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Sample records for 28th international cosmic

  1. EDITORIAL: The 28th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simek, Milan; Sunka, Pavel

    2008-05-01

    The 28th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (ICPIG) was held in Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic, on 15--20 July 2007, under the sponsorship of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). The ICPIG, a traditional international conference with a remarkably long history, is held every two years and covers the fundamental physical aspects of ionized gases. It emphasizes interdisciplinary research and fosters exchange between the different communities. The 28th ICPIG was organized by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy Sciences of the Czech Republic with the participation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University, and the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of Charles University, all in Prague. The conference was attended by 619 scientists from 50 countries (537 participants from outside the host country) and, compared with preceding meetings, ICPIG in Prague came with several changes. The pocket program and CD proceedings have been replaced by the book of abstracts, pocket program and CD containing full-length contributions. The International Scientific Committee also decided to update substantially the list of ICPIG topics. These topics have been grouped into four major sections: A. Fundamentals; B. Modelling, Simulation and Diagnostics; C. Plasma Sources and Discharge Regimes; D. Applications, with each major section structured into several sub-topics. Last but not least, on the occasion of ICPIG 2007, the IUPAP Early Career Award in Plasma Physics was bestowed for the first time. Complete 28th ICPIG conference records include the von Engel Prize Lecture, 10 general and 26 topical invited lectures, 18 workshop lectures and the contributed papers (http://icpig2007.ipp.cas.cz/). All 718 submitted full-length contributed papers were reviewed and 608 contributions were accepted for poster presentation. It is worth noting that 98 of the total of 608 poster contributions belong to the topic 'Non

  2. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/ Austria | November 28th - 29th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25713602

  3. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/Austria|November 28th-29th, 2013.

    PubMed

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation.

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; ; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of the proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". A total of 65 research reports are presented here: (1) A Teacher's Model of Students Algebraic Thinking…

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; ; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of the proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". This volume features 64 research report papers: (1) Situated or Abstract: The Effect of Combining Context…

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; ; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the second volume of the proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". This volume features 65 research report papers: (1) Constructing Meanings and Utilities within Algebraic…

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; ; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the first volume of the proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". In total, 147 presentations centered around the vision of mathematics for all. This volume features eight…

  8. VisionQuest: Journeys toward Visual Literacy. Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (28th, Cheyenne, Wyoming, October, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert E., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 59 selected papers from the 1996 International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA) conference. Topics include: learning to think visually; information design via the Internet; a program for inner-city at-risk children; dubbing versus subtitling television programs; connecting advertisements and classroom reading through…

  9. Basic Education for the Real World. International Perspectives on Human Resource Development. Proceedings of the ICET World Assembly, (28th, Cairo, Egypt, August 10-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council on Education for Teaching, Washington, DC.

    The papers is this volume were presented at the 1981 World Assembly of the International Council of Education for Teaching, attended by representatives from over 35 nations. The papers are organized in seven sections, and all relate to the theme of the assembly, basic skills development. Section I contains one paper, an address on motivating…

  10. The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings of the 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held at the Cleveland Marriott Society Center on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  11. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  12. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. SH Sessions, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume contains papers addressing cosmic ray gradients in the heliosphere; siderial, diurnal, and long term modulations; geomagnetic and atmospheric effects; cosmogenic nuclides; solar neutrinos; and detection techniques.

  13. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. SH Sessions, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume covers solar and heliospheric phenomena, specifically, particle acceleration; cosmic ray compsotion, spectra, and anisotropy; propagation of solar and interplanetary energetic particles; solar-cycle modulation; and propagation of galactic particles in the heliosphere.

  14. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic ray Conference are compiled. This volume contains papers which address various aspects of extensive air showers (EAS) produced by energetic particles and gamma rays.

  15. Wartime Burn Care in Iraq: 28th Combat Support Hospital, 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    provide medical support to both the Baghdad and Tikrit regions. In Baghdad, the CSH occupied Ibn Sina Hospital in the International Zone (Green Zone...The 28th CSH rede- ployed to the United States in February 2004, turning over operations at Ibn Sina Hospital to the 31st CSH. At the time of this...writing, Ibn Sina Hospital has been continuously operated by a U.S. Army CSH, providing care to U.S., coalition, and Iraqi military and civilian

  16. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers contributed to the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference which address high energy interactions and related phenomena are compiled. Particular topic areas include cross sections; particle production; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collisions; gamma ray and hadron spectra; C-jets, a-jets, and super families; and emulsion chamber simulations.

  17. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. The present volume contains papers addressing high energy interactions and related phenomena. Specific topic areas include muons, neutrinos, magnetic monopoles, nucleon decay, searches for new particles, and acoustic and thermoluminescence detection techniques.

  18. Industrial Arts Education: Retrospect, Prospect. 28th Yearbook, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. Eugene, Ed.

    Nineteen chapters of information, organized into five units, are provided in this 28th yearbook of the American Council on Industrial Arts Teacher Education. Unit I, entitled "A Historical and Philosophical Orientation to Industrial Arts" contains five chapters that examine these topics: the movements that led to contemporary industrial…

  19. Program and abstracts of the 28th conference on Great Lakes research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the 28th Conference on Great Lakes Research and the annual meeting of the International Association for Great Lakes Research covered two symposia. The first was a comparison of Great Lakes and Baltic ecosystems, which provided an opportunity for international exchanges of information and insights. The second featured pollution problems in the Green Bay estuary environment that is of particular value to Wisconsin and Michigan. There are 41 separate abstracts selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB). Four of those were also selected for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), six for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), and two for INS.

  20. Performance of internal covariance estimators for cosmic shear correlation functions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, O.; Seitz, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Gruen, D.

    2015-12-31

    Data re-sampling methods such as the delete-one jackknife are a common tool for estimating the covariance of large scale structure probes. In this paper we investigate the concepts of internal covariance estimation in the context of cosmic shear two-point statistics. We demonstrate how to use log-normal simulations of the convergence field and the corresponding shear field to carry out realistic tests of internal covariance estimators and find that most estimators such as jackknife or sub-sample covariance can reach a satisfactory compromise between bias and variance of the estimated covariance. In a forecast for the complete, 5-year DES survey we show that internally estimated covariance matrices can provide a large fraction of the true uncertainties on cosmological parameters in a 2D cosmic shear analysis. The volume inside contours of constant likelihood in the $\\Omega_m$-$\\sigma_8$ plane as measured with internally estimated covariance matrices is on average $\\gtrsim 85\\%$ of the volume derived from the true covariance matrix. The uncertainty on the parameter combination $\\Sigma_8 \\sim \\sigma_8 \\Omega_m^{0.5}$ derived from internally estimated covariances is $\\sim 90\\%$ of the true uncertainty.

  1. Performance of internal covariance estimators for cosmic shear correlation functions

    DOE PAGES

    Friedrich, O.; Seitz, S.; Eifler, T. F.; ...

    2015-12-31

    Data re-sampling methods such as the delete-one jackknife are a common tool for estimating the covariance of large scale structure probes. In this paper we investigate the concepts of internal covariance estimation in the context of cosmic shear two-point statistics. We demonstrate how to use log-normal simulations of the convergence field and the corresponding shear field to carry out realistic tests of internal covariance estimators and find that most estimators such as jackknife or sub-sample covariance can reach a satisfactory compromise between bias and variance of the estimated covariance. In a forecast for the complete, 5-year DES survey we show that internally estimated covariance matrices can provide a large fraction of the true uncertainties on cosmological parameters in a 2D cosmic shear analysis. The volume inside contours of constant likelihood in themore » $$\\Omega_m$$-$$\\sigma_8$$ plane as measured with internally estimated covariance matrices is on average $$\\gtrsim 85\\%$$ of the volume derived from the true covariance matrix. The uncertainty on the parameter combination $$\\Sigma_8 \\sim \\sigma_8 \\Omega_m^{0.5}$$ derived from internally estimated covariances is $$\\sim 90\\%$$ of the true uncertainty.« less

  2. International Cooperation of the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.-H.; Nam, U.-W.; Lee, S.; Jin, H.; Yuk, I.-S.; Kim, K.-H.; Pak, S.

    2006-12-01

    A Korean team (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Korea Basic Science Institute, and Kyung Hee University) takes part in an international cooperation project called CIBER (Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment), which has begun with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in USA and Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan. CIBER is a rocket-borne instrument, of which the scientific goal is to measure the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The Korean team is in charge of the ground support electronics and manufacturing of optical parts of the narrow-band spectrometer, which will provide excellent opportunities for science and technology to Korean infrared groups.

  3. Contributions to the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of cosmic radiation, its measurements and their patterns are presented. Measurement techniques and variations in solar cosmic ray patterns and calculations of elemental abundances are reviewed.

  4. Performance of internal covariance estimators for cosmic shear correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, O.; Seitz, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Gruen, D.

    2016-03-01

    Data re-sampling methods such as delete-one jackknife, bootstrap or the sub-sample covariance are common tools for estimating the covariance of large-scale structure probes. We investigate different implementations of these methods in the context of cosmic shear two-point statistics. Using lognormal simulations of the convergence field and the corresponding shear field we generate mock catalogues of a known and realistic covariance. For a survey of {˜ } 5000 ° ^2 we find that jackknife, if implemented by deleting sub-volumes of galaxies, provides the most reliable covariance estimates. Bootstrap, in the common implementation of drawing sub-volumes of galaxies, strongly overestimates the statistical uncertainties. In a forecast for the complete 5-yr Dark Energy Survey, we show that internally estimated covariance matrices can provide a large fraction of the true uncertainties on cosmological parameters in a 2D cosmic shear analysis. The volume inside contours of constant likelihood in the Ωm-σ8 plane as measured with internally estimated covariance matrices is on average ≳85 per cent of the volume derived from the true covariance matrix. The uncertainty on the parameter combination Σ _8 ˜ σ _8 Ω _m^{0.5} derived from internally estimated covariances is ˜90 per cent of the true uncertainty.

  5. EE-3A Logging Report for Feb. 28th., 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1994-03-14

    A Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log of EE-3A was performed on Monday, February 28th, 1994. This log was the first of two, (the other to be run on March 31st.), in an attempt to investigate a temperature anomaly occurring between 10,000 to 11,435 ft. The thermal recovery of this zone is slower than expected, which is believed to be caused by either; flow through the cemented zone of the 5 1/2" liner, or an upward flow through the reservoir itself. Now that the first log is over, the annulus of EE-3A will be shut-in for a period of approximately one month, at which time the log will be repeated. If the temperature of this zone shows signs of recovery after the shut-in period, the integrity of the cement will be in question. No sign of recovery will point to upward reservoir flow theory.

  6. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. Topic areas include the composition, spectra, and anisotropy of cosmic ray nuclei with energies and 1 TeV, isotopes, antiprotons and related subjects, and electrons, positrons, and measurements of synchrotron radiation.

  7. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  8. Contributions to the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Studies of heavy nuclei in cosmic radiation were studied in an attempt to determine source abundances for various elements. Much of the data analyzed was supplied by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 3 (HEAO 3) and employed the use of ionization chambers and Cherenrov counters.

  9. SECTION A, WITH PENNSYLVANIA MONUMENT AT LEFT FOREGROUND AND 28TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION A, WITH PENNSYLVANIA MONUMENT AT LEFT FOREGROUND AND 28TH NEW YORK REGIMENT MONUMENT AT RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Culpeper National Cemetery, 305 U.S. Avenue, Culpeper, Culpeper County, VA

  10. SECTIONS B AND A FROM FLAGPOLE CIRCLE, WITH 28TH NEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTIONS B AND A FROM FLAGPOLE CIRCLE, WITH 28TH NEW YORK REGIMENT MONUMENT AT LEFT AND PENNSYLVANIA MONUMENT AT CENTER. VIEW TO NORTH. - Culpeper National Cemetery, 305 U.S. Avenue, Culpeper, Culpeper County, VA

  11. Milagro Contributions to XXVI International Cosmic Ray Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.M.; Haines, T.J.; Sinnis, G.; Miller, R.S.; Thompson, N.T.

    1999-08-01

    Milagrito, a prototype for the Milagro detector, operated for 15 months in 1997--8 and collected 8.9 x 10{sup 9} events. It was the first extensive air shower (EAS) array sensitive to showers initiated by primaries with energy below 1 TeV. The shadows of the sun and moon observed with cosmic rays can be used to study systematic pointing shifts and measure the angular resolution of EAS arrays. Below a few TeV, the paths of cosmic rays coming toward the earth are bent by the helio- and geo-magnetic fields. This is expected to distort and displace the shadows of the sun and the moon. The moon shadow, offset from the nominal (unreflected) position, has been observed with high statistical significance in Milagrito. This can be used to establish energy calibrations, as well as to search for the anti-matter content of the VHE cosmic ray flux. The shadow of the sun has also been observed with high significance.

  12. The international space station as an observatory for cosmic-ray physics and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station is an ideal platform for observing cosmic rays. Furthermore, it can readily accommodate the instrumentation needed to address all of the top-priority science objectives identified in 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences for ``Plasma Processes that Accelerate Very Energetic Particles and Control Their Propagation.'' These objectives are synergistic in their pursuit of the illusive goal of understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of the cosmic radiation. A distributed observatory on the International Space Station may be the key to answering this long-standing question in the first decade of the new millennium.

  13. Preliminary Design of a Galactic Cosmic Ray Shielding Materials Testbed for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Berkebile, Stephen; Sechkar, Edward A.; Panko, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    The preliminary design of a testbed to evaluate the effectiveness of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) shielding materials, the MISSE Radiation Shielding Testbed (MRSMAT) is presented. The intent is to mount the testbed on the Materials International Space Station Experiment-X (MISSE-X) which is to be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016. A key feature is the ability to simultaneously test nine samples, including standards, which are 5.25 cm thick. This thickness will enable most samples to have an areal density greater than 5 g/sq cm. It features a novel and compact GCR telescope which will be able to distinguish which cosmic rays have penetrated which shielding material, and will be able to evaluate the dose transmitted through the shield. The testbed could play a pivotal role in the development and qualification of new cosmic ray shielding technologies.

  14. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 28th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 28th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,210 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1997 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the…

  15. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Farmingdale State College Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell-Carter, Marya, Ed.; Gonder, Jennifer, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference on the Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations, sponsored by the Psychology Department of Farmingdale State College. The conference theme for 2014 was:" Infusing Issues of Racial, Religious, and Sexuality Diversity Across the Undergraduate Curriculum." The Conference featured a keynote…

  16. View of northeast elevation of Building No. 42. South 28th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of northeast elevation of Building No. 42. South 28th Street in foreground, note Parking Area No. 41 at center, Building No. 41 at left and rear right. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 42, Northwest corner of Foothill Avenue & South Twenty-eighth Street, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station (ISS-CREAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, E. S.; Anderson, T.; Angelaszek, D.; Baek, S. J.; Baylon, J.; Buénerd, M.; Copley, M.; Coutu, S.; Derome, L.; Fields, B.; Gupta, M.; Han, J. H.; Howley, I. J.; Huh, H. G.; Hwang, Y. S.; Hyun, H. J.; Jeong, I. S.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, K. H.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, M. H.; Kwashnak, K.; Lee, J.; Lee, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Lutz, L.; Malinin, A.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nutter, S.; Ofoha, O.; Park, H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. M.; Patterson, P.; Smith, J. R.; Wu, J.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2014-05-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) instrument is configured with a suite of particle detectors to measure TeV cosmic-ray elemental spectra from protons to iron nuclei over a wide energy range. The goal is to extend direct measurements of cosmic-ray composition to the highest energies practical, and thereby have enough overlap with ground based indirect measurements to answer questions on cosmic-ray origin, acceleration and propagation. The balloon-borne CREAM was flown successfully for about 161 days in six flights over Antarctica to measure elemental spectra of Z = 1-26 nuclei over the energy range 1010 to >1014 eV. Transforming the balloon instrument into ISS-CREAM involves identification and replacement of components that would be at risk in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, in addition to assessing safety and mission assurance concerns. The transformation process includes rigorous testing of components to reduce risks and increase survivability on the launch vehicle and operations on the ISS without negatively impacting the heritage of the successful CREAM design. The project status, including results from the ongoing analysis of existing data and, particularly, plans to increase the exposure factor by another order of magnitude utilizing the International Space Station are presented.

  18. CALET: High energy cosmic ray observatory on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masaki; CALET Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CALorimeteric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a Japanese-led international mission being developed as part of the utilization plan for the International Space Station (ISS). CALET will be launched by an H-II B rocket utilizing the Japanese developed HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle) in 2014. The instrument will be robotically emplaced upon the Exposed Facility attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF). CALET is a calorimeter based instrument which will have superior energy resolution and excellent separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays in the GeV to trans-TeV energy range. CALET will address many questions in high energy astrophysics, including (1) the nature of the sources of high energy particles and photons, through the high energy electron spectrum, (2) signatures of dark matter, in either the high energy electron or gamma ray spectrum, (3) the details of particle propagation in the Galaxy, by a combination of energy spectrum measurements of electrons, protons and highercharged nuclei. In this paper the outline and current status of CALET are summarized.

  19. 28th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act," 2006. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "28th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2006" follows the 2005--i.e., the 27th annual report--in sequence. The "28th Annual Report to Congress" has two volumes. Volume 1 presents a picture of how children and students are being served under the law nationwide…

  20. Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array: Joint Contributions to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; et al.

    2013-10-02

    Joint contributions of the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array Collaborations to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 2013: cross-calibration of the fluorescence telescopes, large scale anisotropies and mass composition.

  1. Highlights of the 28(th) North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference 2014.

    PubMed

    Nwokoro, Chinedu E C

    2015-10-01

    This is a selection of papers presented at the 28(th) North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference held in Atlanta in October 2014. The papers discussed are thought to be of particular interest to CF caregivers in the UK. Topics discussed include recent progress in the modification of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), the potential of OligoG, a novel inhaled alginate mucolytic, and the changing approach to cystic fibrosis-related diabetes screening.

  2. Neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from multiple internal shocks in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Baerwald, Philipp; Murase, Kohta; Winter, Walter

    2015-04-10

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short-lived, luminous explosions at cosmological distances, thought to originate from relativistic jets launched at the deaths of massive stars. They are among the prime candidates to produce the observed cosmic rays at the highest energies. Recent neutrino data have, however, started to constrain this possibility in the simplest models with only one emission zone. In the classical theory of GRBs, it is expected that particles are accelerated at mildly relativistic shocks generated by the collisions of material ejected from a central engine. Here we consider neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from multiple emission regions since these internal collisions must occur at very different radii, from below the photosphere all the way out to the circumburst medium, as a consequence of the efficient dissipation of kinetic energy. We demonstrate that the different messengers originate from different collision radii, which means that multi-messenger observations open windows for revealing the evolving GRB outflows.

  3. The concept of a facility for cosmic dust research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Juergen; Cabane, Michel; Fonda, Mark; Giovane, Frank; Gustafson, Bo A. S.; Keller, Horst U.; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.; Levasseur-Regourd, Any-Chantal; Worms, Jean-Claude; Nuth, Joseph A.; Rogers, Fred

    1996-01-01

    A proposal for the development of a permanently operating facility for the experimental investigation of cosmic dust-related phenomena onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is presented. Potential applications for this facility are the convection-free nucleation of dust grains, studies of coagulation and aggregation phenomena in a microgravity environment, investigations of heat transport through, and dust emissions from, high-porosity cometary analogs, and experiments on the interaction of very fluffy dust grains with electromagnetic radiation and with low pressure gas flows. Possible extensions of such a facility are towards aerosol science and colloidal plasma research.

  4. Joliet Junior College and the 2015 International Year of Light's Cosmic Light Theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.

    2015-01-01

    We teach "Descriptive Astronomy" and "Life in the Universe" courses for non-science majors at Joliet Junior College, Joliet IL. We also occasionally present planetarium shows at the college's planetarium. In 2015, we plan to highlight the "Cosmic Light" theme of the 2015 International Year of Light through some of our teaching and outreach activities. For several years, together with our students, we have participated in the Globe at Night light pollution program. In 2015, we plan to continue our participation in this program and we will continue to encourage our students to participate on their own from other locations. We will present a live planetarium show on Light Pollution in Spring 2015 as part of the college's Brown Bag Lecture Series. We plan to develop and present one or two live planetarium presentations that focus on studying astronomical objects across the electromagnetic spectrum during 2015. Also in Spring 2015, we plan to include projects that highlight the International Year of Light in our Descriptive Astronomy course offerings. Our poster will provide details of these "Cosmic Light" activities.

  5. International Collaboration for Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam; Durante, Marco; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-01-01

    An international collaboration on Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) simulation is being formed to make recommendations on how to best simulate the GCR spectrum at ground based accelerators. The external GCR spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment at ground based accelerators would use the modified spectrum, rather than the external spectrum, in the accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. Two recent workshops have studied such GCR simulation. The first workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center in October 2014. The second workshop was held at the NASA Space Radiation Investigators' workshop in Galveston, Texas in January 2015. The anticipated outcome of these and other studies may be a report or journal article, written by an international collaboration, making accelerator beam recommendations for GCR simulation. This poster describes the status of GCR simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and encourages others to join the collaboration.

  6. CALET Mission for the Observation of Cosmic Rays on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Tadahisa; Torii, Shoji; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Okudaira, Osamu; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Hareyama, Makoto; Miyajima, Hiromitsu; Miyaji, Takashi; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Ueno, Shiro; Saito, Yoshitaka; Takayanagi, Masahiro; Tomita, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Jun; Fuke, Hideyuki; Yamagami, Takamasa; Okuno, Shoji; Tateyama, Nobuto; Hibino, Kinya; Shiomi, Atsushi; Takita, Masato; Yuda, Toshinori; Shimizu, Yuki; Kakimoto, Fumio; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Terasawa, Toshio; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Katayose, Yusaku; Shibata, Makio; Yoshida, Kenji; Ichimura, Masaichi; Kuramata, Shuichi; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Komori, Yoshiko; Mizutani, Kohei; Munakata, Kazuki; Streitmatter, Robert E.; Mitchell, John W.; Barbier, Louis M.; Moissev, Alexander A.; Krizmanic, John F.; Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, Joachim B.; Wefel, John P.; Binns, Walter R.; Israel, Martin H.; Krawzczynski, H. S.; Ormes, Jonathan F.; Marrocchesi, Pier S.; Maestro, Paolo; Bagliesi, Maria G.; Millucci, Vincenzo; Meucci, Mario; Bigongiari, Gabriele; Zei, Riccardo; Kim, Meyoung; Adriani, Oscar; Papini, Paolo; Bonechi, Lorenzo; Elena, Vannuccini; Morsani, Fabio; Ligabue, Franco; Chang, Jin; Gan, Weiqun; Yang, Ji; Ma, Yuqian; Wang, Huanyu; Chen, Guoming

    We have proposed CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) mission to make observations of high energy cosmic rays, electrons, gamma-rays, and nuclei, on the International Space Station (ISS). CALET mission has been approved as one of candidates for the next mission utilizing the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The detector of CALET consists of an imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC). Main objective of cosmic-ray observation with CALET is to determine precise energy spectrum of electrons up to 20 TeV. As the super nova remnants (SNR) are taken to be sources of electrons, some structure caused by nearby electron sources is expected to appear in the energy spectrum over 1 TeV. Gamma-rays from 20 MeV to a few TeV can be also observed by CALET. Because a thick TASC of CALET gives high energy resolution, annihilation line of SUSY particle, which is a candidate of the dark matter, can be detected. Observation of nuclei is also possible up to 1000 TeV owing to the thick TASC. We have been going on conceptual design of CALET to clear a next judgment in one or two years to proceed to practical development for launching in 2013.

  7. How Space Radiation Risk from Galactic Cosmic Rays at the International Space Station Relates to Nuclear Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation risk to astronauts is a major obstacle for long term human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have thus been developed to evaluate radiation effects at the International Space Station (ISS) and in missions to the Moon or Mars. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes in such radiation transport affect predictions on the radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays. Taking into account effects of the geomagnetic field on the cosmic ray spectra, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on the radiation risk (represented by dose-equivalent) from galactic cosmic rays behind typical spacecraft materials. These results tell us how the radiation risk at the ISS is related to nuclear cross sections at different energies, and consequently how to most efficiently reduce the physical uncertainty in our predictions on the radiation risk at the ISS.

  8. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  9. 28th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act," 2006. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2006 or "28th Annual Report to Congress" follows the 2005 or "27th Annual Report to Congress" in sequence. Volume 1 focuses on the children and students being served under "IDEA" and provides profiles of individual states' special education environments. Volume 2 of the "2006 Annual Report to Congress"…

  10. STARLIFE - An International Campaign to Study the Role of Galactic Cosmic Radiation in Astrobiological Model Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Ralf; Raguse, Marina; Leuko, Stefan; Berger, Thomas; Hellweg, Christine Elisabeth; Fujimori, Akira; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Horneck, Gerda

    2017-02-01

    In-depth knowledge regarding the biological effects of the radiation field in space is required for assessing the radiation risks in space. To obtain this knowledge, a set of different astrobiological model systems has been studied within the STARLIFE radiation campaign during six irradiation campaigns (2013-2015). The STARLIFE group is an international consortium with the aim to investigate the responses of different astrobiological model systems to the different types of ionizing radiation (X-rays, γ rays, heavy ions) representing major parts of the galactic cosmic radiation spectrum. Low- and high-energy charged particle radiation experiments have been conducted at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan. X-rays or γ rays were used as reference radiation at the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Cologne, Germany) or Beta-Gamma-Service GmbH (BGS, Wiehl, Germany) to derive the biological efficiency of different radiation qualities. All samples were exposed under identical conditions to the same dose and qualities of ionizing radiation (i) allowing a direct comparison between the tested specimens and (ii) providing information on the impact of the space radiation environment on currently used astrobiological model organisms.

  11. Toward unveiling internal properties of HII regions and their connections at the cosmic noon era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakawa, Rhythm; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hayashi, Masao; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Tomoko L.; Koyama, Yusei; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamamoto, Moegi

    2015-08-01

    The redshift interval z=2-3 is known as the cosmic noon that is the most active era of star formation across the Universe. In the past decade, many authors have investigated global properties of star-forming (SF) galaxies in this turbulent era, such as gas fractions and gaseous metallicities.With these achievements, we are going on to the next stage to understand the internal details of star formation at the cosmic noon era on the scale from entire galaxy into SF regions. Recent advent of near-infrared instruments typified by MOSFIRE on the Keck telescope, enable us with identifying the physical parameters of HII regions in ‘typical’ SF galaxies for the first time. Recent highlights suggest higher electron densities, higher ionization parameters, and harder UV radiation fields may be common.In this poster, based on the spectra of Hα selected SF galaxies at z=2.5 derived from MOSFIRE, we measure electron densities (ne) using the oxygen line ratio, and investigate the relationships between the electron density of ionized gas and other physical properties. As a result, we find that the specific star formation rate (sSFR) and the SFR surface density (ΣSFR) are correlated with the electron density. The ne-ΣSFR relation is likely to be linked to the star formation law in HII regions if we assume that hydrogen in HII regions is fully-ionized. However, we need some specific concerns that obtained physical parameters may depend on the scale dependence, since typical size of HII region is only <100 pc despite that we study physical states of entire galaxies. Thus we obtain surface-brightness-weighted and ensemble averaged line fluxes for the entire galaxy or the part that falls into the slit width.The thirty meter telescope (TMT) is a powerful instrument to resolve such a difficulty, since its spatial resolution reaches <100 pc on the physical scale at z~2 by AO assistance. This poster also presents what TMT can do for SF galaxies at z~2 with AO-assisted IFU

  12. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. Conference Papers: Invited Rapporteur, Highlight, Miscellaneous, Volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Invited talks, rapporteur talks, and highlight talks are included. Topics of the invited and highlight talks include astrophysical jets, gamma-ray line astronomy, cosmic rays and gamma rays in astrophysics, the early universe, elementary particle physics, solar flares and acceleration of energetic particles, cosmogenic nuclei, extragalactic astronomy, composition of solar flare particles, very high energy gamma ray sources, gamma-ray bursts, shock acceleration in the solar wind, cosmic rays in deep underground detectors, spectrum of cosmic rays at 10 to the 19th power eV, and nucleus-nucleus interactions.

  13. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  14. Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chikanian, A.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Coste, B.; Cui, Z.; Dai, M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; Kunz, S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Malinin, A.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schuckardt, D.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ˜30 GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.

  15. Electron and positron fluxes in primary cosmic rays measured with the alpha magnetic spectrometer on the international space station.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Aisa, D; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-09-19

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30  GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.

  16. Nationalism and internationalism in science: the case of the discovery of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Per; de Angelis, Alessandro

    2010-04-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, comprised of scientists in Europe and North America and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten in particular that of Domenico Pacini, who in June 1911 demonstrated by studying the decrease of radioactivity with an electroscope immersed in water that cosmic rays could not come from the crust of the Earth. Several historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to the substantial disappearance of Pacini from the history of science.

  17. Nationalism and internationalism in science: the case of the discovery of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Per; de Angelis, Alessandro

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, comprised of scientists in Europe and North America and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten in particular that of Domenico Pacini, who in June 1911 demonstrated by studying the decrease of radioactivity with an electroscope immersed in water that cosmic rays could not come from the crust of the Earth. Several historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to the substantial disappearance of Pacini from the history of science.

  18. The IceCube Collaboration:contributions to the 30 th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2007),

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Ackermann, M.

    2007-11-02

    This paper bundles 40 contributions by the IceCube collaboration that were submitted to the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference ICRC 2007. The articles cover studies on cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrinos, searches for non-localized, extraterrestrial {nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} signals, scans for steady and intermittent neutrino point sources, searches for dark matter candidates, magnetic monopoles and other exotic particles, improvements in analysis techniques, as well as future detector extensions. The IceCube observatory will be finalized in 2011 to form a cubic-kilometer ice-Cherenkov detector at the location of the geographic South Pole. At the present state of construction, IceCube consists of 52 paired IceTop surface tanks and 22 IceCube strings with a total of 1426 Digital Optical Modules deployed at depths up to 2350 m. The observatory also integrates the 19 string AMANDA subdetector, that was completed in 2000 and extends IceCube's reach to lower energies. Before the deployment of IceTop, cosmic air showers were registered with the 30 station SPASE-2 surface array. IceCube's low noise Digital Optical Modules are very reliable, show a uniform response and record waveforms of arriving photons that are resolvable with nanosecond precision over a large dynamic range. Data acquisition, reconstruction and simulation software are running in production mode and the analyses, profiting from the improved data quality and increased overall sensitivity, are well under way.

  19. International Cosmic Ray Conference, 17th, Paris, France, July 13-25, 1981, Conference Papers. Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics discussed include gamma ray line emission from the galactic plane, cosmic-ray elemental and isotopic compositions, the spectra, composition, and anisotropies of cosmic rays above 1000 GeV, and the analysis of galactic cosmic-ray propagation models. Particular attention is given to the characteristics of low-energy galactic cosmic-rays in interstellar space, cosmic ray sources and acceleration, and observations of secular variations and cosmogenic nuclei. Consideration is also given to nucleosynthesis of light and by-passed isotopes in the solar system matter, fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background, and the magnetic monopole pair and its observation in cosmic rays.

