Science.gov

Sample records for 2844-10300-0001 wholesale prices

  1. 47 CFR 51.607 - Wholesale pricing standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wholesale pricing standard. 51.607 Section 51.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.607 Wholesale pricing standard. The wholesale rate that an incumbent LEC may...

  2. Forward and Spot Prices in Multi-Settlement Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrieu, Jeremy

    In organized wholesale electricity markets, power is sold competitively in a multi-unit multi-settlement single-price auction comprised of a forward and a spot market. This dissertation attempts to understand the structure of the forward premium in these markets, and to identify the factors that may lead forward and spot prices to converge or diverge. These markets are unique in that the forward demand is price-sensitive, while spot residual demand is perfectly inelastic and must be met in full, a crucial design feature the literature often glosses over. An important contribution of this dissertation is the explicit modeling of each market separately in order to understand how generation and load choose to act in each one, and the consequences of these actions on equilibrium prices and quantities given that firms maximize joint profits over both markets. In the first essay, I construct a two-settlement model of electricity prices in which firms that own asymmetric capacity-constrained units facing convex costs compete to meet demand from consumers, first in quantities, then in prices. I show that the forward premium depends on the costliness of spot production relative to firms' ability to exercise market power by setting quantities in the forward market. In the second essay, I test the model from the first essay with unit-level capacity and marginal cost data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). I show that the model closely replicates observed price formation in the CAISO. In the third essay, I estimate a time series model of the CAISO forward premium in order to measure the impact that virtual bidding has had on forward and spot price convergence in California between April 2009 and March 2014. I find virtual bidding to have caused forward and spot prices to diverge due to the large number of market participants looking to hedge against - or speculate on - the occurrence of infrequent but large spot price spikes by placing virtual demand bids.

  3. Market power in electric power markets: Indications of competitiveness in spatial prices for wholesale electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael John

    The issue of market delineation and power in the wholesale electric energy market is explored using three separate approaches: two of these are analyses of spatial pricing data to explore the functional size of the markets, and the third is a series of experimental tests of the effects of different cost structures and market mechanisms on oligopoly strength in those markets. An equilibrium model of spatial network competition is shown to yield linear relationships between spatial prices. A data set comprising two years of spatial weekly peak and off-peak prices and weather for 6 locations in the Western States Coordinating Council and the Southwest Power Pool is subjected to a pairwise cointegration analysis. The use of dummy variables to account the the flow directions is found to significantly improve model performance. The second analytical technique utilizes the extraction of principal components from a spatial price correlation matrix to identify the extent of natural markets. One year of daily price observations for eleven locations within the WSCC is compiled and eigenvectors are extracted and subjected to oblique rotation, each of which is then interpreted as representing a separate geographic market. The results show that two distinct natural markets, correlated at 84%, account for over 96% of the variation in the spatial prices in the WSSC. Together, the findings support the assertion that the wholesale electricity market in the Western U.S. is large and highly competitive. The experimental analysis utilizes a radial three node network in which suppliers located at the outer nodes sell to buyers located at the central node. The parameterization captures the salient characteristics of the existing bulk power markets, and includes cyclical demand, transmission losses, as well as fixed and avoidable fixed costs for all agents. Treatments varied the number of sellers, the avoidable fixed cost structures, and the trading mechanism. Results indicated that

  4. Customer response to day-ahead wholesale market electricity prices: Case study of RTP program experience in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.; Hopper, N.; Sezgen, O.; Moezzi, M.; Bharvirkar, R.; Neenan, B.; Boisvert, R.; Cappers, P.; Pratt, D.

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in policies, programs and tariffs that encourage customer loads to provide demand response (DR) to help discipline wholesale electricity markets. Proposals at the retail level range from eliminating fixed rate tariffs as the default service for some or all customer groups to reinstituting utility-sponsored load management programs with market-based inducements to curtail. Alternative rate designs include time-of-use (TOU), day-ahead real-time pricing (RTP), critical peak pricing, and even pricing usage at real-time market balancing prices. Some Independent System Operators (ISOs) have implemented their own DR programs whereby load curtailment capabilities are treated as a system resource and are paid an equivalent value. The resulting load reductions from these tariffs and programs provide a variety of benefits, including limiting the ability of suppliers to increase spot and long-term market-clearing prices above competitive levels (Neenan et al., 2002; Boren stein, 2002; Ruff, 2002). Unfortunately, there is little information in the public domain to characterize and quantify how customers actually respond to these alternative dynamic pricing schemes. A few empirical studies of large customer RTP response have shown modest results for most customers, with a few very price-responsive customers providing most of the aggregate response (Herriges et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 2002). However, these studies examined response to voluntary, two-part RTP programs implemented by utilities in states without retail competition.1 Furthermore, the researchers had limited information on customer characteristics so they were unable to identify the drivers to price response. In the absence of a compelling characterization of why customers join RTP programs and how they respond to prices, many initiatives to modernize retail electricity rates seem to be stymied.

  5. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun; Kiliccote, Sila

    2012-06-01

    In New York State, the default electricity pricing for large customers is Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP), which is charged based on zonal day-ahead market price for energy. With MHP, retail customers can adjust their building load to an economically optimal level according to hourly electricity prices. Yet, many customers seek alternative pricing options such as fixed rates through retail access for their electricity supply. Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) is an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) based information exchange model that communicates price and reliability information. It allows customers to evaluate hourly prices and provide demand response in an automated fashion to minimize electricity costs. This document shows how OpenADR can support MHP and facilitate price responsive demand for large commercial customers in New York City.

  6. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Market Price Forecast Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    This chapter presents BPA's market price forecasts, which are based on AURORA modeling. AURORA calculates the variable cost of the marginal resource in a competitively priced energy market. In competitive market pricing, the marginal cost of production is equivalent to the market-clearing price. Market-clearing prices are important factors for informing BPA's rates. AURORA is used as the primary tool for (a) calculation of the demand rate, (b) shaping the PF rate, (c) estimating the forward price for the IOU REP settlement benefits calculation for fiscal years 2008 and 2009, (d) estimating the uncertainty surrounding DSI payments, (e) informing the secondary revenue forecast and (f) providing a price input used for the risk analysis.

  7. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Market Price Forecast Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    This study presents BPA's market price forecasts for the Final Proposal, which are based on AURORA modeling. AURORA calculates the variable cost of the marginal resource in a competitively priced energy market. In competitive market pricing, the marginal cost of production is equivalent to the market-clearing price. Market-clearing prices are important factors for informing BPA's power rates. AURORA was used as the primary tool for (a) estimating the forward price for the IOU REP Settlement benefits calculation for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009, (b) estimating the uncertainty surrounding DSI payments and IOU REP Settlements benefits, (c) informing the secondary revenue forecast and (d) providing a price input used for the risk analysis. For information about the calculation of the secondary revenues, uncertainty regarding the IOU REP Settlement benefits and DSI payment uncertainty, and the risk run, see Risk Analysis Study WP-07-FS-BPA-04.

  8. Purchasing Books from Publishers and Wholesalers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ung Chon

    1975-01-01

    Book purchase requests for 32 titles were sent simultaneously to four different wholesalers and the publishers of the titles. The efficiency of each supplier was evaluated in terms of the number of days required to supply books and the percentage of the actual charge against the list price. (Author/PF)

  9. Alternative to the traditional discount method of wholesaler purchasing.

    PubMed

    Lee, G F; Bair, J N; Piz, J W

    1982-07-01

    A program of purchasing drugs from wholesalers at the wholesaler's exact invoice cost plus a percentage is described and compared with the traditional method of average wholesale price (AWP) less a discount. The comparison was conducted by the pharmacy department of a 310-bed, teaching hospital that awarded a one-year contract to a wholesaler offering its items at the exact cost plus a pre-established percentage. Data collected from monthly wholesaler computer printouts gave the following information on each product: (1) list price per item, (2) actual cost to pharmacy per item, (3) percentage discount from AWP, and (4) quantity ordered. The net percentage discount from AWP for 12 months was calculated and compared to the former (traditional) discount rate. The net discount from AWP was 15.6% for purchases made by the hospital during the first 12 months of the program. When compared with the smaller discount the hospital traditionally received, the new program saved the hospital $5758 on annual purchases of $136,419. The actual dollar savings to an institution that changes from a traditional discount program to a cost-plus-percentage program depends on: (1) the negotiated percentage added to wholesaler cost, (2) the discount from AWP that the institution was previously receiving, and (3) the volume of wholesale purchases. PMID:7114064

  10. The role of vibrant retail electricity markets in assuring that wholesale power markets operate effectively

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A.J.; Rufin, C.; Swinand, G.

    1999-12-01

    Barriers to competitive supplier entry such as California's wholesale-price pass-through model can provide an almost insurmountable barrier to effective retail competition. The telecommunications, airline, and software industries provide lessons--positive and negative--on how creating competitive wholesale markets is insufficient to bring the benefits of competition to smaller consumers.

  11. 76 FR 12887 - Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... committee meeting. SUMMARY: This document announces the second meeting of the Wholesale Pork Reporting... language to amend the Livestock Mandatory Reporting (LMR) regulations to implement mandatory pork price... the Notice of Establishment of Negotiated Rulemaking Committee published November 24, 2010 (75...

  12. Supreme court agrees: FERC must regulate wholesale markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wolak, Frank A.

    2008-08-15

    The author believes that wholesale markets in the United States would have a greater likelihood of ultimately benefiting consumers if the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission did not have the mandate under the Federal Power Act (FPA) to ensure that wholesale prices are ''just and reasonable.'' However, he continues to believe that the FERC cannot avoid having an ex post criteria for asssessing whether market prices are just and reasonable. Moreover, changes in the design and regulatory oversight of U.S. wholesale electricity markets in recent years, including the recent Supreme Court decision, have caused him to believe even more strongly in the guardrails-for-market-outcomes approach. Finally, several questions are addressed which relate to the pricing of fixed-price, long-term contracts and the impact of these obligations on the behavior of suppliers in short-term wholesale markets that are directly relevant to answering the two major questions that the Supreme Court remanded to FERC in its recent decision.

  13. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which is recognized in an industry as the subject of a retail sale. Quantities which are materially in... industry is such that a discount from the normal retail price is not regarded in the industry as... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section...

  14. 75 FR 15362 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... market price for energy for such reductions.\\4\\ \\1\\ Demand response means a reduction in the consumption... price of electric energy or to incentive payments designed to induce lower consumption of electric... decline of six to 12 percent.\\10\\ Demand response can also lower prices in the organized wholesale...

  15. A Study of Central Auction Based Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola

    The deregulation of electricity markets produced significant economic benefits, reducing prices to customers and opening several opportunities for new actors, e.g., new generators and distributors. A prominent scientific and technological challenge is the automation of such markets. In particular, we focus our attention on wholesale electricity markets based on a central auction. In these markets, generators sell electricity by means of a central auction to a public authority. Instead, the distribution of electricity to customers takes part in retail markets. The main works presented in the literature model wholesale markets as oligopolies, neglecting thus the specific auction mechanism. In this paper, we enrich these models by introducing an auction mechanism shaped on that used in the Italian wholesale electricity market, we solve the winner determination problem, and we preliminarily study the problem of searching for equilibria.

  16. 7 CFR 1206.24 - Wholesaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.24 Wholesaler. Wholesaler means any person engaged in the purchase, assembly, transportation, storage, and distribution of...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.24 - Wholesaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.24 Wholesaler. Wholesaler means any person engaged in the purchase, assembly, transportation, storage, and distribution of...

  18. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wholesale sales. 779.327 Section 779.327 Labor Regulations... Particular Industryâ § 779.327 Wholesale sales. A wholesale sale, of course, is not recognized as a retail sale. If an establishment derives more than 25 percent of its annual dollar volume from sales made...

  19. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wholesale sales. 779.327 Section 779.327 Labor Regulations... Particular Industryâ § 779.327 Wholesale sales. A wholesale sale, of course, is not recognized as a retail sale. If an establishment derives more than 25 percent of its annual dollar volume from sales made...

  20. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wholesale sales. 779.327 Section 779.327 Labor Regulations... Particular Industryâ § 779.327 Wholesale sales. A wholesale sale, of course, is not recognized as a retail sale. If an establishment derives more than 25 percent of its annual dollar volume from sales made...

  1. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wholesale sales. 779.327 Section 779.327 Labor Regulations... Particular Industryâ § 779.327 Wholesale sales. A wholesale sale, of course, is not recognized as a retail sale. If an establishment derives more than 25 percent of its annual dollar volume from sales made...

  2. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments ârecognizedâ As Retail âin the Particular Industryâ § 779.327 Wholesale sales. A wholesale sale, of course, is not recognized as a retail... wholesale, it clearly cannot qualify as a retail and service establishment. It must be remembered,...

  3. Measuring Price Changes: A Study of the Price Indexes. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, William H.; Cullison, William E.

    This three-part monograph examines the major price indexes used to measure the intensity of inflation. The first part discusses the recent behavior of prices as measured by the Consumer Price Index (commodities, goods, and services), the Producer Price Index (wholesale prices of crude materials, intermediate materials, supplies, components, and…

  4. Price controls and international petroleum product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

  5. Essays on wholesale auctions in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltaduonis, Rimvydas

    2007-12-01

    The early experience in the restructured electric power markets raised several issues, including price spikes, inefficiency, security, and the overall relationship of market clearing prices to generation costs. Unsatisfactory outcomes in these markets are thought to have resulted in part from strategic generator behaviors encouraged by inappropriate market design features. In this dissertation, I examine the performance of three auction mechanisms for wholesale power markets - Offer Cost Minimization auction, Payment Cost Minimization auction and Simple-Offer auction - when electricity suppliers act strategically. A Payment Cost Minimization auction has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional Offer Cost Minimization auction with the intention to solve the problem of inflated wholesale electricity prices. Efficiency concerns for this proposal were voiced due to insights predicated on the assumption of true production cost revelation. Using a game theoretic approach and an experimental method, I compare the two auctions, strictly controlling for the level of unilateral market power. A specific feature of these complex-offer auctions is that the sellers submit not only the quantities and the minimum prices that they are willing to sell at, but also the start-up fees, which are designed to reimburse the fixed start-up costs of the generation plants. I find that the complex structure of the offers leaves considerable room for strategic behavior, which consequently leads to anti-competitive and inefficient market outcomes. In the last chapter of my dissertation, I use laboratory experiments to contrast the performance of two complex-offer auctions against the performance of a simple-offer auction, in which the sellers have to recover all their generation costs - fixed and variable - through a uniform market-clearing price. I find that a simple-offer auction significantly reduces consumer prices and lowers price volatility. It mitigates anti-competitive effects

  6. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2007-11-01

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) calculates BPA proposed rates based on information either developed in the WPRDS or supplied by the other studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal. All of these studies, and accompanying documentation, provide the details of computations and assumptions. In general, information about loads and resources is provided by the Load Resource Study (LRS), WP-07-E-BPA-01, and the LRS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-01A. Revenue requirements information, as well as the Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNNR), is provided in the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-E-BPA-02, and its accompanying Revenue Requirement Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-02A and WP-07-E-BPA-02B. The Market Price Forecast Study (MPFS), WP-07-E-BPA-03, and the MPFS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-03A, provide the WPRDS with information regarding seasonal and diurnal differentiation of energy rates, as well information regarding monthly market prices for Demand Rates. In addition, this study provides information for the pricing of unbundled power products. The Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-E-BPA-04, and the Risk Analysis Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-04A, provide short-term balancing purchases as well as secondary energy sales and revenue. The Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study, WP-07-E-BPA-06, and the Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-06A, implement Section 7(b)(2) of the Northwest Power Act to ensure that BPA preference customers firm power rates applied to their general requirements are no higher than rates calculated using specific assumptions in the Northwest Power Act.

  7. 21 CFR 205.4 - Wholesale drug distributor licensing requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale drug distributor licensing requirement... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR STATE LICENSING OF WHOLESALE PRESCRIPTION DRUG DISTRIBUTORS § 205.4 Wholesale drug distributor licensing requirement. Every wholesale distributor in a...

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  9. Regional Comparisons, Spatial Aggregation, and Asymmetry of Price Pass-Through

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    Spot to retail price pass-through behavior of the U.S. gasoline market was investigated at the national and regional levels, using weekly wholesale and retail motor gasoline prices from January 2000 to the present.

  10. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  11. 75 FR 63805 - Annual Wholesale Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Census Bureau will collect data on annual sales, e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses... wholesale distributors, the Census Bureau will collect data covering sales, e-commerce sales, year-end... manufacturers' sales branches and offices, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales,...

  12. Developing a consumer pricing strategy.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Arthur; Tiedemann, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare providers can learn a variety of pricing lessons from the retail market: For providers, wholesale pricing--"the price to play"--alone is not enough. Once a hospital or health system chooses a market position, the provider creates an expectation that must be met-consistently. Consumer loyalty is fluid, and the price of care or service is not always the motivator for choosing one organization over another; intangibles such as location and level of customer service also drive purchasing decisions. PMID:23678698

  13. [History of a wholesaler: CERP-Rouen].

    PubMed

    Petit, J

    2000-01-01

    MCPR (Mutuelle cooperative pharmaceutique rouennaise) was created in November 1919 and furnished specialities to pharmacists in Haute-Normandie. It moved to various places and finally was situated in 1939 rue des Augustins, where its central office is still nowadays. During World-War II, many difficulties occurred: fire in 1940, bombing in 1944, great lack of possibilities. After peace, it took benefit of the great increase of its market. It worked for the grouping of wholesalers companies and became in 1965 CERP-Rouen. It strenghtened its internal growth by creating new sites and introducing new techniques: teletransmission computer networks, officinal PC. Since 1969 to 1986, nine wholesalers were partially or totally incorporated in the group and CERP got to a national position: 34 agencies, 6,000 members, 1010 FF. Since 1986, it reached the European level (Belgium, Spain, Poland) and overseas departments (Martinique-Guyane). PMID:11625747

  14. New wholesale power market design using linked forward markets :

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William; Ellison, James F.; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Guttromson, Ross; Tesfatsion, Leigh S.

    2013-04-01

    This report proposes a reformulation of U.S. ISO/RTO-managed wholesale electric power mar- kets for improved reliability and e ciency of system operations. Current markets do not specify or compensate primary frequency response. They also unnecessarily limit the participation of new technologies in reserve markets and o er insu cient economic inducements for new capacity invest- ment. In the proposed market reformulation, energy products are represented as physically-covered rm contracts and reserve products as physically-covered call option contracts. Trading of these products is supported by a backbone of linked ISO/RTO-managed forward markets with planning horizons ranging from multiple years to minutes ahead. A principal advantage of this reformulation is that reserve needs can be speci ed in detail, and resources can o er the services for which they are best suited, without being forced to conform to rigid reserve product de nitions. This should improve the business case for electric energy storage and other emerging technologies to provide reserve. In addition, the facilitation of price discovery should help to ensure e cient energy/reserve procurement and adequate levels of new capacity investment.

  15. 75 FR 30812 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Further Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Organized Wholesale Power Markets, 75 FR 23,759, as supplemented by Supplemental Notice of Technical... Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... of Proposed Rulemaking on Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power...

  16. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  17. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  18. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  19. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  20. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  1. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  2. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  3. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  4. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  5. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  6. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  7. 47 CFR 51.611 - Interim wholesale rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim wholesale rates. 51.611 Section 51.611 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.611 Interim wholesale rates. (a) If a state commission cannot, based on the...

  8. 76 FR 23513 - Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 59 Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated... committee meeting. SUMMARY: This document announces the third meeting of the Wholesale Pork Reporting... language to amend the Livestock Mandatory Reporting (LMR) regulations to implement mandatory pork...

  9. 27 CFR 31.32 - Wholesale dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in liquors. 31.32 Section 31.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.32 Wholesale dealer in...

  10. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Risk Analysis Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), operated on behalf of the ratepayers of the PNW by BPA and other Federal agencies, faces many uncertainties during the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Among these uncertainties, the largest revolve around hydro conditions, market prices and river operations for fish recovery. In order to provide a high probability of making its U.S. Treasury payments, BPA performs a Risk Analysis as part of its rate-making process. In this Risk Analysis, BPA identifies key risks, models their relationships, and then analyzes their impacts on net revenues (total revenues less expenses). BPA subsequently evaluates in the ToolKit Model the Treasury Payment Probability (TPP) resulting from the rates, risks, and risk mitigation measures described here and in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS). If the TPP falls short of BPA's standard, additional risk mitigation revenues, such as PNRR and CRAC revenues are incorporated in the modeling in ToolKit until the TPP standard is met. Increased wholesale market price volatility and six years of drought have significantly changed the profile of risk and uncertainty facing BPA and its stakeholders. These present new challenges for BPA in its effort to keep its power rates as low as possible while fully meeting its obligations to the U.S. Treasury. As a result, the risk BPA faces in not receiving the level of secondary revenues that have been credited to power rates before receiving those funds is greater. In addition to market price volatility, BPA also faces uncertainty around the financial impacts of operations for fish programs in FY 2006 and in the FY 2007-2009 rate period. A new Biological Opinion or possible court-ordered change to river operations in FY 2006 through FY 2009 may reduce BPA's net revenues included Initial Proposal. Finally, the FY 2007-2009 risk analysis includes new operational risks as well as a more comprehensive analysis of non-operating risks. Both the operational

  11. Essays on price dynamics and consumer search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew Stephen

    It has been documented that retail gasoline prices respond more quickly to increases in wholesale price than to decreases. However, there is very little theoretical or empirical evidence identifying the market characteristics responsible for this behavior. Chapter 2 presents a new theoretical model of asymmetric adjustment that empirically matches observed retail gasoline price behavior better than previously suggested explanations. I develop a "reference price" consumer search model that assumes consumers' expectations of prices are based on prices observed during previous purchases. The model predicts that consumers search less when prices are falling. This reduced search results in higher profit margins and therefore causes a slower price response to cost decreases than to cost increases. Chapter 3 discusses the robustness of some of the important assumptions of the reference price search model, and describes the effects of altering these assumptions. Chapter 4 develops testable implications that distinguish my model from two alternative explanations of asymmetric adjustment. The first is a model in which firms temporarily collude using past prices as a focal price. The second theory suggests that increases in wholesale cost volatility reduce consumer search behavior. Using a panel of gas station prices, I estimate the response pattern of prices to a change in costs. Estimates are consistent with the predictions of the reference price search model and contradict the previously suggested explanations of asymmetric price adjustment. Chapter 5 examines the empirical fact that price response varies depending on the current level of profit margins. This fact is contrasted with the common empirical observation that response differs based on the direction of the change in cost. I go on to document that this relationship between price response and margins is observed in gasoline markets across the country.

