dispersion methods enhanced the hydrophobic character of all the four ranks of the coal samples as was evidenced by the induction time measurement as well as the flotation responses.

  10. Plant practices in fine coal column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, V.L. Jr.; Bethell, P.J.; Stanley, F.L.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1995-10-01

    Five 3 m (10 ft) diameter Microcel{trademark} flotation columns were installed at Clinchfield Coal Company`s Middle Fork preparation facility in order to reduce product ash and increase recovery and plant capacity. The Middle Fork facility is utilized for the recovery of fine coal from a feed stream that consists primarily of 1.5 mm x 0 material. The columns replaced conventional flotation cells for the treatment of the minus 150 {micro}m fraction while spirals are used to upgrade the plus 150 {micro}m material in the plant feed. The addition of the column flotation circuit resulted in an increase in plant capacity in excess of 20 percent while reducing the flotation product ash content by approximately 7 percentage points. Flotation circuit combustible recovery wa increased by 17 percentage points. This paper discusses circuit design, commissioning, and sparging system design. Circuit instrumentation, level control, reagent system control, performance comparisons with conventional flotation, and general operating procedures are also discussed.

  11. Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering coal fines that are currently disposed of with coal preparation plant effluent streams and producing a fine clean coal product that can be blended with the plant coarse clean coal. This recovery was effected by means of Michigan Technological University's static tube flotation process, which was successfully demonstrated on a number of raw coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the combustible matter. Under this project, the process parameters for the technology were modified for this application in order to recover a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal that is, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal currently produced by the preparation plant.

  12. A fine coal circuitry study using column flotation and gravity separation. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Reed, S.

    1994-12-31

    Column flotation provides excellent recovery of ultrafine coal while producing low ash content concentrates. However, column flotation is not efficient for treating fine coal containing significant amounts of mixed-phase particles. Fortunately, enhanced gravity separation has proved to have the ability to treat the mixed-phased particles more effectively. A disadvantage of gravity separation is that ultrafine clay particles are not easily rejected. Thus, a combination of these two technologies may provide a circuit that maximizes both the ash and sulfur rejection that can be achieved by physical coal cleaning while maintaining a high energy recovery. This project is studying the potential of using different combinations of gravity separators, i.e., a Floatex hydrosizer and a Falcon Concentrator, and a proven flotation column, which will be selected based on previous studies by the principle investigator. The gravity/flotation circuits will be compared based on their optimum separation performance which will consider ash and total sulfur rejection and energy recovery as well as the probable error (E{sub p}) value obtained from washability analyses. During this reporting period, multi-stage treatment using the Falcon concentrator was conducted on a refuse pond ({minus}100 mesh) coal sample and a {minus}28 mesh run-of-mine coal sample. The results suggest that the Falcon concentrator can make an ideal separation for either sample in a single process. Recleaning was found to improve product grade, however, recovery was reduced sharply. In addition, the groups involved with the in-plant testing of the Floatex Hydrosizer met and organized the test plan which will be conducted at Kerr-McGee`s Galatia preparation plant during the next reporting period. Coal samples for the circuitry tests will be collected during, this time period.

  13. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  14. A parametric study of fine coal cleaning using column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Groppo, J.G.; Bland, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Recovery of fine coal is becoming an important and integral part of coal cleaning plants. Conventional froth flotation, which is commonly used in the coal industry, is inefficient at cleaning fine coal which contains large amounts of ultrafine ash or clays. The Kentucky Center for Energy Research Laboratory (KCERL) has been investigating an alternative method, counter-current column flotation, which is widely used in the mineral industry. Through an advanced cell design and counter-current wash of the froth, column flotation can produce a low-ash, clean coal product without sacrificing combustible recovery. An experimental program was conducted using a 2-inch internal diameter Canadian column flotation cell to examine the effect of various operating parameters on clean coal recovery and quality. The study investigated six operational parameters: feed rate, frother concentration, air flow rate, column height, pulp density and wash water rate.

  15. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Zhu, Ximeng; Li, Jun; Bodily, D.M; Zhong, Tingke; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    A series of fine coal kinetic tests were carried out on three coals. It was found that the rank of flotation rates for the three coals tested were: Upper Freeport > Pittsburgh No. 8 > Illinois No. 6. In the case of Pittsburgh No. 8, the contained coal-pyrite was found to float more slowly than the coal itself when xanthate was used as the collector. In kinetic modeling, first order kinetic models produced large errors for long flotation times. It was found that a modified first order kinetic-model with slow and fast rate constants was appropriate for fine coal flotation. A log-log plot of 1(R{sub j} -R) versus t forms a straight line for the test conditions of this study. The Lai proportionality flotation model was found to apply from the start and extending over a very broad time range.

  16. Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhu, Qinsheng

    1993-08-01

    It is known that ultra-fine coals are prerequisite for the deep cleaning of most US coal seams if environmental pollution arising from the use of such coals is to be minimized. Therefore, the production of finely liberated coal particles in conjunction with reduced heavy metal contaminants at low costs is desirable, if not mandatory. The liberation of intimately disseminated impurities from the coal matrix therefore, demands that the material be ground to a high degree of fineness. Similarily, some technologies for coal utilization require superfine particles (i.e., sizes less than ten microns). This implies additional costs for coal preparation plants due to the high energy and media costs associated with fine grinding operations. Besides, there are problems such as severe product contaminations due to media wear and impairment of the quality of coal. Hence, proper choice of grinding media type is important from the viewpoints of cost reduction and product quality. The use of natural quartz sand as grinding media in the comminution of industrial minerals in stirred ball mills has been indicated. The advantages of natural sand compared to steel media include low specific energy inputs, elimination of heavy metal contaminants and low media costs. In this work, the effect of rotor speed, solids concentration and feed-size are studied on four coals in conjunction with silica sand and steel shot. The results obtained are used to evaluate the suitability of silica sands as an alternative grinding media. for coal. Coal-sand and coal-steel systems are compared in terms of specific energy consumption, product fineness, media/wear contaminationanalysis and calorific values, liberation spectrum and particle shape characteristics. In general cleaner flotation concentrate was obtained from coals when they were ground with sand media. The zeta potential of coals was found to be different and lower when they ground with sand.

  17. Hydrophobic flocculation flotation for beneficiating fine coal and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Song, S.; Valdivieso, A.L.

    1998-06-01

    It is shown that hydrophobic flocculation flotation (HFF) is an effective process to treat finely ground ores and slimes so as to concentrate coal and mineral values at a fine size range. The process is based on first dispersing the fine particles suspension, followed by flocculation of fine mineral values or coal in the form of hydrophobic surfaces either induced by specifically adsorbed surfactants or from nature at the conditioning of the slurry with the shear field of sufficient magnitude. The flocculation is intensified by the addition of a small amount of nonpolar oil. finely ground coals, ilmenite slimes, and gold finely disseminated in a slag have been treated by this process. Results are presented indicating that cleaned coal with low ash and sulfur remaining and high Btu recovery can be obtained, and the refractory ores of ilmenite slimes and fine gold-bearing slag can be reasonably concentrated, leading to better beneficiation results than other separation techniques. In addition, the main operating parameters affecting the HFF process are discussed.

  18. Laboratory guidelines and procedures for coal analysis: Volume 1, Assessing the cleanability of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bosold, R.C.; Glessner, D.M.

    1988-05-01

    The conventional laboratory static bath float/sink method of measuring the theoretical limits of coal cleaning is unreliable for ultra-fine (minus 100M topsize) coal particles because of their long and erratic settling rates. Developing a reliable method to assess the theoretical cleanability of ultra-fine coal has been given impetus by the increased emphasis on reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants, greater quantities of fines created by mechanized mining methods, and the development of advanced physical coal cleaning processes that grind coal to ultra-fine sizes in an effort to achieve high coal impurities liberation. EPRI, therefore, commissioned researchers at the Homer City Coal Laboratory in western Pennsylvania to develop and demonstrate a float/sink procedure for ultra-fine sizes. Based on test work performed on two ultra-fine size fractions (100M x 200M and 200M x 0), a detailed laboratory procedure using a centrifugal device was established. Results obtained using the guideline presented in this report are as accurate as those obtained using the static bath float/sink method, and for 200M x 0 material, more accurate. In addition, the centrifugal procedure is faster and less costly than the conventional static bath float/sink method. 12 refs., 32 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. )

    1990-08-15

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Remediation of Sucarnoochee soil by agglomeration with fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, P.S.; Arnold, D.W.; Rahnama, M.B. )

    1994-01-01

    Fine-sized Blue Creek coal was used to remove high molecular weight hydrocarbons from Sucarnoochee soil, a fine-sized high-organic soil. Fine coal in slurry form was blended with Sucarnoochee soil contaminated with 15.0% by wt of crude oil, and agglomerates were removed in a standard flotation cell. Crude oil in the remediated soil was reduced from the original 15.0% to less than a tenth of a wt% by a two-step process. Oil removal of approx. 99.3% was obtained. An added benefit was that the low-grade coal used in the process was simultaneously upgraded. The final level of cleaning was not affected by initial oil concentration. The process compared favorably with a hot water wash technique used to recovery oils from contaminated soil.

  1. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. )

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  2. Washability data base of very fine western coals

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.J.; Dockter, B.A.; Mitchell, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    Coal cleaning traditionally has been associated with reducing pyrite and other mineral matter from high-rank eastern coals. To date, insignificant quantities of western coals have been cleaned before utilization and limited data on their washability characteristics exist. Because of this lack of data, it is difficult to predict how these coals will react to standard washing techniques. To develop a data base on cleaning western coals, the Department of Energy initiated a washability study for both conventional and fine-size ranges. The study involves float-sink analyses of 156 samples from many regions of the western United States and includes coals from major producing fields of economic importance. Most of the coals studied are low-rank but a few high-rank samples from the west are also included. Figure 2 shows the location and number of samples collected from each state. The work was performed at both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC). PETC performed the testing on coal crushed to 1-1/2 in. x 0, 3/8 in. x 0, and 14 mesh x 0. UNDERC is gathering data on the fractions sized to 65 mesh x 0, 200 mesh x 0, and 325 mesh x 0. To date, UNDERC has tested 48 samples and selected results of the study on some of those fine-sized samples are presented in this paper. Preliminary results indicate that low-rank western coals benefit from the float-sink technique, but float yields at the lower specific gravities may be small. Bituminous western coals can be reduced in ash while producing excellent recoveries at intermediate specific gravities. Certain Oklahoma coals can be de-ashed by float-sink methods to levels that show promise for production of a special-purpose fuel for advanced combustion systems. 1 reference, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Fine Anthracite Coal Washing Using Spirals

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Killmeyer; P.H. Zandhuis; M.V. Ciocco; W. Weldon; T. West; D. Petrunak

    2001-05-31

    The spiral performed well in cleaning the coarse 8 x 16 mesh size fraction, as demonstrated by the Ep ranging from 0.091 to 0.177. This is in line with typical spiral performance. In addition, the presence of the coarser size fraction did not significantly affect spiral performance on the typical 16 x 100 mesh fraction, in which the Ep ranged from 0.144 to 0.250. Changes in solids concentration and flow rate did not show a clear correlation with spiral performance. However, for difficult-to-clean coals with high near-gravity material, such as this anthracite, a single-stage spiral cleaning such a wide size fraction may not be able to achieve the clean coal ash and yield specifications required. In the first place, while the performance of the spiral on the coarse 8 x 16 mesh fraction is good with regard to Ep, the cutpoints (SG50s) are high (1.87 to 1.92), which may result in a clean coal with a higher-than-desired ash content. And second, the combination of the spiral's higher overall cutpoint (1.80) with the high near-gravity anthracite results in significant misplaced material that increases the clean coal ash error. In a case such as this, one solution may be to reclean the clean coal and middlings from the first-stage spiral in a second stage spiral.

  4. Bench-scale testing of DOE/PETC`s GranuFlow Process for fine coal dewatering and handling. 1: Results using a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Lowman, R.H.; Elstrodt, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most advanced fine-coal cleaning processes involve the use of water. Utility companies are concerned not only with the lower Btu content of the resulting wet, cleaned coal, but more importantly with its handleability problems. Solutions to these problems would enhance the utilization of fine-coal cleaning processes in the utility industry. This paper describes testing of the GranuFlow Process, developed and patented by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy, using a high-gravity solid bowl centrifuge for dewatering and reconstitution of fine-cleaned-coal slurry at 300 lb per hour in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Fine-cleaned-coal slurry was treated with a bitumen emulsion before dewatering in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge. The treated products appeared to be dry and in a free-flowing granular form, while the untreated products were wet, lumpy, sticky, and difficult to handle. Specifically, test results indicated that the moisture content, handleability, and dust reduction of the dewatered coal product improved as the addition of emulsion increased from 2% to 8%. The improvement in handleability was most visible for the 200 mesh (75 micron) x 0 coal, when compared with 150 mesh (106 micron) x 0, 65 mesh (212 micron) x 0 or 28 mesh (600 micron) x 0 coals. Test results also showed that the moisture content was dramatically reduced (26--37% reduction) for the four different sizes of coals at 6 or 8% emulsion addition. Because of the moisture reduction and the granular form of the product, the freezing problem was also alleviated.

  5. Advanced froth flotation techniques for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    Advanced column flotation cells offer many potential advantages for the treatment of fine coal. The most important of these is the ability to achieve high separation efficiencies using only a single stage of processing. Unfortunately, industrial flotation columns often suffer from poor recovery, low throughput and high maintenance requirements as compared to mechanically-agitated conventional cells. These problems can usually be attributed to poorly-designed air sparging systems. This article examines the problems of air sparging in greater detail and offers useful guidelines for designing bubble generators for industrial flotation columns. The application of these principles in the design of a successful advanced fine coal flotation circuit is also presented.

  6. Analysis of fine coal pneumatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, M.P.; Rohatgi, N.D.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Many fossil fuel energy processes depend on the movement of solids by pneumatic transport. Despite the considerable amount of work reported in the literature on pneumatic transport, the design of new industrial systems for new products continues to rely to a great extent on empiricism. A pilot-scale test facility has been constructed at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and is equipped with modern sophisticated measuring techniques (such as Pressure Transducers, Auburn Monitors, Micro Motion Mass flowmeters) and an automatic computer-controlled data acquisition system to study the effects of particle pneumatic transport. Pittsburgh Seam and Montana rosebud coals of varying size consist and moisture content were tested in the atmospheric and pressurized coal flow test loops (AP/CFTL and HP/CFTL) at PETC. The system parameters included conveying gas velocity, injector tank pressure, screw conveyor speed, pipe radius, and pipe bends. In the following report, results from the coal flow tests were presented and analyzed. Existing theories and correlations on two-phase flows were reviewed. Experimental data were compared with values calculated from empirically or theoretically derived equations available in the literature, and new correlations were proposed, when applicable, to give a better interpretation of the data and a better understanding of the various flow regimes involved in pneumatic transport. 55 refs., 56 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Recovery of fine coal using column flotation at Powell Mountain Coal Company

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Peters, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    A joint project was initiated in 1989 between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) and the Powell Mountain Coal Company (PMCC) to evaluate the applicability of column flotation for recovery of fine coal from classifying cyclone refuse at PMCC`s Mayflower Preparation Plant. Laboratory and extensive pilot plant studies were conducted on each of the seams processed by the plant evaluating various column operating parameters. These results were used to design a larger 8-ft. diameter x 22-ft. tall column capable of recovering fine coal from the dilute classifying cyclone overflow with a feed capacity of 1,000 gpm. In order to effectively treat the entire plant classifying cyclone overflow stream, a total of four columns operating in parallel were installed in December 1989. This paper outlines four years of operating experience and results obtained with this fine coal recovery circuit.

  8. Three new approaches to the problem of dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.

    1986-01-01

    The increased use of continuous miners and longwall shearers have made fine coal a growing proportion of preparation plant feed. Increased crushing within the plant itself to facilitate ash and sulfur removal further tips the size consist towards the fine end of the scale. Of itself there is nothing intrinsically wrong with fine coal, but the disproportionately large quantity of surface moisture entrained with it creates costly problems. Clark D. Harrison of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Homer City, PA, and James R. Cavalet of Science Applications International Corp., Homer City, have quantified the reasons for fine coal drying. According to their calculations an extra 1% moisture can add from $310,000 to $1 million per year to transport costs. The $310,000 (case 1) would be true for a power plant using 3.1 million tpy at a plant that is 250 miles from its source, and the $1 million (case 2) is a power plant that is 1,000 miles from its source and using 2.5 million tpy. Extra water also means extra heat used and wasted to vaporize this water, an additional avoidable expense of $700,000 for case 1 and $560,000 for case 2. There are also the uncalculated wet-coal-produced costs of plugged pulverizers, plugged chutes and frozen coal. Perhaps the figure that brings the deleterious effects of wet coal closest to home for a preparation plant manager is that a 1% increase in moisture can offset a 4.5% decrease in ash. In considering how to remove excess water, mechanical drying has advantages over thermal drying in that it produces no air pollution and is not as capital intensive, but unfortunately it is also not as effective.

  9. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and weatherproofed'' pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  10. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Hogg, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1996-08-15

    The main objectives of the project were to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consisted of three phases, namely Phase 1 -- Model Development, Phase 2 -- Laboratory Studies, Phase 3 -- Pilot Plant Testing. The Pennsylvania State University led efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and CONSOL Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations were involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University developed a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky conducted experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 were tested in two of the CONSOL Inc. coal preparation plants using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

  11. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury

  12. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and ``weatherproofed`` pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  13. Froth flotation for fine-coal cleaning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, T.J.

    1985-12-01

    Froth flotation of fine coal was investigated with the objectives of improving flotation at existing coal-cleaning plants and providing design guidance for future plants. Using hydrodynamically scaled-down laboratory and pilot flotation cells, and the Klimpel flotation model, a methodology was developed to relate laboratory-scale flotation results to full-scale flotation circuits. Froth Factor, the percent of froth over the froth lip, was determined to be the key element of this scale-up methodology. Results showed that simple, inexpensive changes in flotation parameters such as air rate and reagent dosages can significantly improve full-scale flotation product recovery and grade, and that more complex flotation circuitry can produce better recovery levels of high-grade coal than more commonly used rougher-only flotation circuits. In particular, cleaning rougher product can effectively reduce pyritic sulfur content. Results also demonstrated interaction between different size fractions of coal. Flotation rates were shown to depend on feed size consist, and it was found that separations based on differences in flotation rates are more advantageously performed on fine topsizes. Ultimate recoveries appear unaffected by size consist. 6 refs.

  14. Study of fine and ultrafine particles for coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Birlingmair, D.; Buttermore, W.; Chmielewski, T.; Pollard, J.

    1990-04-01

    During the second quarter of work on this new project, critical review of the literature continued. Several new references related to gravity separation were identified and evaluated. A synopsis was assembled to summarize techniques developed by various researchers for the float/sink separation of ultrafine coal. In the reviewed literature, it was commonly concluded that substantial improvements in washability results for ultrafine coals can be obtained only through the application of dynamic (centrifugal) procedures, and through the use of dispersing aids such as ultrasound and surfactants. These results suggest the presence of physicochemical phenomena, typical of colloidal systems. In theoretical studies this quarter, the effects of Brownian motion on fine particle sedimentation have been identified and theoretically quantitated. The interaction between Brownian and gravitational forces was calculated, and a model was prepared to permit estimation of critical particle size in float/sink separations. In laboratory studies this quarter, aliquots of Upper Freeport coal were prepared and subjected to laboratory float/sink separations to investigate the relative effectiveness of static and centrifugal techniques for fine and ultrafine coal. This series will verify results of earlier work and provide a basis for comparing the effects which may result from further modifications to the separation techniques resulting from insights gained in the basic phenomena governing float/sink processes. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 01, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  16. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 2: coal fines disposal. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a compilation of several studies conducted by KRSI under the Advanced Coal Gasification Technical Analyses contract with GRI. It addresses the issue of disposal and/or utilization of the coal fines that cannot be used as feedstock for fixed-bed (i.e. Lurgi) gasifiers. Specific items addressed are: (1) Technical, legal and economic aspects of fines burial, (2) Estimation of the premium for fines-free coal delivered to an SNG plant and resulting reduction in SNG production costs, (3) Comparison of the relative advantages and limitations of Winkler and GKT gasifiers to consuming fines, (4) Review of coal-size consist curves in the GRI Guidelines to assess the fines content of ROM coals, (5) a first-pass design and cost estimate using GKT gasifiers in tandem with Lurgi gasifiers in an North Dakota lignite-to-SNG plant to consume full range of coal-size consist, (6) Evaluation of the General Electric technology for extrusion of coal fines and testing of the extrudates in a fixed-bed gasifier, and (7) Investigation of equipment and variables involved in briquetting of coal fines, such that fines could be fed to the gasifiers along with the lump coal.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL FINE COAL CLEANING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj K. Mohanty

    2005-06-01

    The goal of the proposed project was to develop a novel fine coal separator having the ability to clean 1 mm x 0 size coal in a single processing unit. The novel fine coal separator, named as EG(Enhanced Gravity) Float Cell, utilizes a centrifugal field to clean 1 mm x 250 micron size coal, whereas a flotation environment to clean minus 250 micron coal size fraction. Unlike a conventional enhanced gravity concentrator, which rotates to produce a centrifugal field requiring more energy, the EG Float Cell is fed with a tangential feed slurry to generate an enhanced gravity field without any rotating part. A prototype EG Float Cell unit having a maximum diameter of 60 cm (24 inch) was fabricated during the first-half of the project period followed by a series of exploratory tests to make suitable design modification. Test data indicated that there was a significant concentration of coarse heavy materials in the coarse tailings discharge of the EG Float Cell. The increase in weight (%) of 1 mm x 250 micron (16 x 60 mesh) size fraction from 48.9% in the feed to 72.2% in the coarse tailings discharge and the corresponding increase in the ash content from 56.9% to 87.0% is indicative of the effectiveness of the enhanced gravity section of the EG Float Cell. However, the performance of the flotation section needs to be improved. Some of the possible design modifications may include more effective air sparging system for the flotation section to produce finer bubbles and a better wash water distributor.

  18. Dispersion characteristics in column flotation of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.; Lili, L.

    1995-10-01

    The dispersion model of nonideal flow was applied to describe the hydrodynamic state within the flotation column. Residence time distribution (RTD) data of a laboratory flotation column were measured to determine the parameters of the model. The effects of operating variables and column geometry on the Peclet number which reflects the extent of axial dispersion were investigated and a semi-empirical expression of Pe was formulated. The dispersion model was validated for the column flotation of ultrafines coal. Under the conditions of sufficient aeration rate and frother addition, a good agreement between the measured recoveries and predicted data was obtained. The dispersion model with first-order flotation rate process of the flotation column developed in this study is useful in predicting the collection zone recovery of fine coal, and for the flotation column scale-up.

  19. Enhanced column flotation of fine and ultrafine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Buttermore, W.H.; Birlingmair, D.H.; Dawson, M.R.; Pollard, J.L.; Enustun, B.V.

    1992-12-01

    A 2-inch diameter, twenty-foot tall, glass laboratory flotation column was modified to incorporate digital control of critical operating parameters. Different column control strategies were explored including location of the froth interface, and manipulation of volumetric flow ratios. Column flotation tests were performed with both fine (-250{mu}m) and ultrafine (-5{mu}m) Pittsburgh seam coal. Both moisture- and ash-free (MAF) recovery, and ash rejection were improved when the partition of the column`s liquid content into froth and tailings was directly controlled. MAF recovery and ash rejection were also enhanced by brief exposure of the coarser feed to pulsed sonic energy.

  20. Enhanced column flotation of fine and ultrafine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Buttermore, W.H.; Birlingmair, D.H.; Dawson, M.R.; Pollard, J.L.; Enustun, B.V.

    1992-01-01

    A 2-inch diameter, twenty-foot tall, glass laboratory flotation column was modified to incorporate digital control of critical operating parameters. Different column control strategies were explored including location of the froth interface, and manipulation of volumetric flow ratios. Column flotation tests were performed with both fine (-250[mu]m) and ultrafine (-5[mu]m) Pittsburgh seam coal. Both moisture- and ash-free (MAF) recovery, and ash rejection were improved when the partition of the column's liquid content into froth and tailings was directly controlled. MAF recovery and ash rejection were also enhanced by brief exposure of the coarser feed to pulsed sonic energy.

  1. An evaluation of fine coal flotation at the Chaili Coal Washery

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.Z.; Jiang, S.X.; Yu, Z.D.; Phillips, D.I.; Gebhardt, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The potential application of flotation for the treatment and processing of a fine-particle coal stream was investigated for the Chaili Coal Washery of the Zaozhuang Coal Mine Administration, Shandong Province, China. A goal of the test work was to evaluate the application of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column and compare its performance to conventional flotation. Small-scale flotation tests were performed in the laboratory and on-site with fine coal slurry samples from the plant thickener underflow, i.e., the washing plant`s undersized reject material. Flotation tests were conducted on-site with a 7.6-cm diameter Microcel{trademark} column and with small-scale conventional cells. Column flotation tests were performed to determine a recovery-grade relationship for the fine coal feed, which contained about 24% ash, and to obtain sufficient data to enable scale-up to a large-diameter unit. A primary objective was to establish the maximum throughput capacity of a Microcel flotation column while operating to produce a clean coal product with ash content of 7.5--7.8%. Results of the test work indicate that this product quality could be achieved at feed rates of 15--19 tph to a 3-m diameter Microcel flotation column. Lower ash products, i.e. 5--7% ash, were obtained but at lower column throughput capacities. Comparative flotation tests, conducted with conventional flotation cells, indicated that a product ash of only 8% or greater was achieved in a single-stage test.

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  3. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The

  4. Calorimetric study of surface and interfacial properties of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Melkus, T.G.A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the surface/interfacial properties of fine coal, heat flux calorimeter was used to make heat of immersion (..delta..H/sub imm/) measurements. These heats have been shown to be a valuable means of investigating the chemistry and surface properties of solids as they interact with adsorbate molecules. In addition, heats of immersion can be used to characterize a solid in terms of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and estimate its relative wetting tendency. The first phase of experiments that were performed served as a basis for comparison of coal components/characteristics immersed in deionized, distilled water. The results of these experiments were found to correlate well with reported flotation trends. In the second phase of experiments, the solids that were previously investigated were immersed in various wetting media. The solids were characterized in terms of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and their relative wetting tendency was also established. Heat of immersion measurements using surfactant solutions demonstrated that preferential adsorption of the surfactant molecule occurs on the coal surface, thereby altering its surface properties. This was supported by laboratory vacuum filtration tests. Using flotation agents as the wetting medium, the heat of immersion was found to vary with kerosene concentration, pH, kaolin addition and oxidation of the solid surface. The results of these ..delta..H/sub imm/ measurements were found to correlate very well with results obtained by independent flotation experiments performed under the same conditions.

  5. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

  6. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Li, Jun; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Liang, Jun; Zhong, Tingke; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of three typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces. This report contains three sections, Transpassive Oxidation of Pyrite,'' Flotation and Electrochemical Pretreatment,'' and Flotation Kinetics of Coal and Coal Pyrite.''

  7. Initial testing of a dynamic column for fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, R.W.; Patton, R.A.; He, D.X.; Joyce, T.; Chiang, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the design and initial performance of a dynamic column for fine coal column flotation. A dynamic column is a modified conventional column with the insertion of a series of draft tubes that provide individual mixing stages. The mixing is beneficial in generating small and uniform bubbles over a wide range of frother dosages. It is also beneficial in the control of flotation where the fluctuation of froth volume should be minimized. In the modified design, a vortex-inducing plate is attached to the top of each draft tube to create an artificial vortex. In theory the vortex action is desirable for collecting the light clean coal froth within the inner mixing zone, and for passing it upward to the next draft tube stage. The mineral laden slurry, particularly the pyrite, is accelerated outside the vortex zone by centrifugal force to reach the wall where it is carried downward to the bottom of the column. The draft tubes are arranged in a series to accomplish multistage cleaning. The experimental results showed that this dynamic column has the potential advantage of higher throughput and better product recovery as well as improved product quality.

  8. AN ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR FINE COAL FLOTATION

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel

    1999-01-11

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of tailings ash content. Then, based on an on-line estimate of incremental ash, the pulp level is adjusted using a model-based control algorithm to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the eleventh quarter of this project, Task 7 (Operation and Testing) was nearly completed through the efforts of J.A. Herbst and Associates, Virginia Tech, and Pittston Coal Company. As a result of this work, a model-based control system has now been installed which can predict incremental ash based on tailings ash content and general plant data, and adjust pulp level accordingly to maintain a target incremental ash. The system has gone through a shake-down period, training has been carried out for plant operators, and the bulk of the control logic testing has been completed with the results of these tests awaiting analysis under Task 8 (System Evaluation). The flotation model has been shown to predict incremental ash quite successfully, implying that this approach may provide the basis for a useful ''soft sensor'' for on-line incremental ash analysis.

  9. AN ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR FINE COAL FLOTATION

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-25

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of tailings ash content. Then, based on an on-line estimate of incremental ash, the pulp level is adjusted using a model-based control algorithm to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the tenth quarter of this project, Task 6 (Equipment Procurement and Installation) was completed through the efforts of J.A. Herbst and Associates, Virginia Tech, Pittston Coal Company, and FGR Automation. As a result of this work, a model-based control system is now in place which can predict incremental ash based on tailings ash content and general plant data, and adjust pulp level accordingly to maintain a target incremental ash. Testing of this control system is expected to be carried out during the next quarter, and the results of this testing will be reported in the Eleventh Quarterly report. In addition, calibration of the video-based ash analyzer was continued and an extensive set of calibration data were obtained showing that the plant is running remarkably well under manual control. This may be a result of increased attention being paid to froth flotation as a result of this project.

  10. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Rawls, P.

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  11. Recovery of ultra fine bituminous coal from screen-bowl centrifuge effluent: A possible feedstock for coal-water slurry fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Battista, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    Coal fines have historically been viewed as a size fraction which are difficult to handle and expensive to clean and dewater. Consequently, many coal suppliers in the past have chosen to discard their coal fines in slurry impoundments rather than beneficiating them. These disposal costs are then passed onto the end user. Today, with the advent of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies, more stringent environmental policies, and increased pressure by coal-fired utilities to reduce their operating costs, the industry is taking a more progressive look at fine coal recovery options. This paper discusses a fine coal recovery project which is currently being conducted at the Homer City Coal Cleaning Plant (HCCCP) located in western Pennsylvania. The HCCCP utilizes heavy media cyclone, spiral, and conventional froth flotation circuits to clean approximately 4.3 million tons of low to medium volatile bituminous coal annually for the adjacent 1,884 net MW{sub e} Homer City Generating Station. The project focuses on recovering minus 325 mesh coal fines from the effluent of screen-bowl centrifuges. The HCCCP screen-bowl effluent contains approximately 3 to 5 wt.% of suspended coal fines. Approximately 100,000 tons of coal fines are estimated to be lost per year. These coal fines represent a Btu loss, require flocculant prior to the static thickeners and belt presses, contribute excess moisture to the plant refuse which leads to handling and compaction problems during refuse disposal, and contribute to the premature filling of the refuse site.

  12. Recovery of ultra fine bituminous coal from screen-bowl centrifuge effluent: A possible feedstock for coal-water slurry fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Battista, J.J.

    1998-04-01

    Coal fines have historically been viewed as a size fraction which are difficult to handle and expensive to clean and dewater. Consequently, many coal suppliers in the past have chosen to discard their coal fines in slurry impoundments rather than beneficiating them. These disposal costs are then passed onto the end user. Today, with the advent of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies, more stringent environmental policies, and increased pressure by coal-fired utilities to reduce their operating costs, the industry is taking a more progressive look at fine coal recovery options. This paper discusses a fine coal recovery project which is currently being conducted at the Homer City Coal Cleaning Plant (HCCCP) located in western Pennsylvania. The HCCCP utilizes heavy media cyclone, spiral, and conventional froth flotation circuits to clean approximately 4.3 million tons of low to medium volatile bituminous coal annually for the adjacent 1,884 net MW{sub e} Homer City Generating Station. The project focuses on recovering minus 325 mesh coal fines from the effluent of screen-bowl centrifuges. The HCCCP screen-bowl effluent contains approximately 3 to 5 wt.% of suspended coal fines. Approximately 100,000 tons of coal fines are estimated to be lost per year. These coal fines represent a Btu loss, require flocculent prior to the static thickeners and belt presses, contribute excess moisture to the plant refuse which leads to handling and compaction problems during refuse disposal, and contribute to the premature filling of the refuse site.

  13. Coal pond fines cleaning with classifying cyclones, spirals, and column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, W.R.; Arnold, B.J.; Raleigh, C.E. Jr.; Parekh, B.K.

    1997-07-01

    Large reserves of coal pond fines arc found in the Illinois Basin--over 40 million tons in Western Kentucky, over 65 million tons in Southern Illinois, and over 35 million tons in Southern Indiana. If these fines are used to produce coal-water slurry (CWS), fuel costs, NO{sub x} emissions, and pond closure costs can be reduced. Coal fines from this region that are used to produce CWS for co-fire or re-burn may require processing, however, to attain proper particle size distribution and fuel quality. To evaluate the effectiveness of using coal cleaning technologies to control these CWS quality parameters, a simple flowsheet for recovering and processing coal pond fines was designed and tested. Coal fines processing consisted of using classifying cyclones to size at nominal minus 200 mesh, cleaning the classifying cyclone underflow using spirals, and cleaning the overflow using column froth flotation. Ash content of the dean coal from the spiral was reduced to about 10 percent, winch is satisfactory to use for CWS co-firing in a cyclone-fired boiler. The clean coal from column flotation may be used for re-burn in a cydone-fired boiler or as co-fire fuel in a wall-fired or tangentially-fired boiler Heating value recovery during laboratory scale, pilot-scale, and commercial-scale coal cleaning testing was about 80 percent.