  20. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass for the International Space Station (ISS-CREAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howley, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass detector is designed to directly measure cosmic rays with energy between 1012- 1015 eV and composition from proton to iron thereby investigating cosmic ray origins, acceleration and propagation. CREAM has four subsystems. The silicon charge detector consists of four identical layers each containing 2688 1.5 x 1.6 cm2 pixels capable of measuring incident particle charge to about 0.2e. The calorimeter consists of a carbon target to induce interactions and alternating layers of tungsten plates and scintillating fibers used to measure incident particle energy, and provide triggering and particle tracking. The top and bottom counting detectors are scintillators with segmented read-out used for electron-proton separation. Finally, the boronated scintillator detector is a boron doped scintillator used to identify thermal neutrons emitted from interactions in the calorimeter, which can be used to separate electron and proton showers. Reconfiguring the payload for implementation on the ISS will provide an order of magnitude increase in exposure time and remove the atmospheric overburden as compared to previous balloon flights. In preparation for launch, the newly configured hardware must be tested, and remote monitoring and control capabilities must be established. The project overview, current status of testing, and preparations for launch in December 2014 will be presented.

  1. International Cosmic Ray Conference, 13th, University of Denver, Denver, Colo., August 17-30, 1973, Proceedings. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An X-ray observation of the Norma-Lupus region, charge and isotope measurements of heavy cosmic ray nuclei and their role in the determination of cosmic ray age, and the possibility of a contribution to primary cosmic ray spectra from pulsars are among the topics covered in papers concerned with some of the results of recent cosmic ray research. Other topics covered include multiple scattering of charged particles in magnetic fields, absorption of primary cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and phase lag effects on cosmic ray modulation during a recent solar cycle. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  2. Density, porosity, mineralogy, and internal structure of cosmic dust and alteration of its properties during high-velocity atmospheric entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, T.; Kallonen, A.; Suuronen, J.-P.; Rochette, P.; Hutzler, A.; Gattacceca, J.; Badjukov, D. D.; SkáLa, R.; BöHmová, V.; ČUda, J.

    2014-07-01

    X-ray microtomography (XMT), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and magnetic hysteresis measurements were used to determine micrometeorite internal structure, mineralogy, crystallography, and physical properties at μm resolution. The study samples include unmelted, partially melted (scoriaceous), and completely melted (cosmic spherules) micrometeorites. This variety not only allows comparison of the mineralogy and porosity of these three micrometeorite types but also reveals changes in meteoroid properties during atmospheric entry at various velocities. At low entry velocities, meteoroids do not melt and their physical properties do not change. The porosity of unmelted micrometeorites varies considerably (0-12%) with one friable example having porosity around 50%. At higher velocities, the range of meteoroid porosity narrows, but average porosity increases (to 16-27%) due to volatile evaporation and partial melting (scoriaceous phase). Metal distribution seems to be mostly unaffected at this stage. At even higher entry velocities, complete melting follows the scoriaceous phase. Complete melting is accompanied by metal oxidation and redistribution, loss of porosity (1 ± 1%), and narrowing of the bulk (3.2 ± 0.5 g cm-3) and grain (3.3 ± 0.5 g cm-3) density range. Melted cosmic spherules with a barred olivine structure show an oriented crystallographic structure, whereas other subtypes do not.

  3. Internal wave activity in the polar atmospheric regions during 2006 - 2009 revealed by COSMIC radio occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillovich, Ivan; Gubenko, Vladimir; Pavelyev, Alexander; Liou, Yuei-An

    The satellite mission Formosat-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) consists of six micro-satellites, and each of them has four GPS-antennas. It was launched in April 2006, orbiting around the Earth at approximately 800 km. The primary scientific goal of the mission is to demonstrate the value of near-real-time radio occultation (RO) observations in improving operational numerical weather predictions (NWP). The goal is readily shown by assimilating the measurements of atmospheric parameters into used NWP-models. These parameters include density, temperature, pressure and relative humidity fields in the atmosphere. An analysis of their geographic and seasonal distributions is necessary to the understanding of the energy and momentum transfer and the reaction of the polar atmosphere in response to global warming. This task is especially important as the Polar Regions are very sensitive to the change in global temperature and it may be a major cause of global sea level rising. In this work, a statistical analysis of the internal gravity wave (IGW) activity in polar atmospheric regions (latitudes more than 60º) using Formosat-3/COSMIC RO temperature data collected from July 2006 to March 2009 has been performed. Geographic and seasonal distributions of the IGW potential energy (wave activity indicator) in the altitude interval from 15 to 35 km have been determined and analyzed. The obtained results show that the wave activity in the polar atmosphere is strong in winter and spring. The potential energy of IGWs in spring is largest in Antarctic atmospheric region, while it is largest in winter in Arctic region. The wave potential energy increases with altitude up to 35 km in the atmosphere of both Earth’s hemispheres. In Antarctic region, internal waves with high potential energy occur in the atmosphere over the Antarctic Peninsula. In Arctic region, a high wave activity is mainly observed over North Atlantic Ocean (Iceland

  4. Visualization of the Internal Structure of Volcanoes with Cosmic-ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

    2016-09-01

    High-energy muons that are produced via the reaction between primary cosmic rays and the Earth's atmosphere can be used as a radiographic probe to explore the density distribution in gigantic objects including shallow parts of a volcano's interior. This new subterranean imaging technique is called muography. So far, muographic results have been acquired from eight volcanoes around the world as well as various targets including limestone caves, fault zones, industrial plants, and historical ruins. Taking all of the observational data together, it appears that muography can serve as a new and alternative high-resolution imaging technique, providing a fresh approach to Earth studies. This review describes observational studies in which muography has been used to explore the Earth's interior. Particular attention is paid to muography of magma convection and pathways in volcanoes around the world. The results are summarized here, and an outlook regarding anticipated future observations is briefly discussed.

  5. Selected Theoretical Studies Group contributions to the 14th International Cosmic Ray conference. [including studies on galactic molecular hydrogen, interstellar reddening, and on the origin of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The galactic distribution of H2 was studied through gamma radiation and through X-ray, optical, and infrared absorption measurements from SAS-2 and other sources. A comparison of the latitude distribution of gamma-ray intensity with reddening data shows reddening data to give the best estimate of interstellar gas in the solar vicinity. The distribution of galactic cosmic ray nucleons was determined and appears to be identical to the supernova remnant distribution. Interactions between ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray nuclei and intergalactic photon radiation fields were calculated, using the Monte Carlo method.

  6. Cosmic-Ray Studies with an Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS Detector) on the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Plyaskin, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    A brief description of the physics research program implemented with an alpha magnetic spectrometer (AMS detector) by a large-scale international collaboration on board the International Space Station is presented. The features of the experimental facility under construction are given, along with some results obtained during the test flight of the prototype spectrometer on board a space shuttle.

  7. International scientific cooperation during the 1930s. Bruno Rossi and the development of the status of cosmic rays into a branch of physics.

    PubMed

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-07-01

    During the 1920s and 1930s, Italian physicists established strong relationships with scientists from other European countries and the United States. The career of Bruno Rossi, a leading personality in the study of cosmic rays and an Italian pioneer of this field of research, provides a prominent example of this kind of international cooperation. Physics underwent major changes during these turbulent years, and the traditional internationalism of physics assumed a more institutionalized character. Against this backdrop, Rossi's early work was crucial in transforming the study of cosmic rays into a branch of modern physics. His friendly relationships with eminent scientists--notably Enrico Fermi, Walther Bothe, Werner Heisenberg, Hans Bethe, and Homi Bhabha--were instrumental both for the exchange of knowledge about experimental practices and theoretical discussions, and for attracting the attention of physicists such as Arthur Compton, Louis Leprince-Ringuet, Pierre Auger and Patrick Blackett to the problem of cosmic rays. Relying on material from different archives in Europe and the United States, this case study aims to provide a glimpse of the intersection between national and international dimensions during the 1930s, at a time when the study of cosmic rays was still very much in its infancy, strongly interlaced with nuclear physics, and full of uncertain, contradictory, and puzzling results. Nevertheless, as a source of high-energy particles it became a proving ground for testing the validity of the laws of quantum electrodynamics, and made a fundamental contribution to the origins of particle physics.

  8. Construction and testing of a Top Counting Detector and a Bottom Counting Detector for the Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, H. J.; Anderson, T.; Angelaszek, D.; Copley, M.; Coutu, S.; Han, J. H.; Huh, H. G.; Kah, D. H.; Kim, K. C.; Kwashnak, K.; Lee, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Lutz, L.; Malinin, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nutter, S.; Ofoha, O.; Jeon, H. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Park, H.; Park, J. M.; Patterson, P.; Seo, E. S.; Wu, J.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2015-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) mission is planned for launch in 2015 to the International Space Station (ISS) to research high-energy cosmic rays. Its aim is to understand the acceleration and propagation mechanism of high-energy cosmic rays by measuring their compositions. The Top Counting Detector and Bottom Counting Detector (T/BCD) were built to discriminate electrons from protons by using the difference in cascade shapes between electromagnetic and hadronic showers. The T/BCD provides a redundant instrument trigger in flight as well as a low-energy calibration trigger for ground testing. Each detector consists of a plastic scintillator and two-dimensional silicon photodiode array with readout electronics. The TCD is located between the carbon target and the calorimeter, and the BCD is located below the calorimeter. In this paper, we present the design, assembly, and performance of the T/BCD.

  9. Capture of cosmic dusts and exposure of organics on the International Space Station: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei

    Finding of a wide variety of organic compounds contained in extraterrestrial bodies such as carbonaceous chondrites and comets suggested that they were important materials for the first life on the Earth. Cosmic dusts (interplanetary dust particles; IDPs) were believed to have been important carriers of extraterrestrial organics, since IDPs could deliver organics to the primitive Earth more safely than asteroids and comets. Since most IDPs have been collected in such terrestrial environments as ocean sediments, Antarctic ices, and air in stratosphere, it is difficult to judge whether biooranics found in IDPs were extraterrestrial origins or not. Thus it would be of importance to collect IDPs out of the terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission by utilizing the Exposed Facility of Japan Experimental Module (JEM/EF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two types of experiments will be done in the Tanpopo Mission: Capture experiments and exposure experiments. In order to collect cosmic dusts (including IDPs) on the ISS, we are going to use extra-low density aerogel, since both cosmic dusts and ISS are moving at 8 km s-1 or over. We have developed novel aerogel whose density is 0.01 g cm-3. After the return of the aerogel blocks after 1 to a few years’ stay on JEM/EF, organic compounds in the captured dusts will be characterized by a wide variety of analytical techniques including FT-IR, XANES, and MS. Amino acid enantiomers will be determined after HF digestion and acid hydrolysis. A number of amino acids were detected in water extract of carbonaceous chondrites. It is controversial whether meteorites contain free amino acids or amino acid precursors. When dusts are formed from meteorites or comets in interplanetary space, they are exposed to high-energy particles and photons. In order to evaluate stability and possible alteration of amino acid-related compounds, we chose amino acids (glycine and isovaline) and hydantoins (precursors of amino

  10. Toward unveiling internal properties of Hii regions and their connections at the cosmic noon era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakawa, Rhythm; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hayashi, Masao; Tadaki, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Tomoko L.; Koyama, Yusei; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamamoto, Moegi

    The redshift interval z = 2-3 is known as the cosmic noon that is the most active era of star formation across the Universe (Hopkins & Beacom 2006). In the past decade, many authors have investigated global properties of star-forming (SF) galaxies in this turbulent era, such as gas fractions and gaseous metallicities (e.g. Erb et al. 2006). With those achievements, we are going on to the next stage to understand more details i.e. those physical parameters in star-forming regions. Recent advent of near-infrared instruments typified by MOSFIRE on the Keck telescope, enable us with identifying the physical parameters of Hii regions in `typical' SF galaxies individually (Steidel et al. 2014). Recent highlights suggest higher electron densities, higher ionization parameters, and harder UV radiation fields may be common. In order to know how galaxy evolution physically correlates with the natures of their star-forming regions, we have explored relationships between the electron density (ne ) of ionized gas from the oxygen line ratio and other physical properties, based on the deep spectra of Hα emitters at z = 2.5 by the MOSFIRE. MOSFIRE for the first time provides ne of the galaxies at high-z with a high level of confidence. The result shows the specific star formation rate (sSFR) and the SFR surface density (ΣSFR) are correlated with ne (Shimakawa et al. 2015). The ne -ΣSFR relation could be linked to the star formation law in Hii regions if we assume that hydrogen in Hii regions is fully-ionized. Otherwise, more active star formation per unit area (higher ΣSFRs), may cause higher ionization states. However, we need some specific concerns that obtained physical parameters should depend on the scale dependence, since typical size of Hii region is only <100 pc despite that we study physical states of entire galaxies. Thus we obtain surface-brightness-weighted and ensemble averaged line fluxes for the entire galaxy or the part that falls into the slit width (a few kpc

  11. STARLIFE-An International Campaign to Study the Role of Galactic Cosmic Radiation in Astrobiological Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Ralf; Raguse, Marina; Leuko, Stefan; Berger, Thomas; Hellweg, Christine Elisabeth; Fujimori, Akira; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Horneck, Gerda

    2017-02-01

    In-depth knowledge regarding the biological effects of the radiation field in space is required for assessing the radiation risks in space. To obtain this knowledge, a set of different astrobiological model systems has been studied within the STARLIFE radiation campaign during six irradiation campaigns (2013-2015). The STARLIFE group is an international consortium with the aim to investigate the responses of different astrobiological model systems to the different types of ionizing radiation (X-rays, γ rays, heavy ions) representing major parts of the galactic cosmic radiation spectrum. Low- and high-energy charged particle radiation experiments have been conducted at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan. X-rays or γ rays were used as reference radiation at the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Cologne, Germany) or Beta-Gamma-Service GmbH (BGS, Wiehl, Germany) to derive the biological efficiency of different radiation qualities. All samples were exposed under identical conditions to the same dose and qualities of ionizing radiation (i) allowing a direct comparison between the tested specimens and (ii) providing information on the impact of the space radiation environment on currently used astrobiological model organisms. Key Words: Space radiation environment-Sparsely ionizing radiation-Densely ionizing radiation-Heavy ions-Gamma radiation-Astrobiological model systems. Astrobiology 17, 101-109.

  12. Radiological risk assessment of cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes (a trip from Houston Intercontinental Airport to Lagos International Airport).

    PubMed

    Enyinna, Paschal Ikenna

    2016-01-01

    Radiological risk parameters associated with aircrew members traveling from Houston Intercontinental Airport to Lagos International Airport have been computed using computer software called EPCARD (version 3.2). The mean annual effective dose of radiation was computed to be 2.94 mSv/year. This result is above the standard permissible limit of 1 mSv/year set for the public and pregnant aircrew members but below the limit set for occupationally exposed workers. The Risk of cancer mortality and excess career time cancer risk computed ranged from 3.5 × 10(-5) to 24.5 × 10(-5) (with average of 14.7 × 10(-5)) and 7 × 10(-4) to 49 × 10(-4) (with average of 29.4 × 10(-4)). Passengers and aircrew members should be aware of the extra cosmic radiation doses taken in during flights. All aircraft operators should monitor radiation doses incurred during aviation trips.

  13. Radiological risk assessment of cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes (a trip from Houston Intercontinental Airport to Lagos International Airport)

    PubMed Central

    Enyinna, Paschal Ikenna

    2016-01-01

    Radiological risk parameters associated with aircrew members traveling from Houston Intercontinental Airport to Lagos International Airport have been computed using computer software called EPCARD (version 3.2). The mean annual effective dose of radiation was computed to be 2.94 mSv/year. This result is above the standard permissible limit of 1 mSv/year set for the public and pregnant aircrew members but below the limit set for occupationally exposed workers. The Risk of cancer mortality and excess career time cancer risk computed ranged from 3.5 × 10−5 to 24.5 × 10−5 (with average of 14.7 × 10−5) and 7 × 10−4 to 49 × 10−4 (with average of 29.4 × 10−4). Passengers and aircrew members should be aware of the extra cosmic radiation doses taken in during flights. All aircraft operators should monitor radiation doses incurred during aviation trips. PMID:27651568

  14. Conference report on the 28th annual meeting of the European Musculo-Skeletal Oncology Society, 29 April–1 May 2015, Athens

    PubMed Central

    Leithner, Andreas; Andreou, Dimosthenis; Grimer, Robert; Ferrari, Stefano; Gosheger, Georg; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Bielack, Stefan S

    2015-01-01

    The 28th Annual Meeting of the European Musculo-Skeletal Oncology Society was organised in Athens by the local host Professor Papagelopoulos and his team. The main objective of the meeting was to focus on recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas. The interdisciplinary nature of the meeting was of great value—surgeons, oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and basic researchers discussed new strategies in the war on sarcoma. This report will highlight the major findings of this successful meeting. PMID:26284114

  15. Conference report on the 28th annual meeting of the European Musculo-Skeletal Oncology Society, 29 April-1 May 2015, Athens.

    PubMed

    Leithner, Andreas; Andreou, Dimosthenis; Grimer, Robert; Ferrari, Stefano; Gosheger, Georg; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Bielack, Stefan S

    2015-01-01

    The 28th Annual Meeting of the European Musculo-Skeletal Oncology Society was organised in Athens by the local host Professor Papagelopoulos and his team. The main objective of the meeting was to focus on recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas. The interdisciplinary nature of the meeting was of great value-surgeons, oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and basic researchers discussed new strategies in the war on sarcoma. This report will highlight the major findings of this successful meeting.

  16. Precision measurement of the proton and helium flux in primary cosmic rays with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, M.

    2016-11-01

    The precise measurements of the proton and helium flux in primary cosmic rays based on on data collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer during the first 30 months of operation (May 19, 2012 to November 26, 2013) onboard the International Space Station are presented. Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the proton and helium flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays in our galaxy. The high statistics of the measurements (300 mio. protons, 50 mio. helium) allow to study the detailed variations with rigidity of the fluxes spectral index. The spectral index of both the proton and the helium flux progressively hardens at rigidities larger than 100 GV. The rigidity dependence of the helium flux spectral index is similar to that of the proton spectral index though the magnitudes are different. Remarkably, the spectral index of the proton to helium flux ratio increases with rigidity up to 45 GV and then becomes constant; the flux ratio above 45 GV is well described by a single power law.

  17. Cosmic superstrings.

    PubMed

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2008-08-28

    Cosmic superstrings are expected to be formed at the end of brane inflation, within the context of brane-world cosmological models inspired from string theory. By studying the properties of cosmic superstring networks and comparing their phenomenological consequences against observational data, we aim to pin down the successful and natural inflationary model and get an insight into the stringy description of our Universe.

  18. Web life: Cosmic Diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    What is it? Cosmic Diary brings together a smorgasbord of blogging astronomers from around the world, with more than 50 contributors commenting on new discoveries and long-standing questions in astronomy - as well as offering insights into their ordinary working lives and outside interests. The site is sponsored by the International Astronomical Union and UNESCO, and it is one of 11 "cornerstone projects" of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009).

  19. The International year of light 2015 and the “Cosmic light” message: awareness & dissemination in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    By proclaiming the IYL2015, the United Nations recognizes the importance of light and light based technology in the lives of the citizens of the world and for the development of global society on many levels. Light and application of light science and technology are vital for existing and future advances in many scientific areas (from medicine to information & communication technology) and culture. Light is a key element in Astronomy: as astronomers, it is what we study and makes our science possible, but it is also what threatens our observations when it is set-off from the ground (light pollution). This year represents a magnificent and unique opportunity for the global Astronomical community to disseminate these messages and raise the awareness of the importance and preservation of dark skies for heritage and the natural environment. Global and National initiatives are taking place during the year of 2015 (and beyond) and in my talk I will give an overview of what, as IYL National Committee and Gold Sponsor of the year, we are carrying out in the UK. I will explain how we developed our National Programme and I will discuss how we can build-up a long-lasting “cosmic light” communication strategy exploiting the lesson learnt while carrying out our IYL UK year plan.

  20. Relations of plasma polyunsaturated Fatty acids with blood pressures during the 26th and 28th week of gestation in women of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-03-01

    Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension.We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids.Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [-0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, -0.89 to -0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [-0.52 (CI -0.92 to -0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs-blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07).Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension in Asian women

  1. Relations of Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids With Blood Pressures During the 26th and 28th Week of Gestation in Women of Chinese, Malay, and Indian Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension. We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [−0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, −0.89 to −0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [−0.52 (CI −0.92 to −0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs–blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07). Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy

  2. Review of the novelties presented at the 28th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) (III).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Óscar; Arnal-García, Carmen; Arroyo-González, Rafael; Brieva, Lluís; Calles-Hernández, M Carmen; Casanova-Estruch, Bonaventura; Comabella, Manuel; de las Heras, Virginia; García-Merino, Juan A; Hernández-Pérez, Miguel A; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Matas, Elisabet; Meca-Lallana, José E; Mendibe-Bilbao, María del Mar; Muñoz-García, Delicias; Olascoaga, Javier; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Prieto, José M; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alfredo; Saiz, Albert; Téllez, Nieves; Villar, Luisa M; Tintoré, Mar

    2013-10-01

    The most significant data presented at the 28th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), held in France in October 2012, have been summarised in the fifth edition of the Post-ECTRIMS Experts Meeting, held in Madrid in October 2012. This led to the drafting of this review, which has been published in three parts. This third part of the Post-ECTRIMS review presents the findings from the latest studies conducted with disease-modifying treatments, more specifically with glatiramer acetate, laquinimod, ponesimod, BG-12, teriflunomide, daclizumab, natalizumab and secukinumab (AIN457). Likewise, we also address the reasons that justify the search for innovative treatments for multiple sclerosis, with antigen-specific therapy, cell therapy and therapy aimed at promoting remyelination being highlighted among other future therapeutic strategies. Access to new pharmacological agents and the complexity of the therapy of multiple sclerosis in the future will require new design strategies and directions in clinical trials, including the use of surrogate markers, new statistical applications, superiority, inferiority or equivalence clinical trials and adaptable designs.

  3. Review of the novelties presented at the 28th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) (II).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, O; Arnal-Garcia, C; Arroyo-Gonzalez, R; Brieva, Ll; Calles-Hernandez, M C; Casanova-Estruch, B; Comabella, M; de Las Heras, V; Garcia-Merino, J A; Hernandez-Perez, M A; Izquierdo, G; Matas, E; Meca-Lallana, J E; Mendibe-Bilbao, M M; Munoz-Garcia, D; Olascoaga, J; Oreja-Guevara, C; Prieto, J M; Ramio-Torrenta, Ll; Rodriguez-Antiguedad, A; Saiz, A; Tellez, N; Villar, L M; Tintore, M; Grupo Post-Ectrims, Grupo Post-Ectrims

    2013-09-16

    The most relevant data presented at the 28th edition of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) held in October 2012 in France have been summarised in the fifth edition of the Post-ECTRIMS Expert Meeting held in Madrid in October 2012. This review is the result of the meeting, which is being published in three parts. This second part of the Post-ECTRIMS review discusses the biology of recovery and remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as the different repair and endogenous and exogenous remyelination strategies currently being evaluated based on the fact that resident microglia and oligodendroglial progenitor cells have been implicated in the remyelination process. This review also discusses the current state and future use of biomarkers in MS and proposes as markers of neurodegeneration the following: T2 lesion volume and brain atrophy using MRI and the loss of the ganglion cell layer as assessed by optical coherence tomography. A greater future utility for double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences is proposed to correlate cognitive impairment with MS impairment, given its higher diagnostic yield in locating and defining cortical lesions. The availability of novel biomarkers in the future requires strict validation. In this context, this paper proposes possible areas of action to improve the current situation and also presents the latest research results in identifying potential candidates with useful diagnostic characteristics, prognostic characteristics, treatment responses, and safety procedures.

  4. Review of the novelties presented at the 28th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) (I).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Óscar; Arnal-García, Carmen; Arroyo-González, Rafael; Brieva, Lluís; Calles-Hernández, M Carmen; Casanova-Estruch, Bonaventura; Comabella, Manuel; de Las Heras, Virginia; García-Merino, Juan A; Hernández-Pérez, Miguel A; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Matas, Elisabet; Meca-Lallana, José E; Mendibe-Bilbao, María del Mar; Muñoz-García, Delicias; Olascoaga, Javier; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Prieto, José M; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alfredo; Saiz, Albert; Téllez, Nieves; Villar, Luisa M; Tintoré, Mar

    2013-09-01

    The most relevant data presented at the 28th edition of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), held in October 2012 in France, have been summarized in the fifth edition of the Post-ECTRIMS Expert Meeting held in Madrid in October 2012. The present review summarizes the views and results of the meeting and is being published in three parts. This first part of the Post-ECTRIMS review addresses the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS), which has increased at the global level, largely due to the increased incidence in women because the risk of developing the disease is increased in females, with minimal concurrent effect on the progression of MS. Sexual dimorphism is evident in MS, and all evidence points to an interaction between hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors. The paediatric population represents an ideal group to study susceptibility factors to the disease, which is why collaborative studies designed to increase the patient samples are being considered, given its low prevalence. In this review, inflammatory and neurodegenerative phenomena involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and that have a cause-and-effect or shared relationship with the disease are being discussed. Current hypotheses suggest a phenomenon of compartmentalization, presumably inaccessible to current immunomodulatory therapy. Among the possible mechanisms involved in these processes of inflammation and demyelination, the role of Th17 cells, mitochondrial dysfunction, early disruption of astrocytic processes, and chronic hypoxia are discussed.

  5. Cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Cosmic strings are linear topological defects which are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characterisitc microwave background anisotropy. It was recently discovered that details of cosmic string evolution are very differnt from the so-called standard model that was assumed in most of the string-induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain.

  6. Records of the General Conference (28th, Paris, France, October 25 to November 16, 1995). Volume 1: Resolutions [and] Volume 2: Reports--Programme Commissions, Administrative Commission, Legal Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference. Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Section for Technical and Vocational Education.

    The records of the 28th UNESCO general conference are divided into three parts. The first part contains the resolutions adopted by the UNESCO General Conference and the list of officers of the General Conference and of the Commissions and Committees. The second part contains the reports of the five UNESCO Program Commissions, the Administrative…

  7. Salaries and Wages for Professional and Support Personnel in Public Schools, 2000-2001: A Reference Tool for Education Leaders. National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools. 28th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alicia D.; Protheroe, Nancy; Parks, Michael C.

    This is the 28th edition of salary and wage studies conducted annually by the Educational Research Service. It collects salary data from a national panel sample of school systems for 22 professional and 10 support positions. Consistency in study design and procedures through the years has also made this the definitive study of salary changes in…

  8. Cosmic Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess's historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky--later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  9. Cosmic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The evidence that active galactic nuclei produce collimated plasma jets is summarised. The strongest radio galaxies are probably energised by relativistic plasma jets generated by spinning black holes interacting with magnetic fields attached to infalling matter. Such objects can produce e(+)-e(-) plasma, and may be relevant to the acceleration of the highest-energy cosmic ray primaries. Small-scale counterparts of the jet phenomenon within our own galaxy are briefly reviewed.

  10. Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1990-01-01

    The role of extraterrestrial impacts in shaping the earth's history is discussed, arguing that cosmic impacts represent just one example of a general shift in thinking that has made the idea of catastrophes respectable in science. The origins of this view are presented and current catastrophic theory is discussed in the context of modern debate on the geological formation of the earth. Various conflicting theories are reviewed and prominent participants in the ongoing scientific controversy concerning catastrophism are introduced.

  11. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  12. Cosmic Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2000-07-01

    In this tour de force of the ultimate and extreme in astrophysics, renowned astrophysicist and author J. Craig Wheeler takes us on a breathtaking journey to supernovae, black holes, gamma-ray bursts and adventures in hyperspace. This is no far-fetched science fiction tale, but an enthusiastic exploration of ideas at the cutting edge of current astrophysics. Wheeler follows the tortuous life of a star from birth to evolution and death, and goes on to consider the complete collapse of a star into a black hole, worm-hole time machines, the possible birth of baby bubble universes, and the prospect of a revolutionary view of space and time in a ten-dimensional string theory. Along the way he offers evidence that suggests the Universe is accelerating and describes recent developments in understanding gamma-ray bursts--perhaps the most catastrophic cosmic events of all. With the use of lucid analogies, simple language and crystal-clear cartoons, Cosmic Catastrophes makes accessible some of the most exciting and mind-bending objects and ideas in the Universe. J. Craig Wheeler is currently Samuel T. and Fern Yanagisawa Regents Professor of Astronomy at the University of Texas at Austin and Vice President of the American Astronomical Society as of 1999.

  13. Cosmic strings and superconducting cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund

    1988-01-01

    The possible consequences of forming cosmic strings and superconducting cosmic strings in the early universe are discussed. Lecture 1 describes the group theoretic reasons for and the field theoretic reasons why cosmic strings can form in spontaneously broken gauge theories. Lecture 2 discusses the accretion of matter onto string loops, emphasizing the scenario with a cold dark matter dominated universe. In lecture 3 superconducting cosmic strings are discussed, as is a mechanism which leads to the formation of structure from such strings.

  14. First Result from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station: Precision Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5-350 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M.; Alberti, G.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Anderhub, H.; Arruda, L.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Baret, B.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Basili, A.; Batalha, L.; Bates, J.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Biland, A.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bolmont, J.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Boudoul, G.; Bourquin, M.; Brun, P.; Buénerd, M.; Burger, J.; Burger, W.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, C. R.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chernoplyiokov, N.; Chikanian, A.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Commichau, V.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Costado Dios, M. T.; Coste, B.; Crespo, D.; Cui, Z.; Dai, M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirkoz, B.; Dennett, P.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Diao, X. H.; Diago, A.; Djambazov, L.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Du, W. J.; Dubois, J. M.; Duperay, R.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; van Es, J.; Esser, H.; Falvard, A.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Flood, K.; Foglio, R.; Fohey, M.; Fopp, S.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallilee, M.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García, J.; García-López, R.; García-Tabares, L.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gentile, S.; Gervasi, M.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Girard, L.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy-Henningsen, C.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Grechko, A.; Gross, A.; Guerri, I.; de la Guía, C.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Hauler, F.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Heilig, J.; Hermel, R.; Hofer, H.; Huang, Z. C.; Hungerford, W.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Jongmanns, M.; Journet, L.; Jungermann, L.; Karpinski, W.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Koulemzine, A.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lauritzen, C.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, M. W.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; León Vargas, H.; Lepareur, V.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Z. H.; Lipari, P.; Lin, C. H.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, Y. S.; Lucidi, S.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luo, J. Z.; Lustermann, W.; Lv, S.; Madsen, J.; Majka, R.; Malinin, A.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masciocchi, F.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; McInturff, A.; McIntyre, P.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Menichelli, M.; Mereu, I.; Millinger, M.; Mo, D. C.; Molina, M.; Mott, P.; Mujunen, A.; Natale, S.; Nemeth, P.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oh, S.; Oliva, A.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Park, W. H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Pauw, A.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Perrin, E.; Pessina, G.; Pierschel, G.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pochon, J.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Porter, S.; Pouxe, J.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. N.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ren, Z. L.; Ricol, J. S.; Riihonen, E.; Rodríguez, I.; Roeser, U.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rossi, L.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sabellek, A.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Santos, B.; Saouter, P.; Sarchioni, M.; Schael, S.; Schinzel, D.; Schmanau, M.; Schwering, G.; Schulz von Dratzig, A.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Siedling, R.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Steuer, M.; Stiff, K.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Sun, X. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tassan-Viol, J.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Titus, C.; Tomassetti, N.; Toral, F.; Torsti, J.; Tsai, J. R.; Tutt, J. C.; Ulbricht, J.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vargas Trevino, M.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Vergain, M.; Verlaat, B.; Vescovi, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viertel, G.; Volpini, G.; Wang, D.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Wallraff, W.; Weng, Z. L.; Willenbrock, M.; Wlochal, M.; Wu, H.; Wu, K. Y.; Wu, Z. S.; Xiao, W. J.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, M. M.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.