  12. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  13. Capacity withholding in wholesale electricity markets: The experience in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, James Arnold

    This thesis examines the incentives wholesale electricity generators face to withhold generating capacity from centralized electricity spot markets. The first chapter includes a brief history of electricity industry regulation in England and Wales and in the United States, including a description of key institutional features of England and Wales' restructured electricity market. The first chapter also includes a review of the literature on both bid price manipulation and capacity bid manipulation in centralized electricity markets. The second chapter details a theoretical model of wholesale generator behavior in a single price electricity market. A duopoly model is specified under the assumption that demand is non-stochastic. This model assumes that duopoly generators offer to sell electricity at their marginal cost, but can withhold a continuous segment of their capacity from the market. The Nash equilibrium withholding strategy of this model involves each duopoly generator withholding so that it produces the Cournot equilibrium output. A monopoly model along the lines of the duopoly model is specified and simulated under the assumption that demand is stochastic. The optimal strategy depends on the degree of demand uncertainty. When there is a moderate degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal withholding strategy involves production inefficiencies. When there is a high degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal monopoly quantity is greater than the optimal output level when demand is non-stochastic. The third chapter contains an empirical examination of the behavior of generators in the wholesale electricity market in England and Wales in the early 1990's. The wholesale market in England and Wales is analyzed because the industry structure in the early 1990's created a natural experiment, which is described in this chapter, whereby one of the two dominant generators had no incentive to behave non-competitively. This chapter develops a classification methodology

  14. Measuring efficiency in wholesale electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Nicholas S.

    2009-06-15

    The mechanisms of the bid-based economic dispatch and market power mitigation algorithms which result in the market clearing price epitomize the complexity of the new regulatory regime. The augmented Lerner Index presented here offers a method to objectively assess the efficiency of the new structure. (author)

  15. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Load Resource Study and Documentation.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    The Load Resource Study (Study) represents the compilation of the load and contract obligations, contact purchases, and resource data necessary for developing BPA's wholesale power rates. The results of this Study are used to: (1) provide data to determine resource costs for the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-FS-BPA-02; (2) provide data to derive billing determinants for the revenue forecast in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS), WP-07-FS-BPA-05; (3) provide load and resource data for use in the Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-FS-BPA-04; and (4) provide regional hydro data for use in the secondary revenue forecast for the Market Price Forecast Study, WP-07-FS-BPA-03. This Study provides a synopsis of BPA's load resource analyses. This Study illustrates how each component is completed, how components relate to each other, and how each component fits into the rate development process. Details and results supporting this Study are contained in the Load Resource Study Documentation, WP-07-FS-BPA-01A.

  16. Wholesale bakeries: A small-business guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Commercial baking is thought to be one of the world`s oldest industries, with evidence of commercial bakeries dating back to the Egyptians. In the late 19th century, technological innovations such as the development of {open_quotes}tame{close_quotes} yeast and the mechanization of bread kneading enabled mass production of baked goods. As a result, larger {open_quotes}wholesale{close_quotes} baking facilities began to replace smaller local bakeries. Today, there are over 3000 wholesale bakeries across the United States. This report is intended to provide information on the bakery business from the perspective of processes, issues, and challenges faced, including energy consumption of electrically driven equipment.

  17. Pricing and reimbursement of drugs in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michael; Tilson, Lesley; Ryan, Máirín

    2004-06-01

    Expenditure on healthcare in Ireland, which is mainly derived from taxation, has increased considerably in recent years to an estimated 9.2 billion euro in 2003. Pharmaceuticals account for approximately 10% of total healthcare expenditure. Approximately one-third of patients receive their medications free of charge whilst the remaining two-thirds are subject to a co-payment threshold of 78 euro per month, i.e. 936 euro per year. The price of medications in Ireland is linked to those of five other member states where the price to the wholesaler of any medication will not exceed the lesser of the currency-adjusted wholesale price in the United Kingdom or the average of wholesale prices in Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A price freeze at the introduction price has been in existence since 1993. Despite the price freeze, expenditure on medicines on the community drugs scheme has increased from 201 million euro in 1993 to 898 million euro in 2002. The two main factors contributing to the increased expenditure on medicines include "product mix", the prescribing of new and more expensive medication, and "volume effect" comprising growth in the number of prescription items. Changing demographics and the extension of the General Medical Services (GMS) Scheme to provide free medicines for all those over the age of 70 years have also contributed. Prior to reimbursement under the community drugs schemes, a medicine must be included in the GMS code book or positive list. A demonstration of cost-effectiveness is not a pre-requisite for reimbursement. PMID:15452757

  18. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for...

  19. 75 FR 31430 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice Establishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Markets, 75 FR 23,759, as supplemented by Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference re Frequency... Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... technical conference regarding frequency regulation in the organized wholesale power markets, as...

  20. 78 FR 59922 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos...-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by operation of the...

  1. 77 FR 3759 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos... Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by operation of the Commission's regulations. 18 CFR...

  2. 76 FR 44900 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale; Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale; Generator Status July 13, 2011...-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by operation of the...

  3. 75 FR 4373 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status January 20... Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by operation of the Commission's regulations 18 CFR...

  4. 77 FR 21761 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos... entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by operation of the Commission's regulations....

  5. COMPETENCIES IN AGRICULTURE NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAXWELL, ROBERT HAWORTH

    LISTS OF 39 AGRICULTURAL AND 37 NONAGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, ABILITIES, AND UNDERSTANDINGS NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION WERE DEVELOPED BY 18 SELECTED EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS AND SENT IN QUESTIONNAIRE FORM TO 180 EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS THAT WERE COOPERATING MEMBERS OF…

  6. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation of... Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. (a) Self-certification notice procedure. An exempt wholesale generator or a foreign utility company, or...

  7. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation of... Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. (a) Self-certification notice procedure. An exempt wholesale generator or a foreign utility company, or...

  8. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation of... Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. (a) Self-certification notice procedure. An exempt wholesale generator or a foreign utility company, or...

  9. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation of... Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. (a) Self-certification notice procedure. An exempt wholesale generator or a foreign utility company, or...

  10. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation of... Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. (a) Self-certification notice procedure. An exempt wholesale generator or a foreign utility company, or...

  11. 76 FR 10492 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... discussed below. \\1\\ Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, Order No. 741, 75 FR 65942 (Oct.... 888, 61 FR 21540 (May 10, 1996), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,036, at 31,937 (1996) (pro forma OATT, section 11 (Creditworthiness)), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-A, 62 FR 12274 (Mar. 14, 1997), FERC...

  12. 12 CFR 704.19 - Wholesale corporate credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Earnings retention requirement. A wholesale corporate credit union must increase retained earnings if the prior month-end retained earnings ratio is less than 1 percent. (1) Its retained earnings must increase: (i) During the current month, by an amount equal to or greater than the monthly earnings...

  13. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section 779.328 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR...

  14. Oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets: Large-scale simulation and policy analysis using complementarity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helman, E. Udi

    This dissertation conducts research into the large-scale simulation of oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets. The dissertation has two parts. Part I is an examination of the structure and properties of several spatial, or network, equilibrium models of oligopolistic electricity markets formulated as mixed linear complementarity problems (LCP). Part II is a large-scale application of such models to the electricity system that encompasses most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, the Eastern Interconnection. Part I consists of Chapters 1 to 6. The models developed in this part continue research into mixed LCP models of oligopolistic electricity markets initiated by Hobbs [67] and subsequently developed by Metzler [87] and Metzler, Hobbs and Pang [88]. Hobbs' central contribution is a network market model with Cournot competition in generation and a price-taking spatial arbitrage firm that eliminates spatial price discrimination by the Cournot firms. In one variant, the solution to this model is shown to be equivalent to the "no arbitrage" condition in a "pool" market, in which a Regional Transmission Operator optimizes spot sales such that the congestion price between two locations is exactly equivalent to the difference in the energy prices at those locations (commonly known as locational marginal pricing). Extensions to this model are presented in Chapters 5 and 6. One of these is a market model with a profit-maximizing arbitrage firm. This model is structured as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), but due to the linearity of its constraints, can be solved as a mixed LCP. Part II consists of Chapters 7 to 12. The core of these chapters is a large-scale simulation of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection applying one of the Cournot competition with arbitrage models. This is the first oligopolistic equilibrium market model to encompass the full Eastern Interconnection with a realistic network representation (using

  15. Progress and problems in the prescribing/dispensing split and "divided package sales" by wholesalers.

    PubMed

    Shiragami, M; Morikubo, M; Suzuki, R; Kudo, I

    2001-01-01

    Given the rapid progress of the prescribing/dispensing split, the ability of pharmacies to obtain and stock a small quantity of pharmaceuticals is seen as essential. Toho Yakuhin's experience in "divided package sales" (wholesalers open an original package supplied by the manufacturer and sell only a part of the contents) shows that the number of orders and sales amount, and the number of pharmacies ordering in sales have remarkably increased. One or two kinds of pharmaceuticals were ordered in 73% cases, and one or two units in about 50%. This implies that "divided package sales" are utilized to obtain rarely prescribed drugs. On the other hand, five or more kinds of pharmaceuticals were ordered in 10% of cases, and ten or more units in 17%. "Divided package sales" were more used for low-price drugs. These indicated that "divided package sales" seemed to be looked upon by pharmacies as a means of obtaining a small quantity of pharmaceuticals, and seemed to be used not only in an emergency but also routinely. There are several problems for wholesalers in operating "divided package sales", such as frequent delivery, delivery cost and information supply. Pharmacies should obtain a small quantity of pharmaceuticals by the routine delivery and should share the delivery cost. Pharmaceutical manufacturers' cooperation in printing necessary information on each immediate container will be useful. Though there could be alternative ways of obtaining a small quantity of pharmaceuticals, all of them have the matter of delivery. We believe "divided package sales" will contribute to this situation. PMID:11201158

  16. Technological renovation of thermal power plants as a long-term check factor of electricity price growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, F. V.; Novikova, T. V.; Khorshev, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The paper focuses on economic aspects of the Russian thermal generation sector's renovation in a competitive market environment. Capabilities of the existing competitive electricity and capacity pricing mechanisms, created during the wholesale market reform, to ensure the wide-scale modernization of thermal power plants (TPPs) are estimated. Some additional stimulating measures to focus the investment process on the renovation of the thermal generation sector are formulated, and supplementing and supporting costs are assessed. Finally, the systemic effect of decelerating wholesale electricity prices caused by efficiency improvements at thermal power plants is analyzed depending on the scales of renovation and fuel prices.

  17. Prices and mark-ups on antimalarials: evidence from nationally representative studies in six malaria-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Torres Rueda, Sergio; Kiefer, Sabine; O'Connell, Kate; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Poyer, Stephen; Chavasse, Desmond

    2016-03-01

    The private for-profit sector is an important source of treatment for malaria. However, private patients face high prices for the recommended treatment for uncomplicated malaria, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), which makes them more likely to receive cheaper, less effective non-artemisinin therapies (nATs). This study seeks to better understand consumer antimalarial prices by documenting and exploring the pricing behaviour of retailers and wholesalers. Using data collected in 2009-10, we present survey estimates of antimalarial retail prices, and wholesale- and retail-level price mark-ups from six countries (Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia), along with qualitative findings on factors affecting pricing decisions. Retail prices were lowest for nATs, followed by ACTs and artemisinin monotherapies (AMTs). Retailers applied the highest percentage mark-ups on nATs (range: 40% in Nigeria to 100% in Cambodia and Zambia), whereas mark-ups on ACTs (range: 22% in Nigeria to 71% in Zambia) and AMTs (range: 22% in Nigeria to 50% in Uganda) were similar in magnitude, but lower than those applied to nATs. Wholesale mark-ups were generally lower than those at retail level, and were similar across antimalarial categories in most countries. When setting prices wholesalers and retailers commonly considered supplier prices, prevailing market prices, product availability, product characteristics and the costs related to transporting goods, staff salaries and maintaining a property. Price discounts were regularly used to encourage sales and were sometimes used by wholesalers to reward long-term customers. Pricing constraints existed only in Benin where wholesaler and retailer mark-ups are regulated; however, unlicensed drug vendors based in open-air markets did not adhere to the pricing regime. These findings indicate that mark-ups on antimalarials are reasonable. Therefore, improving ACT affordability would be most readily

  18. Prices and mark-ups on antimalarials: evidence from nationally representative studies in six malaria-endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Torres Rueda, Sergio; Kiefer, Sabine; O’Connell, Kate; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Poyer, Stephen; Chavasse, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    The private for-profit sector is an important source of treatment for malaria. However, private patients face high prices for the recommended treatment for uncomplicated malaria, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), which makes them more likely to receive cheaper, less effective non-artemisinin therapies (nATs). This study seeks to better understand consumer antimalarial prices by documenting and exploring the pricing behaviour of retailers and wholesalers. Using data collected in 2009–10, we present survey estimates of antimalarial retail prices, and wholesale- and retail-level price mark-ups from six countries (Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia), along with qualitative findings on factors affecting pricing decisions. Retail prices were lowest for nATs, followed by ACTs and artemisinin monotherapies (AMTs). Retailers applied the highest percentage mark-ups on nATs (range: 40% in Nigeria to 100% in Cambodia and Zambia), whereas mark-ups on ACTs (range: 22% in Nigeria to 71% in Zambia) and AMTs (range: 22% in Nigeria to 50% in Uganda) were similar in magnitude, but lower than those applied to nATs. Wholesale mark-ups were generally lower than those at retail level, and were similar across antimalarial categories in most countries. When setting prices wholesalers and retailers commonly considered supplier prices, prevailing market prices, product availability, product characteristics and the costs related to transporting goods, staff salaries and maintaining a property. Price discounts were regularly used to encourage sales and were sometimes used by wholesalers to reward long-term customers. Pricing constraints existed only in Benin where wholesaler and retailer mark-ups are regulated; however, unlicensed drug vendors based in open-air markets did not adhere to the pricing regime. These findings indicate that mark-ups on antimalarials are reasonable. Therefore, improving ACT affordability would be most readily

  19. Essays on pricing dynamics, price dispersion, and nested logit modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinda, Jeremy Alan

    The body of this dissertation comprises three standalone essays, presented in three respective chapters. Chapter One explores the possibility that local market power contributes to the asymmetric relationship observed between wholesale costs and retail prices in gasoline markets. I exploit an original data set of weekly gas station prices in Southern California from September 2002 to May 2003, and take advantage of highly detailed station and local market-level characteristics to determine the extent to which spatial differentiation influences price-response asymmetry. I find that brand identity, proximity to rival stations, bundling and advertising, operation type, and local market features and demographics each influence a station's predicted asymmetric relationship between prices and wholesale costs. Chapter Two extends the existing literature on the effect of market structure on price dispersion in airline fares by modeling the effect at the disaggregate ticket level. Whereas past studies rely on aggregate measures of price dispersion such as the Gini coefficient or the standard deviation of fares, this paper estimates the entire empirical distribution of airline fares and documents how the shape of the distribution is determined by market structure. Specifically, I find that monopoly markets favor a wider distribution of fares with more mass in the tails while duopoly and competitive markets exhibit a tighter fare distribution. These findings indicate that the dispersion of airline fares may result from the efforts of airlines to practice second-degree price discrimination. Chapter Three adopts a Bayesian approach to the problem of tree structure specification in nested logit modelling, which requires a heavy computational burden in calculating marginal likelihoods. I compare two different techniques for estimating marginal likelihoods: (1) the Laplace approximation, and (2) reversible jump MCMC. I apply the techniques to both a simulated and a travel mode

  20. Final Report on Transmission Pricing in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Larson; Lawrence Nordell

    2003-06-25

    Under this project, the Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation (CREPC) of the Western Interstate Energy Board developed a ''western pricing and congestion management proposal'' in order to foster efficient wholesale power markets and efficient use and expansion of the transmission grid. Drafts of this paper provided useful information to states/provinces in the Western Interconnection as Western Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) transmission pricing proposals have continued to evolve. Throughout the project there has been a gradual, but incomplete agreement on pricing systems to be used by RTOs in the West.

  1. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  2. Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanpeng

    dissertation, basic financial risk management concepts relevant for wholesale electric power markets are carefully explained and illustrated. In addition, the financial risk management problem in wholesale electric power markets is generalized as a four-stage process. Within the proposed financial risk management framework, the critical problem of financial bilateral contract negotiation is addressed. This dissertation analyzes a financial bilateral contract negotiation process between a generating company and a load-serving entity in a wholesale electric power market with congestion managed by locational marginal pricing. Nash bargaining theory is used to model a Pareto-efficient settlement point. The model predicts negotiation results under varied conditions and identifies circumstances in which the two parties might fail to reach an agreement. Both analysis and agent-based simulation are used to gain insight regarding how relative risk aversion and biased price estimates influence negotiated outcomes. These results should provide useful guidance to market participants in their bilateral contract negotiation processes.

  3. Pricing products: juxtaposing affordability with quality appeal.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Choosing appropriate product prices is 1 of the most crucial steps in creating an effective contraceptive social marketing (CSM) sales campaign. The Social Marketing Forum conducted an informal survey of social marketing project managers, international contractors, and marketing consultants to determine how CSM programs cope with pricing problems and ways to circumvent some obstacles. According to Diana Altman, a family planning consultant, low prices that make products available to needy individuals are more important than the program's self sufficiency, yet if prices are too low, consumers think the products were unusable in the US and thus were dumped on local markets. Other key factors include commercial competition, spiraling inflation rates, and problems with rising prices and retailer/distributor margins. A sampling of per capita gross national products indicates the poverty level of most CSM projects' target market. Consequently, CSM projects must set low pices, regardless of program operating costs. The goal often is to increase the demand and availability for contraceptives. The fact that social marketing products must pass through retail networks to reach consumers complicates the pricing equation. To deal with the problem, India's Nirodh program gives a 25% margin to distributors/wholesalers, compared to 6% offered on most other goods. Retailers also receive a 25% margin, more than double the commercial rate. Once prices are set, increases pose hazards. Local government approval often is a prerequisite and can require lengthy negotiations. Market studies remain a valuable approach to effective pricing, according to PNA's Mallamad and other research consultants. They cite such effective research strategies as test marketing products and asking consumers how prices affect buying habits. Further, CSM projects can jump over some pricing hurdles through creative marketing. An effective pricing strategy alone cannot produce a successful CSM program. Pricing

  4. Open Automated Demand Response Dynamic Pricing Technologies and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2010-08-02

    This study examines the use of OpenADR communications specification, related data models, technologies, and strategies to send dynamic prices (e.g., real time prices and peak prices) and Time of Use (TOU) rates to commercial and industrial electricity customers. OpenADR v1.0 is a Web services-based flexible, open information model that has been used in California utilities' commercial automated demand response programs since 2007. We find that data models can be used to send real time prices. These same data models can also be used to support peak pricing and TOU rates. We present a data model that can accommodate all three types of rates. For demonstration purposes, the data models were generated from California Independent System Operator's real-time wholesale market prices, and a California utility's dynamic prices and TOU rates. Customers can respond to dynamic prices by either using the actual prices, or prices can be mapped into"operation modes," which can act as inputs to control systems. We present several different methods for mapping actual prices. Some of these methods were implemented in demonstration projects. The study results demonstrate show that OpenADR allows interoperability with existing/future systems/technologies and can be used within related dynamic pricing activities within Smart Grid.

  5. Online Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Nancy; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The first of four articles describes the move by the European Space Agency to eliminate connect time charges on its online retrieval system. The remaining articles describe the pricing structure of DIALOG, compare the two pricing schemes, and discuss online pricing from the user's point of view. (CLB)

  6. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-4 - Constructive sale price; affiliated corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Provisions... article to one or more independent retailers, but does not regularly sell to wholesale distributors. Under... transactions to such independent retailers. Once the constructive sale price has been determined, no...

  7. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 15362 (Mar. 29, 2010... Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,281 (2008...., Wholesale Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28,...

  8. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  9. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  10. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  11. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  12. 12 CFR 324.131 - Mechanics for calculating total wholesale and retail risk-weighted assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanics for calculating total wholesale and retail risk-weighted assets. 324.131 Section 324.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE... Credit Risk § 324.131 Mechanics for calculating total wholesale and retail risk-weighted assets....

  13. 12 CFR 217.131 - Mechanics for calculating total wholesale and retail risk-weighted assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanics for calculating total wholesale and retail risk-weighted assets. 217.131 Section 217.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... Risk § 217.131 Mechanics for calculating total wholesale and retail risk-weighted assets. (a)...

  14. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  15. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  16. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...\\ Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR... Rulemaking and Notice of Technical Conference (Supplemental Notice), 75 FR 47,499, 132 FERC ] 61,094 (issued... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets;...

  17. 7 CFR 59.205 - Mandatory reporting of wholesale pork sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory reporting of wholesale pork sales. 59.205... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.205 Mandatory reporting of wholesale pork... sows and boars (by 2 p.m. central time) the following information on total pork sales established...

  18. 7 CFR 59.205 - Mandatory reporting of wholesale pork sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory reporting of wholesale pork sales. 59.205... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.205 Mandatory reporting of wholesale pork... sows and boars (by 2 p.m. central time) the following information on total pork sales established...

  19. 12 CFR 563e.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose savings associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... investments or services are not claimed by any other institution; and (2) Community development lending by... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or... Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose savings associations. (a) Scope of test. The...

  20. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution §...

  1. 12 CFR 228.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.25 Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. (a) Scope of test....

  2. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. (a) Scope of test. The...

  3. 17 CFR 250.54 - Effect of exempt wholesale generators on other transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... generators on other transactions. 250.54 Section 250.54 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulation and Exemption of Various Financial Transactions 2 § 250.54 Effect of exempt wholesale generators... registered holding company for purposes other than the acquisition of an exempt wholesale generator or...