  14. Surface electrochemical control for the fine coal and pyrite separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Zhu, Ximeng; Li, Jun; Bodily, D.M.; Liang, Jun; Zhong, Tingke; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

  15. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wanxiong; Hu, Weibai; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

  16. Surface electrochemical control for the fine coal and pyrite separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wanxiong; Hu, Weibai; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhu, Ximeng; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

  17. Coal-sand attrition system and its' importance in fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

    1993-01-07

    The optimal conditions found for both the median size and specific energy for a particular system differ from one another. The fact that the surfaces from which these conditions are estimated are saddle or minimax further complicate the issue as these are characterized by a range of optimum conditions. However, there is no doubt that the conditions which are suitable for optimizing the product particle size may not necessarily be good for the specific energy. Depending on the objective, either the product size or the specific energy may be optimized. Besides, it seems that when the product particle size is optimized, the specific energy is simultaneously constrained. In this manner, a better estimate of the required energy consumption can be obtained for scale-up purposes. When the results in Table 3 are compared with those of the other three coals given in quarterly report numbers 3 and 4, a trend/pattern is observed. For the four coals involved in this work, the degree of fineness of the product particle size depicted by either the median size or d[sub 90] after wet stirred milling, correlates with the hardness or HGI. In other words, the higher the Hardgrove Index, the finer the product particle size. The specific energy in contrast, does not tend to correlate with the hardness or HGI of the coal. Rather, the softer coal, depending on the properties of the associated impurities appears to consume more power. While this may initially appear to be a great surprise, the reasons for it are rather easy to grasp. In order to do this, one needs to look into such things as the properties/characteristics of the respective coal/impurities, the grinding environment, the mechanism of particle breakage in the mill, and how the grinding force is transmitted to the media.

  18. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  19. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

    1998-02-03

    The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

  20. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.C. Jr.; Jamison, P.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Mulled Coal process is a technology which has evolved from a line of investigations which began in the 1970`s. There was a major breakthrough in 1990, and since then, with significant support from DOE-PETC, the technology has progressed from the conceptual stage to a proven laboratory process. It is a simple process which involves the addition of a low cost specifically formulated reagent to wet fine coal by mixing the two in a pug mill. Although the converted material (Mulled Coal) retains some of its original surface moisture, it handles, transports, and stores like dry coal. But, unlike thermally dried fine coal Mulled Coal is not dusty, it will not rewet, and it causes no fugitive dust problems. This project was designed to advance the technology from the status of a process which works well in the laboratory to the status of a technology which is fully ready for commercialization. Project objectives were to: 1. Prove the concept that the technology can be used to produce Mulled Coal of a consistent quality, on a continuous basis, at a convincing rate of production, and at a major preparation plant which produces fine clean coal on a commercial basis. 2. Prove the concept that Mulled Coal, either as a blend with coarser clean coal or as a stand-alone fuel will successfully pass through a representative cross section of conventional coal storage, handling and transportation environments without causing any of the problems normally associated with wet fine coal. 3 Test the design and reliability of Mulled Coal circuit equipment and controls. 4. Test the circuit over a wide range of operating conditions. 5. Project scale-up designs for major equipment components and control circuits. 6. Forecast capital and operating costs for commercial circuits ranging from 25 TPH to 75 TPH. This report describes the work, the test results, and conclusions at each step along the way.

  1. Distribution and leaching ability of some heavy metals in products of flotation processing of fine-grained coal slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Klika, Z.; Weiss, Z.; Lach, K.

    1994-12-31

    Coal from the Ostrava-Karvina mines is processed in 19 coal preparation plants, 6 of which are not equipped with flotation technology. Generally, all fine-grained coal is transported into sedimentary coal slurry ponds. Depending on processing technology, coal slurries contain from 5 to 95% coal matter. Sedimentary coal slurry ponds occupy large areas, deteriorate the landscape, and ar great sources of dust in a dry summer. Moreover, some components from coal slurries scan be leached and can penetrate into underground water. This research project sampled 13 coal slurry ponds to determine the composition of coal slurries, the distribution of some heavy metals in the flotation process, and leaching behavior.

  2. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Riley, A.; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Liang, Jun; Zhong, Tinghe; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    This technical progress report, prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of DOE Project No. DE-AC22-89PC89758, covers the work performed from April 1, 1991 to June 30, 1991. The ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of three typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces. 6 refs., 20 figs.

  3. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  4. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO[sub 2] per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO[sub 2] emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  5. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    SciTech Connect

    E. James Davis

    1999-12-18

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

  6. An Advanced Control System for Fine Coal Floatation

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G H; Adel, G T

    1998-06-01

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as collector dosage, frother dosage, and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the eighth quarter of this project, the analysis of data collected during Task 2 (Sampling and Data Analysis) was completed, and significant progress was made on Task 3 (Model Building and Computer Simulation). Previously, a plant sampling campaign had been conducted at Pittston's Moss No. 3 preparation plant to provide data for the development of a mathematical process model and a model-based control system. During this campaign, a one-half factorial design experiment, blocked into low and high feed rates, was conducted to investigate the effects of collector, frother, and pulp level on model parameters. In addition, samples were collected during the transient period following each change in the manipulated variables to provide data for confirmation of the dynamic process simulator. A residence time distribution (RTD) test was also conducted to estimate the mean residence time. This is a critical piece of information since no feed flowrate measurement is available, and the mean residence time can be used to estimate the feed flowrate. Feed samples were taken at timed intervals and floated in a laboratory flotation cell to investigate the magnitude of feed property disturbances and their duration.

  7. An Advanced Control System For Fine Coal Flotation

    SciTech Connect

    G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel

    1998-08-25

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as collector dosage, frother dosage, and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the ninth quarter of this project, Task 3 (Model Building and Computer Simulation) and Task 4 (Sensor Testing) were nearly completed, and Task 6 (Equipment Procurement and Installation) was initiated. Previously, data collected from the plant sampling campaign (Task 2) were used to construct a population balance model to describe the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the flotation circuit. The details of this model were presented in the Eighth Quarterly Technical Progress Report. During the past quarter, a flotation circuit simulator was designed and used to evaluate control strategies. As a result of this work, a model-based control strategy has been conceived which will allow manipulated variables to be adjusted in response to disturbances to achieve a target incremental ash value in the last cell of the bank. This will, in effect, maximize yield at an acceptable product quality. During this same period, a video-based ash analyzer was installed on the flotation tailings stream at the Moss No. 3 preparation plant. A preliminary calibration curve was established, and data are continuing to be collected in order to improve the calibration of the analyzer.

  8. POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Karekh, B K; Tao, D; Groppo, J G

    1998-08-28

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 45 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 - March 31, 1998.

  9. XAFS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS OF SELECTED HAP ELEMENTS IN FINE PM DERIVED FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the valence states and molecular structures of sulfur (S), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), and zinc (Zn) in fine particulate matter (PM) separated from coal flyash produced in a realistic combustion sys...

  10. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  11. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1998-04-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from January 1, 1998 to April 31, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Experimental work was carried out with two coal fines. One sample originated from pond (Drummond Pond Fines) while the second was pulverized Luscar Mine coal. Both samples were tested at the laboratory batch-scale while only Luscar Mine Coal was processed on the 250 kg/h continuous system. Significant progress was made on optimization of process conditions for Pond Fines. The test results showed that ash could be reduced by about 42% at combustible recovery exiting 94%. It was also found that pond fines required significantly longer conditioning time than freshly pulverized run of mine coal. Continuous bench-scale testing carried out with Luscar Mine coal included rod mill calibration, plant equipment and instrumentation check-up, and parametric studies. Compared with batch-scale tests, the continuous bench-scale process required more bridging oil to achieve similar process performance. During the current reporting period work has been commenced on the final engineering and preparation of design package of 3t/h POC-scale unit.

  12. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from October 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental test procedures and the results related to the processing of coal fines originating from process streams generated at the Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant, owned and operated by the Drummond Company Inc. of Alabama, are described. Two samples of coal fines, namely Cyclone Overflow and Pond Fines were investigated. The batch test results showed that by applying the Aglofloat technology a significant ash removal might be achieved at a very high combustible matter recovery: · for the Cyclone Overflow sample the ash reduction was in the range 50 to 55% at combustible matter recovery about 98% · for the Pond Fines sample the ash reduction was up to 48% at combustible matter recovery up to 85%. Additional tests were carried out with the Alberta origin Luscar Mine coal, which will be used for the parametric studies of agglomeration equipment at the 250 kg/h pilot plant. The Luscar coal is very similar to the Mary Lee Coal Group (processed at Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant) in terms of rank and chemical composition.

  13. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-12-31

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product, however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop the process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. During the last year`s effort, it was reported that a combination of metal ion and surfactant provided a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

  14. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1992-08-01

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation techniques provides a low ash product, however, due to high surface area of particles the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combination of metal ion and surfactant found to be effective in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

  15. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, Chengliang; Raichur, A.M.

    1992-07-14

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The flotation characteristics of coal-pyrites under various conditions was studied and compared with ore-pyrite and coal to determine the causes of pyrite rejection difficulties in coal flotation. Both the native and induced floatabilities of pyrites were investigated. It was found that both coal- and ore-pyrites, ff prepared by dry-grinding, show little or no floatability in the absence of any chemical reagents. After ultrasonic pretreatment, ore-pyrite floats effectively in the acidic to neutral pH range. Kentucky No. 9 coal-pyrite (KYPY) shows significant flotation in the pH range 7--10. With ethyl xanthate as collector, ore-pyrite floats well up to pH = 10; while coal-pyrite reveals no flotation above pH = 6. For the first time, the effect of coal collector on the floatability of coal-pyrite has been studied. It was shown that in the presence of fuel oil--a widely used collector for promoting coal flotation, coal-pyrite, particularly for the fine sizes, shows good flotation below pH = 11, whereas ore-pyrite has no or little floatability. These studies demonstrate that one of the main causes of the coal-pyrite flotation in coal separation is the oil-induced floatability due to adsorption/attachment of oil droplets on the coal-pyrite surfaces, the native'' or self-induced'' floatability of pyrite is no as profound as the oil-induced flotation.

  16. Flotation of fine coal with different volatility in China

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, M.X.; Hui, W.D.; An, Z.; Ren, Z.M.; Wang, Q.F.; Dai, Z.; Xiao, Z.Q.; Cui, Y.B.; Zhang, X.J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper contains three parts. The first part interprets the surface hydrophobicity and theoretical floatability of different rank coals from the organic molecular component point of view. The theoretical floatability between bituminous and anthracite is solved by the molecular theory. The second part describes a study of the interactive energy between hydrocarbon oil and coal particle using DLVO theory showing that the controlling factor in determining the repulsive energy barrier preventing oil from wetting and spreading on the coal surface is the same sign charge and Zeta potential. Some surfactants to promote the interaction of hydrocarbon oil and coal surface were investigated. The batch tests show a new flotation promoter having a higher efficiency and performance. A discussion is centered on the relationship between the floatabilities of coals with different volatile matter and the character of the new reagent. A molecular theory for the explanation of the interaction mechanism of the flotation reagent on coal surface was summarized. A survey of four coal preparation plants (Xiqu, Malan, Taiyuan and Tianzhuang) in Shanxi and Henan provinces was introduced. The flotation performance of coal with different volatility using commercial flotation cells in the above mentioned plants was tested.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  18. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    SciTech Connect

    E. James Davis

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this research is to apply electrokinetics to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal washing ponds without the addition of chemical additives. Colloidal particles do not settle gravitationally, but because their surfaces are charged one can produce settling by applying an external electric field. Of specific interest is a lake near Centralia, Washington used to wash coal prior to combustion in an electrical power generation facility. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that electrokinetic treatment is feasible, so this project is examining how to scale up laboratory results to an industrial level. Electrode configurations, power requirements, and system properties are being studied.

  19. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Suardini, P.J.

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  20. An investigation of operating variables in the fine coal dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, S.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Dharman, T.

    1998-07-01

    Illinois basin coals contain minerals, including pyrite, which are finely disseminated in micron-size particles. To liberate these mineral matters from the coal matrix, an ultra-fine grinding operation is required, followed by a wet physical cleaning process, such as column flotation. However, the resulting product possesses large surface areas that conventional dewatering techniques cannot perform effectively, and this creates transportation, storage and handling problems at utility plants. To take full advantage of these cleaning technologies, a new dewatering and coal consolidation method must be developed at the downstream end of the deep coal-cleaning process. Following an initial study at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), briquetting was chosen to perform the dual purpose of dewatering and consolidating the fine coal. A bitumen-based emulsion, Orimulsion, proved to be an effective binder and dewatering agent in the briquetting process that assisted in the expulsion of water from the fine coal. This paper describes the investigation aimed at examining the relationships between several controllable operating variables. An experimental matrix was designed to examine a range of operating parameters based on earlier work conducted at the Department of Mining Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla. A total of 13 experiments were performed using Illinois No. 6 coal samples that had a size fraction of 16 mesh x 0 and a moisture content of 31%. Based on results obtained from previous experiments and because of the complexity of the briquetting process, only two variables, roll speed and the briquetting form pressure, were studied for their influence on moisture content, abrasion resistance and friability of briquettes. Concurring with results from previous work, the curing time of the briquettes formed had a significant impact on the moisture content and friability of the compacted fine coal product. Also, the statistical regression models generated from

  1. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  2. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: a synoptic view.

    PubMed

    Kronbauer, Marcio A; Izquierdo, Maria; Dai, Shifeng; Waanders, Frans B; Wagner, Nicola J; Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, James C; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Taffarel, Silvio R; Bizani, Delmar; Silva, Luis F O

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO₃ versus Al₂O₃ determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates.

  3. Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone/Advanced Froth Flotation fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Shirey, G.A.; Stoessner, R.D.; Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA )

    1988-12-30

    The objective of the project is to evaluate the Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) and Advanced Froth Flotation (AFF) procedures for their effectiveness in cleaning fine (minus 100 mesh) coal. The two processes will be tested in a circuit capable of processing 0.124 to 0.15 tons per hour of coal at the EPRI-CQDC. Performance of the two processes will be evaluated, and the economics of fine coal cleaning by both processes will be determined. During the past quarter, efforts were concentrated on the following tasks: installation of process equipment and characterization of the test feed coal; start-up of the ASH and AFF circuits; and initialization of the AFF Test Program. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Centrifugal float-sink testing of fine coal: An interlaboratory test program

    SciTech Connect

    Killmeyer, R.P.; Hucko, R.E.; Jacobsen, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) recently completed an interlaboratory test program (ITP) involving eight laboratories that are currently performing washability analyses of coals finer than 500-microns top size using a centrifugal float-sink technique. With the current and future development of fine coal cleaning technology, there is a growing need to determine the washability of coals in extremely fine sizes, in some cases as fine as several microns by zero. However, much uncertainty exists about limitations relative to particle size and the viability of centrifugal float-sink procedures in achieving ``ideal`` specific gravity separations (i.e, the perfect separation of particles according to their density). The objective of this work was to develop an understanding regarding the variables affecting the procedure and initiate a process for obtaining a standard procedure. (VC)

  5. Centrifugal float-sink testing of fine coal: An interlaboratory test program

    SciTech Connect

    Killmeyer, R.P.; Hucko, R.E. . Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. )

    1991-10-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) recently completed an interlaboratory test program (ITP) involving eight laboratories that are currently performing washability analyses of coals finer than 500-microns top size using a centrifugal float-sink technique. With the current and future development of fine coal cleaning technology, there is a growing need to determine the washability of coals in extremely fine sizes, in some cases as fine as several microns by zero. However, much uncertainty exists about limitations relative to particle size and the viability of centrifugal float-sink procedures in achieving ideal'' specific gravity separations (i.e, the perfect separation of particles according to their density). The objective of this work was to develop an understanding regarding the variables affecting the procedure and initiate a process for obtaining a standard procedure. (VC)

  6. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1992-12-31

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product; however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of the advanced flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach utilized synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant addition to lower the moisture of clean coal using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combinations of metal ions and surfactants in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake. Surface chemical study indicated a direct correlation between the point-of-zero charge (PZC) of metal ion/fine coal system and lowering of moisture in the filter cake. Adsorption of either metal ions or surfactants alone did not provide a significant reduction of moisture in the filter cake. However, a combination of the two provided a filter cake containing about 22 percent moisture. Filtration tests conducted using a laboratory vacuum drum filter indicated that the results obtained in batch filtration could be reproduced on a continuous filtration unit. FT-IR studies indicated that anionic surfactant and metal ions form complex species which adsorbs on the fine coal and results in improved moisture reduction during filtration. Recommendations are offered for testing this novel dewatering process on a pilot scale at a coal preparation plant in Illinois.

  7. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report number 8, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-15

    The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost, harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. On the other hand, Mulled Coal does not cause the fugitive and airborne dust problems normally associated with thermally dried coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: the Mulled Coal process, which has been proved to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality, and at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant; the wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation; and a wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems.

  8. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    DOEpatents

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. A study of the interfacial chemistry of pyrite and coal in fine coal cleaning using flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Chengliang

    1993-01-01

    Surface oxidation, surface charge, and flotation properties have been systematically studied for coal, coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. Electrochemical studies show that coal-pyrite exhibits much higher and more complex surface oxidation than ore-pyrite and its oxidation rate depends strongly on the carbon/coal content. Flotation studies indicate that pyrites have no self-induced floatability. Fuel oil significantly improves the floatability of coal and induces considerable flotation for coal-pyrite due to the hydrophobic interaction of fuel oil with the carbon/coal inclusions on the pyrite surface. Xanthate is a good collector for ore-pyrite but a poor collector for coal and coal-pyrite. The results from thermodynamic calculations, flotation and zeta potential measurements show that iron ions greatly affect the flotation of pyrite with xanthate and fuel oil. Various organic and inorganic chemicals have been examined for depressing coal-pyrite. It was found, for the first time, that sodium pyrophosphate is an effective depressant for coal-pyrite. Solution chemistry shows that pyrophosphate reacts with iron ions to form stable iron pyrophosphate complexes. Using pyrophosphate, the complete separation of pyrite from coal can be realized over a wide pH range at relatively low dosage.

  11. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  12. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Annual technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-12-31

    The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee`s Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

  13. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  14. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-08-01

    In an effort to develop new disposable catalysts for direct coal liquefaction, several types of clay-supported pyrrhotite catalysts were prepared and tested. These included iron-pillared montmorillonite, mixed iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite, iron-impregnated montmorillonite, and iron oxometallate-impregnated montmorillonite.

  15. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    SciTech Connect

    E. James Davis

    1997-04-30

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. In this experimental and analytical study the authors elucidate the transport processes that control the rate of concentrated colloidal particle removal, demonstrate the process on a laboratory scale, and develop the scale-up laws needed to design commercial-scale processes. They then address the fundamental problems associated with particle-particle interactions (electrical and hydrodynamic), the effects of particle concentration on the applied electric field, the electrochemical reactions that occur at the electrodes, and the prediction of power requirements.

  16. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    X.H. Wang; J. Wiseman; D.J. Sung; D. McLean; William Peters; Jim Mullins; John Hugh; G. Evans; Vince Hamilton; Kenneth Robinette; Tim Krim; Michael Fleet

    1999-08-01

    Dewatering of ultra-fine (minus 150 {micro}m) coal slurry to less than 20% moisture is difficult using the conventional dewatering techniques. The main objective of the project was to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactants in combination for the dewatering of ultra-fine clean-coal slurries using various dewatering techniques on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 0.5 to 2 tons per hour. The addition of conventional reagents and the application of coal surface modification technique were evaluated using vacuum filtration, hyperbaric (pressure) filtration, ceramic plate filtration and screen-bowl centrifuge techniques. The laboratory and pilot-scale dewatering studies were conducted using the fine-size, clean-coal slurry produced in the column flotation circuit at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, St. Charles, VA. The pilot-scale studies were conducted at the Mayflower preparation plant in St. Charles, VA. The program consisted of nine tasks, namely, Task 1--Project Work Planning, Task 2--Laboratory Testing, Task 3--Engineering Design, Task 4--Procurement and Fabrication, Task 5--Installation and Shakedown, Task 6--System Operation, Task 7--Process Evaluation, Task 8--Equipment Removal, and Task 9--Reporting.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This is being accomplished by utilization the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. 31 figs., 22 tabs.

  18. Fine coal cleaning. Final report for the period ending March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.J.

    1986-06-01

    Washability data on coals from the western United States is generally very limited and their response to standard washing techniques cannot be predicted. To expand the data base, the Department of Energy initiated a washability study for both conventional and fine-size ranges of western coals. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) performed float-sink washability testing on 156 western coals crushed to 1 1/2'' x 0, 3/8'' x 0, and 14 mesh x 0. The University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) performed centrifugal float-sink washability resting on 61 of those 156 test coals crushed to 65 mesh x 0. In addition, 35 of the 65 mesh x 0 coals were further reduced to 200 mesh x 0 and tested, and three coals were pulverized to 325 mesh x 0 and tested. Generally, the higher-ranked coals were most amenable to the gravity separation technique. Pulverized of study coals to finer grain size distributions did not significantly improve the coal's Washabilities, as float ash content of 200 mesh x 0 and 325 mesh x 0 samples were generally similar to 65 mesh x 0 float ash content. UNDERC also investigated the applicability of oil agglomeration and froth floatation on the benefication of four selected economically important western coals. In general, these tests were not as successful at beneficiating western coals as the standard float-sink technique, which provided the highest degree of ash separation at the highest weight yields. This final report summarizes work completed on the float-sink washability data base, oil agglomeration testing, and froth flotation testing at UNDERC from May 1983 through March 1986. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 pm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

  20. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical report, May 9, 1991--August 8, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1991-12-31

    The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and the solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will be performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing.

  1. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C.; Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  2. Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rajchel, M. |; Harnett, D.; Fonseca, A.; Maurer, R.; Ehrlinger, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    Williams Technologies, Inc. and Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and re-mixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology will enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant coast and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. In addition, testing is also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back-, filled and thus eliminate the need for tailings ponds. This reporting period, September 1, 1995 through November 30, 1995, marked the inception of this project. During this period Task No. 1, Procurement and Set-Up, was completed. The pilot plant apparatus was constructed at the SIU Coal Research Center in Carterville, Illinois. All equipment and feedstock were received at the site.

  3. Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Technical report, March 1- May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Rajchel, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P.; Fonseca, A.; Mauer, R.

    1996-12-31

    Williams Technologies, Inc. And Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be, concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and re-mixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology can enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant cost and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. Testing was also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back-filled, eliminating the need for tailings ponds. During the grant period, a laboratory-scale test apparatus (up to 3 GPM feed rate) was assembled and operated to demonstrate process performance over a range of feed temperatures and pressures. A dilute coal/water slurry from Consol, Inc.`s Rend Lake Preparation Plant was concentrated using the process to a maximum recorded solids loading of 61.9% solids by weight. Analytical results from the concentrate were evaluated by Destec Energy for suitability as an IGCC fuel.

  4. Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.; Scaroni, A.; Miller, B.; Choudhry, V.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this proposed research program was to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples were prepared as 100% plant coal, 90% plant coal/10% fines, 85% plant coal/15% fines, and 80% plant coal /20% fines with a particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. The plant coal and recovered coal fines were obtained from the Randolph Preparation Plant of Peabody Coal Co., Marissa, IL. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace was used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace was used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. The burning profile of the plant coal and the three blends was determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Results indicated slower burning of the blends due to low volatile matter and oxidized coal particles. Combustion emissions of these samples were determined in the down-fired combustor, while relative ignition temperatures were determined in the drop tube furnace. Chemical composition of ashes were analyzed to establish a correlation with their respective ash fusion temperatures. Overall study of these samples suggested that the blended samples had combustion properties similar to the original plant coal. In other words, flames were stable under identical firing rates of approximately 200,000 Btu`s/hr and 25% excess air. CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub x}, were similar to each other and within the experimental error. Combustion efficiency of 99{sup +}% was achievable. Ash chemical analysis of each sample revealed that slagging and fouling should not be different from each other.

  5. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P.

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  6. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles are produced by the grinding operation, thus the ultrafine coal becomes very difficult to dewater. In addition, the ultrafine coal also creates problems during its transportation, storage and handling at utility plants. The current research is seeking to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation, using hydrophobic binders as coal dewatering and binding reagents with the help of a compaction device. From previous tests, it has been found that coal pellets with a moisture content of less than 15% and good wear and water resistance can be successfully fabricated at pressures of less than 6,000 psi using a lab scale ram extruder. The primary objective of the research described in this quarter has been to extend the lab scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting process into a pilot scale operation, based on the test data obtained from earlier research. A standard roller briquetting machine was used to dewater fine coal-binder mixtures during the briquetting process. The operating parameters, including moisture content of feed, feed rate, and roller speed, were evaluated on the basis of the performance of the briquettes. Briquettes fabricated at rates of up to 108 pellets per minute exhibited satisfactory water and wear resistance, i.e., less than 7.5% cured moisture and less than 8.3% weight loss after 6 min. of tumbling. Also, coal-binder samples with moisture contents of 40 percent have been successfully dewatered and briquetted. Briquetting of fine coal was possible under current feeding conditions, however, a better feeding system must be designed to further improve the quality of dewatered coal briquettes.

  7. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  8. Flow and design characteristics of the hydrocyclone for the recovery of coal fines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1984-03-01

    The objective of this project was to do a basic study to identify the flow and design variables of the conventional hydrocyclone and experimentally determine how each one individually affects its operation while all the others are held constant. Spheres were initially used to model solid particles. It was then to be seen if the data using spheres could be used to determine optimum configurations for given applications. The specific application of interest in this project is the separation of coal fines from waste materials such as gob or settling pond settlings. The relevant variables of the standard hydrocyclone have been identified. Two experimental hydrocyclone systems have been designed and constructed so that the flow rate, inlet area, vortex finder length and diameter, underflow diameter, length of hydrocyclone chamber and cone angle can all be varied, one at a time, while all other variables are held constant. It was first shown that the sphere data compares well with data using random shaped coal particles with approximately the same mean diameters as the spheres. Then a hydrocyclone configuration was selected, by use of the sphere data, to separate coal fines from gob material. Good coal fines recovery from the gob (mineral waste) samples has been achieved on a batch basis. Recovery of 99% to 100% of the coal fines in a sample of gob has been achieved in the size range of from 0.187 inch (0.0047 m) to 0.500 inch (0.0127 m). Recovery of approximately 91% was achieved in the size range of from 0.0937 inch (0.0024 m) to 0.187 inch (0.0047 m). It should be emphasized that these results were obtained on a batch basis. 97 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone/Advanced Froth Flotation fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Stoessner, R.D. ); Shirey, G.A.; Zawadzki, E.A. ); Welsh, C.F. ); Miller, J.D. ); Shell, W.P. )

    1990-05-27

    In May 1988, the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) were awarded a contract from the Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center (DOE-PETC) to evaluate the performance of a two-inch Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) for cleaning fine minus-100-mesh coal. A 24-month study was successfully completed, optimizing the performance of the ASH for cleaning raw classified, naturally-occurring minus-100-mesh Upper Freeport coal, and comparing its performance with Advanced Froth Flotation (AFF), a procedure utilizing conventional flotation equipment operated in an advanced manner (low impeller speeds, starvation float, multiple-stage cleaning, etc.) with highly selective reagents to optimize ash and pyritic sulfur rejection. The economics of cleaning fine coal by both processes at commercial scale, for retrofit and greenfield applications were found to be comparable within the accuracy of the study. Technical performance of the two processes were also found to be essentially identical. Thus, the ASH would be the best choice for a retrofit installation into an existing plant because of requiring less space. Both processes were successful in achieving excellent separations when cleaning the Upper Freeport coal. Both the ASH and AFF circuits were able to produce a clean-coal product of yield (65--80 percent weight recovery) and quality (5--6 percent ash) equivalent to that as theoretically determined by float-sink washability analyses. Combining either of the two fine coal flotation processes with a classifying cyclone circuit resulted in pyritic sulfur rejection values of about 85 percent. 47 refs., 109 figs., 75 tabs.

  10. Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.

    1991-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering coal fines that are currently disposed of with coal preparation plant effluent streams and producing a fine clean coal product that can be blended with the plant coarse clean coal. This recovery was effected by means of Michigan Technological University`s static tube flotation process, which was successfully demonstrated on a number of raw coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the combustible matter. Under this project, the process parameters for the technology were modified for this application in order to recover a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal that is, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal currently produced by the preparation plant.

  11. DEVELOPMENT, TESTING, AND DEMONSTRATION OF AN OPTIMAL FINE COAL CLEANING CIRCUIT

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Hadley; R. Mike Mishra; Michael Placha

    1999-01-27

    The objective of this project was to improve the efficiency of the fine coal froth flotation circuit in commercial coal preparation plants. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation Plant, cleans 1200-1400 tph of Pittsburgh seam raw coal and uses conventional flotation cells to clean the minus 100-mesh size fraction. The amount of coal in this size fraction is approximately 80 tph with an average ash content of 35%. The project was carried out in two phases. In Phase I, four advanced flotation cells, i.e., a Jameson cell, an Outokumpu HG tank cell, an open column, and a packed column cell, were subjected to bench-scale testing and demonstration. In Phase II, two of these flotation cells, the Jameson cell and the packed column, were subjected to in-plant, proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing both individually and in two-stage combination in order to ascertain whether a two-stage circuit results in lower levelized production costs. The bench-scale results indicated that the Jameson cell and packed column cell would be amenable to the single- and two-stage flotation approach. POC tests using these cells determined that single-stage coal matter recovery (CMR) of 85% was possible with a product ash content of 5.5-7%. Two-stage operation resulted in a coal recovery of 90% with a clean coal ash content of 6-7.5%. This compares favorably with the plant flotation circuit recovery of 80% at a clean coal ash of 11%.

  12. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  13. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler

    2004-06-01

    The project's overall objective is to develop a commercially viable dynamic signature based sensing system that is used to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal. This eighteen month effort will focus on developments required to transfer the measurement system from the laboratory to a field ready prototype system. This objective will be achieved through the completion of the laboratory development of the sensor and data algorithm followed by full scale field tests of a portable measurement system. The sensing system utilizes accelerometers attached externally to coal feeder pipes. Raw data is collected from the impingement of the coal particles as well as the acoustic noise generated from the flow and is transformed into characteristic signatures through proper calibration that are meaningful to the operator. The laboratory testing will use a portable version of the sensing system to collect signature data from a variety of flow conditions including coal flow rates, flow orientations, and coal particle characteristics. This work will be conducted at the Coal Flow Measurement Laboratory that is sponsored by EPRI and operated by Airflow Sciences. The data will be used to enhance the algorithm and neural network required to perform real time analysis of the nonspecific signature data. The system will be installed at two full scale power plants to collect data in a real time operating scenario. These short term duration tests will evaluate the ability of the algorithm to accurately infer coal flow rates and determine if the measurement system can be used effectively in an active control loop for combustion diagnostics and burner balancing. At the completion of this project, prototype versions of both a portable system and a permanent installation will be available for final packaging and commercialization by one of the team members. Both types of systems will be marketed for conducting combustion diagnostics and balancing of individual flows to pulverized

  14. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF COAL FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill

    2004-02-01

    The project's overall objective is to development a commercially viable dynamic signature based sensing system that is used to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal. This eighteen month effort will focus on developments required to transfer the measurement system from the laboratory to a field ready prototype system. This objective will be achieved through the completion of the laboratory development of the sensor and data algorithm followed by full scale field tests of a portable measurement system. The sensing system utilizes accelerometers attached externally to coal feeder pipes. Raw data is collected from the impingement of the coal particles as well as the acoustic noise generated from the flow and is transformed into characteristic signatures through proper calibration that are meaningful to the operator. The laboratory testing will use a portable version of the sensing system to collect signature data from a variety of flow conditions including coal flow rates, flow orientations, and coal particle characteristics. This work will be conducted at the Coal Flow Measurement Laboratory that is sponsored by EPRI and operated by Airflow Sciences. The data will be used to enhance the algorithm and neural network required to perform real time analysis of the non-specific signature data. The system will be installed at two full scale power plants to collect data in a real time operating scenario. These short term duration tests will evaluate the ability of the algorithm to accurately infer coal flow rates and determine if the measurement system can be used effectively in an active control loop for combustion diagnostics and burner balancing. At the completion of this project, prototype versions of both a portable system and a permanent installation will be available for final packaging and commercialization by one of the team members. Both types of systems will be marketed for conducting combustion diagnostics and balancing of individual flows to

  15. Immersion calorimetry of fine coal particles and its relation to flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Melkus, T.G.; Chiang, S.H.; Wen, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A Setaram C-80 heat flux microcalorimeter was used to study the surface and interfacial properties of fine coal particles in water containing flotation agents via heat of immersion measurements. Heat of immersion (..delta..H/sub imm/) is usually a small exothermic quantity and can be used to characterize a solid in terms of its relative hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity. The effects of coal type, surface oxidation, mineral matter content, kerosene concentration, and pH on the wetting characteristics were investigated. Although coal is a heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic materials, immersional calorimetry has proven to be quite helpful in measuring surface properties of coal, and the following conclusions can be drawn: The heat of immersion decreased with increasing kerosene concentration, which corresponds to the coal particles increasing hydrophobicity; in varying the pH, the ..delta..H/sub imm/ went through a minimum at a pH value of 6.5 to 7.0, which coincides with the reported optimum pH range for flotation; both oxidation and clay slime coating (addition of kaolin), which are known to make the coal less hydrophobic, increased the ..delta..H/sub imm/; and the trends that were shown to exist in the heat of immersion measurements (for varying kerosene concentration, pH oxidation, and clay slime coating) correlated well with independent flotation experiments. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Strength and consolidation characteristics of fine-coal refuse. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.H.; Li, J.; Weeratunga, G.

    1987-04-01

    The study is part of a research project entitled Strength and Consolidation Characteristics of Coal Refuse for Design and Construction of Disposal Facilities supported by the Office of Surface Mining, Department of Interior. Information presented in the report will be used for the design and construction of disposal facilities. Fine coal refuse, which is the waste product washing through a no. 28 (0.589 mm) sieve, can be disposed in two different forms: solid or liquid. To be disposed as a solid, the moisture content of fine refuse must be reduced. The investigation on the undrained shear strength of partially saturated fine refuse proceeded in the same manner as that of the combined refuse, and similar equations and charts were developed. These equations and charts can also be used to estimate the undrained shear strength of consolidated fine refuse when disposed as a slurry. To be disposed as a slurry, the fine refuse must be pumped into a lagoon or behind a dam and let settle.

  17. Denver Tube Press - high pressure filtration meets coal fines moisture requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Jonaitis, A.J.; Timberlake, M.