    2013-04-01

    A precision measurement by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays in the energy range from 0.5 to 350 GeV based on 6.8×106 positron and electron events is presented. The very accurate data show that the positron fraction is steadily increasing from 10 to ˜250GeV, but, from 20 to 250 GeV, the slope decreases by an order of magnitude. The positron fraction spectrum shows no fine structure, and the positron to electron ratio shows no observable anisotropy. Together, these features show the existence of new physical phenomena.

  15. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of

  16. Reminiscences of cosmic ray research in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Peraza, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic ray research in Mexico dates from the early 1930s with the work of the pioneering physicist, Manuel Sandoval Vallarta and his students from Mexico. Several experiments of international significance were carried out during that period in Mexico: they dealt with the geomagnetic latitude effect, the north-south and west-east asymmetry of cosmic ray intensity, and the sign of the charge of cosmic rays. The international cosmic ray community has met twice in Mexico for the International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC): the fourth was held in Guanajuato in 1955, and the 30th took place in Mérida, in 2007. In addition, an international meeting on the Pierre Auger Collaboration was held in Morelia in 1999, and the International Workshop on Observing UHE Cosmic Rays took place in Metepec in 2000. A wide range of research topics has been developed, from low-energy Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) to the UHE. Instrumentation has evolved since the early 1950s, from a Simpson type neutron monitor installed in Mexico City (2300 m asl) to a solar neutron telescope and an EAS Cherenkov array, (within the framework of the Auger International Collaboration), both at present operating on Mt. Sierra La Negra in the state of Puebla (4580 m asl). Research collaboration has been undertaken with many countries; in particular, the long-term collaboration with Russian scientists has been very fruitful.

  17. Cosmic plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to experimental and theoretical approaches to plasma physics, plasma phenomena in laboratory and space, field and particle aspects of plasmas, the present state of the classical theory, boundary conditions and circuit dependence, and cosmology. Electric currents in space plasmas are considered, taking into account dualism in physics, particle-related phenomena in plasma physics, magnetic field lines, filaments, local plasma properties and the circuit, electric double layers, field-aligned currents as 'cables', an expanding circuit, different types of plasma regions, the cellular structure of space, and the fine structure of active plasma regions. Other topics discussed are related to circuits, the theory of cosmic plasmas, the origin of the solar system, the coexistence of matter and antimatter, annihilation as a source of energy, the Hubble expansion in a Euclidean space, and a model for the evolution of the Metagalaxy.

  18. Cosmic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    An image based on data taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope reveals a triplet of galaxies intertwined in a cosmic dance. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The three galaxies, catalogued as NGC 7173 (top), 7174 (bottom right) and 7176 (bottom left), are located 106 million light-years away towards the constellation of Piscis Austrinus (the 'Southern Fish'). NGC 7173 and 7176 are elliptical galaxies, while NGC 7174 is a spiral galaxy with quite disturbed dust lanes and a long, twisted tail. This seems to indicate that the two bottom galaxies - whose combined shape bears some resemblance to that of a sleeping baby - are currently interacting, with NGC 7176 providing fresh material to NGC 7174. Matter present in great quantity around the triplet's members also points to the fact that NGC 7176 and NGC 7173 have interacted in the past. Astronomers have suggested that the three galaxies will finally merge into a giant 'island universe', tens to hundreds of times as massive as our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02b/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The triplet is part of a so-called 'Compact Group', as compiled by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the early 1980s. The group, which is the 90th entry in the catalogue and is therefore known as HCG 90, actually contains four major members. One of them - NGC 7192 - lies above the trio, outside of this image, and is another peculiar spiral galaxy. Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of typically four to ten galaxies in close proximity to one another. Another striking example is Robert's Quartet. Compact groups are excellent laboratories for the study of galaxy interactions and their effects, in particular the formation of stars. As the striking image reveals, there are many other galaxies in the field. Some are distant ones, while others seem to be part of the family. Studies made with other telescopes have indeed revealed that the HCG 90 group contains 16 members

  19. First result from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station: precision measurement of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays of 0.5-350 GeV.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Alberti, G; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Anderhub, H; Arruda, L; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Baret, B; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Basili, A; Batalha, L; Bates, J; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, R; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Biland, A; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bolmont, J; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Boudoul, G; Bourquin, M; Brun, P; Buénerd, M; Burger, J; Burger, W; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, C R; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chernoplyiokov, N; Chikanian, A; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Commichau, V; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Costado Dios, M T; Coste, B; Crespo, D; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirkoz, B; Dennett, P; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Diao, X H; Diago, A; Djambazov, L; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Dubois, J M; Duperay, R; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; van Es, J; Esser, H; Falvard, A; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Flood, K; Foglio, R; Fohey, M; Fopp, S; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Y; Gallilee, M; Gallin-Martel, L; Gallucci, G; García, B; García, J; García-López, R; García-Tabares, L; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gentile, S; Gervasi, M; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Girard, L; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy-Henningsen, C; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Grechko, A; Gross, A; Guerri, I; de la Guía, C; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Hauler, F; He, Z H; Heil, M; Heilig, J; Hermel, R; Hofer, H; Huang, Z C; Hungerford, W; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jacholkowska, A; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Jongmanns, M; Journet, L; Jungermann, L; Karpinski, W; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Koulemzine, A; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lauritzen, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, M W; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; León Vargas, H; Lepareur, V; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Z H; Lipari, P; Lin, C H; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, Y S; Lucidi, S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luo, J Z; Lustermann, W; Lv, S; Madsen, J; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masciocchi, F; Masi, N; Maurin, D; McInturff, A; McIntyre, P; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Menichelli, M; Mereu, I; Millinger, M; Mo, D C; Molina, M; Mott, P; Mujunen, A; Natale, S; Nemeth, P; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oh, S; Oliva, A; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Park, W H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, F; Pauw, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Perrin, E; Pessina, G; Pierschel, G; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pochon, J; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Porter, S; Pouxe, J; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ren, Z L; Ricol, J S; Riihonen, E; Rodríguez, I; Roeser, U; Rosier-Lees, S; Rossi, L; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sabellek, A; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Santos, B; Saouter, P; Sarchioni, M; Schael, S; Schinzel, D; Schmanau, M; Schwering, G; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shi, J Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Siedling, R; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Steuer, M; Stiff, K; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Sun, X H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tassan-Viol, J; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Titus, C; Tomassetti, N; Toral, F; Torsti, J; Tsai, J R; Tutt, J C; Ulbricht, J; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vargas Trevino, M; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Vergain, M; Verlaat, B; Vescovi, C; Vialle, J P; Viertel, G; Volpini, G; Wang, D; Wang, N H; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Wallraff, W; Weng, Z L; Willenbrock, M; Wlochal, M; Wu, H; Wu, K Y; Wu, Z S; Xiao, W J; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J G; Zhang, Z; Zhang, M M; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2013-04-05

    A precision measurement by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays in the energy range from 0.5 to 350 GeV based on 6.8 × 10(6) positron and electron events is presented. The very accurate data show that the positron fraction is steadily increasing from 10 to ∼ 250  GeV, but, from 20 to 250 GeV, the slope decreases by an order of magnitude. The positron fraction spectrum shows no fine structure, and the positron to electron ratio shows no observable anisotropy. Together, these features show the existence of new physical phenomena.

  20. Informal Conference on the Chemistry of Energetic Azides, Isocyanates, and Related Species Held in Denver, Colorado on 27-28th April 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-16

    spectra of C35 and C5 in a carbon star. References 1. C.R. Brazier and P.F. Bernath, Laser Spectroscopy of Calcium and Strontium Monoazide Free Radicals...collisional processes, namely (1) the NH product from the H + N3 chemical reaction, (2) the N2 photofragment from the uv photodissociation of HN 3...internal state distribution of N2(XlZg+) products from the uv photodissociation of HN3 by resonant-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection

  1. Cosmic electrons. [literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1974-01-01

    The published literature on cosmic electrons is summarized. The primary and secondary sources of cosmic electrons are discussed, and the propagation of the electrons in the interstellar medium is studied with respect to energy loss mechanisms, age distributions, and spectral modifications during flight. Various portions of the electron and positron spectra are then considered in relation to problems of astrophysics. New information is presented on such topics as the origin of low-energy positrons, the decay kinematics of the pi-mu-e process, the application of age distributions for nuclear cosmic rays to cosmic electrons, and the possibility of nonidentical sources for cosmic electrons and protons.

  2. Unveiling the Origin of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinto, Angela V.

    2015-04-01

    The origin of cosmic rays, relativistic particles that range from below GeVs to hundreds of EeVs, is a century old mystery. Extremely energetic phenomena occurring over a wide range of scales, from the Solar System to distant galaxies, are needed to explain the non-thermal particle spectrum that covers over 12 orders of magnitude. Space Missions are the most effective platforms to study the origin and history of these cosmic particles. Current missions probe particle acceleration and propagation in the Solar System and in our Galaxy. This year ISS-CREAM and CALET join AMS in establishing the International Space Station as the most active site for studying the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. These missions will study astrophysical cosmic ray accelerators as well as other possible sources of energetic particles such as dark matter annihilation or decay. In the future, the ISS may also be the site for studying extremely high-energy extragalactic cosmic rays with JEM-EUSO. We review recent results in the quest for unveiling the sources of energetic particles with balloons and space payloads and report on activities of the Cosmic ray Science Interest Group (CosmicSIG) under the Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG).

  3. Unleash the Power! Knowledge - Technology - Diversity: Papers Presented at the Third International Forum on Research in School Librarianship, Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (IASL) (28th, Birmingham, Alabama, November 10-14, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lighthall, Lynne, Ed.; Howe, Eleanor, Ed.

    Papers presented at this forum were grouped under the following four broad themes: "Unleash the Power!,""Powerful Roles,""Powerful Partnerships," and "Powerful Technologies." Also included is the paper that won the Takeshi Murofushi Research Award, "Implementing Flexible Scheduling in Elementary…

  4. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  5. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  6. Cosmic ray antiprotons from nearby cosmic accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Jagdish C.; Gupta, Nayantara

    2015-05-01

    The antiproton flux measured by PAMELA experiment might have originated from Galactic sources of cosmic rays. These antiprotons are expected to be produced in the interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei with cold protons. Gamma rays are also produced in similar interactions inside some of the cosmic accelerators. We consider a few nearby supernova remnants observed by Fermi LAT. Many of them are associated with molecular clouds. Gamma rays have been detected from these sources which most likely originate in decay of neutral pions produced in hadronic interactions. The observed gamma ray fluxes from these SNRs are used to find out their contributions to the observed diffuse cosmic ray antiproton flux near the earth.

  7. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array: Joint Contribution to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M.G.; et al.

    2015-11-06

    We have conducted three searches for correlations between ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected by the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory, and high-energy neutrino candidate events from IceCube. Two cross-correlation analyses with UHECRs are done: one with 39 cascades from the IceCube `high-energy starting events' sample and the other with 16 high-energy `track events'. The angular separation between the arrival directions of neutrinos and UHECRs is scanned over. The same events are also used in a separate search using a maximum likelihood approach, after the neutrino arrival directions are stacked. To estimate the significance we assume UHECR magnetic deflections to be inversely proportional to their energy, with values $3^\\circ$, $6^\\circ$ and $9^\\circ$ at 100 EeV to allow for the uncertainties on the magnetic field strength and UHECR charge. A similar analysis is performed on stacked UHECR arrival directions and the IceCube sample of through-going muon track events which were optimized for neutrino point-source searches.

  8. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  9. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  10. Spaced-based Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    The bulk of cosmic ray data has been obtained with great success by balloon-borne instruments, particularly with NASA's long duration flights over Antarctica. More recently, PAMELA on a Russian Satellite and AMS-02 on the International Space Station (ISS) started providing exciting measurements of particles and anti-particles with unprecedented precision upto TeV energies. In order to address open questions in cosmic ray astrophysics, future missions require spaceflight exposures for rare species, such as isotopes, ultra-heavy elements, and high (the ``knee'' and above) energies. Isotopic composition measurements up to about 10 GeV/nucleon that are critical for understanding interstellar propagation and origin of the elements are still to be accomplished. The cosmic ray composition in the knee (PeV) region holds a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays. Just last year, the JAXA-led CALET ISS mission, and the DAMPE Chinese Satellite were launched. NASA's ISS-CREAM completed its final verification at GSFC, and was delivered to KSC to await launch on SpaceX. In addition, a EUSO-like mission for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and an HNX-like mission for ultraheavy nuclei could accomplish a vision for a cosmic ray observatory in space. Strong support of NASA's Explorer Program category of payloads would be needed for completion of these missions over the next decade.

  11. Maria Montessori's Cosmic Vision, Cosmic Plan, and Cosmic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grazzini, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    This classic position of the breadth of Cosmic Education begins with a way of seeing the human's interaction with the world, continues on to the grandeur in scale of time and space of that vision, then brings the interdependency of life where each growing human becomes a participating adult. Mr. Grazzini confronts the laws of human nature in…

  12. Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2014-08-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was flown for ~161 days in six flights over Antarctica. High energy cosmic-ray data were collected over a wide energy range from ~ 10^10 to > 10^14 eV at an average altitude of ~38.5 km with ~3.9 g/cm2 atmospheric overburden. Cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Building on success of the balloon flights, the payload is being reconfigured for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). This ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with the CREAM calorimeter for energy measurements, and four finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector layers for precise charge measurements. In addition, the Top and Bottom Counting Detectors (TCD and BCD) and Boronated Scintillator Detector (BSD) have been newly developed. The TCD and BCD are scintillator based segmented detectors to separate electrons from nuclei using the shower profile differences, while BSD distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is possible by utilizing the ISS to reach the highest energies practical with direct measurements. The project status including results from on-going analysis of existing data and future plans will be discussed.

  13. Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 sessions of the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Salt Lake City, which were devoted to issues of origin/composition, acceleration and propagation.

  14. Cosmic ray isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    The isotopic composition of cosmic rays is studied in order to develop the relationship between cosmic rays and stellar processes. Cross section and model calculations are reported on isotopes of H, He, Be, Al and Fe. Satellite instrument measuring techniques separate only the isotopes of the lighter elements.

  15. Interactions of cosmic superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    We develop methods by which cosmic superstring interactions can be studied in detail. These include the reconnection probability and emission of radiation such as gravitons or small string loops. Loop corrections to these are discussed, as well as relationships to (p; q)-strings. These tools should allow a phenomenological study of string models in anticipation of upcoming experiments sensitive to cosmic string radiation.

  16. Deepening Cosmic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    This article is a special blend of research, theory, and practice, with clear insight into the origins of Cosmic Education and cosmic task, while recalling memories of student explorations in botany, in particular, episodes from Mr. Leonard's teaching. Mr. Leonard speaks of a storytelling curriculum that eloquently puts perspective into dimensions…

  17. Our Cosmic Insignificance

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2014-01-01

    The universe that surrounds us is vast, and we are so very small. When we reflect on the vastness of the universe, our humdrum cosmic location, and the inevitable future demise of humanity, our lives can seem utterly insignificant. Many philosophers assume that such worries about our significance reflect a banal metaethical confusion. They dismiss the very idea of cosmic significance. This, I argue, is a mistake. Worries about cosmic insignificance do not express metaethical worries about objectivity or nihilism, and we can make good sense of the idea of cosmic significance and its absence. It is also possible to explain why the vastness of the universe can make us feel insignificant. This impression does turn out to be mistaken, but not for the reasons typically assumed. In fact, we might be of immense cosmic significance—though we cannot, at this point, tell whether this is the case. PMID:25729095

  18. Light from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, Daniele A.; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2011-02-15

    The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons--the ''gravitational Aharonov-Bohm'' effect--and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string scale. Further, cusps emit a beam of photons, kinks emit along a curve, and the emission at a kink-kink collision is in all directions. The emission of light from cosmic strings could provide an important new observational signature of cosmic strings that is within reach of current experiments for a range of string tensions.

  19. Supermassive cosmic string compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Reina, Borja; Sousa, Kepa; Urrestilla, Jon E-mail: borja.reina@ehu.es E-mail: jon.urrestilla@ehu.es

    2014-06-01

    The space-time dimensions transverse to a static straight cosmic string with a sufficiently large tension (supermassive cosmic strings) are compact and typically have a singularity at a finite distance form the core. In this paper, we discuss how the presence of multiple supermassive cosmic strings in the 4d Abelian-Higgs model can induce the spontaneous compactification of the transverse space and explicitly construct solutions where the gravitational background becomes regular everywhere. We discuss the embedding of this model in N = 1 supergravity and show that some of these solutions are half-BPS, in the sense that they leave unbroken half of the supersymmetries of the model.

  20. Cosmic-ray astrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Indriolo, Nick; McCall, Benjamin J

    2013-10-07

    Gas-phase chemistry in the interstellar medium is driven by fast ion-molecule reactions. This, of course, demands a mechanism for ionization, and cosmic rays are the ideal candidate as they can operate throughout the majority of both diffuse and dense interstellar clouds. Aside from driving interstellar chemistry via ionization, cosmic rays also interact with the interstellar medium in ways that heat the ambient gas, produce gamma rays, and produce light element isotopes. In this paper we review the observables generated by cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium, focusing primarily on the relevance to astrochemistry.

  1. International Academy of Astronautics 5th cosmic study—preparing for a 21st century program of integrated, Lunar and Martian exploration and development (executive summary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.; Stephenson, D. G.

    2003-04-01

    This report is an initial review of plans for a extensive program to survey and develop the Moon and to explore the planet Mars during the 21st century. It presents current typical plans for separate, associated and fully integrated programs of Lunar and Martian research, exploration and development, and concludes that detailed integrated plans must be prepared and be subject to formal criticism. Before responsible politicians approve a new thrust into space they will demand attractive, defensible, and detailed proposals that explain the WHEN, HOW and WHY of each stage of an expanded program of 21st century space research, development and exploration. In particular, the claims of daring, innovative, but untried systems must be compared with the known performance of existing technologies. The time has come to supersede the present haphazard approach to strategic space studies with a formal international structure to plan for future advanced space missions under the aegis of the world's national space agencies, and supported by governments and the corporate sector.

  2. International Academy of Astronautics 5th cosmic study--preparing for a 21st century program of integrated, Lunar and Martian exploration and development (executive summary).

    PubMed

    Koelle, H H; Stephenson, D G

    2003-04-01

    This report is an initial review of plans for a extensive program to survey and develop the Moon and to explore the planet Mars during the 21st century. It presents current typical plans for separate, associated and fully integrated programs of Lunar and Martian research, exploration and development, and concludes that detailed integrated plans must be prepared and be subject to formal criticism. Before responsible politicians approve a new thrust into space they will demand attractive, defensible, and detailed proposals that explain the WHEN, HOW and WHY of each stage of an expanded program of 21st century space research, development and exploration. In particular, the claims of daring, innovative, but untried systems must be compared with the known performance of existing technologies. The time has come to supersede the present haphazard approach to strategic space studies with a formal international structure to plan for future advanced space missions under the aegis of the world's national space agencies, and supported by governments and the corporate sector.

  3. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  4. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  5. Astrophysics: Cosmic jet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andy

    2010-02-01

    In some galaxies, matter falling onto a supermassive black hole is ejected in narrow jets moving at close to the speed of light. New observations provide insight into the workings of these cosmic accelerators.

  6. Cosmic Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmic ray division participation in the cooperative agreement was activated in the second year. The scientific goals will be analysis of cosmic ray data from the Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiments (JACEE). Measurements of primary cosmic rays in the JACEE emulsion chambers will be made to derive for each detected particle the deposited energy in the chamber and the primary charge (atomic number). The data will be corrected to the primary flux above the atmosphere, and the composition and energy spectra will be derived. The spectra of the individual elements will be interpreted in context with the supernova shock and other models of cosmic ray acceleration. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of January 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Marketing and customer service activities in this period are presented as is the progress report of NASTRAN maintenance and support. Tables of disseminations and budget summary conclude the report.

  8. The Cosmic Labyrinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, M.

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the intertwined relationship between the terrestrial and celestial using the labyrinth as a metaphor referencing sources from art, gardens and Australian Indigenous culture. Including the Morning Star with the labyrinthine mortuary ritual in Arnhem Land, the cosmic plan garden at Auschwitz and Marea Atkinson's art project undertaken at the Villa Garzoni garden in Italy to create The Cosmic Labyrinth installation exhibited at Palazzo Franchetti, Venice, during the sixth conference on the Inspiration of Astronomical Phenomena.

  9. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  10. Precision Measurement of the Proton Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from Rigidity 1 GV to 1.8 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cerreta, D.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Gil, E. Cortina; Coste, B.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Haas, D.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Levi, G.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lolli, M.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    A precise measurement of the proton flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1 GV to 1.8 TV is presented based on 300 million events. Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the proton flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. We present the detailed variation with rigidity of the flux spectral index for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at high rigidities.

  11. Precision Measurement of the Proton Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from Rigidity 1 GV to 1.8 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Aisa, D; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cerreta, D; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Cortina Gil, E; Coste, B; Creus, W; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, Y M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Donnini, F; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Haas, D; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Levi, G; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lolli, M; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, S Q; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Picot-Clemente, N; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Qin, X; Qu, Z Y; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Vitale, V; Vitillo, S; Wang, L Q; Wang, N H; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Wu, X; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2015-05-01

    A precise measurement of the proton flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1 GV to 1.8 TV is presented based on 300 million events. Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the proton flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. We present the detailed variation with rigidity of the flux spectral index for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at high rigidities.

  12. Cosmic radiation in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Michael

    2008-05-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of cosmic radiation and its applicability to commercial aviation. Galactic cosmic radiation emanates from outside the solar system, while occasionally a disturbance in the suns' atmosphere leads to a surge in radiation particles. Protection is provided by the suns' magnetic field, the earths' magnetic field, and the earths' atmosphere. Dose rates are dependent on the altitude, the geomagnetic latitude and the solar cycle. For occupational exposure to ionising radiation, which includes aircrew, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends maximum mean body effective dose limits of 20mSv/yr (averaged over 5 years, with a maximum in any 1 year of 50mSv). Radiation doses can be measured during flight or may be calculated using a computer-modelling program such as CARI, EPCARD, SIEVERT or PCAIRE. Mean ambient equivalent dose rates are consistently reported in the region of 4-5microSv/h for long-haul pilots and 1-3microSv/h for short-haul, giving an annual mean effective exposure of the order 2-3mSv for long-haul and 1-2mSv for short-haul pilots. Epidemiological studies of flight crew have not shown conclusive evidence for any increase in cancer mortality or cancer incidence directly attributable to ionising radiation exposure. Whilst there is no level of radiation exposure below which effects do not occur, current evidence indicates that the probability of airline crew or passengers suffering adverse health effects as a result of exposure to cosmic radiation is very low.

  13. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature on a Small Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine’s Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    Inevitability of Engine-Out NOx Emissions from Spark-Ignition and Diesel Engines, 28th International Symposium on Combustion, Edinburgh, Scotland , 11 Jan 2000...Ltd., 28 Nov 2007. 17) Bertola, A., Stadler, J., Walter, T., Wolfer, P., Gossweiler, C., Rothe , M., Spicher, U., Pressure Indication During Knocking

  14. AMS results on positrons and antiprotons in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounine, Andrei; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a particle physics detector collecting data on the International Space Station since May 2011. Precision measurements of charged cosmic ray particles have been performed by AMS using a data sample of 85 billion cosmic ray events collected during the first five years of operations on the Station. The latest AMS results on the fluxes and flux ratios of the cosmic ray particles are presented with the emphasis on the measurements of positrons and antiprotons. They show unique features that require accurate theoretical interpretation as to their origin, be it from dark matter collisions or new astrophysical sources. On behalf of AMS.

  15. Latest AMS Results on elementary particles in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounine, Andrei; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a particle physics detector collecting data on the International Space Station since May 2011. Precision measurements of all elementary charged cosmic ray particles have been performed by AMS using a data sample of 85 billion cosmic ray events collected during the first five years of operations on the Station. The latest AMS results on the fluxes and flux ratios of the elementary cosmic ray particles are presented. They show unique features that require accurate theoretical interpretation as to their origin, be it from dark matter collisions or new astrophysical sources. On behalf of the AMS Collaboration.

  16. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.

  17. Constraints on cosmic superstrings from Kaluza-Klein emission.

    PubMed

    Dufaux, Jean-François

    2012-07-06

    Cosmic superstrings interact generically with a tower of light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. We study the production of KK particles by cosmic superstring loops, and show that it is constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis. We study the resulting constraints in the parameter space of the underlying string theory model and highlight their complementarity with the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments.

  18. Mapping the Cosmic Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlanetto, Steven

    The following sections are included: * A Brief History of Our Universe: From Soup to Galaxies * The Hidden Cosmic Dawn * The Solution: Flipping Spins * The Spin-Flip Transition as an Astronomical Tool * Foiled!: Early Cosmology with the Spin-Flip Transition * Spin-Flip Radiation Holds the Key to Observing the Cosmic Dawn * The Spin-Flip Background: The First Stars * The Spin-Flip Background: The First Black Holes * The Spin-Flip Background: The Epoch of Reionization * FM Radio Antennae as Cosmic Observatories * Piles and Tiles of Antennae: Mapping the Spin-Flip Background * Mountains to Scale: Challenges to Observing the Spin-Flip Background * Sound and Fury, Signifying Statistics * An Explosion of Telescopes * Dreams for the Future * An Unfinished Story

  19. Supernova and cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A general overview of supernova astronomy is presented, followed by a discussion of the relationship between SN and galactic cosmic rays. Pre-supernova evolution is traced to core collapse, explosion, and mass ejection. The two types of SN light curves are discussed in terms of their causes, and the different nucleosynthetic processes inside SNs are reviewed. Physical events in SN remnants are discussed. The three main connections between cosmic rays and SNs, the energy requirement, the acceleration mechanism, and the detailed composition of CR, are detailed.

  20. Cosmic Needles versus Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aigen

    2003-02-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation might have arisen from the radiation of ``Population III'' objects thermalized by conducting cosmic graphite/iron needle-shaped dust. Due to a lack of an accurate solution to the absorption properties of exceedingly elongated grains, in existing literature which studies the CMB thermalizing process they are generally modeled as (1) needle-like spheroids in terms of the Rayleigh approximation, (2) infinite cylinders, and (3) antennae. We show here that the Rayleigh approximation is not valid since the Rayleigh criterion is not satisfied for highly conducting needles. We also show that the available intergalactic iron dust, if modeled as infinite cylinders, is not sufficient to supply the required opacity at long wavelengths to obtain the observed isotropy and Planckian nature of the CMB. If appealing to the antenna theory, conducting iron needles with exceedingly large elongations ( >104) appear able to provide sufficient opacity to thermalize the CMB within the iron density limit. But the applicability of the antenna theory to exceedingly thin needles of nanometer/micrometer thickness has not yet been verified.

  1. Galactic cosmic rays and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kiener, Juergen

    2010-03-01

    The nucleosynthesis of the light elements Li, Be and B by galactic cosmic rays is presented. Observations of cosmic rays and the nuclear reactions responsible for Li, Be and B nucleosynthesis are described, followed by some words on propagation. At the end, some open questions concerning galactic cosmic rays are discussed.

  2. Our Cosmic Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna L.

    2005-01-01

    To help students understand the connection that Earth and the solar system have with the cosmic cycles of stellar evolution, and to give students an appreciation of the beauty and elegance of celestial phenomena, the Chandra X-Ray Center (CXC) educational website contains a stellar evolution module that is available free to teachers. In this…

  3. Cosmic Rays at Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological

  4. Cosmic Rays: "A Thin Rain of Charged Particles."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are balloons and electroscopes, understanding cosmic rays, cosmic ray paths, isotopes and cosmic-ray travel, sources of cosmic rays, and accelerating cosmic rays. Some of the history of the discovery and study of cosmic rays is presented. (CW)

  5. Cosmic Rays - A Word-Wide Student Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The QuarkNet program has distributed hundreds of cosmic ray detectors for use in high schools and research facilities throughout the world over the last decade. Data collected by those students has been uploaded to a central server where web-based analysis tools enable users to characterize and to analyze everyone's cosmic ray data. Since muons rain down on everyone in the world, all students can participate in this free, high energy particle environment. Through self-directed inquiry students have designed their own experiments: exploring cosmic ray rates and air shower structure; and using muons to measure their speed, time dilation, lifetime, and affects on biological systems. We also plan to expand our annual International Muon Week project to create a large student-led collaboration where similar cosmic ray measurements are performed simultaneously throughout the world.

  6. Detection prospects of the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2015-04-01

    The existence of the cosmic neutrino background (CνB) is a fundamental prediction of the standard Big Bang cosmology. Although current cosmological probes provide indirect observational evidence, the direct detection of the CνB in a laboratory experiment is a great challenge to the present experimental techniques. We discuss the future prospects for the direct detection of the CνB, with the emphasis on the method of captures on beta-decaying nuclei and the PTOLEMY project. Other possibilities using the electron-capture (EC) decaying nuclei, the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos (EHECνs) at the Z-resonance, and the atomic de-excitation method are also discussed in this review (talk given at the International Conference on Massive Neutrinos, Singapore, 9-13 February 2015).

  7. Cosmic structure formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edumund

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the prevailing paradigm for how galaxies and larger structures formed in the universe: gravitational instability. Basic observational facts are summarized to motivate the standard cosmological framework underlying most detailed investigations of structure formation. The observed univers approaches spatial uniformity on scales larger than about 10(exp 26) cm. On these scales gravitational dynamics is almost linear and therefore relatively easy to relate to observations of large-scale structure. On smaller scales cosmic structure is complicated not only by nonlinear gravitational clustering but also by nonlinear nongravitational gas dynamical processes. The complexity of these phenomena makes galaxy formation one of the grand challenge problems of the physical sciences. No fully satisfactory theory can presently account in detail for the observed cosmic structure. However, as this article summarizes, significant progress has been made during the last few years.

  8. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of April 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Five articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: GAP 1.0 - Groove Analysis Program, Version 1.0; SUBTRANS - Subband/Transform MATLAB Functions for Image Processing; CSDM - COLD-SAT Dynamic Model; CASRE - Computer Aided Software Reliability Estimation; and XOPPS - OEL Project Planner/Scheduler Tool. Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and disseminations are also described along with a budget summary.