  4. 78 FR 35622 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. CPV... status of the above-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators Companies became effective...

  5. 76 FR 13610 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Windstar Energy... 2011, the status of the above-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective...

  6. 75 FR 57013 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Taloga Wind, LLC, Stephentown...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Taloga Wind... above-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by operation of the...

  7. 76 FR 22094 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. LSP... entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators or Foreign Utility Companies became effective by operation of...

  8. 78 FR 69847 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Buffalo Dunes... status of the above-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by operation...

  9. 75 FR 32458 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility Company Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility... 2010, the status of the above-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators or Foreign...

  10. 17 CFR 250.54 - Effect of exempt wholesale generators on other transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... generators on other transactions. 250.54 Section 250.54 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulation and Exemption of Various Financial Transactions 2 § 250.54 Effect of exempt wholesale generators... registered holding company for purposes other than the acquisition of an exempt wholesale generator or...

  11. 76 FR 2365 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status January 6, 2011..., the status of the above-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective...

  12. 76 FR 27312 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos... Wholesale Generators became effective by operation of the Commission's regulations. 18 CFR 366.7(a)....

  13. 78 FR 46939 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Ivanpah Master...-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators Companies became effective by operation of the...

  14. 76 FR 65716 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket No..., the status of the above-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective...

  15. 78 FR 11169 - North Sky River Energy, LLC, et al; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. North Sky River Energy, LLC EG13-6-000 Black Bear SO, LLC EG13-7-000... entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators Companies became effective by operation of the...

  16. Operation of Distributed Generation Under Stochastic Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-11-30

    We model the operating decisions of a commercial enterprisethatneeds to satisfy its periodic electricity demand with either on-sitedistributed generation (DG) or purchases from the wholesale market. Whilethe former option involves electricity generation at relatively high andpossibly stochastic costs from a set of capacity-constrained DGtechnologies, the latter implies unlimited open-market transactions atstochastic prices. A stochastic dynamic programme (SDP) is used to solvethe resulting optimisation problem. By solving the SDP with and withoutthe availability of DG units, the implied option values of the DG unitsare obtained.

  17. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  18. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  19. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  20. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  1. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  2. 40 CFR 80.571 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel or heating oil beginning June 1, 2007? 80... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel or heating oil beginning June 1, 2007? Any retailer or wholesale purchaser-consumer who sells, dispenses, or offers for sale or dispensing...

  3. 40 CFR 80.570 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of diesel fuel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of diesel fuel beginning June 1, 2006? 80.570 Section 80.570... Marine Fuel Labeling Requirements § 80.570 What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale..., any retailer or wholesale purchaser-consumer who sells, dispenses, or offers for sale or...

  4. 40 CFR 80.572 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NR and NRLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NR and NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1... apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NR and NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1, 2010? Any retailer or wholesale purchaser-consumer who sells, dispenses, or offers...

  5. Energy prices and substitution in United States manufacturing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Cheryl

    Persistent regional disparities in electricity prices, growth in wholesale power markets, and recent deregulation attempts have intensified interest in the performance of the U.S. electric power industry, while skyrocketing fuel prices have brought renewed interest in the effect of changes in prices of all energy types on the U.S. economy. This dissertation examines energy prices and substitution between energy types in U.S. manufacturing. I use a newly constructed database that includes information on purchased electricity and electricity expenditures for more than 48,000 plants per year and additional data on the utilities that supply electricity to study the distribution of electricity prices paid by U.S. manufacturing plants from 1963 to 2000. I find a large compression in the dispersion of electricity prices from 1963 to 1978 due primarily to a decrease in quantity discounts for large electricity purchasers. I also find that spatial dispersion in retail electricity prices among states, counties and utility service territories is large, rises over time for smaller purchasers, and does not diminish as wholesale power markets expand in the 1990s. In addition, I examine energy type consumption patterns, prices, and substitution in U.S. manufacturing plants. I develop a plant-level dataset for 1998 with data on consumption and expenditures on energy and non-energy production inputs, output, and other plant characteristics. I find energy type consumption patterns vary widely across manufacturing plants. Further, I find a large amount of dispersion across plants in the prices paid for electricity, oil, natural gas, and coal. These high levels of dispersion are accounted for by the plant's location, industry, and purchase quantity. Finally, I present estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for both the energy and non-energy production inputs.

  6. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

  7. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  8. The relationship between different price indices: Evidence from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdi, Yilmaz; Berument, Hakan; Mümin Cilasun, Seyit

    2006-02-01

    A possible relationship between the Consumer Price Index and the Wholesale Price Index has been analyzed for long and short-run relationships. Conventional Engle and Granger [Estimation Test Econ. 55(1987) 2251-276] and Johansen's [J. Econ. Dyn. Control 12 (1988) 231-254] cointegration tests give mixed evidence for a possible long-run relationship between those two series. The model-free and seasonally robust periodogram-based test fails to reject the null of no-cointegration relationship. However, these two series move together in the short run.

  9. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  10. 78 FR 34373 - Flexible and Local Resources Needed for Reliability in the California Wholesale Electric Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Flexible and Local Resources Needed for Reliability in the California Wholesale Electric Market; Notice of Staff Technical Conference This notice establishes the location and... System Operator Corporation's (CAISO) proposal to implement an interim flexible capacity and...

  11. 75 FR 47499 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... markets administered by Independent System Operators or Regional Transmission Organizations. The... Commission proposed to require Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations... wholesale electricity markets: PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM); New York Independent System Operator,...

  12. 75 FR 23759 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power... technical conference to elicit input on issues pertaining to Frequency Regulation Compensation in the...

  13. Competitive electricity markets, prices and generator entry and exit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ethier, Robert George

    The electric power industry in the United States is quickly being deregulated and restructured. In the past, new electric generation capacity was added by regulated utilities to meet forecasted demand levels and maintain reserve margins. With competitive wholesale generation, investment will be the responsibility of independent private investors. Electricity prices will assume the coordinating function which has until recently been the responsibility of regulatory agencies. Competitive prices will provide the entry and exit signals for generators in the future. Competitive electricity markets have a distinctive price formation process, and thus require a specialized price model. A mean-reverting price process with stochastic jumps is proposed as an appropriate long-run price process for annual electricity prices. This price process is used to develop an analytic real options model for private investment decisions. The required recursive infinite series solutions have not been widely used for real option models. Entry thresholds and asset values for competitive wholesale electricity markets, and exit decisions for plants with significant retirement costs (i.e. nuclear power plants), are examined. The proposed model results in significantly lower trigger prices for both entry and exit decisions, and higher asset values, when compared with other standard models. The model is used to show that the incentives for retiring a nuclear plant are very sensitive to the treatment of decommissioning costs (e.g. if plant owners do not face full decommissioning costs, retirement decisions may be economically premature.) An econometric model of short-run price behavior is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood using daily electricity prices from markets in the USA and Australia. The model specifies two mean reverting price processes with stochastic Markov switching between the regimes, which allows discontinuous jumps in electricity prices. Econometric tests show that a two

  14. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-3 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... such articles to one or more wholesale distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer... section 4216(b)(2), (3) The transactions are arm's-length transactions, and (4) With respect to articles... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Constructive sale price; special rule for...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-3 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... such articles to one or more wholesale distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer... section 4216(b)(2), (3) The transactions are arm's-length transactions, and (4) With respect to articles... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Constructive sale price; special rule for...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-3 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... such articles to one or more wholesale distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer... section 4216(b)(2), (3) The transactions are arm's-length transactions, and (4) With respect to articles... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Constructive sale price; special rule for...

  17. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  18. Explaining EIA Crude Oil and Petroleum Product Price Data and Comparing with Other U.S. Government Data Sources, 2001 to 2010

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the sampling frames and basic data collection methods for petroleum price data reported by Energy Information Administration (EIA) and other Government agencies. In addition, it compares and contrasts annual average prices reported by EIA with comparable prices from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) CPI (Consumer Price Indexes) for the retail prices of residential No. 2 distillate, on-highway diesel fuel and motor gasoline (all grades.) Further, it compares refiner wholesale/resale prices for No. 2 fuel oil, No. 2 diesel fuel, motor gasoline (all grades,) kerosene-type jet fuel and residual fuel oil reported by EIA with comparable prices from the BLS PPI (Producer Price Index.) A discussion of the various crude oil prices and spot/futures prices published by EIA and other Government agencies is also included in the article.

  19. Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Projections 1993--2014 and Historical Wholesale Power Rates 1939--1992.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-11-01

    This document provides a range of high, medium, and low case long-term projections of Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) wholesale power rates and a medium case long-term projection of BPA`s wheeling rates. These projections are produced annually by BPA. BPA uses these projections in long-term marketing, resource, transmission, and financial planning assessments. BPA`s projections also are used by public utility commissions, utilities, and others for a variety of planning purposes. The analysis used for these rate projections assumes that current rate making methodologies continue into the future and are further based on certain assumptions about regional loads, extra-regional markets, the costs of resources, BPA`s financial requirements, and the capability of the region`s power plants. While these projections are intended to address the overall uncertainty in rate levels, BPA realizes that the future will not reflect any specific set of assumptions. The rate projections in this document have been prepared prior to the Draft 1993 BPA Marketing Plan, the implementation of which is almost certain to push BPA away from any set of assumptions in this document. Therefore, this document can be thought of as representing the ``old`` BPA with its products and policies. It can be viewed as a starting point or reference point to measure the impact of the ``new`` BPA with its Marketing Plan, and the broader undertaking referred to as the Competitiveness Project.

  20. Pricing Theory of Derivatives in Financial Engineering and the Problems on the Application to Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Tetsuya

    Recently, the wholesale electric power exchange has been founded in Japan. With the progress of the electricity market, some management schemes of electricity price risk will be necessary. In financial markets or the preceding electricity markets, various “derivatives" on assets in the markets are often used as management tools to hedge the price risk. This paper gives a short commentary on some fundamental concepts of the derivatives and the pricing theory in the financial engineering, and discusses the problems on the financial engineering approach to electricity derivatives.

  1. Transmission grid access and pricing in Norway, Spain, and California: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Gronli, H.; Gomez San Ramon, T.; Marnay, C.

    1999-09-01

    The openness of the transmission grid and the incentives given by transmission pricing form the foundation for retail and wholesale competition in the electricity market. The deregulated markets of Norway, Spain, and California all have introduced retail access and wholesale competition, although with different approaches to pricing of transmission grid services. This paper will briefly describe the three different solutions, and discuss some of their implications. Of the three electricity systems, Norway was the first to open the grid to competition in electricity trade. The Norwegian Energy Law of 1990 introduced open competition to wholesale and retail trade starting January 1991. In Spain, the Electricity Law of 1997 came into force early in 1998. Wholesale and retail markets in California were opened for competition on April 1, 1998, following the passage of Assembly Bill 1890, in August 1996. Introducing competition in electricity markets also implies introducing Third Party Access to the transmission grid. All potential competitors have to be given access to the grid in order to compete, no matter who owns the actual wires. This principle raises several challenges, notably, how to price transmission services. Who is to pay for which transmission services? The Norwegian grid is divided into three levels depending on its function. The transmission grid includes all parts of the national grid having a transmission function, meaning that some lower voltage levels also are included. In Spain, the definition of the transmission grid is similar, including the 400 kV and 220 kV national grid as well as lower voltage installations that could affect transmission operation or generation dispatch. For historic reasons, wholesale electricity transactions in the US are regulated by the federal government through the FERC. However, operations of utility systems within one state fall primarily under state jurisdiction. Because the utility systems in California generally are

  2. Empirical Analysis of the Spot Market Implications ofPrice-Responsive Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-08-01

    Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulatedelectricity industries share one common feature: the absence of anysignificant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, most electricity consumers stillpay an average cost based regulated retail tariff held over from the eraof vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are oftenforced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in openmarkets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who aresometimes additionally forbidden by regulators from signing hedgingcontracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time(or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price ofelectricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumptionaccordingly. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic,which together with the non storability of electricity that requiresmarket clearing over very short time steps spawn many other problemsassociated with electricity markets, such as exercise of market power andprice volatility. Indeed, electricity generation resources can bestretched to the point where system adequacy is threatened. Economictheory suggests that even modest price responsiveness can relieve thestress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To quantify thiseffect, actual generator bid data from the New York control area is usedto construct supply stacks and intersect them with demand curves ofvarious slopes to approximate the effect of different levels of demandresponse. The potential impact of real-time pricing (RTP) on theequilibrium spot price and quantity is then estimated. These resultsindicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a moreprice-responsive demand providing policymakers with a measure of howprices can be potentially reduced and consumption maintained within thecapability of generation assets.

  3. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8%) registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7%) defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were. During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates. Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately from their packs

  4. Fertilizer use and price statistics, 1960-1991. Statistical bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Vroomen, H.; Taylor, H.

    1992-11-01

    Fertilizer consumption grew rapidly throughout the 1960's and 1970's and peaked at 23.7 million nutrient tons in 1981. After falling to 18.1 million tons in 1983, use has remained relatively stable, ranging from 19.1 million to 21.8 million tons in 1984-91. Use declined from its peak level because of fewer planted acres and stabilizing rates of application. Retail fertilizer prices, while stable or declining during the 1960's, have varied widely since 1973. The bulletin includes quarterly or semiannual time series for retail fertilizer prices, annual retail and wholesale fertilizer price indexes, fertilizer consumption by plant nutrient and major selected products, consumption of mixed fertilizers and secondary and micronutrients, and statistics on fertilizer use per acre by nutrient in the major producing States for corn, cotton, soybeans, and wheat.

  5. Controlling medicine prices in Sudan: the challenge of the recently established medicines regulatory authority.

    PubMed

    Ali, G K M; Yahia, Y

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the capacity of the medicine pricing mechanism of the National Medicines and Poisons Board (NMPB), the medicine regulatory agency of Sudan, in controlling prices of imported medicines. The study was conducted between July and September 2008 and data on the 50 most sold medicines in 2007 were obtained from the records of the regulatory authority and pharmacies in Khartoum; 135 products were included. The cost and freight (C&F) prices of 23% of the selected medicines approved by NMPB were over 10 times the International Reference Price; 71% of these items were generics. The wholesale price of only 40% of the studied medicines was less than that approved by NMPB, while the retail price of 47% of medicines was less than that approved by the authority. The retail price of 11 of 12 originator medicines was equal to or more than their prices published in the British National Formulary. The price of the medicines distributed by Central Medical Supplies was about 2-fold their C&F price. The current pricing system is of limited benefit in controlling medicine prices in Sudan.

  6. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  7. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  8. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  9. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  10. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  11. 77 FR 30273 - DES Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission DES Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of DES Wholesale, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  12. 75 FR 14342 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy... Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by Public Utilities, Order No. 697- C, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,291 (2009). \\2\\ 18 CFR 35.42. \\3\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric...

  13. 40 CFR 80.573 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1, 2012? 80... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1, 2012? Any... oil, must prominently and conspicuously display in the immediate area of each pump stand from...

  14. 77 FR 33491 - Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation, Izod Women's Wholesale Division, New York, NY; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2012 (77 FR 23511). The initial investigation resulted in a... Employment and Training Administration Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation, Izod Women's Wholesale Division, New... former workers of Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation, Izod Women's Wholesale Division, New York, New...

  15. 77 FR 27225 - Liberty Power Wholesale Supply, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Power Wholesale Supply, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Liberty Power Wholesale Supply, LLC's application for...

  16. Comparison of AEO 2008 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX Futures Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-01-07

    On December 12, 2007, the reference-case projections from Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO 2008) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference-case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables can play in mitigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO reference-case gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. Note that this memo pertains only to natural gas fuel price risk (i.e., the risk that natural gas prices might differ over the life of a gas-fired generation asset from what was expected when the decision to build the gas-fired unit was made). We do not take into consideration any of the other distinct attributes of gas-fired and renewable generation, such as dispatchability (or lack thereof) or environmental externalities. A comprehensive comparison of different resource types--which is well beyond the scope of this memo--would need to account for differences in all such attributes, including fuel price risk. Furthermore, our analysis focuses solely on natural-gas-fired generation (as opposed to coal-fired generation, for example), for several reasons: (1) price volatility has been more of a concern for natural gas than for other fuels used to generate power; (2) for environmental and other reasons, natural gas has, in recent years, been the fuel of choice among power plant developers (though its appeal has diminished somewhat as prices have increased); and (3) natural gas-fired generators often set the market clearing price in competitive wholesale power markets throughout the United States. That said, a more-complete analysis of how renewables mitigate fuel price risk would also need to consider coal and

  17. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on pork and chicken prices in Central Luzon, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Abao, Lary Nel B; Kono, Hiroichi; Gunarathne, Anoma; Promentilla, Rolando R; Gaerlan, Manolita Z

    2014-03-01

    Central Luzon is the number one pig-producing region in the Philippines and was affected by Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) in 1995. In this paper, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon meat market from 1995 to 1999 was examined. Employing the error correction model (ECM) and historical decomposition, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon pork and chicken meat market was quantified. The following findings were observed: (a) pig farm and pork wholesale prices dropped 11.8% and 15.7%, respectively, after the initial FMD outbreaks in January, 1995; (b) in February, 1995, chicken farm and wholesale prices declined by 21.1% and 14.2%, respectively (while chicken retail prices also went down by 10.5%); (c) the margins of pig and chicken traders were also adversely affected at some point; and (d) FMD caused changes of dynamic interdependence among prices by meat type at different levels of the meat supply chain. This study makes several contributions to the literature on the impact of FMD outbreaks. This study is the first that simultaneously investigates the impact of FMD outbreaks on meat prices, price margins along the supply chain, and price interdependence in the meat system in Central Luzon, Philippines. Also, the Philippine pork industry is dominated by backyard farmers rather than the predominantly large commercial pig farmers existing in developed countries. Secondly, it yielded the novel finding of price decline in both pig and chicken prices as a result of the FMD outbreaks. And lastly, the study showed that the profit margins of the pig traders, pork traders, chicken traders and chicken meat traders were also negatively affected by the FMD outbreaks in January 1995. However, over the long term, the price margins of pork traders were more severely affected in contrast to that of the other traders' profits. PMID:24433637

  18. 12 CFR 25.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... performance rating. The OCC rates a bank's community development performance as provided in appendix A of this... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 25.25 Section 25.25 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 40 CFR 82.118 - Compliance by wholesalers, distributors and retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance by wholesalers, distributors and retailers. 82.118 Section 82.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using...

  20. 40 CFR 82.118 - Compliance by wholesalers, distributors and retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance by wholesalers, distributors and retailers. 82.118 Section 82.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using...

  1. 78 FR 63975 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility Company Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    .... FortisBC Energy (Whistler) Inc... FortisBC Huntingdon Inc FortisBC Alternative Energy Services Inc... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign...

  2. 18 CFR 35.47 - Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets. 35.47 Section 35.47 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS...

  3. 76 FR 76153 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC, Mesquite Solar 1, LLC, Copper Crossing Solar LLC, Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC, Pinnacle Wind, LLC, Bellevue Solar, LLC, Yamhill Solar, LLC, Osage Wind, LLC, Minco Wind II, LLC Take notice that during the month of October 2011, the status of the...

  4. 12 CFR 3.131 - Mechanics for calculating total wholesale and retail risk-weighted assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanics for calculating total wholesale and retail risk-weighted assets. 3.131 Section 3.131 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY... Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for General Credit Risk § 3.131 Mechanics...

  5. 76 FR 770 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Monthly Wholesale Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as... inventories, and inventories/sales ratios in the United States by selected kinds of business for merchant..., consisting of about 4,500 wholesale businesses, is drawn from the Business Register, which contains...

  6. Staffing Patterns in the Wholesale and Retail Trade Industry in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Employment Security Div., Indianapolis. Research and Statistics Section.

    Directed towards designers of vocational education training programs, the document presents statistical data and discussion concerning employment trends in Indiana for various industries in the wholesale and retail trade sector. Data are based on a survey conducted in 1973-74, covering 5,986 establishments and 202,070 employees, with a usable…

  7. 75 FR 19959 - Uilk Wind Farm, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Uilk Wind Farm, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status April 9, 2010. Take notice that during the month March, 2010, the status of the...

  8. 75 FR 53295 - Hatchet Ridge Wind, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hatchet Ridge Wind, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status August 23, 2010. Take notice that during the month of July 2010, the status of the...

  9. 78 FR 52523 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Dominion Bridgeport Fuel Cell, LLC EG13-31-000 Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC EG13-32-000 Solar...

  10. 77 FR 10506 - Locational Exchanges of Wholesale Electric Power; Notice Terminating Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Locational Exchanges of Wholesale Electric Power; Notice Terminating Proceeding 1. On February 17, 2011, the Commission issued a Notice of Inquiry (NOI) concerning the regulatory treatment of locational exchanges...

  11. 75 FR 26225 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... conference to elicit input on issues pertaining to Frequency Regulation Compensation in the ISO/RTO...

  12. 75 FR 29531 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Supplemental Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... the April 27 Notice, the conference will provide a forum to consider issues related to...

  13. 16 CFR 240.11 - Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations. 240.11 Section 240.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND...

  14. 16 CFR 240.11 - Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations. 240.11 Section 240.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND...

  15. 40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Controls applicable to natural gas... Prohibitions § 80.33 Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. (a) After... feet of natural gas per month shall equip each pump from which natural gas is introduced into...

  16. 40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controls applicable to natural gas... Prohibitions § 80.33 Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. (a) After... feet of natural gas per month shall equip each pump from which natural gas is introduced into...

  17. 40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Controls applicable to natural gas... Prohibitions § 80.33 Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. (a) After... feet of natural gas per month shall equip each pump from which natural gas is introduced into...

  18. 40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Controls applicable to natural gas... Prohibitions § 80.33 Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. (a) After... feet of natural gas per month shall equip each pump from which natural gas is introduced into...

  19. 40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Controls applicable to natural gas... Prohibitions § 80.33 Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. (a) After... feet of natural gas per month shall equip each pump from which natural gas is introduced into...