    1993-12-31

    The DENVER Tube Press is a simple, high pressure (1500 PSI (100 bar)) filtration unit, developed for processing difficult-to-dewater materials and to produce a handleable filter cake and clear filtrate product. Lab and Pilot testwork conducted in Australia on coal fines (55-70% - 35 micro (400 mesh)) have shown that total moisture contents of less than 20% are consistently achieved in the final cake products from the Tube Press. Currently, these coal super fines are sent to waste due to uneconomical mechanical dewatering methods, which were only able to reduce total moisture levels in excess of 30%. Calculated, throughput rates for the 500 Series Tube Press exceeded 1700 kg/hr (3750 lbs/hr). Feed solids concentration requirements are between 45 and 50% achieve these results.

  18. Potential of Hazardous Waste Encapsulation in Concrete Compound Combination with Coal Ash and Quarry Fine Additives.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Roy Nir; Anker, Yaakov; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Mastai, Yitzhak; Knop, Yaniv; Cohen, Haim

    2015-12-15

    Coal power plants are producing huge amounts of coal ash that may be applied to a variety of secondary uses. Class F fly ash may act as an excellent scrubber and fixation reagent for highly acidic wastes, which might also contain several toxic trace elements. This paper evaluates the potential of using Class F fly ashes (<20% CaO), in combination with excessive fines from the limestone quarry industry as a fixation reagent. The analysis included leaching experiments (EN12457-2) and several analytical techniques (ICP, SEM, XRD, etc.), which were used in order to investigate the fixation procedure. The fine sludge is used as a partial substitute in concrete that can be used in civil engineering projects, as it an environmentally safe product.

  19. Fine particle coal as a source of energy in small-user applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, S.

    1990-11-01

    The use of fine particle micronized coal as a source of energy for home heating applications has been explored in previous years under this program in a 150,000 Btu/hr pulse combustor. Experimental studies have been conducted on the combustion characteristics of micronized coal and combustion efficiencies have been measured. Emission levels of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} have been measured. In this final year of the program, the combustion and emissions characteristics of micronized coal were further explored in terms of the influence of stoichiometric ratio and frequency effects. Also, a model has been proposed which has potential for incorporating the unsteady mixing occurring in pulse combustors. 31 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a contract entitled Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technology - Froth Flotation'', to ICF Kaiser Engineers with the following team members, Ohio Coal Development Office, Babcock and Wilcox, Consolidation Coal Company, Eimco Process Equipment Company, Illinois State Geological Survey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Process Technology, Inc. This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  1. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF DEWATERING AIDS FOR MINERALS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect

    Roe-Hoam Yoon; Ramazan Asmatulu; Ismail Yildirim; William Jansen; Jinmig Zhang; Brad Atkinson; Jeff Havens

    2004-07-01

    MCT has developed a suite of novel dewatering chemicals (or aids) that are designed to cause a decrease in the capillary pressures of the water trapped in a filter cake by (1) decreasing the surface tension of water, (2) increasing the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered, and (3) causing the particles to coagulate, all at the same time. The decrease in capillary pressure in turn causes an increase in the rate filtration, an increase in throughput, and a decrease in pressure drop requirement for filtration. The reagents are used frequently as blends of different chemicals in order to bring about the changes in all of the process variables noted above. The minerals and coal samples tested in the present work included copper sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, kaolin clay, talc, and silica. The laboratory-scale test work included studies of reagent types, drying cycle times, cake thickness, slurry temperature, conditioning intensity and time, solid content, and reagent dosages. To better understand the mechanisms involved, fundamental studies were also conducted. These included the measurements of the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered (which are the measures of particle hydrophobicity) and the surface tensions of the filtrates produced from dewatering tests. The results of the laboratory-scale filtration experiments showed that the use of the novel dewatering aids can reduce the moistures of the filter cake by 30 to 50% over what can be achieved using no dewatering aids. In many cases, such high levels of moisture reductions are sufficient to obviate the needs for thermal drying, which is costly and energy intensive. Furthermore, the use of the novel dewatering aids cause a substantial increase in the kinetics of dewatering, which in turn results in increased throughput. As a result of these technological advantages, the novel dewatering aids have been licensed to Nalco, which is one of the largest mining chemicals companies of the world. At

  3. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would

  4. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Zhu, Ximeng; Li, Jun; Bodily, D.M; Zhong, Tingke; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1992-09-01

    A series of fine coal kinetic tests were carried out on three coals. It was found that the rank of flotation rates for the three coals tested were: Upper Freeport > Pittsburgh No. 8 > Illinois No. 6. In the case of Pittsburgh No. 8, the contained coal-pyrite was found to float more slowly than the coal itself when xanthate was used as the collector. In kinetic modeling, first order kinetic models produced large errors for long flotation times. It was found that a modified first order kinetic-model with slow and fast rate constants was appropriate for fine coal flotation. A log-log plot of 1(R{sub j} -R) versus t forms a straight line for the test conditions of this study. The Lai proportionality flotation model was found to apply from the start and extending over a very broad time range.

  5. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2003-06-02

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process.

  6. Evaluation of column flotation for fine coal cleaning at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Fish, L.; Toney, T.A.; Phillips, D.I.; Feeley, T.J. III

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a cost-sharing contract to a team headed by Amax R&D Inc. The contract was to develop advanced cleaning technologies for production of low-ash, premium fuel from coal. Entech Global of Golden, Colorado, now manages this contract for Amex R&D, and Cyprus Amex Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech are among the team members. Two advanced technologies were selected for development, column flotation and selective agglomeration. Even though production of premium fuel is the primary goal of the project, the DOE asked that near-term applications of these advanced technologies be investigated as well in order to learn how they might be used to recover coal now being discarded from existing preparation plants as fine refuse The resulting investigation of near-term applications began with an engineering analysis or paper study of potential applications at Amax Coal operations. The project continued with further laboratory and bench-scale process development and culminated with the installation of a pilot-scale advanced flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant. The results of this cooperation between the Department of Energy and the coal industry are described in this presentation.

  7. Mineralogical characterization of ambient fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei C1 coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Senlin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Wang, Qiangxiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Pinwei; Zhang, Rongci; Yu, Shang; Pan, Ruiqi; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-03-01

    Nano-quartz in Xuanwei coal, the uppermost Permian (C1) coal deposited in the northwest of Yuanan, China, has been regarded as one of factors which caused high lung cancer incidence in the local residents. However, mineralogical characterization of the fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion has not previously been studied. In this study, PM1 and ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion were sampled. Chemical elements in the ambient particles were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization of these ambient particles was investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDX) and transmission electronic microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM/EDX). Our results showed that the size distribution of mineral particles from the coal combustion emissions ranged from 20 to 200 nm. Si-containing particles and Fe-containing particles accounted for 50.7% of the 150 individual particles measured, suggesting that these two types of particles were major minerals in the ambient particles generally. The nano-mineral particles were identified as quartz (SiO2) and gypsum (CaSO4) based on their crystal parameters and chemical elements. Additionally, there also existed unidentified nano-minerals. Armed with these data, toxicity assessments of the nano-minerals will be carried out in a future study.

  8. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  9. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.

    1997-12-31

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  10. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote'' column flotation to recover clean coal with minimum sulfur and ash content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. This project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance to rejection of liberated ash and pyritic sulfur. During this contract period, column flotation testing was conducted on the flotation feed slurry obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant. The column flotation tests were conducted using three different bubble generating devices: static, gas saver and foam jet spargers. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column operating variables to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. In general, the column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 4--6 percent ash at combustible recovery ranging from 88 to 92 percent. 10 figs.

  11. Microgas dispersion for fine-coal cleaning. Technical progress report, March 1, 1981-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Halsey, G.S.; Sebba, F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the flotation tests conducted demonstrate that the use of fine colloidal gas aphrons (CGA) bubbles is beneficial for fine coal flotation. As demonstrated with the ultrafine coal sample, the froth products of CGA flotation are almost twice as clean as those of the conventional flotation tests at 70% yield. The kerosene consumption was considerably higher, however, both in conventional and in CGA flotation. Attempts were made to coat the CGA bubbles with a film of kerosene and use them for flotation, hoping that this would reduce the oil consumption. However, no positive results have yet been obtained with this process. Another problem associated with CGA flotation is that the ash content of the froth products is relatively high when using a stable CGA, such as that prepared with Dowfroth M150. On the other hand, when using an unstable CGA, as is the case with MIBC, low ash clean coal products can be obtained, but at the expense of the yield. Two approaches are being investigated to correct this problem. A considerable amount of effort has been made to determine the surface charge of the CGA.

  12. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  13. Centrifugal dewatering and reconstitution of fine coal by the GranuFlow Process

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Utz, B.R.; Killmeyer, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    A continuous pilot-scale test of the GranuFlow Process was conducted using a screen-bowl centrifuge for the dewatering and reconstitution of column flotation concentrate at a coal preparation plant in Virginia. In this test, a slipstream of the fine-clean-coal slurry from the column flotation concentrate was treated with a bitumen emulsion before dewatering. The treated products from the screen-bowl centrifuge appeared to be dry and in a free-flowing granular form, while the untreated products were wet, sticky, and difficult to handle. Specifically, test results indicated that the average moisture contents of the dewatered coal were 35.7, 35.5, 32.6, 29.9, and 26.5 wt% with Orimulsion additions of 0, 0.7, 3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 wt%, respectively. The handleability and dust reduction of the dewatered coal product were also vastly improved. A preliminary cost estimate of using Orimulsion in the GranuFlow Process is also included. Because of the simplicity of the process and the low cost of the bitumen emulsion, the commercialization potential of the GranuFlow Process is significant.

  14. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1998-08-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from April 1, 1998 to June 30, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Continuous bench-scale runs were carried out with Luscar Mine coal. The main objectives were to optimize process conditions for a proposed jet processor and to compare its performance with a standard high-shear mixer. A total of three runs consisted of 15 testing periods was carried out. Both conditioning devices performed very well with combustible matter recovery exceeding 96%. Slightly higher coal recovery was observed for high-shear mixer, while lower ash contents were achieved when jet processor was used for coal conditioning. During the current reporting period work has been continued and completed on the engineering and design package of a 3 t/h POC-scale agglomeration unit. Preliminary design package prepared by Thermo Design Engineering, a subcontractor to this project, was submitted to DOE for revision and approval.

  15. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, 'Ken-Flote' column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  16. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P. ); Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R. ); Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S. ); Kehoe, D. )

    1991-10-31

    Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

  17. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P.; Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R.; Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S.; Kehoe, D.

    1991-10-31

    Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

  18. Microgas dispersion for fine-coal cleaning. Technical progress report, September 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Sebba, F.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a method of cleaning fine coal by flotation using very small microbubbles now known as Colloidal Gas Aphrons (CGA) and previously known as Microgas Dispersions (MGD). It was thought that MGD was not sufficiently descriptive of the nature of the small bubbles, and hence, the change was made. The objectives of the past six months of investigation were as follows: (1) a fundamental study of the properties of CGA, which involved (i) a study of the stability of the bubbles generated with several frothers that are currently used in the mineral industry, (ii) a study of the charge on the bubbles, and (iii) a microscopic inspection of the bubbles during flotation; (2) a preliminary investigation of the flotation characteristics of coal; and (3) construction of an automatic batch flotation machine, similar to the one described by Miller (1980).

  19. Design characteristics of the hydrocyclone for the recovery of coal fines

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.; Clendenin, H.B.; Peter, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The relevant design parameters and flow variables of the standard hydrocyclone have been identified. Two experimental systems have been designed and constructed so that the flow rate, inlet area, vortex finder length and diameter, underflow diameter, length of hydrocyclone chamber and cone angle can all be varied, one at a time, while all the other variables are held constant. Dimensional analysis was used to guide the experiments. Initially spheres were used to model solid particles. Data has been taken using spheres ranging in size from 0.03175 m to 0.09525 m with specific gravities varying from 1.05 to 2.10. This range of specific gravities was chosen so as to contain the specific gravity range of coal which varies from 1.2 to 1.6. The specific gravities of the waste materials in gob (clay, shale, pyrite and sandstone) are greater than 2.00. It was later shown that the data taken using spheres compare well with random shaped coal particles with approximately the same mean diameters as the spheres. The sphere data can be used to select a hydrocyclone configuration to perform a specific separation task. In this research, the sphere data was used as a guide to select a configuration to separate coal fines from gob material. Good coal fines recovery from gob samples has been achieved on a batch basis. An an example, Table 1 gives data from one sample showing a combined recovery of 99% by weight with a product rating of 0.95. Another significant finding in this research is that dynamic similitude as predicted by dimensional analysis can be verified using the two experimental systems with hydrocyclones with different diameters. Thus the data taken can be used to scale up or down as the need arises. 10 references, 13 figures, 1 table.

  20. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. . Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote'' column flotation to recover clean coal with minimum sulfur and ash content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. The project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance the rejection of liberated ash and pyritic sulfur. During this contract period, column flotation testing was completed on the flotation feed slurry obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant. The column flotation tests were conducted using three different bubble generating devices: Static, gas saver and foam jet spargers. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column operating variables to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. In general, the column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 4--6 percent ash at combustible recovery ranging from 88 to 92 percent while pyrite rejection was 70 to 75 percent. Flotation tests were also conducted on a slurry sample obtained from The Ziegler {number sign}26 Preparation Plant in Sesse, Illinois. Base-line flotation testing was completed using batch flotation to identify optimum reagent addition. Column flotation of the Ziegler slurry provided a clean coal containing 4--6 percent ash with a combustible recovery of 90--95 percent and pyrite rejection of 60--67 percent. Efforts are in progress in installing a 6-inc. I.D. pilot column at the Ziegler {number sign}26. 9 figs.

  1. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  2. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO, AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler

    2005-07-01

    To minimize program cost, additional testing is planned to be performed in concert with EPRI-funded testing at the Coal Flow Test Facility in late July. This will be followed by field testing to be performed by EPRI in August. The minimal effort put into the analysis during this reporting period revealed surprising variation in the trends of the dynamic signatures over time. It is unclear whether these temporal trends are related to noise or to the actual dynamics. Further data analysis and fine-tuning of the algorithm will be done upon arrival of the data to be collected in the near future.

  3. POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-12

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal strearrts. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a jet processor. To meet the overall objective an eleven task work plan has been designed. The work ranges from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment.

  4. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-08-01

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the Third Quarter of this project we present our data on trace metal partitioning obtained from combustion of MSS and Gas, MSS and Coal and Coal and Gas alone.

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  6. In-plant testing of a novel coal cleaning circuit using advanced technologies, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Reed, S.; Mohanty, M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale over the past two years has identified highly efficient methods for treating fine coal (i.e., -28 mesh). In this study, a circuit comprised of the three advanced fine coal cleaning technologies is being tested in an operating preparation plant to evaluate circuit performance and to compare the performance with the current technologies used to treat -16 mesh fine coal. The circuit integrated a Floatex hydrosizer, a Falcon concentrator and a Jameson froth flotation cell. The Floatex hydrosizer is being used as a primary cleaner for the nominally -16 mesh Illinois No. 5 fine coal circuit feed. The overflow of the Floatex is screened at 48 mesh using a Sizetec vibratory screen to produce a clean coal product from the screen overflow. The screen overflow is further treated by the Falcon and Jameson Cell. During this reporting period, tests were initiated on the fine coal circuit installed at the Kerr-McGee Galatia preparation plant. The circuit was found to reduce both the ash content and the pyritic sulfur content. Additional in-plant circuitry tests are ongoing.

  7. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2003-01-31

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research results have demonstrated that the inhalation of coal/MSS ash particles cause an increase in lung permeability than coal ash particles alone. Elemental analysis of the coal/MSS ash particles showed that Zn was more abundant in these ash particles than the ash particles of coal ash alone.

  8. Combustion characteristics of fine-ground coal. Project 61052 quarterly technical report, June 1-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    This program consists of a research study to investigate the effect of coal particle size on the flame characteristics of pulverized coal. The purpose is to determine if fine grinding will allow replacement of oil by coal in some industrial applications. The Plant Engineering Development Department of General Motors Corporation (GM) and the Research and Development Staff of York-Shipley, Inc. (Y-S), a major boiler manufacturer, are assisting IGT in this effort. These companies have offered to donate time to the program as industrial consultants. Pulverized coal will be fired at about 2 million Btu/h (approximately 160 lb/h) in a special experimental furnace designed to collect data on the combustion and heat-transfer characteristics of flames. Combustion trials with No. 6 oil are also planned to allow for direct correlation with the coal combustion data. Some of the information to be obtained from this study will be a determination of how the flame heat release density, mass burning rate, flame temperatures, and heat-transfer characteristics change with fuel particle size (fineness of coal grinding). It will also be possible to directly compare these parameters from the various coal flames with comparable oil flames to determine the feasibility of substituting fine-ground pulverized coal flames for heavy-oil flames. Data will also be collected to allow for the correlation of the flue-gas pollutant emissions with the fuel characteristics. Progress included purchasing the major equipment for the coal milling system, coal selection, and preparation of the combustion facility.

  9. Application of acoustic agglomeration to reduce fine particle emissions from coal combustion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego-Juarez, J.A.; Riera-Franco De Sarabia, E.; Rodriguez-Corral, G.

    1999-11-01

    Removal of fine particles (smaller than 2.5 {micro}m) from industrial flue gases is, at present, one of the most important problems in air pollution abatement. These particles which are hazardous because of their ability to penetrate deeply into the lungs, are difficult to remove by conventional separation technology. Sonic energy offers a means to solve this problem. The application of a high-intensity acoustic field to an aerosol induces agglomeration processes which changes the size distribution in favor of larger particles, which are then easier to precipitate with a conventional separator. In this work, the authors present a semiindustrial pilot plant in which this process is applied for reduction of particle emissions in coal combustion fumes. This installation basically consists of an acoustic agglomeration chamber with a rectangular cross-section, driven by four high-power and highly directional acoustic transducers of 10 and/or 20 kHz, and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). In the experiments, a fluidized bed coal combustor was used as fume generator, and a sophisticated air sampling station was set up to carry out measurements with fume flow rates up to about 2,000 m{sup 3}/h, gas temperatures of about 150 C, and mass concentrations in the range 1--5 g/m{sup 3}. The fine particle reduction produced by the acoustic filter was about 40% of the number concentration.

  10. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote column flotation to maximize BTU recovery with minimum product sulfur and ash content from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. The project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance the rejection of liberated ash and pyrite. During this contract period, samples were obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant and characterized. Analysis of the flotation feed slurry indicate that a significant amount of pyrite is present in the 5 microns size range as free particles. The coal is hydrophobic in nature and optimum reagent addition is 0.75 lb/ton frother and 1.5 lb/ton fuel oil. The best flotation results were obtained near pH 6 for all frothers tested. Two ash depressants tested showed no significant improvement in ash rejection. A pyrite depressant was also tested which indicated improved pyrite rejection from 28 to 37 percent at a dosage of 5 lb/ton. Efforts are in progress to design a test matrix to determine optimum operating conditions for column flotation testing with this substrate. The test matrixes will be designed to investigate three different bubble generating mechanisms. The objective is to identify column operating variables that will provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This is the 9th quarterly technical progress report for the project entitled Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies'', DE-FG22-90PC90295. The work presented in this report was performed from September 1, 1992 to November 31, 1992. The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface chemistry of pyrite oxidation and flotation and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the surface oxidation of pyrite in various electrolytes was investigated. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that borate, a pH buffer and electrolyte used by many previous investigators in studying sulfide mineral oxidation, actively participates in the surface oxidation of pyrite. In borate solutions, the surface oxidation of pyrite is tronly enhanced. The anodic oxidation potential of pyrite is lowered by more than 0.4 volts. The initial reaction of the borate enhanced pyrite oxidation can be described by:FeS[sub 2] + B(OH)[sub 4][sup =] ------> [S[sub 2]Fe-B(OH)[sub 4

  12. Enhanced control of fine particles following Title IV coal switching and NOx control

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.

    1997-12-31

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) serve as the primary particle control devices for a majority of coal-fired power generating units in the United States. ESPs are used to collect particulate matter that range in size from less than one micrometer in diameter to several hundred micrometers. Many of the options that utilities will use to respond to Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will result in changes to the ash that will be detrimental to the performance of the ESP causing increased emissions of fine particles and higher opacity. For example, a switch to low-sulfur coal significantly increases particle resistivity while low-NO{sub x} burners increase the carbon content of ashes. Both of these changes could result in derating of the boiler to comply with emissions standards. ADA has developed a chemical additive that is designed to improve the operation of ESI`s to bring these systems into compliance operation without the need for expensive capital modifications. The additives provide advantages over competing technologies in terms of low capital cost, easy to handle chemicals, and relatively non-toxic chemicals. In addition, the new additive is insensitive to ash chemistry which will allow the utility complete flexibility to select the most economical coal. Results from full-scale and pilot plant demonstrations are reported.

  13. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was

  14. A study of Multistage/Multifunction Column for Fine Coal Cleaning CRADA PC93-005, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph Lai; Shiao-Hung Chiang; Daxin He; Yuru Feng

    1998-09-04

    The overall objective of the this research project is to explore the potential applicability of a multistage column for fine coal cleaning and other applications in fluid particle separation. The research work identifies the design parameters and their effects on the performance of the separation device. The results of this study provide an engineering data basis for further development of this technology in coal cleaning and in general areas of fluid and particle separations.

  15. Pilot Scale Single Stage Fine Coal Dewatering and Briquetting Process. Technical report, March 1, 1996 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.; Ho, K.

    1996-12-31

    The primary goal for this ICCI coal research project is to effectively liberate coal from fnely disseminated minerals for Illinois Basin coal by using fine grinding and cleaning processes. However, because of the large surface area generated during the cleaning processes, it is difficult and uneconomic for conventional techniques to dewater the coal fines. In addition, these coal fine pose transportation, storage and handling problems at cleaning and utility facilities. The objective of this research is to combine dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation that will solve the problems mentioned above. To build on the promising results obtained from the previous studies, a pilot scale commercial briquetting machine was used to evaluate this technique. The primary objective of the research in this reporting period is to determine the effectiveness of a single stage dewatering and briquetting technique using a commercial briquetting device. Two types of samples were prepared and the results of the -28 x 100 mesh samples are presented in this report. Modifications were made to the machine in an attempt to solve the back drainage problem. A total of six experiments were conducted and the results indicate that water resistance of coal briquettes increased as curing time increased. However, due to a deficiency of fine particles to bridge the gaps between the coarse particles, the wear resistance of the products declined. Also, at high roll speeds and compaction pressures, the coal briquettes produced tended to have higher moisture content and lower strength. On the other hand, at high feed rates, because of the screw extrusion effect, coal briquettes were produced with lower moisture content and higher strengths.

  16. Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. Previously it has been decided that corn starch would be used as binder and a roller-and-die mill would be used for pellet manufacture. A quality starch binder has been identified and tested. To potentially lower binder costs, a starch that costs about 50% of the high quality starch was tested. Results indicate that the lower cost starch will not lower binder cost because more is required to produce a comparable quality pellet. Also, a petroleum in water emulsion was evaluated as a potential binder. The compound seemed to have adhesive properties but was found to be a poor binder. Arrangements have been made to collect a waste slurry from the mine previously described.

  17. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-22

    The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled Coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: The Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well in a commercial coal preparation plant. The wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation. A wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. The Mulled Coal circuit was installed in an empty bay at the Chetopa Preparation Plant. Equipment has been installed to divert a 2.7 tonnes/hr (3 tons/hr) slipstream of the froth concentrate to a dewatering centrifuge. The concentrated wet coal fines from the centrifuge dropped through a chute directly into a surge hopper and feed system for the Mulled Coal circuit. The Mulled Coal product was gravity discharged from the circuit to a truck or product discharge area from which it will be hauled to a stockpile located at the edge of the clean coal stockpile area. During the 3-month operating period, the facility produced 870 tonnes (966 tons) of the Muffed Coal for evaluation in various storage, handling, and transportation equipment and operations. Immediately following the production demonstration, the circuit was disassembled and the facility was decommissioned.

  18. Improvement of storage, handling and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-16

    The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost, harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: The Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant. The wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation. A wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. During this third quarter of the contract period, activities were underway under Tasks 2 and 3. Sufficient characterization of the feedstock coal options at the Chetopa Plant was conducted and mulling characteristics determined to enable a decision to be made regarding the feedstock selection. It was decided that the froth concentrate will be the feedstock wet fine coal used for the project. On that basis, activities in the areas of design and procurement were initiated.

  19. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-05-04

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end we shall use an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined.

  20. A fine coal circuitry study using column flotation and gravity separation. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Reed, S.

    1995-12-31

    Column flotation provides excellent recovery of ultrafine coal while producing low ash content concentrates. However, column flotation is not efficient for treating fine coal containing significant amounts of mixed-phase particles. Fortunately, enhanced gravity separation has proved to have the ability to treat the mixed-phased particles more effectively. A disadvantage of gravity separation is that ultrafine clay particles are not easily rejected. Thus, a combination of these two technologies may provide a circuit that maximizes both the ash and sulfur rejection that can be achieved by physical coal cleaning while maintaining a high energy recovery. This project is studying the potential of using different combinations of gravity separators, i.e., a Floatex hydrosizer and a Falcon Concentrator, and a proven flotation column, which will be selected based on previous studies by the principle investigator. During this reporting period, an extensive separation performance comparison between a pilot-scale Floatex Density Separator (18{times}18-inch) and an existing spiral circuit has been conducted at Kerf-McGee Coal Preparation plan for the treatment of nominally {minus}16 mesh coal. The results indicate that the Floatex is a more efficient separation device (E{sub p}=0.12) than a conventional coal spiral (E{sub p}=0.18) for Illinois seam coals. In addition, the treatment of {minus}100 mesh Illinois No. 5 fine coal from the same plant using Falcon concentrator, column flotation (Packed-Column) and their different combinations was also evaluated. For a single operation, both Falcon concentrator and column flotation can produce a clean coal product with 90% combustible recovery and 5% ash content. In the case of the combined circuit, column flotation followed by the Falcon achieved a higher combustible recovery value (about 75%) than that obtained by the individual units while maintaining an ash content less than 3%.

  1. Implementation of Microcel{trademark} column flotation for processing fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, V.L. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Laboratory and pilot-scale test programs have been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of column and conventional flotation circuits for the processing of fine coal. The tests were conducted on-site at several operating coal preparation facilities by utilization of Pilot-scale conventional and column flotation cells. The feed to the test equipment in each case was classifying cyclone overflow material that was high in ash content (40%--50%) with solids content values in the 5%--10% range. The test results indicated that column flotation Provided superior metallurgical performance (approaching that attained by release analysis techniques) as compared to single pass and rougher/cleaner conventional flotation. The results of this study eventually led to the installation of 5--10 foot diameter column flotation cells at the Middle Fork pond reclaim facility. It was determined that the installation of the flotation columns at the Middle Fork facility led to a reduction in concentrate ash of approximately 7 percentage points and an increase in combustible recovery in excess of 15 percentage points.

  2. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-21

    The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost, harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled Coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: the Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant; the wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation; and a wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. During this reporting period, virtually all of the technical activities and progress was made in the areas of circuit installation and startup operations. Work in these activity areas are described.

  3. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulate bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the twelfth quarter, July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1993-12-31

    Two modes of collector addition techniques including gasified collector transported in gas phase and direct collector addition techniques were applied in the column flotation to demonstrate the selectivity of utilizing the hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubbles in the fine coal flotation process. A 3-in. flotation column was used to evaluate two modes of collector dispersion and addition techniques on the recovery and grade of fine coals using various ranks of coal. Five different coal samples were used in the column flotation test program. They are Mammoth, Lower Kittanning, Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Illinois No. 6 seam coals, which correspond to anthracite-, low volatile-, medium volatile-, and high volatile-seam coals, respectively. In this quarterly report, the test results for the Upper Freeport seam coal and Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal are reported.

  4. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-01-31

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end we shall use an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the First Quarter of this three year project work has centered around recruiting a graduate student to take responsibility for execution of portions of the research, and modifying the furnace and supporting equipment to allow the combustion of coal/MMS mixtures. We have readied the analytical panel for measuring NO{sub x} and other gaseous pollutants. We expect initial experiments for data gathering for coal/MSS mixtures to commence in the next Quarter.

  5. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.

    1997-05-01

    The primary goal of the ongoing ICCI coal preparation research project is to reduce ash and sulfur content in coal by using fine grinding and other coal cleaning processes. The ultrafine coal particles that result from the grinding and cleaning operations are difficult to dewater, and create problems in their storage, handling and transportation. The objective of this research is to combine the dewatering and briquetting processes of fine coal preparation into a single stage operation, thereby enhancing the economic viability of utilizing fine coal. A bitumen based emulsion, Orimulsion, has proven to be an effective hydrophobic binder, which helps not only with the briquetting process but also in the expulsion of water from the coal. Encouraging results from the use of a ram extruder briquetting device led to experimentation in the production of briquettes using a lab scale roll briquetting device. In the first quarter of this reporting year, a commercially available lab scale roll briquetting machine was employed (Komarek B-100). Further testing was conducted for the rest of the year with the use of a pilot scale model (Komarek B220-A). Briquettes were produced and evaluated by comparing results developed by adjusting various parameters of the briquetting machines and feed material. Results further substantiate previous findings that curing time dictates both moisture content and strengths of briquettes, and slower roll speeds produce more robust briquettes. A statistical model was set up to determine the optimal range of operating parameters. The statistical model generated from these results provided basic relationships between the roll speed and briquette form pressure.

  6. Production of Illinois base compliance coal using enhanced gravity separation. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, B.C.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1994-06-01

    Illinois Basin coal often contains a significant portion of finely dispersed pyrite. Most of the free pyrite particles exist in the fine size fractions, which are generally treated using froth flotation. An inherent problem of their froth flotation process is the inefficient treatment of middling particles containing a small amount of coal on their surface. On the other hand, gravity-based processes can effectively remove middling particles containing only a small amount of coal. Falcon Concentrators Inc. and Knelson Gold Concentrators Inc. have developed full-scale, enhanced gravity separators for the treatment of heavy minerals. This project will evaluate the potential of using these concentrators to de-ash and de-sulfurize Illinois coal fines. During this reporting period, sample characterization was completed and initial tests were conducted using the Falcon Concentrator. A 28 mesh {times} 0 flotation feed sample was collected from a local coal preparation plant treating the Illinois No. 6 seam coal. This sample was characterized on a size-by-size basis for sulfur, ash, and BTU content. A release analysis was conducted to determine the separation performance that can be achieved by froth flotation. The initial Falcon Concentrator tests were conducted using both water and the flotation feed to provide a preliminary knowledge base for its operational characteristics.

  7. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Tenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Leonard, J.W.; Hogg, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1995-09-01

    The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20 percent moisture. The program consist of three phases: Phase I, model development; Phase II, laboratory studies; and Phase III, field testing. The Pennsylvania State University is leading efforts in Phase I, the University of Kentucky in Phase II, and Consol Inc. in Phase III of the program. All three organizations are involved in-all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University is developing a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky is conducting experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase I and II will be tested in a Consol Inc. coal preparation plant using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit. Accomplishments are discussed for all three phases of study.

  8. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Ninth quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Leonard, J.W.; Hogg, R.; Fonesca, A.

    1995-04-01

    The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consists of three phases, namely: model development; laboratory studies; and field testing. The Pennsylvania State University is leading efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and Consol Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. The Pennsylvania State University is developing a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky is conducting experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 will be tested in a Consol Inc. coal preparation plant using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit. Results to date from all three phases are discussed.

  9. Drying and reconstitution of subbituminous coal - CRADA 90-004. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W W; Nowak, M A; Killmeyer, R P

    1991-10-30

    AMAX Coal Company (AMAX) has built a 200 tph, demonstration scale fluidized-bed drying process at their Belle Ayr Mine in Wyoming to dry the subbituminous coal of Wyodak seam from an average moisture content of 25-30 wt% to about 10 wt%. Currently, the dryer generates too many fines for proper transportation and handling. Though the raw coal is about 2-inch top size, about 80 wt% of the dryer product ends up finer than 28 mesh, and about 10 wt% of the dried coal is collected in the dryer bag house (minus 200 mesh). Paul Woessner, Director of Research and Development of AMAX, met with personnel from PETC Coal Preparation Division and expressed an interest in an investigation of the feasibility of applying the PETC`s humic acid binder to reconstitute the bag house fines from the dryer. This was an area in which PETC had been doing some research and had some expertise. As a result, AMAX and the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA, see appendix A) in June 1990 to produce, from fine subbituminous coal, economic low moisture reconstituted solid fuel forms that have suitable storage, handling, transportation, and combustion properties. PETC`s task in this agreement was to conduct broad, baseline studies in three areas: (1) to develop a humic acid binder from AMAX subbituminous coal using the PETC-developed Humic Acid Binder Process, (2) to reconstitute AMAX`s dried subbituminous coal fines from the bag house and the fluidized bed dryer product with humic acid binder, and (3) to produce low moisture, water-resistant pellets from raw subbituminous coal by the PETC-developed Lignipel Process. AMAX, on the other hand, agreed to produce 1-2 tons of reconstituted solid fuel for handleability and combustion tests and partially funded PETC`s efforts.

  10. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulate bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the thirteenth quarter, October 1--December 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1993-12-31

    Gasified collector and liquid collector addition techniques were applied in the column flotation to demonstrate the selectivity of utilizing the hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubbles in the fine coal flotation process. A 3-in. flotation column was used to evaluate two modes of collector dispersion and addition techniques on the recovery and grade of fine coals using various ranks of coal. Five different coal samples were used in the column flotation test program. They are Mammoth, Lower Kittanning, Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Illinois No. 6 seam coals, which correspond to anthracite-, low volatile-, medium volatile-, and high volatile-seam coals, respectively. In this quarterly report, the test results for the Illinois No. 6 seam coal are reported.

  11. The forms of trace metals in an Illinois basin coal by x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R.; Huggins, Frank E.; Huffman, G.P.; Ho, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    Utilities burning Illinois coals currently do not consider trace elements in their flue gas emissions. After the US EPA completes an investigation on trace elements, however, this may change and flue gas emission standards may be established. The mode of occurrence of a trace element may determine its cleanability and Hue gas emission potential. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) is a spectroscopic technique that can differentiate the mode of occurrence of an element, even at the low concentrations that trace elements are found in coal. This is principally accomplished by comparing the XAFS spectra of a coal to a database of reference sample spectra. This study evaluated the technique as a potential tool to examine six trace elements in an Illinois #6 coal. For the elements As and Zn, the present database provides a definitive interpretation on their mode of occurrence. For the elements Ti, V, Cr, and Mn the database of XAFS spectra of trace elements in coal was still too limited to allow a definitive interpretation. The data obtained on these elements, however, was sufficient to rule out several of the mineralogical possibilities that have been suggested previously. The results indicate that XAFS is a promising technique for the study of trace elements in coal.