  9. Cosmic Origin of Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Francesco

    An estimate is presented of the angular momentum associated with the stochastic cosmic tremor, which has been hypothesized to be caused by universal gravitation and by the granularity of matter, and to be itself the cause of quantization ("cosmic origin of quantization"). If that universal tremor has the spatial coherence which is instrumental in order that the estimated action associated with it have the order of magnitude of Planck's constant h, then the estimated order of magnitude of the angular momentum associated with it also has the same value. We moreover indicate how these findings (originally based on a simplified model of the Universe, as being made up only of particles having the nucleon mass) are affected (in fact, essentially unaffected) by the possible presence in the mass of the Universe of a large component made up of particles much lighter than nucleons ("dark", or "missing", mass).

  10. Note on cosmic censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, F. J.

    1985-05-01

    A number of recent theorems by Krolak (1983) and Newman (1983) purport to prove cosmic censorship by showing that strong-curvature singularities must be hidden behind horizons. It is shown that the 'null strong-curvature' condition which Newman imposes on certain classes of null geodesics to restrict curvature growth in the space-time does not hold in many physically realistic space-times: it is not satisfied by any null geodesic in the relevant class in any open Friedmann cosmological model, nor does it hold for any null geodesic in the relevant class in maximal Schwarzschild space. More generally it is argued that the singularity predicted by the Penrose singularity theorem is unlikely to be of the type eliminated by Newman. Thus the Newman theorems are probably without physical significance. The Krolak theorems, although based on a physically significant definition of strong curvature singularity, are mathematically invalid, and this approach cannot be used to obtain a cosmic-censorship theorem.

  11. Galactic cosmic ray composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment is given of the galactic cosmic ray source (GCRS) elemental composition and its correlation with first ionization potential. The isotopic composition of heavy nuclei; spallation cross sections; energy spectra of primary nuclei; electrons; positrons; local galactic reference abundances; comparison of solar energetic particles and solar coronal compositions; the hydrogen; lead; nitrogen; helium; and germanium deficiency problems; and the excess of elements are among the topics covered.

  12. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagan, Carl; Agel, Jerome

    2000-08-01

    Foreword Freeman Dyson; Personal reflections Ann Druyan; Preface; Part I. Cosmic Perspective: 1. A transitional animal; 2. The Unicorn of Cetus; 3. A message from earth; 4. A message to earth; 5. Experiments in utopias; 6. Chauvinism; 7. Space exploration as a human enterprise I. The scientific interest; 8. Space exploration as a human enterprise II. The public interest; 9. Space exploration as a human enterprise III. The historical interest; Part II. The Solar System: 10. On teaching the first grade; 11. 'The ancient and legendary Gods of old'; 12. The Venus detective story; 13. Venus is hell; 14. Science and 'intelligence'; 15. The moons of Barsoom; 16. The mountains of Mars I. Observations from earth; 17. The mountains of Mars II. Observations from space; 18. The canals of Mars; 19. The lost pictures of Mars; 20. The Ice Age and the cauldron; 21. Beginnings and ends of the Earth; 22. Terraforming the plants; 23. The exploration and utlization of the solar system; Part III. Beyond the Solar System: 24. Some of my best friends are dolphins; 25. 'Hello, central casting? Send me twenty extraterrestrials'; 26. The cosmic connection; 27. Extraterrestrial life: an idea whose time has come; 28. Has the Earth been visited?; 29. A search strategy for detecting extraterrestrial intelligence; 30. If we succeed 31. Cables, drums, and seashells; 32. The night freight to the stars; 33. Astroengineering; 34. Twenty questions: a classification of cosmic civilisations; 35. Galactic cultural exchanges; 36. A passage to elsewhere; 37. Starfolk I. A Fable; 38. Starfolk II. A future; 39. Starfolk III. The cosmic Cheshire cats; Epilog David Morrison; Index.

  13. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  14. A Warped Cosmic String

    SciTech Connect

    Slagter, R. J.

    2010-06-23

    We present a cosmic string solution in Einstein-Yang-Mills Gauss-Bonnet theory on a warped 5 dimensional space-time conform the Randall-Sundrum-2 theory. In a simplipied model, we find an exact solutions with exponential decreasing or periodic warp function. In a more general setting, where the metric- and Yang-Mills components depend on both scales and one of the YM components resides in the bulk, we find a time dependent numerical solution.

  15. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  16. Precision Measurement of the Helium Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays of Rigidities 1.9 GV to 3 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cerreta, D.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Gil, E. Cortina; Coste, B.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Formato, V.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Haas, D.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Korkmaz, M. A.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, Hu; Lolli, M.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Nelson, T.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Song, J. W.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Willenbrock, M.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, S. D.; Zhang, S. W.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; AMS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the precise rigidity dependence of the helium flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. A precise measurement of the helium flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1.9 GV to 3 TV based on 50 million events is presented and compared to the proton flux. The detailed variation with rigidity of the helium flux spectral index is presented for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at rigidities larger than 100 GV. The rigidity dependence of the helium flux spectral index is similar to that of the proton spectral index though the magnitudes are different. Remarkably, the spectral index of the proton to helium flux ratio increases with rigidity up to 45 GV and then becomes constant; the flux ratio above 45 GV is well described by a single power law.

  17. Precision Measurement of the Helium Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays of Rigidities 1.9 GV to 3 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Aisa, D; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cerreta, D; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, G M; Chen, H; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Gil, E Cortina; Coste, B; Creus, W; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, Y M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Donnini, F; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Formato, V; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Haas, D; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Korkmaz, M A; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Liu, Hu; Lolli, M; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, S Q; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Nelson, T; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Picot-Clemente, N; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Qin, X; Qu, Z Y; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; von Dratzig, A Schulz; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Song, J W; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Vitale, V; Vitillo, S; Wang, L Q; Wang, N H; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Willenbrock, M; Wu, H; Wu, X; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Yang, Y; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, C; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, S D; Zhang, S W; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P

    2015-11-20

    Knowledge of the precise rigidity dependence of the helium flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. A precise measurement of the helium flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1.9 GV to 3 TV based on 50 million events is presented and compared to the proton flux. The detailed variation with rigidity of the helium flux spectral index is presented for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at rigidities larger than 100 GV. The rigidity dependence of the helium flux spectral index is similar to that of the proton spectral index though the magnitudes are different. Remarkably, the spectral index of the proton to helium flux ratio increases with rigidity up to 45 GV and then becomes constant; the flux ratio above 45 GV is well described by a single power law.

  18. Precision Measurement of the Boron to Carbon Flux Ratio in Cosmic Rays from 1.9 GV to 2.6 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M.; Ali Cavasonza, L.; Ambrosi, G.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Aupetit, S.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bindel, K. F.; Bindi, V.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Bueno, E. F.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demakov, O.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Dong, F.; Donnini, F.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Eronen, T.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Formato, V.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R. J.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gómez-Coral, D. M.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guo, K. H.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kang, S. C.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Konak, C.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. S.; Li, J. Q.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, Hu; Lordello, V. D.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Machate, F.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mikuni, V. M.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Nelson, T.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schulz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shi, J. Y.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Song, J. W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vázquez Acosta, M.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, X.; Wang, X. Q.; Wang, Z. X.; Wei, C. C.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Yang, Y.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, S. D.; Zhang, S. W.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; AMS Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the boron to carbon flux ratio (B/C) is important in understanding the propagation of cosmic rays. The precise measurement of the B /C ratio from 1.9 GV to 2.6 TV, based on 2.3 million boron and 8.3 million carbon nuclei collected by AMS during the first 5 years of operation, is presented. The detailed variation with rigidity of the B /C spectral index is reported for the first time. The B /C ratio does not show any significant structures in contrast to many cosmic ray models that require such structures at high rigidities. Remarkably, above 65 GV, the B /C ratio is well described by a single power law RΔ with index Δ =-0.333 ±0.014 (fit ) ±0.005 (syst ) , in good agreement with the Kolmogorov theory of turbulence which predicts Δ =-1 /3 asymptotically.

  19. High Statistics Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5-500 GeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardo, L.; Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chikanian, A.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Coste, B.; Cui, Z.; Dai, M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; Kunz, S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Malinin, A.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schuckardt, D.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays in the energy range from 0.5 to 500 GeV based on 10.9 million positron and electron events is presented. This measurement extends the energy range of our previous observation and increases its precision. The new results show, for the first time, that above ∼200 GeV the positron fraction no longer exhibits an increase with energy.

  20. High statistics measurement of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays of 0.5-500 GeV with the alpha magnetic spectrometer on the international space station.

    PubMed

    Accardo, L; Aguilar, M; Aisa, D; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Carosi, G; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cerreta, D; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Cindolo, F; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Haas, D; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Henning, R; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Levi, G; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lolli, M; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Massera, F; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Monreal, B; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilastrini, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rossi, L; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Rybka, G; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Vitale, V; Volpini, G; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Wu, K Y; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhou, F; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-09-19

    A precision measurement by AMS of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays in the energy range from 0.5 to 500 GeV based on 10.9 million positron and electron events is presented. This measurement extends the energy range of our previous observation and increases its precision. The new results show, for the first time, that above ∼200  GeV the positron fraction no longer exhibits an increase with energy.

  1. Space dust and debris; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission B (Meetings B2, B3, and B5) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Editor); Zarnecki, J. C. (Editor); Matson, D. L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on space dust and debris encompasses orbital debris, in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of space-dust particles, comparative studies of comets, asteroids, and dust, the protection and maneuvering of spacecraft in space-debris environments, and the out-of-elliptic distribution of interplanetary dust derived from near-earth flux. Specific issues addressed include asteroid taxonomy, the optical properties of dust from cometary and interplanetary grains, light scattering by rough surfaces on asteroidal/lunar regoliths, and the first results of particulate impacts and foil perforations on the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Also addressed are collision probability and spacecraft disposition in the geostationary orbit, a flash on the moon caused by orbital debris, the limits of population growth in low earth orbit due to collisional cascading, and the simulation of cosmic man-made dust effects on space-vehicle elements in rocket and laboratory experiments.

  2. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.

  3. Effect of cosmic ray on global high cloud from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-S.; Choi, Y.-S.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth's climate is affected by not only internal forcings but also external forcings related with solar activities. The energetic particles called "cosmic rays" from outer space have been considered as a potentially important external climate forcing since the first report by Svensemark and Friis-Christensen (1997) which showed a significant correlation between cloudiness and cosmic ray. This correlation is a basis of a couple of hypotheses in microphysical processes: ion-aerosol clear-air mechanism and ion-aerosol near-cloud mechanism. These mechanisms have been either supported or objected by many successive studies, most of which correlated long-term trends of cloud and cosmic ray. However, it is most likely that such methodology is not suitable to find actual connection, because long-term trends of clouds may invite affection by many factors other than cosmic ray. It is therefore necessary to find the relation at shorter time scale, since cosmic ray affect the process of cloud formation in a moment. Here we show spatial distributions of correlation between global high cloud fraction data from MODIS and cosmic ray of neutron monitor data from McMurdo, Antarctic. We removed 3-month running means from the original data in order to get high frequency fluctuations. As results, positive correlations are dominant in the spatial distribution, especially over lands on the northern hemisphere and oceans on the Southern hemisphere. On the other hand, negative correlations exist over limited area including the Indian Ocean. According to the cross-correlation (with time lags), the areas with positive correlation is widely distributed at zero lag. At ±1 month lags, the signs of correlations become the opposite of that at zero lag. Furthermore, the correlation between relative high cloud amount to total cloud and cosmic ray shows similar distribution to the correlation between absolute high cloud amount and cosmic ray, implying stronger high cloud response to cosmic ray

  4. The Origin of Cosmic Rays

    ScienceCinema

    Blasi, Pasquale [INAF/Arcetri-Italy and Fermilab, Italy

    2016-07-12

    Cosmic Rays reach the Earth from space with energies of up to more than 1020 eV, carrying information on the most powerful particle accelerators that Nature has been able to assemble. Understanding where and how cosmic rays originate has required almost one century of investigations, and, although the last word is not written yet, recent observations and theory seem now to fit together to provide us with a global picture of the origin of cosmic rays of unprecedented clarity. Here we will describe what we learned from recent observations of astrophysical sources (such as supernova remnants and active galaxies) and we will illustrate what these observations tell us about the physics of particle acceleration and transport. We will also discuss the “end” of the Galactic cosmic ray spectrum, which bridges out attention towards the so called ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). At ~1020 eV the gyration scale of cosmic rays in cosmic magnetic fields becomes large enough to allow us to point back to their sources, thereby allowing us to perform “cosmic ray astronomy”, as confirmed by the recent results obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory. We will discuss the implications of these observations for the understanding of UHECRs, as well as some questions which will likely remain unanswered and will be the target of the next generation of cosmic ray experiments.

  5. Precision Cosmic Ray physics with space-born experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incagli, Marco

    2016-07-01

    More than 100 years after their discoveries, cosmic rays have been extensively studied, both with balloon experiments and with ground observatories. More recently, the possibility of mounting detectors on satellites or on the International Space Station has allowed for a long duration (several years) continuous observation of primary cosmic rays, i.e. before their interaction with the earth atmosphere, thus opening a new regime of precision measurements. In this review, recent results from major space experiments, as Pamela, AMS02 and Fermi, as well as next generation experiments proposed for the International Space Station, for standalone satellites or for the yet to come Chinese Space Station, will be presented. The impact of these experiment on the knowledge of Cosmic Ray propagation will also be discussed.

  6. COMPREHENSIVE DATA CONCERNING COSMIC RADIATION DOSES AT GROUND LEVEL AND IN-FLIGHTS FOR TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Parmaksız, A

    2016-12-01

    Cosmic radiation doses of individuals living in 81 cities in Turkey were estimated by using CARI-6 software. Annual cosmic radiation doses of individuals were found to be between 308 and 736 µSv y(-1) at ground level. The population-weighted annual effective dose from cosmic radiation was determined to be 387 µSv y(-1) for Turkey. Cosmic radiation doses on-board for 137 (60 domestic and 77 international) flights varied from 1.2 to 83 µSv. It was estimated that six or over long-route round-trip air travels may cause cosmic radiation dose above the permissible limit for member of the public, i.e. 1 mSv y(-1) According to the assumption of flights throughout 800 h on each route, cosmic radiation doses were found to be between 1.0 and 4.8 mSv for aircrew.

  7. Cosmic ray hazards in the solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milford, S. N.

    1965-01-01

    Cosmic ray hazards in solar system considered from measurements of cosmic ray energy and charge spectra near Earth and in interplanetary space near Earth, together with interaction of cosmic rays with Moon surface

  8. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory in Mendoza, Argentina is the result of an international collaboration funded by 15 countries and many different organizations. Its mission is to capture high-energy cosmic ray events or air showers for research into their origin and nature. The Pierre Auger Collaboration agreed to make 1% of its data available to the public. The Public Event Explorer is a search tool that allows users to browse or search for and display figures and data plots of events collected since 2004. The repository is updated daily, and, as of June, 2014, makes more than 35,000 events publicly available. The energy of a cosmic ray is measured in Exa electron volts or EeV. These event displays can be browsed in order of their energy level from 0.1 to 41.1 EeV. Each event has an individual identification number.

    The event displays provide station data, cosmic ray incoming direction, various energy measurements, plots, vector-based images, and an ASCII data file.

  9. The Emergence of Cosmic Education. Spotlight: Cosmic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Sr. Christina Marie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the influence of Hindu, Moslem, and Buddhist metaphysics on Maria Montessori's own pedagogical philosophy of Cosmic Education, which she regarded as the core of all learning experiences, after her visit to India. Considers the relationship between Montessori's ideas of child development and Cosmic Education, and the effect of Indian…

  10. On Becoming a Cosmic Educator. Spotlight: Cosmic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Biff

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Maria Montessori's five pedagogical guidelines for her Cosmic Education concept: starting with the larger context; treating planet Earth as a cosmic organism; stressing similarities among seemingly different groups of people, organisms, or objects; showing chains of interdependence among all things; and examining behavior from a cosmic…

  11. CosmicSIG science and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinto, Angela V.

    2014-03-01

    Recent activities of the Cosmic Ray Science Interest Group (CosmicSIG) of the Physics of the Cosmos PAG will be reviewed. CosmicSIG was formed to provide an assessment to NASA HQ and the PCOS program office of the status of current and future missions in the area of cosmic-ray astrophysics. CosmicSIG also strives to act as a focal point and forum for the cosmic ray community.

  12. Cosmic Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Valluri, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a "condensation" type of phenomenon corresponding to a peak intensity. The observed cosmic background radiation can be explained from this standpoint. We have obtained analogous results by extremization of the occupation number for photons with the use of the Lambert W function. Some of the interesting applications of this function are briefly discussed in the context of graphene which exhibits an interesting two dimensional structure with several characteristic properties and diverse practical applications.

  13. Antiprotons in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental observations and results are discussed. It was found that the approximately 50 antiprotons collected in balloon experiments to date have generated considerable theoretical interest. Clearly, confirmatory experiments and measurements over an extended energy range are required before definite conclusions are drawn. Antiproton measurements have a bearing on astrophysical problems ranging from cosmic ray propagation to issues of cosmological import. The next generation of balloon experiments and the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility being discussed for operation on NASA's space station should provide data and insights of highest interest.

  14. Wormhole cosmic censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Tonatiuh; Ureña-López, L. Arturo; Miranda, Galaxia

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the properties of a Kerr-like wormhole supported by phantom matter, which is an exact solution of the Einstein-phantom field equations. It is shown that the solution has a naked ring singularity which is unreachable to null geodesics falling freely from the outside. Similarly to Roger Penrose's cosmic censorship, that states that all naked singularities in the Universe must be protected by event horizons, here we conjecture from our results that a naked singularity can also be fully protected by the intrinsic properties of a wormhole's throat.

  15. Cosmological cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    1988-01-01

    The effect of an infinite cosmic string on a cosmological background is investigated. It is found that the metric is approximately a scaled version of the empty space string metric, i.e., conical in nature. Results are used to place bounds on the amount of cylindrical gravitational radiation currently emitted by such a string. The gravitational radiation equations are then analyzed explicitly and it is shown that even initially large disturbances are rapidly damped as the expansion proceeds. The implications of the gravitational radiation background and the limitations of the quadrupole formula are discussed.

  16. Cosmic super-strings and Kaluza-Klein modes

    SciTech Connect

    Dufaux, Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Cosmic super-strings interact generically with a tower of relatively light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. In this paper, we study the production of spin-2 KK particles by cusps on loops of cosmic F- and D-strings. We consider cosmic super-strings localized either at the bottom of a warped throat or in a flat internal space with large volume. The total energy emitted by cusps in KK modes is comparable in both cases, although the number of produced KK modes may differ significantly. We then show that KK emission is constrained by the photo-dissociation of light elements and by observations of the diffuse gamma ray background. We show that this rules out regions of the parameter space of cosmic super-strings that are complementary to the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments. KK modes are also expected to play an important role in the friction-dominated epoch of cosmic super-string evolution.

  17. Cosmic Rays and Experiment CZELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Smolek, Karel; Nyklicek, Michal

    2007-11-26

    This paper gives a review of the physics of cosmic rays with emphasis on the methods of detection and study. A summary is given of the Czech project CZELTA which is part of a multinational program to study cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 14} eV.

  18. Superbubbles and Local Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, Robert E.; Jones, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibility that distinctive features of the local cosmic ray spectra and composition are influenced by the Solar system being embedded within the cavity of an ancient superbubble. Shifts in the measured cosmic ray composition between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 20) eV as well as the "knee" and "second knee" may be understood in this picture.

  19. Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The existing models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

  20. Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The exising models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

  1. Cosmic Ray Neutron Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayananda, Mathes

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energetic particles originating from outer space that bombard the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Almost 90% of cosmic ray particles consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions. When these particles hit the Earth's atmosphere, cascade of secondary particles are formed. The most abundant particles reach to the surface of the Earth are muons, electrons and neutrons. In recent years many research groups are looking into potential applications of the effects of cosmic ray radiation at the surface of the Earth [1, 2]. At Georgia State University we are working on a long-term measurement of cosmic ray flux distribution. This study includes the simultaneous measurement of cosmic ray muons, neutrons and gamma particles at the Earth surface in downtown Atlanta. The initial effort is focusing on the correlation studies of the cosmic ray particle flux distribution and the atmospheric weather conditions. In this presentation, I will talk about the development of a cosmic ray detector using liquid scintillator and the preliminary results. [4pt] [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, ``Radiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons'', Nature, Vol.422, p.277, Mar.2003[0pt] [2] Svensmark Henrik, Physical Review 81, 3, (1998)

  2. Genuine cosmic hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastor, David; Ray, Sourya; Traschen, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    We show that asymptotically future de Sitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry ‘genuine’ cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new ‘cosmological tension’ charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential de Sitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a ‘cosmological volume’ contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference in expansion rates between two directions at late times is related in a simple way to their difference at early times. Hence information about the very early universe can be inferred from cosmic hair, which is potentially observable in a late time de Sitter phase. Cosmological tension charges and related quantities are evaluated for Kasner–de Sitter spacetimes, which serve as our primary examples.

  3. Cosmic Diffuse Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M.

    1999-01-01

    The final analysis of the COMPTEL cosmic diffuse flux analysis is summarized in the accompanying figure. It shows the intensity of the cosmic diffuse flux spectrum measured jointly between the Virgo region and the South Galactic pole. This spectrum represents flux per unit solid angle over the range of 0.8 to 30 MeV. It contains the first positive measurement of the flux above 10 MeV. The spectrum merges smoothly with that measured with the EGRET instrument, starting at 30 MeV. It also merges smoothly with the latest results of the HEAO-1 measurements. However, the spectrum below is softer than the spectrum above the COMPTEL energy band. In the COMPTEL energy band there must exist a change in spectral shape as the source objects or processes change from the lower energy regime to the higher energy regime. The details of the analysis and the implications and meanings of the results are spelled out in the thesis of Dr. Cheenu Kappadath which is enclosed.

  4. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  5. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of August, 1993. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Ten articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) MOM3D - A Method of Moments Code for Electromagnetic Scattering (UNIX Version); (2) EM-Animate - Computer Program for Displaying and Animating the Steady-State Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Near Field and Surface-Current Solutions; (3) MOM3D - A Method of Moments Code for Electromagnetic Scattering (IBM PC Version); (4) M414 - MIL-STD-414 Variable Sampling Procedures Computer Program; (5) MEDOF - Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter; (6) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (Macintosh Version); (7) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (IBM PC Version); (8) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version); (9) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (DEC VAX VMS Version); and (10) TFSSRA - Thick Frequency Selective Surface with Rectangular Apertures. Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  6. Testing Cosmic Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided a wealth of information about the history and physics of the early Universe. Much progress has been made on uncovering the emerging Standard Model of Cosmology by such experiments as COBE and WMAP, and ESA's Planck Surveyor will likely increase our knowledge even more. Despite the success of this model, mysteries remain. Currently understood physics does not offer a compelling explanation for the homogeneity, flatness, and the origin of structure in the Universe. Cosmic Inflation, a brief epoch of exponential expansion, has been posted to explain these observations. If inflation is a reality, it is expected to produce a background spectrum of gravitational waves that will leave a small polarized imprint on the CMB. Discovery of this signal would give the first direct evidence for inflation and provide a window into physics at scales beyond those accessible to terrestrial particle accelerators. I will briefly review aspects of the Standard Model of Cosmology and discuss our current efforts to design and deploy experiments to measure the polarization of the CMB with the precision required to test inflation.

  7. Precision Measurement of the (e++e-) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chikanian, A.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Coste, B.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; Kunz, S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Malinin, A.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schuckardt, D.; Schulz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e++e-) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e++e-) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ =-3.170 ±0.008 (stat+syst)±0.008 (energy scale) .

  8. Precision Measurement of the(e++e-)Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    DOE PAGES

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; ...

    2014-11-26

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e++e-) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e++e-) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ= -3.170 ± 0.008(stat+syst) ± 0.008(energy scale).

  9. Precision Measurement of the (e^{+}+e^{-}) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Aisa, D; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Donnini, F; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-11-28

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e^{+}+e^{-}) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e^{+}+e^{-}) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ=-3.170±0.008(stat+syst)±0.008(energy scale).

  10. Cosmic Ray Physics at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandéz, A.; Gámez, E.; López, R.; Román, S.; Zepeda, A.

    2003-06-01

    In recent decades, cosmic ray air showers initiated by high-energy proton or nucleus collisions in the atmosphere have been studied with large area experiments on the surface of the Earth or with muon measurements deep underground. In principle, these cosmic ray experiments explore two completely different realms of physics, particle astrophysics and particle interaction physics, which are, however, intimately related by the interpretation of the data. In this paper we briefly review the cosmic ray physics activities developed at CERN in the last years. In particular we present some results from a small underground cosmic ray experiment and we discuss the capabilities of ALICE to detect high multiplicity muon events arising from cosmic ray air showers and some other astroparticle phenomena.

  11. Antiproton Flux, Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio, and Properties of Elementary Particle Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M.; Ali Cavasonza, L.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Aupetit, S.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bindi, V.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Bueno, E. F.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Coste, B.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Dong, F.; Donnini, F.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Eronen, T.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Formato, V.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R. J.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gómez-Coral, D. M.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kang, S. C.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Konak, C.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. S.; Li, J. Q.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, Hu; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Nelson, T.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schulz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shi, J. Y.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Song, J. W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vázquez Acosta, M.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, X.; Wang, X. Q.; Wang, Z. X.; Wei, C. C.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Willenbrock, M.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Yang, Y.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, S. D.; Zhang, S. W.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; AMS Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on 3.49 ×1 05 antiproton events and 2.42 ×1 09 proton events. The fluxes and flux ratios of charged elementary particles in cosmic rays are also presented. In the absolute rigidity range ˜60 to ˜500 GV , the antiproton p ¯, proton p , and positron e+ fluxes are found to have nearly identical rigidity dependence and the electron e- flux exhibits a different rigidity dependence. Below 60 GV, the (p ¯/p ), (p ¯/e+), and (p /e+) flux ratios each reaches a maximum. From ˜60 to ˜500 GV , the (p ¯/p ), (p ¯/e+), and (p /e+) flux ratios show no rigidity dependence. These are new observations of the properties of elementary particles in the cosmos.

  12. Antiproton Flux, Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio, and Properties of Elementary Particle Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Ali Cavasonza, L; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Aupetit, S; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bindi, V; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Bueno, E F; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Creus, W; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, Y M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Dong, F; Donnini, F; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eronen, T; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Formato, V; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R J; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gómez-Coral, D M; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kang, S C; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Konak, C; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H S; Li, J Q; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, Hu; Lu, S Q; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Nelson, T; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Pauluzzi, M; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Picot-Clemente, N; Pilo, F; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Qin, X; Qu, Z Y; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shi, J Y; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Song, J W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vázquez Acosta, M; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Vitale, V; Vitillo, S; Wang, L Q; Wang, N H; Wang, Q L; Wang, X; Wang, X Q; Wang, Z X; Wei, C C; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Willenbrock, M; Wu, H; Wu, X; Xia, X; Xiong, R Q; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Yang, Y; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, C; Zhang, J; Zhang, J H; Zhang, S D; Zhang, S W; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhu, Z Q; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P

    2016-08-26

    A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on 3.49×10^{5} antiproton events and 2.42×10^{9} proton events. The fluxes and flux ratios of charged elementary particles in cosmic rays are also presented. In the absolute rigidity range ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the antiproton p[over ¯], proton p, and positron e^{+} fluxes are found to have nearly identical rigidity dependence and the electron e^{-} flux exhibits a different rigidity dependence. Below 60 GV, the (p[over ¯]/p), (p[over ¯]/e^{+}), and (p/e^{+}) flux ratios each reaches a maximum. From ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the (p[over ¯]/p), (p[over ¯]/e^{+}), and (p/e^{+}) flux ratios show no rigidity dependence. These are new observations of the properties of elementary particles in the cosmos.

  13. Precision Measurement of the Boron to Carbon Flux Ratio in Cosmic Rays from 1.9 GV to 2.6 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Ali Cavasonza, L; Ambrosi, G; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Aupetit, S; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Başeğmez-du Pree, S; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bindel, K F; Bindi, V; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Bueno, E F; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Creus, W; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, Y M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demakov, O; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Dong, F; Donnini, F; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eronen, T; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Formato, V; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R J; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gómez-Coral, D M; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guo, K H; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kang, S C; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Konak, C; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H S; Li, J Q; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, Hu; Lordello, V D; Lu, S Q; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Machate, F; Majka, R; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mikuni, V M; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Nelson, T; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Pauluzzi, M; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Picot-Clemente, N; Pilo, F; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Qin, X; Qu, Z Y; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shi, J Y; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Song, J W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vázquez Acosta, M; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Vitale, V; Vitillo, S; Wang, L Q; Wang, N H; Wang, Q L; Wang, X; Wang, X Q; Wang, Z X; Wei, C C; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Wu, X; Xia, X; Xiong, R Q; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Yang, Y; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, C; Zhang, J; Zhang, J H; Zhang, S D; Zhang, S W; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhu, Z Q; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P

    2016-12-02

    Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the boron to carbon flux ratio (B/C) is important in understanding the propagation of cosmic rays. The precise measurement of the B/C ratio from 1.9 GV to 2.6 TV, based on 2.3 million boron and 8.3 million carbon nuclei collected by AMS during the first 5 years of operation, is presented. The detailed variation with rigidity of the B/C spectral index is reported for the first time. The B/C ratio does not show any significant structures in contrast to many cosmic ray models that require such structures at high rigidities. Remarkably, above 65 GV, the B/C ratio is well described by a single power law R^{Δ} with index Δ=-0.333±0.014(fit)±0.005(syst), in good agreement with the Kolmogorov theory of turbulence which predicts Δ=-1/3 asymptotically.

  14. Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic Dawn was identified as one of the three science objectives for this decade in the _New Worlds, New Horizons_ Decadal report, and it will likely continue to be a research focus well into the next decade. Cosmic Dawn refers to the interval during which the Universe transitioned from a nearly completely neutral state back to a nearly fully ionized state and includes the time during which the first stars formed and the first galaxies assembled.The Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group (SIG) was formed recently under the auspices of the Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group (COPAG). The Cosmic Dawn SIG focusses on the science cases, observations, and technology development needed to address the "great mystery" of Cosmic Origins. The reach of this SIG is broad, involving the nature of the first stars and the detectability of gamma-ray bursts at high redshifts, the extent to which the first galaxies and first supermassive black holes grew together, and the technology required to pursue these questions.For further information, consult the Cosmic Dawn SIG Web site http://cd-sig.jpl.nasa.gov/ and join the mailing list (by contacting the author).Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Green, James C.; Michael Shull, J.; Snow, Theodore P.; Stocke, John; Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steve; Beland, Stephane; Burgh, Eric B.; Danforth, Charles; France, Kevin; Ebbets, Dennis; Heap, Sara H.; Leitherer, Claus; Sembach, Kenneth; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Savage, Blair D.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Spencer, John; Alan Stern, S.; Welsh, Barry; and others

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a moderate-resolution spectrograph with unprecedented sensitivity that was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2009 May, during HST Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125). We present the design philosophy and summarize the key characteristics of the instrument that will be of interest to potential observers. For faint targets, with flux F{sub {lambda}} Almost-Equal-To 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} A{sup -1}, COS can achieve comparable signal to noise (when compared to Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph echelle modes) in 1%-2% of the observing time. This has led to a significant increase in the total data volume and data quality available to the community. For example, in the first 20 months of science operation (2009 September-2011 June) the cumulative redshift pathlength of extragalactic sight lines sampled by COS is nine times than sampled at moderate resolution in 19 previous years of Hubble observations. COS programs have observed 214 distinct lines of sight suitable for study of the intergalactic medium as of 2011 June. COS has measured, for the first time with high reliability, broad Ly{alpha} absorbers and Ne VIII in the intergalactic medium, and observed the He II reionization epoch along multiple sightlines. COS has detected the first CO emission and absorption in the UV spectra of low-mass circumstellar disks at the epoch of giant planet formation, and detected multiple ionization states of metals in extra-solar planetary atmospheres. In the coming years, COS will continue its census of intergalactic gas, probe galactic and cosmic structure, and explore physics in our solar system and Galaxy.