  20. Study proposes wholesale change in thinking about natural hazards mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The “lollapaloozas,” the major natural catastrophes, are getting bigger and bigger, and it is time to confront this growing problem by dramatically changing the way that society approaches natural hazard mitigation, conducts itself in relation to the natural environment, and accepts responsibility for activities that could lead to or increase disasters, according to Dennis Mileti, principal investigator of a new study on natural hazards, and director of the Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder.Since 1989, the United States has been struck by seven of the nation's 10 most costly natural disasters, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake in California that caused $25 billion in damages. Also since 1989, the financial cost of natural hazards in the United States—which includes floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and wildfires, as well as landslides, heat, and fog—has frequently averaged $1 billion per week, a price that some experts say will continue rising. Internationally, the Kobe, Japan, earthquake cost more than $100 billion and is the most financially costly disaster in world history None of these figures include indirect losses related to natural disasters, such as lost economic productivity

  1. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  2. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance. PMID:25121141

  3. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance.

  4. Working Capital Management, Corporate Performance, and Strategic Choices of the Wholesale and Retail Industry in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance. PMID:25121141

  5. 77 FR 69618 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Solar Borrego I LLC EG12-96-000 Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC..... EG12-97-000 Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower EG12-98-000 LLC. Horse Butte Wind I LLC EG12-99-000 Ri- Corp. Development, Inc EG12-100-000 Anacacho Wind Farm, LLC EG12-101-000 Brandon Shores LLC EG12-102-000 H.A. Wagner LLC...

  6. Discussion paper on wholesale ratemaking considerations for sulfur dioxide emissions allowance trading

    SciTech Connect

    Wessler, E.

    1993-07-01

    The acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created an allowance trading program for SO{sub 2} emissions from electric utility power plants. Theoretically, the trading program will provide utilities the flexibility to control their SO{sub 2} emissions at minimum aggregate societal costs. The trading program is a significant change from command-and-control environmental policies. A continuing concern is whether the market-oriented trading program is compatible with the pervasive rate regulation of the electric utility industry. Economists accept traditional rate regulation policies tend to provide incentives for utilities to minimize risks, rather than costs. To the extent that this is true, the allowance trading experiment is not likely to be successful. A number of commenters have described proposals for alternative regulatory policies to provide utilities with appropriate incentives for cost-minimization. These proposals focus on utility incentives at a {open_quotes}macro{close_quotes} level This paper has a {open_quotes}micro{close_quotes} level focus. It examines options for ratemaking that may also influence utility incentives for cost-minimization to provide a structured discussion of the different types of transactions that involve allowances. Emphasis is on the implications of allowance trading on ratemaking for wholesale power sales. Some of the same considerations that apply to wholesale ratemaking may also apply to retail ratemaking. Four generic types of allowance transactions are examined: Type 1: Unbundled Allowance Sales, Type 2: Wholesale Power Sales, Type 3: Pooling Arrangements, and Type 4: Holding Company Transactions. Each of these four generic allowance transactions is assessed along two 3 dimensions: jurisdictional issues and wholesale ratemaking considerations.

  7. Modeling of sorption isotherms of dried vegetable wastes from wholesale market

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Iguaz, A.; Esnoz, A.; Virseda, P.

    2000-05-01

    The moisture sorption isotherms of dried vegetable wastes (based on green leaves and fruits) from wholesale market were determined at 25, 40, 60 and 90 C by the static gravimetric method. Experimental data were fit by using several mathematical models. The G.A.B. and the Halsey model gave the minimum mean square error. G.A.B. parameters were related with temperature by Arrhenius expressions.

  8. The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy Scripts: Prescription Drug Pricing.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Wesley K; Taniguchi, Ronald; Juarez, Deborah Taira

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drugs have reduced morbidity and mortality and improved the quality of life of millions of Americans. Yet, concerns over drug price increases loom. Drug spending has risen relatively slowly over the past decade because many of the most popular brand-name medicines lost patent protection. In the near future, there will be fewer low-cost generics coming into the market to offset the rising prices of brand-name drugs. Drug expenditures are influenced by both volume and price. This article focuses on how drug prices are set in the United States and current trends. Drug prices are determined through an extremely complicated set of interactions between pharmaceutical manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, insurers, pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs), managed care organizations, hospitals, chain stores, and consumers. The process differs depending on the type of drug and place of delivery. Rising drug prices have come under increased scrutiny due to increased cost inflation and because many price increases come as a result of mergers and acquisitions of generic drug companies or changes in ownership of brand name drug manufacturers. Other countries have reigned in drug prices by negotiating with or regulating pharmaceutical manufacturers. The best long-term solution to rising drug prices is yet to be determined but the United States will continue to debate this issue and the discussions will get more heated if drug expenditures continue to rise at a rapid rate (ie, increasing 13% in 2014 from the previous year). PMID:26870605

  9. Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Miller, Mackay; Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Arent, Douglas; Bloom, Aaron; Futch, Matthew; Kiviluoma, Juha; Holtinnen, Hannele; Orths, Antje; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Martin-Martinez, Sergio; Kukoda, S.; Garcia, Glycon; Mikkelsen, Kim M.; Yongqiang, Zhao; Sandholt, Kaare

    2013-10-01

    Demand for affordable, reliable, domestically sourced, and low-carbon electricity is on the rise. This growing demand is driven in part by evolving public policy priorities, especially reducing the health and environmental impacts of electricity service and expanding energy access to under-served customers. Consequently, variable renewable energy resources comprise an increasing share ofelectricity generation globally. At the same time, new opportunities for addressing the variability of renewables are being strengthened through advances in smart grids, communications, and technologies that enable dispatchable demand response and distributed generation to extend to the mass market. A key challenge of merging these opportunities is market design -- determining how to createincentives and compensate providers justly for attributes and performance that ensure a reliable and secure grid -- in a context that fully realizes the potential of a broad array of sources of flexibility in both the wholesale power and retail markets. This report reviews the suite of wholesale power market designs in use and under consideration to ensure adequacy, security, and flexibilityin a landscape of significant variable renewable energy. It also examines considerations needed to ensure that wholesale market designs are inclusive of emerging technologies, such as demand response, distributed generation, and storage.

  10. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

  11. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy.

  12. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  13. Study and Simulation on Dynamics of a Risk-Averse Supply Chain Pricing Model with Dual-Channel and Incomplete Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lijian; Ma, Junhai

    Under the industrial background of dual-channel, volatility in demand of consumers, we use the theory of bifurcations and numerical simulation tools to investigate the dynamic pricing game in a dual-channel supply chain with risk-averse behavior and incomplete information. Due to volatility of demand of consumers, we consider all the players in the supply chain are risk-averse. We assume there exist Bertrand game and Manufacturers’ Stackelberg in the chain which are closer to reality. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the complex influence of the decision parameters such as wholesale price adjustment speed, risk preference and service value on stability of the risk-averse supply chain and average utilities of all the players. We lay emphasis on the influence of chaos on average utilities of all the players which did not appear in previous studies. The dynamic phenomena, such as the bifurcation, chaos and sensitivity to initial values are analyzed by 2D bifurcation phase portraits, Double Largest Lyapunov exponent, basins of attraction and so on. The study shows that the manufacturers should slow down their wholesale price adjustment speed to get more utilities, if the manufacturers are willing to take on more risk, they will get more profits, but they must keep their wholesale prices in a certain range in order to maintain the market stability.

  14. Does the U.S. biofuels mandate increase the price at the pump?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Stephen R.

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 created a federal mandate for blending conventional biofuels like corn-based ethanol and advanced biofuels like biodiesel and renewable gasoline into the United States transportation fuel supply. The RFS established yearly blending standards for the obligated parties--refiners and importers of petroleum products--that increase progressively until reaching a high of 36 billion gallons by 2022. Each ethanol-equivalent gallon of biofuel blended is assigned a unique Renewable Identification Number (RIN) through the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Moderated Transaction System (EMTS). At year's close, obligated parties must submit their allotted RIN obligations to the EPA to demonstrate compliance. In the case of under-compliance or over-compliance, RINs can be traded between obligated parties freely through the EMTS or carried over for use in the next year. It follows, then, that a RIN carries a market value reflective of the cost of complying with RFS regulations. Indeed, most biofuels cost more than their fossil-based equivalents. When the price of a corn ethanol RIN went from 2-3 cents each in 2012 to nearly $1.50 in July of 2013 due to a perceived shortage in corn ethanol RINs, obligated parties faced the prospect of multimillion-dollar compliance cost increases. Arguing that RFS makes fuel significantly more expensive for consumers, petroleum companies have begun to advocate for the full repeal of the RFS, winning over some allies in Congress. The future of this program is uncertain. In an attempt to quantify the concerns of RFS critics, this thesis estimated the effect that RIN prices have on the wholesale cost of diesel fuel. Using daily price data from January 2011 through August of 2013 on RINs and crude oil, I specified twelve OLS regression models that predict the passthrough of the diesel RIN price to wholesale diesel price. My statistical analysis

  15. Relative efficiency benefits of wholesale and retail competition in electricity: An analysis and a research agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D R; Palmer, K L

    1996-03-01

    A central issue in the debate over restructuring the electric power industry is the extent to which the market should be open to competition. One aspect of this debate is whether competition ought to be restricted to the whole sale power market or be extended to final retail consumers. This report begins to explore the potential differences in economic efficiency between wholesale and retail competition in the electric power industry. The two market-structure scenarios are defined and the factors responsible for differences in efficiency are described. The report also contains an assessment of the relative importance of the factors and recommendations for pursuing further research.

  16. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  17. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    The purpose of this study and its succeeding editions is to report higher education price information on a continuing basis until a more formal effort in this direction is initiated by the federal government or by interested private organizations. Consideration is given to the uses and limitations of price indexes, expenditure grouping for pricing…

  18. Two-echelon competitive integrated supply chain model with price and credit period dependent demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2016-04-01

    This study considers a two-echelon competitive supply chain consisting of two rivaling retailers and one common supplier with trade credit policy. The retailers hope that they can enhance their market demand by offering a credit period to the customers and the supplier also offers a credit period to the retailers. We assume that the market demand of the products of one retailer depends not only on their own market price and offering a credit period to the customers, but also on the market price and offering a credit period of the other retailer. The supplier supplies the product with a common wholesale price and offers the same credit period to the retailers. We study the model under a centralised (integrated) case and a decentralised (Vertical Nash) case and compare them numerically. Finally, we investigate the model by the collected numerical data.

  19. Simulating Price-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  20. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  1. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  2. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  3. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Load Resource Study and Documentation.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The Load Resource Study (Study) represents the compilation of the loads, sales, contracts, and resource data necessary for developing BPA wholesale power rates. The results of this Study are used to: (1) provide base data to determine resource costs for the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-E-BPA-02; (2) provide regional hydro data for use in the secondary revenue forecast for the Market Power Study, WP-07-E-BPA-03; (3) provide base data to derive billing determinants for the revenue forecast in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS), WP-07-E-BPA-05; and (4) provide load and resource data for use in calculating risk in the Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-E-BPA-04. This Study provides a synopsis of BPA's load resource analyses. This Study illustrates how each component is completed, how components relate to each other, and how each component fits into the rate development process. Details and results supporting this Study are contained in the Load Resource Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-01A.

  4. Counterfeit medication: Perception of doctors and medical wholesale distributors in western India

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anup; Tambi, Swasti; Biswas, Gautam; Ganta, Shravani; Kumawat, Himanshu; Mathur, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fake drugs and active pharmaceutical ingredients most often originate in emerging industrial economies before entering the global market. Health care workers play a crucial role in detecting and preventing the distribution of counterfeit medicines. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of doctors and medicine wholesale distributors regarding counterfeit medication in western India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 300 participants consisting of 100 medical practitioners, 100 dental practitioners, and 100 medical storekeepers. Results: It was observed that medical practitioners had more knowledge, followed by medical storekeepers and dental practitioners (mean 2.82, 2.52, and 2.37, respectively). Dental practitioners had the best attitude, followed by medical practitioners and wholesale distributors (mean 1.77, 1.76, and 1.55, respectively). Best practice behaviors were observed in medical storekeepers followed by medical practitioners and dental practitioners (mean 1.46, 1.29, and 1.12, respectively). Conclusion: The study points out the need for designing and implementing continuing educational programs and enforcement of vigilant laws. PMID:25984469

  5. 29 CFR 794.137 - Effect of activities other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distribution of petroleum products.â 794.137 Section 794.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... RELATED TO REGULATIONS PARTIAL OVERTIME EXEMPTION FOR EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM... other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.” As previously noted, in some...

  6. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. ); Jarrell, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  7. Workers' compensation claims for musculoskeletal disorders among wholesale and retail trade industry workers--Ohio, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) resulting from ergonomic hazards are common in the United States. Recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) indicate that in 2011, one third of occupational injuries and illnesses resulting in lost time from work were WMSDs. Based on data from the 2010 BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, a higher rate of WMSDs resulting in lost time from work occurred in the Wholesale and Retail Trade (WRT) industry compared with most other industries. To assess trends and identify WRT subsectors and subgroups associated with high rates of WMSD workers' compensation claims, the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (OBWC) and CDC analyzed OBWC claims data for single-location WRT employers in Ohio for the period 2005-2009. From 2005 to 2009, the rate of WMSD claims declined from 86.3 to 52.8 per 10,000 employees. The three WRT industry subsectors with the highest rates of WMSD claims were Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods; Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores; and Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods. Within those three WRT subsectors, the highest rates of WMSD claims were noted in five subgroups: furniture stores and wholesalers of alcoholic beverages, groceries and related products, metal and minerals, and motor vehicle parts. Providing recommendations for WMSD prevention is particularly important for these WRT subgroups.

  8. 40 CFR 80.573 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Maximum) Required for use in all model year 2011 and later nonroad diesel engines. Recommended for use in all other non-highway diesel engines. WARNING Federal law prohibits use in highway vehicles or engines... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1, 2012?...

  9. 40 CFR 80.572 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of Motor Vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engines. Recommended for use in all diesel vehicles and engines. (b) From June 1, 2010, through September... and later nonroad diesel engines. Recommended for use in all other non-highway diesel engines. WARNING... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of Motor Vehicle, NR, LM and NRLM diesel fuel and heating...

  10. 40 CFR 80.573 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Maximum) Required for use in all model year 2011 and later nonroad diesel engines. Recommended for use in all other non-highway diesel engines. WARNING Federal law prohibits use in highway vehicles or engines... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1, 2012?...

  11. 40 CFR 80.573 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Maximum) Required for use in all model year 2011 and later nonroad diesel engines. Recommended for use in all other non-highway diesel engines. WARNING Federal law prohibits use in highway vehicles or engines... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1, 2012?...

  12. 40 CFR 80.573 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Maximum) Required for use in all model year 2011 and later nonroad diesel engines. Recommended for use in all other non-highway diesel engines. WARNING Federal law prohibits use in highway vehicles or engines... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1, 2012?...

  13. 40 CFR 80.572 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of Motor Vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engines. Recommended for use in all diesel vehicles and engines. (b) From June 1, 2010, through September... and later nonroad diesel engines. Recommended for use in all other non-highway diesel engines. WARNING... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of Motor Vehicle, NR, LM and NRLM diesel fuel and heating...

  14. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions. 278.9 Section 278.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND...

  15. 75 FR 22125 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and... Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by Public Utilities, Order No. 697- C, FERC Stats. &...

  16. Workers' compensation claims for musculoskeletal disorders among wholesale and retail trade industry workers--Ohio, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) resulting from ergonomic hazards are common in the United States. Recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) indicate that in 2011, one third of occupational injuries and illnesses resulting in lost time from work were WMSDs. Based on data from the 2010 BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, a higher rate of WMSDs resulting in lost time from work occurred in the Wholesale and Retail Trade (WRT) industry compared with most other industries. To assess trends and identify WRT subsectors and subgroups associated with high rates of WMSD workers' compensation claims, the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (OBWC) and CDC analyzed OBWC claims data for single-location WRT employers in Ohio for the period 2005-2009. From 2005 to 2009, the rate of WMSD claims declined from 86.3 to 52.8 per 10,000 employees. The three WRT industry subsectors with the highest rates of WMSD claims were Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods; Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores; and Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods. Within those three WRT subsectors, the highest rates of WMSD claims were noted in five subgroups: furniture stores and wholesalers of alcoholic beverages, groceries and related products, metal and minerals, and motor vehicle parts. Providing recommendations for WMSD prevention is particularly important for these WRT subgroups. PMID:23739337

  17. 75 FR 11530 - Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status March 4, 2010. Docket Nos. Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC EG10-6-000 GardenGarden Wind, LLC EG10-7-000 Star Point Wind Project LLC EG10-8-000 Nacogdoches Power, LLC EG10-9-000...

  18. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination and disposition of claims-retail food... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS AND INSURED FINANCIAL...

  19. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination and disposition of claims-retail food... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS AND INSURED FINANCIAL...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1501 - What are the labeling requirements that apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of gasoline-ethanol blends that contain greater than 10.0 volume percent ethanol and not more than 15.0 volume percent ethanol? 80.1501 Section 80...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1501 What...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1501 - What are the labeling requirements that apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of gasoline-ethanol blends that contain greater than 10.0 volume percent ethanol and not more than 15.0 volume percent ethanol? 80.1501 Section 80...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1501 What...

  2. 40 CFR 80.1501 - What are the labeling requirements that apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of gasoline-ethanol blends that contain greater than 10.0 volume percent ethanol and not more than 15.0 volume percent ethanol? 80.1501 Section 80...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1501 What...

  3. 77 FR 27763 - Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC, USG Nevada LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC, USG Nevada LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC EG12-31-000 USG...

  4. 40 CFR 80.572 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NR and NRLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... damage model year 2011 and newer nonroad engines. Federal law prohibits use in highway vehicles or... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... or wholesale purchaser-consumer who sells, dispenses, or offers for sale or dispensing, motor...

  5. 76 FR 11177 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... withdrawn multiplied by the real-time energy price. 10. Accuracy of performance can be incorporated into... allows them to submit lower bids into energy markets, thereby lowering energy prices.\\33\\ \\32\\ Tr. 35-36... of operation are avoided, costs can be reduced and lower energy bids offered, thereby lowering...

  6. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  7. Thin-layer drying behavior of vegetable wastes from wholesale market

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Iguaz, A.; Esnoz, A.; Virseda, P.

    2000-05-01

    The thin-layer drying behavior of vegetable wastes (as a mix of lettuce and cauliflower leaves) from wholesale market for a temperature range of 50--150 C was determined. Drying of this material was found to take part only in the falling-rate period. The experimental data were fitted to the simple exponential model and the Page model. Both models have good prediction capability. Effective diffusion coefficient varied from 6.03 x 10{sup {minus}9} to 3.15 x 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2}/s with an activation energy of diffusion of 19.82 kJ/mol. The temperature dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient was expressed by an Arrhenius-type relationship.

  8. Estimating Prices of Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.; Chamberlain, R. G.; Zendejas, S. C.; Lee, T. S.; Malhotra, S.

    1986-01-01

    Company-wide or process-wide production simulated. Price Estimation Guidelines (IPEG) program provides simple, accurate estimates of prices of manufactured products. Simplification of SAMIS allows analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform greater number of sensitivity studies. Although developed for photovoltaic industry, readily adaptable to standard assembly-line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG program estimates annual production price per unit. IPEG/PC program written in TURBO PASCAL.

  9. Food price volatility

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C. L.; Morgan, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, not out of line with historical experience. There is weak evidence that grains price volatility more generally may be increasing but it is too early to say. PMID:20713400

  10. A two-level discount model for coordinating a decentralized supply chain considering stochastic price-sensitive demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, Jafar; Norouzinasab, Yousef

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a discount model is proposed to coordinate pricing and ordering decisions in a two-echelon supply chain (SC). Demand is stochastic and price sensitive while lead times are fixed. Decentralized decision making where downstream decides on selling price and order size is investigated. Then, joint pricing and ordering decisions are extracted where both members act as a single entity aim to maximize whole SC profit. Finally, a coordination mechanism based on quantity discount is proposed to coordinate both pricing and ordering decisions simultaneously. The proposed two-level discount policy can be characterized from two aspects: (1) marketing viewpoint: a retail price discount to increase the demand, and (2) operations management viewpoint: a wholesale price discount to induce the retailer to adjust its order quantity and selling price jointly. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed policy is suitable to coordinate SC and improve the profitability of SC as well as all SC members in comparison with decentralized decision making.

  11. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., rounded to the nearest cent, shall be the protein price per pound times 3.1 plus the other solids price... cents and multiplying the result by 0.99. (n) Protein price. The protein price per pound, rounded to the... one-hundredth cent, shall be the U.S. average NASS dry whey survey price reported by the...

  12. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., rounded to the nearest cent, shall be the protein price per pound times 3.1 plus the other solids price... cents and multiplying the result by 0.99. (n) Protein price. The protein price per pound, rounded to the... one-hundredth cent, shall be the U.S. average NASS dry whey survey price reported by the...

  13. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., rounded to the nearest cent, shall be the protein price per pound times 3.1 plus the other solids price... cents and multiplying the result by 0.99. (n) Protein price. The protein price per pound, rounded to the... one-hundredth cent, shall be the U.S. average NASS dry whey survey price reported by the...

  14. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., rounded to the nearest cent, shall be the protein price per pound times 3.1 plus the other solids price... cents and multiplying the result by 0.99. (n) Protein price. The protein price per pound, rounded to the... one-hundredth cent, shall be the U.S. average NASS dry whey survey price reported by the...

  15. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., rounded to the nearest cent, shall be the protein price per pound times 3.1 plus the other solids price... cents and multiplying the result by 0.99. (n) Protein price. The protein price per pound, rounded to the... one-hundredth cent, shall be the U.S. average NASS dry whey survey price reported by the...

  16. Mind your pricing cues.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits. PMID:12964397

  17. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-11-09

    Dynamic retail pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response has been an afterthought, and in some cases not given any weight at all. But that may be changing, as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period during which utilities were required to offer a default or standard offer generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached the end of their transitional period, and several have adopted or are actively considering an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. In most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service has been to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, if attention is paid in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This article, which draws from a lengthier report, describes experience to date with RTP as a default service, focusing on its role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand.1 As of summer 2005, default service RTP was in place or approved for future implementation in five U.S. states: New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois. For each of these states, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to adoption of default RTP and interviewed regulatory staff and utilities in these states, as well as eight competitive retail suppliers active in these markets.