  12. Continuous pilot-scale testing of column flotation for recovery of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. . Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1990-10-01

    A series of performance studies were conducted using countercurrent column flotation to recover a marketable clean coal product from existing preparation plant fine waste streams. The test work was conducted at several preparation plant sites in Kentucky and Virginia using a 150-mm (6-in.) inside diameter column that was 5.8 m (19 ft) high. Both thickener feed and classifying cyclone overflow with a typical size distribution of 150{mu}m (100 mesh) {times} 0 were tested. The percent solids of the column flotation feed varied from 1.5% to 15% while the ash content ranged from about 30% to 60%. The concentrates produced contained 2% to 10% ash with Btu recoveries of nearly 90% using 0.12 to 1.25 kg/t (0.25 to 2.5 lbs per st) fuel oil and 0.12 kg/t (0.25 lbs per st) MIBC. These results were consistent with or better than results obtained in preliminary laboratory scale column flotation evaluation. Test results from seven different seams are discussed as well as scale-up relationships used to design a full-scale installation presently in operation.

  13. Revegetation on a coal fine ash disposal site in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Van Rensburg, L.; De Sousa Correia, R.I.; Booysen, J.; Ginster, M.

    1998-11-01

    Eight medium amendments were conducted on top of a fine ash coal dump (i) to evaluate a few cost-effective treatments that could determine the minimum fertility status required for the local ash to support the establishment of a viable vegetation cover, and (ii) to select suitable grass species that would establish on the ash and could serve as a foundation for long-term rehabilitation. Degree and success of grass establishment per medium amelioration treatment is expressed in terms of total biomass, percentage basal cover, and in terms of a condition assessment model. Both the chemical and physical nature of the ash medium before and after amendment was characterized, as were the concentrations of some essential and potentially toxic elements in leaf samples. In terms of medium amelioration 5000 kg ha{sup {minus}1} compost, or 500 kg ha{sup {minus}1} kraal manure or 480 kg 2:3:2 ha{sup {minus}1} proved to be most effective. The grass species that occurred with the highest frequency, irrespective of treatment, were the perennials bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers. var dactylon], weeping lovegrass [Eragrostis curvula (Schrader) Nees], and the annual teff [Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter]. Of the potentially toxic extractable metals monitored in the leaves of vegetation on the dump, only Se accumulated to an average level of 4.4 mg kg{sup {minus}1} that could be toxic to livestock.

  14. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-02-05

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the Fifth Quarter of this project we focus on determining whether certain trace metals are associated with certain major species, such as calcium and iron. To this end we present data showing correlations between As, Se,and Sb and major species, such as Ca and Fe. Conversely, lack of correlation between trace metals and elements, such as aluminum can also be used to infer lack of chemical association.

  15. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-02-05

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Progress in the Sixth Quarter (January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002) was slow because of slagging problems in the combustor. These required the combustor to be rebuilt, a job that is not yet complete. A paper describing our results heretofore has been accepted by the Journal Environmental Science and Technology.

  16. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, M.E.; Bodily, D.M.; Hu, Weibai; Chen, Wanxiong; Huang, Qinping; Liang, Jun; Riley, A.M.; Li, Jun; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhong, Tingke; Zhu, Ximeng

    1993-01-20

    Laboratory flotation tests were carried out on three coals and on coal pyrite. Floatability measurements included natural floatability, flotation with a xanthate collector and salt flotation. The ranking of the floatability of the three coals were: Upper Freeport > Pittsburgh > Illinois. The floatability of mineral pyrite and coal pyrite increased markedly with xanthate concentration, but decreased with increased pH. In general, coal pyrite was more difficult to float than mineral pyrite. This was attributed to the presence of surface carbonaceous and mineral matter, since floatability of coal pyrite improved by acid pretreatment. Flotation tests demonstrated that the floatability of coal and mineral pyrite was greatly enhanced by the presence of an electrolyte. Flotation was also enhanced by the addition of modifiers such as CuSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and EDTA. Lime additions markedly reduced the floatability of coal pyrite. Enhanced floatability of coal pyrite resulted when the pyrite was anodically oxidized in a specially constructed electrochemical flotation cell Pretreatment in potential ranges previously observed for polysulfide and sulfur film formation resulted in the enhanced floatability. While interesting trends and influences, both chemical and electrochemical, markedly improved the floatability of coal, there is little hope for reverse flotation as an effective technology for coal/coal-pyrite separations. The effects of poor liberation and entrainment appear overriding.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The particle size distributions, morphologies, and chemical composition distributions of 14 coal fly ash (CFA) samples produced by the combustion of four western U.S. coals (two subbituminous, one lignite, and one bituminous) and three eastern U.S. coals (all bituminous) have bee...

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 23, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 24, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  1. Production of Illinois base compliance coal using enhanced gravity separation. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, B.C.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1994-09-01

    It is well known that froth flotation is inefficient for treating fine coal fractions containing a significant portion of middling particles. On the other hand, gravity-based processes can effectively remove middling particles containing only a small amount of coal. Falcon Concentrators Inc. and Knelson Gold Concentrators Inc. have developed full-scale, enhanced gravity separators for the treatment of heavy minerals. This project is evaluating the potential of using these concentrators to treat Illinois Basin coal fines. During this reporting period, -28 mesh run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 and No. 6 coal samples were processed using a continuous Falcon concentrator having a 10-inch bowl diameter. For the Illinois No. 5 coal sample, the ash content was reduced in the 100 {times} 325 mesh size fraction from about 18% to 8% while achieving a high combustible recovery value of nearly 97%. In addition, the total sulfur content was substantially decreased from 2.6% to 1.7%. Similar results were obtained from the treatment of the Illinois No. 6 coal sample where ash rejections ranged from 40%-70% for a 28 {times} 325 mesh feed having 7% ash. Combustible recovery values from these tests were greater than 87% while treating mass feed rates between 1 to 2 tons/hour. A parametric study found that lower feed solids contents provided marginally lower product ash and total sulfur contents while feed rate and bowl speed appeared to have no significant effect over the range of values tested.

  2. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  3. Long range transport of fine particle windblown soils and coal fired power station emissions into Hanoi between 2001 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Stelcer, Eduard; Bac, Vuong Thu

    2010-10-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), source fingerprints and their contributions have been measured and reported previously at Hanoi, Vietnam, from 25 April 2001 to 31 December 2008. In this study back trajectories are used to identify long range transport into Hanoi for two of these sources, namely, windblown dust ( Soil) from 12 major deserts in China and emissions from 33 coal fired power plants ( Coal) in Vietnam and China. There were 28 days of extreme Soil events with concentrations greater than 6 μg m -3 and 25 days of extreme Coal with concentrations greater than 30 μg m -3 from a total of 748 sampling days during the study period. Through the use of back trajectories it was found that long range transport of soil from the Taklamakan and Gobi desert regions (more than 3000 km to the north west) accounted for 76% of the extreme events for Soil. The three local Vietnamese power stations contributed to 15% of the extreme Coal events, while four Chinese power stations between 300 km and 1700 km to the north-east of Hanoi contributed 50% of the total extreme Coal events measured at the Hanoi sampling site.

  4. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the influence of the impurity content, particularly coal/carbon content, on the electrochemical oxidation of pyrite surfaces was investigated. The studies demonstrate that the coal/carbon content in coal-pyrite has a determining effect on the surface reactivity of pyrite. The oxidation behavior of high carbon-content coal-pyrite is completely different from that of purer coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. The effects of flotation gases on the flotation behavior of coal and the surface hydrophobicity of various coal-pyrite were investigated. It was found from the lab-scale column flotation studies that among the various gases studied (air, oxygen, argon, nitrogen and carbon dioxide), carbon dioxide produced the best results with a combustible recovery of 90% and ash-content of less than 9 percent. Finally, the surface energetic studies revealed that the surfaces of pyrites and coals produced by wet grinding is more heterogenous than that prepared by dry grinding.

  5. Coal-sand attrition system and its` importance in fine coal cleaning. Seventh quarterly report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

    1993-06-29

    For the four coals employed in this work, it was not possible to effectively grind the minus 50 mesh feed even at the lowest solids concentration range tried. The reason for this is the low feed rate which makes it impossible to obtain a uniform flow as the coarse particles in the feed tend to settle down and form sediment in either the tubing system or the grinding chamber. Besides, only moderate levels of solids concentration could be employed as high solids concentration are also fraught with sedimentation problem. Attempts to increase the flow rate resulted in the grinding media being taken out of the mill together with the slurry. As a result of these limitations posed by the instrument, further tests were restricted to using minus 100 mesh feed size and moderate levels of feed rate and Pulp density. Some of the results obtained are given in Tables I - 4 for the different coals used. It can be seen from the tables that the softest coal (Pocahontas No. 3 in this case) requires about 2 or 3 passes in order to obtain very fine product while the harder coals would require 4 or more passes. The number of passes required for the harder coals can be reduced either by increasing the residence time of the slurry in the mill by decreasing the feed rate or preferably by increasing the stirring speed. Both of these actions will inevitably lead to a slight increase in the media wear. The media wear observed in grinding Pocahontas No. 3 in three cycles was 1.3% while the corresponding values for grinding both Illinois No. 6 and Black Creek coals in four cycles were 0.5% and 1.5% respectively.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 26, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  7. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-05-03

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1- March 31, 1996.

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  9. Coal-sand attrition system and its` importance in fine coal cleaning. Fifth quarterly report, August 31, 1992--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

    1993-01-07

    The optimal conditions found for both the median size and specific energy for a particular system differ from one another. The fact that the surfaces from which these conditions are estimated are saddle or minimax further complicate the issue as these are characterized by a range of optimum conditions. However, there is no doubt that the conditions which are suitable for optimizing the product particle size may not necessarily be good for the specific energy. Depending on the objective, either the product size or the specific energy may be optimized. Besides, it seems that when the product particle size is optimized, the specific energy is simultaneously constrained. In this manner, a better estimate of the required energy consumption can be obtained for scale-up purposes. When the results in Table 3 are compared with those of the other three coals given in quarterly report numbers 3 and 4, a trend/pattern is observed. For the four coals involved in this work, the degree of fineness of the product particle size depicted by either the median size or d{sub 90} after wet stirred milling, correlates with the hardness or HGI. In other words, the higher the Hardgrove Index, the finer the product particle size. The specific energy in contrast, does not tend to correlate with the hardness or HGI of the coal. Rather, the softer coal, depending on the properties of the associated impurities appears to consume more power. While this may initially appear to be a great surprise, the reasons for it are rather easy to grasp. In order to do this, one needs to look into such things as the properties/characteristics of the respective coal/impurities, the grinding environment, the mechanism of particle breakage in the mill, and how the grinding force is transmitted to the media.

  10. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, Chengliang; Raichur, A.M.

    1992-07-14

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The flotation characteristics of coal-pyrites under various conditions was studied and compared with ore-pyrite and coal to determine the causes of pyrite rejection difficulties in coal flotation. Both the native and induced floatabilities of pyrites were investigated. It was found that both coal- and ore-pyrites, ff prepared by dry-grinding, show little or no floatability in the absence of any chemical reagents. After ultrasonic pretreatment, ore-pyrite floats effectively in the acidic to neutral pH range. Kentucky No. 9 coal-pyrite (KYPY) shows significant flotation in the pH range 7--10. With ethyl xanthate as collector, ore-pyrite floats well up to pH = 10; while coal-pyrite reveals no flotation above pH = 6. For the first time, the effect of coal collector on the floatability of coal-pyrite has been studied. It was shown that in the presence of fuel oil--a widely used collector for promoting coal flotation, coal-pyrite, particularly for the fine sizes, shows good flotation below pH = 11, whereas ore-pyrite has no or little floatability. These studies demonstrate that one of the main causes of the coal-pyrite flotation in coal separation is the oil-induced floatability due to adsorption/attachment of oil droplets on the coal-pyrite surfaces, the ``native`` or ``self-induced`` floatability of pyrite is no as profound as the oil-induced flotation.

  11. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation. Annual report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, `Ken-Flote` column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  12. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    R. Demler

    2006-04-01

    Accurate, cost-efficient monitoring instrumentation has long been considered essential to the operation of power plants. Nonetheless, for the monitoring of coal flow, such instrumentation has been sorely lacking and technically difficult to achieve. With more than half of the electrical power in the United States currently supplied by coal, energy generated by this resource is critical to the US economy. The demand for improvement in this area has only increased as a result of the following two situations: First, deregulation has produced a heightened demand for both reduced electrical cost and improved grid connectivity. Second, environmental concerns have simultaneously resulted in a need for both increased efficiency and reduced carbon and NOx emissions. A potential approach to addressing both these needs would be improvement in the area of combustion control. This would result in a better heat rate, reduced unburned carbon in ash, and reduced NOx emissions. However, before feedback control can be implemented, the ability to monitor coal flow to the burners in real-time must be established. While there are several ''commercially available'' products for real-time coal flow measurement, power plant personnel are highly skeptical about the accuracy and longevity of these systems in their current state of development. In fact, following several demonstration projects of in-situ coal flow measurement systems in full scale utility boilers, it became obvious that there were still many unknown influences on these instruments during field applications. Due to the operational environment of the power plant, it has been difficult if not impossible to sort out what parameters could be influencing the various probe technologies. Additionally, it has been recognized for some time that little is known regarding the performance of coal flow splitters, even where rifflers are employed. Often the coal flow distribution from these splitters remains mal-distributed. There have

  13. Integrating flotation to improve the performance of an HMC circuit treating a low-rank fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, H.; Polat, M.

    2005-11-01

    One reason that heavy media cyclone (HMC) circuits suffer from the inadvertent loss of magnetite and fine coal is the presence of nonmagnetic material in the magnetic separator feed. In this study, flotation was applied to the undersize fractions of the HMC drain-and-rinse screens to minimize these problems. These fractions, which contain 17.9% nonmagnetic material, are currently sent to magnetic separators and the nonmagnetic portion from the separators contains 39.1% ash. Applying flotation resulted in a clean coal product with an ash content of 8.7% and a calorific value of 6,300 kcal/kg. The refuse from flotation, which will be sent to the magnetic separators, contains 7.7% nonmagnetics.

  14. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surfaces reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of the pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The product as well as their structure, the mechanism and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc., are directed at identifying the cause and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  15. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  16. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, Chengliang.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof will lead to identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  17. An Advanced Control System for Fine Coal Flotation. Sixth quarter, technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1997-10-27

    Over the past thirty years, process control has spread from the chemical industry into the fields of mineral and coal processing. Today, process control computers, combined with improved instrumentation, are capable of effective control in many modem flotation circuits. Unfortunately, the classical methods used in most control strategies have severe limitations when used in froth flotation. For example, the nonlinear nature of the flotation process can cause single-input, single-output lines to battle each other in attempts to achieve a given objective. Other problems experienced in classical control schemes include noisy signals from sensors and the inability to measure certain process variables. For example, factors related to ore type or water chemistry, such as liberation, froth stability, and floatability, cannot be measured by conventional means. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate an advanced control system for fine coal flotation. The demonstration is being carried out at an existing coal preparation plant by a team consisting of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI&SU) as the prime contractor and J.A. Herbst and Associates as a subcontractor. The objectives of this work are: (1) to identify through sampling, analysis, and simulation those variables which can be manipulated to maintain grades, recoveries, and throughput rates at levels set by management; (2) to develop and implement a model-based computer control strategy that continuously adjusts those variables to maximize revenue subject to various metallurgical, economic, and environmental constraints; and (3) to employ a video-based optical analyzer for on-line analysis of ash content in fine coal slurries.

  18. Hydrocyclone system for recovery of low-sulfur coal fines from gob. Final report, July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1985-09-01

    The objectives of this research were: (1) using previously collected data, design and construct a laboratory-size pilot system to demonstrate continuous processing of waste materials for the efficient recovery of coal fines; and (2) to study the pumping characteristics of slurries of gob and water at various concentrations of gob so that a determination can be made as to the feasibility and power requirements for transporting the material by pipeline. The experimental hydrocyclone system was designed and constructed. Frank's Enterprises in Harrisburg furnished the gob from an old mine site in the Illinois Basin. Data from a previous project were used to help fine-tune the hydrocyclone. The results reported herein show that a single stage hydrocyclone can be utilized to efficiently separate coal fines from the heavy impurities in the gob. It is possible to obtain 90% or better recovery of coal from gob by means of a single stage hydrocyclone system within the size range band for which the hydrocyclone is configured. Another phase of this study involved the pumping characteristics of gob-water mixtures. The proposed plan was to crush and wash the gob (to remove the clay) at the gob pile and then slurry the remaining solid materials and pump them to the processing plant for separation. A pipeline system was designed and constructed for a laboratory study of the head losses. Pressure drop studies were performed as a function of concentration, pipe diameter, and Reynolds number. The goal of this phase was to take data which will help to optimize the operating conditions with respect to cost effectiveness for the transport of gob-water slurries in pipelines. It is concluded that pipeline transport of gob is a feasible means of short-range transportation from the gob pile to the processing plant. 50 refs., 34 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1991-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of- concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (ApsenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the seventh quarterly reporting period, April through June 1991. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models.

  20. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1992-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- advanced cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., for the period of July through September 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks I - 5 and is a contractor to AspenTech on Task 6.

  1. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-02-22

    The first task in our proposed study of catalysts for coal liquefaction was to prepare ultrafine dispersed metal sulfide particles by reactive precipitation from solutions of appropriate metal precursors. At this point, equipment to allow us to prepare these air-sensitive materials in an anaerobic environment has been acquired and assembled. Initial experiments aimed at synthesizing iron sulfide particles have been initiated. As part of the investigation of short contact time catalytic coal liquefaction, initial efforts focused on the noncatalytic pyrolysis reactions of coal and a model compound, Dibenzyl ether (DBE). Two different reactor configurations were examined; catalytic experiments are planned for the coming month.

  2. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-02-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74{mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultrafine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  3. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  4. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the second quarter, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to have a good understanding on the fundamentals of modes of reagent/collector dispersion and adsorbing collector on the bubbles to improve the selectivity and recovery of fine coal flotation. A portion of this reporting period has been consumed in building experimental apparatus and equipment. These include an automated flotation machine, a computer-based induction time apparatus, a bubble charge measuring apparatus, continuous flotation column, etc. An automated flotation machine was constructed for Denver model D-12 with 2- and 4-liter cells. The standard test procedure was established for using the machine with improved pulp level control and constant frother removal to minimize the human error. The flotation results of Upper Freeport coal sample showed a good reproducibility for using the improved automatic flotation machine/cell. The reagentless flotation was conducted in a Hallimond tube to determine the hydrophobicity of coal particles. Upper Freeport coal samples were used for all of the tests including -30 mesh, -200 mesh and -400 mesh U.S. sieves coal samples. High floatability was obtained for Upper Freeport coal samples. The significant entrainment of fine particles were observed for coal samples with -200 mesh and -400 mesh U.S. Sieve samples. The electrokinetic properties of coal particles from Upper Freeport seam was determined as the function of pH, frother or collector concentrations. The IEP of -200 mesh coal particle was at pHaw.53. The zeta potential of the coal particles with or without addition of MIBC or kerosene were exhibited negative values for pH greater than 3 and decreased with increasing pH values. The coal particles with kerosene has the higher zeta-potential value than that of particles with MIBC or free of frother/collector. The negative zeta-potential of coal sample was also observed regardless of MIBC concentration employed.

  5. Fine coal fractionation using a magnetohydrostatic separation process CRADA 91-003. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Heechan; Killmeyer, R. P.

    1992-10-31

    The magnetohydrostatic separation (MHS) process uses a magnetic fluid which has the ability to float a submerged particle in a magnetic field. The objective of this project was to develop a technique for laboratory gravity fractionation of coal using MHS.

  6. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulate bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the seventh quarter, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    This reporting period has been devoted in the study of lyophobic characteristics of six ranks of coals which were selected for the study of hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubble flotation of fine coals. Additionally, the coal particle surfaces treated with collector using various collector dispersion techniques are also tested in the film flotation. The experimental techniques and instruments used for the measurement of hydrophobicity and floatability of fine coals include (1) Film flotation, (2) Induction timer, (3) Hallimond cell and (4) stirred tank flotation cell are given. The static float and sink test known as the film flotation process were used to characterize the wetting behaviors of the fine coal surfaces. In this flotation technique, the coal particles were tested on the interface of a series of aqueous methanol solution of different surface tensions. The distributions of lyophobic particles as the function of the wetting surface tensions of the particles were obtained. From the frequency distribution of critical surface tensions, the parameters such as the mean critical surface tension, dispersion and average contact angle for the coal particle surfaces were calculated. These parameters characterized the heterogeneity of the coal particle surfaces and correlated well with the induction time, floatability and flotation response data obtained from Hallimond cell and a stirred tank cell. Furthermore, the frequency distributions of hydrophobic surface sites of the particle surfaces were also derived from the results of film flotation tests. These frequency distributions were extended to interpret and predict the flotation rates and recoveries for the coal samples without treating and coal samples treated with collector using various collector dispersion techniques.

  7. Adverse effects of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingmei; Lin, Zhiqing; Liao, Kai; Xi, Zhuge; Wang, Dayong

    2015-04-15

    The toxic effects of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5), collected from Datong, Shanxi province, China, on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated. Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in deficits in development, reproduction, locomotion behavior, and lifespan, and induction of intestinal autofluorescence or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Prolonged exposure to PM2.5 led to more severe toxicity on nematodes than acute exposure. In addition, exposure to PM2.5 induced altered expression patterns of genes required for the control of oxidative stress. Reduction in mean defecation cycle length and developmental deficits in AVL and DVB neurons, which are involved in the control of defecation behavior, were also triggered by PM2.5 exposure. Thus, oxidative stress and abnormal defecation behavior may contribute greatly to the toxicity of coal combustion related PM2.5 in nematodes. The results also imply that the long-term adverse effects of coal combustion related PM2.5 on environmental organisms should be carefully considered.

  8. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200-250 kg/hr and obtain scale-up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC-scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. At present, the project is at the stage of engineering design (Task 3). Work accomplished during this reporting period are summarized as follows: (i) An on-line tribocharge analyzer has been developed to study triboelectrification. (ii) The effects of aeration rate, feed rate and particle size on the tribocbarging mechanisms using the on-line tribocharge analyzer. (iii) A continuous bench-scale tnboelectrostatic separator has been constructed. (iv) Shakedown testing of the bench-scale triboelectrostatic separator is on-going.

  9. Flow and design characteristics of the hydrocyclone for the recovery of coal fines. Sixth quarterly report, December 1, 1982-February 28, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Progress accomplished during the quarter ending February 28, 1983 is reported in this document under the headings: Effect of varying the inlet area of the hydrocyclone; effect of varying the inlet flowrate of the hydrocyclone; correlation of sphere data with coal data; content of the gob sample; selection of the hydrocyclone configuration for the separation of coal fines from gob; and the presentation of sphere data in a users manual. (DMC)

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1990-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. The work plan for the froth quarter called for completion of the washability interpolation routine, gravity separation models, and dewatering models. As these items were completed, work in the areas of size reduction, classification and froth flotation were scheduled to begin. As each model was completed, testing and validation procedures were scheduled to begin. Costing models were also planned to be implemented and tested as each of the gravity separation models were completed. 1 tab.

  12. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Technical progress report, April 1, 1990--June 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1990-12-31

    Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

  13. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio, and Coal Fineness Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler; Robert G. Mudry

    2006-03-01

    To minimize program cost, additional testing was performed in concert with EPRI-funded testing at the Coal Flow Test Facility in late July. The major focus of this effort was noise reduction. As it turned out, the main source of the noise proved to be related to electrical grounding issues and the adjustments needed to address these problems took most of the test period. Once those changes were in place, a very limited quantity of high quality data was obtained and an excellent correlation between the dynamic signature and coal flow was obtained. Additional data were then collected during August. Unfortunately, the sensor signal for the August data collection proved to be extremely weak. Therefore, Airflow Sciences will collect additional laboratory data in October before proceeding with the collection of field data. This will allow the calibration to be expanded to include a wider range of flow conditions and improve the potential applicability to data to be collected at the coal plants.

  14. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-12-31

    It is the objective of the present project to further develop the triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process developed at the Federal Energy Technology Center and test the process at a proof-of-concept (POC) scale. This process has a distinct advantage over other coal cleaning processes in that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering. The POC-scale unit is to developed based on (1) the charge characteristics of coal and mineral matter that can be determined using the novel online tribocharge measuring device developed at Virginia Tech, and (2) the results obtained from bench-scale TES tests conducted on three different coals. At present, the project is at the stage of engineering design, which has three subtasks, Charger Tests, Separator Tests, and Final POC Design. Work accomplished during the current reporting period pertains to the first two subtasks.

  15. Combustion characterization of coal fines recovered from the handling plant. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Houshang, Masudi

    1995-04-01

    The main goal of this research project is to evaluate the combustion characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared from the recovered coal fines and plant coal fines. A specific study will include the combustion behavior, flame stability, ash behavior and emissions of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and particulate in a well insulated laboratory scale furnace in which the residence time and temperature history of the burning particles are similar to that of utility boiler furnace at 750,000 Btu/hr input and 20% excess air. The slurry fuel will be prepared at 60% solid to match the generic slurry properties, i.e., viscosity less than 500 cp, 100% of particles passing through 100 mesh and 80-90% of solid particles passing through 200 mesh. The coal blend is prepared using a mix of 15% effluent recovered coal and 85% plant fines. Combustion characteristics of the slurry fuels is determined at three different firing rates 750K, 625K, 500K Btu/hr. Finally a comparison of the results is made to determine the advantages of coal water slurry fuel over the plant coal blended form.

  16. A fine coal circuitry study using column flotation and gravity separation. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Reed, S.

    1995-12-31

    Column flotation provides excellent recovery of ultrafine coal while producing low ash content concentrates. However, column flotation is not efficient for treating fine coal containing significant amounts of mixed-phase particles. Fortunately, enhanced gravity separation has proved to have the ability to treat the mixed-phased particles more effectively. A disadvantage of gravity separation is that ultrafine clay particles are not easily rejected. Thus, a combination of these two technologies may provide a circuit that maximizes both the ash and sulfur rejection that can be achieved by physical coal cleaning while maintaining a high energy recovery. This project is studying the potential of using different combinations of gravity separators, i.e., a Floatex hydrosizer and a Falcon Concentrator, and a proven flotation column, which will be selected based on previous studies by the principle investigator. During this reporting period, an in-plant Box-Behnken test program of the Floatex hydrosizer has been conducted at Kerr-McGee`s Galatia preparation plant. The results have shown that the Floatex hydrosizer can be successfully used to reject most of coarser ({plus}100 mesh) pyrite and mineral matter in the coal stream to the plant. With a single operation, ash rejection of 63% and total sulfur rejection of 43% have been achieved while maintaining a combustible recovery as high as 90.5%. A long term duration test under the optimum operating conditions determined from Box-Behnken test results has also been conducted. The feed samples for the following enhanced gravity - column flotation studies, which will be carried out in the next reporting period, have been collected.

  17. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Li, Jun; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Liang, Jun; Zhong, Tingke; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1991-12-31

    The ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of three typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces. This report contains three sections, ``Transpassive Oxidation of Pyrite,`` ``Flotation and Electrochemical Pretreatment,`` and ``Flotation Kinetics of Coal and Coal Pyrite.``

  18. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  20. Final report on agglomerate column flotation for cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal fines

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, Y.A.; El Zeky, M.; Yu, Mulong . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-08-30

    The objective of this research program was investigate the feasibility of cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal by an agglomerate column flotation process, which integrates selective flocculation with conventional column flotation. It was concluded earlier on in the program that the conventional design of flotation column was not particularly efficient for pyrite rejection. A novel design for flotation column system was conceived and a prototype unit was manufactured and tested in the laboratory. Several design and operational parameters for the column and the agglomerate flotation process were briefly investigated to define proper design and working conditions for a satisfactory performance. The novel design was compared with conventional design of flotation column through laboratory tests and through published results. The role of selective flocculation of coal including selective depression of pyrite has been identified and tested with both novel and conventional design of flotation columns. The results of these brief investigations, which are summarized in this report, suggest that: (1) excellent performance ca n be obtained with agglomerate column flotation using the new design. For example, a raw coal containing 3.16% total sulfur, 2.11% pyritic sulfur, and 17% ash can be cleaned to 1.91 % ash, 0.42% pyritic sulfur, 1.32% total sulfur, while maintaining a projected Btu/coal recovery of 86% (mmmf basis). This is equivalent to 89% ash removal and 81% pyritic sulfur (58% total sulfur) rejection. (2) The novel design of flotation column is superior to conventional design particularly for pyrite rejection.

  1. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    R.-H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; B. Luvsansambuu; A.D. Walters

    2000-10-01

    Work continued during the past quarter to improve the performance of the POC-scale unit. For the charging system, a more robust ''turbocharger'' has been fabricated and installed. All of the internal components of the charger have been constructed from the same material (i.e., Plexiglas) to prevent particles from contacting surfaces with different work functions. For the electrode system, a new set of vinyl-coated electrodes have been constructed and tested. The coated electrodes (i) allow higher field strengths to be tested without of risk of arcing and (ii) minimize the likelihood of charge reversal caused by particles colliding with the conducting surfaces of the uncoated electrodes. Tests are underway to evaluate these modifications. Several different coal samples were collected for testing during this reporting period. These samples included (i) a ''reject'' material that was collected from the pyrite trap of a pulverizer at a coal-fired power plant, (ii) an ''intermediate'' product that was selectively withdrawn from the grinding chamber of a pulverizer at a power plant, and (iii) a run-of-mine feed coal from an operating coal preparation plant. Tests were conducted with these samples to investigate the effects of several key parameters (e.g., particle size, charger type, sample history, electrode coatings, etc.) on the performance of the bench-scale separator.

  2. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO, AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler; Robert G. Mudry

    2005-01-01

    Additional calibration data were collected in the Coal Flow Test Facility early in this reporting period. These data comprised a total of 181 tests for stud and magnetic accelerometer mounts, with two mounting locations relative to two different pipe elbows, and including some tests with out-of-plane elbows upstream of the test section to produce coal ''roping''. The results found in analyzing these new data were somewhat disappointing: correlations for coal flow rate for a given mount type and mounting location were less accurate than desired, and degraded badly when data from other locations were included in the same analysis. Reviewing all of the data files (from both the earlier testing and recent calibration testing) disclosed a significant fraction of cases with several forms of noise. Eliminating these cases improved the correlations somewhat, but the number of cases that remained did not permit general conclusions to be drawn. It was finally learned that yet another type of noise is present in some data files, producing a strong effect on the correlation accuracy. The cases not subject to this noise correlated very well. It would be desirable to collect additional data in the Coal Flow Test Facility prior to moving on to field data collection, a change in program direction that would require a no-cost time extension.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    Work completed produced the criteria for additional engineering analysis, computation and detailed experimental benchscale testing for areas of uncertainty. The engineering analysis, computation, bench-scale testing and component development was formulated to produce necessary design information to define a commercially operating system. In order to produce the required information by means of bench-scale testing and component development, a uniform coal sample was procured. After agreement with DOE, a selected sample of coal from those previously listed was secured. The test plan was developed in two parts. The first part listed procedures for engineering and computational analyses of those deficiencies previously identified that could be solved without bench scale testing. Likewise, the second part prepared procedures for bench-scale testing and component development for those deficiencies previously identified in Task 3.

  4. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop additional confidence in the conceptual design of the advanced froth flotation circuit, a 2-3 TPH Proof-of-Concept (POC) facility was necessary. During operation of this facility, the ICF KE team will demonstrate the ability of the conceptual flowsheets to meet the program goals of maximum pyritic sulfur reduction coupled with maximum energy recovery on three DOE specified coals. The POC circuit was designed to be integrated into the Ohio Coal Development's facility near Beverly, Ohio. OCDO's facility will provide the precleaning unit operations and ICF KE will add the advanced froth flotation circuitry. The work in this task will include the POC conceptual design, flowsheet development, equipment list, fabrication and construction drawings, procurement specifications and bid packages and a facilities.

  5. An advanced control system for fine coal flotation. Final technical progress report, October 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as reagent dosage, air addition rate, pulp density and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in video-based sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the third quarter of this project, work continued on the testing and calibration of the video-based ash analyzer, and a plant sampling campaign was conducted to provide data for the development of a mathematical process model and the model-based control algorithms.

  6. An advanced control system for fine coal flotation. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1997-03-04

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on- line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as reagent dosage, pulp density and pulp level are adjusted using model-base control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the fifth quarter of this project, all work was on hold pending the final novation of the contract to Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

  7. Pelletization of fine coals. Technical progress report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1992-09-01

    The first step consisted of producing a batch of seed pellets (in the size range {minus}4.75+4.00 mm) by pelletizing of 200 g of ground coal with desired additives (surface active agents and binders) and moisture content for 800 revolutions. The seed pellets are obtained by sieving the output from the batch drum. The second step involved the production of finished size pellets by layering the seed pellets with stepwise addition of moist feed which is again produced with desired additives and moisture content. Specifically, 25 g of the {minus}4.75+4.00 mm seed pellets are placed in the drum and 20 g of moist fluffy feed is added every 80 revolutions for five times. After 400 revolutions the pellets are sieved on the 4.75 mm screen and the screen undersize which corresponds to new seeds generated during the layering cycles is discarded. Now, 30 g of moist fluffy feed is added every 50 revolutions for five more cycles. These layered pellets are sieved again and the {minus}9.5+8.00 mm pellets. Coal agglomerates produced by the above described technique are nice and spherical. With our past experience with iron ore pelletization we learnt that as long as sufficient fluffy feed is available for the consumption by the seed pellets, they generally grow by forming layers consuming the feed rather than grow by coalescence. This is found to be true in the case of coal also. Growth by coalescence of coal pellets is found to yield raspberry type uneven agglomerates. After ascertaining the possibility of producing nice spherical pellets, several experiments have been conducted to develop the above standard procedure for making pellets in a reproducible way and testing them for their quality.