  16. Cosmic Dust Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J.; Watts, L.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Wentworth, S.; Dodson, A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1997-07-01

    Since May 1981, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used aircraft to collect cosmic dust (CD) particles from Earth's stratosphere. Specially designed dust collectors are prepared for flight and processed after flight in an ultraclean (Class-100) laboratory constructed for this purpose at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Particles are individually retrieved from the collectors, examined and cataloged, and then made available to the scientific community for research. Cosmic dust thereby joins lunar samples and meteorites as an additional source of extraterrestrial materials for scientific study. This catalog summarizes preliminary observations on 468 particles retrieved from collection surfaces L2021 and L2036. These surfaces were flat plate Large Area Collectors (with a 300 cm2 surface area each) which was coated with silicone oil (dimethyl siloxane) and then flown aboard a NASA ER-2 aircraft during a series of flights that were made during January and February of 1994 (L2021) and June 7 through July 5 of 1994 (L2036). Collector L2021 was flown across the entire southern margin of the US (California to Florida), and collector L2036 was flown from California to Wallops Island, VA and on to New England. These collectors were installed in a specially constructed wing pylon which ensured that the necessary level of cleanliness was maintained between periods of active sampling. During successive periods of high altitude (20 km) cruise, the collectors were exposed in the stratosphere by barometric controls and then retracted into sealed storage container-s prior to descent. In this manner, a total of 35.8 hours of stratospheric exposure was accumulated for collector L2021, and 26 hours for collector L2036.

  17. The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James C.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steve; Ebbets, Dennis; Heap, Sara H.; Leitherer, Claus; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth; Shull, J. Michael; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Snow, Theodore P.; Spencer, John; Stern, S. Alan; Stocke, John; Welsh, Barry; Beland, Stephane; Burgh, Eric B.; Danforth, Charles; France, Kevin; Keeney, Brian; McPhate, Jason; Penton, Steven V; Andrews, John; Morse, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a moderate-resolution spectrograph with unprecedented sensitivity that was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May 2009, during HST Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125). We present the design philosophy and summarize the key characteristics of the instrument that will be of interest to potential observers. For faint targets, with flux F(sub lambda) approximates 1.0 X 10(exp -14) ergs/s/cm2/Angstrom, COS can achieve comparable signal to noise (when compared to STIS echelle modes) in 1-2% of the observing time. This has led to a significant increase in the total data volume and data quality available to the community. For example, in the first 20 months of science operation (September 2009 - June 2011) the cumulative redshift pathlength of extragalactic sight lines sampled by COS is 9 times that sampled at moderate resolution in 19 previous years of Hubble observations. COS programs have observed 214 distinct lines of sight suitable for study of the intergalactic medium as of June 2011. COS has measured, for the first time with high reliability, broad Lya absorbers and Ne VIII in the intergalactic medium, and observed the HeII reionization epoch along multiple sightlines. COS has detected the first CO emission and absorption in the UV spectra of low-mass circumstellar disks at the epoch of giant planet formation, and detected multiple ionization states of metals in extra-solar planetary atmospheres. In the coming years, COS will continue its census of intergalactic gas, probe galactic and cosmic structure, and explore physics in our solar system and Galaxy.

  18. The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James C.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steve; Ebbets, Dennis; Heap, Sara H.; Leitherer, Claus; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth; Shull, J. Michael; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Snow, Theodore P.; Spencer, John; Stern, S. Alan; Stocke, John; Welsh, Barry; Béland, Stéphane; Burgh, Eric B.; Danforth, Charles; France, Kevin; Keeney, Brian; McPhate, Jason; Penton, Steven V.; Andrews, John; Brownsberger, Kenneth; Morse, Jon; Wilkinson, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a moderate-resolution spectrograph with unprecedented sensitivity that was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2009 May, during HST Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125). We present the design philosophy and summarize the key characteristics of the instrument that will be of interest to potential observers. For faint targets, with flux F λ ≈ 1.0 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 Å-1, COS can achieve comparable signal to noise (when compared to Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph echelle modes) in 1%-2% of the observing time. This has led to a significant increase in the total data volume and data quality available to the community. For example, in the first 20 months of science operation (2009 September-2011 June) the cumulative redshift pathlength of extragalactic sight lines sampled by COS is nine times than sampled at moderate resolution in 19 previous years of Hubble observations. COS programs have observed 214 distinct lines of sight suitable for study of the intergalactic medium as of 2011 June. COS has measured, for the first time with high reliability, broad Lyα absorbers and Ne VIII in the intergalactic medium, and observed the He II reionization epoch along multiple sightlines. COS has detected the first CO emission and absorption in the UV spectra of low-mass circumstellar disks at the epoch of giant planet formation, and detected multiple ionization states of metals in extra-solar planetary atmospheres. In the coming years, COS will continue its census of intergalactic gas, probe galactic and cosmic structure, and explore physics in our solar system and Galaxy.

  19. Cosmic rays in the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The different types of cosmic ray particles and their role in the heliosphere are briefly described. The rates of various energetic particles were examined as a function of time and used to derive various differential energy gradients. The Pioneer and Voyager cosmic ray observations throughout the heliosphere are indeed giving a perspective on the three-dimensional character and size of the heliosphere. Most clearly the observations are emphasizing the role that transient variations in the outer heliosphere, and most likely the heliospheric boundary shock, play in the 11 year solar cycle modulation of cosmic rays.

  20. Reionization from cosmic string loops

    SciTech Connect

    Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2006-09-15

    Loops formed from a cosmic string network at early times would act as seeds for early formation of halos, which would form galaxies and lead to early reionization. With reasonable guesses about astrophysical and string parameters, the cosmic string scale G{mu} must be no more than about 3x10{sup -8} to avoid conflict with the reionization redshift found by WMAP. The bound is much stronger for superstring models with a small string reconnection probability. For values near the bound, cosmic string loops may explain the discrepancy between the WMAP value and theoretical expectations.

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays FOCUS ON HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshima, Masahiro; Watson, Alan A.

    2009-06-01

    The topic of high-energy cosmic rays has recently attracted significant attention. While the AGASA and HiRes Observatories have closed after many years of successful operation, the Pierre Auger Observatory began taking data in January 2004 and the first results have been reported. Plans for the next generation of instruments are in hand: funding is now being sought for the northern phase of the Auger Observatory and plans for a space detector, JEM-EUSO, to be launched in 2013-14 are well advanced with the long-term target of a dedicated satellite for the 2020s. It therefore seemed an appropriate time to make a collection of outstanding and original research articles from the leading experimental groups and from some of the theorists who seek to interpret the hard-won data and to speculate on the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. This focus issue in New Journal of Physics on the topic of high energy cosmic rays, contains a comprehensive account of the work of the Yakutsk group (A A Ivanov, S P Knurenko and I Ye Sleptsov) who have used Cerenkov radiation produced by shower particles in the air to provide the basis for energy calibration. This technique contrasts with that of detecting fluorescence radiation from space that is proposed for the JEM-EUSO instrument to be placed on the International Space Station in 2013, described by Y Takahashi. Supplementing this is an article by A Santangelo and A Petrolini describing the scientific goals, requirements and main instrument features of the Super Extreme Universe Space Observatory mission (S-EUSO). The use of fluorescence light to measure energies was the key component of the HiRes instrument and is also used extensively by the Pierre Auger Collaboration so an article, by F Arqueros, F Blanco and J Rosado, summarizing the properties of fluorescence emission, still not fully understood, is timely. M Nagano, one of the architects of the AGASA Observatory, has provided an overview of the experimental situation with

  2. High energy cosmic ray composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, E. S.

    Cosmic rays are understood to result from energetic processes in the galaxy, probably from supernova explosions. However, cosmic ray energies extend several orders of magnitude beyond the limit thought possible for supernova blast waves. Over the past decade several ground-based and space-based investigations were initiated to look for evidence of a limit to supernova acceleration in the cosmic-ray chemical composition at high energies. These high-energy measurements are difficult because of the very low particle fluxes in the most interesting regions. The space-based detectors must be large enough to collect adequate statistics, yet stay within the weight limit for space flight. Innovative approaches now promise high quality measurements over an energy range that was not previously possible. The current status of high energy cosmic-ray composition measurements and planned future missions are discussed in this paper.

  3. Cosmic rays in a dynamical halo. I - Age and matter traversal distributions and anisotropy for nuclei. II - Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, A. J.; Jokipii, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Recent measurements of the mean lifetime of galactic cosmic rays (at least 10 million yr) have suggested a dynamical halo model of cosmic-ray confinement to the Galaxy. A one-dimensional version of the model is analyzed to determine the ranges of parameters required to give self-consistent values of the mean lifetime, matter traversed, anisotropy, and interstellar gamma-ray flux. It is found that the ranges of the parameters are: disk scale height of 4000-10,000 pc, average convection velocity of no more than 60 km/s, and diffusion coefficient of (3-10) by 10 to the 28th power sq cm/sec for particles with charges of the order of 10 GV. Some consequences for this model of a much shorter lifetime are also discussed. The energy spectrum and spatial distribution of electrons in the dynamical halo model are considered. A gradual steepening of the electron energy spectrum beginning at several GeV energy is found, as indicated by observations. The decrease of electron density with height in the halo depends on the particle energy and may be much steeper than that for nuclei. The models give a halo with a scale height of the order of 3 kpc for several-GeV electrons, which is shown to be consistent with radio observations.

  4. Galactic cosmic radiation environment models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; O'Neill, P. M.; Troung, A. G.

    2001-02-01

    Models of the radiation environment in free space and in near earth orbits are required to estimate the radiation dose to the astronauts for Mars, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station missions, and to estimate the rate of single event upsets and latch-ups in electronic devices. Accurate knowledge of the environment is critical for the design of optimal shielding during both the cruise phase and for a habitat on Mars or the Moon. Measurements of the energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) have been made for nearly four decades. In the last decade, models have been constructed that can predict the energy spectra of any GCR nuclei to an accuracy of better than 25%. Fresh and more accurate measurements have been made in the last year. These measurements can lead to more accurate models. Improvements in these models can be made in determining the local interstellar spectra and in predicting the level of solar modulation. It is the coupling of the two that defines a GCR model. This paper reviews of two of the more widely used models, and a comparison of their predictions with new proton and helium data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and spectra of beryllium to iron in the ~40 to 500 MeV/n acquired by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) during the 1997-98 solar minimum. Regressions equations relating the IMP-8 helium count rate to the solar modulation deceleration parameter calculated using the Climax neutron monitor rate have been developed and may lead to improvements in the predictive capacity of the models. .

  5. Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisser, Thomas K.; Engel, Ralph; Resconi, Elisa

    2016-06-01

    Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; 1. Cosmic rays; 2. Cosmic ray data; 3. Particle physics; 4. Hadronic interactions and accelerator data; 5. Cascade equations; 6. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos; 7. Neutrino masses and oscillations; 8. Muons and neutrinos underground; 9. Cosmic rays in the Galaxy; 10. Extragalactic propagation of cosmic rays; 11. Astrophysical - rays and neutrinos; 12. Acceleration; 13. Supernovae in the Milky Way; 14. Astrophysical accelerators and beam dumps; 15. Electromagnetic cascades; 16. Extensive air showers; 17. Very high energy cosmic rays; 18. Neutrino astronomy; A.1. Units, constants and definitions; A.2. References to flux measurements; A.3. Particle flux, density, and interaction cross section; A.4. Fundamentals of scattering theory; A.5. Regge amplitude; A.6. Glauber model of nuclear cross sections; A.7. Earth's atmosphere; A.8. Longitudinal development of air showers; A.9. Secondary positrons and electrons; A.10. Liouville's theorem and cosmic ray propagation; A.11. Cosmology and distances measures; A.12. The Hillas splitting algorithm; References; Index.

  6. Internal Energy Transfer and Dissociation Model Development using Accelerated First-Principles Simulations of Hypersonic Flow Features

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-11

    for nitrogen using molecular dynamics simulation”, 28th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, AIP Conf. Proc. 1501, 519-526 (2012); doi...accurate for highly nonequilibrium flows relevant to rarefied flows and sharp flow features with small length scales. Currently, both CFD and DSMC use...While such simulations are not expected to overlap with the 3D near-continuum flows in the near future, they certainly overlap with rarefied DSMC

  7. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2006-06-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  8. Preface: Cosmic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in observations and modeling have opened new perspectives for the understanding of fundamental dynamical processes of cosmic magnetism, and associated magnetic activity on the Sun, stars and galaxies. The goal of the Special Issue is to discuss the progress in solar physics and astrophysics, similarities and differences in phenomenology and physics of magnetic phenomena on the Sun and other stars. Space observatories, ground-based telescopes, and new observational methods have provided tremendous amount of data that need to be analyzed and understood. The solar observations discovered multi-scale organization of solar activity, dramatically changing current paradigms of solar variability. On the other side, stellar observations discovered new regimes of dynamics and magnetism that are different from the corresponding solar phenomena, but described by the same physics. Stars represent an astrophysical laboratory for studying the dynamical, magnetic and radiation processes across a broad range of stellar masses and ages. These studies allow us to look at the origin and evolution of our Sun, whereas detailed investigations of the solar magnetism give us a fundamental basis for interpretation and understanding of unresolved stellar data.

  9. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  10. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  11. The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk; Iss-Cream Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was flown for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica, the longest known exposure for a single balloon project. Elemental spectra were measured for Z = 1- 26 nuclei over a wide energy range from 1010 to >1014 eV. Building on the success of those balloon flights, one of the two balloon payloads was transformed for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). This ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with redundant and complementary particle detectors. The four layers of its finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector provide precise charge measurements, and its ionization calorimeter provides energy measurements. In addition, scintillator-based Top and Bottom Counting Detectors and the Boronated Scintillator Detector distinguish electrons from nuclei. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is expected to reach the highest energies practical with direct measurements. Following completion of its qualification tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the ISS-CREAM payload was delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center in August 2015 to await its launch to the ISS. While waiting for ISS-CREAM to launch, the other balloon payload including a Transition Radiation Detector, which is too large for the JEM-EF envelope, has been prepared for another Antarctic balloon flight in 2016. This so-called Boron And Carbon Cosmic rays in the Upper Stratosphere (BACCUS) payload will investigate cosmic ray propagation history. The overall project status and future plans will be presented.

  12. A Cosmic Searchlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A Cosmic Searchlight Streaming out from the center of the galaxy M87 like a cosmic searchlight is one of nature's most amazing phenomena, a black-hole- powered jet of electrons and other sub-atomic particles traveling at nearly the speed of light. In this NASA Hubble Space Telescope image, the blue of the jet contrasts with the yellow glow from the combined light of billions of unseen stars and the yellow, point-like globular clusters that make up this galaxy. At first glance, M87 (also known as NGC 4486) appears to be an ordinary giant elliptical galaxy; one of many ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster of galaxies. However, as early as 1918, astronomer H.D. Curtis noted a 'curious straight ray' protruding from M87. In the 1950s when the field of radio was blossoming, one of the brightest radio sources in the sky, Virgo A, was discovered to be associated with M87 and its jet. After decades of study, prompted by these discoveries, the source of this incredible amount of energy powering the jet has become clear. Lying at the center of M87 is a supermassive black hole, which has swallowed up a mass equivalent to 2 billion times the mass of our Sun. The jet originates in the disk of superheated gas swirling around this black hole and is propelled and concentrated by the intense, twisted magnetic fields trapped within this plasma. The light that we see (and the radio emission) is produced by electrons twisting along magnetic field lines in the jet, a process known as synchrotron radiation, which gives the jet its bluish tint. M87 is one of the nearest and is the most well-studied extragalactic jet, but many others exist. Wherever a massive black hole is feeding on a particularly rich diet of disrupted stars, gas, and dust, the conditions are right for the formation of a jet. Interestingly, a similar phenomenon occurs around young stars, though at much smaller scales and energies. At a distance of 50 million light-years, M87 is too distant for Hubble to discern

  13. Cosmic Microwave Background spectral distortions from cosmic string loops

    SciTech Connect

    Anthonisen, Madeleine; Brandenberger, Robert; Laguë, Alex; Morrison, Ian A.; Xia, Daixi E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: imorrison@physics.mcgill.ca

    2016-02-01

    Cosmic string loops contain cusps which decay by emitting bursts of particles. A significant fraction of the released energy is in the form of photons. These photons are injected non-thermally and can hence cause spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Under the assumption that cusps are robust against gravitational back-reaction, we compute the fractional energy density released as photons in the redshift interval where such non-thermal photon injection causes CMB spectral distortions. Whereas current constraints on such spectral distortions are not strong enough to constrain the string tension, future missions such as the PIXIE experiment will be able to provide limits which rule out a range of string tensions between G μ ∼ 10{sup −15} and G μ ∼ 10{sup −12}, thus ruling out particle physics models yielding these kind of intermediate-scale cosmic strings.

  14. Robust Constraint on Cosmic Textures from the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Johnson, Matthew C.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2012-06-01

    Fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) contain information which has been pivotal in establishing the current cosmological model. These data can also be used to test well-motivated additions to this model, such as cosmic textures. Textures are a type of topological defect that can be produced during a cosmological phase transition in the early Universe, and which leave characteristic hot and cold spots in the CMB. We apply Bayesian methods to carry out a rigorous test of the texture hypothesis, using full-sky data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We conclude that current data do not warrant augmenting the standard cosmological model with textures. We rule out at 95% confidence models that predict more than 6 detectable cosmic textures on the full sky.

  15. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " hot spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "hot spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "hot spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary processes at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "hot spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the mysteries of this class of remote and active

  16. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10{sup 18} eV with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) The cosmic ray flux observed at zenith angles larger than 60 degrees with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Energy calibration of data recorded with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Exposure of the Hybrid Detector of The Pierre Auger Observatory; and (5) Energy scale derived from Fluorescence Telescopes using Cherenkov Light and Shower Universality.

  17. The Vainshtein mechanism in the cosmic web

    SciTech Connect

    Falck, Bridget; Koyama, Kazuya; Zhao, Gong-bo; Li, Baojiu E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dependence of the Vainshtein screening mechanism on the cosmic web morphology of both dark matter particles and halos as determined by ORIGAMI. Unlike chameleon and symmetron screening, which come into effect in regions of high density, Vainshtein screening instead depends on the dimensionality of the system, and screened bodies can still feel external fields. ORIGAMI is well-suited to this problem because it defines morphologies according to the dimensionality of the collapsing structure and does not depend on a smoothing scale or density threshold parameter. We find that halo particles are screened while filament, wall, and void particles are unscreened, and this is independent of the particle density. However, after separating halos according to their large scale cosmic web environment, we find no difference in the screening properties of halos in filaments versus halos in clusters. We find that the fifth force enhancement of dark matter particles in halos is greatest well outside the virial radius. We confirm the theoretical expectation that even if the internal field is suppressed by the Vainshtein mechanism, the object still feels the fifth force generated by the external fields, by measuring peculiar velocities and velocity dispersions of halos. Finally, we investigate the morphology and gravity model dependence of halo spins, concentrations, and shapes.

  18. Cosmic logic: a computational model

    SciTech Connect

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2016-02-01

    We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps.

  19. Cosmic rays: Space Weather Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    The concept of Space Weather was launched before a decade to describe the short-term variations in the different form of solar ac-tivity and their effect in the near Earth environ-ment. Space weather affects the Earth's atmos-phere in many ways and through various phe-nomena. Among them, geomagnetic storms and the variability of the galactic cosmic ray flux be-long to the most important ones as for the lower atmosphere. We have performed superposed ep-och analysis using hourly neutron monitor data for three different neutron-monitoring stations of different cut off rigidity as a measure of cosmic ray intensity. In the present study for superposed epoch analysis the time of occurrence of CMEs are defined as key time (zero or epoch hour/day). It is noteworthy that the use of cosmic ray data in space weather research plays a key role for its prediction. We have studied the cosmic ray, geo-magnetic and interplanetary plasma/field data to understand the physical mechanism responsible for Forbush decrease and geomagnetic storm that can be used as a signature to forecast space weather. Keywords: Space weather, cosmic ray, geomag-netic storm, forbush decrease

  20. The microphysics and macrophysics of cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2013-05-15

    This review paper commemorates a century of cosmic ray research, with emphasis on the plasma physics aspects. Cosmic rays comprise only ∼10{sup −9} of interstellar particles by number, but collectively their energy density is about equal to that of the thermal particles. They are confined by the Galactic magnetic field and well scattered by small scale magnetic fluctuations, which couple them to the local rest frame of the thermal fluid. Scattering isotropizes the cosmic rays and allows them to exchange momentum and energy with the background medium. I will review a theory for how the fluctuations which scatter the cosmic rays can be generated by the cosmic rays themselves through a microinstability excited by their streaming. A quasilinear treatment of the cosmic ray–wave interaction then leads to a fluid model of cosmic rays with both advection and diffusion by the background medium and momentum and energy deposition by the cosmic rays. This fluid model admits cosmic ray modified shocks, large scale cosmic ray driven instabilities, cosmic ray heating of the thermal gas, and cosmic ray driven galactic winds. If the fluctuations were extrinsic turbulence driven by some other mechanism, the cosmic ray background coupling would be entirely different. Which picture holds depends largely on the nature of turbulence in the background medium.

  1. Precise measurement of cosmic ray fluxes with the AMS-02 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchi, Manuela

    2015-12-17

    The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating onboard the International Space Station since May 2011. The main goals of the detector are the search for antimatter and dark matter in space, as well as the measurement of cosmic ray composition and flux. In this document we present precise measurements of cosmic ray positrons, electrons and protons, collected during the first 30 months of operations.

  2. Is cosmic acceleration slowing down?

    SciTech Connect

    Shafieloo, Arman; Sahni, Varun; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2009-11-15

    We investigate the course of cosmic expansion in its recent past using the Constitution SN Ia sample, along with baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. Allowing the equation of state of dark energy (DE) to vary, we find that a coasting model of the universe (q{sub 0}=0) fits the data about as well as Lambda cold dark matter. This effect, which is most clearly seen using the recently introduced Om diagnostic, corresponds to an increase of Om and q at redshifts z < or approx. 0.3. This suggests that cosmic acceleration may have already peaked and that we are currently witnessing its slowing down. The case for evolving DE strengthens if a subsample of the Constitution set consisting of SNLS+ESSENCE+CfA SN Ia data is analyzed in combination with BAO+CMB data. The effect we observe could correspond to DE decaying into dark matter (or something else)

  3. Efficacy of Cosmic Ray Shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    This research involved testing various types of shielding with a self-constructed Berkeley style cosmic ray detector, in order to evaluate the materials of each type of shielding's effectiveness at blocking cosmic rays and the cost- and size-efficiency of the shields as well. The detector was constructed, then tested for functionality and reliability. Following confirmation, the detector was then used at three different locations to observe it altitude or atmospheric conditions had any effect on the effectiveness of certain shields. Multiple types of shielding were tested with the detector, including combinations of several shields, primarily aluminum, high-iron steel, polyethylene plastic, water, lead, and a lead-alternative radiation shield utilized in radiology. These tests regarding both the base effectiveness and the overall efficiency of shields is designed to support future space exploratory missions where the risk of exposure to possibly lethal amounts of cosmic rays for crew and the damage caused to unshielded electronics are of serious concern.

  4. Cosmic necklaces from string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Leblond, Louis; Wyman, Mark

    2007-06-15

    We present the properties of a cosmic superstring network in the scenario of flux compactification. An infinite family of strings, the (p,q) strings, are allowed to exist. The flux compactification leads to a string tension that is periodic in p. Monopoles, appearing here as beads on a string, are formed in certain interactions in such networks. This allows bare strings to become cosmic necklaces. We study network evolution in this scenario, outlining what conditions are necessary to reach a cosmologically viable scaling solution. We also analyze the physics of the beads on a cosmic necklace, and present general conditions for which they will be cosmologically safe, leaving the network's scaling undisturbed. In particular, we find that a large average loop size is sufficient for the beads to be cosmologically safe. Finally, we argue that loop formation will promote a scaling solution for the interbead distance in some situations.

  5. People Interview: Cosmic rays uncover universe theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    INTERVIEW Cosmic rays uncover universe theories David Smith talks to Paula Chadwick about why she is fascinated by cosmic and gamma rays, and how this is the year that their profile is going to be raised

  6. The Heliosphere and Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Video Gallery

    The heliosphere deflects galactic cosmic rays from entering the system. Galactic cosmic rays are a very high energy form of particle radiation that are extremely difficult to shield against and are...

  7. Evaluation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Heiblim, Samuel; Malott, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Models of the galactic cosmic ray spectra have been tested by comparing their predictions to an evaluated database containing more than 380 measured cosmic ray spectra extending from 1960 to the present.

  8. Individual and collective doses from cosmic radiation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Colgan, P A; Synnott, H; Fenton, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the individual and collective doses in Ireland due to cosmic radiation. Information on the exposure to cosmic radiation at ground level is reviewed and published data on the frequency of routes flown by Irish residents is used to calculate the dose due to air travel. Occupational exposure of aircrew is also evaluated. Experimental data on cosmic radiation exposure at ground level is in good agreement with international estimates and the average individual dose is calculated as 300 microSv annually. Published data on international air travel by Irish residents shows a 50% increase in the number of flights taken between 2001 and 2005. This increase is primarily on short-haul flights to Europe, but there have been significant percentage increases in all long-haul flights, with the exception of flights to Africa. The additional per capita dose due to air travel is estimated to be 45 muSv, of which 51% is accumulated on European routes and 34% on routes to the United States. Exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation is now controlled by legislation and all airlines holding an Air Operator's Certificate issued by the Irish Aviation Authority are required to report annually the doses received by their employees in the previous year. There has been a 75% increase in the number of aircrew receiving doses >1 mSv since 2002. In 2004 and 2005 the average individual doses received by Irish aircrew were 1.8 and 2.0, mSv, respectively. The corresponding per caput dose for the entire population is <3 muSv. While this is low compared with the per caput doses from other sources of cosmic radiation, aircrew exposure represents a higher collective dose than any other identified group of exposed workers in Ireland.

  9. The Cosmic Shoreline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Catling, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    in 2004 when there were just two transiting exoplanets to consider. The trend was well-defined by late 2007. Figure 1 shows how matters stood in Dec 2012 with approx.240 exoplanets. The figure shows that the boundary between planets with and without active volatiles - the cosmic shoreline, as it were - is both well-defined and follows a power law.

  10. Fun Times with Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Who would have thought cosmic rays could be so hip? Although discovered 90 years ago on death-defying manned balloon flights hip even by twenty-first-century extremesport standards cosmic rays quickly lost popularity as way-cool telescopes were finding way-too-cool phenomena across the electromagnetic spectrum. Yet cosmic rays are back in vogue, boasting their own set of superlatives. Scientists are tracking them down with new resolve from the Arctic to Antarctica and even on the high western plains of Argentina. Theorists, too, now see cosmic rays as harbingers of funky physics. Cosmic rays are atomic and subatomic particles - the fastest moving bits of matter in the universe and the only sample of matter we have from outside the solar system (with the exception of interstellar dust grains). Lower-energy cosmic rays come from the Sun. Mid-energy particles come from stellar explosions - either spewed directly from the star like shrapnel, or perhaps accelerated to nearly the speed of light by shock waves. The highest-energy cosmic rays, whose unequivocal existence remains one of astronomy's greatest mysteries, clock in at a staggering 10(exp 19) to 10(exp 22) electron volts. This is the energy carried in a baseball pitch; seeing as how there are as many atomic particles in a baseball as there are baseballs in the Moon, that s one powerful toss. No simple stellar explosion could produce them. At a recent conference in Albuquerque, scientists presented the first observational evidence of a possible origin for the highest-energy variety. A team led by Elihu Boldt at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center found that five of these very rare cosmic rays (there are only a few dozen confirmed events) come from the direction of four 'retired' quasar host galaxies just above the arm of the Big Dipper, all visible with backyard telescopes: NGC 3610, NGC 3613, NGC 4589, and NGC 5322. These galaxies are billions of years past their glory days as the brightest beacons in the universe

  11. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  12. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-15

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  13. Evolution of cosmic string networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Turok, Neil

    1989-01-01

    Results on cosmic strings are summarized including: (1) the application of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to cosmic string evolution; (2) a simple one scale model for the long strings which has a great deal of predictive power; (3) results from large scale numerical simulations; and (4) a discussion of the observational consequences of our results. An upper bound on G mu of approximately 10(-7) emerges from the millisecond pulsar gravity wave bound. How numerical uncertainties affect this are discussed. Any changes which weaken the bound would probably also give the long strings the dominant role in producing observational consequences.

  14. Cosmic-Ray Detectors With Interdigitated Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J.; Mazed, Mohammed; Holtzman, Melinda J.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1995-01-01

    Detectors measure both positions of incidence and energies of incident charged particles. Stack of detector wafers intercept cosmic ray. Measure positions of incidence to determine cosmic-ray trajectory and charge generated within them (proportional to cosmic-ray energy dissipated within them). Interdigital electrode pattern repeated over many rows and columns on tops of detector wafers in stack. Electrode pattern defines pixels within which points of incidence of incident cosmic rays located.

  15. Cosmic strings and ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, Pijushpani

    1989-01-01

    The flux is calculated of ultrahigh energy protons due to the process of cusp evaporation from cosmic string loops. For the standard value of the dimensionless cosmic string parameter epsilon is identical to G(sub mu) approx. = 10(exp -6), the flux is several orders of magnitude below the observed cosmic ray flux of ultrahigh energy protons. However, the flux at any energy initially increases as the value of epsilon is decreased. This at first suggests that there may be a lower limit on the value of epsilon, which would imply a lower limit on the temperature of a cosmic string forming phase transition in the early universe. However, the calculation shows that this is not the case -- the particle flux at any energy reaches its highest value at epsilon approx. = 10(exp -15) and it then decreases for further decrease of the value of epsilon. This is due to the fact that for too small values of epsilon (less than 10(exp -15)), the energy loss of the loops through the cusp evaporation process itself (rather than gravitational energy loss of the loops) becomes the dominant factor that controls the behavior of the number density of the loops at the relevant times of emission of the particles. The highest flux at any energy remains at least four orders of magnitude below the observed flux. There is thus no lower limit on epsilon.