  18. Pricing of new vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  19. Six Sigma pricing.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, ManMohan S; Sodhi, Navdeep S

    2005-05-01

    Many companies are now good at managing costs and wringing out manufacturing efficiencies. The TQM movement and the disciplines of Six Sigma have seen to that. But the discipline so often brought to the cost side of the business equation is found far less commonly on the revenue side. The authors describe how a global manufacturer of industrial equipment, which they call Acme Incorporated, recently applied Six Sigma to one major revenue related activity--the price-setting process. It seemed to Acme's executives that pricing closely resembled many manufacturing processes. So, with the help of a Six Sigma black belt from manufacturing, a manager from Acme's pricing division recruited a team to carry out the five Six Sigma steps: Define what constitutes a defect. At Acme, a defect was an item sold at an unauthorized price. Gather data and prepare it for analysis. That involved mapping out the existing pricing-agreement process. Analyze the data. The team identified the ways in which people failed to carry out or assert effective control at each stage. Recommend modifications to the existing process. The team sought to decrease the number of unapproved prices without creating an onerous approval apparatus. Create controls. This step enabled Acme to sustain and extend the improvements in its pricing procedures. As a result of the changes, Acme earned dollar 6 million in additional revenue on one product line alone in the six months following implementation--money that went straight to the bottom line. At the same time, the company removed much of the organizational friction that had long bedeviled its pricing process. Other companies can benefit from Acme's experience as they look for ways to exercise price control without alienating customers. PMID:15929409

  20. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  1. Six Sigma pricing.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, ManMohan S; Sodhi, Navdeep S

    2005-05-01

    Many companies are now good at managing costs and wringing out manufacturing efficiencies. The TQM movement and the disciplines of Six Sigma have seen to that. But the discipline so often brought to the cost side of the business equation is found far less commonly on the revenue side. The authors describe how a global manufacturer of industrial equipment, which they call Acme Incorporated, recently applied Six Sigma to one major revenue related activity--the price-setting process. It seemed to Acme's executives that pricing closely resembled many manufacturing processes. So, with the help of a Six Sigma black belt from manufacturing, a manager from Acme's pricing division recruited a team to carry out the five Six Sigma steps: Define what constitutes a defect. At Acme, a defect was an item sold at an unauthorized price. Gather data and prepare it for analysis. That involved mapping out the existing pricing-agreement process. Analyze the data. The team identified the ways in which people failed to carry out or assert effective control at each stage. Recommend modifications to the existing process. The team sought to decrease the number of unapproved prices without creating an onerous approval apparatus. Create controls. This step enabled Acme to sustain and extend the improvements in its pricing procedures. As a result of the changes, Acme earned dollar 6 million in additional revenue on one product line alone in the six months following implementation--money that went straight to the bottom line. At the same time, the company removed much of the organizational friction that had long bedeviled its pricing process. Other companies can benefit from Acme's experience as they look for ways to exercise price control without alienating customers.

  2. 78 FR 6316 - Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC EG13-1-000 Calpine Bosque Energy Center, LLC EG13-2-000 Homer City Generation, L.P EG13-3-000 Texas Dispatchable Wind 1, LLC EG13-4-000 Blue Creek Wind Farm...

  3. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  4. Pricing and Fee Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Defines key terms and discusses things to consider when setting fees for a continuing education program. These include (1) the organization's philosophy and mission, (2) certain key variables, (3) pricing strategy options, and (4) the test of reasonableness. (CH)

  5. Price percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Yasuhiro; Abe, Keiji; Seki, Yoichi

    2015-06-01

    We propose a price percolation model to reproduce the price distribution of components used in industrial finished goods. The intent is to show, using the price percolation model and a component category as an example, that percolation behaviors, which exist in the matter system, the ecosystem, and human society, also exist in abstract, random phenomena satisfying the power law. First, we discretize the total potential demand for a component category, considering it a random field. Second, we assume that the discretized potential demand corresponding to a function of a finished good turns into actual demand if the difficulty of function realization is less than the maximum difficulty of the realization. The simulations using this model suggest that changes in a component category's price distribution are due to changes in the total potential demand corresponding to the lattice size and the maximum difficulty of realization, which is an occupation probability. The results are verified using electronic components' sales data.

  6. Morbidity and mortality of invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals at a major exotic companion animal wholesaler.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Shawn; Brown, Susan; Ledford, Joel; Martin, Janet; Nash, Ann-Elizabeth; Terry, Amanda; Tristan, Tim; Warwick, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The authors formally investigated a major international wildlife wholesaler and subsequently confiscated more than 26,400 nonhuman animals of 171 species and types. Approximately 80% of the nonhuman animals were identified as grossly sick, injured, or dead, with the remaining in suspected suboptimal condition. Almost 3,500 deceased or moribund animals (12% of stock), mostly reptiles, were being discarded on a weekly basis. Mortality during the 6-week "stock turnover" period was determined to be 72%. During a 10-day period after confiscation, mortality rates (including euthanasia for humane reasons) for the various taxa were 18% for invertebrates, 44.5% for amphibians, 41.6% for reptiles, and 5.5% for mammals. Causes of morbidity and mortality included cannibalism, crushing, dehydration, emaciation, hypothermic stress, infection, parasite infestation, starvation, overcrowding, stress/injuries, euthanasia on compassionate grounds, and undetermined causes. Contributing factors for disease and injury included poor hygiene; inadequate, unreliable, or inappropriate provision of food, water, heat, and humidity; presumed high levels of stress due to inappropriate housing leading to intraspecific aggression; absent or minimal environmental enrichment; and crowding. Risks for introduction of invasive species through escapes and/or spread of pathogens to naive populations also were identified.

  7. Morbidity and mortality of invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals at a major exotic companion animal wholesaler.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Shawn; Brown, Susan; Ledford, Joel; Martin, Janet; Nash, Ann-Elizabeth; Terry, Amanda; Tristan, Tim; Warwick, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The authors formally investigated a major international wildlife wholesaler and subsequently confiscated more than 26,400 nonhuman animals of 171 species and types. Approximately 80% of the nonhuman animals were identified as grossly sick, injured, or dead, with the remaining in suspected suboptimal condition. Almost 3,500 deceased or moribund animals (12% of stock), mostly reptiles, were being discarded on a weekly basis. Mortality during the 6-week "stock turnover" period was determined to be 72%. During a 10-day period after confiscation, mortality rates (including euthanasia for humane reasons) for the various taxa were 18% for invertebrates, 44.5% for amphibians, 41.6% for reptiles, and 5.5% for mammals. Causes of morbidity and mortality included cannibalism, crushing, dehydration, emaciation, hypothermic stress, infection, parasite infestation, starvation, overcrowding, stress/injuries, euthanasia on compassionate grounds, and undetermined causes. Contributing factors for disease and injury included poor hygiene; inadequate, unreliable, or inappropriate provision of food, water, heat, and humidity; presumed high levels of stress due to inappropriate housing leading to intraspecific aggression; absent or minimal environmental enrichment; and crowding. Risks for introduction of invasive species through escapes and/or spread of pathogens to naive populations also were identified. PMID:24875063

  8. Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

  9. The ethics of dynamic pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing has garnered much interest among regulators and utilities, since it has the potential for lowering energy costs for society. But the deployment of dynamic pricing has been remarkably tepid. The underlying premise is that dynamic pricing is unfair. But the presumption of unfairness in dynamic pricing rests on an assumption of fairness in today's tariffs. (author)

  10. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  11. Price smarter on the Net.

    PubMed

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  12. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  13. Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Mark Hanley

    The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

  14. Fairness and dynamic pricing: comments

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-07-15

    In ''The Ethics of Dynamic Pricing,'' Ahmad Faruqui lays out a case for improved efficiency in using dynamic prices for retail electricity tariffs and addresses various issues about the distributional effects of alternative pricing mechanisms. The principal contrast is between flat or nearly constant energy prices and time-varying prices that reflect more closely the marginal costs of energy and capacity. The related issues of fairness criteria, contracts, risk allocation, cost allocation, means testing, real-time pricing, and ethical policies of electricity market design also must be considered. (author)

  15. OPEC pricing decisions through 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Krupp, H.W.

    1982-05-01

    Recent developments brought the future of OPEC price decisions under intense scrutiny. Since OPEC's decision in March to support the Saudi marker price and curb crude oil production, oil prices firmed somewhat in the spot markets. Nevertheless, as of the end of April, petroleum markets remained sloppy and the final outcome still remains uncertain. Bankers Trust felt that OPEC would succeed in holding the marker price at $34 a barrel in 1982; through 1985, they predict nominal increases in the price of oil but at a rate lower than inflation. The real price, therefore, will decline modestly for the next few years. 1 table.

  16. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members. PMID:17405387

  17. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    SciTech Connect

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  18. Pricing Decisions: A Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Simon

    1989-01-01

    Describes a game that illustrates the effects of pricing on profit. Students compete against each other in an imaginary industry and become familiar with decision-making processes. Depicts the gameboard, how to make it, and how to use it. (GG)

  19. The Price Is Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    There's something about textbook prices that generates outrage in ways that other college expenses, such as housing and technology fees, don't. Maybe it's the shock felt by new students when faced with a $900 bill after getting their textbooks for free in K-12. Maybe it's the awful realization that $40,000 in tuition and board doesn't even cover…

  20. Price bundling packs pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Jaklevic, M C

    1995-02-27

    Hospitals thought bundling of healthcare services under one all-inclusive price would have great appeal to payers, bringing in more business. But instead, the concept has brought disappointment as the expected boost in patient volume has failed to materialize. PMID:10140286

  1. Sixth special price report: world petroleum-product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-11

    Twice annually, Energy Detente accesses its own twice-monthly supplement, the Fuel Price/Tax Series, for an overview of how prices and taxes for refined petroleum products from natural gas to asphalt for end-users are changing. In this issue, it also updates its review of individual nations' pricing as to controls or free-market practices. The front cover chart reveals that, in terms of US dollars, the world average price of regular leaded (RL) gasoline is US $1.63, and high-octane leaded is US $1.78 - a difference of about 9%. A table details RL retail prices, the taxes pertaining to them, the percentages that those taxes are of prices, plus the January 1983 prices and the price change in US dollars over the period. In terms of US dollars, most price changes since January 1983 appear negative - particularly in the cases of Bolivia, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. A view of actual market price changes in terms of national currencies is depicted in another table. The fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices are presented for January 1984 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  2. Option pricing: Stock price, stock velocity and the acceleration Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Bhanap, Jitendra

    2014-12-01

    The industry standard Black-Scholes option pricing formula is based on the current value of the underlying security and other fixed parameters of the model. The Black-Scholes formula, with a fixed volatility, cannot match the market's option price; instead, it has come to be used as a formula for generating the option price, once the so called implied volatility of the option is provided as additional input. The implied volatility not only is an entire surface, depending on the strike price and maturity of the option, but also depends on calendar time, changing from day to day. The point of view adopted in this paper is that the instantaneous rate of return of the security carries part of the information that is provided by implied volatility, and with a few (time-independent) parameters required for a complete pricing formula. An option pricing formula is developed that is based on knowing the value of both the current price and rate of return of the underlying security which in physics is called velocity. Using an acceleration Lagrangian model based on the formalism of quantum mathematics, we derive the pricing formula for European call options. The implied volatility of the market can be generated by our pricing formula. Our option price is applied to foreign exchange rates and equities and the accuracy is compared with Black-Scholes pricing formula and with the market price.

  3. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1975 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    Higher Education price in index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1975 are presented. The supplement is published yearly shortly after the fiscal year to which the latest data refer, and the index values refer to the entire year, not any specific month of the year. The basic study, "Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes," presents complete…

  4. Personal Computer Price and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1993-01-01

    Discusses personal computer price trends since 1986; describes offerings and prices for four direct-market suppliers, i.e., Dell CompuAdd, PC Brand, and Gateway 2000; and discusses overall value and price/performance ratios. Tables and graphs chart value over time. (EA)

  5. Pricing of GPO Sales Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzkopf, LeRoy C.

    This report analyzes the pricing policy of the Government Printing Office (GPO) for publications sold to the public. It discusses the sharp rise in prices for GPO sales publications from November 1972 through 1975. This is a detailed report which expands on the summary report prepared by the author as chairman of the Pricing Subcommittee, GPO…

  6. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  7. Putting downward pressure on natural gas prices: The impact of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matthew

    2004-05-20

    Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) is expected to reduce natural gas demand and in turn place downward pressure on gas prices. A number of recent modeling studies include an evaluation of this effect. Based on data compiled from those studies summarized in this paper, each 1% reduction in national natural gas demand appears likely to lead to a long-term average wellhead gas price reduction of 0.75% to 2.5%, with some studies predicting even more sizable reductions. Reductions in wellhead prices will reduce wholesale and retail electricity rates, and will also reduce residential, commercial, and industrial gas bills. We further find that many of these studies appear to represent the potential impact of RE and EE on natural gas prices within the bounds of current knowledge, but that current knowledge of how to estimate this effect is extremely limited. While more research is therefore needed, existing studies suggest that it is not unreasonable to expect that any increase in consumer electricity costs attributable to RE and/or EE deployment may be substantially offset by the corresponding reduction in delivered natural gas prices. This effect represents a wealth transfer (from natural gas producers to consumers) rather than a net gain in social welfare, and is therefore not a standard motivation for policy intervention on economic grounds. Reducing gas prices and thereby redistributing wealth may still be of importance in policy circles, however, and may be viewed in those circles as a positive ancillary effect of RE and EE deployment.

  8. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  9. Buying stagnates; prices slide

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This article is an overview of Uranium transactions during the period January-February 1994. Trading volume and prices are given for conversion trades, SWUs, U3O8, and spot market activities. Due to a wait-and-see attitude pending the modification of the Suspension Agreement, volume during this period was limited to four contracts: two in the spot market and two in the enrichment market.

  10. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  11. Trading network predicts stock price.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  12. Impact of External Price Referencing on Medicine Prices – A Price Comparison Among 14 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Katja; Seyfang, Leonhard; Vogler, Sabine; de Joncheere, Kees; Laing, Richard Ogilvie; Leufkens, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to examine the impact of external price referencing (EPR) on on-patent medicine prices, adjusting for other factors that may affect price levels such as sales volume, exchange rates, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, total pharmaceutical expenditure (TPE), and size of the pharmaceutical industry. Methods: Price data of 14 on-patent products, in 14 European countries in 2007 and 2008 were obtained from the Pharmaceutical Price Information Service of the Austrian Health Institute. Based on the unit ex-factory prices in EURO, scaled ranks per country and per product were calculated. For the regression analysis the scaled ranks per country and product were weighted; each country had the same sum of weights but within a country the weights were proportional to its sales volume in the year (data obtained from IMS Health). Taking the scaled ranks, several statistical analyses were performed by using the program “R”, including a multiple regression analysis (including variables such as GDP per capita and national industry size). Results: This study showed that on average EPR as a pricing policy leads to lower prices. However, the large variation in price levels among countries using EPR confirmed that the price level is not only driven by EPR. The unadjusted linear regression model confirms that applying EPR in a country is associated with a lower scaled weighted rank (p=0.002). This interaction persisted after inclusion of total pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and GDP per capita in the final model. Conclusions: The study showed that for patented products, prices are in general lower in case the country applied EPR. Nevertheless substantial price differences among countries that apply EPR could be identified. Possible explanations could be found through a correlation between pharmaceutical industry and the scaled price ranks. In conclusion, we found that implementing external reference pricing could lead to lower prices. PMID

  13. Price-Responsive Load (PRL) Program - Framing Paper No.1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2002-03-01

    By definition, effective and efficient competitive markets need a supply side and a demand side. One criticism of electric restructuring efforts in many states is that most of the attention has been focused on the supply side, in a market focused on the short term. In general, the demand side of the market has been under-addressed. The objective of the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) is to develop a comprehensive, coordinated set of demand response programs for the New England regional power markets. NEDRI aims to maximize the capability of demand response to compete in the wholesale market and to improve the economic efficiency and environmental profile of the electric sector. To those ends, NEDRI is focusing its efforts in four interrelated areas: (1) ISO-level reliability programs, (2) Market-based price-responsive load programs, (3) Demand response at retail through pricing, rate design, and advanced metering, and (4) End-use energy efficiency resources as demand response. The fourth area, energy efficiency, is the subject of this framing paper. Energy efficiency reduces the energy used by specific end-use devices and systems, typically without affecting the level of service and without loss of amenity. Energy savings and peak load reductions are achieved by substituting technically more advanced equipment, processes, or operational strategies to produce the same or an improved level of end-use service with less electricity. In contrast, load management programs lower peak demand during specific, limited time periods by either (1) influencing the timing of energy use by shifting load to another time period, or (2) reducing the level of energy use by curtailing or interrupting the load, typically with some loss of service or amenity.

  14. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. Methods We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. Results We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. Conclusion The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased

  15. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Chuck; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-03-10

    Dynamic retail electricity pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response often appears to be an afterthought. But that may be changing as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period, during which utilities were required to offer a default or ''standard offer'' generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached, or are nearing, the end of their transitional period and several states have adopted an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. Are these initiatives motivated by the desire to induce greater demand response, or is RTP being called upon to serve a different role in competitive markets? Surprisingly, we found that in most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service was not to encourage demand response, but rather to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, we also find that, if efforts are made in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This paper, which draws from a lengthier report, describes the experience to date with default RTP in the U.S., identifying findings related to its actual and potential role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand [1]. For each of the five states currently with default RTP, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to its adoption. To further understand the intentions and expectations of those involved in its design

  16. Strategic pricing: hitting the mark with pricing strategies. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Porn, L; Manning, M

    1988-01-01

    Efforts by government and business to reduce healthcare expenditures by fostering competition and reducing utilization have combined to redefine the basic economic structure of the healthcare delivery system. Increased competition among providers has prompted an increased awareness of strategic pricing as a means of achieving institutional goals and objectives. In this article, the first in a three-part series on strategic pricing, the authors examine some of the key theoretical considerations related to pricing strategies for healthcare providers. Future articles will examine practical applications as they relate to package pricing, discounting, per diem systems, and capitation arrangements.

  17. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nonfood items, cartons of cigarettes, or alcoholic beverages in exchange for food coupons; or (ii) The... the current shelf price; or (F) A pattern of charging for food items not received by the WIC customer... comparable prices. FNS may disqualify a store which meets the criteria for a civil money penalty if the...

  18. Spatial competition and price formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Kai; Shubik, Martin; Paczuski, Maya; Bak, Per

    2000-12-01

    We look at price formation in a retail setting, that is, companies set prices, and consumers either accept prices or go someplace else. In contrast to most other models in this context, we use a two-dimensional spatial structure for information transmission, that is, consumers can only learn from nearest neighbors. Many aspects of this can be understood in terms of generalized evolutionary dynamics. In consequence, we first look at spatial competition and cluster formation without price. This leads to establishement size distributions, which we compare to reality. After some theoretical considerations, which at least heuristically explain our simulation results, we finally return to price formation, where we demonstrate that our simple model with nearly no organized planning or rationality on the part of any of the agents indeed leads to an economically plausible price.

  19. How hospitals approach price transparency.

    PubMed

    Houk, Scott; Cleverley, James O

    2014-09-01

    A survey of finance leaders found that hospitals with lower charges were more likely than other hospitals to emphasize making prices defensible rather than simply transparent. Finance leaders of hospitals with higher charges were more likely to express concern that price transparency would cause a reduction in hospital revenue by forcing them to lower charges. Those respondents said commercial payers likely will have to agree to renegotiate contracts for price transparency to be a financially viable proposition. PMID:25647890

  20. Natural-gas price puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.

    1983-02-01

    Rectifying natural-gas underpricing and distortions in production has benefited the overall economy, but transition costs are large, and problems and strains continue. The natural-gas price story began with the 1954 price controls that developed into a wasteful, inefficient, and unfair system of too-low gas prices that resulted in the 1978 Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA). While meeting a number of goals, NGPA has also led to current large increases in gas prices, ironically at a time when producers complain of more gas than they can sell. This glut, however, may be a surplus of short-run deliverability rather than an increase in supply. Prices have not fallen even temporarily because long-term contracts common between pipelines and producers typically prevent downward adjustment of prices to meet demand fluctuations, and the economy (hence the consumer) cannot escape the costof sustaining capacity through up-and-down demand. Transportation and delivery costs that, while getting smaller in relation to wellhead prices, are rising, and inflation, higher interest rates, and costs of uncollectables add to the price. In addition, while a straightforward supply, demand, and cost explanation of the price picture is accurate enough on a national basis, the average cost of gas as it enters a particular pipeline is affected by such complexities as historical accident, location, timing, bargaining power, and management decisions.

  1. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat,...

  2. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat,...

  3. Unsettled Times, Unsettled Prices: Periodical Price Survey 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketcham, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of the thirty-seventh annual periodical price survey conducted by "Library Journal". Highlights include canceling print subscriptions and electronic journals, cost trends by subject and by countries, prices for public and school libraries and for college and medium-sized university libraries, and budgeting for 1988. (LRW)

  4. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1977 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    This 1977 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1977. The basic study presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with the index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. It includes a discussion of index number theory and computation, explains the uses and limitations of…

  5. Pricing effects on food choices.

    PubMed

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations. PMID:12612165

  6. Is College Pricing Power Pro-Cyclical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altringer, Levi; Summers, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We define pricing power as a college's ability to increase its net tuition revenue by raising its sticker-price for tuition. The greater is the positive effect of sticker-price increases on net tuition revenue, the greater is the pricing power. We gauge variation in the pricing power of private, non-profit baccalaureate colleges by estimating this…

  7. 48 CFR 8.707 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prices. 8.707 Section 8... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.707 Prices. (a) The prices of items on the Procurement List are fair market prices established by the Committee. All prices for supplies ordered under this subpart are f.o.b....

  8. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David

    2014-01-01

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

  9. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles.

    PubMed

    Levine, Sheen S; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L; Zajac, Edward J; Stark, David

    2014-12-30

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others' decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity.