  8. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-20

    The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: The Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant. The wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation. A wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. During this fourth quarter of the contract period, activities were underway under Tasks 2 and 3. Sufficient characterization of the bench-scale testing and pilot-plant testing results enabled the design and procurement activities to move forward. On that basis, activities in the areas of design and procurement that had been initiated during the previous quarter were conducted and completed.

  9. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO, AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler; Robert G. Mudry

    2005-04-01

    A no-cost time extension was requested, to permit additional laboratory testing prior to undertaking field data collection. This was received in this reporting period. To minimize program cost, this additional testing is planned to be performed in concert with EPRI-funded testing at the Coal Flow Test Facility. Since the EPRI schedule was undecided, a hiatus occurred in the test effort. Instead, a significant effort was exerted to analyze the available laboratory test data to see whether the source and nature of noise behaviors could be identified, or whether the key flow information could be extracted even in the presence of the noise. One analysis approach involved filtering the data numerically to reject dynamics outside of various frequency bands. By varying the center frequency and width of the band, the effect of signal frequency on flow dynamics could be examined. Essentially equivalent results were obtained for all frequency bands that excluded a neighborhood of the transducer resonance, indicating that there is little advantage to be gained by limiting the experimental frequency window. Another approach examined the variation of the dynamics over a series of 1-second windows of data, producing an improvement in the prediction of coal flow rate. Yet another approach compared the dynamics of a series of 1-second windows to those of a series of 5-second windows, producing still better results. These results will be developed further in the next reporting period, which should also include further laboratory testing at the Coal Flow Test Facility.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The design criteria for each unit operation have been developed based upon a number of variables. These variables, at this time, are based upon the best engineering design information available to industry. A number of assumptions utilized in the design criteria are uncertain. The uncertainties of inert atmospheres for grinding and flotation as well as pyrite depressants were answered by the Surface Control Project. It was determined that inerting was not required and no new'' reagents were presented that improved the flotation results. In addition, Tasks 5 and 6 results indicated the required reagent dosage for conventional flotation and advanced flotation. Task 5 results also indicated the need for a clean coal,thickener, the flocculent dosages for both the clean coal and refuse thickeners, and final dewatering requirements. The results from Tasks 5 and 6 and summarized in Task 7 indicate several uncertainties that require continuous long duration testing. The first is the possibility of producing a grab product for both the Pittsburgh and Illinois No. 6 coals in conventional flotation. Second what does long-term recirculation of clarified water do to the product quality The verification process and real data obtained from Tasks 5 and 6 greatly reduced the capital and operating costs for the process. This was anticipated and the test work indeed provided confirming data.

  11. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1993-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc.,(ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the period of October through December 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks 1-5.

  12. Flow and design characteristics of the hydrocyclone for the recovery of coal fines. Eighth quarterly report, June 1, 1983-August 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Tasks accomplished or in progress during the months of June, July, and August 1983 are reported for the following: (1) master's thesis completed entitled A Study of the Effects of Design and Operating Parameters on Hydrocyclone Performance; (2) progress on the users manual; and (3) additional findings on the separation of coal fines from gob (minerals wastes).

  13. Flow and design characteristics of the hydrocyclone for the recovery of coal fines. Seventh quarterly report, March 1, 1983-May 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks; effect of varying the underflow area of the hydrocyclone; data yet to be taken using spheres; presentation of sphere data in a user's manual; purchase and installation of the IBM microcomputer; and additional findings on the separation of coal fines from gob (mineral wastes).

  14. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique: Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1997-01-21

    The advanced fine-coal cleaning techniques such as column flotation, recovers a low-ash ultra-fine size clean-coal product. However, economical dewatering of the clean coal product to less than 20 percent moisture using conventional technology is difficult. This research program objective is to evaluate a novel coal surface modification technique developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in conjunction with conventional and advanced dewatering technique at a pilot scale at the Powell Mountain Coal Company`s Mayflower preparation plant located in St. Charles, VA. During this quarter in the laboratory dewatering studies were conducted using copper and aluminum ions showed that for the low sulfur clean coal slurry addition of 0.1 Kg/t of copper ions was effective in lowering the filter cake moisture from 29 percent to 26.3 percent. Addition of 0.3 Kg/t of aluminum ions provided filter cake with 28 percent moisture. For the high sulfur clean coal slurry 0.5 Kg/t of copper and 0.1 Kg/t of aluminum ions reduced cake moisture from 30.5 percent to 28 percent respectively. Combined addition of anionic (10 g/t) and cationic (10 g/t) flocculants was effective in providing a filter cake with 29.8 percent moisture. Addition of flocculants was not effective in centrifuge dewatering. In pilot scale screen bowl centrifuge dewatering studies it was found that the clean coal slurry feed rate of 30 gpm was optimum to the centrifuge, which provided 65 percent solids capture. Addition of anionic or cationic flocculants was not effective in lowering of filter cake moisture, which remained close to 30 percent for both clean coal slurries.

  15. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-07-31

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 - June 30, 1996.

  16. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 4, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1995-11-06

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 29, 1995.

  17. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 2, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1995-05-05

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 to March 31, 1995.

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 25, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  19. Cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion in Xuanwei, China.

    PubMed

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Tian, Linwei; Chan, Chi-Sing; Cao, Jun-Ji; Ning, Zhi; Lee, S C; Ho, K F

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs: OPAHs and azaarenes: AZAs) were characterized in fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. A sample from the community with the highest mortality contained the highest total concentration of PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs and posed the highest excess cancer risk from a lifetime of inhaling fine particulates. Positive correlations between total carbonyl-OPAHs, total AZAs and total PAHs implied that the emissions were dependent on similar factors, regardless of sample location and type. The calculated cancer risk ranged from 5.23-10.7 × 10(-3), which is higher than the national average. The risk in each sample was ∼1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that deemed high risk, suggesting that the safety of these households is in jeopardy. The lack of potency equivalency factors for the PAH derivatives could possibly have underestimated the overall cancer risk.

  20. Coal-sand attrition system and its` importance in fine coal cleaning. Eighth quarterly report, June 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

    1993-08-26

    The research efforts on the importance of a coal-sand attrition continued with work in four categories: Continuous grinding tests using steel media; fracture tests on coal samples compacted at different pressure; SEM-Image analysis of feed and ground product coal samples; zeta potential measurements of coal samples ground by different media, and flotation test of coal samples ground by different media. Results are described.

  1. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  2. Fine coal flotation plant waste comparison--column vs. sub-a cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project was to compare results from a small commercially sized Deister Flotaire column flotation cell with the subaeration cells at Kerr-McGee's Galatia plant during side by side testing of feed splits from the same sources. Typical cell criteria for both cells are included in the appendix. The project involved the activities of three organizations: the Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation, the Deister Concentrator Company, and the Illinois State Geological Survey. Their roles were as follows: Kerr-McGee installed the Deister column with sample splitter and tailings volume measuring cell in the Galatia Coal Preparation Plant to treat a representative split of their flotation feed; Deister provided a 30 inch diameter {times} 35{prime} high Deister Flotaire Column Flotation Cell capable of treating nominally one ton per hour or slightly over 1% of the plant feed. Deister additionally provided the sample splitter and the tailings volume measuring cell. ISGS personnel worked with both companies on the installation, conducted laboratory tests to direct the early plant test reagent practice, attended all of the plant runs cutting representative samples of feed, measuring slurry and reagent flows, preparing samples and writing reports.

  3. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO, AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler; Robert G. Mudry

    2004-10-01

    Instrumentation difficulties encountered in the previous reporting period were addressed early in this reporting period, resulting in a new instrumentation configuration that appears to be free of the noise issues found previously. This permitted the collection of flow calibration data to begin. The first issues in question are the effects of the type and location of the transducer mount. Data were collected for 15 different transducer positions (upstream and downstream of an elbow in the pipe), with both a stud mount and a magnetic transducer mount, for each of seven combinations of air and coal flow. Analysis of these data shows that the effects of the transducer mount type and location on the resulting dynamics are complicated, and not easily captured in a single analysis. To maximize the practical value of the calibration data, further detailed calibration data will be collected with both the magnetic and stud mounts, but at a single mounting location just downstream of a pipe elbow. This testing will be performed in the Coal Flow Test Facility in the next reporting period. The program progress in this reporting period was sufficient to put us essentially back on schedule.

  4. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-10-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by March, 1997. During Quarter 8 (July - September, 1994), work on the formulation of coal water slurries from flotation concentrates was completed. Parametric and optimization tests were performed on the Indiana VII coal using a 12-inch MicrocelT{sup M} flotation column. Laboratory research on selective agglomeration was completed with limited testing of the Dietz coal and alternate agglomerants. Initial planning has started for the bench-scale agglomeration unit which will utilize heptane as the bridging liquid in a conventional two-stage system, and steam stripping for heptane recovery and recycle. A project review meeting was held at Bechtel to discuss the detailed design of the PDU, which is being designed to process Indiana VII, Sunnyside, and Taggart coals. Process flow, piping and instrument, and equipment layout diagrams are being revised to reflect the process improvements resulting from bench-scale testing. Material Requisition activity has commenced, and will continue next quarter along with the selection of a construction subcontractor.

  5. Development of a centrifugal float-sink procedure for gravimetric evaluation of ultrafine coals: Part 1, The effects of surface-property-related parameters on fine-coal separations

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Killmeyer, R.P.

    1988-02-01

    This report traces the development of a centrifugal float-sink technique for determining the washability analyses of fine coal having top sizes finer than 14 mesh. All testing was performed on the Upper and Lower Kittanning bed coals only. The efforts of other researchers attempting to utilize the centrifuge for float-sink testing ultrafine coal are reviewed briefly. Exploratory test data from PETC are presented to show the effect of surfactant additions, reverse float-sink testing, and preheating of samples on the yield/ash relationships. The results of a 33-test partial factorial design used to evaluate five variables at five levels and their effects on the yield/ash relationship as depicted by an efficiency index are presented, along with follow-up tests showing the importance of lower solids concentration and higher reagent dosage. Coal moisture content and reagent dosage had the most significant effect on the yield/ash relationship. 12 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-09-11

    A series of carbonyl-based homogeneous catalyst precursors has been prepared. These species include: Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, S{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(CO){sub 6}, S{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 9}. Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3} was prepared by a combined photochemical and thermal route from triphenylphosphine (PPh{sub 3}) in iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO){sub 5}). This preparation procedure, which is selective to the monosubstituted product, is outlined herein. Currently these compounds are being tested as catalysts/catalyst precursors with coal or model compounds in the tubing bomb reactors to provide information relating catalytic activity to catalyst structure and properties. (VC)

  7. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Technical progress report, January 1, 1990--March 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wanxiong; Hu, Weibai; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1990-12-31

    Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

  8. Surface electrochemical control for the fine coal and pyrite separation. Technical progress report, July 21, 1989--September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wanxiong; Hu, Weibai; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhu, Ximeng; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1989-12-31

    Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

  9. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Technical progress report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Li, Jun; Riley, A.; Turcotte, S.B.; Benner, R.E.; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Liang, Jun; Zhong, Tinghe; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1991-12-31

    The ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of three typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces. This report covers a Raman spectroscopy of species produced electrochemically on pyrite surfaces.

  10. Surface electrochemical control for the fine coal and pyrite separation. Technical progress report, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wanxiong; Hu, Weibai; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhu, Ximeng; Wadsworth, M.E.; Bodily, D.M.

    1989-12-31

    Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

  11. Surface electrochemical control for the fine coal and pyrite separation. Technical progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Zhu, Ximeng; Li, Jun; Bodily, D.M.; Liang, Jun; Zhong, Tingke; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1992-07-01

    Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 13, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-01-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. During Quarter 13 (October--December 1995), testing of the GranuFlow dewatering process indicated a 3--4% reduction in cake moisture for screen-bowl and solid-bowl centrifuge products. The Orimulsion additions were also found to reduce the potential dustiness of the fine coal, as well as improve solids recovery in the screen-bowl centrifuge. Based on these results, Lady Dunn management now plans to use a screen bowl centrifuge to dewater their Microcel{trademark} column froth product. Subtask 3.3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-slurry formulation, indicated that selective agglomeration products can be formulated into slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that a very fine grind is required to meet the 2 lb ash/MBtu product specification for the Winifrede coal, while the Hiawatha coal requires a grind in the 100- to 150-mesh topsize range. Detailed design work remaining involves the preparation and issuing of the final task report. Utilizing this detailed design, a construction bid package was prepared and submitted to three Colorado based contractors for quotes as part of Task 9.

  13. Rare earth and major element geochemistry of Eocene fine-grained sediments in oil shale- and coal-bearing layers of the Meihe Basin, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yueyue; Liu, Zhaojun; Sun, Pingchang; Liu, Rong; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Hanqing; Xu, Yinbo

    2015-01-01

    The Meihe Basin is a Paleogene pull-apart basin. Long-flame coal, lignite and oil shale are coexisting energy resources deposited in this basin. Ninety-seven samples, including oil shales, coals, brown to gray silt and mudstone, have been collected from the oil shale- and coal-bearing layers to discover the rare earth element geochemistry. The total REE contents of oil shales and coals are 137-256 μg/g and 64-152 μg/g respectively. The chondrite-normalized patterns of oil shales and coals show LREE enrichments, HREE deficits, negative Eu anomalies and negligible Ce anomalies. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) as well as some trace elements is often used to reflect the paleoenvironment at the time of deposition. The results show that fine-grained sediments in both layers were deposited in dysoxic to oxic conditions and in a warm and humid climate, and coals were deposited in a warmer and more humid climate than oil shales. Oil shales and coals are both in the early stage of diagenesis and of terrigenous origin. Besides, diagrams of some major, trace and rare earth elements show that the fine-grained sediments of both layers in the Meihe Basin are mainly from the felsic volcanic rocks and granite, and that their source rocks are mostly deposited in the continental inland arc setting. The analysis of major elements shows that Si, Al, K and Ti, in both layers, are found mainly in a mixed clay mineral assemblage and that Si is also found in quartz. Sodium occurs primarily in clay minerals, whereas Ca is found mainly in the organic matter. In the coal-bearing layer, iron is mainly controlled by organic matter rather than detrital minerals. In contrast, in the oil shale-bearing layer, neither detrital minerals nor organic matter exert a control on the iron content. Analyzing the relationship between rare earth elements and major elements shows that REEs in the oil shales and the coals are both of terrigenous origin and are mainly controlled by detrital minerals

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the DOE POC at the OCDO facility continued through this entire quarter. By the end of the quarter approximately 90% of all of the construction had been completed. All equipment has beeninstalled, checked for mechanical and installation and operated from a local pushbutton. During this quarter a review of items to be completed for start-up was compiled. This information was then presented to the construction subcontractors and agreement was concluded that all items will be completed and operational for processing coal by February 1, 1993. There are still several items that were not on site for installation during this quarter. These items are the flocculant controls supplied by Westec Engineering, Inc., and the discharge valve for the hyperbaric filter supplied by KHD. Neither of these items will prevent start-up. The flocculants can be manually controlled and provisions are all ready provided to bypass the hyperbaric filter to the Sharpels high-G centrifuge. Both of these items are scheduled for delivery in mid-January.

  15. Effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on fine particle emission from two coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission abatement of coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) requires large-scaled installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which would reduce secondary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) (by reducing nitrate aerosol) in the atmosphere. However, our field measurement of two CFPPs equipped with SCR indicates a significant increase of SO42- and NH4+ emission in primary PM2.5, due to catalytic enhancement of SO2 oxidation to SO3 and introducing of NH3 as reducing agent. The subsequent formation of (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4 aerosol is commonly concentrated in sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) with a bimodal pattern. The measurement at the inlet of stack also showed doubled primary PM2.5 emission by SCR operation. This effect should therefore be considered when updating emission inventory of CFPPs. By rough estimation, the enhanced primary PM2.5 emission from CFPPs by SCR operation would offset 12% of the ambient PM2.5 concentration reduction in cities as the benefit of national NOx emission abatement, which should draw attention of policy-makers for air pollution control.

  16. An advanced control system for fine coal flotation. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1997-03-04

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as reagent dosage, pulp density and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the fourth quarter of this project, a final attempt was made to calibrate a video-based ash analyzer for use in this application. It was concluded that the low ash content and the coarse particle size of the flotation tailings slurry at the Maple Meadow plant site made the video-based system unsuitable for this application. Plans are now underway to lease a nuclear-based analyzer as the primary sensor for this project.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-04-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June 1997. During Quarter 14 (January--March 1996), parametric testing of the 30-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Plant continued under Subtask 3.2. Subtask 3. 3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter with parametric testing of the batch dewatering unit. Coal product moistures of 3 to 12 percent were achieved, with higher percent solids slurry feeds resulting in lower product moistures. For a given percent solids feed, the product moisture decreased with increasing butane to dry coal ratios. Stirring time, stirring rate, and settling time were all found to have little effect on the final moisture content. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation for coals cleaned by selective agglomeration, indicated that pH adjustment to 10 resulted in marginally better (lower viscosity) slurries for one of the two coals tested. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that the new Taggart coal requires a grind with a d{sub 80} of approximately 33 microns to achieve the 1 lb ash/MBtu product quality specification. Also under Subtask 6.5, reductions in the various trace element concentrations accomplished during selective agglomeration were determined. Work was essentially completed on the detailed design of the PDU selective agglomeration module under Task 7 with the issuing of a draft report.

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a contract entitled ``Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technology - Froth Flotation``, to ICF Kaiser Engineers with the following team members, Ohio Coal Development Office, Babcock and Wilcox, Consolidation Coal Company, Eimco Process Equipment Company, Illinois State Geological Survey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Process Technology, Inc. This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-07-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 tons of each of three project coals, by each process. During Quarter 11 (April--June, 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant with the installation and calibration of a refurbished 30-inch diameter column. The evaluation of toxic trace element data for column flotation samples continued, with preliminary analysis indicating that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements, and that significant reductions in the concentration of many elements were observed from raw coal, to flotation feed, to flotation product samples. Significant progress was made on Subtask 6.5 selective agglomeration bench-scale testing. Data from this work indicates that project ash specifications can be met for all coals evaluated, and that the bulk of the bridging liquid (heptane) can be removed from the product for recycle to the process. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module progressed this quarter with the completion of several revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Procurement of coal for PDU operation began with the purchase of 800 tons of Taggart coal. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU continued through this reporting quarter and is currently approximately 60% complete.

  1. Development and demonstration of a static tube flotation system for producing superclean coal: 10th quarterly technical progress report ending March 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, D.C.

    1988-04-14

    Research continued during the quarter to study the two-stage flotation circuit in various configurations at the laboratory scale and to prepare for the pilot plant scale-up tests with large packed columns (2 ft square x 20 ft high). All the research activities were designed to demonstrate the potential application of the static tube flotation technology for economic production of superclean coal (0.4-1.0% ASH) from the domestic sources. Preparatory work for PDU (Process Development Unit) testing has just been completed including the setup of the two columns and the auxiliary equipment. The first of the two bulk coal samples (25 tons of Lower Kittanning seam coal) was crushed to less than one hald inch to be used as the feed to the PDU circuit. A small portion of it representative of the bulk sample was further crushed to pass 28 mesh for testing with the laboratory unit to determine its flotation response. We have found that a stronger frother, such as pine oil, can be used to improve fine coal recovery in the packed column because of its water down-washing capability. This reagent scheme will be adopted in the PDU trial. According to the revised schedule, the project completion date will now move slightly to the end of July 1988. 1 tab.

  2. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubble flotation of fine coal using 3-in. ID flotation column. Technical progress report for the eleventh quarter, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1996-05-01

    There are four modes of the collector dispersion techniques. They are (1) direct liquid additions and stirring, (2) ultrasonic energy collector dispersion, (3) atomized collector dispersion, and (4) gasified collector transported in air stream. Among those collector dispersion techniques, the technique using the gasified collector transported in air phase can be used to enhance the flotation performance with substantial reduction in collector usage and selectivity, compared to the flotation using direct liquid addition (and mechanical agitation) technique. In this phase of study, two modes of collector addition techniques including gasified collector transported in gas phase and direct collector addition techniques were applied in the column flotation to demonstrate the selectivity of utilizing the hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubbles in the fine coal flotation process. The 1-in. ID flotation column was used to scale-up to 3-in. ID flotation column. The initial starting point to operate the 3-in ID flotation column were determined using both 1-in. and 3-in. flotation columns based on the three phases of work plans and experiment design. A 3-in. flotation column was used to evaluate two modes of collector dispersion and addition techniques on the recovery and grade of fine coals using various ranks of coal.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing, other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. The conceptual flowsheet will be revised based on the results of the bench scale testing and areas will be identified that need further larger scale design data verification, to prove out the design.

  4. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulate bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the eighth quarter, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    A portion of this reporting period has been consumed in the following tasks: (1) development of air-water-frother sparging system using an assemble of two sets of atomizers; (2) conducting the column flotation tests followed 2{sup 6} {times} 1/4 fractional factorial design; (3) to develop a collector gasifier system for formation of hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubbles. To effectively remove sulfur and mineral matters from coal, the coal particles must be ground to minus 75 {mu}m (minus 200 U.S. sieve) or less to liberate the pyrite and mineral matters from the coal matrix. As reported in a previous report (Fifth Quarterly report), in order to effectively reduce ash content in fine clean coal products using a 3-in. flotation column, the height of the column must be increased to increase the depth of the frother and the residence time of coal particles in the flotation column. In this study, a series of column flotation tests were conducted on freshly ground minus 75 {mu}m Upper Freeport seam coal. The flotation column is equipped with froth washing device as well as two sets of atomizers for sparging the air-water and frother mixture. The operation of column flotation involves the multiplicity of control variables. Thus, three phases of work plan were used to minimize the number of tests. In this report, the results of column flotation tests obtained in the third phase of the experiment work are reported. The column flotation is capable of achieving 90 percent or more of combustible recovery and 70 percent or more of ash rejection from the raw coal contained 20 percent or greater ash content. The main objectives of this reporting period are: (1) to establish a test procedure, and to determine the optimal height of flotation column and operating conditions for cleaning minus 75 {mu}m Upper Freeport seam coal, and (2) to extend the test procedure and the operating conditions established to clean various seam coals using a hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubble flotation.

  5. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. First quarterly technical progress report, September 27, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. During the past quarter, a number of project tasks have been initiated. All documents required for project startup (i.e., work plans, management plans, etc.) have been submitted to DOE for approval. A bench-scale TES unit and an apparatus for studying tribocharging mechanisms have been designed and are currently being fabricated. One of the three coal samples to be used for bench-scale testing has been acquired.

  6. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing: technical progress report no. 3--January 1, 1996-March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal streams. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a tubular (jet) processor. To meet the overall objective an 11 task work plan has been designed. The work will range from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment. During the reporting period there were activities under the following tasks: project planning and management; host site selection and plan formulation; preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment; coal characterization and laboratory (batch) and bench-scale testing; and process evaluation. The work on the remaining tasks is scheduled for the next months.

  7. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. First annual report, September 1, 1990--August 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  8. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new high gravity centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer's systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)

  9. Testing of the 15-inch air-sparged hydrocyclone for fine coal flotation at the Homer City preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Battista, J.J.

    1993-12-31

    Previous plant testing had been limited to the processing of minus 100 mesh classifier overflow (Upper Freeport Coal {approximately} 20% ash) with the 6-inch air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH-6C) as reported at Coal Prep 92. The ASH-6C unit was found to provide separation efficiencies equivalent, or superior, to separations with the ASH-2C system. During the summer of 1992 the construction of the first 15-inch air-sparged hydrocyclone prototype was completed by the Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. Installation at the Homer City Coal Preparation Plant was accomplished and testing began in October 1992. The ASH-15C unit can operate at a flowrate as high as 1,000 gpm. Experimental results are reported with respect to capacity, combustible recovery and clean coal quality.

  10. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period was devoted to experimental design and fabrication tasks.

  11. Inhalation health effects of fine particles from the co-combustion of coal and refuse derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Art; Wendt, Jost O L; Wolski, Natacha; Hein, Klaus R G; Wang, Shengjun; Witten, Mark L

    2003-06-01

    This paper is concerned with health effects from the inhalation of particulate matter (PM) emitted from the combustion of coal, and from the co-combustion of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and pulverized coal mixtures, under both normal and low NO(x) conditions. Specific issues focus on whether the addition of RDF to coal has an effect on PM toxicity, and whether the application of staged combustion (for low NO(x)) may also be a factor in this regard. Ash particles were sampled and collected from a pilot scale combustion unit and then re-suspended and diluted to concentrations of approximately 1000 microg/m(3). These particles were inhaled by mice, which were held in a nose-only exposure configuration. Exposure tests were for 1 h per day, and involved three sets (eight mice per set) of mice. These three sets were exposed over 8, 16, and 24 consecutive days, respectively. Pathological lung damage was measured in terms of increases in lung permeability. Results show that the re-suspended coal/RDF ash appeared to cause very different effects on lung permeability than did coal ash alone. In addition, it was also shown that a "snapshot" of lung properties after a fixed number of daily 1-h exposures, can be misleading, since apparent repair mechanisms cause lung properties to change over a period of time. For the coal/RDF, the greatest lung damage (in terms of lung permeability increase) occurred at the short exposure period of 8 days, and thereafter appeared to be gradually repaired. Ash from staged (low NO(x)) combustion of coal/RDF appeared to cause greater lung injury than that from unstaged (high NO(x)) coal/RDF combustion, although the temporal behavior and (apparent) repair processes in each case were similar. In contrast to this, coal ash alone showed a slight decrease of lung permeability after 1 and 3 days, and this disappeared after 12 days. These observations are interpreted in the light of mechanisms proposed in the literature. The results all suggest that the

  12. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Technical report number 2, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal streams. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a tubular (jet) processor. To meet the overall objective an 11 task work plan has been designed. The work will range from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning and management; host site selection and plan formulation; preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment; coal characterization and laboratory (batch) and bench-scale testing; final engineering and design of POC equipment; proof-of-concept (POC) equipment procurement and fabrication; POC equipment inspection; POC equipment installation, shakedown and operation; process evaluation; dismantling of the system; final report. Accomplishments to date are described on the site selection, a work plan for bench-scale testing, preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment, and coal characterization.

  13. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Mesenyashin, A.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-10-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. At present, the project is at the stage of engineering design (Task 3). Work accomplished during this reporting period include the construction of a Faraday Cage for measurement of particle charges (Subtask 3.1), construction of a bench-scale triboelectrostatic separator (Subtask 3.2) and development of a theoretical model for predicting motion of charged particles in a non-uniform electrostatic field (Subtask 3.2). This model will be useful for designing the POC module.

  14. Effects of polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion on response to EGFR mutations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kin-Fai; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Tian, Linwei; Chan, Chi-Sing; Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A; Lui, Ka-Hei; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Liu, Chien-Ying; Ning, Zhi; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-11-01

    Induction of PM2.5-associated lung cancer in response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) remains unclear. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs: OPAHs and azaarenes: AZAs) were characterized in fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 (with wild-type EGFR) and HCC827 (with EGFR mutation) were exposed to the PM2.5, followed by treatment with EGFR-TKI. Two samples showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the cell viability in A549. EGFR-TKI further demonstrated significantly decreased in cell viability in A549 after exposure to the coal emissions. Chrysene and triphenylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene, azaarenes and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (carbonyl-OPAHs) were all associated with EGFR-TKI-dependent reduced cell viability after 72-h exposure to the PM2.5. The findings suggest the coal emissions could influence the response of EGFR-TKI in lung cancer cells in Xuanwei.

  15. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the ninth quarter, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    A main portion of this reporting period has been consumed in the following tasks to establish the base line for hydrocarbon oil encapsulated bubble flotation: (1) to measure the residence time distribution and formulate the axial dispersion model of 1-in. I.D. flotation column, (2) to obtain the optimum operating conditions using three phase experiment design approach followed the fractional factorial design, (3) to develop the column scale-up procedure and formulate recovery predicting model for flotation column, (4) to apply the models developed to design a 3-in. ID flotation column and predicting the cleaning results, (5) to test the collector gasification system installed on the 3-in. I.D. flotation column for hydrocarbon-oil capsulated bubble flotation of fine coal. Column flotation of minus 47 {mu}m (-400 US sieve) Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal was carried out to study the column scale-up procedure using one-inch column. The dispersion model of nonideal flow was applied to describe the hydrodynamic state within the column. This model may be used to predict the collection zone recovery of column flotation in scale-up procedure if the column flotation is a first-order rate process. Residence Time Distribution (RTD) data of the column flotation were measured to determine the parameters of the model. It was found that an empirical distribution, logarithmic normal distribution can describe the RTD curve well. The effects of operating variables and column geometry on the Peclet number, Pe, which measure the extent of axial dispersion were studied and an empirical expression of Pe was obtained. Using the dispersion model, the column flotation of fine coal recovery can be predicted.

  16. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. 1st Quarterly report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    In the froth flotation process, whether accomplished In a conventional stirred tank flotation cell, in a column flotation cell, in an air sparged cyclone flotation or in a static-tube cell by using microbubbles, it requires the addition of large quantity of surfactants such as frother and/or collector (or promoter). In coarse coal flotation, special reagents are used such as high molecular weight frothers, the collector with a non-ionic, low foam emulsifier, Sherex Shur Coal 159 or Sherex Shur Coal 168 blended with fuel oil No. 2. These reagents in liquid forms are directly added into the coal pulp in the flotation cell. Frequently, a conditioning tank is required to achieve the dispersion of the reagents. The dispersion of the collector such as hydrocarbon-oil (insoluble or partially soluble) by a mechanical mixer in the coal pulp is often inadequate. In this work, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of collector droplet size and dispersion on froth flotation processes, a unique gasified collector dispersion and oil-coated bubble generation system was used. The hydrocarbon oil collector was gasified at a temperature approximately 40 degrees C above the fractionation temperature of the collector to avoid pyrolysis. Gasified collector is first mixed in the air stream and transported to the air diffusion hood in the flotation cell. The oil-coated air bubbles were then generated and diffused into solid-water phases.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 12, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-10-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 12 (July--September 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at Lady Dunn. Under Subtask 4.4, additional toxic trace element analysis of column flotation samples finalized the data set. Data analysis indicates that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements. The final Subtask 6.3 Selective Agglomeration Process Optimization topical report was issued this quarter. Preliminary Subtask 6.4 work investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation indicated that selective agglomeration products formulate slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Work continued on Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing. Results indicate that a 2 lb ash/MBtu product could be produced at a 100-mesh topsize with the Elkhorn No. 3 coal. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module neared completion this quarter with the completion of additional revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU and advanced flotation module was completed this quarter and startup and shakedown testing began.

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-01-25

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by March, 1997. During Quarter 9 (October--December, 1995), parametric and optimization testing was completed for the Taggart, Sunnyside, and Indiana VII coal using a 12-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column. The detailed design of the 2-t/hr PDU grinding, flotation, and dewatering circuits neared completion with the specification of the major pieces of capital equipment to be purchased for these areas. Selective agglomeration test work investigated the properties of various industrial grades of heptane for use during bench- and PDU-scale testing. It was decided to use a hydrotreated grade of commercial heptane due to its low cost and low concentration of aromatic compounds. The final Subtask 6.4 CWF Formulation Studies Test Plan was issued. A draft version of the Subtask 6.5 Preliminary Design and Test Plan Report was also issued, discussing the progress made in the design of the bench-scale selective agglomeration unit. PDU construction work moved forward through the issuing of 26 request for quotations and 21 award packages for capital equipment.

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly progress report No. 10, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-04-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 10 (January--March, 1995), preliminary work continued for the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant. Towards this end, laboratory flotation testing and refurbishing of the column have been started. The final version of the Subtask 4.2 Advanced Flotation Process Optimization Research topical report was issued, as was a draft version of the Subtask 4.3 report discussing the formulation of coal-water slurry fuels (CWF) from advanced flotation products. A number of product samples from Subtask 4.4 testing were sent to both Combustion Engineering and Penn State for combustion testing. The evaluation of toxic trace element analyses of column flotation products also continued. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr PDU was essentially completed with the approval of various process flow, plant layout, electrical, and vendor equipment drawings. The final version of the Subtask 6.5 -- Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Design and Test Plan Report was issued during this reporting quarter. Design and construction of this 25 lb/hr selective agglomeration test unit was completed and preliminary testing started. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU began following the selection of TIC. The Industrial Company as the construction subcontractor.

  20. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period focused on assembling the supercritical particle generation/collection system. Effort was applied to constructing a shakedown testing plan also.

  1. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, February 9, 1993--May 8, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    An investigation of new methods for the production and utilization of tetralin-soluble iron oxometallate precursors for coal liquefaction catalysts was continued in this quarter. Further descriptions of the catalytic activities of the sulfided forms were obtained. The hydrogenation activities of catalysts derived from iron oxotitanate and cobalt oxoaluminate were investigated using pyrene as a the test compound, and results were compared with thermal reactions. The hydrogenation activity of iron oxotitanate was superior to other catalysts including iron oxoaluminate. The hydrogenation activity of cobalt oxoaluminate was similar to that of iron oxoaluminate reported in previous quarterly report. The liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal was investigated using in situ sulfided iron oxotitanate catalyst. In order to improve the usefulness of iron oxoaluminate as a liquefaction catalyst, iron oxoaluminate was supported on acid-treated montmorillonite (K-10). Supporting the iron oxoaluminate on an acidic support significantly improved the hydrogenation activity of iron oxoaluminate. The hydrocracking activity was increased by a large factor. Thus the aluminate and titanate structures surrounding the pyrrhotite that forms during sulfidation have a beneficial effect in preventing deactivation of the iron sites, and the presence of the acidic sites in the clay results in effective catalytic synergism between catalyst and support. These clay-supported iron oxometallates are highly promising catalysts for coal liquefaction. Iron oxyhydroxide and triiron supported on acid-treated montmorillonite (K-10) were tested for the liquefaction of ion-exchanged Wyodak (IEW) to minimize effects of the coal mineral matter. Both sulfided catalysts gave very high conversions of coal to THF-soluble and heptane-soluble (oils) products.