  16. PREFACE: 23rd European Cosmic Ray Symposium (and 32nd Russian Cosmic Ray Conference)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Meroshnichenko, L. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2013-02-01

    The 23rd European Cosmic Ray Symposium (ECRS) took place in Moscow at the Lomonosov Moscow State University (3-7 July 2012), and was excellently organized by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, with the help of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Council on the Complex Problem of Cosmic Rays of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The first symposia were held in 1968 in Lodz, Poland (high energy, extensive air showers and astrophysical aspects) and in Bern (solar and heliospheric phenomena) and the two 'strands' joined together in 1976 with the meeting in Leeds. Since then the symposia, which have been very successful, have covered all the major topics with some emphasis on European collaborations and on meeting the demands of young scientists. Initially, a driving force was the need to overcome the divisions caused by the 'Cold War' but the symposia continued even when that threat ceased and they have shown no sign of having outlived their usefulness. 2012 has been an important year in the history of cosmic ray studies, in that it marked the centenary of the discovery of enigmatic particles in the perilous balloon ascents of Victor Hess. A number of conferences have taken place in Western Europe during the year, but this one took place in Moscow as a tribute to the successful efforts of many former USSR and other Eastern European scientists in discovering the secrets of the subject, often under very difficult conditions. The symposium covers a wide range of scientific issues divided into the following topics: PCR-IPrimary cosmic rays I (E < 1015 eV) PCR-IIPrimary cosmic rays II (E > 1015 eV) MNCosmic ray muons and neutrinos GAGeV and TeV gamma astronomy SHEnergetic particles in the heliosphere (solar and anomalous CRs and GCR modulation) GEOCosmic rays and geophysics (energetic particles in the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth) On a personal note, as I step down as co-founder and chairman of the

  17. Landau quantization in the spinning cosmic string spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Muniz, C.R.; Bezerra, V.B.; Cunha, M.S.

    2014-11-15

    We analyze the quantum phenomenon arising from the interaction of a spinless charged particle with a rotating cosmic string, under the action of a static and uniform magnetic field parallel to the string. We calculate the energy levels of the particle in the non-relativistic approach, showing how these energies depend on the parameters involved in the problem. In order to do this, we solve the time independent Schrödinger equation in the geometry of the spinning cosmic string, taking into account that the coupling between the rotation of the spacetime and the angular momentum of the particle is very weak, such that makes sense to apply the Schrödinger equation in a curved background whose metric has an off diagonal term which involves time and space. It is also assumed that the particle orbits sufficiently far from the boundary of the region of closed timelike curves which exist around this topological defect. Finally, we find the Landau levels of the particle in the presence of a spinning cosmic string endowed with internal structure, i.e., having a finite width and uniformly filled with both material and vacuum energies. - Highlights: • Solution of the wave equation characterizing the problem. • Energy levels of the particle in spacetime of the structureless string. • Expression for an analogous of the quadratic Zeeman effect. • Energy levels of the particle in spacetime of the string with internal structure. • Evidence of the string structure by the internal existence of the vacuum energy.

  18. Estimates of cosmic radiation exposure on Tunisian passenger aircraft.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Neïla; Bennaceur, Raouf

    2008-01-01

    Radiation field produced by cosmic radiations in the earth's atmosphere is very complex and is significantly different from that found in the nuclear industry and other environments at ground level. Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to high levels of cosmic radiations of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in publication 60, the European Union introduced a revised Basic Safety Standard Directive, which included exposure to natural sources of ionising radiations, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. We computed the dose received by some Tunisian flights, using CARI-6, EPCARD, PCAIRE, and SIEVERT codes. Calculations performed during the year 2007, on mostly regular passenger flights of the Nouvelair Tunisian Company, indicate a mean effective dose rate ranging between 3 and 4 microSv/h. We give the general background and details, focusing on the situation in Tunisia with respect to radiation protection aspects of the cosmic radiation exposure. As far as we know, such a study has not previously been carried out.

  19. Cosmic Times: Astronomy History and Science for the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochner, J. C.; Mattson, B. J.

    2008-11-01

    Cosmic Times is a series of curriculum support materials for grades 7--12 which teach the nature of science by exploring the history of our understanding of the universe during the past 100 years. Starting with the confirmation of Einstein's theory of gravity in 1919 to the current conundrum posed by the discovery of dark energy, Cosmic Times examines the discoveries, the theories, and the people involved in this changing understanding of the universe. Cosmic Times takes the form of six posters, each resembling the front page of a newspaper from a particular time in this history, with articles describing the discoveries. Each poster is accompanied by 4--5 classroom lessons which enable students to examine the science concepts behind the discoveries, develop techniques to improve science literacy, and investigate the nature of science using historical examples. Cosmic Times connects directly with the International Year of Astronomy theme of Astronomy in the Classroom, as well as the general theme of the impact of astronomy history.

  20. The Cosmic Ray Electron Excess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Christl, M.; Ganel, O.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Watts, J. W.; Wefel, J. P.; Wu, J.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible sources for the apparent excess of Cosmic Ray Electrons. The presentation reviews the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) instrument, the various parts, how cosmic ray electrons are measured, and shows graphs that review the results of the ATIC instrument measurement. A review of Cosmic Ray Electrons models is explored, along with the source candidates. Scenarios for the excess are reviewed: Supernova remnants (SNR) Pulsar Wind nebulae, or Microquasars. Each of these has some problem that mitigates the argument. The last possibility discussed is Dark Matter. The Anti-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) mission is to search for evidence of annihilations of dark matter particles, to search for anti-nuclei, to test cosmic-ray propagation models, and to measure electron and positron spectra. There are slides explaining the results of Pamela and how to compare these with those of the ATIC experiment. Dark matter annihilation is then reviewed, which represent two types of dark matter: Neutralinos, and kaluza-Kline (KK) particles, which are next explained. The future astrophysical measurements, those from GLAST LAT, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and HEPCAT are reviewed, in light of assisting in finding an explanation for the observed excess. Also the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could help by revealing if there are extra dimensions.

  1. Art and the Cosmic Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Whitney H.; Aiello, Monica Petty; Macdonald, Reeves; Asplund, Shari

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary unit described in this article utilizes "Art and the Cosmic Connection," a free program conceived of by artists Monica and Tyler Aiello and developed by the artists, scientists, and educators through NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs, to inspire learners to explore mysterious worlds in our solar…

  2. Q&A: Cosmic gardener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Jascha

    2011-05-01

    Charles Jencks designs landscapes and sculptures to convey concepts in astronomy, biology and mathematics -- notably at CERN, Europe's particle-physics lab near Geneva, Switzerland, and in his Garden of Cosmic Speculation near Dumfries in Scotland, UK. On the launch of his new book, he discusses green architecture and metaphor.

  3. Fireballs from superconducting cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruzinov, Andrei; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Thermalized fireballs should be created by cusp events on superconducting cosmic strings. This simple notion allows to reliably estimate particle emission from the cusps in a given background magnetic field. With plausible assumptions about intergalactic magnetic fields, the cusp events can produce observable fluxes of high-energy photons and neutrinos with unique signatures.

  4. Cosmic Censorship for Gowdy Spacetimes.

    PubMed

    Ringström, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Due to the complexity of Einstein's equations, it is often natural to study a question of interest in the framework of a restricted class of solutions. One way to impose a restriction is to consider solutions satisfying a given symmetry condition. There are many possible choices, but the present article is concerned with one particular choice, which we shall refer to as Gowdy symmetry. We begin by explaining the origin and meaning of this symmetry type, which has been used as a simplifying assumption in various contexts, some of which we shall mention. Nevertheless, the subject of interest here is strong cosmic censorship. Consequently, after having described what the Gowdy class of spacetimes is, we describe, as seen from the perspective of a mathematician, what is meant by strong cosmic censorship. The existing results on cosmic censorship are based on a detailed analysis of the asymptotic behavior of solutions. This analysis is in part motivated by conjectures, such as the BKL conjecture, which we shall therefore briefly describe. However, the emphasis of the article is on the mathematical analysis of the asymptotics, due to its central importance in the proof and in the hope that it might be of relevance more generally. The article ends with a description of the results that have been obtained concerning strong cosmic censorship in the class of Gowdy spacetimes.

  5. The Resurgence of Cosmic Storytellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swimme, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Brian Swimme's insights about the Story of the Universe look to the unifying impact of a "cosmic story" that speaks to all cultures and nations. Swimme suggests that humans are now able, through science and narrative, to present a story which will make us all a "cohesive tribe" while answering the universal questions of…

  6. Cosmology, Relativity and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Rebeca; Martínez, Humberto; Zepeda, Arnulfo

    2009-04-01

    This is a short review of the evolution of ideas and concepts about the Universe. It is based on the introductory talk given on the 25 of July 2008 within the Third School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics held in Arequipa, Peru.

  7. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-15

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  8. Particle Astrophysics with Cosmic Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheirandish, Ali

    IceCube's discovery of cosmic neutrinos offers a unique view of our universe and provides powerful insights into some of the most energetic and enigmatic objects in the cosmos. Cosmic neutrinos reveal an unobstructed view at wavelengths where the universe is opaque to photons. The existence of the cosmic-neutrino flux has challenged our understanding of the universe. It is somewhat counterintuitive that the most surprising property of the observed flux is its magnitude. An immediate inference from the large neutrino flux observed by IceCube, which is predominantly extragalactic in origin, is that the total energy density of neutrinos in the high-energy universe is similar to that of photons. The matching energy densities of the extragalactic gamma-ray flux detected by Fermi and the high-energy neutrino flux measured by IceCube suggest the possibility of a common origin. Therefore, rather than detecting some exotic sources, it looks more likely that IceCube observes the same universe as astronomers do. The finding implies that a large fraction of the energy in the non-thermal universe originates in hadronic processes, indicating a larger level than previously thought. The focus of this dissertation is on identifying the sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos observed in IceCube. Moreover, with the lack of confirmation to date of any source (type of sources) as the dominant contributor to the observed neutrino flux, we have studied prospects for observing different sources in IceCube by considering both transient and steady sources in the sky. Finally, we introduce new techniques to study the strength of neutrino dark matter interactions with the properties of high-energy cosmic neutrinos.

  9. Cosmic Ray Observatories for Space Weather Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX) was created in October 2014. Some observatories measure data for the service at different frequencies and particles. Two cosmic ray observatories detect the particle variations attributed to solar emissions, and are an important source of information for the SCiESMEX. The Mexico City Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a neutron monitor (6-NM-64) and a muon telescope, that detect the hadronic and hard component of the secondary cosmic rays in the atmosphere. It has been in continous operation since 1990. The Sierra Negra Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a solar neutron telescope and the scintillator cosmic ray telescope. These telescopes can detect the neutrons, generated in solar flares and the hadronic and hard components of the secondary cosmic rays. It has been in continous operation since 2004. We present the two observatories and the capability to detect variations in the cosmic rays, generated by the emissions of the solar activity.

  10. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Prince, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is research in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology. The primary activities discussed involve the development of new instrumentation and techniques for future space flight. In many cases these instrumentation developments were tested in balloon flight instruments designed to conduct new investigations in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics. The results of these investigations are briefly summarized. Specific topics include a quantitative investigation of the solar modulation of cosmic ray protons and helium nuclei, a study of cosmic ray positron and electron spectra in interplanetary and interstellar space, the solar modulation of cosmic rays, an investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances, and a balloon measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen.

  11. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Weygaert, Rien

    2016-10-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe nature of dark energy, while their substructure and galaxy population provides a direct key to thenature of dark matter. Also, the pristine environment of void interiors is an important testing groundfor our understanding of environmental influences on galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, we reviewthe key aspects of the structure and dynamics ofvoids, with a particular focus on the hierarchical evolution of the void population. We demonstratehow the rich structural pattern of the Cosmic Web is related to the complex evolution and buildupof voids.

  12. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics: Cosmic physics portion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Schindler, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Research in particle astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology is supported under NASA Grant NAGW-1919. A three-year proposal for continuation of support was submitted a year ago and put into effect 1 October 1992. This report is the combined progress report and continuation application called for under the Federal Demonstration Project. Gamma-ray Astrophysics at SRL is separately supported under NAGW-1919 and will be separately summarized and proposed. This report will document progress and plans for our particle spectroscopy activities and for related data analysis, calibration, and community service activities. A bibliography and a budget will be attached as appendices. The Caltech SRL research program includes a heavy emphasis on elemental and isotopic spectroscopy of energetic particles in the cosmic radiation; in solar, interplanetary, and anomalous 'cosmic' radiation; and in planetary magnetospheres as discussed.

  13. Galactic and anomalous cosmic rays through the solar cycle: New insights from Ulysses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Potgieter, M. S.

    Cosmic ray research began in 1912 when Victor Hess measured the intensity of the then unknown ionizing radiation with an electroscope in a balloon up to an altitude of about 5,000 m. He discovered that this very penetrating radiation, later called cosmic rays, was coming from outside the atmosphere (for a historic review, see Simpson, 2001).The systematic experimental study of cosmic rays began in the 1930s, using ground-based and balloon-borne ionization chambers. In the 1950s it expanded on a much larger scale with neutron monitors, coordinated world-wide during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957 (Simpson, 2000). When Parker (1958) described the solar wind, the theoretical research of cosmic rays began, stimulated by the beginning of in situ space observations that have led over four decades to important space missions, including the Ulysses mission to high heliolatitudes.

  14. FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 GNSS radio occultation constellation mission for global weather monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K.; Fong, Chen-Joe; Wenkel, M. J.; Wilczynski, P.; Yen, N.; Chang, G. S.

    The United States and Taiwan, through an Agreement signed in May 2010, have begun to jointly develop a satellite program to deliver next-generation global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) data to users around the world. This Program, known as FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2, is the follow-on to the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission, which was a joint US-Taiwan 6-satellite constellation demonstration mission launched in April 2006. The COSMIC mission was the world's first operational GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO) mission for global weather forecast; climate monitoring; atmospheric, ionospheric, and geodetic research. The GPS-RO data from COSMIC has been extremely valuable to the climate, meteorology, and space weather communities, including real-time forecasting users as well as U.S. and international research communities. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC reached the end of its design life in 2011. The constellation satellites have exhibited some unrecoverable anomalies and consequently the critical real-time satellite observing capability is degrading and may go offline with uncertainty in the coming few years. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Taiwan's National Space Organization (NSPO) have recognized the potential GPS-RO data gap due to the degrading COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 constellation and agreed to implement the follow-on COSMIC-2/FORMOSAT-7 mission in 2010. Both experienced programmatic difficulties in the past two years in the course of implementing the COSMIC-2/FORMOSAT-7 Program; however, significant progress over the past six months has occurred. This paper will provide an overview of the COSMIC2/FORMOSAT-7 Program including the Program goals and objectives. It will also discuss the status of the Program including current satellite and constellation configuration, activities to determine the optimal and minimal ground system architecture to meet data latency requirements, and other discussions on the mission and scientific payload technol

  15. Cosmic ray impact on extrasolar earth-like planets in close-in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Griessmeier, J-M; Stadelmann, A; Motschmann, U; Belisheva, N K; Lammer, H; Biernat, H K

    2005-10-01

    Because of their different origins, cosmic rays can be subdivided into galactic cosmic rays and solar/stellar cosmic rays. The flux of cosmic rays to planetary surfaces is mainly determined by two planetary parameters: the atmospheric density and the strength of the internal magnetic moment. If a planet exhibits an extended magnetosphere, its surface will be protected from high-energy cosmic ray particles. We show that close-in extrasolar planets in the habitable zone of M stars are synchronously rotating with their host star because of the tidal interaction. For gravitationally locked planets the rotation period is equal to the orbital period, which is much longer than the rotation period expected for planets not subject to tidal locking. This results in a relatively small magnetic moment. We found that an Earth-like extrasolar planet, tidally locked in an orbit of 0.2 AU around an M star of 0.5 solar masses, has a rotation rate of 2% of that of the Earth. This results in a magnetic moment of less than 15% of the Earth's current magnetic moment. Therefore, close-in extrasolar planets seem not to be protected by extended Earth-like magnetospheres, and cosmic rays can reach almost the whole surface area of the upper atmosphere. Primary cosmic ray particles that interact with the atmosphere generate secondary energetic particles, a so-called cosmic ray shower. Some of the secondary particles can reach the surface of terrestrial planets when the surface pressure of the atmosphere is on the order of 1 bar or less. We propose that, depending on atmospheric pressure, biological systems on the surface of Earth-like extrasolar planets at close-in orbital distances can be strongly influenced by secondary cosmic rays.

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, 28th Ceramics Science Discussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    was studied for its resistance to thermal impact by use of C02 laser and for its heat -insulation capacity and resistance to thermal fatigue by use of a...interface between the SiC film and the substrate for the SiC.NFGM speci- men, which may conceivably be ascribed to thermal fatigue due to repeated heating ...dielectric and induction heating and to heating from impact by the bombardment of plasma. Conduction of heat from the holder to the substrate cannot

  17. Cosmic Revelation: Making Astroparticles Visible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, T. O.; Haungs, A.; Schieler, H.; Weindl, A.

    2010-06-01

    Cosmic Revelation is a prime example of a successful art and science project connecting art and astroparticle physics. One of the main reasons for its success might be that the collaboration between the KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector (KASCADE) experiment and Tim Otto Roth is both a minimalist light art project and a scientific experiment. In a field of 16 flashing mirror sculptures connected to the KASCADE detector field at KIT (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany) the impact of high energy cosmic rays on Earth can be experienced directly. In just one year the project has developed from the initial concept to its first presentation in a public space in autumn 2008. We explain how the project developed, and also highlight the practical and conceptual conditions for its realisation.

  18. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-08-06

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurement technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors.

  19. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    DOE PAGES

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-08-06

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurementmore » technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors.« less

  20. Distributed reacceleration of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Eichler, David; Letaw, John R.; Silberberg, Rein; Tsao, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    A model is developed in which cosmic rays, in addition to their initial acceleration by a strong shock, are continuously reaccelerated while propagating through the Galaxy. The equations describing this acceleration scheme are solved analytically and numerically. Solutions for the spectra of primary and secondary cosmic rays are given in a closed analytic form, allowing a rapid search in parameter space for viable propagation models with distributed reeacceleration included. The observed boron-to-carbon ratio can be reproduced by the reacceleration theory over a range of escape parameters, some of them quite different from the standard leaky-box model. It is also shown that even a very modest amount of reacceleration by strong shocks causes the boron-to-carbon ratio to level off at sufficiently high energies.

  1. Cosmic Ray research in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Zazyan, M.

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic Ray research on Mt. Aragats began in 1934 with the measurements of East-West anisotropy by the group from Leningrad Physics-Technical Institute and Norair Kocharian from Yerevan State University. Stimulated by the results of their experiments in 1942 Artem and Abraham Alikhanyan brothers organized a scientific expedition to Aragats. Since that time physicists were studying Cosmic Ray fluxes on Mt. Aragats with various particle detectors: mass spectrometers, calorimeters, transition radiation detectors, and huge particle detector arrays detecting protons and nuclei accelerated in most violent explosions in Galaxy. Latest activities at Mt. Aragats include Space Weather research with networks of particle detectors located in Armenia and abroad, and detectors of Space Education center in Yerevan.

  2. Cosmic physics data analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, R. Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    A data analysis program was carried out to investigate the intensity, propagation, and origin of primary Cosmic Ray Galactic electrons. Scanning was carried out on two new balloon flight experiments as well as the border area of previous experiments. The identification and evaluation of the energies of the primary electrons were carried out. A new analysis of these data were incorporated into an overall evaluation of the roll of electrons in the problem of the origin of cosmic rays. Recent measurements indicate that the earth may be within the expanding Geminga supernova shock wave which is expected to have a major effect upon the propagation and the energy spectrum of galactic electrons. Calculations with the Geminga model indicate that the cut-off energy may be very close to the observed highest energy electrons in our analysis.

  3. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Heitmann, Katrin; Hirata, Chris; Honscheid, Klaus; Roodman, Aaron; Seljak, Uroš; Slosar, Anže; Trodden, Mark

    2016-04-26

    A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire Department of Energy High Energy Physics program.

  4. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  5. Galactic cosmic ray composition and energy spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Galactic cosmic ray nuclei represent a significant risk to long-duration spaceflight outside the magnetosphere. We review briefly existing measurements of the composition and energy spectra of heavy cosmic ray nuclei, pointing out which species and energy ranges are most critical to assessing cosmic ray risks for spaceflight. Key data sets are identified and a table of cosmic ray abundances is presented for elements from H to Ni (Z = 1 to 28). Because of the 22-year nature of the solar modulation cycle, data from the approaching 1998 solar minimum is especially important to reducing uncertainties in the cosmic ray radiation hazard. It is recommended that efforts to model this hazard take advantage of approaches that have been developed to model the astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays.

  6. Brane Inflation: From Superstring to Cosmic Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Tye, S.-H. Henry

    2004-12-10

    Brane inflation, where branes move towards each other in the brane world, has been shown to be quite natural in superstring theory. Inflation ends when branes collide and heat the universe, initiating the hot big bang. Cosmic strings (but not domain walls or monopoles) are copiously produced during the brane collision. Using the COBE data on the temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, the cosmic string tension {mu} is estimated to be around 10 -6 > G{mu} > 10-11, while the present observational bound is 7 x 10 -7 > G{mu}. This implies that the anisotropy that seeds structure formation comes mostly from inflation, but with a small component (< 10%) from cosmic string effects. This cosmic string effect should be testable in the near future via gravitational lensing, the cosmic microwave background radiation, and/or gravitational wave detectors like LIGO II/VIRGO.

  7. Cloud chamber visualization of primary cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Earl, James A.

    2013-02-07

    From 1948 until 1963, cloud chambers were carried to the top of the atmosphere by balloons. From these flights, which were begun by Edward P. Ney at the University of Minnesota, came the following results: discovery of heavy cosmic ray nuclei, development of scintillation and cherenkov detectors, discovery of cosmic ray electrons, and studies of solar proton events. The history of that era is illustrated here by cloud chamber photographs of primary cosmic rays.

  8. Underground measurements on secondary cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, C. W.; Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements made at the Poatina cosmic ray station (41.8 S 149.9 E, 347 m.w.e.) from August 1983 to July 1984 are summarized. The cosmic ray primary particles responsible for events detected at the station have a median primary energy of 1.2 TeV. The motivation for part of this work came from the reported detection of narrow angle anisotropies in the arrival direction of cosmic rays.

  9. The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzner, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

  10. High-energy cosmic ray interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Ralph; Orellana, Mariana; Reynoso, Matias M.; Vila, Gabriela S.

    2009-04-30

    Research into hadronic interactions and high-energy cosmic rays are closely related. On one hand--due to the indirect observation of cosmic rays through air showers--the understanding of hadronic multiparticle production is needed for deriving the flux and composition of cosmic rays at high energy. On the other hand the highest energy particles from the universe allow us to study the characteristics of hadronic interactions at energies far beyond the reach of terrestrial accelerators. This is the summary of three introductory lectures on our current understanding of hadronic interactions of cosmic rays.

  11. A Journey Through Researches on Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Roy, M.; Barman, P.; Mukherjee, C. D.

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic ray causes hazards to microelectronic circuits. Presence of charged particles in the atmosphere was first noticed by Coloumb in 1785. But cosmic ray was discovered by Victor Hess in 1912. However new era of particle physics was started with the invention of neutron monitor in 1948 by John A. Simpson. New information regarding the energy spectrum, anisotropy, latitudinal, longitudinal and daily variation of cosmic ray has added the scientific yield one by one from the analysis of the data of different monitors over the globe. This paper is a brief account of the striking events of cosmic ray which may be the background of future researchers.

  12. Cosmic ray modulation and the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exarhos, G.; Moussas, X.

    2001-08-01

    We reproduce the long term temporal variations of galactic cosmic ray intensity applying a semi-empirical 1-D diffusion-convection model. We use a shell-like model in which each magnetized shell modulates the cosmic ray intensity during its travel from the Sun to the heliospheric boundary. The cosmic ray intensity at the Earth's orbit is the result of the successive dynamic influence of all shells between the Earth and the heliospheric boundary. Our results are in very good agreement with ground-based observations from Climax and Huancayo cosmic ray stations.

  13. Diffuse fluxes of cosmic high energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Production spectra of high-energy neutrinos from galactic cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray interactions with microwave black-body photons are presented and discussed. These production processes involve the decay of charged pions and are thus related to the production of cosmic gamma-rays from the decay of neutral pions. Estimates of the neutrino fluxes from various diffuse cosmic sources are then made and the reasons fro significant differences with previous estimates are discussed. Predicted event rates for a DUMAND type detection system are significantly lower than early estimates indicated.

  14. Propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, R. R.; Stephens, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a model for analyzing the propagation of cosmic rays are discussed. The requirements for analyzing the relevant observational data on cosmic rays are defines as: (1) the chemical and isotopic composition of cosmic rays as a function of energy, (2) the flux and energy spectrum of the individual nucleonic components, (3) the flux and energy spectrum of the electronic component, (4) the cosmic ray prehistory, and (5) the degree of isotropy in their arrival directions as a function of energy. It is stated that the model which has been able to bring to pass the greatest measure of success is the galactic confinement model.

  15. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  16. Cosmic ray diffusion: Report of the Workshop in Cosmic Ray Diffusion Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Jones, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    A workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory was held at Goddard Space Flight Center on May 16-17, 1974. Topics discussed and summarized are: (1) cosmic ray measurements as related to diffusion theory; (2) quasi-linear theory, nonlinear theory, and computer simulation of cosmic ray pitch-angle diffusion; and (3) magnetic field fluctuation measurements as related to diffusion theory.

  17. Cosmic gamma-rays and cosmic nuclei above 1 TeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Work on cosmic gamma rays and cosmic nuclei above I TeV is described and evaluated. The prospect that gamma ray astronomy above I TeV will give new insights into high energy cosmic ray origin within our galaxy is particularly bright.

  18. A study of the Ionospheric electron density profile with FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Min-Yang; Tsai, Ho-Fang; Lin, Chi-Yen; Lee, I.-Te; Lin, Charles; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-04-01

    The GPS Occultation Experiment payload onboard FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC microsatellite constellation is capable of scanning the ionospheric structure by the radio occultation (RO) technique to retrieve precise electron density profiles since 2006. Due to the success of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, the follow-on mission, FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2, is to launch 12 microsatellites in 2016 and 2018, respectively, with the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) RO instrument onboard for tracking GPS, Galileo and/or GLONASS satellite signals and to provide more than 8,000 RO soundings per day globally. An overview of the validation of the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC ionospheric profiling is given by means of the traditional Abel transform through bending angle and total electron content (TEC), while the ionospheric data assimilation is also applied, based on the Gauss-Markov Kalman filter with the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2007) and global ionosphere map (GIM) as background model, to assimilate TEC observations from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC. The results shows comparison of electron density profiles from Abel inversion and data assimilation. Furthermore, an observing system simulation experiment is also applied to determine the impact of FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 on ionospheric weather monitoring, which reveals an opportunity on advanced study of small spatial and temporal variations in the ionosphere.

  19. The Cosmic Ray Leptons Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, P.; Bertone, G.; Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.

    2009-11-01

    Recent measurements of cosmic ray electrons and positrons by PAMELA, ATIC, Fermi and HESS have revealed interesting excesses and features in the GeV-TeV range. Many possible explanations have been suggested, invoking one or more nearby primary sources such as pulsars and supernova remnants, or dark matter. Based on the output of the TANGO in PARIS --Testing Astroparticle with the New GeV/TeV Observations in Positrons And electRons : Identifying the Sources-- workshop held in Paris in May 2009, we review here the latest experimental results and we discuss some virtues and drawbacks of the many theoretical interpretations proposed so far.

  20. Evolution of cosmic string networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Turok, Neil

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the evolution and observable consequences of a network of cosmic strings is given. A simple model for the evolution of the string network is presented, and related to the statistical mechanics of string networks. The model predicts the long string density throughout the history of the universe from a single parameter, which researchers calculate in radiation era simulations. The statistical mechanics arguments indicate a particular thermal form for the spectrum of loops chopped off the network. Detailed numerical simulations of string networks in expanding backgrounds are performed to test the model. Consequences for large scale structure, the microwave and gravity wave backgrounds, nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing are calculated.

  1. CREAM: High Energy Frontier of Cosmic Ray Elemental Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was flown for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica. High energy cosmic-ray data were collected over a wide energy range from 10 (10) to 10 (15) eV at an average altitude of 38.5 km with 3.9 g/cm (2) atmospheric overburden. Cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Building on success of the balloon flights, the payload is being reconfigured for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). This ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with the CREAM calorimeter for energy measurements, and four finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector layers for precise charge measurements. In addition, the Top and Bottom Counting Detectors (TCD and BCD) and Boronated Scintillator Detector (BSD) have been newly developed. The TCD and BCD are scintillator based segmented detectors to separate electrons from nuclei using the shower profile differences, while BSD distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is possible by utilizing the ISS to reach the highest energies practical with direct measurements. The project status including results from on-going analysis of existing data and future plans will be discussed.

  2. Landau quantization in the spinning cosmic string spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniz, C. R.; Bezerra, V. B.; Cunha, M. S.

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the quantum phenomenon arising from the interaction of a spinless charged particle with a rotating cosmic string, under the action of a static and uniform magnetic field parallel to the string. We calculate the energy levels of the particle in the non-relativistic approach, showing how these energies depend on the parameters involved in the problem. In order to do this, we solve the time independent Schrödinger equation in the geometry of the spinning cosmic string, taking into account that the coupling between the rotation of the spacetime and the angular momentum of the particle is very weak, such that makes sense to apply the Schrödinger equation in a curved background whose metric has an off diagonal term which involves time and space. It is also assumed that the particle orbits sufficiently far from the boundary of the region of closed timelike curves which exist around this topological defect. Finally, we find the Landau levels of the particle in the presence of a spinning cosmic string endowed with internal structure, i.e., having a finite width and uniformly filled with both material and vacuum energies.

  3. European measurements of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, H G; O'Sullivan, D; Beck, P; Bartlett, D

    2000-11-01

    For more than 5 y, the European Commission has supported research into scientific and technical aspects of cosmic-ray dosimetry at flight altitudes in civil radiation. This has been in response to legislation to regard exposure of aircraft crew as occupational, following the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60. The response to increased public interest and concern, and in anticipation of European and national current work, within a total of three multi-national, multi-partner research contracts, is based on a comprehensive approach including measurements with dosimetric and spectrometric instruments during flights, at high-mountain altitudes, and in a high-energy radiation reference field at CERN, as well as cosmic-ray transport calculations. The work involves scientists in the fields of neutron physics, cosmic-ray physics, and general dosimetry. A detailed set of measurements has been obtained by employing a wide range of detectors on several routes, both on subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Many of the measurements were made simultaneously by several instruments allowing the intercomparison of results. This paper presents a brief overview of results obtained. It demonstrates that the knowledge about radiation fields and on exposure data has been substantially consolidated and that the available data provide an adequate basis for dose assessments of aircraft crew, which will be legally required in the European Union after 13 May 2000.