  10. Pricing Films, Filmstrips and Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1984-01-01

    Examines pricing practices of major producers of educational materials: Weston Woods, Listening Library, Random House Educational Media, Live Oak Media, S&S Communications Group, Phoenix/BFA, Benchmark, and Churchill Films. Royalties, production and manufacturing costs, list prices, recoveries to producers, and marketing are noted. (EJS)

  11. Coinsurance effects on dental prices.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Conrad, D A

    1986-01-01

    For many Americans the cost of dental services represents a barrier to receiving regular dental care and maintaining proper oral health. The recent growth of the dental insurance industry, however, may partly offset this price barrier among insureds. Our purpose is to examine the relationship between coinsurance and dental prices for 16 dental services among a sample of Pennsylvania Blue Shield (PBS) adult insureds. The dependent price measure is the annual average gross price paid for 16 specific preventive, restorative, periodontic, endodontic, prosthodontic, and surgical dental services. Independent variables in the price model include the insured's age, education, coinsurance rates, time costs, market area, non-wage income, oral health status, area dentist-population ratio and usual source of care. Data sources are 1980 PBS claims and coinsurance rate data and a mail survey of sampled insureds. OLS regression analysis reveals that the model's independent variables explain little dental price variation. No variable is consistently significant across services, but market area, coinsurance rates, and time costs alternately dominate across equations. These results suggest that, among adult insureds, coinsurance and time costs influence dental fees in a minority of dental services. Insurance reduces the patient's sensitivity to money price, and non-price factors correspondingly seem to become more important in patient search.

  12. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  13. 48 CFR 36.207 - Pricing fixed-price construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pricing fixed-price... Contracting for Construction 36.207 Pricing fixed-price construction contracts. (a) Generally, firm-fixed... estimates. (c) Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment may be used if such a provision...

  14. 48 CFR 36.207 - Pricing fixed-price construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pricing fixed-price... Contracting for Construction 36.207 Pricing fixed-price construction contracts. (a) Generally, firm-fixed... estimates. (c) Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment may be used if such a provision...

  15. Construction of Discrete Time Shadow Price

    SciTech Connect

    Rogala, Tomasz Stettner, Lukasz

    2015-12-15

    In the paper expected utility from consumption over finite time horizon for discrete time markets with bid and ask prices and strictly concave utility function is considered. The notion of weak shadow price, i.e. an illiquid price, depending on the portfolio, under which the model without bid and ask price is equivalent to the model with bid and ask price is introduced. Existence and the form of weak shadow price is shown. Using weak shadow price usual (called in the paper strong) shadow price is then constructed.

  16. Multi-factor energy price models and exotic derivatives pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikspoors, Samuel

    The high pace at which many of the world's energy markets have gradually been opened to competition have generated a significant amount of new financial activity. Both academicians and practitioners alike recently started to develop the tools of energy derivatives pricing/hedging as a quantitative topic of its own. The energy contract structures as well as their underlying asset properties set the energy risk management industry apart from its more standard equity and fixed income counterparts. This thesis naturally contributes to these broad market developments in participating to the advances of the mathematical tools aiming at a better theory of energy contingent claim pricing/hedging. We propose many realistic two-factor and three-factor models for spot and forward price processes that generalize some well known and standard modeling assumptions. We develop the associated pricing methodologies and propose stable calibration algorithms that motivate the application of the relevant modeling schemes.

  17. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flows and water temperatures under future climate (2031-2060) in power production models, we show declines in both thermoelectric and hydropower generating potential for most parts of Europe, except for the most northern countries. Based on changes in power production potentials, we assess the cost-optimal use of power plants for each European country by taking electricity import and export constraints into account. Higher wholesale prices are projected on a mean annual basis for most European countries (except for Sweden and Norway), with strongest increases for Slovenia (12-15%), Bulgaria (21-23%) and Romania (31-32% for 2031-2060), where limitations in water availability mainly affect power plants with low production costs. Considering the long design life of power plant infrastructures, short-term adaptation strategies are highly recommended to prevent undesired distributional and allocative effects.

  18. Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1973-01-01

    Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

  19. Pricing Models Using Real Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obremski, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A practical hands-on classroom exercise is described and illustrated using the price of an item as dependent variable throughout. The exercise is well-tested and affords the instructor a variety of approaches and levels.

  20. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  1. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies. PMID:10309052

  2. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.

  3. Establishing prices: one hospital's strategic response.

    PubMed

    Bjelich, S C

    1985-03-01

    Establishing appropriate prices for health care products has been an ongoing problem. Price increases have traditionally been based on an across-the-board percentage increase for all products. In this article, the importance of pricing and the actual pricing methodology used at Baptist Medical Center in Kansas City, Missouri are discussed.

  4. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  5. 10 CFR 218.12 - Pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pricing. 218.12 Section 218.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.12 Pricing. The price for oil subject to a supply order issued pursuant to this subpart shall be based on the price...

  6. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  7. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  8. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  10. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  11. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  12. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  13. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  14. 48 CFR 15.405 - Price negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 15.405... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.405 Price negotiation. (a) The purpose of performing cost or price analysis is to develop a negotiation position that permits...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  16. Concept of Price in a Library Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talaga, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses pricing problems of public library service. The meaning of price in a library context is examined, including amount charged and patron's cost; components of price setting are described, including the impact of demand, cost, and competition; and library pricing strategies are suggested that should help achieve the library's goals. (13…

  17. In Search of Ideal Information Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews some of the models used for pricing online information services and discusses some of the implications of these pricing algorithms. Topics discussed include online versus print pricing; charges for the retrieval process; charges for the retrieved information; telecommunications charges; and the pricing policies of Chemical Abstracts…

  18. E-Valuation: Pricing E-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Darin E.

    2001-01-01

    Looks at the ways that electronic learning is priced in organizations and the factors that influence the pricing. Discusses pros and cons of several pricing options: price per seat, subscription, pay as you go, per server, free, and payment based on time. (JOW)

  19. 48 CFR 216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 216.203 Section 216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 216.203 Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  20. 48 CFR 216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 216.203 Section 216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 216.203 Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  1. 48 CFR 3016.203 - Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments. 3016.203 Section 3016.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 3016.203 Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments....

  2. 48 CFR 3016.203 - Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments. 3016.203 Section 3016.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 3016.203 Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments....

  3. 48 CFR 216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 216.203 Section 216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 216.203 Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  4. Competition, retail pricing and service design

    SciTech Connect

    Caves, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation covered major approaches to a competitive industry and competitive prices. Major pricing approaches addressed service differentiation, non-linear structures and market based levels. Highly differentiated competitive prices were illustrated by an Airline Industry pricing schedule for one flight on a given day. The major utilities involved in Real Time Pricing (RTP) programs with the number of customers are identified, along with the status of the RTP for each utility.

  5. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S....403-4(a)(1), OPM will not require the carrier to provide cost or pricing data in the rate proposal...

  6. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S....403-4(a)(1), OPM will not require the carrier to provide cost or pricing data in the rate proposal...

  7. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S....403-4(a)(1), OPM will not require the carrier to provide cost or pricing data in the rate proposal...

  8. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-09-15

    For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas-fired units account for nearly 90% of the total generating capacity added in the U.S. between 1999 and 2005 (EIA 2006b), bringing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation to 19%. Looking ahead over the next decade, the EIA expects this trend to continue, increasing the market share of gas-fired generation to 22% by 2015 (EIA 2007a). Though these numbers are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in many other countries as well. A large percentage of the total cost of gas-fired generation is attributable to fuel costs--i.e., natural gas prices. For example, at current spot prices of around $7/MMBtu, fuel costs account for more than 75% of the levelized cost of energy from a new combined cycle gas turbine, and more than 90% of its operating costs (EIA 2007a). Furthermore, given that gas-fired plants are often the marginal supply units that set the market-clearing price for all generators in a competitive wholesale market, there is a direct link between natural gas prices and wholesale electricity prices. In this light, the dramatic increase in natural gas prices since the 1990s should be a cause for ratepayer concern. Figure 1 shows the daily price history of the 'first-nearby' (i.e., closest to expiration) NYMEX natural gas futures contract (black line) at Henry Hub, along with the futures strip (i.e., the full series of futures contracts) from August 22, 2007 (red line). First, nearby prices, which closely track spot prices, have recently been trading within a $7-9/MMBtu range in the United States and, as shown by the futures strip, are expected to remain there through 2012. These price levels are $6/MMBtu higher than the $1-3/MMBtu range seen throughout most of the 1990s, demonstrating significant price escalation for natural

  9. 40 CFR 80.574 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of ECA marine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal law prohibits use in any engine that is not installed on a C3 marine vessel; use of fuel oil with a sulfur content greater than 1,000 ppm in an ECA is prohibited except as allowed by 40 CFR Part... surface of each pump housing and on each side that has gallon and price meters. The labels shall be on...

  10. Prediction of future asset prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Ng Yew; Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei

    2014-12-01

    This paper attempts to incorporate trading volumes as an additional predictor for predicting asset prices. Denoting r(t) as the vector consisting of the time-t values of the trading volume and price of a given asset, we model the time-(t+1) asset price to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1), ....., r(t-1+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a (2l+1)-dimensional power-normal distribution. A prediction interval based on the 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution is then obtained. By examining the average lengths of the prediction intervals found by using the composite indices of the Malaysia stock market for the period 2008 to 2013, we found that the value 2 appears to be a good choice for l. With the omission of the trading volume in the vector r(t), the corresponding prediction interval exhibits a slightly longer average length, showing that it might be desirable to keep trading volume as a predictor. From the above conditional distribution, the probability that the time-(t+1) asset price will be larger than the time-t asset price is next computed. When the probability differs from 0 (or 1) by less than 0.03, the observed time-(t+1) increase in price tends to be negative (or positive). Thus the above probability has a good potential of being used as a market indicator in technical analysis.

  11. Periodicals Price Survey 2002: Doing the Digital Flip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Presents the annual periodicals price study. Highlights include average prices; cost histories; cost projections for future budgeting; electronic journal issues; flip pricing, defined as online access at the core of pricing negotiations; various pricing models; purchasing print at deeply discounted prices; and current trends in pricing and in the…

  12. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (g) The statistical uniform price for...

  13. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (g) The statistical uniform price for...

  14. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (g) The statistical uniform price for...

  15. 48 CFR 46.707 - Pricing aspects of fixed-price incentive contract warranties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.707 Pricing aspects of... the total final price. Contractor compliance with the warranty after the establishment of the...

  16. Pricing foreign equity option with stochastic volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose a general foreign equity option pricing framework that unifies the vast foreign equity option pricing literature and incorporates the stochastic volatility into foreign equity option pricing. Under our framework, the time-changed Lévy processes are used to model the underlying assets price of foreign equity option and the closed form pricing formula is obtained through the use of characteristic function methodology. Numerical tests indicate that stochastic volatility has a dramatic effect on the foreign equity option prices.

  17. Real Time Pricing as a Default or Optional Service for C&ICustomers: A Comparative Analysis of Eight Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper,Nicole; Ting, Michael; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-08-01

    Demand response (DR) has been broadly recognized to be an integral component of well-functioning electricity markets, although currently underdeveloped in most regions. Among the various initiatives undertaken to remedy this deficiency, public utility commissions (PUC) and utilities have considered implementing dynamic pricing tariffs, such as real-time pricing (RTP), and other retail pricing mechanisms that communicate an incentive for electricity consumers to reduce their usage during periods of high generation supply costs or system reliability contingencies. Efforts to introduce DR into retail electricity markets confront a range of basic policy issues. First, a fundamental issue in any market context is how to organize the process for developing and implementing DR mechanisms in a manner that facilitates productive participation by affected stakeholder groups. Second, in regions with retail choice, policymakers and stakeholders face the threshold question of whether it is appropriate for utilities to offer a range of dynamic pricing tariffs and DR programs, or just ''plain vanilla'' default service. Although positions on this issue may be based primarily on principle, two empirical questions may have some bearing--namely, what level of price response can be expected through the competitive retail market, and whether establishing RTP as the default service is likely to result in an appreciable level of DR? Third, if utilities are to have a direct role in developing DR, what types of retail pricing mechanisms are most appropriate and likely to have the desired policy impact (e.g., RTP, other dynamic pricing options, DR programs, or some combination)? Given a decision to develop utility RTP tariffs, three basic implementation issues require attention. First, should it be a default or optional tariff, and for which customer classes? Second, what types of tariff design is most appropriate, given prevailing policy objectives, wholesale market structure, ratemaking

  18. The Hidden Price of Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    Surprising new studies show that privileged adolescents are more likely than any other socioeconomic group to suffer from depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. This article presents an interview with Madeline Levine, a Marin County, California, clinical psychologist of 25 years, and author of the new book "The Price of Privilege"…

  19. The Price Is Right Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burks, Robert E.; Jaye, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The "Price Is Right" ("TPIR") provides a wealth of material for studying statistics at various levels of mathematical sophistication. The authors have used elements of this show to motivate students from undergraduate probability and statistics courses to graduate level executive management courses. The material consistently generates a high…

  20. Trends in College Pricing, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents data on college costs from the Annual Survey of Colleges for the 1998-99 academic year, as well as trends in costs over the past 25 years and analyses of college prices in relation to family income and available financial aid. Ten tables and seven figures present such data as average fixed charges for undergraduates, sample…

  1. Wholesale electricity market design with increasing levels of renewable generation: Revenue sufficiency and long-term reliability

    DOE PAGES

    Milligan, Michael; Frew, Bethany A.; Bloom, Aaron; Ela, Erik; Botterud, Audun; Townsend, Aaron; Levin, Todd

    2016-03-22

    This paper discusses challenges that relate to assessing and properly incentivizing the resources necessary to ensure a reliable electricity system with growing penetrations of variable generation (VG). The output of VG (primarily wind and solar generation) varies over time and cannot be predicted precisely. Therefore, the energy from VG is not always guaranteed to be available at times when it is most needed. This means that its contribution towards resource adequacy can be significantly less than the contribution from traditional resources. Variable renewable resources also have near-zero variable costs, and with production-based subsidies they may even have negative offer costs.more » Because variable costs drive the spot price of energy, this can lead to reduced prices, sales, and therefore revenue for all resources within the energy market. The characteristics of VG can also result in increased price volatility as well as the need for more flexibility in the resource fleet in order to maintain system reliability. Furthermore, we explore both traditional and evolving electricity market designs in the United States that aim to ensure resource adequacy and sufficient revenues to recover costs when those resources are needed for long-term reliability. We also investigate how reliability needs may be evolving and discuss how VG may affect future electricity market designs.« less

  2. 77 FR 71643 - Standard Mail Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Standard Mail Pricing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning Standard Mail pricing and related matters. This...

  3. Creative pricing strategies for medical services.

    PubMed

    Tellis, G J

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic role of the pricing of medical services. Strategic pricing is a creative process that can be a vital means of defining marketing segments, differentiating services, and gaining a competitive advantage. The central issue in strategic pricing is creatively using the principle of cross-subsidies or shared economies over consumer groups, service sets, or competitors. This principle yields a rich set of pricing strategies that can be used in response to various environments.

  4. Third-Degree Price Discrimination Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Youngsun

    2006-01-01

    The author derives the probability that price discrimination improves social welfare, using a simple model of third-degree price discrimination assuming two independent linear demands. The probability that price discrimination raises social welfare increases as the preferences or incomes of consumer groups become more heterogeneous. He derives the…

  5. Oil price: Endless ability to surprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Baltasar

    2016-05-01

    Economic agents have varying expectations on oil price fluctuations that play an important role in determining the timing and magnitude of oil price shocks. A study now shows that heterogeneous expectations should be included when modelling oil price shocks to grasp their impact on macroeconomic outcomes and energy policies.

  6. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each...

  7. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each...

  8. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each...

  9. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each...

  10. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  11. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  12. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  13. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  14. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  15. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be at prices offered through the...

  16. Pricing Strategies for CD-ROM Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Pricing strategies for subscriptions and licenses for CD-ROMs are different for single users and networks. The basic components of pricing strategies are charges for subscription, connect line, display/print, telecommunication, session rate, special commands, and special services. Highlights selected supplier pricing strategies for single users…

  17. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  18. 7 CFR 1955.113 - Price (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Price (housing). 1955.113 Section 1955.113 Agriculture... § 1955.113 Price (housing). Real property will be offered or listed for its present market value, as adjusted by any administrative price reductions provided for in this section. Market value will be...

  19. 43 CFR 402.6 - Price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price. 402.6 Section 402.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.6 Price. The price of land sold under...

  20. 14 CFR 381.13 - Price increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Price increases. 381.13 Section 381.13... REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.13 Price increases. (a) Should the tour operator increase a participant's tour price by more than 10 percent (aggregate of all increases to that participant),...

  1. 48 CFR 408.707 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prices. 408.707 Section 408.707 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.707 Prices. Prior to applying for a price revision, the chief...

  2. 76 FR 13242 - Change in Postal Prices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Change in Postal Prices AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request for a change in prices to Parcel Select Contract 1. This..., 2011, the Postal Service filed notice of a change in prices to Parcel Select Contract 1, which...

  3. 41 CFR 51-5.5 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) The prices for items on the Procurement List are fair market prices established by the Committee... revising the fair market prices for services on the Procurement List, upon request from the central... period a copy of the statement of work applicable to the new service period. (e) If a...

  4. Pricing Structures for Automated Library Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development of successful pricing algorithms for cooperative library automation projects. Highlights include desirable characteristics of pricing measures, including simplicity and the ability to allow for system growth; problems with transaction-based systems; and a review of the pricing strategies of seven library consortia.…

  5. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each...

  6. 33 CFR 211.146 - Price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Price. 211.146 Section 211.146 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE... Industrial Facilities § 211.146 Price. No conveyance shall be made for a price less than the fair...

  7. Creating New Pricing Models for Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boelio, David B.; Knight, Nancy H.

    Establishing pricing policies for electronic publishing that are fair and flexible is of vital importance to the information industry. The pricing of most information available electronically is far less efficient and market-sensitive than it could be. Some of the new approaches to pricing, emphasizing a usage-based metric providing qualitative…

  8. 48 CFR 16.205 - Fixed-price contracts with prospective price redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with... ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.205 Fixed-price contracts with prospective price redetermination....

  9. 48 CFR 1416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with... THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1416.203 Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  10. The Pricing of Information--A Search-Based Approach to Pricing an Online Search Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Harry F.

    1982-01-01

    Describes innovative pricing structure consisting of low connect time fee, print fees, and search fees, offered by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) ONLINE--an online searching system used to locate chemical substances. Pricing options considered by CAS, the search-based pricing approach, and users' reactions to pricing structures are noted. (EJS)

  11. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (constructed export price). 351.414 Section 351.414 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price...

  12. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (constructed export price). 351.414 Section 351.414 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price...

  13. Determining Price Reasonableness in Federal ESPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.

    2005-03-08

    This document reports the findings and implementation recommendations of the Price Reasonableness Working Group to the Federal ESPC Steering Committee. The working group was formed to address concerns of agencies and oversight organizations related to pricing and fair and reasonable price determination in federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). This report comprises the working group's recommendations and is the proposed draft of a training curriculum on fair and reasonable price determination for users of federal ESPCs. The report includes: (1) A review of federal regulations applicable to determining price reasonableness of federal ESPCs (section 2), (2) Brief descriptions of the techniques described in Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) 15.404-1 and their applicability to ESPCs (section 3), and (3) Recommended strategies and procedures for cost-effectively completing price reasonableness determinations (sections 4). Agencies have struggled with fair and reasonable price determinations in their ESPCs primarily because this alternative financing vehicle is relatively new and relatively rare in the federal sector. The methods of determining price reasonableness most familiar to federal contracting officers (price competition based on the government's design and specifications, in particular) are generally not applicable to ESPCs. The regulatory requirements for determining price reasonableness in federal ESPCs have also been misunderstood, as federal procurement professionals who are inexperienced with ESPCs are further confused by multiple directives, including Executive Order 13123, which stresses life-cycle cost-effectiveness. Uncertainty about applicable regulations and inconsistent practice and documentation among agencies have fueled claims that price reasonableness determinations have not been sufficiently rigorous in federal ESPCs or that the prices paid in ESPCs are generally higher than the prices paid for similar goods and services

  14. Optimal dynamic pricing for deteriorating items with reference-price effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Musen; Tang, Wansheng; Zhang, Jianxiong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a dynamic pricing problem for deteriorating items with the consumers' reference-price effect is studied. An optimal control model is established to maximise the total profit, where the demand not only depends on the current price, but also is sensitive to the historical price. The continuous-time dynamic optimal pricing strategy with reference-price effect is obtained through solving the optimal control model on the basis of Pontryagin's maximum principle. In addition, numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis are carried out. Finally, some managerial suggestions that firm may adopt to formulate its pricing policy are proposed.

  15. [Pharmaceutical reference pricing in Germany: definition of therapeutic groups, price setting through regression procedure and effects].

    PubMed

    Stargardt, T; Schreyögg, J; Busse, R

    2005-07-01

    The German reference pricing system defines a reimbursement threshold for groups of pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceuticals are grouped according to certain criteria by the Federal Joint Committee. To make different active ingredients comparable, so called reference values are defined. Subsequently, the federal association of sickness funds sets reference prices using a regression procedure. However, the impact of the reference price system is limited. On the one hand there is a strong incentive for pharmaceutical companies to decrease prices to the reference price. On the other hand there is no incentive for further price reductions. Additionally, only one part of the pharmaceutical market is affected by reference pricing. Therefore the instrument has only managed to lower pharmaceutical expenditure in the short run. For sustainable long-term cost containment the use of other regulatory instruments is necessary. Nevertheless, compared to other instruments of price-regulation, reference pricing seems to be a good alternative to control pharmaceutical prices, since rationing is kept as little as possible.