  2. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1992--February 8, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    The mixed iron/alumina pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported iron catalysts have been shown in previous reports of this project to significantly improve yields of heptane-soluble products obtained in the liquefaction of both as received and acid-exchanged Wyodak subbituminous coal and Blind Canyon bituminous coal. In this quarter, the soluble product (LSW) obtained from the noncatalytic low-severity liquefaction of Wyodak coal was used as a feed to determine the activity of iron based catalysts for the hydrogenation and depolymerization steps. Comparison data for liquefaction of the soluble LSW with other catalysts were desired, and these data were obtained for a dispersed form of iron sulfide, prepared via iron hydroxyoxide (PETC method). The iron oxyhydroxide catalyst was directly precipitated on LSW product using either water or ethanol as the solvent. An insight into the functioning of the mixed iron/alumina pillared clay in coal liquefaction was investigated by preparing and studying an iron oxoaluminate structure. An investigation of new methods for the production of tetralin soluble iron oxometallate catalysts and the determination of their catalytic activities was continued in this quarter. The hydrogenation activity of iron oxoaluminate was investigated using pyrene and 1-methylnaphthalene as the test compounds, and results were compared with thermal reactions. In order to determine the loss of activity, recovered catalyst was recycled a second time for the hydrotreating of pyrene. Reaction of 1-methylnaphthalene with iron oxoaluminate also gave very high conversion to 1- and 5-methyltetralins and small amount of 2- and 6-methyltetralins. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous and Blind Canyon bituminous coal was investigated using an in situ sulfided soluble iron oxoaluminate catalyst.

  3. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. Ninth quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1992-- December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-12-31

    This is the 9th quarterly technical progress report for the project entitled ``Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies``, DE-FG22-90PC90295. The work presented in this report was performed from September 1, 1992 to November 31, 1992. The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface chemistry of pyrite oxidation and flotation and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the surface oxidation of pyrite in various electrolytes was investigated. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that borate, a pH buffer and electrolyte used by many previous investigators in studying sulfide mineral oxidation, actively participates in the surface oxidation of pyrite. In borate solutions, the surface oxidation of pyrite is tronly enhanced. The anodic oxidation potential of pyrite is lowered by more than 0.4 volts. The initial reaction of the borate enhanced pyrite oxidation can be described by:FeS{sub 2} + B(OH){sub 4}{sup =} ------> [S{sub 2}Fe-B(OH){sub 4}]{sub surf} + e. This reaction is irreversible and is controlled by the mass-transfer of borate species from the solution to the surface. It has been shown that the above reaction inhibits the adsorption of xanthate on pyrite. Comparative studies have been made with other sulfide minerals. The solution chemistry of the iron-borate systems have been studied to understand the electrochemical results.

  4. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-08-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. All required documents associated with project planning were completed and submitted to DOE for approval during the second quarter of this project. Approval of the project work plan is still pending at this time subject to additional review by DOE of requested modifications to the statement of work. Accomplishments during this reporting period include the set-up of an apparatus for assessing tribocharger performance, continued construction of the bench-scale (1 kg/hr) triboelectrostatic separator and initial development of a fundamental model for predicting the motion of charged particles in a non-uniform electrostatic field.

  5. Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification with KRW gasifiers for gasification of coal fines. Topical report (Final), April 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Smelser, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    A first-pass design and cost estimate was prepared for a plant to convert lignite to substitute natural gas (SNG) using Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify the coal and the KRW fluid-bed gasifiers to gasify the coal fines. The overall plant thermal efficiency is between that of the Lurgi and KRW base case designs. The study-case design is of commercial interest compared to a Lurgi plant when the Lurgi plant coal fines cannot be sold. The study case is more capital-intensive because it requires more-expensive boilers and more of different types of process units than either base case. There is no advantage over a KRW plant design that provides a 30% lower cost of gas.

  6. Effect of pure oxygen fine bubbles on the organic matter removal and bacterial community evolution treating coal gasification wastewater by membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Hong, Xiaoting; Han, Hongjun; Shan, Shengdao

    2016-12-01

    A lab-scale study was investigated to evaluate the effect of pure oxygen fine bubbles on membrane bioreactor (O2-MBR) performance of treating coal gasification wastewater. Compared with conventional MBR using aeration source of air (CMBR), the removal efficiencies of COD and total phenols increased by 28% and 36%, and the organic compositions of treated effluent represented significant difference that was mainly attributed to the controlled the foam expansion and enhanced the enzymatic activities in O2-MBR. Moreover, membrane fouling mitigation was observed in O2-MBR, probably owing to the less EPS amount and larger PSD. It was notable that the pure oxygen with fine bubbles promoted marked evolution of bacterial community from CMBR to O2-MBR, particularly, the bacterial community richness and diversity in O2-MBR was lower than CMBR, and the genera Phycisphaera, Comamonas, Thauera and Ohtaekwangia composed the top four most relative abundance genera in O2-MBR, giving the total relative abundance of 26.7%.

  7. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, May 8, 1993--August 8, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    High hydrocracking and liquefaction activity can be achieved with 10 wt.% of sulfided clay-supported iron catalysts. Further tests and demonstrations of this activity were required. Iron hydroxyoxide was generated on acid-treated montmorillonite. The new batch of catalyst exhibited high hydrocracking activity, Three hour tests with the solubilized intermediate from low-severity treatment of Wyodak coal (LSW) gave a high conversion (45%) of the heptane-insoluble LSW intermediate to heptane-soluble products. An investigation of new methods for the production of catalysts from tetralin-soluble iron oxometallates and the determination of their catalytic activities was continued in this quarter. Iron oxotitanate and iron oxoaluminate gave very high conversions of LSW to heptane solubles (61% and 54%, respectively). The high yields of heptane soluble products obtained with these catalysts offers a potential for use in liquefaction stages with solubilized coal, or at least serve as a model for producing active catalysts via mixed metal oxides. Methods for successfully testing dispersed iron catalysts with the low-severity intermediate were also devised. Catalyst recovered from the dispersed iron hydroxyoxide-catalyzed reaction of ion-exchanged Wyodak gave a high conversion (47%) of LSW to heptane solubles.

  8. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1991--February 8, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    The investigation of methods for the production and testing of iron-pillared clay catalysts was continued in this quarter. The surface area of the mixed alumina/iron pillared clay catalyst decreased to 51 m{sup 2}/g on sulfidation. Thus the stability of the alumina pillars during the sulfidation and thermal treatments prevented the total collapse that occurred in the case of the iron-pillared clays. Previously the mixed alumina/iron pillared clays were tested for hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl. This testing was extended to a determination of activity with a second model compound substrate (pyrene), representative of the polynuclear aromatic systems present in coal. Testing of the mixed alumina/iron-pillared catalysts with 1-methylnaphthalene gave interesting results that demonstrate shape selectivity. The clay-supported iron hydroxyoxide catalysts prepared by impregnation of iron species on acidic clays were further investigated. Sulfidation of these catalysts using the carbon disulfide in situ method gave hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl that were somewhat less than those obtained by presulfidation with H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S mixtures. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal was very successful with the iron impregnated clay catalyst, giving a highly soluble product. High conversions were also obtained with the mixed alumina/iron-pillared clay catalyst, but the yield of oil-solubles was considerably lower. Several new catalysts were synthesized with the idea of decreasing the pillar density and thereby increasing the micropore volume. These catalysts were prepared by first pillaring with an organic ammonium pillaring agent, then introducing a lower number of silica or alumina pillars. Finally the iron component was added either before or after thermal removal of organic pillars.

  9. Control of fine particulate emissions from coal-fired utility boilers: Spin filter collection device (rotary cyclone)

    SciTech Connect

    He, Bo X.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the concept of placing a porous cylindrical surface (such as a metal screen) at the core of a container and spinning the surface with an external motor for fine particulate/gas separation. The rotating surface enhances the centrifugal effects in the annular region and provides a smooth transition between the flow in the annular and core regions and acts like an enhanced cyclone. It is therefore called a rotary cyclone.'' The porous surface is self-cleaning and offers good steady-state pressure drop characteristics. Objectives of this project are: (1) to carry out theoretical and experimental investigations using the rotary cyclone concept to capture particulates in the 0.5 to 10 micron size range; and (2) to evaluate its economic feasibility based on an engineering scale-up and comparison with conventional fabric filter and electrostatic precipitator systems. It was demonstrated that the efficiency in separating fine particulates is governed by two major characteristics, i.e., the magnitude of the centrifugal force and the approach velocity or the gas-to-surface area ratio. Results from the bench-scale tests have shown a collection efficiency of well over 99% for a typical fly ash. A preliminary conceptual design for a 40 MW installation was developed based on the experimental work. 4 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  11. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  12. Assessment of reduction behavior of hematite iron ore pellets in coal fines for application in sponge ironmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Patel, S.K.

    2009-07-01

    Studies on isothermal reduction kinetics (with F grade coal) in fired pellets of hematite iron ores, procured from four different mines of Orissa, were carried out in the temperature range of 850-1000C to provide information for the Indian sponge iron plants. The rate of reduction in all the fired iron ore pellets increased markedly with a rise of temperature up to 950C, and thereafter it decreased at 1000C. The rate was more intense in the first 30 minutes. All iron ores exhibited almost complete reduction in their pellets at temperatures of 900 and 950C in 2 hours' heating time duration, and the final product morphologies consisted of prominent cracks. The kinetic model equation 1-(1-a){sup 1/3}=kt was found to fit best to the experimental data, and the values of apparent activation energy were evaluated. Reductions of D. R. Pattnaik and M. G. Mohanty iron ore pellets were characterized by higher activation energies (183 and 150 kJ mol{sup -1}), indicating carbon gasification reaction to be the rate-controlling step. The results established lower values of activation energy (83 and 84 kJ mol{sup -1}) for the reduction of G. M. OMC Ltd. and Sakaruddin iron ore pellets, proposing their overall rates to be controlled by indirect reduction reactions.

  13. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, May 9, 1992--August 8, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    An investigation of new methods for the production of mixed pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported catalysts and determination of their catalytic activities were continued in this quarter. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the preparative method for high activity iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite catalysts, a new batch of the catalyst was prepared and tested for hydrocracking activity with bibenzyl. This preparation gave conversion and product distribution similar to that reported previously. The mixed iron/alumina-pillared clay was also prepared using a pillaring solution that was aged for longer period of time. To determine the importance of the type of pillaring support in hydrocracking activity, iron/zirconia-pillared montmorillonite was prepared using the same technique as that for iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite. The reaction of bibenzyl with the sulfided iron/zirconia-pillared catalyst gave a lower hydrocracking conversion than the iron/alumina-pillared catalyst. Addition of a second catalytic metal to the clay support was attempted to determine if a synergistic effect could improve liquefaction. Ferric nitrate and stannous chloride were added to the clay, but the resulting catalyst was relatively poor for hydrocracking and hydrogenation compared with ferric nitrate supported on the clay. New disposable iron catalysts with high acidity and surface area are desired for coal liquefaction. Synthetic iron aluminosilicates were prepared by methods similar to those used for the nickel-substituted synthetic mica montmorillonite (NiSMM) catalysts, which are very effective for hydrogenation and reforming of hydrocarbons. The iron aluminosilicate catalysts were tested for hydrocracking and hydrogenation of bibenzyl, naphthalene and pyrene. Pyrene hydrogenation was effectively catalyzed by the sulfided synthetic iron catalyst.

  14. Flow and design characteristics of the hydrocyclone for the recovery of coal fines. Third quarterly report, March 1, 1982-May 31, 1982. [MS thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The following conclusions are drawn from this research: (1) the experimental hydrocyclone apparatus designed to allow control of the vortex finder length, overflow diameter, underflow diameter, cone angle, and inlet flow rate, is a suitable system for determining the effect of each variable on the washing efficiency of a conventional hydrocyclone; (2) color-coded spheres of different diameters and specific gravities are suitable to model slurry solids, insofar as size and density is concerned; (3) the concentration of solids used during this work was not a factor and therefore this variable, which is likely to be important in application, was not taken into account; (4) using the experimental hydrocyclone system and spheres along with the concepts of dimensional analysis and similitude, design curves can be generated showing the effect of each parameter on washing efficiency; one hundred eighty-four curves are presented in appendices A-l; and (5) based on the data taken during this project, a particular configuration is recommended for use in recovering coal fines from heavier waste.

  15. Contribution of heavy metals to toxicity of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Caenorhabditis elegans with wild-type or susceptible genetic background.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingmei; Wu, Quli; Liao, Kai; Yu, Peihang; Cui, Qiuhong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-02-01

    Contribution of chemical components in coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to its toxicity is largely unclear. We focused on heavy metals in PM2.5 to investigate their contribution to toxicity formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Among 8 heavy metals examined (Fe, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni), Pb, Cr, and Cu potentially contributed to PM2.5 toxicity in wild-type nematodes. Combinational exposure to any two of these three heavy metals caused higher toxicity than exposure to Pb, Cr, or Cu alone. Toxicity from the combinational exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu at the examined concentrations was higher than exposure to PM2.5 (100 mg/L). Moreover, mutation of sod-2 or sod-3 gene encoding Mn-SOD increased susceptibility in nematodes exposed to Fe, Zn, or Ni, although Fe, Zn, or Ni at the examined concentration did not lead to toxicity in wild-type nematodes. Our results highlight the potential contribution of heavy metals to PM2.5 toxicity in environmental organisms.

  16. Study on Reduction Kinetics of Briquettes of Hematite Fines with Boiler Grade Coal and Coke Dust in Two Different Forms: Intermixing and Multilayered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Gopal Ghosh; Sarkar, Bitan Kumar; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh; Mitra, Manoj Kumar; Dey, Rajib

    2016-11-01

    An attempt has been made to utilise hematite ore fines in the form of briquettes with two different form of mixing i.e. intermixing and multilayered by means of carbothermal reduction along with boiler grade coal and coke dust. The influence of reduction temperature (1323, 1373 and 1423 K) and reduction time (10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min) has been investigated in detail and the reduced briquettes are characterised by XRD, SEM analyses. The reducibility of intermixing briquettes is found to be higher for multilayered briquettes. In addition, isothermal kinetic study has also been carried out for both intermixing and multilayered briquettes. The activation energy for intermixing briquettes are evaluated to be 125.88 kJ/mol for the initial stage of reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism) and 113.11 kJ/mol for the later part of reaction (D3 controlled mechanism), respectively. In case of multilayered briquettes, the corresponding activation energy is found to be 235.59 kJ/mol for reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism). These results corroborate the observed better reducibility of the intermixing briquettes over multilayered briquettes.

  17. Apparatus for processing coal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1985-02-12

    Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

  18. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, June 1, 1992--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the influence of the impurity content, particularly coal/carbon content, on the electrochemical oxidation of pyrite surfaces was investigated. The studies demonstrate that the coal/carbon content in coal-pyrite has a determining effect on the surface reactivity of pyrite. The oxidation behavior of high carbon-content coal-pyrite is completely different from that of purer coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. The effects of flotation gases on the flotation behavior of coal and the surface hydrophobicity of various coal-pyrite were investigated. It was found from the lab-scale column flotation studies that among the various gases studied (air, oxygen, argon, nitrogen and carbon dioxide), carbon dioxide produced the best results with a combustible recovery of 90% and ash-content of less than 9 percent. Finally, the surface energetic studies revealed that the surfaces of pyrites and coals produced by wet grinding is more heterogenous than that prepared by dry grinding.

  19. Pilot Demonstration of Technology for the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash

    SciTech Connect

    T. L. Robl; J. G. Groppo; R. Rathbone; B. Marrs; R. Jewell

    2008-07-18

    polyethylene terphthalate filled polymers were prepared and subjected to SEM analysis to verify that the UFA was well dispersed. The addition of fillers increased the modulus of the HDPE composite, but decreased both the offset yield stress and offset yield strain, showing that the fillers essentially made the composite stiffer but the transition to plastic deformation occurred earlier in filled HDPE as stress was applied. Similar results were obtained with TPE, however, the decrease in either stress or strain at offset yield were not as significant. Dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) were also completed and showed that although there were some alterations in the properties of the HDPE and TPE, the alterations are small, and more importantly, transition temperatures are not altered. The UFA materials were also tested in expanded urethanes, were improvements were made in the composites strength and stiffness, particularly for lighter weight materials. The results of limited flammability and fire safety testing were encouraging. A flowsheet was developed to produce an Ultra-Fine Ash (UFA) product from reclaimed coal-fired utility pond ash. The flowsheet is for an entry level product development scenario and additional production can be accommodated by increasing operating hours and/or installing replicate circuits. Unit process design was based on experimental results obtained throughout the project and cost estimates were derived from single vendor quotes. The installation cost of this plant is estimated to be $2.1M.

  20. [Study on the Relationship between the Inhalable Fine Particulate Matter of Xuanwei Coal Combustion and Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiapeng; Cao, Yu; Huang, Yunchao; Li, Guangjian; Ye, Lianhua; Zhao, Guangqiang; Lei, Yujie; Chen, Xiaobo; Tian, Linwei

    2015-07-01

    背景与目的 云南省宣威地区是中国乃至世界肺癌的高发区,肺癌已成为制约当地社会经济发展和影响社会民生的重要因素。煤炭是当地主要的生活燃料,燃煤是当地室内污染的主要来源。本研究探讨云南宣威不同肺癌发病率地区烟煤燃烧过程中可吸入细颗粒物(fine particulate matter, PM2.5)产出情况,以及不同地区PM2.5成分异同。探讨吸入细颗粒物与当地肺癌高发的关系。方法 收集宣威市来宾镇老林煤矿C1煤层、宝山镇虎场煤矿K7煤层、文兴镇太平煤矿M30煤层的煤矿进行燃烧试验。收集室内的空气中的PM2.5进行称重,元素分析,用电子显微镜观察其形态,对比三种PM2.5异同。对宣威地区的肺癌患者的术后标本进行电子显微镜观察。结果 室内空气中的PM2.5浓度分别为C1煤(8.244±1.460)mg/m³,K7煤(5.066±0.984)mg/m³,K7煤(5.071±1.460)mg/m³;三组空气中PM2.5浓度两两比较差异有统计学意义(Ρ=0.029)。C1煤层中滤膜上的杂质有(Silicon, Si)和氧(Oxygen, O)元素富集,三组滤膜上均发现了碳(Carbon, C),硫(Sulfur, S)的聚集,在部分的滤膜上可见游离的二氧化硅(SiO2),部分滤膜上有铝(Aluminium, Al)、钙(Calcium, Ca)元素的聚集。C1煤层与其他煤层相比所产生颗粒物形态不规则,成团块状,杂质较多。在部分的宣威来宾地区的肺癌患者术后标本中,发现纳米级细颗粒的杂质。结论 C1煤与K7和M30煤燃烧产生的PM2.5不同,PM2.5的成分可能与当地肺癌高发相关。.

  1. Process for removing ash from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Ogino, E.; Yoshida, N.

    1983-06-21

    A process for removing ash from coal comprising the steps of pulverizing the coal to fine particles, admixing water with the finely divided coal to prepare an ash-containing slurry of finely divided coal, mixing with the slurry an oil and seeds in the form of oleophilic solid grains and serving as granulating nuclei to granulate the finely divided coal, separating the resulting granules from the mixture and washing the granules with water to remove the ash, and disintegrating the washed granules to obtain a deashed coal and recover the seeds for reuse.

  2. Suppression of fine ash formation in pulverized coal flames. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kramlich, J.C.; Chenevert, B.; Park, Jungsung

    1995-08-02

    Previous work has shown that pulverized bituminous coals that were treated by coal cleaning (via froth flotation) or aerodynamic sizing exhibited altered aerosol emission characteristics. Specifically, the emissions of aerosol for the cleaned and sized coals increased by as much as one order of magnitude. The goals of the present program are to: (1) perform measurements on carefully characterized coals to identify the means by which the coal treatment increases aerosol yields; (2) investigate means by which coal cleaning can be done in a way that will not increase aerosol yields; and (3) identify whether this mechanism can be used to reduce aerosol yields from systems burning straight coal. The current experimental series focuses on the use of artificial char to study sodium vaporization and aerosol formation associated with dispersed sodium and mineral inclusions. Artificial char has the advantage over natural coal in that the composition can be precisely controlled, such that the influences of specific mineral composition and content can be investigated. The study showed: the addition of calcite had no effect of the aerosol yield; increased amounts of pyrite did not lead to increased residual ash formation; in spite of the increase in mineral content, the yield of aerosol on the backup filter did not correlate with the amount of added minerals; and the general trend was for reduced aerosol yields as the amount of bentonite increased which suggested that the bentonite was effective at complexing sodium and reducing its overall vaporization.

  3. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, June 1, 1991--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surfaces reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of the pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The product as well as their structure, the mechanism and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc., are directed at identifying the cause and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  4. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. Third quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1991--May 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, Chengliang

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof will lead to identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  5. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1992-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- advanced cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., for the period of July through September 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks I - 5 and is a contractor to AspenTech on Task 6.

  6. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1991-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of- concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (ApsenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the seventh quarterly reporting period, April through June 1991. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models.

  7. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 26, 1990--January 26, 1991: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-02-22

    The first task in our proposed study of catalysts for coal liquefaction was to prepare ultrafine dispersed metal sulfide particles by reactive precipitation from solutions of appropriate metal precursors. At this point, equipment to allow us to prepare these air-sensitive materials in an anaerobic environment has been acquired and assembled. Initial experiments aimed at synthesizing iron sulfide particles have been initiated. As part of the investigation of short contact time catalytic coal liquefaction, initial efforts focused on the noncatalytic pyrolysis reactions of coal and a model compound, Dibenzyl ether (DBE). Two different reactor configurations were examined; catalytic experiments are planned for the coming month.

  8. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal. Final report, September 20, 1989--September 21, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.

    1991-12-31

    The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new high gravity centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer`s systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)

  9. Manufacture of finely divided carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.G.

    1980-01-22

    Finely divided carbon is manufactured by a process producing a gaseous stream containing carbon monoxide by reacting coal and air in a slagging ash gasifier, separating carbon monoxide from the gaseous mixture, and disproportionating the carbon monoxide to produce finely divided carbon and carbon dioxide, the latter of which is recycled to the gasifier.

  10. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the fourth quarter, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report is concerned with the progress made during the fourth period of the research Project, Grant no. DE-FG22-90-PC90314. A main portion of this reporting period has been consumed in the following tasks: (i) induction time measurement for the coal particles prepared by using various modes of collector addition techniques; (ii) ultrasonic energy dispersed collector flotation tests; (iii) natural floatability measurement using Hallimond tube flotation cell; (iv) preparation and operation of 3-inch column cell, and (v) preparation of wettability measurement using film flotation method. The coal samples used in this period of work are four ranks of coal samples from Mammoth (Anthracite), Lower Kittanning, Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coals. The results showed that a drastic improvement in the flotation rate and yield were achieved by using the ultrasonic energy dispersed collector flotation compared to that of conventional flotation. The techniques of direct liquid addition and addition of ultrasonic energy dispersed collector are mainly for alteration of the hydrophobicity distribution of coal particle surfaces. On the contrary, the gasified collector addition to the gas phase technique is for alteration of the chemical properties of bubble surfaces. Among these techniques, however, the results showed that the hydrocarbon oil encapsulated bubble flotation is more selective than either ultrasonic energy dispersed collector flotation process or conventional flotation process. Induction time measurement was continued and extended to the coal samples received in this period of work, using oil free air bubble and oil-coated air bubbles. Induction time for oil-coated bubbles is significantly shorter than that of oil-free bubbles for all the coal samples used. A good agreement between flotation responses and induction time were obtained for all the coal samples under the conditions of various modes of collector dispersion.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-04-26

    The main purpose of this project is engineering development of advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies for cleaning coal. Development of these technologies is an important step in the Department of Energy program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected United States coals and that this fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for a portion of the premium fuels (oil and natural gas) burned by electric utility and industrial boilers in this country. Capturing a relatively small fraction of the total utility and industrial oil-fired boiler fuel market would have a significant impact on domestic coal production and reduce national dependence on petroleum fuels. Significant potential export markets also exist in Europe and the Pacific Rim for cost-effective premium fuels prepared from ultra-clean coal. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs, and boiler derating are kept to a minimum. Also, retrofit boiler emissions must be compatible with national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for the ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of ultra-clean coal discussed below. The cost-shared contract effort is for 48 months beginning September 30, 1992, and ending September 30, 1996. This report discusses the technical progress made during the second 3 months of the project, January 1 to March 31, 1993.

  12. INEZ, KENTUCKY COAL SLURRY SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 11th, 2000, a breach of a coal slurry impoundment released approximately 210 million gallons of coal slurry ( a mixture of fine coal particles, silt, clay, sand and water) into the Big Andy Branch, Wolf Creek, and Coldwater Fork. Approximately 75 river miles were affec...

  13. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit. Task 5: Evaluation of bench-scale test results and equipment selection for in-plant pilot tests

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort is to improve the efficiency of fine coal flotation in preparation plants above that of currently used conventional cells. In addition to evaluating single-stage operation of four selected advanced flotation devices, the project will also evaluate them in two-stage configurations. The project is being implemented in two phases. Phase 1 comprises bench-scale testing of the flotation units, and Phase 2 comprises in-plant, proof-of-concept (POC), pilot-scale testing of selected configurations at the Cyprus Emerald preparation plant. The Task 5 report presents the findings of the Phase 1 bench-scale test results and provides the basis for equipment selection for Phase 2. Four advanced flotation technologies selected for bench-scale testing are: Jameson cell; Outokumpu HG tank cell; packed column; and open column. In addition to testing all four of the cells in single-stage operation, the Jameson and Outokumpu cells were tested as candidate first-stage cells because of their propensity for rapid attachment of coal particles with air bubbles and low capital and operating costs. The column cells were selected as candidate second-stage cells because of their high-efficiency separation of low-ash products from high-ash feed coals. 32 figs., 72 tabs.

  14. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  15. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the fifth quarter, October 1, 1991--December 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    A main portion of this reporting period has been consumed in the following tasks: (i) Contact angle measurement using gasified collector encapsulated bubble; (ii) wettability measurement using film flotation method; (iii) induction time measurement; (iv) conducting atomized collector flotation tests in a stirred tank cell; (v) developing the experimental design and conducting a column flotation test. The coal samples used in this period of work are five ranks of coal samples from Mammoth, Lower Kittanning, Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Wyodak seam coals. To better understand the fundamental steps involved in the modes of collector addition techniques in the froth flotation, contact angle, wettability and induction time were measurement. It was found increasing in the contact angles and decreasing in the induction time for a hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble compared to those for an oil-free bubble for all the coal samples measured. These observations may account for the improved flotation kinetics and, hence, the recovery with the hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubbles. Two level fractional factorial experimental design were developed for conducting the column flotation tests to obtain the optimal operating conditions. In the first series of the tests, seven operating parameters were considered with 16 runs. Based on those results, subsequently, the second experimental design was developed for six operating parameters with 16 runs. The third experiment design was formulated with three most significant operating parameters with 8 runs. A high combustible recovery was obtained for -200 mesh Upper Freeport coal sample. However, the results indicated that for further reduction of the ash content of the froth product, the height of column flotation cell needed to be increased.

  16. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. Tenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, C.L.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface chemistry of pyrite oxidation and flotation and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. This report summarizes the studies in the following three aspects: (1) the effects of borate, used as pH buffer or electrolyte, on the pyrite surface oxidation and flotation; (2) the quantification of pyrite surface oxidation kinetics under different oxidation potentials; and (3) finding new coal-pyrite depressants. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that borate, a pH buffer and electrolyte used by many previous investigators in studying pyrite oxidation, actively participates in the surface oxidation of pyrite. In high borate concentration solutions, the surface oxidation of pyrite is strongly enhanced. The anodic oxidation potential of pyrite is lowered by more than 0.4 volts. At low borate concentration, borate is chemisorbed on pyrite surfaces. In the intermediate concentration range, borate dissolves surface iron compounds. Consequently, the flotation of pyrite in borate solutions (using fuel oil as collector) displays depression-flotation-depression phenomena as the borate concentration is increased. The oxidation kinetics of pyrite surfaces has been determined by AC impedance spectroscopy. At low oxidation potentials, only capacitive behavior is observed. However, at high oxidation potentials, an inductive loop appears. The charge transfer resistance decreases with increasing potential, indicating that the oxidation rate increases with increasing potential. A chemical reagent has been found to be very effective in depressing the flotation of coal-pyrites from different sources, while it has little effects on the flotation of coal. The surface chemistry involved in the selective pyrite depression by this new reagent has been investigated by electrochemical studies and contact angle measurements.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    Work completed produced the criteria for additional engineering analysis, computation and detailed experimental benchscale testing for areas of uncertainty. The engineering analysis, computation, bench-scale testing and component development was formulated to produce necessary design information to define a commercially operating system. In order to produce the required information by means of bench-scale testing and component development, a uniform coal sample was procured. After agreement with DOE, a selected sample of coal from those previously listed was secured. The test plan was developed in two parts. The first part listed procedures for engineering and computational analyses of those deficiencies previously identified that could be solved without bench scale testing. Likewise, the second part prepared procedures for bench-scale testing and component development for those deficiencies previously identified in Task 3.

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 14, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In order to develop additional confidence in the conceptual design of the advanced froth flotation circuit, a 2-3 TPH Proof-of-Concept (POC) facility was necessary. During operation of this facility, the ICF KE team will demonstrate the ability of the conceptual flowsheets to meet the program goals of maximum pyritic sulfur reduction coupled with maximum energy recovery on three DOE specified coals. The POC circuit was designed to be integrated into the Ohio Coal Development`s facility near Beverly, Ohio. OCDO`s facility will provide the precleaning unit operations and ICF KE will add the advanced froth flotation circuitry. The work in this task will include the POC conceptual design, flowsheet development, equipment list, fabrication and construction drawings, procurement specifications and bid packages and a facilities.

  19. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-22

    The major activities of the period were production operations of the demonstration circuit at Drummond`s Chetopa Preparation Plant near Graysville, Alabama. As the shakedown runs had shown, excellent quality Mulled Coal could be produced, and a total of 870 tonnes (966 tons) was produced. Quality was consistently better than the acceptable level. Immediately following the completion of the production demonstration, removal of equipment and decommissioning of the demonstration facility was undertaken and completed.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The design criteria for each unit operation have been developed based upon a number of variables. These variables, at this time, are based upon the best engineering design information available to industry. A number of assumptions utilized in the design criteria are uncertain. The uncertainties of inert atmospheres for grinding and flotation as well as pyrite depressants were answered by the Surface Control Project. It was determined that inerting was not required and no ``new`` reagents were presented that improved the flotation results. In addition, Tasks 5 and 6 results indicated the required reagent dosage for conventional flotation and advanced flotation. Task 5 results also indicated the need for a clean coal,thickener, the flocculent dosages for both the clean coal and refuse thickeners, and final dewatering requirements. The results from Tasks 5 and 6 and summarized in Task 7 indicate several uncertainties that require continuous long duration testing. The first is the possibility of producing a grab product for both the Pittsburgh and Illinois No. 6 coals in conventional flotation. Second what does long-term recirculation of clarified water do to the product quality? The verification process and real data obtained from Tasks 5 and 6 greatly reduced the capital and operating costs for the process. This was anticipated and the test work indeed provided confirming data.

  1. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  2. Characterization of fine and carbonaceous particles emissions from pelletized biomass-coal blends combustion: Implications on residential crop residue utilization in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Feng, Yanli; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-09-01

    Bulk biofuel, biomass pellets and pelletized biomass-coal blends were combusted in a typical rural conventional household stove and a high-efficiency stove. Reductions in PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) emissions were evaluated by comparing emission factors (EFs) among 19 combinations of biofuel/residential stove types measured using a dilution sampling system. In the low-efficiency stove, the average EFs of PM2.5, OC, and EC of biomass pellets were 2.64 ± 1.56, 0.42 ± 0.36, and 0.30 ± 0.11 g/kg, respectively, significantly lower than those burned in bulk form. EFPM2.5 and EFOC of pelletized biomass combustion in the high-efficiency stove were lower than those of the same biofuel burned in the low-efficiency stove. Furthermore, pelletized corn residue and coal blends burned in the high-efficiency stove could significantly decrease emissions. Compared with the bulk material burned in the low-efficiency stove, the reduction rates of PM2.5, OC and EC from pelletized blends in the high-efficiency stove can reach 84%, 96% and 93%, respectively. If the annually produced corn residues in 2010 had been blended with 10% anthracite coal powder and burnt as pellets, it would have reduced about 82% of PM2.5, 90-96% of OC and 81-92% of EC emission in comparison with burning raw materials in conventional household stoves. Given the low cost, high health benefit and reduction effect on atmospheric pollutants, pelletized blends could be a promising alternative to fossil fuel resources or traditional bulk biofuel.

  3. Fine coal flotation plant waste comparison--column vs. sub-a cells. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project was to compare results from a small commercially sized Deister Flotaire column flotation cell with the subaeration cells at Kerr-McGee`s Galatia plant during side by side testing of feed splits from the same sources. Typical cell criteria for both cells are included in the appendix. The project involved the activities of three organizations: the Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation, the Deister Concentrator Company, and the Illinois State Geological Survey. Their roles were as follows: Kerr-McGee installed the Deister column with sample splitter and tailings volume measuring cell in the Galatia Coal Preparation Plant to treat a representative split of their flotation feed; Deister provided a 30 inch diameter {times} 35{prime} high Deister Flotaire Column Flotation Cell capable of treating nominally one ton per hour or slightly over 1% of the plant feed. Deister additionally provided the sample splitter and the tailings volume measuring cell. ISGS personnel worked with both companies on the installation, conducted laboratory tests to direct the early plant test reagent practice, attended all of the plant runs cutting representative samples of feed, measuring slurry and reagent flows, preparing samples and writing reports.

  4. Production of low ash coal by high efficiency coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Horsfall, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    The washability of South African coals is described and the problems encountered in washing at low densities, to make premium products, are enumerated. The measures taken to overcome those problems, when low density separations became a commercial necessity, are described in detail. The descriptions of processes are with specific reference to the three sizes commonly treated separately in coal preparation namely coarse coal, small coal, and fine coal. Some information is given on the performance characteristics of the plants erected to meet market requirements.

  5. Mechanoemission and mechanochemistry of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Khrustalev, Yu.A.; Khrenkova, T.M.; Lebedev, V.V.; Toporov, Yu.P.