  4. Management of cosmic radiation exposure for aircraft crew in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Yonehara, Hidenori; Kosako, Toshiso; Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2011-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that cosmic radiation exposure of crew in commercial jet aircraft be considered as occupational exposure. In Japan, the Radiation Council of the government has established a guideline that requests domestic airlines to voluntarily keep the effective dose of cosmic radiation for aircraft crew below 5 mSv y(-1). The guideline also gives some advice and policies regarding the method of cosmic radiation dosimetry, the necessity of explanation and education about this issue, a way to view and record dose data, and the necessity of medical examination for crew. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences helps the airlines to follow the guideline, particularly for the determination of aviation route doses by numerical simulation. The calculation is performed using an original, easy-to-use program package called 'JISCARD EX' coupled with a PHITS-based analytical model and a GEANT4-based particle tracing code. The new radiation weighting factors recommended in 2007 are employed for effective dose determination. The annual individual doses of aircraft crew were estimated using this program.

  5. CMB maximum temperature asymmetry axis: Alignment with other cosmic asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, Antonio; Perivolaropoulos, Leandros

    2013-02-01

    We use a global pixel-based estimator to identify the axis of the residual Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (MTA) (after the dipole subtraction) of the WMAP seven-year Internal Linear Combination (ILC) cosmic microwave background temperature sky map. The estimator is based on considering the temperature differences between opposite pixels in the sky at various angular resolutions (4°-15°) and selecting the axis that maximizes this difference. We consider three large-scale HEALPix resolutions: Nside=16(3.7°), Nside=8(7.3°) and Nside=4(14.7°). We compare the direction and magnitude of this asymmetry with three other cosmic asymmetry axes (α dipole, dark energy dipole and dark flow) and find that the four asymmetry axes are abnormally close to each other. We compare the observed MTA axis with the corresponding MTA axes of 104 Gaussian isotropic simulated ILC maps (based on ΛCDM). The fraction of simulated ILC maps that reproduce the observed magnitude of the MTA asymmetry and alignment with the observed α dipole is in the range of 0.1%-0.5% (depending on the resolution chosen for the cosmic microwave background map). The corresponding magnitude+alignment probabilities with the other two asymmetry axes (dark energy dipole and dark flow) are at the level of about 1%. We propose Extended Topological Quintessence as a physical model qualitatively consistent with this coincidence of directions.

  6. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. Searching for cosmic voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, D.; Iovino, A.; Hawken, A. J.; Granett, B. R.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schimd, C.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moutard, T.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The characterisation of cosmic voids gives unique information about the large-scale distribution of galaxies, their evolution, and thecosmological model. Aims: We identify and characterise cosmic voids in the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) at redshift 0.55 cosmic voids despite the presence of complex survey boundaries and internal gaps. We investigate the impact of systematic observational effects and validate the method against mock catalogues. We measure the void size distribution and the void-galaxy correlation function. Results: We construct a catalogue of voids in VIPERS. The distribution of voids is found to agree well with the distribution of voids found in mock catalogues. The void-galaxy correlation function shows indications of outflow velocity from the voids. The voids catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A106

  7. Nano-Particles in Cosmic Plasma Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Ingrid

    2008-09-07

    Astronomical observations and in-situ measurements point to the existence of cosmic nano-particles, but in most cases their material composition and structure are not known. Nano-dust interacts differently than larger dust with the cosmic radiation and plasma environment. Its dynamics and behavior upon collision is not well studied.

  8. Progress in Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    2017-01-01

    I will review recent progress in Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays and new challenges. I will discuss measurements that have to be done to address these challenges and to further advance our understanding of the phenomenon of cosmic rays, mechanisms of their acceleration and interactions with interstellar medium. Partial support from NASA Grant No. NNX13AC47G is greatly acknowledged.

  9. Cosmic rays: a review for astrobiologists.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Franco; Szuszkiewicz, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    Cosmic rays represent one of the most fascinating research themes in modern astronomy and physics. Significant progress is being made toward an understanding of the astrophysics of the sources of cosmic rays and the physics of interactions in the ultrahigh-energy range. This is possible because several new experiments in these areas have been initiated. Cosmic rays may hold answers to a great number of fundamental questions, but they also shape our natural habitat and influence the radiation environment of our planet Earth. The importance of the study of cosmic rays has been acknowledged in many fields, including space weather science and astrobiology. Here, we concentrate on the astrobiological aspects of cosmic rays with regard to the enormous amount of new data available, some of which may, in fact, improve our knowledge about the radiation of cosmic origin on Earth. We focus on fluxes arriving at Earth and doses received, and will guide the reader through the wealth of scientific literature on cosmic rays. We have prepared a concise and self-contained source of data and recipes useful for performing interdisciplinary research in cosmic rays and their effects on life on Earth.

  10. Cosmic-ray detectors on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, John

    1988-01-01

    The state of cosmic ray physics is reviewed. It is concluded that the nonexistent lunar magnetic field, the low lunar radiation background, and the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon provide an excellent environment for the study of high energy primary cosmic rays.

  11. Nonresonant Alfven waves driven by cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Melrose, Don

    2005-08-01

    Nonresonant growth of Alfven waves due to streaming cosmic rays is considered, emphasizing the relation between resonant and nonresonant growth and the polarization of the growing waves. The suggested application of this mechanism to the scattering of higher energy cosmic rays in diffusive shock acceleration is discussed critically.

  12. History of cosmic ray research in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Valtonen, E.; Vainio, R.; Tanskanen, P. J.; Aurela, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    The history of cosmic ray research in Finland can be traced back to the end of 1950s, when first ground-based cosmic ray measurements started in Turku. The first cosmic ray station was founded in Oulu in 1964 performing measurements of cosmic rays by a muon telescope, which was later complemented by a neutron monitor. Since the 1990s, several research centers and universities, such as The Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, University of Turku and University of Helsinki have been involved in space science projects, such as SOHO, AMS, Cluster, Cassini, BepiColombo, etc. At the same time, ground-based cosmic ray measurements have reached a new level, including a fully automatic on-line database in Oulu and a new muon measuring underground site in Pyhäsalmi. Research groups in Helsinki, Oulu and Turku have also extensive experience in theoretical investigations of different aspects of cosmic ray physics. Cosmic ray research has a 50-year long history in Finland, covering a wide range from basic long-running ground-based observations to high-technology space-borne instrumentation and sophisticated theoretical studies. Several generations of researchers have been involved in the study ensuring transfer of experience and building the recognized Finnish research school of cosmic ray studies.

  13. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2014-06-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states.

  14. Cosmic bullets as particle accelerators and radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. W.; Kang, Hyesung; Tregillis, I. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have simulated in two dimensions the dynamical evolution of dense gas clouds(`cosmic bullets') moving supersonically through a uniform low-density medium. The diffusive shock acceleration of relativistic protons (cosmic rays) and their dynamical feedback on the background flow are included by the two-fluid model for this process. The acceleration of relativistic electrons is approximated by a test-particle model, and a passive magnetic field is followed by a simple advection scheme. Strong bow shocks, with Mach numbers similar to that of a bullet's motion, are the most important particle accelerators in the flow, while tail shocks and shocks inside the bullets do not play generally significant roles in this regard. For our simulation parameters, approximately greater than 10% of the initial bullet kinetic energy is converted to a combination of internal energy of gas and cosmic-ray protons by the time the bullets begin to be disrupted. Characteristically, the cosmic rays gain several percent of the available kinetic energy. Bullet destruction on timescales only a little larger than the ram pressure bullet crushing time begins in response to Kelvin-Helmholtz and especially to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities along the forward bullet surface. For dense bullets this happens before the bullet is stopped by ram pressure. According to our simple model for synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons accelerated and transported within the flows, that emission increases rapidly as the bullet begins to fragment, when it is strongly dominated by field enhancement in sheared flows. Synchrotron emission from the acceleration region within the bow shock is, by contrast, much weaker.

  15. Cosmic dust synthesis by accretion and coagulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praburam, G.; Goree, J.

    1995-01-01

    The morphology of grains grown by accretion and coagulation is revaled by a new laboratory method of synthesizing cosmic dust analogs. Submicron carbon particles, grown by accretion of carbon atoms from a gas, have a spherical shape with a cauliflower-like surface and an internal micro-structure of radial columns. This shape is probably common for grains grown by accretion at a temperature well below the melting point. Coagulated grains, consisting of spheres that collided to form irregular strings, were also synthesized. Another shape we produced had a bumpy non- spherical morphology, like an interplanetary particle collected in the terrestrial stratosphere. Besides these isolated grains, large spongy aggregates of nanometer-size particles were also found for various experimental conditions. Grains were synthesized using ions to sputter a solid target, producing an atomic vapor at a low temperature. The ions were provided by a plasma, which also provided electrostatic levitation of the grains during their growth. The temporal development of grain growth was studied by extinguishing the plasma after various intervals.

  16. Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, Roland

    2014-05-02

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The {sup 26}A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ∼My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. {sup 60}Fe is co-produced by the sources of {sup 26}A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. {sup 56}Ni and {sup 44}Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

  17. Cosmic vacuum and galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.

    2006-04-01

    It is demonstrated that the protogalactic perturbations must enter the nonlinear regime before the red shift z≈ 1; otherwise they would be destroyed by the antigravity of the vacuum dark energy at the subsequent epoch of the vacuum domination. At the zrrV={M/[(8π/3)ρV]}1/3, where M is the mass of a given over-density and ρV is the vacuum density. The criterion provides a new relation between the largest mass condensations and their spatial scales. All the real large-scale systems follow this relation definitely. It is also shown that a simple formula is possible for the key quantity in the theory of galaxy formation, namely the initial amplitude of the perturbation of the gravitational potential in the protogalactic structures. The amplitude is time independent and given in terms of the Friedmann integrals, which are genuine physical characteristics of the cosmic energies. The results suggest that there is a strong correspondence between the global design of the Universe as a whole and the cosmic structures of various masses and spatial scales.

  18. Geomagnetically trapped anomalous cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Selesnick, R.S.; Cummings, A.C.; Cummings, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    Since its launch in July 1992, the polar-orbiting satellite SAMPEX has been collecting data on geomagnetically trapped heavy ions, predominantly O, N, and Ne, at energies {ge}15 MeV/nucleon and in a narrow L shell range L = 2. Their location, elemental composition, energy spectra, pitch angle distribution, and time variations all support the theory that these particles originated as singly ionized interplanetary anomalous cosmic rays that were stripped of electrons in the Earth`s upper atmosphere and subsequently trapped. The O are observed primarily at pitch angles outside the atmospheric loss cones, consistent with a trapped population, and their distribution there is nearly isotropic. The abundances relative to O of the N, possible Ne, and especially C are lower than the corresponding interplanetary values, which may be indicative of the trapping efficiencies. The distributions of trapped N, O, and Ne in energy and L shell suggest that most of the ions observed at the SAMPEX altitude of {approximately}600 km are not fully stripped when initially trapped. A comparison of the trapped intensity with the much lower interplanetary intensity of anomalous cosmic rays provides model-dependent estimates of the product of the trapping probability and the average trapped particle lifetime against ionization losses in the residual atmosphere for particles that mirror near the SAMPEX altitude. 36 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Lawrence W.

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  20. Cosmic rays in star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Troy

    2013-02-01

    Cosmic rays fill up the entire volume of galaxies, providing an important source of heating and ionization of the interstellar medium, and may play a significant role in the regulation of star formation and evolution of galaxies. Diffuse emissions from radio to highenergy gamma rays (< 100 MeV) arising from various interactions between cosmic rays and the interstellar medium, interstellar radiation field, and magnetic field, are currently the best way to trace the intensities and spectra of cosmic rays in the Milky Way and other galaxies. In this talk, I will give an overview of the observations of the cosmic-ray induced emissions from our own and other galaxies, in particular, results from the Fermi-LAT and Imaging Air Cerenkov telescopes. I will also talk about what can be deduced about the cosmic-ray origin and propagation from these observations.

  1. Investigation of Reacceleration on Cosmic Ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuxi; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    Cosmic rays are high energy charged particles, originating from outer space, that travel at nearly the speed of light and strike the Earth from all directions. One century after the discovery of cosmic rays, their origin and propagation processes remain obscure. GALPROP is a numerical code for calculating the propagation of relativistic charged particles and the diffuse emissions produced during their propagation in the Galaxy. I performed a preliminary study using two different propagation models with the GALPROP code in order to reproduce latest cosmic-ray nuclei measurements. I analyzed multiple propagation parameters for each model, studied their effect on cosmic-ray spectra, optimized and tried a preliminary modification of the code to fit cosmic-ray data such as BESS-Polar, AMS, CREAM, etc.

  2. Cosmic Ray Removal in Fiber Spectroscopic Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhongrui; Zhang, Haotong; Yuan, Hailong; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Li, Guangwei; Lei, Yajuan; Dong, Yiqiao; Yang, Huiqin; Zhao, Yongheng; Cao, Zihuang

    2017-02-01

    Single-exposure spectra in large spectral surveys are valuable for time domain studies such as stellar variability, but there is no available method to eliminate cosmic rays for single-exposure, multi-fiber spectral images. In this paper, we describe a new method to detect and remove cosmic rays in multi-fiber spectroscopic single exposures. Through the use of two-dimensional profile fitting and a noise model that considers the position-dependent errors, we successfully detect as many as 80% of the cosmic rays and correct the cosmic ray polluted pixels to an average accuracy of 97.8%. Multiple tests and comparisons with both simulated data and real LAMOST data show that the method works properly in detection rate, false detection rate, and validity of cosmic ray correction.

  3. Cosmic rays and space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    2003-04-01

    It is well known that in periods of great FEP (Flare Energetic Particle), fluxes can be so big that memory of computers and other electronics in space may be destroyed, satellites and spacecrafts became dead (each year insurance companies paid more than 500,000,000 dollars for these failures). In these periods is necessary to switch off some part of electronics for short time to protect computer memories. These periods are also dangerous for astronauts on space-ships, and passengers and crew in commercial jets (especially during S5 radiation storms according to classification of NOAA). The problem is how to forecast exactly these dangerous phenomena. We show that exact forecast can be made by using high-energy particles (about 5-10 GeV/nucleon and higher) which transportation from the Sun is characterized by much bigger diffusion coefficient than for small and middle energy particles. Therefore high energy particles came from the Sun much more early (8-20 minutes after acceleration and escaping into solar wind) than main part of smaller energy particles caused dangerous situation for electronics and people health (about 30-60 minutes later). We describe here principles and experience of automatically working programs "FEP-Search-1 min", "FEP-Search-2 min","FEP-Search-5 min", developed and checked in the Emilio Segre' Observatory of Israel Cosmic Ray Center (2025 m above sea level, cut-off rigidity 10.8 GV). The second step is automatically determination of flare energetic particle spectrum, and then automatically determination of diffusion coefficient in the interplanetary space, time of ejection and energy spectrum of FEP in source; forecasting of expected FEP flux and radiation hazard for space-probes in space, satellites in the magnetosphere, jets and various objects in the atmosphere and on the ground. We will describe also the theory and experience of high energy cosmic ray using for forecasting of major geomagnetic storms accompanied by Forbush-effects (what

  4. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A; Mannucci, Anthony J; Straus, Paul R; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-11-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4-6 times (10-15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters.

  5. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S.; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Straus, Paul R.; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-11-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4-6 times (10-15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters.

  6. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A; Mannucci, Anthony J; Straus, Paul R; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-01-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4–6 times (10–15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters. PMID:26213514

  7. Cosmic Ray Muon Imaging of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; Morris, Christopher L.; Poulson, Daniel; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Chichester, David; Fabritius, Joseph; Fellows, Shelby; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Morley, Deborah Jean; Winston, Philip

    2016-04-29

    In this paper, cosmic ray muon radiography has been used to identify the absence of spent nuclear fuel bundles inside a sealed dry storage cask. The large amounts of shielding that dry storage casks use to contain radiation from the highly radioactive contents impedes typical imaging methods, but the penetrating nature of cosmic ray muons allows them to be used as an effective radiographic probe. This technique was able to successfully identify missing fuel bundles inside a sealed Westinghouse MC-10 cask. This method of fuel cask verification may prove useful for international nuclear safeguards inspectors. Finally, muon radiography may find other safety and security or safeguards applications, such as arms control verification.

  8. Comparison of COSMIC measurements with the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean region

    PubMed Central

    Vryonides, P.; Haralambous, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model over the eastern Mediterranean region with peak ionospheric characteristics (foF2–hmF2) and electron density profiles measured by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites in terms of GPS radio occultation technique and the Cyprus digisonde. In the absence of systematic ionosonde measurements over this area, COSMIC measurements provide an opportunity to perform such a study by considering observations for year 2010 to investigate the behaviour of the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean area. PMID:25685433

  9. Comparison of COSMIC measurements with the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Vryonides, P; Haralambous, H

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model over the eastern Mediterranean region with peak ionospheric characteristics (foF2-hmF2) and electron density profiles measured by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites in terms of GPS radio occultation technique and the Cyprus digisonde. In the absence of systematic ionosonde measurements over this area, COSMIC measurements provide an opportunity to perform such a study by considering observations for year 2010 to investigate the behaviour of the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean area.

  10. Cosmic Blasts Much More Common, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    A cosmic explosion seen last February may have been the "tip of an iceberg," showing that powerful, distant gamma ray bursts are outnumbered ten-to-one by less-energetic cousins, according to an international team of astronomers. A study of the explosion with X-ray and radio telescopes showed that it is "100 times less energetic than gamma ray bursts seen in the distant universe. We were able to see it because it's relatively nearby," said Alicia Soderberg, of Caltech, leader of the research team. The scientists reported their findings in the August 31 issue of the journal Nature. The explosion is called an X-ray flash, and was detected by the Swift satellite on February 18. The astronomers subsequently studied the object using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Ryle radio telescope in the UK. "This object tells us that there probably is a rich diversity of cosmic explosions in our local Universe that we only now are starting to detect. These explosions aren't playing by the rules that we thought we understood," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Illustration of a Magnetar Illustration of a Magnetar The February blast seems to fill a gap between ordinary supernova explosions, which leave behind a dense neutron star, and gamma ray bursts, which leave behind a black hole, a concentration of mass so dense that not even light can escape it. Some X-ray flashes, the new research suggests, leave behind a magnetar, a neutron star with a magnetic field 100-1000 times stronger than that of an ordinary neutron star. "This explosion occurred in a galaxy about 470 million light-years away. If it had been at the distances of gamma ray bursts, as much as billions of light-years away, we would not have been able to see it," Frail said. "We think that the principal difference between gamma ray bursts and X-ray flashes and ordinary supernova explosions is that the blasts that

  11. Cosmic ray transport in astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.

    2015-09-15

    Since the development of satellite space technology about 50 years ago the solar heliosphere is explored almost routinely by several spacecrafts carrying detectors for measuring the properties of the interplanetary medium including energetic charged particles (cosmic rays), solar wind particle densities, and electromagnetic fields. In 2012, the Voyager 1 spacecraft has even left what could be described as the heliospheric modulation region, as indicated by the sudden disappearance of low energy heliospheric cosmic ray particles. With the available in-situ measurements of interplanetary turbulent electromagnetic fields and of the momentum spectra of different cosmic ray species in different interplanetary environments, the heliosphere is the best cosmic laboratory to test our understanding of the transport and acceleration of cosmic rays in space plasmas. I review both the historical development and the current state of various cosmic ray transport equations. Similarities and differences to transport theories for terrestrial fusion plasmas are highlighted. Any progress in cosmic ray transport requires a detailed understanding of the electromagnetic turbulence that is responsible for the scattering and acceleration of these particles.

  12. The Cosmic DUNE dust astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, E.; Srama, R.; Cosmic Dune Team

    A dust astronomy mission aims at the simultaneous measurement of the origin and the chemical composition of individual dust grains in space. Interstellar dust traversing the solar system constitutes the galactic solid phase of matter from which stars and planetary systems form. Interplanetary dust, from comets and asteroids, represents remnant material from bodies at different stages of early solar system evolution. Thus, studies of interstellar and interplanetary dust with Cosmic DUNE (Cosmic Dust Near Earth) will provide a comparison between the composition of the interstellar medium and primitive planetary objects. Cosmic DUNE will prepare the way for effective collection in near-Earth space of interstellar and interplanetary dust for subsequent return to Earth and analysis in laboratories. Cosmic DUNE establishes the next logical step beyond NASA's Stardust mission, with four major advancements in cosmic dust research: (1) Analysis of the elemental and isotopic composition of individual cosmic dust grains, (2) determination of the size distribution of interstellar dust, (3) characterization of the interstellar dust flow through the planetary system, and (4) analysis of interplanetary dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. This mission goal will be reached with novel dust instrumentation. A dust telescope trajectory sensor has been developed which is capable of obtaining precision trajectories of sub-micron sized particles in space. A new high mass resolution dust analyzer of 0.1m2 impact area can cope with the low fluxes expected in interplanetary space. Cosmic DUNE will be proposed to ESA in response to its upcoming call for mission ideas.

  13. Cosmic dust analyzer for Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, James G.; Gruen, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf

    1996-10-01

    The cosmic dust analyzer (CDA) is designed to characterize the dust environment in interplanetary space, in the Jovian and in the Saturnian systems. The instrument consists of two major components, the dust analyzer (DA) and the high rate detector (HRD). The DA has a large aperture to provide a large cross section for detection in low flux environments. The DA has the capability of determining dust particle mass, velocity, flight direction, charge, and chemical composition. The chemical composition is determined by the chemical analyzer system based on a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The DA is capable of making full measurements up to one impact/second. The HRD contains two smaller PVDF detectors and electronics designed to characterize dust particle masses at impact rates up to 10(superscript 4) impacts/second. These high impact rates are expected during Saturn ring plane crossings.

  14. Electric currents in cosmic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that dualism is essential for the physics of cosmic plasmas, that is, that some phenomena should be described by a magnetic field formalism, and others by an electric current formalism. While in earlier work the magnetic field aspect has dominated, at present there is a systematic exploration of the particle (or current) aspect. A number of phenomena which can be understood only from the particle aspect are surveyed. Topics include the formation of electric double layers, the origin of 'explosive' events like magnetic substorms and solar flares, and the transfer of energy from one region to another. A method for exploring many of these phenomena is to draw the electric circuit in which the current flows and then study its properties. A number of simple circuits are analyzed in this way.

  15. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    2010-02-15

    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  16. Cosmic setting for chondrule formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Scott, E. R. D.; Keil, K.

    1983-01-01

    Chondrules are igneous-textured, millimeter-sized, spherical to irregularly-shaped silicate objects which constitute the major component of most chondrites. There is agreement that chondrules were once molten. Models for chondrule origin can be divided into two categories. One involves a 'planetary' setting, which envisages chondrules forming on the surfaces of parent bodies. Melting mechanisms include impact and volcanism. The other category is concerned with a cosmic setting in the solar nebula, prior to nebula formation. Aspects regarding the impact on planetary surfaces are considered, taking into account chondrule abundances, the abundancy of agglutinates on the moon, comminution, hypervelocity impact pits, questions of age, and chondrule compositions. Attention is also given to collisions during accretion, collisions between molten planetesimals, volcanism, and virtues of a nebular setting.

  17. Shielding against galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Nealy, J. E.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kim, M.; Kiefer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ions of galactic origin are modified but not attenuated by the presence of shielding materials. Indeed, the number of particles and the absorbed energy behind most shield materials increases as a function of shield thickness. The modification of the galactic cosmic ray composition upon interaction with shielding is the only effective means of providing astronaut protection. This modification is intimately conntected with the shield transport porperties and is a strong function of shield composition. The systematic behavior of the shield properites in terms of microscopic energy absorption events will be discussed. The shield effectiveness is examined with respect to convectional protection practice and in terms of a biological endpoint: the efficiency for reduction of the probability of transformation of shielded C3H1OT1/2 mouse cells. The relative advantage of developing new shielding technologies is discussed in terms of a shield performance as related to biological effect and the resulting uncertainty in estimating astronaut risk.

  18. Quantum Bounce and Cosmic Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-01

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10-56 (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall.

  19. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Elizabeth A.; Zisholtz, E.; Hilton, H.

    2010-01-01

    The I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium is a major educational and teaching resource for South Carolina State University, K-12 schools, other universities and the community of Orangeburg and well beyond. The concept of creating a museum with a planetarium on the campus of SC State was ahead of its time. Today scholars are writing about the unity of creative disciplines. Through its integration of the arts, humanities and sciences, the Stanback, the only art museum with a planetarium at any of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities and one of the few in the nation, stands in the forefront of modern thinking. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science, opening at the I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium in February 2010, will feature the works of Mildred Thompson (1936-2003), a prominent African American artist who worked in the media of painting, drawing, print making, sculpture, and photography. Thompson’s artwork shows the strong influences of her interest in physics, astronomy, and metaphysics as well as music and spiritualism. “My work in the visual arts is, and has always been, a continuous search for understanding. It is an expression of purpose and reflects a personal interpretation of the Universe.” Cosmic Convergence will explore the meeting of Art and Science through Mildred Thompson's work and the scientific basis of that work. The paintings and sculptures of the exhibit will be combined with astronomical images showing both the reality and interpretation of the surrounding Universe. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.

  20. Symbols of a cosmic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  1. A Simplified Model for the Acceleration of Cosmic Ray Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gron, Oyvind

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions concerning cosmic rays are: Why are electrons in the cosmic rays less efficiently accelerated than nuclei? How are particles accelerated to great energies in ultra-high energy cosmic rays? In order to answer these questions we construct a simple model of the acceleration of a charged particle in the cosmic ray. It is not…

  2. Antiparticles in the extragalactic cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    It may be possible to account for a previously puzzling feature - a bump in the energy range 10 to the 14th power eV to 10 to the 15th power - of the cosmic ray spectrum by hypothesizing a primary extragalactic origin for the bulk of the observed cosmic ray antiprotons, although such an explanation is not unique. In this model, most of the cosmic rays above 10 to the 15th power eV are extragalactic. A method is described of testing this hypothesis experimentally.

  3. Cosmic Rays Variations and Human Physiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2009-12-01

    It was obtained in our previous investigations that geomagnetic activity as an indirect indicator of solar activity correlates with some human physiological and psycho-physiological parameters. A lot of studies indicate that other parameters of space weather like cosmic rays Forbush decreases affect myocardial infarction, brain stroke, car accidents, etc. The purpose of that work was to study the effect of cosmic rays variations on human physiological status. It was established that the decrease in cosmic rays intensity was related to an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints in healthy volunteers.

  4. Cosmic ray propagation in the local superbubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steitmatter, R. E.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Protheroe, R. J.; Ormes, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    It is suggested that a ring of HI gas lying in the galactic plane is part of a supershell which formed some 3 x to the 7th power years ago. The consequences of a closed magnetic supershell for cosmic ray propagation are examined and it is concluded that there is no evidence which precludes the production and trapping of cosmic rays in such a region. A consequence of superbubble confinement is that the mean age of cosmic rays would be independent of energy. This can be tested by high energy observations of the isotopic composition of Be.

  5. UHE neutrino and cosmic ray emission from GRBs: Revising the models and clarifying the cosmic ray-neutrino connection

    SciTech Connect

    Bustamante, Mauricio Winter, Walter; Baerwald, Philipp

    2014-11-18

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have long been held as one of the most promising sources of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos. The internal shock model of GRB emission posits the joint production of UHE cosmic rays (UHECRs, above 10{sup 8} GeV), photons, and neutrinos, through photohadronic interactions between source photons and magnetically-confined energetic protons, that occur when relativistically-expanding matter shells loaded with baryons collide with one another. While neutrino observations by IceCube have now ruled out the simplest version of the internal shock model, we show that a revised calculation of the emission, together with the consideration of the full photohadronic cross section and other particle physics effects, results in a prediction of the prompt GRB neutrino flux that still lies one order of magnitude below the current upper bounds, as recently exemplified by the results from ANTARES. In addition, we show that by allowing protons to directly escape their magnetic confinement without interacting at the source, we are able to partially decouple the cosmic ray and prompt neutrino emission, which grants the freedom to fit the UHECR observations while respecting the neutrino upper bounds. Finally, we briefly present advances towards pinning down the precise relation between UHECRs and UHE neutrinos, including the baryonic loading required to fit UHECR observations, and we will assess the role that very large volume neutrino telescopes play in this.

  6. Evaluating Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment Models Using RaD-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. B.; Mertens, C. J.; Slaba, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays enter Earth's atmosphere after interacting with the geomagnetic field. The primary galactic cosmic rays spectrum is fundamentally changed as it interacts with Earth's atmosphere through nuclear and atomic interactions. At points deeper in the atmosphere, such as at airline altitudes, the radiation environment is a combination of the primary galactic cosmic rays and the secondary particles produced through nuclear interactions. The RaD-X balloon experiment measured the atmospheric radiation environment above 20 km during 2 days in September 2015. These experimental measurements were used to validate and quantify uncertainty in physics-based models used to calculate exposure levels for commercial aviation. In this paper, the Badhwar-O'Neill 2014, the International Organization for Standardization 15390, and the German Aerospace Company galactic cosmic ray environment models are used as input into the same radiation transport code to predict and compare dosimetric quantities to RaD-X measurements. In general, the various model results match the measured tissue equivalent dose well, with results generated by the German Aerospace Center galactic cosmic ray environment model providing the best comparison. For dose equivalent and dose measured in silicon, however, the models were compared less favorably to the measurements.

  7. Evaluating galactic cosmic ray environment models using RaD-X flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, R. B.; Mertens, C. J.; Slaba, T. C.

    2016-10-01

    Galactic cosmic rays enter Earth's atmosphere after interacting with the geomagnetic field. The primary galactic cosmic rays spectrum is fundamentally changed as it interacts with Earth's atmosphere through nuclear and atomic interactions. At points deeper in the atmosphere, such as at airline altitudes, the radiation environment is a combination of the primary galactic cosmic rays and the secondary particles produced through nuclear interactions. The RaD-X balloon experiment measured the atmospheric radiation environment above 20 km during 2 days in September 2015. These experimental measurements were used to validate and quantify uncertainty in physics-based models used to calculate exposure levels for commercial aviation. In this paper, the Badhwar-O'Neill 2014, the International Organization for Standardization 15390, and the German Aerospace Company galactic cosmic ray environment models are used as input into the same radiation transport code to predict and compare dosimetric quantities to RaD-X measurements. In general, the various model results match the measured tissue equivalent dose well, with results generated by the German Aerospace Center galactic cosmic ray environment model providing the best comparison. For dose equivalent and dose measured in silicon, however, the models were compared less favorably to the measurements.

  8. Astrophysical Sources of Cosmic Rays and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects in Pierre Auger Observatory data; (2) Discriminating potential astrophysical sources of the highest energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Intrinsic anisotropy of the UHECR from the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Ultra-high energy photon studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) Limits on the flux of diffuse ultra high energy neutrinos set using the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) Search for sidereal modulation of the arrival directions of events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (7) Cosmic Ray Solar Modulation Studies in the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) Investigation of the Displacement Angle of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays Caused by the Galactic Magnetic Field; (9) Search for coincidences with astrophysical transients in Pierre Auger Observatory data; and (10) An alternative method for determining the energy of hybrid events at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  9. Heliosphere Changes Affect Cosmic Ray Penetration

    NASA Video Gallery

    The changes in the size of our solar system’s boundaries also cause changes to the galactic cosmic rays that enter the solar system. Although these boundaries do a good job of deflecting the majo...