  16. Essays on microgrids, asymmetric pricing and market power in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Prete, Chiara

    This dissertation presents four studies of the electricity industry. The first and second essays use economic-engineering models to assess different aspects of microgrid penetration in regional electricity markets, while the last two studies contain empirical analyses aimed at evaluating the performance of wholesale electricity markets. Chapter 2 develops a framework to quantify economic, environmental, efficiency and reliability impacts of different power production scenarios in a regional system, focusing on the interaction of microgrids with the existing transmission and distribution grid. The setting is the regional network formed by Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands. The study presents simulations of power market outcomes under various policies and levels of microgrid penetration, and evaluates them using a diverse set of metrics. Chapter 3 studies the interaction between a microgrid and a regulated electric utility in a regional electricity market. I consider the interaction among the utility, the microgrid developer and consumers in the framework of cooperative game theory (assuming exchangeable utility), and use regional market models to simulate scenarios in which microgrid introduction may or may not be socially beneficial. Under the assumptions of this chapter, customer participation is essential to the development of socially beneficial microgrids, while the utility has little or no gain from it. Discussed incentives to avoid that utilities block microgrid entry include additional revenue drivers related to microgrid connection, decoupling and performance-based mechanisms targeted at service quality. When prices are below marginal costs of utility provided power, microgrid development may be socially beneficial, but unprofitable for microgrid customers and its developer. By imposing lower charges and higher remuneration for its services, the regulator could ensure that microgrid value is positive, without adversely impacting the utility

  17. State energy price and expenditure report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1991. Data for all years, 1970 through 1991, are available on personal computer diskettes. Documentation in Appendix A describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1990, published in September 1992.

  18. State energy-price system: 1981 update

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report updates the State Energy Price Data System (STEPS) to include state-level energy prices by fuel and by end-use sectors for 1981. Both physical unit prices and Btu prices are presented. Basic documentation of the data base remains generally the same as in the original report: State Energy Price System; Volume 1: Overview and Technical Documentation (DOE/NBB-0029 Volume 1 of 2, November 1982). The present report documents only the changes in procedures necessitated by the update to 1981 and the corrections to the basic documentation.

  19. Equilibrium pricing and ordering policies in a two-echelon supply chain in the presence of strategic customers.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Seyed J; Naeij, Jafar; Shavandi, Hasan; Makui, Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    This paper studying the impact of strategic customer behavior on decentralized supply chain gains and decisions, which includes a supplier, and a monopoly firm as a retailer who sells a single product over a finite two periods of selling season. We consider three types of customers: myopic, strategic and low-value customers. The problem is formulated as a bi-level game where at the second level (e.g. horizontal game), the retailer determines his/her equilibrium pricing strategy in a non-cooperative simultaneous general game with strategic customers who choose equilibrium purchasing strategy to maximize their expected surplus. At the first level (e.g. vertical game), the supplier competes with the retailer as leader and follower in the Stackelberg game. They set the wholesale price and initial stocking capacity to maximize their profits. Finally, a numerical study is presented to demonstrate the impacts of strategic behavior on supply chain gain and decisions; subsequently the effects of market parameters on decision variables and total profitability of supply chain's members is studied through a sensitivity analysis.

  20. Equilibrium pricing and ordering policies in a two-echelon supply chain in the presence of strategic customers.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Seyed J; Naeij, Jafar; Shavandi, Hasan; Makui, Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    This paper studying the impact of strategic customer behavior on decentralized supply chain gains and decisions, which includes a supplier, and a monopoly firm as a retailer who sells a single product over a finite two periods of selling season. We consider three types of customers: myopic, strategic and low-value customers. The problem is formulated as a bi-level game where at the second level (e.g. horizontal game), the retailer determines his/her equilibrium pricing strategy in a non-cooperative simultaneous general game with strategic customers who choose equilibrium purchasing strategy to maximize their expected surplus. At the first level (e.g. vertical game), the supplier competes with the retailer as leader and follower in the Stackelberg game. They set the wholesale price and initial stocking capacity to maximize their profits. Finally, a numerical study is presented to demonstrate the impacts of strategic behavior on supply chain gain and decisions; subsequently the effects of market parameters on decision variables and total profitability of supply chain's members is studied through a sensitivity analysis. PMID:27276375

  1. A market price for organs?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Has not the time fully come to lift the prohibition on a regulated market in organs for transplantation? Is there a price for such a market that would be too high to pay? The author revisits the cases for and against organ markets in the light of cultural shifts in society and asks whether the traditional insistence on altruism represents a hindrance to much needed developments or a safeguard for much valued public goods.

  2. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  3. Regulation of pharmaceutical prices: evidence from a reference price reform in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J; Rønde, Thomas; Ullrich, Hannes

    2014-07-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs constitute widely adopted cost containment tools. Under these regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between a drug's pharmacy retail price and a reference price that is set by the government. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. We study the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005. We find that the reform led to substantial reductions in retail prices, reference prices and patient co-payments as well as to sizable decreases in overall producer revenues and health care expenditures. The reform induced consumers to substitute away from branded drugs for which we estimate strong preferences. The increase in consumer welfare due to the reform therefore depends on whether or not we take perceived quality differences into account in its calculation. PMID:24879578

  4. Regulation of pharmaceutical prices: evidence from a reference price reform in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J; Rønde, Thomas; Ullrich, Hannes

    2014-07-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs constitute widely adopted cost containment tools. Under these regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between a drug's pharmacy retail price and a reference price that is set by the government. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. We study the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005. We find that the reform led to substantial reductions in retail prices, reference prices and patient co-payments as well as to sizable decreases in overall producer revenues and health care expenditures. The reform induced consumers to substitute away from branded drugs for which we estimate strong preferences. The increase in consumer welfare due to the reform therefore depends on whether or not we take perceived quality differences into account in its calculation.

  5. Three studies of retail gasoline pricing dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Benjamin James

    In many Canadian cities, retail gasoline prices appear to cycle, rising by large amounts in one or two days followed by several days of small consecutive price decreases. While many empirical studies examine such markets, certain questions cannot b e properly answered without high frequency, station-specific price data for an entire market. Thus, the first paper in this thesis uses bi-hourly price data collected for 27 stations in Guelph, Ontario, eight tunes per day for 103 days to examine several basic predictions of the Edgeworth cycle theory. The results are largely consistent with this theory. However, most independent firms do not tend to undercut their rivals' prices, contrary to previous findings. Furthermore, the tuning, sizes and leaders of price increases appear to be very predictable, and a specific pattern of price movements has been detected on days when prices increase. These findings suggest that leading a price increase might not be as risky as one may expect. The second paper uses these same data to examine the implications o f an informal theory of competitive gasoline pricing, as advanced by industry and government. Consistent with this theory, stations do tend to set prices to match (or set a small positive or negative differential with) a small number of other stations, which are not necessarily the closest stations. Also, while retailers frequently respond to price changes within two hours, many take considerably longer to respond than is predicted by the theory. Finally, while price decreases do ripple across the market like falling dominos, increases appear to propagate based more on geographic location and source of price control than proximity to the leaders. The third paper uses both these data and Guelph price data collected every 12 hours during the same 103 days from OntarioGasPrices.com to examine the sample selection biases that might exist in such Internet price data, as well as their implications for empirical research. It is

  6. Price and cigarette consumption in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, S; Schiaffino, A; Vecchia, C La; Townsend, J; Fernandez, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the variation in demand for tobacco according to price of cigarettes across the European region. Design Cross‐sectional study. Setting All the 52 countries of the European region. Participants For each European country, data were collected on annual per adult cigarette consumption (2000), smoking prevalence (most recent), retail price of a pack of local and foreign brand cigarettes (around 2000), the gross domestic product adjusted by purchasing power parities, and the adult population (2000). Main outcome measure Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (that is, the change in cigarette consumption according to a change in tobacco price) across all the European countries, estimated by double‐log multiple linear regression. Results Controlling for male to female prevalence ratio, price elasticities for consumption were −0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74 to −0.17) and −0.74 (95% CI −1.13 to −0.35) for local and foreign brand, respectively. The inverse relation between cigarette price and consumption was stronger in countries not in the European Union (price elasticity for foreign brand cigarettes of −0.8) as compared to European Union countries (price elasticity of −0.4). Conclusions The result that, on average, in Europe smoking consumption decreases 5–7% for a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes strongly supports an inverse association between price and cigarette smoking. PMID:16565459

  7. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Wholesale Electricity Market Design. Understanding the Missing Money Problem. December 2013 - January 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Papalexopoulos, A.; Hansen, C.; Perrino, D.; Frowd, R.

    2015-05-31

    This project examined the impact of renewable energy sources, which have zero incremental energy costs, on the sustainability of conventional generation. This “missing money” problem refers to market outcomes in which infra-marginal energy revenues in excess of operations and maintenance (O&M) costs are systematically lower than the amortized costs of new entry for a marginal generator. The problem is caused by two related factors: (1) conventional generation is dispatched less, and (2) the price that conventional generation receives for its energy is lower. This lower revenue stream may not be sufficient to cover both the variable and fixed costs of conventional generation. In fact, this study showed that higher wind penetrations in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system could cause many conventional generators to become uneconomic.

  9. Priceless prices and marine food webs: Long-term patterns of change and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight as reflected by the seafood market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincinato, R. B. M.; Gasalla, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    The lack of market variables in fishery systems (i.e., prices and quantities) has often been cited as one reason for the particular difficulty of understanding whole marine ecosystem change and its management under a broader ecosystem perspective. This paper shows the results of efforts to tackle this problem in the South Brazil Bight by compiling and analyzing in-depth an unprecedented 40-year database from the region’s largest wholesale seafood market, based in the megacity of São Paulo. Fishery landings and market values for the period 1968-2007 were analyzed primarily by updated trophic level classes and multispecies indicators including the (1) marine trophic index (MTI), (2) weighted price, and (3) log relative price index (LRPI) which relates prices and trophic levels. Moreover, an inferential analysis of major seafood category statistical trends in market prices and quantities and their positive and negative correlations was undertaken. In general, these market trends contributed substantially to identifying and clarifying the changes that occurred. Considerations of the behavior of demand, supply and markets are included. In particular, while the MTI did not support a “fishing down the marine food web” hypothesis, other indicators did show the continued scarcity of major high trophic level categories and fisheries target species. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis of fishery landings, or of certain other indicators alone, can mask real changes. Rather, a joint ecological-econometric analysis provides better evidence of the direction of ecosystem pressures and stock health. This method for detecting market changes across the food web may be particularly helpful for systems considered data-poor but where fish market data have been archived. This study further elucidates historical changes and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight ecosystem.

  10. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna

    2013-05-08

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  11. Effect of price expectations on drilling activity

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.H.

    1984-11-01

    The decision to drill depends partly on expectations about the future path of prices which are formed through historical experience. The estimates indicate that as long as nominal crude oil prices remain at the official price of $29 per barrel for Saudi light, there will be a slight but steady decline in the average level of the drilling rig count. A theoretical model to test this confirms that continued downward pressure on oil prices, caused by the glut in the world oil market, is expected to keep prices from rising in 1985. The results suggest that steady or falling oil prices can decrease the rig count through the expectations factor. Two appendices describe the theoretical model and test the results with a proxy variable. 17 references, 4 figures.

  12. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs.

  13. The Shuttle Cost and Price model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, Katherine; Stone, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Cost and Price (SCP) model was developed as a tool to assist in evaluating major aspects of Shuttle operations that have direct and indirect economic consequences. It incorporates the major aspects of NASA Pricing Policy and corresponds to the NASA definition of STS operating costs. An overview of the SCP model is presented and the cost model portion of SCP is described in detail. Selected recent applications of the SCP model to NASA Pricing Policy issues are presented.

  14. State energy price and expenditure report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1980, and 1985 through 1992. Data for all years, 1970 through 1992, are available on personal computer diskettes.

  15. State energy price and expenditure report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 states and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The five economic sectors used in SEPER correspond to those used in SEDR and are residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility. Documentation in appendices describe how the price estimates are developed, provide conversion factors for measures used in the energy analysis, and include a glossary. 65 tabs.

  16. Oil prices in a new light

    SciTech Connect

    Fesharaki, F. )

    1994-05-01

    For a clear picture of how oil prices develop, the author steps away from the price levels to which the world is accustomed, and evaluates scientifically. What makes prices jump from one notch to another The move results from a political or economic shock or the perception of a particular position by the futures market and the media. The shock could range from a war or an assassination to a promise of cooperation among OPEC members (when believed by the market) or to speculation about another failure at an OPEC meeting. In the oil market, only a couple of factual figures can provide a floor to the price of oil. The cost of production of oil in the Gulf is around $2 to $3/bbl, and the cost of production of oil (capital and operating costs) in key non-OPEC areas is well under $10/bbl. With some adjustments for transport and quality, a price range of $13/bbl to $16/bbl would correspond to a reasonable sustainable floor price. The reason for prices above the floor price has been a continuous fear of oil supply interruptions. That fear kept prices above the floor price for many years. The fear factor has now almost fully disappeared. The market has gone through the drama of the Iranian Revolution, the Iran-Iraq war, the tanker war, the invasion of Kuwait, and the expulsions of the Iraqis. And still the oil flowed -- all the time. It has become abundantly clear that fears above the oil market were unjustified. Everyone needs to export oil, and oil will flow under the worst circumstances. The demise of the fear factor means that oil prices tend toward the floor price for a prolonged period.

  17. Pharmaceutical price controls and patient welfare.

    PubMed

    Calfee, J E

    2001-06-01

    Price controls could have a substantial negative effect on pharmaceutical research and development. Extensive research is required before the development costs of a new drug or its benefits are known; most new drug development projects fail, sometimes after substantial financial and time costs. These conditions pose intractable practical problems for the operation of price controls, which cannot rest on objective, predictable standards such as the benefits or costs of individual drugs. In the absence of objective standards, pressure from health care providers and others would create powerful incentives for price regulators to decrease drug prices toward marginal costs of production and distribution, well below levels sufficient to reward innovative research. This downwardly biased price-setting mechanism would apply with particular force to the few successful projects that yield innovative drugs, whose prices would not be set by regulatory authorities until after research expenditures have been incurred and the new drugs are ready to enter the market. Manufacturers will expect price controls to reduce the potential payoffs from breakthrough drugs. This expectation would substantially reduce the incentives to pursue innovative research, as is evident in advanced economies in which price controls are now in force. Once established, price controls for pharmaceuticals, like those for medical services in the Medicare system, would also tend toward complexity and entrenchment of vested interests and could easily become permanent regardless of the harm they cause to patients. PMID:11388819

  18. Nonrenewable resource extraction under discontinuous price policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, J.P.; Otten, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Temporal discontinuities in public policy with respect to nonrenewable resource pricing can have significant impacts on the time patterns of resource extraction. These impacts arise from the effect of price discontinuities on the relative values of Hotelling rents across time periods. Whether faced with intertemporal price continuity or price discontinuity, the planning task of the wealth-maximizing producer is to equate the present value of each period's marginal contribution to the stream of net revenues from production across time. This rule for extraction provides the key to understanding the response to a price jump such as occurs upon the removal of price controls. The rational producer holds back at least some output until the price jump occurs. At the moment, the producer pushes output up sharply, raising marginal extraction cost by the absolute amount of the price jump and, thereby, maintaining the value of the Hotelling rent given by the gap between price and marginal extraction cost. US natural gas policy options, as well as plausible alternatives, are simulated to illustrate the effects of discontinuous regulatory regimes. 15 references, 1 table.

  19. [Drug prices: how they are established and existing price control systems].

    PubMed

    Rovira Forns, Joan

    2015-03-01

    Price is one of the main barriers of access to medicines. It is therefore important to understand how prices are formed and what factors determine the amount, as well as what interventions and regulations are the most appropriate considering their effects on access, innovation, local production and other potential objectives of drug policy. Economic analysis has developed a set of market models that can explain the behavior of prices, although actual markets diverge substantially from the theoretical models. Price regulation is justified by the so-called "market failures." Price regulation based on the cost of production, the most traditional form of price control, has fallen into disuse in favor of systems of international reference pricing and value-based pricing.

  20. Assessment of Prices of Natural Gas Futures Contracts As A Predictor of Realized Spot Prices, An

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article compares realized Henry Hub spot market prices for natural gas during the three most recent winters with futures prices as they evolve from April through the following February, when trading for the March contract ends.

  1. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and wholesale cut yield of hair-breed ewe lambs consuming feedlot diets under moderate environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Reyes, L; Macías-Cruz, U; Alvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Aguila-Tepato, E; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; Soto-Navarro, S A

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-four Dorper × Pelibuey ewe lambs initially weighing 25.1 ± 0.6 kg were used in a 34-d feeding experiment and after slaughter to evaluate the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and wholesale cut yield. Ewe lambs were individually housed in pens, blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) control (no ZH) and 2) supplemented with ZH (10 mg/ewe lamb daily) during 32-d and a 2-d withdrawal preslaughter period. Feeding ZH increased (P < 0.01) final BW, ADG, and G:F of ewe lambs, whereas feed intake was unaffected (P = 0.80). Hot and cold carcass weights, dressing percentage, and conformation score were improved (P < 0.001) when ZH was fed. Likewise, LM area was 3.7 ± 0.41 cm(2) larger (P < 0.001) for ZH than control ewe lambs. Feeding ZH did not affect (P ≥ 0.29) cooling loss, carcass length, fat thickness, or KPH. With exception of peritoneum (P < 0.001), head (P = 0.021), and neck (P < 0.001), ZH did not increase (P ≥ 0.12) noncarcass components or wholesale cut yield percentage. A trend to increase (P = 0.060) loin percentage from HCW was observed in lambs supplemented with ZH. In conclusion, feeding ZH to Dorper × Pelibuey ewe lambs improved feedlot performance and also some carcass traits (HCW, cool carcass weight, dressing percentage, and LM area) of economic importance; however, fat deposition was not affected by ZH.

  2. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203...

  3. 48 CFR 1416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1416.203 Section 1416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts...

  4. 48 CFR 916.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustments. 916.203 Section 916.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 916.203...

  5. 48 CFR 1216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1216.203 Section 1216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1216.203...

  6. 48 CFR 1316.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1316.203 Section 1316.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1316.203...

  7. 48 CFR 16.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 16.203 Section 16.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.203...

  8. 48 CFR 616.203 - Fixed-Price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-Price contracts with economic price adjustment. 616.203 Section 616.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 616.203...

  9. 48 CFR 416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 416.203 Section 416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 416.203...

  10. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203...

  11. 48 CFR 916.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustments. 916.203 Section 916.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 916.203...

  12. 48 CFR 1316.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1316.203 Section 1316.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1316.203...

  13. 48 CFR 16.205 - Fixed-price contracts with prospective price redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with prospective price redetermination. 16.205 Section 16.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts...

  14. 48 CFR 416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 416.203 Section 416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 416.203...

  15. 48 CFR 16.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 16.203 Section 16.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.203...

  16. 48 CFR 616.203 - Fixed-Price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-Price contracts with economic price adjustment. 616.203 Section 616.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 616.203...

  17. 48 CFR 1216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1216.203 Section 1216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1216.203...

  18. Understanding the Impact of Higher Corn Prices on Consumer Food Prices

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-04-18

    In an effort to assess the true effects of higher corn prices, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) commissioned an analysis on the impact of increased corn prices on retail food prices. This paper summarizes key results of the study and offers additional analysis based on information from a variety of other sources.

  19. Value-based differential pricing: efficient prices for drugs in a global context.

    PubMed

    Danzon, Patricia; Towse, Adrian; Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes pharmaceutical pricing between and within countries to achieve second-best static and dynamic efficiency. We distinguish countries with and without universal insurance, because insurance undermines patients' price sensitivity, potentially leading to prices above second-best efficient levels. In countries with universal insurance, if each payer unilaterally sets an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) threshold based on its citizens' willingness-to-pay for health; manufacturers price to that ICER threshold; and payers limit reimbursement to patients for whom a drug is cost-effective at that price and ICER, then the resulting price levels and use within each country and price differentials across countries are roughly consistent with second-best static and dynamic efficiency. These value-based prices are expected to differ cross-nationally with per capita income and be broadly consistent with Ramsey optimal prices. Countries without comprehensive insurance avoid its distorting effects on prices but also lack financial protection and affordability for the poor. Improving pricing efficiency in these self-pay countries includes improving regulation and consumer information about product quality and enabling firms to price discriminate within and between countries.

  20. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203...

  1. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203...

  2. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203...

  3. Assessing Tuition and Student Aid Strategies: Using Price-Response Measures to Simulate Pricing Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.

    1994-01-01

    A study used price-response measures from recent national studies to assess college and university pricing (tuition and student aid) alternatives in diverse institutional settings. It is concluded that such analyses are feasible. Analysis indicated limits to "Robin Hood" pricing patterns are predominant in private colleges. Consideration of new…

  4. A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanlian; Zhang, Yabing; He, Jiangjiang; Du, Lixia; Xu, Mingfei; Xie, Chunyan; Peng, Ying; Wang, Linan

    2015-08-01

    This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China's drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40% price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives. PMID:26091710

  5. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... complete, accurate, and current as certified in its Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data; (2) A... complete, accurate, and current as certified in the Contractor's Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing... been modified even if accurate, complete, and current certified cost or pricing data had been...

  6. A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanlian; Zhang, Yabing; He, Jiangjiang; Du, Lixia; Xu, Mingfei; Xie, Chunyan; Peng, Ying; Wang, Linan

    2015-08-01

    This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China's drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40% price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives.

  7. Analysis of alternative-fuel price trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-31

    Findings are presented from a study to (1) acquire, analyze, and report alternative published price projections including both oil- and coal-price trajectories, and to (2) apply the fixed-annuity formula to the updated primary source projections (Energy Information Administration; Data Resources, Inc.; and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates, Inc.) and to the newly acquired price projections. This report also encompasses: comparisons of key assumptions underlying the price projections, and a discussion of the applicability of the fixed-annuity formula as used in the alternative-cost calculation. Section II contains graphic presentations of all updated and newly acquired coal and oil price forecasts and the corresponding calculated annuity equivalents, tabulated presentations and discussions of each forecast and underlying assumptions, and a description of how each forecast price series was transformed into input for the present-value formulas. Section III presents the fixed-annuity formula employed and discusses its appropriateness for this application. Section IV discusses the applicability of the net present value approach for comparing alternate-fuel price trajectories. Appendix A contains a listing of contacts as potential sources of price forecasts. Appendix B contains the raw forecast data from each forecast source and the coal and oil price series derived from the raw data which were actually input into the cost calculation procedure. Appendix C contains a description and listing of the computer program developed to implement the cost calculation procedure. Finally, Appendix D contains tabulations and discussions of other alternative world crude price forecasts that were identified, but for which no corresponding coal-price projections were available. (MCW)

  8. The Basic Economics of CD-ROM Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkkila, John E.

    1991-01-01

    This explanation of how the basic economic model of pricing applies to the CD-ROM industry considers the supply and demand sides of the market and compares three distinct pricing strategies: (1) pricing to maximize profits; (2) average cost pricing; and (3) marginal cost pricing. (EAM)

  9. 48 CFR 52.216-6 - Price Redetermination-Retroactive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price Redetermination....216-6 Price Redetermination—Retroactive. As prescribed in 16.206-4, insert the following clause: Price Redetermination—Retroactive (OCT 1997) (a) General. The unit price and the total price stated in this...