    1983-01-01

    The article provides experimental data on high-energy electron emission during the fine dispersion of coal in vacuo under the influence of an electrostatic field, and shows the mechano-chemical transformation which occurs in the crushed samples. Electron flow is dependent on coal rank and is a maximum in medium rank coals. Long-flame, gas, fat and coking coal show a higher emission value than fusain. Electron flow depends on chemical constitution as well as physical properties (friability, conductivity) of the coal.

  6. Pretreatment of coal during transport

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Glenn E.; Neilson, Harry B.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1977-04-19

    Many available coals are "caking coals" which possess the undesirable characteristic of fusing into a solid mass when heated through their plastic temperature range (about 400.degree. C.) which temperature range is involved in many common treatment processes such as gasification, hydrogenation, carbonization and the like. Unless the caking properties are first destroyed, the coal cannot be satisfactorily used in such processes. A process is disclosed herein for decaking finely divided coal during its transport to the treating zone by propelling the coal entrained in an oyxgen-containing gas through a heated transport pipe whereby the separate transport and decaking steps of the prior art are combined into a single step.

  7. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  8. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, April 26, 1991--July 26, 1991: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-09-11

    A series of carbonyl-based homogeneous catalyst precursors has been prepared. These species include: Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, S{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(CO){sub 6}, S{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 9}. Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3} was prepared by a combined photochemical and thermal route from triphenylphosphine (PPh{sub 3}) in iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO){sub 5}). This preparation procedure, which is selective to the monosubstituted product, is outlined herein. Currently these compounds are being tested as catalysts/catalyst precursors with coal or model compounds in the tubing bomb reactors to provide information relating catalytic activity to catalyst structure and properties. (VC)

  9. Suppression of fine ash formation in pulverized coal flames. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kramlich, J.C.; Butcher, E.K.; Chenevert, B.

    1994-04-30

    During the present quarter the model was coded and tested on the Illinois coal. Some features of the process need discussion. After devolatilization, the char particle heats towards its steady-state combustion temperature. At approximately 1200--1300 K, the particle quickly goes from a temperature where the equilibrium sodium vapor pressure is negligible to a temperature where it is at one atmosphere. This shows that the sodium vaporization occurs under non-isothermal conditions, although the rapid rate of sodium diffusion relative to particle heating suggests that the quasi steady-state formulation for the sodium vaporization portion of the problem is appropriate. It also illustrates the two-stage release pattern for the sodium: (1) an early rapid release of organically-bound sodium, and (2) a more delayed release of acid-washable sodium, and sodium that was complexed into clay chemicals during the organic sodium vaporization. The conditions reported for the present calculations are as follows: Coal: 8.7% ash, 12% H{sub 2}O, 33.5% volatile matter. Elemental sodium represent 0.82% of the ash. For purposes of calculation, the char particle is presumed to consist of the fixed carbon from the proximate analysis, along with the ash. This establishes the mass fraction of sodium and other minerals in the char at the start of char combustion. For the baseline condition, the char particle was assumed to be 50% covered by attached excluded mineral, and the included mineral matter was assumed to be divided into monodisperse 0.5 {mu}m particles that are evenly dispersed throughout the char. The diameter of the char particle was 25 {mu}m.

  10. Flow and design characteristics of the hydrocyclone for the recovery of coal fines. Second quarterly report, December 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Spheres for the preliminary experiments consisting of three sizes (1/8'', 1/4'' and 3/8'' diameters) and specific gravities ranging from 1.05 to 2.10 have been purchased. Since we have been unable to locate commercially made spheres with a specific gravity of approximately 1.8, preparations are being made to make these using an injection molding machine in the College of Engineering and Technology laboratories. This range of specific gravities is expected to be sufficient for these experiments since coal lies in the range from 1.2 to 1.8 and the dense impurities such as clay, pyritic sulfur and sandstone have specific gravities greater than 2.0. Data taking using spheres has begun. Sample plots are shown. A master's thesis giving much more data will be completed in April or early May. A computer program has been developed to process and plot the data. Good progress has been made toward the design and fabrication of a second experimental hydrocyclone. Not only does this feature other parameters, such as inlet cross-sectional area, cone angle and length of the hydrocyclone main chamber, that can all be varied but it will also afford the project another system to use for taking data. Details of this new system are presented.

  11. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the third quarter, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report is concerned with the progress made during the third period of the two year project. A significant portion of this reporting period has been consumed in measurement of induction time of oil-free and oil-coated bubbles, modification of collector gasifier, hydrocarbon oil encapsulated flotation tests and float and sink analyses of various rank of coal samples, building a 1-inch column cell, as well as building the ultrasound collector emulsification apparatus. Induction time has been measured using an Electronic Induction Timer. The results indicate that alteration of chemical properties of air bubble by applying hydrocarbon oil or reagent can drastically improve the rate of flotation process. Various techniques have been employed in hydrocarbon oil encapsulated flotation processes to further enhance the selectivity of the process, which include: (1) gasified collector flotation with addition of gasified collector into the air stream in the initial stage; (2) two-stage (rougher-cleaner) gasified collector flotation; and (3) starvation gasified collector flotation by addition of gasified collector at various flotation times. Among these, three techniques used in hydrocarbon oil encapsulated flotation process, the starvation flotation technique provides the best selectivity.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, August 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The construction of the DOE POC at the OCDO facility continued through this entire quarter. By the end of the quarter approximately 90% of all of the construction had been completed. All equipment has beeninstalled, checked for mechanical and installation and operated from a local pushbutton. During this quarter a review of items to be completed for start-up was compiled. This information was then presented to the construction subcontractors and agreement was concluded that all items will be completed and operational for processing coal by February 1, 1993. There are still several items that were not on site for installation during this quarter. These items are the flocculant controls supplied by Westec Engineering, Inc., and the discharge valve for the hyperbaric filter supplied by KHD. Neither of these items will prevent start-up. The flocculants can be manually controlled and provisions are all ready provided to bypass the hyperbaric filter to the Sharpels high-G centrifuge. Both of these items are scheduled for delivery in mid-January.

  13. Process for producing high-concentration slurry of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoji, K.; Itoh, H.; Kamao, M.; Takao, Sh.; Tatsumi, Sh.

    1985-02-19

    High concentrated coal-water slurry is produced by coarsely crushing coal, thereafter pulverizing the coarsely crushed coal, together with water and a slurry dispersant, according to necessity, in a wet-type ball mill, and feeding back one portion of the finely pulverized coal slurry thus obtained into the inlet of the wet-type ball mill.

  14. Demonstration of Technology for the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM 2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash

    SciTech Connect

    R. S. Perrone; J. G. Groppo; T. L. Robl

    2006-07-20

    Three types of chemically and functionally different thermoplastic polymers have been chosen for evaluation with the fly ash derived filler: high density polyethylene (HDPE), thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The selections were based on volumes consumed in commercial and recycled products. The reference filler selected for comparison was 3 {micro}m calcium carbonate, a material which is commonly used with all three types of polymers. A procedure to prepare filled polymers has been developed and the polymer/filler blends have been prepared. Selected samples of filled polymers were subjected to SEM analysis to verify that the fly ash derived filler and the calcium carbonate were well dispersed. Material taken from a utility ash pond was classified using a novel combination of hydraulic and lamellar classifiers to produce an ultra-fine ash product. This product was dried and used in a series of tests to determine its potential as a filler in plastics. The general properties of the ultra-fine ash from several runs are as follows: D{sub 50}: 3-5 {micro}m; Specific gravity: {approx}2.41; Loss on ignition: 2-3%; Carbon content: 1-2%; Color: dark grey on content: 1-2%; and Morphology: spherical. The addition of fillers increased the modulus of the HDPE composite, but decreased both the offset yield stress and offset yield strain, showing that the fillers essentially made the composite stiffer but the transition to plastic deformation occurred earlier in filled HDPE as stress was applied. Similar results were obtained with TPE, however, the decrease in either stress or strain at offset yield were not as significant. Dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) were also completed and showed that although there were some alterations in the properties of the HDPE and TPE, with the addition of CaCO{sub 3} and fly ash, the alterations are small, and more importantly, transition temperatures are not altered. A utility patent on the design of the hydraulic

  15. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  16. New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-15

    Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

  17. Method of simultaneously grinding coal and dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1987-02-10

    A method is described of reducing coal and dolomite, each having its own hardness characteristic, the coal and dolomite being simultaneously reduced in a common impact mill to prepare a common charge of a mix thereof having a particle size as a fuel for combustion. The method comprises: (a) mixing the coal and dolomite initially in a predetermined volumetric ratio in the impact mill, thereby forming a common charge of coal and dolomite; (b) impacting the common charge of coal and dolomite, thereby reducing the size of the coal and dolomite; (c) retaining a portion of the common charge of coal and dolomite during the impacting step in the mill to absorb a portion of the impact energy applied to the coal and dolomite, thereby minimizing the formation of extreme fines; and (d) collecting the common charge of coal and dolomite after the impacting step.

  18. Blasting-induced damage in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kabongo, K.K.

    1995-12-31

    The paper is drawn from a project intended to explore a technique of prediction, control and optimization of fracture in coal induced by blasting. It evaluates the fines generated in coal submitted to dynamic loading stresses in an impact stamp mortar. The aim is to analyze a complex phenomenon of coal response to blast-generated stresses from a series of discrete simulations of shock and gas actions in controllable processes. It is learned that despite the nucleation of primary crushing and fractures to originate from the point of impact energy in coal, a secondary crushing appears to depart from within the burden progressing towards the free boundaries. The extension of the secondary crushing zone appears to be influenced by the magnitude of the breaking stresses generated and the coal burden distance. A strong dependence of fines on the coal`s innate discontinuities (strength) and the energy input is highlighted.

  19. Fine Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of fine arts as sources to enrich the study of history. Suggests that such works will serve as barometers of change, examples of cross-cultural influences, and political messages. Includes suggestions of works and artists from different historic periods. (DK)

  20. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  1. Recent developments in coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, M.K.; Hafke, C.F.

    1983-05-01

    The authors trace the historical development of the Lurgi fixed-bed gasifier, showing how its application has been expanded. Improvements have been made in the type and size of coal which can be gasified and in the quality of gas produced. Particular attention is given to the Ruhr 100 pressure gasifier and to the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasifier. Current work includes a programme on fine-coal agglomeration.

  2. Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III ); Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. DESTEC Energy Williams Technology, Illinois Coal Association )

    1992-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals.

  3. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  4. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  5. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, George; Gokhale, Ashok J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  6. Elk Valley coal implements smartcell flotation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stirling, J.C.

    2008-06-15

    In anticipation of future raw coal containing higher fines content, Elk Valley Coal Corp.'s Greenhills Operations upgraded their fines circuit to include Wemco SmartCells in March 2007. Positive results were immediately achieved increasing the average flotation tailings ash by 16%. With this increase in yield the SmartCells project paid for itself in less than eight months. 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  7. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 3, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Energy International Corporation (El) was awarded a contract to evaluate a new concept for utilization of the fine coal wetcake produced by many of the physical beneficiation processes now under development. EI proposed development of a stabilized wetcake with properties that would facilitate storage, handling, transport, and subsequent conversion of the material into Coal-Water Fuel (CWF) at the point of use. The effort was performed in three phases. Phase I established the technical feasibility of stabilizing the fine coal ``wetcake`` in a form that can be readily handled and converted into a desired fuel form at the combustion site. The preferred form of stabilized ``wetcake`` was a granular free flowing material with the moisture encapsulated with the fine coal particles. The product was termed Mulled Coal. Phase I results indicated that the Mulled Coal was not only suitable as a CWF intermediate, but also had potential as a solid fuel. Phase II demonstrated the utilization of the Mulled Coal process to store and move fine coal products as a stable ``wetcake.`` Tasks in this phase tested components of the various systems required for storage, handling and combustion of the fine coals. Phase III expanded the technology by: 1. Evaluating Mulled Coal from representative coals from all producing regions in the US. 2. Development of bench-scale tests. 3. Design, construction, and operation of a 1 ton/hr continuous processing unit. 4. Evaluation of the effects of beneficiation. and 5. Developing an estimate of capital and operating costs for commercial units.

  8. Column flotation research at United Coal looks to pay off

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, P.

    1988-07-01

    Column flotation technology, designed to recover coal fines, has been the focus of research in private, university, and government laboratories for several years. While the potential of this technology continues to be scrutinized by scientists, the first commercial-size units have also been quietly placed on-line in two eastern preparation plants. The recently installed cells at both plants have gone through debugging procedures and are now achieving substantial recoveries of fine coal formerly lost to waste. For Tanoma that added production is 10.4 tph of fine coal; for United Coal, fine coal recovery exceeds 15 tph, an amount expected to rise to perhaps as much as 25 tph. The author describes how column flotation works and the systems at Tanoma Mining and United Coal.

  9. Micronized coal solves mushroom grower's boiler headaches

    SciTech Connect

    Reason, J.

    1984-03-01

    A brief account is given of a Utah mushroom grower who has replaced two underfeed stoker-fired boilers requiring 7 attendants by an ultra-fine pulverised coal-fired system. The coal is ground in a proprietary rotary grinder to 80% through a 325-mesh screen. Information is presented on the mill and the special refractory burners required.

  10. Tribological properties of coal slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

    1987-01-01

    A pin-on-disk tribometer was used to study the tribological properties of methyl alcohol-coal slurries. Friction coefficients, steel pin wear rates and wear surface morphological studies were conducted on AISI 440C HT and M-50 bearing steels which were slid dry and in solutions of methyl alcohol, methyl alcohol-fine coal particles, and methyl alcohol-fine coal particles-flocking additive. The latter was an oil derived from coal and originally intended to be added to the coal slurry to improve the sedimentation and rheology properties. The results of this study indicated that the addition of the flocking additive to the coal slurry markedly improved the tribological properties, especially wear. In addition, the type of steel was found to be very important in determining the type of wear that took place. Cracks and pits were found on the M-50 steel pin wear surfaces that slid in the coal slurries while 440C HT steel pins showed none.

  11. Gaseous phase coal surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  12. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period was devoted to experimental design and fabrication tasks.

  13. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  14. A new approach in ultrapurification of coal by selective flocculation

    SciTech Connect

    Moudgil, B.M.

    1992-04-01

    The specific objective of the present investigation is to develop a mathematical and computational model to elicit values of active sites ({phi}) and fractional surface coverage ({theta}) which would yield optimum separation of coal from coal pyrite and coal refuse. Attempts are to be made to select appropriate flocculants and experimental conditions to obtain {phi} and {theta} values as dictated by the theoretical model so as to achieve the desired separation in naturally occurring samples of fine coal. (VC)

  15. Coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  16. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period focused on assembling the supercritical particle generation/collection system. Effort was applied to constructing a shakedown testing plan also.

  17. Utilization of low grade coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.E.

    1981-12-01

    Purpose was to construct and use a pilot furnace that could utilize low-grade coal (steam coal and coal fines) in place of oil or natural gas. This pilot furnace was tested on a 66-inch Raymond H.S. Roller Mill at the No. 1 plant of the James River Limestone Co. Results indicate that the commercial use is feasible; drying costs average $0.36 per ton with coal vs $0.80 per ton on annual basis when oil fired. Results are applicable to limestone manufacturers producing dry pulverized products. (DLC)

  18. Statistical relationship between pyrite grain size distribution and pyritic sulfur reduction in Ohio coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazumdar, M.; Carlton, R.W.; Irdi, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical relationship between the pyrite particle size distribution and the potential amount of pyritic sulfur reduction achieved by specific-gravity-based separation. This relationship is obtained from data on 26 Ohio coal samples crushed to 14 ?? 28 mesh. In this paper a prediction equation is developed that considers the complete statistical distribution of all the pyrite particle sizes in the coal sample. Assuming that pyrite particles occurring in coal have a lognormal distribution, the information about the particle size distribution can be encapsulated in terms of two parameters only, the mean and the standard deviation of the logarithms of the grain diameters. When the pyritic sulfur reductions of the 26 coal samples are related to these two parameters, a very satisfactory regression equation (R2 = 0.91) results. This equation shows that information on both these parameters is needed for an accurate prediction of potential sulfur reduction, and that the mean and the standard deviation interact negatively insofar as their influence on pyritic sulfur reduction is concerned. ?? 1988.

  19. Treatment of waste water in non-evaporating dehydration of low grade coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, Y.; Kamei, T.; Komai, K.; Kurihara, M.; Matsuura, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Shimotamari, A.; Wakabayashi, T.

    1983-07-26

    In a non-evaporating dehydration of brown coal, the coal is crushed and classified into lumps and fine particles. The lumps of coal are subjected to a non-evaporating dehydration in which waste water is produced. The waste water is contacted with the fine particles of coal so that components which affect the COD value of the water are absorbed by the coal particles. The coal particles are then burnt to produce saturated steam which is used in the non-evaporating dehydration.

  20. Characterization of mineral and coal surfaces by adsorption of dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Dawson, M.R.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic method is described for dye adsorption measurements to characterize mineral and coal surfaces for the evaluation of coal cleaning processes. Samples of increasing mineral content were prepared by density separation of a narrowly sized (300 to 425 /mu/m) wet-sieved coal. The rates and extents of the adsorption of ionic dyes on Illinois No. 6 coal were observed to be highly dependent on mineral content and particle size of ground coal samples. A linear correlation was observed between the adsorbed quantity of dye and the total mineral content of coal samples. Dry-sieved coals were found to be coated by fine material of high mineral ash content which adsorbed greater than 20 times more methylene blue per gram than wet-sieved particles. In preliminary experiments with methylene blue dye, clay was found to adsorb significantly more dye than quartz, pyrite, calcite or low-ash specific gravity fractions of coal.

  1. Column flotation of coal with fluorosurfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Laboratory tests were carried out by the US Bureau of Mines, Salt Lake City Research Center to evaluate the potential of column flotation technology, coupled with novel fluorosurfactant collectors, for the selective flotation of fine coal from pyritic sulfur and mineral matter. The results on flotation feeds of both {minus}100 and {minus}400 mesh Middle Kittaning seam coal samples are presented. 4 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  3. Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. |||

    1992-08-01

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals.

  4. Method of manufacture of blast furnace cokes containing substantial amounts of low grade coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, K.; Takahashi, H.; Tsuyuguchi, M.

    1982-03-09

    Blast furnace coke containing low grade coal in a high blending ratio is manufactured by a method which comprises blending not less than 60% of a blended coal having an adjusted total moisture content of not more than 4% with not more than 40% of briquettes and carbonizing the resultant mixture. The blended coal consists essentially of not less than 80% of coking coal and not more than 20% of low grade coal. When coking coal of a kind which has its coking property segregated according to its grain size distribution is pulverized and classified by sifting and the portion of fine particles is used as mixed with the coking coal, the blending ratio of the low grade coal in the blended coal can be increased to up to 35%. The briquettes consist essentially of not less than 10% of coking coal and not more than 90% of low grade coal.

  5. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  6. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  7. An experimental study on desulfurization of high-sulfur coal slime with free jet flotation column

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Hua; Huang Bo; Xia Qing

    1998-12-31

    A free jet flotation column gives good selectivity and high separation efficiency in treating fine and ultra-fine coal. This paper reports test results of coal desulfurization with a free jet flotation column. Test results showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shan was processed its pyritic sulfur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0.84%, with 72.22% recovery of combustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurization Efficiency Index E(ds) for a comprehensive evaluation of desulfurization process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction and the recovery of combustible matters in clean coal.

  8. Coal treatment process and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Getsoian, J.A.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a process for obtaining product coal agglomerates. It comprises mixing an aqueous slurry of finely divided coal particles and particles of pyrites and other mineral matter with an organic, water-insoluble, steam-strippable, bridging liquid selected from the group consisting of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons having from 5 to 9 carbon atoms and mixtures thereof, under high shear conditions effective to wet the coal particles with the bridging liquid and convert same into microagglomerates, then mixing the aqueous slurry of the microagglomerates of coal and the particles of pyrites and other mineral matters together with an organic, water-insoluble binder comprising asphalt and the bridging liquid, under low shear conditions effective to agglomerate the microagglomerates to form product coal agglomerates, then separating water and the particles of pyrites and other mineral matter from the product coal agglomerates, then heating the product coal agglomerates and thereby evaporating and removing the bridging liquid from the product coal agglomerates, and then recovering the product coal agglomerates substantially free of the bridging liquid.

  9. Evaluation of fine-particle size catalysts using standard test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.

    1996-07-01

    The goal of this project is to evaluate and compare the activities/selectivities of fine-particle size catalysts being developed in the DOE/PETC Advanced Research (AR) Liquefaction Program by using standard coal liquefaction activity test procedures. Since bituminous and subbituminous coals have significantly different properties, it is feasible that catalysts may perform differently with these coal types. Because all previous testing has been done with the DECS-17 Blind Canyon bituminous coal, it is important to develop the capability of evaluating catalysts using a subbituminous coal. Initial efforts towards developing a subbituminous coal test are aimed at comparing the reactivities of the Wyodak subbituminous coal and the Blind Canyon bituminous coal. Therefore, the same factorial experimental design was used with the Wyodak coal as was used previously with the Blind Canyon coal. In addition, PNL`s 6-line ferrihydrite catalyst precursor was used in the development of the Wyodak coal test procedure because this catalyst is the best powder catalyst found to date in Sandia`s tests with Blind Canyon coal. Results show that Blind Canyon coal yields higher DHP amounts in the reaction products and higher tetrahydrofuran conversions at the higher severity conditions. Wyodak coal gives higher heptane conversions and higher gas yields for all conditions tested.

  10. Primary coal crushers grow to meet demand

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-09-15

    Mine operators look for more throughput with less fines generation in primary crushers (defined here as single role crushers and two stage crushers). The article gives advice on crusher selection and application. Some factors dictating selection include the desired product size, capacity, Hard Grove grindability index, percentage of rock to be freed and hardness of that rock. The hardness of coal probably has greatest impact on product fineness. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Upgraded coal interest group. First quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    The interest group got under way effective January 1, 1994, with nine utility members, EPRI, Bechtel, and the Illinois Clean Coal Institute. DOE participation was effective October 1, 1994. The first meeting was held on April 22, 1994 in Springfield, Illinois and the second meeting was held on August 10--11, 1994 at Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Technical reviews were prepared in several areas, including the following: status of low rank coal upgrading, advanced physical coal cleaning, organic sulfur removal from coal, handling of fine coal, combustion of coal water slurries. It was concluded that, for bituminous coals, processing of fines from coal cleaning plants or impoundments was going to be less costly than processing of coal, since the fines were intrinsically worth less and advanced upgrading technologies require fine coal. Penelec reported on benefits of NOX reductions when burning slurry fuels. Project work was authorized in the following areas: Availability of fines (CQ, Inc.), Engineering evaluations (Bechtel), and Evaluation of slurry formulation and combustion demonstrations (EER/MATS). The first project was completed.

  12. Column flotation results at Powell Mountain Coal Company

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, W.J. Parekh, B.K. )

    1992-01-01

    In 1989 a column flotation process was developed at the CAER, which enabled the economical recovery of coal fines from high-ash fine refuse. The laboratory design was expanded to commercial scale and installed at the Mayflower Coal Preparation Plant of Powell Mountain Coal Company in December, 1989. It has been in continuous operation there since that time. This article is a summary of the past two years' experiences with this applied technology, applicable dewatering tests and flotation tests results from the plant.

  13. Microwave treatment of a brown coal concentrate from Mugunsk coal for the manufacture of sponge iron

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Khaidurova; P.N. Konovalov; N.P. Konovalov

    2008-04-15

    A technique for the production of a finely dispersed dry brown coal concentrate with the use of microwave energy is proposed to prepare a charge mixture for the manufacture of sponge iron. The advantages of this technique over analogous industrial processes are demonstrated. The results of experiments on the briquetting of the charge mixture of brown coal and iron ore concentrates without the use of an additional binding agent are described.

  14. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, R.F.; Miller, R.N.

    1986-09-02

    A process is described for solvent refining coal to yield an asphaltene-rich product stream by forming a slurry of finely divided coal and a process solvent therefor, which process comprises the steps of: (1) contacting the slurry with a hydrogen-rich gas; (2) heating the slurry in the presence of the hydrogen-rich gas. (3) permitting the heated slurry to react and to dissolve at least some of the coal. (4) adding fresh hydrogen as required to form a liquefied coal slurry; (5) passing the liquefied coal slurry to a separator in which a vapor product stream and a condensed product stream are separated; (6) passing the condensed product stream to a vacuum distillation still; (7) removing from the vacuum distillation still a residual bottoms product, wherein the residual bottoms product from the still is mixed with a suitable extractions solvent and is passed to supercritical extraction system to separate an asphaltene-rich stream comprised of pentane solubles and benzene solubles from a preasphaltene-rich stream which includes solids residue material, the preasphaltene-rich stream comprised of benzene insolubles, pyridine solubles, pyridine insolubles and ash; (8) recycling at least a portion of the preasphaltene-rich stream together with the solid residue material as process solvent, with less than 10 percent of the process solvent comprising asphaltenes; (9) withdrawing the asphaltene-rich stream and passing the asphaltene-rich stream to a solvent recovery system to yield an asphaltene-rich product stream and an extraction solvent stream.

  15. Assessment of coal-water slurry fuels for electric power generation in Southern Indiana: Part 1, Detailed resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, D.N.; Harvey, C.; Dazhen, T.

    1997-07-01

    Impounded coal fines, a by-product of wet coal preparation techniques, are a potential fuel resource for electric power generation due to their abundance and characteristics when burned as a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF). Recent work by the Pennsylvania Electric Company and others has shown that co-firing CWSF composed of cleaned material from slurry impoundments can reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides by as much as twenty percent. The commercial reality of using impounded coal fines as a CWSF depends more on coal cost, processing requirements, and the value of emission reduction credits than on the quality or abundance of the material. Many Southern Indiana slurry impoundments, including those selected for characterization in this study, contain over one-million tons of fine coal. The older impoundments have a higher percentage of coarse coal. One impoundment filled prior to 1975 averages fifty percent coal particles greater than 30 mesh (600 {mu}). Improvements in preparation plant fine coal recovery circuits are reflected by an increasing percentage of less than 200 mesh (75 {mu}) coal in more recently filled impoundments. Another impoundment filled in 1995 averages forty-nine percent coal and mineral particles finer than 200 mesh. Bench scale sink/float testing showed that separating particles with a specific gravity greater than 1.7 produced a fine coal with ten percent ash and three percent sulfur. This is similar in quality, but finer in particle size, to the coal currently used in a typical coal fired power station burning typical Illinois Basin coals. Detailed characterization of two inactive impoundments highlighted the differences between coal fines in an older impoundment and one filled in the last ten years.

  16. A new approach in ultrapurification of coal by selective flocculation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moudgil, B.M.

    1992-04-01

    The specific objective of the present investigation is to develop a mathematical and computational model to elicit values of active sites ({phi}) and fractional surface coverage ({theta}) which would yield optimum separation of coal from coal pyrite and coal refuse. Attempts are to be made to select appropriate flocculants and experimental conditions to obtain {phi} and {theta} values as dictated by the theoretical model so as to achieve the desired separation in naturally occurring samples of fine coal. (VC)

  17. Comparative analysis for performance of brown coal combustion in a vortex furnace with improved design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasinsky, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    Comparative study of 3D numerical simulation of fluid flow and coal-firing processes was applied for flame combustion of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal in a vortex furnace of improved design with bottom injection of secondary air. The analysis of engineering performance of this furnace was carried out for several operational modes as a function of coal grinding fineness and coal input rate. The preferable operational regime for furnace was found.

  18. Heavy metals and coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Danihelka, P.; Ochodek, T.; Noskievic, P.; Seidlerova, J.

    1998-07-01

    Combustion of coal may be an important source of heavy metals pollution. The distribution of heavy metals during combustion process has been studied in six power plants, where fuel, bottom ash, fly ash and emissions have been analyzed and the relative concentrations of heavy metals have been estimated. For the most volatile metals (arsenic, antimony, lead, and zinc), the redistribution process involving condensation on surface is probable. Some metals like manganese or chromium are concentrated rather in coarse particles. In such cases, no clear conclusion can be made and probably several mechanisms are involved, including mineral form of metal. Typical results of low chlorine coal (0.01--0.03% Cl) exhibit increasing concentration of volatile metals in the magnitude of around one order when going from bottom ash to emissions. Different results have been found in similar operation conditions in the case of high content of chlorine in coal (0.3% of Cl in coal). In this case, the concentration of metals in emissions is significantly higher and also nickel, copper and manganese concentrations increase. It seems to be probable that chlorine in the coal increases the redistribution of metals by volatile chlorides formation. At three operation condition (nominal output, 70% and 40% respectively) emission factors of heavy metals have been estimated for 35 MW stoker-fired boiler. Ba, Pb, Sb and Zn increased their emission factors and Cr and Mn decreased when output was decreased. Heavy metals pollution caused by emissions from combustion of coal may be decreased by fine particles removal, other possibilities (metals extraction from the coal, changes of condition in the flame) are rather limited.

  19. Apparatus for centrifugal separation of coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dickie, William; Cavallaro, Joseph A.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A gravimetric cell for centrifugal separation of fine coal by density has a cylindrical body and a butterfly valve or other apparatus for selectively sealing the body radially across the approximate center of the cylinder. A removable top is provided which seals the cylinder in the centrifuge and in unvented areas.

  20. Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

  1. Undrained shear strength of partially saturated combined coal refuse. First annual report: Strength and consolidation characteristics of coal refuse for design and construction of disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.H.; Li, J.

    1986-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study on the undrained shear strength of partially saturated combined refuse. The study is part of a research project entitled 'Strength and Consolidation Characteristics of Coal Refuse for Design and Construction of Disposal Facilities supported by the Office of Surface Mining, Department of the Interior. Information presented in the report will be used for the design and construction of disposal facilities. Coal refuse, the waste product from coal washing, is separated in the coal preparation plant into two fractions (coarse and fine). The fine refuse, in the form of either a slurry or a filter cake, is unstable and difficult to handle.

  2. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles are difficult to dewater and create problems in coal transportation, as well as in storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine the ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, several types of coal samples with various particle size distributions have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. Furthermore, various bitumen emulsions have been tested to determine the optimum dewatering reagent. These dewatering and pelletizing tests were carried out using a lab-scale ram extruder. Discharge from the dewatering and briquetting processes was tested to determine compliance with current federal and state requirements. The influence of bitumen emulsion on the sulfur content of coal pellets made were also examined. In addition, a ram extruder which can be operated continuously to simulate a rotary press operation, has been built and is currently being tested for use in the fine coal dewatering and pelletizing process.

  3. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Energy International is developing a technology that will create a staged formulation with the first coal form (Mulled Coal) that can be stored, transported, and pumped. Just prior to combustion, the Mulled Coal (MC) would be modified to provide the properties needed for proper atomization. This concept is an alternative to the expensive and energy intensive thermal drying processing of fine coal wet cakes. The material is suitable for both direct feed use in conventional and fluid bed combustors as well as on-site conversion to combustible slurries. By maintaining the coal form relatively close to the feed wet cake, only minor processing with low additive levels and low energy blending needed at the point of production. Its conversion to slurry or other use-feed form is made near the time of use and thus the requirements for stability, climatic control, and other storage, transport, and handling requirements are much less severe.

  4. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Energy International is developing a technology that will create a staged formulation with the first coal form (Mulled Coal) that can be stored, transported, and pumped. Just prior to combustion, the Mulled Coal (MC) is modified to provide the properties needed for proper atomization. This concept is an alternative to the expensive and energy intensive thermal drying processing of fine coal wetcakes. The material is suitable for both direct feed use in conventional and fluid bed combustors as well as on-site conversion to combustible slurries. By maintaining the coal form relatively close to the feed wetcake, only minor processing with low additive levels and low energy blending is needed at the point of production. Its conversion to slurry or other use-feed form is made near the time of use and thus the requirements for stability, climatic control, and other storage, transport, and handling requirements are much less severe.

  5. Coal slurry pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Chassagne, P.J.

    1980-02-05

    A method is disclosed for preparing industrial ores, e.g., coal, for pipelining and pipelining the ores to a site for subsequent processing or use. Ore from a mine is screened into two fractions, one having a large size particle distribution and one having a small size particle distribution, each fraction retaining both the ore and the refuse. The large size particle fraction is cleaned of refuse and the clean ore therefrom crushed to a size distribution of the smaller size or small size ore fraction. The separated refuse from the large size particle fraction is ground to provide superfines to the extent required for the proper particle size distribution for pipelining. The ore and superfine refuse are combined in a water slurry for pipelining. After pipelining the ore, the ore is cleaned and dewatered conveniently as known in the art for fine ore. The resulting ore may then be stockpiled or directly used.

  6. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Michael T. Klein

    1998-10-01

    Major objectives of the present project are to develop a better understanding of the roles of the catalyst and the liquefaction solvent in the coal liquefaction process. An open question concerning the role of the catalyst is whether intimate contact between the catalyst and the coal particles is important or required. To answer this question, it had been planned to coat an active catalyst with a porous silica coating which was found to retain catalyst activity while preventing actual contact between catalyst and coal. Consultation with people in DuPont who coat catalysts for increasing abrasion resistance have indicated that only portions of the catalyst are coated by their process (spray drying) and that sections of uncoated catalyst remain. For that reason, it was decided to suspend the catalyst in a basket separated from the coal in the reactor. The basket walls were to be permeable to the liquefaction solvent but not to the coal particles. Several such baskets were constructed of stainless steel with holes which would not permit passage of coal particles larger than 30 mesh. Liquefactions run with the coal of greater than 30 mesh size gave normal conversion of coal to liquid in the absence of catalyst in the basket, but substantially increased conversion when Ni/Mo on alumina catalyst was in the basket. While this result is interesting and suggestive of some kind of mass transfer of soluble material occurring between the catalyst and the coal, it does not eliminate the possibility of breakdown of the coal particle into particle sizes permeable to the basket. Indeed, a small amount of fine coal has been found inside the basket. To determine whether fine coal from breakdown of the coal particles is responsible for the conversion, a new basket is being prepared with 0.5{micro}m pore size.

  7. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Phillips, D.I.; Luttrell, G.H.; Basim, B.; Sohn, S.; Jiang, X.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K.; Meloy, T.

    1996-10-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities were focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies were conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing and a spiral model was developed by West Virginia University. For the University of Kentucky the advisory board approved a project entitled: ``A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth``. Project management and administration will be provided by Virginia Tech., for the first year. Progress reports for coal dewatering and destabilization of flotation froth studies are presented in this report.