  10. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit...

  11. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit...

  12. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit...

  13. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit...

  14. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.103 - Purchase prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purchase prices. 1430.103 Section 1430.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Product Price...

  16. 7 CFR 1430.103 - Purchase prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchase prices. 1430.103 Section 1430.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Product Price...

  17. 7 CFR 1430.103 - Purchase prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purchase prices. 1430.103 Section 1430.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Product Price...

  18. 7 CFR 1430.103 - Purchase prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purchase prices. 1430.103 Section 1430.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Product Price...

  19. Outpatient provider concentration and commercial colonoscopy prices.

    PubMed

    Pozen, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the magnitude of various contributors to outpatient commercial colonoscopy prices, including market- and provider-level factors, especially market share. We used adjudicated fee-for-service facility claims from a large commercial insurer for colonoscopies occurring in hospital outpatient department or ambulatory surgery center from October 2005 to December 2012. Claims were matched to provider- and market-level data. Linear fixed effects regressions of negotiated colonoscopy price were run on provider, system, and market characteristics. Markets were defined as counties. There were 178,433 claims from 169 providers (104 systems). The mean system market share was 76% (SD = 0.34) and the mean real (deflated) price was US$1363 (SD = 374), ranging from US$169 to US$2748. For every percentage point increase in a system or individual facility's bed share, relative price increased by 2 to 4 percentage points; this result was stable across a number of specifications. Market population and price were also consistently positively related, though this relation was small in magnitude. No other factor explained price as strongly as market share. Price variation for colonoscopy was driven primarily by market share, of particular concern as the number of mergers increases in wake of the recession and the Affordable Care Act. Whether variation is justified by better quality care requires further research to determine whether quality is subsumed in prices.

  20. Hedonic price theory; Concept and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.; Lowry, J.; Morey, M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses direct and indirect techniques being used to estimate economic consequences of proximity to existing or proposed public facilities. The hedonic price theory, an indirect technique is described. The use of the hedonic price theory and the issue of transferability to radioactive waste facilities are addressed.

  1. Managing oil and gas price risk

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a review of managing oil and gas product price risk with the basic types of derivative products available to producers. Introducing the futures markets, basic types of hedges and factors affecting prices will be covered. Several case histories will be discussed in detail from the initial decision making process to actual performance to date.

  2. What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This analysis provides context for considering the impact of rising domestic light crude oil production on the price that U.S. consumers pay for gasoline, and provides a framework to consider how changes to existing U.S. crude oil export restrictions might affect gasoline prices.

  3. Unit Price Scaling Trends for Chemical Products

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Wei; Sathre, Roger; William R. Morrow, III; Shehabi, Arman

    2015-08-01

    To facilitate early-stage life-cycle techno-economic modeling of emerging technologies, here we identify scaling relations between unit price and sales quantity for a variety of chemical products of three categories - metal salts, organic compounds, and solvents. We collect price quotations for lab-scale and bulk purchases of chemicals from both U.S. and Chinese suppliers. We apply a log-log linear regression model to estimate the price discount effect. Using the median discount factor of each category, one can infer bulk prices of products for which only lab-scale prices are available. We conduct out-of-sample tests showing that most of the price proxies deviate from their actual reference prices by a factor less than ten. We also apply the bootstrap method to determine if a sample median discount factor should be accepted for price approximation. We find that appropriate discount factors for metal salts and for solvents are both -0.56, while that for organic compounds is -0.67 and is less representative due to greater extent of product heterogeneity within this category.

  4. 14 CFR 399.84 - Price advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Price advertising. 399.84 Section 399.84... STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.84 Price advertising. The Board considers any advertising or solicitation by a direct air carrier, indirect air carrier, or...

  5. 76 FR 17521 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Register of February 25, 2011 (76 FR 10672), regarding Assessments, Large Bank Pricing. This correction... 17th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20429. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-3086, appearing on... 327 RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...

  6. 75 FR 73983 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Kapoor, Counsel, Legal Division, (202) 898-3960. Correction In proposed rule FR Doc. 2010-29138...; ] FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 327 RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY..., 2010, regarding Assessments, Large Bank Pricing. This correction clarifies that the comment period...

  7. 76 FR 417 - 2011 Numismatic Products Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... United States Mint 2011 Numismatic Products Pricing ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is...) & 5112 grant the Secretary of the Treasury to mint, prepare and distribute numismatic items, and in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 9701(b), the United States Mint is announcing the prices of its 2011...

  8. 75 FR 14257 - Pricing for Bronze Medals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... United States Mint Pricing for Bronze Medals AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 1\\5/16\\- inch bronze... and availability can be found on the United States Mint Web site at http://www.usmint.gov ....

  9. 41 CFR 51-5.5 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under authority of the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act (41 U.S.C. 47(b)). (b) Prices for commodities include... in § 51-5.6. (c) Price changes for commodities and services shall usually apply to orders received by... period a copy of the statement of work applicable to the new service period. (e) If a...

  10. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  11. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Price disclosures. 453.2 Section 453.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.2 Price disclosures. (a) Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In selling or offering to sell funeral goods...

  12. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Price disclosures. 453.2 Section 453.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.2 Price disclosures. (a) Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In selling or offering to sell funeral goods...

  13. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Price disclosures. 453.2 Section 453.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.2 Price disclosures. (a) Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In selling or offering to sell funeral goods...

  14. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Price disclosures. 453.2 Section 453.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.2 Price disclosures. (a) Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In selling or offering to sell funeral goods...

  15. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Price disclosures. 453.2 Section 453.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.2 Price disclosures. (a) Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In selling or offering to sell funeral goods...

  16. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  17. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  18. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  19. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  20. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  1. 75 FR 166 - Postal Product Price Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Postal Product Price Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to change prices for a Global Plus 2 contract... contract at issue in the above-captioned proceeding will change as contemplated by the contract's...

  2. 14 CFR 399.84 - Price advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Price advertising. 399.84 Section 399.84... STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.84 Price advertising. The Board considers any advertising or solicitation by a direct air carrier, indirect air carrier, or...

  3. Do stock prices drive people crazy?

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Liang; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching

    2015-03-01

    This is the first research to examine a potential relation between stock market volatility and mental disorders. Using data on daily incidences of mental disorders in Taiwan over 4000 days from 1998 through 2009 to assess the time-series relation between stock price movements and mental disorders, we observe that stock price fluctuation clearly affects the hospitalization of mental disorders. We find that during a 12-year follow-up period, a low stock price index, a daily fall in the stock price index and consecutive daily falls in the stock price index are all associated with greater of mental disorders hospitalizations. A 1000-point fall in the TAIEX (Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index) increases the number of daily mental disorders hospitalizations by 4.71%. A 1% fall in the TAIEX in one single day increases daily hospitalizations for mental disorders by 0.36%. When the stock price index falls one consecutive day, it causes a daily increase of approximately 0.32% hospitalizations due to mental disorders on that day. Stock price index is found to be significant for both gender and all age groups. In addition, daily change is significant for both gender and middle-age groups, whereas accumulated change is significant for males and people aged 45-64. Stockholdings can help people accumulate wealth, but they can also increase mental disorders hospitalizations. In other words, stock price fluctuations do drive people crazy.

  4. Partnerships and Pricing Services. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Research shows that partnerships have become crucial to long-term organizational success. Benefits and constraints of partnerships are outlined. A second research article on pricing shows that establishing and advertising an anchor price helps consumers understand increases and discounts. Implications for camp management are discussed. (SAS)

  5. Negotiating a Fixed-Unit Price Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquale, Mathew; Morrison, Wade

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the concept of "fixed-unit price contracting," an arrangement that is becoming popular with private industry councils (PICs). Guidelines include (1) find out as much as you can about the PIC's requirements; (2) figure out whether you can meet the PIC's requirements; and (3) keep in mind that most elements of a fixed-unit price contract…

  6. Public Transportation Pricing: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWha, Charley

    A concept-based introduction to public transportation pricing is presented in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business administration, and technology. After an introductory section on transportation pricing planning and the history of transportation system…

  7. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  8. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    PubMed

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    Keynes in 1937 examined the phenomenon of the Great Depression from a longrun perspective in contradiction to the "General Theory," where the focus was on the shortrun. "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population," Keynes' article, reveals the context in which the "General Theory" was written. In the "General Theory," the focus is on short-term fluctuations, i.e., business cycles, but Keynes fails to provide any theoretical explanation as to why the depression of the 1930s was so severe and intractable. In the 1937 article, the depression is seen as the result of the combined effects of a decline in longrun growth due to population growth decline and a shortrun cyclical decline, together producing severe economic consequences. What is important for the purposes of this discussion is the implication, within the context of the 1937 article, that not only was the stock market crash of 1929 related to population change (with its accompanying collapse in expectations) but that, in general, changes in the rate of growth of population are accompanied by stock price movements in the same direction. The remainder of the discussion is devoted to a simple empirical test of this relationship. The data used are population size (POP), defined as the total residential population in the US from 1870-1979, and the Standard and Poor 500 Stock index (SP) for the corresponding 109-year period. In addition, a 3rd series was constructed, a price deflated Standard and Poor index (RSP) with a base period of 1870, to account for possible inflationary distortion of the index. The empirical results do not invalidate the hypothesis that population growth rates affect equity markets. In fact, there seems to be strong evidence that they are related in a manner suggestive of Keynes' intutition, namely, that the stock market crash of 1929 was due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived from a shortrun perspective. According to Keynes (1937), population is the most

  9. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    PubMed

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    Keynes in 1937 examined the phenomenon of the Great Depression from a longrun perspective in contradiction to the "General Theory," where the focus was on the shortrun. "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population," Keynes' article, reveals the context in which the "General Theory" was written. In the "General Theory," the focus is on short-term fluctuations, i.e., business cycles, but Keynes fails to provide any theoretical explanation as to why the depression of the 1930s was so severe and intractable. In the 1937 article, the depression is seen as the result of the combined effects of a decline in longrun growth due to population growth decline and a shortrun cyclical decline, together producing severe economic consequences. What is important for the purposes of this discussion is the implication, within the context of the 1937 article, that not only was the stock market crash of 1929 related to population change (with its accompanying collapse in expectations) but that, in general, changes in the rate of growth of population are accompanied by stock price movements in the same direction. The remainder of the discussion is devoted to a simple empirical test of this relationship. The data used are population size (POP), defined as the total residential population in the US from 1870-1979, and the Standard and Poor 500 Stock index (SP) for the corresponding 109-year period. In addition, a 3rd series was constructed, a price deflated Standard and Poor index (RSP) with a base period of 1870, to account for possible inflationary distortion of the index. The empirical results do not invalidate the hypothesis that population growth rates affect equity markets. In fact, there seems to be strong evidence that they are related in a manner suggestive of Keynes' intutition, namely, that the stock market crash of 1929 was due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived from a shortrun perspective. According to Keynes (1937), population is the most

  10. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of export price and constructed export... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and countervailing duties....

  11. The Role of Electricity in Pacific Northwest Irrigated Agriculture, 1979-1987 : A Study of Irrigation Price Elasticity of Demand, the Importance of Irrigated Agriculture to Rural Communities, and an Evaluation of Alternative Targeted Rate Discount Options for Irrigation Consumers, Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Northwest Economic Associates.

    1989-05-01

    Increased regional pressure for and against the wholesale rate discount has prompted BPA to evaluate the quantitative, qualitative, economic, and policy issues associated with an irrigation rate discount. BPA determined that more information was required in the following areas: Irrigation price elasticities at the subregional level (utility, group of utilities and/or production areas), importance of irrigated agriculture to local and regional economies, issues related to targeting an irrigation rate discount, and the role of BPA wholesale rates and rate discounts on Pacific Northwest sprinkler irrigation and the supporting economies. In response to this request for additional information, the analysis in the present study is conducted in four parts: Document the importance of irrigated agriculture, particularly sprinkler irrigated agriculture, to the Pacific Northwest economy and quantify the impact of the rate discount on regional agriculture and local communities; Estimate irrigation price elasticities for BPA customers at a subregional level, so that load impacts associated with the rate discount can be evaluated at a more localized level; Identify the economic, policy, and practical application issues associated with targeting a rate discount to groups of utilities or irrigators; and Review the short-term economic and policy outlook for irrigated agriculture in the Pacific Northwest and draw implications regarding the impact on producer response to electricity rates. 40 refs., 1 fig., 24 tabs.

  12. Dual pricing algorithm in ISO markets

    DOE PAGES

    O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Anya; Eldridge, Brent; Hytowitz, Robin Broder

    2016-10-10

    The challenge to create efficient market clearing prices in centralized day-ahead electricity markets arises from inherent non-convexities in unit commitment problems. When this aspect is ignored, marginal prices may result in economic losses to market participants who are part of the welfare maximizing solution. In this essay, we present an axiomatic approach to efficient prices and cost allocation for a revenue neutral and non-confiscatory day-ahead market. Current cost allocation practices do not adequately attribute costs based on transparent cost causation criteria. Instead we propose an ex post multi-part pricing scheme, which we refer to as the Dual Pricing Algorithm. Lastly,more » our approach can be incorporated into current dayahead markets without altering the market equilibrium.« less

  13. State Energy Price System: 1982 update

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, K.L.; Fang, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    The State Energy Price System (STEPS) contains estimates of energy prices for ten major fuels (electricity, natural gas, metallurgical coal, steam coal, distillate, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene/jet fuel, residual fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas), by major end-use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility), and by state through 1982. Both physical unit prices and prices per million Btu are included in STEPS. Major changes in STEPS data base for 1981 and 1982 are described. The most significant changes in procedures for the updates occur in the residential sector distillate series and the residential sector kerosene series. All physical unit and Btu prices are shown with three significant digits instead of with four significant digits as shown in the original documentation. Details of these and other changes are contained in this report, along with the updated data files. 31 references, 65 tables.

  14. Assessing the impact of global price interdependencies.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anke

    2008-01-01

    Documented launch delays and the ensuing debate over their underlying causes have focused on assessment from the individual country's perspective. Seen in a larger game theoretical framework this may cause problems, because although the countries see an individual game, the pharmaceutical firm sees a repeated linked game. The links are due to external reference pricing and parallel trade. Behaviours that are optimal in the single, individual game (for either the country or the pharmaceutical firm) may no longer be optimal when considering the global repeated game. A theoretical mixed integer linear model of the firm's launch and pricing decisions is presented along with examples wherein international price dependencies most likely played a role. This model can help countries understand the implication of their external reference pricing policies on the global repeated pricing game. Understanding the behaviour of the pharmaceutical firm in this global context aids countries in designing policies to maximize the welfare of their citizens.

  15. Are there really bubbles in oil prices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcilar, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin; Yetkiner, Hakan

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify bubbles in oil prices by using the “exponential fitting” methodology proposed by Watanabe et al. (2007) [28,29]. We use the daily US dollar closing crude oil prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) covering the 1986:01:02-2013:07:09 and the Brent for the 1987:05:20-2013:07:09 periods. The distinguishing feature of this study from the previous studies is that this is the first study in the literature showing the existence of bubbles in crude oil prices. We found that there are four distinct periods of persistent bubbles in the crude oil prices since 1986. Two of these persistent bubbles are before 2000 and two of them are after 2000. We conclude that further research is needed to understand better how futures markets may impact the oil price formation.

  16. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  17. 7 CFR 1030.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, nonfat solids, protein and other solids content...

  18. 7 CFR 1126.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat...; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and...

  19. 75 FR 69334 - International Product and Price Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... 20 International Product and Price Changes AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Mail Manual (IMM ), to reflect the prices, product features, and classification changes to Competitive... rule describes the international price and classification changes and the corresponding...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  1. 7 CFR 1033.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, nonfat solids, protein and other solids content...

  3. 7 CFR 1124.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (g) The...

  4. 7 CFR 1030.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, nonfat solids, protein and other solids content...

  5. 7 CFR 1030.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, nonfat solids, protein and other solids content...

  6. 7 CFR 1126.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat...; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and...

  7. 7 CFR 1032.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (g) The...

  10. 7 CFR 1033.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  11. 7 CFR 1126.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat...; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and...

  12. 7 CFR 1124.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (g) The...

  13. 7 CFR 1033.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  14. 7 CFR 1126.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (h... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The...

  15. 7 CFR 1126.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (h... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The...

  16. Cigarette Price Minimization Strategies in the United States: Price Reductions and Responsiveness to Excise Taxes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because cigarette price minimization strategies can provide substantial price reductions for individuals continuing their usual smoking behaviors following federal and state cigarette excise tax increases, we examined independent price reductions compensating for overlapping strategies. The possible availability of larger independent price reduction opportunities in states with higher cigarette excise taxes is explored. Methods: Regression analysis used the 2006–2007 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (N = 26,826) to explore national and state-level independent price reductions that smokers obtained from purchasing cigarettes (a) by the carton, (b) in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price than in the state of residence, and (c) in “some other way,” including online or in another country. Price reductions from these strategies are estimated jointly to compensate for known overlapping strategies. Results: Each strategy reduced the price of cigarettes by 64–94 cents per pack. These price reductions are 9%–22% lower than conventionally estimated results not compensating for overlapping strategies. Price reductions vary substantially by state. Following cigarette excise tax increases, the price reduction available from purchasing cigarettes by cartons increased. Additionally, the price reduction from purchasing cigarettes in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price is positively associated with state cigarette excise tax rates and border state cigarette excise tax rate differentials. Conclusions: Findings from this large, nationally representative study of cigarette smokers suggest that price reductions are larger in states with higher cigarette excise taxes, and increase as cigarette excise taxes rise. PMID:23729501

  17. Crowdsourcing Black Market Prices For Prescription Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Freifeld, Clark; Brownstein, John S; Menone, Christopher Mark; Surratt, Hilary L; Poppish, Luke; Green, Jody L; Lavonas, Eric J; Dart, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription opioid diversion and abuse are major public health issues in the United States and internationally. Street prices of diverted prescription opioids can provide an indicator of drug availability, demand, and abuse potential, but these data can be difficult to collect. Crowdsourcing is a rapid and cost-effective way to gather information about sales transactions. We sought to determine whether crowdsourcing can provide accurate measurements of the street price of diverted prescription opioid medications. Objective To assess the possibility of crowdsourcing black market drug price data by cross-validation with law enforcement officer reports. Methods Using a crowdsourcing research website (StreetRx), we solicited data about the price that site visitors paid for diverted prescription opioid analgesics during the first half of 2012. These results were compared with a survey of law enforcement officers in the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System, and actual transaction prices on a “dark Internet” marketplace (Silk Road). Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for comparing prices per milligram of drug in US dollars. In a secondary analysis, we compared prices per milligram of morphine equivalent using standard equianalgesic dosing conversions. Results A total of 954 price reports were obtained from crowdsourcing, 737 from law enforcement, and 147 from the online marketplace. Correlations between the 3 data sources were highly linear, with Spearman rho of 0.93 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and law enforcement, and 0.98 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and online marketplace. On StreetRx, the mean prices per milligram were US$3.29 hydromorphone, US$2.13 buprenorphine, US$1.57 oxymorphone, US$0.97 oxycodone, US$0.96 methadone, US$0.81 hydrocodone, US$0.52 morphine, and US$0.05 tramadol. The only significant difference between data sources was morphine, with a Drug Diversion price of US

  18. Price Transparency in the Online Age.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jonathan L; Mills, Parker H

    2016-05-01

    Plastic surgeons are sometimes hesitant to provide their pricing information online, due to several concerns. However, if implemented right, price transparency can be used as a lead generation tool that provides consumers with the pricing information they want and gives the physician the consumer's contact information for follow-up. This study took place during the author's first year in private practice in a new city. An interactive price transparency platform (ie, cost estimator) was integrated into his website, allowing consumers to submit a "wishlist" of procedures to check pricing on these procedures of interest. However, the consumer must submit their contact information to receive the desired breakdown of costs that are tailored based on the author's medical fees. During that first year, without any advertising expenditure, the author's website received 412 wishlists from 208 unique consumers. Consumers (17.8%) that submitted a wishlist came in for a consultation and 62% of those booked a procedure. The average value of a booked procedure was over US $4000 and cumulatively, all of the leads from this one lead source in that first year generated over US $92,000 in revenue. When compared with non-price-aware patients, price-aware patients were 41% more likely to book a procedure. Price transparency led to greater efficiency and reduced consultations that ended in "sticker shock." When prudently integrated into a medical practice, price transparency can be a great lead generation source for patients that are (1) paying out of pocket for medically necessary services due to a high-deductible health plan or (2) paying for services not typically covered by insurance, such as cosmetic services.

  19. Today's high coal prices: correction or crisis?

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, J.

    2005-06-01

    Eastern spot prices for coal have risen 25% since the start of 2004, reaching their highest levels in more than 25 years. This spike represents the second time in four years that coal prices have risen to more than double their pre-2000 price levels. Years of famine (from a coal producer's point of view) have been replaced by periods of plenty, with increasing consequences for coal's customers. How long will this spike last? This article, based on studies carried out by EPRI, attempts to answer this question. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Real prices from spot foreign exchange market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2004-12-01

    In this work we discuss the problem of price definition when using high frequency foreign exchange data. If one uses the spot mid price a strong autocorrelation of returns, at one lag, is found which is only due to microstructure effect and does not capture the real behavior of price dynamics. This autocorrelation increases the intraday volatility estimated from this type of data. To solve this problem we introduce an algorithm which is able, by using the no-arbitrage principle, of eliminating every microstructure effects.