  8. Laboratory scale separation of coal macerals

    SciTech Connect

    Dyrkacz, G.R.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory scale procedure for separation of the maceral constituents of coal has been developed. This procedure is a modification and scale-up of our earlier density gradient centrifugation method. The technique enables us to separate larger quantities and to obtain higher density resoltuions of individual coal macerals than was previously possible. The procedure involves an intiial sink-float separation on finely ground chemically demineralized coal using a high speed centrifuge to obtain large quantities of single maceral groups (i.e., exinite, vitrinite, or inertinite). The maceral concentrate, 15 to 20 g in quantity, rather than the entire coal serves as the feed for the DGC separation. Efforts to apply continuous centrifugation techniques as an alternative to the sink-float separation to concentrate maceral groups were only partially sucessful. 8 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  11. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  12. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Feeley, T.J. III

    1995-06-26

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. Affiliate members currently include AMVEST Minerals; Arch Minerals Corp.; A.T. Massey Coal Co.; Carpco, Inc.; CONSOL Inc.; Cyprus Amax Coal Co.; Pittston Coal Management Co.; and Roberts & Schaefer Company. First year research has focused on fine coal dewatering and modeling.

  13. Coal and Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  14. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  15. Using the undersizes of Karaganda coals in coking charges

    SciTech Connect

    Muzychuk, V.D.; Chernyak, Yu.B.; Khegai, U.; Tyrchenkova, L.M.; Vasyuchkov, E.I.; Vlasova, Z.A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for coking coals have increased considerably in the Karaganda basin in connection with starting up the Vostochaya Central Concentrating Mill and coal treatment plant No. 2 of the Karaganda Metallurgical Complex, as well as in connection with the increase in the use of Karaganda coking coals which has taken place at the plants in the Ural and Ukraine regions. The problem of expanding the source of raw materials is of current interest due to the involvement of Karaganda coals with a high ash content in the charge. In this connection, undersizes of the fine classes of Karaganda coals presently used to meet energy needs are of considerable interest. This paper discusses how an undersize of types K and K2 Karaganda coals can be used in determined amounts in the coking charges of the Karaganda Metallurgical Complex. When the amount of type KZh coals in a charges is decreased (less than or equal to 50%), the percentage of coal undersizes from the Karaganda mine must be no more than 5% due to their inferior agglutinating power. When the content of type KZh coal is 55% or more, the percentage of coal undersizes from the Karaganda mine can be increased to 7%. Coal undersizes from the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution mine possess a higher agglutinating power than those from the Karaganda mine. However, it is not advisable to feed them into a coking charge in an amount surpassing 5% at the present time due to the higher ash content.

  16. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.G.; Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  17. Black Bear Prep plant replaces high-frequency screens with fine wire sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, C.J.; Nottingham, J.

    2007-12-15

    At the Black Bear prep plant (near Wharncliffe, WV, USA) the clean coal from the spirals traditionally reported to high-frequency screens, which removed high-ash clay fines. Screens have inherent inefficiencies that allow clean coal to report to the screen underflow. The goal of this project was to capture the maximum amount of spiral clean coal while still removing the high-ash clay material found in the spiral product. The reduction of the circulating load and plant downtime for unscheduled maintenance were projected as additional benefits. After the plant upgrade, the maintenance related to the high frequency screens was eliminated and an additional 2.27 tons per hour (tph) of fine coal was recovered, which resulted in a payback period of less than one year. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal Prep 2007 in April 2007, Lexington, KY, USA. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Investigation of novel coal-preparation techniques. [Wet

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Onischak, M.; Zabransky, R.F.; Babu, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Three novel coal preparation techniques were investigated. These included wet size-reduction of coal (i.e., in the presence of water) in a high-throughput crusher, and treatment of caking coals by two methods: water-submerged partial oxidation and partial solvent extraction with process-derived solvents at supercritical fluid conditions. A decrease in fines generation was found in the wet size-reduction studies with hard coals. This technique may be advantageous where water slurry handling systems are used to prepare and deliver coals from the mine to the gasifier. The agglomeration tendency of caking coals was reduced by a wet partial-oxidation treatment in a three-phase fluidized bed at 555 K and 6.89 MPa, and also by partial solvent extraction treatments with benzene, toluene, and benzene/phenol mixtures at 644 K and 7.00 MPa.

  19. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  20. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  1. Mild coal gasification: Product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

    1992-08-04

    Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

  2. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries, which have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. The fine grinding of coal is a crucial step in the manufacture of coal-water slurries. In this context, currently available grinding mills exhibit poor energy efficiency for size reduction and non-optimum packing characteristics of the ground coal. The first increases the cost of manufacture of coal-water slurries and the second adversely affects their rheological properties. The newly invented choke-fed, high-pressure roll mill is up to 50% more energy efficient and, moreover, there are reasons to believe that it produces a size distribution of ground particles which is closer to the dense packing composition. The high-pressure roll mill (which is perhaps the only really significant innovation in industrial comminution in this century) has lower capital cost, occupies less floor space, shows negligible wear rate, accepts feed with a wide range of moisture contents and, of particular importance, it can be scaled up to grind hundreds of tons of solids per hour. The high-pressure roll mill provides a unique opportunity to develop an improved technology for preparing coal-water slurries. Our research group in the University of California at Berkeley not only has a fully instrumented, laboratory-scale, choke-fed. high-pressure roll mill (the only one of its kind in the United States) but also fully instrumented laboratory ball mills for comparative fine coal preparation purposes. In this research program, our plans are to systematically investigate comminution energy consumption, deagglomeration procedures, and the stability and rheology of coal-water slurry fuel prepared with high-pressure roll mill, and to compare the results with slurry prepared with ball-milled coal.

  3. The development and manufacture of coal briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinshen; Wei Tingfu; Hao Aimin; Ning Weiyun; Liu Fuhua

    1997-12-31

    Three different kinds of coal briquettes, i.e., gasification briquette, boiler briquette and easy ignition roast briquette, have been developed and produced with the authors` patent binder. The gasification briquette is made from fines of anthracite or coke, hot stability agent and patent binder. It has been used as a substitute of anthracite lump in gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. The three year`s performance of this briquettes in the TG-3MI gasifier has given good economic benefits. The boiler briquette is made from bituminous coal fines, sulphur-fixing agent, combustion-supporting agent, waterproofing agent and patent binder. It can keep its original shape in water for one month. The combustion results of the boiler briquette in a 4t/h coal-fired boiler have shown that heat efficiency increased by 20%, the total suspended particles decreased by 80%, and emission of both SO{sub 2} and Hap were reduced as compared with the raw coal. The easy ignition roast briquette is made from fines of charcoal, anthracite or coke, oxidant and binder. It is convenient and safe to use in that it can be lit with a match or a piece of paper easily and burn continuously for 90 minutes without smoke and odor. It can be used as a fuel for roasting food for a picnic.

  4. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  6. Coal combustion and heavy metals pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Danihelka, P.; Ochodek, T.; Borovec, K.

    1996-12-31

    Combustion of coal may be an important source of heavy metals pollution. The major environmental risks of heavy metals are connected to their toxicity and mobility in the environment. In the flame, heavy metals are re-distributed with respect to their volatility. Enrichment of fine particles by volatile metals is the most important mechanism for most of the metals. Nevertheless, Hg is emitted mainly in gaseous form and some metals like Mn are concentrated rather in coarse particles. Heavy metals pollution caused by emissions from combustion of coal may be decreased by fine particles removal; other possibilities (metals extraction from the coal, changes of condition in the flame) are limited. Fly ashes from the most important Czech power plants were examined with respect to the heavy metals content. The easily leachable elements with high volatility in the flame (arsenic, zinc, lead) were recognized as the most important fly ash pollutants. The average concentrations of these metals in fly ash were: bituminous coal 46{+-}18 ppm As, 196{+-}93 ppm Zn, 126{+-}46 ppm Pb; brown coal 283{+-}260 ppm As, 60{+-}28 ppm Pb and 212{+-}116 ppm Zn. When ESP and cyclones are used in series, fly ashes from ESP have higher concentration of volatile heavy metals, mainly Pb, Zn and As. Presence of chlorine in fuel increases the volatility of metals.

  7. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-03-01

    The research during this quarter was, directed towards: (1) systematic study of preparation of coal fines by high-pressure roll mill grinding and by high-pressure roll mill/ball mill hybrid grinding, (2) investigation of the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by these techniques, and (3) study of the effect of coal cleaning on both short term and long term slurry rheology. Results are discussed.

  8. Magnetic seeding sedimentation (MSS) of coal slimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiqing; Yue, Tao; Dai, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic seeding sedimentation (MSS), i.e. adding magnetic seeds and pre-magnetization for sedimentation, is a technique especially for sedimentation of fine slimes, improving the sedimentation performance by introducing the magnetic interactions between particles in a suspension and enlarging the apparent size of the fine particles. The fine coal slimes with a size of 66.68%-38μm were investigated by the MSS. Sedimentation tests were conducted, and some measurements, such as laser size analysis, magnetic susceptibility by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), were also applied in order to probe the mechanism of the MSS. Based on the tests, measurements and calculations it was demonstrated that the sedimentation of coal slimes increased with the additions of the magnetic seeds, and in the presence of the polyacrylamide, and also there appeared a relatively large apparent size of slimes after additions of magnetic seeds and/or polyacrylamide. So, the reason for the influence of MSS lies in fact that the presence of the polyacrylamide intensified the adsorption of magnetic seeds on the coal particles and the coverage of the magnetic seeds on the coal surface from 0.2% wt. to1.3% wt., resulting in increased magnetic susceptibility of coal particles from 9.13×10-9m3/kg to 22.17×10-9m3/kg and thus a low magnetic field strength of pre-magnetization needed for the magnetic agglomeration to happen among the coal particles (the threshold of magnetic field strength for agglomeration) from 602mT to 24mT prior to proper sedimentation.

  9. Gasification of coal liquefaction residues

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M. S.

    1981-02-03

    A method is described for gasifying the bottoms fraction from a coal liquefaction process. The bottoms fraction are mixed with at least one finely-divided calcium compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide, calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxide with the calcium compound being of a size no larger than about -200 tyler mesh and present in an amount sufficient to produce agglomerate particles upon mixing with the bottoms fraction and thereafter the resulting agglomerate particles are gasified by reacting the agglomerate particles with steam in a fluidized bed.

  10. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1997-05-01

    To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.

  11. Column flotation to produce ultra-clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Groppo, J.G.; Smit, F.; Jha, M.C.; Feeley, T.

    1994-12-31

    Recovery of ultra-fine (minus 200 mesh) coal can be achieved using surface chemical based techniques such as froth flotation and oil agglomeration. Column flotation technique has shown potential to produce ultra-fine clean coal with low ash at high HHV recovery. The objective of this ongoing US DOE sponsored study is to evaluate various column configuration six different types of coal to produce premium quality coal containing less than 0.6 lb/mm Btu sulfur and less than 1 lb/mm Btu ash. The other goal of the study is to produce this ultra-clean coal at a cost of about $2.50/mm Btu. Amax Research and Development Center, prime contractor on this project, and other team members selected six different coals which are low in organic sulfur and have shown potential of cleaning to low ash level. The Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) has evaluated two different types of bubble generating systems on six different coals to produce low ash clean coal at high ({approximately}90 percent) HHV recovery.

  12. Geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qinyuan; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Kang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on 1625 data collected from the published literature, the geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals, including the abundance, distribution, modes of occurrence, genetic types and combustion behavior, was discussed to make a better understanding. Our statistic showed the average Sn of Chinese coal was 3.38 mg/kg, almost two times higher than the world. Among all the samples collected, Guangxi coals occupied an extremely high Sn enrichment (10.46 mg/kg), making sharp contrast to Xinjiang coals (0.49 mg/kg). Two modes of occurrence of Sn in Chinese coals were found, including sulfide-bounded Sn and clay-bounded Sn. In some coalfields, such as Liupanshui, Huayingshan and Haerwusu, a response between REEs distribution and Sn content was found which may caused by the transportation of Sn including clay minerals between coal seams. According to the responses reflecting on REEs patterns of each coalfield, several genetic types of Sn in coalfields were discussed. The enrichment of Sn in Guangxi coals probably caused by Sn-rich source rocks and multiple-stage hydrothermal fluids. The enriched Sn in western Guizhou coals was probably caused by volcanic ashes and sulfide-fixing mechanism. The depletion of Sn in Shengli coalfield, Inner Mongolia, may attribute to hardly terrigenous input and fluids erosion. As a relative easily volatilized element, the Sn-containing combustion by-products tended to be absorbed on the fine particles of fly ash. In 2012, the emission flux of Sn by Chinese coal combustion was estimated to be 0.90 × 10(9) g.

  13. Design Fuels Corporation (DFC)-Apache, Inc. coal reclamation system for the plant of the future for processing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, J.; Karsnak, G.

    1998-12-31

    The mechanical washing processing and drying portion of the DFC process offers an efficient method for cleaning of pyritic sulfur bearing compounds which represents 25% sulfur reduction from original run-of-mine coal quality. This reduction can be augmented with the use of calcium and sodium based compounds to reduce the sulfur in many coals to produce compliance quality coal. The use of mechanical/physical methods for the removal of the pyritic material found in coal is used by the DFC process as a first step to the final application of a complete coal refuse clean-up technology based on site specific conditions of the parent coal. The paper discusses the use of the DFC process to remediate slurry ponds and tailings piles and to improve coal cleaning by gravity separation methods, flotation, hydrocyclones and spiral separators, dense media separation, water only cyclones, and oil/solvent agglomeration. A typical DFC Project is the Rosa Coal Reclamation Project which involves the development of a bituminous coal waste impoundment reclamation and washery system. The plant would be located adjacent to a coal fines pond or tailings pond and refuse pile or gob pile at a former coal strip mine in Oneonta, Alabama. Design Fuels would provide a development program by which coal waste at the Rosa Mine could be reclaimed, cleaned and sold profitably. This feedstock could be furnished from recovered coal for direct use in blast furnaces, or as feedstock for coke ovens at 250,000 tons per year at an attractive price on a 10-year contract basis. The site has an old coal washing facility on the property that will be dismantled. Some equipment salvage has been considered; and removal of the existing plant would be the responsibility of Design Fuels. The paper briefly discusses the market potential of the process.

  14. Improving the scheme for final comminution of the coal charge

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, A.V.; Zagoruiko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, S.E.; Kress, L.A.; Stepura, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from laboratory and pilot plant tests of the screening of fine classes of coal under the effect of gravitational forces on stationary grates, and also from the experience of the Krivoi Rog and Kommunarsk Coke Works, the coal preparation division of OKhMK (Orsk-Khalilovo Intergrated Iron and Steel Works) adopted an industrial scheme of comminution of the coal before coking, screening out the fine classes ahead of the hammer crushers. In the bottom of the feeder chute a stamped screen was installed (dimensions 2100 x 1600 x 5 mm with apertures of 40 x 100 mm) with the large side perpendicular to the flow of coal. The distance between the apertures on the small side of the screen was 20 mm, on the large side 15 mm; the inclination was 60/sup 0/. The overscreen product enters the crusher, and the underscreen product is injected into the crushed charge without comminution.

  15. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sabloff, J A

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  16. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-21

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

  17. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-03-17

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

  18. Coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  19. ON TRIMODAL PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN FLY ASH FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion generated fine particles, defined as those with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 micrometers, have come under increased regulatory scrutiny because of suspected links to adverse human health effects. Whereas classical theories regarding coal combustion suggest that ...

  20. Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

    1980-12-15

    On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

  1. H-Coal Pilot Plant: coal-preparation test. Technical report No. T-5

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.C.; Smith, E.R.

    1980-07-15

    Initial commissioning and test results for the coal-pulverizing-and-drying system in Section 100 are reported. The results obtained in calibrating the weigh feeder which feeds the prepared coal to the Slurry Mix Tank, Q-236, are also given. Coal was first fed to the pulverizing system on April 14 for approximately thirty minutes. On May 2, the pulverizing system was successfully operated for six hours with the bowl mill coal feed rate purposefully varied between 50 and 100% of full load. The system was then voluntarily shut down. These and subsequent operations have demonstrated that: (1) the bowl mill can be operated at coal feed rates of 20 to 40 tons/h, (2) that a 7.6 weight percent moisture coal feed stock can be easily dried to 2.0 weight percent moisture, and (3) that the bowl mill can be adjusted to routinely produce a 90 to 98 weight percent - 100 mesh product (95% - 100 mesh average) with 72 to 89 weight percent passing 200 mesh (80% - 200 mesh average). During the start-up operations, special tests were conducted to determine the heat losses from the pulverizing system. The results indicate that the average system heat loss is 2,850,000 Btu/h and that the thermal efficiency, defined as the number of Btus required to heat and dry the coal divided by the number of Btus supplied by the fuel, is about 81%. The coal grinding tests also demonstrated that even at the relatively low temperatures (200 to 300/sup 0/F) that were maintained in the pulverizing system the fine coal dust produced readily reacts with the low amount of oxygen in the dryer flue gases. The prepared coal weigh feeder was calibrated for a range of 5 to 12.5 tons/h.

  2. Annual Coal Distribution

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  3. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  4. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-23

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities are focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies are conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing. A spiral model will be developed by West Virginia University. The research to be performed by the University of Kentucky has recently been defined as: A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth. Accomplishments to date of these three projects are presented in this report.

  5. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methane groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples. In this report period we have focused our work on 1 segment of the program. Our last report outlined progress in using our NMR editing methods with higher field operation where higher magic angle spinning rates are required. Significant difficulties were identified, and these have been the main subject of study during the most recent granting period.

  6. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  7. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  8. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  9. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  10. Process for removal of hazardous air pollutants from coal

    DOEpatents

    Akers, David J.; Ekechukwu, Kenneth N.; Aluko, Mobolaji E.; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    2000-01-01

    An improved process for removing mercury and other trace elements from coal containing pyrite by forming a slurry of finely divided coal in a liquid solvent capable of forming ions or radicals having a tendency to react with constituents of pyrite or to attack the bond between pyrite and coal and/or to react with mercury to form mercury vapors, and heating the slurry in a closed container to a temperature of at least about 50.degree. C. to produce vapors of the solvent and withdrawing vapors including solvent and mercury-containing vapors from the closed container, then separating mercury from the vapors withdrawn.

  11. Sonic enhancement of physical and chemical cleaning of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Buttermore, W.H.; Slomka, B.J.; Dawson, M.R.

    1989-10-01

    This period, laboratory tests were performed to investigate the effects of coal particle size on the sonically enhanced desliming of Illinois No. 6 coal. Desliming removes fine clay particles which can interfere with surface-controlled cleaning processes, and thus it is an important step prior to beneficiation procedures. A 10-kHz Swen Sonic near-field apparatus, configured for continuous-rinse desliming of coal in the presence of sonic waves, was used in the tests. Comparison of data for sonically deslimed coal and the initial wet-sieved sample showed ash content reduced from 22.2 to 16.5% by weight as a result of exposure to pulsed sonic energy at a 50-second total sonication time. Desliming of isolated coal-mineral composite particles resulted in preferential liberation of mineral-rich undersize material. The ash content of the undersize material varied between 24.2 and 31.2% by weight, showing no systematic decrease as the sonication time increased. Laboratory-scale flotation tests using a Hallimond tube were performed to study the effects of coal oxidation and sonic pretreatment of oxidized coals on the surface-controlled cleaning of coal. Other experiments were conducted to determine the effect of sonication on coal and pyrite surfaces.

  12. Industrial use of technologies potentially applicable to the cleaning of slurry pond fines

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmoller, B.K.; Jacobsen, P.S.; Hucko, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Several advanced technologies have been developed in the past decade that are particularly applicable to the processing of fine-coal streams. The Microcel{trademark} flotation column, the Static Tube flotation column, the Ken-Flote flotation column, the Jameson froth flotation cell, the Deister Flotaire{reg_sign} column flotation cell, the AFT spray flotation process, the Allflot flotation cell, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and micronized-magnetite beneficiation have all advanced past the experimental stage and await widespread commercial application. One of the principal application opportunities for these technologies may be in the remediation of fine-coal slurry ponds, where millions of tons of fine coal and refuse are discarded annually. This paper discusses the status of development and commercial application of these technologies.

  13. Gaseous phase coal surface modification. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  14. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants: Conventional froth flotation for the IEC coal cleaning plant model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the addition of a conventional froth flotation circuit into the FORTRAN coal cleaning module of the Integrated Environmental Control (IEC) model. The purpose of this modification is to include froth flotation as an option to clean the coal fines. The current model has three beneficiation: levels (2, 3, and 4) in which different streams are washed by specific gravity equipment. Level 2 washes only the coarse stream. Level 3 washes the coarse and medium streams. Level 4 washes the coarse, medium, and fine streams. This modification adds a fifth level, which uses specific gravity equipment to wash the coarse and medium streams and froth flotation equipment for the fine stream. The specific size fractions in each stream are specified by the model user. As before, the model optimizes the yield of each circuit in order to achieve a target coal quality for the cleaned coal product.

  15. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 1 feasibility studies: Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Energy International is developing a technology that will create a staged formulation with the first coal form (Mulled Coal) that can be stored, transported, and pumped. Just prior to combustion, the Mulled Coal (MC) would be modified to provide the properties needed for proper atomization. This concept is an alternative to the expensive and energy intensive thermal drying processing of fine coal wet cakes. The material is suitable for both direct feed use in conventional and fluid bed combustors as well as on-site conversion to combustible slurries. By maintaining the coal form relatively close to the feed wet cake, only minor processing with low additive levels and low energy blending needed at the point of production. Its conversion to slurry or other use-feed form is made near the time of use and thus the requirements for stability, climatic control, and other storage, transport, and handling requirements are much less severe.

  16. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 2 system demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Energy International is developing a technology that will create a staged formulation with the first coal form (Mulled Coal) that can be stored, transported, and pumped. Just prior to combustion, the Mulled Coal (MC) is modified to provide the properties needed for proper atomization. This concept is an alternative to the expensive and energy intensive thermal drying processing of fine coal wetcakes. The material is suitable for both direct feed use in conventional and fluid bed combustors as well as on-site conversion to combustible slurries. By maintaining the coal form relatively close to the feed wetcake, only minor processing with low additive levels and low energy blending is needed at the point of production. Its conversion to slurry or other use-feed form is made near the time of use and thus the requirements for stability, climatic control, and other storage, transport, and handling requirements are much less severe.

  17. Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P.; Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

  18. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  19. Solar coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  20. Catagenesis of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Stanov, V.V.

    1981-09-01

    On the basis of the equations of chemical kinetics and thermodynamics a general equation is derived for the metamorphosis of coals. This equation is used to investigate the conditions for catagenic processes in several coal deposits and oil-bearing structures. It is shown that the catagenesis of coal ceases when the temperature falls in connection with uplift and denudation of the strata surrounding the coal. If there is a very rapid burial of the coal-bearing rocks and thus rapid heating, the catagenesis lags somewhat behind coals and anthracites. Catagenesis of lignites is governed by the pressure and rate of burial.

  1. Coal desulfurization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  2. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  3. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  4. Hydrodesulfurization of chlorinized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method of desulfurization is described in which high sulfur coals are desulfurized by low temperature chlorinolysis of coal in liquid media, preferably water, followed by hydrodesulfurization at a temperature above 500 C. The coals are desulfurized to an extent of up to 90% by weight and simultaneously dechlorinated to a chlorine content below 0.1% by weight. The product coals have lower volatiles loss, lower oxygen and nitrogen content and higher fixed carbon than raw coals treated with hydrogen under the same conditions. Heating the chlorinated coal to a temperature above 500 C. in inert gas such as nitrogen results in significantly less desulfurization.

  5. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  6. Analysis and discussion on formation and control of primary particulate matter generated from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianyi; Ren, Xudan

    2014-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been becoming the principal urban pollutant in many major cities in China, and even all over the world. It is reported that the coal combustion process is one of the main sources of PM in the atmosphere. Therefore, an investigation of formation and emission of fine primary PM in coal combustion was conducted. First, the sources and classification of coal-fired primary PM were discussed; then their formation pathways during the coal combustion process were analyzed in detail. Accordingly, the emission control methods for fine particles generated from coal-fired power plants were put forward, and were classified as precombustion control, in-combustion control, and postcombustion control. Precombustion control refers to the processes for improving the coal quality before combustion, such as coal type selection and coal preparation. In-combustion control means to take measures for adjusting the combustion conditions and injection of additives during the combustion process to abate the formation of PM. Postcombustion control is the way that the fine PM are aggregated into larger ones by some agglomeration approaches and subsequently are removed by dust removal devices, or some high-performance modifications of conventional particle emission control devices (PECDs) can be taken for capturing fine particles. Finally, some general management suggestions are given for reducing fine PM emission in coal-fired power plants. Implications: The analysis and discussions of coal properties and its combustion process are critical to recognizing the formation and emission of the fine primary PM in combustion. The measures of precombustion, in-combustion, and postcombustion control based on the analysis and discussions are favorable for abating the PM emission. Practically, some measures of implementation do need the support of national policies, even needing to sacrifice economy to gain environmental profit, but this is the very time to execute these, and

  7. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  8. Coal pump development phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.; Sankur, V. D.; Gerbracht, F. G.; Mahajan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for achieving continuous coal sprays were studied. Coazial injection with gas and pressure atomization were studied. Coal particles, upon cooling, were found to be porous and fragile. Reactivity tests on the extruded coal showed overall conversion to gases and liquids unchanged from that of the raw coal. The potentials for applications of the coal pump to eight coal conversion processes were examined.

  9. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOEpatents

    Ignasiak, Teresa; Strausz, Otto; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Janiak, Jerzy; Pawlak, Wanda; Szymocha, Kazimierz; Turak, Ali A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  10. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  11. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  12. Combustion and emissions characterization of pelletized coal fuels. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, S.

    1993-05-01

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate that sorbent-containing coal pellets made from low grade coal or coal wastes are viable clean burning fuels, and to compare their performance with that of standard run-of-mine coal. Fuels to be investigated are: (a) carbonated pellets containing calcium hydroxide sorbent, (b) coal fines-limestone pellets with cornstarch as binder, (c) pellets made from preparation plant recovered coal containing limestone sorbent and gasification tar as binder, and (d) a standard run-of-mine Illinois seam coal. The fuels will be tested in a laboratory scale 411 diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor. Progress this quarter has centered on the development of a hydraulic press based pellet mill capable of the high compaction pressures necessary to produce the gasification tar containing pellets outlined in (c) above. Limited quantities of the pellets have been made, and the process is being fine tuned before proceeding into the production mode. Tests show that the moisture content of the coal is an important parameter that needs to be fixed within narrow limits for a given coal and binder combination to produce acceptable pellets. Combustion tests with these pellet fuels and the standard coal are scheduled for the next quarter.

  13. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  14. Fluidized coal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  15. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  16. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  18. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  19. Measuring coal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.

  20. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Annual Coal Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience, including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public.

  2. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  3. Coal production and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen papers covering a wide variety of topics relevant to today's coal industry and a panel discussion on railroad deregulation and coal unit train rates were presented at the Seventh Annual PLM Coal Conference on Coal Production and Transportation. This volume contains all of these papers, which cover the topics ranging from acid rain to project financing, from slurry pipelines to barge and railroad transportation, as well as the panel discussion. All papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  4. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  5. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOEpatents

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  6. Optimizing the performance and control of thermal dryer at B.O.C. plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bakota, L.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Bullmoose Operating Corporation is a metallurgical coal mine with an annual output of 2,000,000 metric tons of high quality, medium volatile, bituminous coal. The mine is located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada. All of the coal produced is being hauled via rail to the Pacific coast port terminal in Prince Ruppert and shipped to the Japanese steel mills. The coal plant initially consisted of three circuits - the heavy media cyclones, the water only cyclones and the conventional froth flotation. With changing load on the fine coal circuit, several modifications have been done in a past to optimize the processing of -28 Mesh coal. Currently, the plant is introducing a new {open_quotes}coarse fines{close_quotes} circuit that will eventually process the 32 to 12 Mesh size fraction on the spirals. Following Chart No. 1 is a simplified flowsheet of B.O.C. coal processing and shipping operations.

  7. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Composite Material Using Coal Ash and Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Isao; Kanda, Yasuyuki

    Coal ash is industry waste exhausted lots of amount by electric power plant. The particle sizes of coal ash, especially coal fly ash are very fine, and the chemical component are extremely resemble with Okinawa-Kucha clay. From the point of view that clay is composed of particles of micro meter size in diameter, we should try the application for fabrication of composite material using coal fly ash and clay. The comparison of the mechanical properties of composite material using coal fly ash and clay were performed during electric furnace burning and spark plasma sintering. As a result, the bending strength of composite material containing the coal ash 10% and fired at 1423K using the electric furnace after press forming at 30 MPa showed the highest value of 47 MPa. This phenomenon suggests a reinforcement role of coal ash particles to clay base material. In spark plasma sintering process, the bending strength of the composite material containing the clay 5-10% to fly ash base material fired at 1473K and pressured at 20 MPa showed the highest value of 88 MPa. This result indicates a binder effect of clay according to the liquid phase sintering of melted clay surrounding around coal fly ash particles surface.

  9. Three years of column flotation operating experience at Powell Mountain Coal Company

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Peters, W.J.; Kennedy, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    A joint project was initiated in 1989 between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) and the Powell Mountain Coal Company (PMCC) to evaluated the applicability of column flotation for recovery of fine coal from classifying cyclone refuse at PMCC`s Mayflower Preparation Plant. Laboratory and extensive pilot plant studies were conducted on each of the seams processed by the plant evaluating various column operating parameters. These results were used to design a larger 8-ft. diameter {times} 22-ft. tall column capable of recovering fine coal from the dilute classifying cyclone overflow with a feed capacity of 1,000 gpm. In order to effectively treat the entire plant classifying cyclone overflow stream, a total of four columns operating in parallel were installed in December 1989. This paper outlines three years of operating experience and results obtained with this fine coal recovery circuit.

  10. Fine Grain Aluminum Superplasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    time at elevated temperature for 7475 aluminum alloy 5 2 Optical micrographs of 7075 aluminum alloy after exposure to 5160C (960oF) for times...applied to Al-Zn-Mg-Cu ( 7075 Al) alloy. Subsequent developments by Waldman et al. (refs. 8-11) resulted in the demonstration that 7000 series alloys...a number of aluminum alloys. With such a fine grain structure, high temperature deformation character- istics approaching superplastic behavior

  11. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  12. Considerations on coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  13. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  14. Production of Illinois base compliance coal using enhanced gravity separation. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, B.C.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ho, K.

    1993-12-31

    Illinois Basin coal often contains a significant portion of finely dispersed pyrite. Most of the free pyrite particles exist in the fine size fractions, which are generally treated using froth flotation. An inherent problem of the froth flotation process is the inefficient treatment of middling particles containing a small amount of coal on their surface. On the other hand, gravity-based processes can effectively remove middling particles containing only a small amount of coal. Falcon Concentrators Inc. and Knelson Gold Concentrators Inc. have developed full-scale, enhanced gravity separators for the treatment of heavy minerals. This project will evaluate the potential of using these concentrators to de-ash and de-sulfurize Illinois coal fines, thus, producing coal products that meet the requirements for Phase I of the Clean Air Act. Since both continuous separators are commercially available, the results obtained in this investigation should be applicable to industrial operations.

  15. The health effects of coal-burning power plants in minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenic properties of coal combustion products are described and documented with emphasis on beryllium, mercury, and other particulates. Increased coal use in Minnesota and implications of such increases for 1976-1995 are discussed. Details of how a coal-fired power plant works and how pollutants are formed are described. Efforts to minimize health impacts of sulfur oxides and particulates are detailed. An analysis is provided of how health impacts are measured, showing how a lack of precision and data makes it difficult for policymakers to decide which pollutants need regulation and how much regulation is required. It was found that the greatest problem resulting from coal burning in Minnesota is fine particulate pollution. Fine particulates have been implicated in the exacerbation of emphysema, bronchitis, and lung cancer. Increased regulation and limitations on the construction of coal burning electricity generators are supported.

  16. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Phillips, D.I.; Luttrell, G.H.; Basim, B.; Sohn, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities are focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies will be conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing. A spiral model is developed by West Virginia University. The research to be performed by the University of Kentucky has recently been determined to be: ``A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth``. Acoomplishments to date are reported.

  17. Trace Elements in Coal - Modes of Ocurrence Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.B.; Kolb, K.C.; Mroozkowski, S.J.; Crowley, S.S.; Belkin, H.E.; Bullock, J.H., Jr.; Motooka, J.M.

    1997-07-24

    The objective is to provide modes of occurrence information for the CQ Inc. (CQ) effort being performed under DOE Contract entitled HAPs-Rx: Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors. This work attempts to provide semi-quantative date on modes of occurrence of 15 elements. Coals investigated include as-mined coals and cleaned fines from the Northern Appalachian and Southern Application, and Eastern Interior regions, and as-mined and natural fines from the Powder River Basin. Study techniques include scanning electron microscopy, electron micropole analysis, and leaching procedures. Microprobe data analysis indicate that pyrite grains in Northern Appalachian and Eastern Interior, and Powder River Basin coals and most of the pyrite grains of the Southern Appalachian coal contain low As concentrations, generally in the 100-500 ppm range. However, the Southern Appalachian coal contains some pyrite grains with much higher As contents, in excess of 4.0 wt. percent As. Micropole analyses and data from leaching experiments indicate that arsenic is primarily associated with pyrite in the bituminous coals. These techniques also indicate that Cr is primarily associated with illite. Other HAP`s elements have multiple associations.

  18. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  19. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  20. Controlling coal mine bumps

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, C.A.; Campoli, A.A.; Zona, A.

    1984-10-01

    A coal bump or burst is defined as the instantaneous violent failure of a coal pillar(s) from overstress. The causes of coal bumps are not well understood, even though minor disturbances are a daily occurrence in bump prone seams. Lack of knowledge about coal bumps coupled with questionable mining practices can create disastrous consequences. Much of the early work on bumps was documented by US Bureau of Mines (BOM) researchers and operators of mines prone to bumps. In 1954 the BOM published Bulletin 535, This study compares recent events with those findings and suggests measures that can be taken to minimize the potential occurrence and severity of coal bumps.