  10. Development of the cosmic ray techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, B.

    1982-01-01

    It has been found that most advances of cosmic-ray physics have been directly related to the development of observational techniques. The history of observational techniques is discussed, taking into account ionization chambers, refinements applied to ionization chambers to make them suitable for an effective use in the study of cosmic radiation, the Wulf-type electrometer, the electrometer designed by Millikan and Neher, the Geiger-Mueller counter, the experiment of Bothe and Kolhoerster, the coincidence circuit, and a cosmic-ray 'telescope'. Attention is given to a magnetic lens for cosmic rays, a triangular arrangement of Geiger-Mueller counters used to demonstrate the production of a secondary radiation, a stereoscopic cloud-chamber photograph of showers, the cloud-chamber picture which provided the first evidence of the positive electron, and arrangements for studying photon components, mu-mesons, and air showers.

  11. Physics of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wands, David; Piattella, Oliver F.; Casarini, Luciano

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provides a remarkable window onto the early universe, revealing its composition and structure. In these lectures we review and discuss the physics underlying the main features of the CMB.

  12. Comparing cosmic web classifiers using information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, Florent; Lavaux, Guilhem; Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a decision scheme for optimally choosing a classifier, which segments the cosmic web into different structure types (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters). Our framework, based on information theory, accounts for the design aims of different classes of possible applications: (i) parameter inference, (ii) model selection, and (iii) prediction of new observations. As an illustration, we use cosmographic maps of web-types in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess the relative performance of the classifiers T-WEB, DIVA and ORIGAMI for: (i) analyzing the morphology of the cosmic web, (ii) discriminating dark energy models, and (iii) predicting galaxy colors. Our study substantiates a data-supported connection between cosmic web analysis and information theory, and paves the path towards principled design of analysis procedures for the next generation of galaxy surveys. We have made the cosmic web maps, galaxy catalog, and analysis scripts used in this work publicly available.

  13. Yakov Zeldovich and the Cosmic Web Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einasto, Jaan

    2016-10-01

    I discuss the formation of the modern cosmological paradigm. In more detail I describe the early study of dark matter and cosmic web and the role of Yakov Zeldovich in the formation of the present concepts on these subjects.

  14. Mass and radius of cosmic balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yun

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic balloons are spherical domain walls with relativistic particles trapped inside. We derive the exact mass and radius relations for a static cosmic balloon using Gauss-Codazzi equations. The cosmic balloon mass as a function of its radius, M(R), is found to have a functional form similar to that of fermion soliton stars, with a fixed point at 2GM(R)/R approximately or equal to 0.486 which corresponds to the limit of infinite central density. We derive a simple analytical approximation for the mass density of a spherically symmetric relativistic gas star. When applied to the computation of the mass and radius of a cosmic balloon, the analytical approximation yields fairly good agreement with the exact numerical solutions.

  15. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ``smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  16. Cosmocultural Evolution: Cosmic Motivation for Interstellar Travel?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, M.

    Motivations for interstellar travel can vary widely from practical survival motivations to wider-ranging moral obligations to future generations. But it may also be fruitful to explore what, if any, "cosmic" relevance there may be regarding interstellar travel. Cosmocultural evolution can be defined as the coevolution of cosmos and culture, with cultural evolution playing an important and perhaps critical role in the overall evolution of the universe. Strong versions of cosmocultural evolution might suggest that cultural evolution may have unlimited potential as a cosmic force. In such a worldview, the advancement of cultural beings throughout the universe could have significant cosmic relevance, perhaps providing additional motivation for interstellar travel. This paper will explore some potential philosophical and policy implications for interstellar travel of a cosmocultural evolutionary perspective and other related concepts, including some from a recent NASA book, Cosmos and Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context.

  17. Elemental advances of ultraheavy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The elemental composition of the cosmic-ray source is different from that which has been generally taken as the composition of the solar system. No general enrichment of products of either r-process or s-process nucleosynthesis accounts for the differences over the entire range of ultraheavy (Z 30) elements; specific determination of nucleosynthetic contributions to the differences depends upon an understanding of the nature of any acceleration fractionation. Comparison between the cosmic-ray source abundances and the abundances of C1 and C2 chondritic meteorites suggests that differences between the cosmic-ray source and the standard (C1) solar system may not be due to acceleration fractionation of the cosmic rays, but rather to a fractionation of the C1 abundances with respect to the interstellar abundances.

  18. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    SciTech Connect

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  19. Development of the cosmic ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, B.

    1982-12-01

    It has been found that most advances of cosmic-ray physics have been directly related to the development of observational techniques. The history of observational techniques is discussed, taking into account ionization chambers, refinements applied to ionization chambers to make them suitable for an effective use in the study of cosmic radiation, the Wulf-type electrometer, the electrometer designed by Millikan and Neher, the Geiger-Mueller counter, the experiment of Bothe and Kolhoerster, the coincidence circuit, and a cosmic-ray 'telescope'. Attention is given to a magnetic lens for cosmic rays, a triangular arrangement of Geiger-Mueller counters used to demonstrate the production of a secondary radiation, a stereoscopic cloud-chamber photograph of showers, the cloud-chamber picture which provided the first evidence of the positive electron, and arrangements for studying photon components, mu-mesons, and air showers.

  20. Superdiffusion of cosmic rays: Implications for cosmic ray acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarian, A.; Yan, Huirong

    2014-03-20

    Diffusion of cosmic rays (CRs) is the key process for understanding their propagation and acceleration. We employ the description of spatial separation of magnetic field lines in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in Lazarian and Vishniac to quantify the divergence of the magnetic field on scales less than the injection scale of turbulence and show that this divergence induces superdiffusion of CR in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. The perpendicular displacement squared increases, not as the distance x along the magnetic field, which is the case for a regular diffusion, but as the x {sup 3} for freely streaming CRs. The dependence changes to x {sup 3/2} for the CRs propagating diffusively along the magnetic field. In the latter case, we show that it is important to distinguish the perpendicular displacement with respect to the mean field and to the local magnetic field. We consider how superdiffusion changes the acceleration of CRs in shocks and show how it decreases efficiency of the CRs acceleration in perpendicular shocks. We also demonstrate that in the case when the small-scale magnetic field is generated in the pre-shock region, an efficient acceleration can take place for the CRs streaming without collisions along the magnetic loops.

  1. Cosmic string catalysis of skyrmion decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Davis, Anne-Christine; Brandenberger, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Callan-Witten picture is developed for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay in order to analyze the corresponding cosmic string scenario. It is discovered that cosmic strings (both ordinary and superconducting) can catalyze proton decay, but that this catalysis only occurs on the scale of the core of the string. In order to do this we have to develop a vortex model for the superconducting string. An argument is also given for the difference in the enhancement factors for monopoles and strings.

  2. MCNP6 Cosmic-Source Option

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, Gregg W; Armstrong, Hirotatsu; James, Michael R; Clem, John; Goldhagen, Paul

    2012-06-19

    MCNP is a Monte Carlo radiation transport code that has been under development for over half a century. Over the last decade, the development team of a high-energy offshoot of MCNP, called MCNPX, has implemented several physics and algorithm improvements important for modeling galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) interactions with matter. In this presentation, we discuss the latest of these improvements, a new Cosmic-Source option, that has been implemented in MCNP6.

  3. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are covered. The activities are divided into sections and described, followed by a bibliography. The astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets are investigated. These investigations are performed by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

  4. Cosmic strings - A problem or a solution?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, David P.; Bouchet, Francois R.

    1988-01-01

    The most fundamental issue in the theory of cosmic strings is addressed by means of Numerical Simulations: the existence of a scaling solution. The resolution of this question will determine whether cosmic strings can form the basis of an attractive theory of galaxy formation or prove to be a cosmological disaster like magnetic monopoles or domain walls. After a brief discussion of our numerical technique, results are presented which, though still preliminary, offer the best support to date of this scaling hypothesis.

  5. Apollo 17 lunar surface cosmic ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives and selected data are presented for the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Cosmic Ray Experiment (LSCRE) for the purpose of introducing an analysis of three of the separate detectors contained within in LSCRE package. The mica detector for measuring heavy solar wind, and the lexan stack and glass detectors for measuring energetic particles in space are discussed in terms of their deployment, exposure time, calibration, and data yield. Relevant articles on solar particles, interplanetary ions, and cosmic ray nuclei are also included.

  6. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  7. JUPITER AS A GIANT COSMIC RAY DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, P. B.; Stark, C. R.; Helling, Ch.

    2014-06-01

    We explore the feasibility of using the atmosphere of Jupiter to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The large surface area of Jupiter allows us to probe cosmic rays of higher energies than previously accessible. Cosmic ray extensive air showers in Jupiter's atmosphere could in principle be detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi observatory. In order to be observed, these air showers would need to be oriented toward the Earth, and would need to occur sufficiently high in the atmosphere that the gamma rays can penetrate. We demonstrate that, under these assumptions, Jupiter provides an effective cosmic ray ''detector'' area of 3.3 × 10{sup 7} km{sup 2}. We predict that Fermi-LAT should be able to detect events of energy >10{sup 21} eV with fluence 10{sup –7} erg cm{sup –2} at a rate of about one per month. The observed number of air showers may provide an indirect measure of the flux of cosmic rays ≳ 10{sup 20} eV. Extensive air showers also produce a synchrotron signature that may be measurable by Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Simultaneous observations of Jupiter with ALMA and Fermi-LAT could be used to provide broad constraints on the energies of the initiating cosmic rays.

  8. Research Concerning Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Maxwell; Cunningham, John; Kuhlmann, Steve; Spinka, Hal; Underwood, Dave; Hammergren, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Throughout my academic career at Loyola I have carried out research with the Loyola University Cosmic Event Detection System concerning the possibility of detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) based on radio meteor scattering methods. This research was furthered through summer internships and research fellowships at Adler Planetarium Chicago and Stony Brook University in New York. At Adler Planetarium we used a helium balloon carrying a Geiger counter and other equipment to record the cosmic ray flux at various points in the atmosphere. The results clearly show the flux depends on the atmospheric density. At Stony Brook University I studied their advanced system for detecting cosmic rays in similar manner to radio meteor scattering principles. Research there focused on detection algorithms and also on the possibility of utilizing Digital Tv (DTv) signals for further research. Through the research a solid understanding of cosmic rays was formed including topics such as origins and energy scales of cosmic rays, both of which pose unanswered questions. )

  9. Cosmology with cosmic shear observations: a review.

    PubMed

    Kilbinger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as the implications for cosmology. We then conclude with an outlook on the various future surveys and missions, for which cosmic shear is one of the main science drivers, and discuss promising new weak cosmological lensing techniques for future observations.

  10. Nuclei Measurements with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Melanie

    2017-03-01

    The exact behavior of nuclei fluxes in cosmic rays and how they relate to each other is important for understanding the production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of charged cosmic rays. Precise measurements with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of light nuclei fluxes and their ratios in primary cosmic rays with rigidities from GV to TV are presented. The high statistics of the measurements require detailed studies and in depth understanding of associated systematic uncertainties.

  11. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  12. Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

  13. Correlations in cosmic density fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, B. C.

    1994-12-01

    A method is proposed to place constraints on the functional form of the high-order correlation functions zetan that arise in cosmic density fields at large scales. This technique is based on a mass-in-cell statistic and a difference of mass in partitions of a cell. The relationship between these measures is sensitive to the formal structure of the zetan as well as their amplitudes. This relationship is quantified in several theoretical models of structure, based on the hierarchical clustering paradigm. The results lead to a test for specific types of hierarchical clustering that is sensitive to correlations of all orders. The method is applied to examples of simulated large-scaled structure dominated by cold dark matter. In the preliminary study, the hierarchical paradigm appears to be a realistic approximation over a broad range of the scales. Furthermore, there is evidence that graphs of low-order vertices are dominant. On the basis of simulated data a phenomological model is specified that gives a good representation of clustering from linear scales to the strongly clustered regime (zeta2 approximately 500).

  14. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy. Science

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Heitmann, Katrin; Hirata, Chris; Honscheid, Klaus; Roodman, Aaron; Seljak, Uroš; Slosar, Anže; Trodden, Mark

    2016-04-26

    Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.

  15. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  16. COSMIC-RAY HELIUM HARDENING

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka; Ioka, Kunihito

    2011-03-01

    Recent observations by the CREAM and ATIC-2 experiments suggest that (1) the spectrum of cosmic-ray (CR) helium is harder than that of CR protons below the knee energy, 10{sup 15}eV, and (2) all CR spectra become hard at {approx}>10{sup 11}eV nucleon{sup -1}. We propose a new idea, that higher energy CRs are generated in a more helium-rich region, to explain the hardening without introducing different sources for CR helium. The helium-to-proton ratio at {approx}100 TeV exceeds the Big Bang abundance Y = 0.25 by several times, and the different spectrum is not reproduced within the diffusive shock acceleration theory. We argue that CRs are produced in a chemically enriched region, such as a superbubble, and the outward-decreasing abundance naturally leads to the hard spectrum of CR helium if CRs escape from the supernova remnant shock in an energy-dependent way. We provide a simple analytical spectrum that also fits well the hardening due to the decreasing Mach number in the hot superbubble with {approx}10{sup 6} K. Our model predicts hard and concave spectra for heavier CR elements.

  17. THE INTERACTION OF COSMIC RAYS WITH DIFFUSE CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, John E.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2011-10-01

    We study the change in cosmic-ray pressure, the change in cosmic-ray density, and the level of cosmic-ray-induced heating via Alfven-wave damping when cosmic rays move from a hot ionized plasma to a cool cloud embedded in that plasma. The general analysis method outlined here can apply to diffuse clouds in either the ionized interstellar medium or in galactic winds. We introduce a general-purpose model of cosmic-ray diffusion building upon the hydrodynamic approximation for cosmic rays (from McKenzie and Voelk and Breitschwerdt and collaborators). Our improved method self-consistently derives the cosmic-ray flux and diffusivity under the assumption that the streaming instability is the dominant mechanism for setting the cosmic-ray flux and diffusion. We find that, as expected, cosmic rays do not couple to gas within cool clouds (cosmic rays exert no forces inside of cool clouds), that the cosmic-ray density does not increase within clouds (it may decrease slightly in general, and decrease by an order of magnitude in some cases), and that cosmic-ray heating (via Alfven-wave damping and not collisional effects as for {approx}10 MeV cosmic rays) is only important under the conditions of relatively strong (10 {mu}G) magnetic fields or high cosmic-ray pressure ({approx}10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -3}).

  18. Cosmic Education: The Child's Discovery of a Global Vision and a Cosmic Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Susan Mayclin

    2015-01-01

    Susan Mayclin Stephenson tackles a large subject, Cosmic Education, which Montessori defined as a "unifying global and universal view[s] of the past, present and future." Stephenson takes the reader from birth to the end of the elementary age with examples of how the child grows into an understanding of Cosmic Education through their…

  19. Constraints on cosmic strings due to black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Gates, Evalyn

    1993-01-01

    The cosmological features of primordial black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops are studied. Observational restrictions on a population of primordial black holes are used to restrict f, the fraction of cosmic string loops which collapse to form black holes, and mu, the cosmic string mass-per-unit length. Using a realistic model of cosmic strings, we find the strongest restriction on the parameters f and mu is due to the energy density in 100MeV photons radiated by the black holes. We also find that inert black hole remnants cannot serve as the dark matter. If earlier, crude estimates of f are reliable, our results severely restrict mu, and therefore limit the viability of the cosmic string large-scale structure scenario.

  20. Positron fraction in cosmic rays and models of cosmic-ray propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Cowsik, R.; Burch, B.

    2010-07-15

    The positron fraction observed by PAMELA and other experiments up to {approx}100 GeV is analyzed in terms of models of cosmic-ray propagation. It is shown that generically we expect the positron fraction to reach {approx}0.6 at energies of several TeV, and its energy dependence bears an intimate but subtle connection with that of the boron to carbon ratio in cosmic rays. The observed positron fraction can be fit in a model that assumes a significant fraction of the boron below {approx}10 GeV is generated through spallation of cosmic-ray nuclei in a cocoonlike region surrounding the sources, and the positrons of energy higher than a few GeV are almost exclusively generated through cosmic-ray interactions in the general interstellar medium. Such a model is consistent with the bounds on cosmic-ray anisotropies and other observations.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon processing by cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micelotta, E. R.; Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Cosmic rays are present in almost all phases of the ISM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cosmic rays represent an abundant and ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium. However, the interaction between them has never before been fully investigated. Aims: To study the effects of cosmic ray ion (H, He, CNO and Fe-Co-Ni) and electron bombardment of PAHs in galactic and extragalactic environments. Methods: We calculate the nuclear and electronic interactions for collisions between PAHs and cosmic ray ions and electrons with energies between 5 MeV/nucleon and 10 GeV, above the threshold for carbon atom loss, in normal galaxies, starburst galaxies and cooling flow galaxy clusters. Results: The timescale for PAH destruction by cosmic ray ions depends on the electronic excitation energy E0 and on the amount of energy available for dissociation. Small PAHs are destroyed faster, with He and the CNO group being the more effective projectiles. For electron collisions, the lifetime is independent of the PAH size and varies with the threshold energy T0. Conclusions: Cosmic rays process the PAHs in diffuse clouds, where the destruction due to interstellar shocks is less efficient. In the hot gas filling galactic halos, outflows of starburst galaxies and intra-cluster medium, PAH destruction is dominated by collisions with thermal ions and electrons, but this mechanism is ineffective if the molecules are in denser cloudlets and isolated from the hot gas. Cosmic rays can access the denser clouds and together with X-rays will set the lifetime of those protected PAHs. This limits the use of PAHs as a "dye" for tracing the presence of cold entrained material.

  2. Galactic Cosmic Rays: From Earth to Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Theresa J.

    2012-01-01

    For nearly 100 years we have known that cosmic rays come from outer space, yet proof of their origin, as well as a comprehensive understanding of their acceleration, remains elusive. Direct detection of high energy (up to 10(exp 15)eV), charged nuclei with experiments such as the balloon-born, antarctic Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) have provided insight into these mysteries through measurements of cosmic ray abundances. The abundance of these rare elements with respect to certain intrinsic properties suggests that cosmic rays include a component of massive star ejecta. Supernovae and their remnants (SNe & SNRs), often occurring at the end of a massive star's life or in an environment including massive star material, are one of the most likely candidates for sources accelerating galactic comic ray nuclei up to the requisite high energies. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Detector (Fermi LAT) has improved our understanding of such sources by widening the window of observable energies and thus into potential sources' energetic processes. In combination with multiwavelength observations, we are now better able to constrain particle populations (often hadron-dominated at GeV energies) and environmental conditions, such as the magnetic field strength. The SNR CTB 37A is one such source which could contribute to the observed galactic cosmic rays. By assembling populations of SNRs, we will be able to more definitively define their contribution to the observed galactic cosmic rays, as well as better understand SNRs themselves. Such multimessenger studies will thus illuminate the long-standing cosmic ray mysteries, shedding light on potential sources, acceleration mechanisms, and cosmic ray propagation.

  3. The cosmic infrared background experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2006-03-01

    The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2 μm, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local ( z = 1-3) galaxies. These observations have led to speculation that a new class of high-mass stars or mini-quasars may dominate primordial star formation at high-redshift ( z ˜ 10-20), which, in order to explain the excess in the near-infrared background, must be highly luminous but produce a limited amount of metals and X-ray photons. Regardless of the nature of the sources, if a significant component of the near-infrared background comes from first-light galaxies, theoretical models generically predict a prominent near-infrared spectral feature from the redshifted Lyman cutoff, and a distinctive fluctuation power spectrum. We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7″ to 2°, where a first-light galaxy signature is expected to peak, over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100× fainter than IRTS/DIRBE, with sufficient resolution to remove local-galaxy correlations. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near

  4. Ready for the Cosmic Ball

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Something appears to be peering through a shiny red mask, in this new false-colored image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The mysterious blue eyes are actually starlight from the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163. The mask is the galaxies' dusty spiral arms.

    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 recently met and began a sort of gravitational tango about 40 million years ago. The two galaxies are tugging at each other, stimulating new stars to form. Eventually, this cosmic ball will come to an end, when the galaxies meld into one. The dancing duo is located 140 million light-years away in the Canis Major constellation.

    The Spitzer image reveals that the galactic mask is adorned with strings of pearl-like beads. These dusty clusters of newborn stars, called 'beads on a string' by astronomers, appear as white balls throughout the arms of both galaxies. They were formed when the galaxies first interacted, forcing dust and gas to clump together into colonies of stars.

    This type of beading has been seen before in other galaxies, but it took Spitzer's infrared eyes to identify them in NGC 2207 and IC 2163. Spitzer was able to see the beads because the stars inside heat up surrounding dust, which then radiates with infrared light.

    The biggest bead lighting up the left side of the mask is also the densest. In fact, some of its central stars might have merged to form a black hole. (Now, that would be quite the Mardi Gras mask!)

    This picture, taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera, is a four-channel composite. It shows light with wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue); 4.5 microns (green); and 5.8 and 8.0 microns (red). The contribution from starlight (measured at 3.6 microns) has been subtracted from the 5.8- and 8-micron channels to enhance the visibility of the dust features.

  5. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  6. Cosmic Disasters, Real and Imagined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, humans have looked to the skies for explanations of past tragedies and predictions of the future. Indeed the very word "disaster” means "bad star". Although most such myths and forecasts are purely imaginary, we have, in more recent times, identified real cosmic impact events in the past and we have developed the necessary tools to discover and predict them in the near-term future. We dynamical astronomers, the direct descendants of ancient astrologers, have at last gained the tools to actually deliver on at least some of the promises of ancient astrologers, to predict "Armageddon” before it arrives. Nevertheless, we still carry some baggage of mythos, ancient disasters blamed on impacts that never happened, and obsessions over impacts of such incredible improbability that we would better worry about other things. In this talk I will review our present state of knowledge of what is out there that might hit us and with what frequency, the estimated consequences of impacts of all sizes, and from these derive an "actuarial” impact risk assessment. I will present the "intrinsic risk", before any Earth-approaching asteroids were discovered; where we are now with the present level of survey completeness; and where future surveys should take us. I will put this in the context of risk levels from other natural, and un-natural, hazards. I will close with a brief discussion of a claimed impact that almost certainly did not happen, relating to the extinction of megafauna in North America 12,900 years ago. The mythos underlying this claim may provide an object lesson on the present day "street fight” over the reality of global warming.

  7. Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, M

    2004-06-03

    This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, to quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion and one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta} {rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. To clarify the general formalism and explicitly show why we choose to weaken the statement of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, we apply the general formalism to de Sitter space. After exactly solving the relevant Heisenberg equations of motion we give a detailed discussion of the subtleties associated with defining physical states and the emergence of the classical theory. This computation provides the striking result that quantum corrections to this long wavelength limit of gravity eliminate the problem of the big crunch. We also show that the same corrections lead to possibly measurable effects on the CMB radiation. For the sake of completeness, we discuss the special case, {lambda} = 0, and its relation to Minkowski space. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest one can put an experimental lower bound on the distance to a universe with a scale factor very different from our own, by looking at its effects on our CMB

  8. Preliminary CALET Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Abundance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Brian; CALET Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on the International Space Station (ISS) was launched August 19, 2015 and has been returning excellent data for over a year. The main calorimeter (CAL) on CALET measures the fluxes of high-energy electrons, nuclei and gamma rays. In addition to measuring the energy spectra of the more abundant cosmic-ray nuclei through 26Fe, CAL has the dynamic range to measure the abundances of the ultra-heavy (UH) cosmic-ray nuclei through 40Zr. In an anticipated 5 year mission on the ISS CALET will collect a UH data set with statistics comparable to that achieved with the first flight of the SuperTIGER balloon-borne instrument. The CALET space-based measurement has the advantage of not requiring corrections for atmospheric losses, and unlike other UH measurements the abundances of all nuclei from 1H through 40Zr are observed with the same instrument. We present preliminary CALET UH analysis results from the first year of operation. This research was supported by NASA at Washington University under Grant Number NNX11AE02G.

  9. Industrial radiography with cosmic-ray muons: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilboy, W. B.; Jenneson, P. M.; Simons, S. J. R.; Stanley, S. J.; Rhodes, D.

    2007-09-01

    Cosmic-ray produced muons arrive at the surface of the earth with enormous energies ranging up to 1012 GeV. There have been sporadic attempts to exploit their extreme penetration through matter to probe the internal structures of very large objects, including an Egyptian pyramid and a volcano but their very low intensity per unit area ( ≈1 cm-2 per min) generally restricts the practicably attainable spatial resolution to large dimensions. Nevertheless the more intense low energy region of the muon spectrum has recently been shown to be capable of detecting high-Z objects with dimensions of the order of 10 cm hidden inside large transport containers in measurement times of minutes. These various developments have encouraged further studies of potential industrial uses of cosmic-ray muons in industrial applications. In order to gain maximum benefit from the low muon flux large area detectors are required and plastic scintillators offer useful advantages in size, cost and simplicity. Scintillator slabs up to 1 m2 square and 76.2 mm thick are undergoing testing for applications in the nuclear industry. The most direct approach employs photomultiplier tubes at each corner to measure the relative sizes of muon induced pulses to determine the location of each muon track passing through the scintillator. The performance of this technique is reported and its imaging potential is assessed.

  10. Analysis of Cosmic Spherule Candidates from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A.; Russell, S. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Brownlee, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The Kwajalein micrometeorite collection utilised high volume air samplers fitted with 5 micrometer laser-etched polycarbonate membrane filters to capture particles directly from the atmosphere. The filters were changed weekly over several months throughout 2011/12, providing the opportunity to investigate the contemporary flux of micrometeorites. We recently reported the results of our initial survey of cosmic spherule-like particles on several of these filters. We identified three main groups of particle based on bulk compositions: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Mg, Ca and Fe, 2. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and/or Na and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Abundances appeared to change over time suggesting links with celestial activity (e.g. meteor showers), however, spherules similar to groups 2 and 3 can be produced by terrestrial and anthropogenic activity (e.g. volcanic microspherules exhibit similar compositions to group 2 spherules and metallic spherules similar to those of group 3 can be formed during fuel combustion). We are now studying the internal structures and chemistries of these spherules and comparing against cosmic spherules identified in other collections to confrim their origins and further contrain the contemporary micrometeorite flux. Particles are being picked, embedded in resin and polished through to reveal their interiors. Here we will describe our ongoing analyses of these particles via SEM. We will also introduce our new collection using this method that is currently being performed in the Antarctic.

  11. CMB constraints on cosmic strings and superstrings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnock, Tom; Avgoustidis, Anastasios; Copeland, Edmund J.; Moss, Adam

    2016-06-01

    We present the first complete Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of cosmological models with evolving cosmic (super)string networks, using the unconnected segment model in the unequal-time correlator formalism. For ordinary cosmic string networks, we derive joint constraints on Λ cold dark matter (CDM) and string network parameters, namely the string tension G μ , the loop-chopping efficiency cr, and the string wiggliness α . For cosmic superstrings, we obtain joint constraints on the fundamental string tension G μF, the string coupling gs, the self-interaction coefficient cs, and the volume of compact extra dimensions w . This constitutes the most comprehensive CMB analysis of Λ CDM cosmology+strings to date. For ordinary cosmic string networks our updated constraint on the string tension, obtained using Planck2015 temperature and polarization data, is G μ <1.1 ×10-7 in relativistic units, while for cosmic superstrings our constraint on the fundamental string tension after marginalizing over gs, cs, and w is G μF<2.8 ×10-8.

  12. Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

    2011-09-08

    This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth’s surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth’s surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

  13. Space weather prediction by cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromichalaki, H.; Souvatzoglou, G.; Sarlanis, C.; Mariatos, G.; Plainaki, C.; Gerontidou, M.; Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.

    Relativistic (galactic and solar) cosmic rays (CR) registered by neutron monitors can play a useful key-role in space weather storms forecasting and in the specification of magnetic properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), shocks and ground level enhancements (GLEs). In order to produce a real-time prediction of space weather phenomena, only real-time data from a neutron monitor network should be employed. Recently in Athens cosmic-ray station a real-time data collection and acquisition system has been created in collaboration with the cosmic ray group of IZMIRAN. This system collects data in real-time mode from about 15 real-time cosmic ray stations by using the internet. The main server in Athens station collects 5-min and hourly cosmic ray data. The measurements of all stations are being processed automatically while converted into a suitable form, so as to be serviceably for forecasting purposes. All programs have been written in an expandable form, in order to upgrade the network of real-time neutron monitors with the biggest possible number of stations, easily. Programs which make use of these data for forecasting studies are already running in experimental mode. The increased number of NM stations operating in real time provides a good basis for using Neutron Monitor network as a tool of forecasting the arrival of the interplanetary disturbances at the Earth.

  14. Monopole annihilation and highest energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, P. Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Sarjapur Road, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 ); Sigl, G. NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 )

    1995-04-15

    Cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10[sup 20] eV have been detected. The origin of these highest energy cosmic rays remains unknown. Established astrophysical acceleration mechanisms encounter severe difficulties in accelerating particles to these energies. Alternative scenarios where these particles are created by the decay of cosmic topological defects have been suggested in the literature. In this paper we study the possibility of producing the highest energy cosmic rays through a process that involves the formation of metastable magnetic monopole-antimonopole bound states and their subsequent collapse. The annihilation of the heavy monopole-antimonopole pairs constituting the monopolonia can produce energetic nucleons, [gamma] rays, and neutrinos whose expected flux we estimate and discuss in relation to experimental data so far available. The monopoles we consider are the ones that could be produced in the early Universe during a phase transition at the grand unification energy scale. We find that observable cosmic ray fluxes can be produced with monopole abundances compatible with present bounds.

  15. Bayesian Cosmic Web Reconstruction: BARCODE for Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, E. G. Patrick; van de Weygaert, Rien; Kitaura, Francisco; Cautun, Marius

    2016-10-01

    We describe the Bayesian \\barcode\\ formalism that has been designed towards the reconstruction of the Cosmic Web in a given volume on the basis of the sampled galaxy cluster distribution. Based on the realization that the massive compact clusters are responsible for the major share of the large scale tidal force field shaping the anisotropic and in particular filamentary features in the Cosmic Web. Given the nonlinearity of the constraints imposed by the cluster configurations, we resort to a state-of-the-art constrained reconstruction technique to find a proper statistically sampled realization of the original initial density and velocity field in the same cosmic region. Ultimately, the subsequent gravitational evolution of these initial conditions towards the implied Cosmic Web configuration can be followed on the basis of a proper analytical model or an N-body computer simulation. The BARCODE formalism includes an implicit treatment for redshift space distortions. This enables a direct reconstruction on the basis of observational data, without the need for a correction of redshift space artifacts. In this contribution we provide a general overview of the the Cosmic Web connection with clusters and a description of the Bayesian BARCODE formalism. We conclude with a presentation of its successful workings with respect to test runs based on a simulated large scale matter distribution, in physical space as well as in redshift space.

  16. Inflation, string theory and cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernoff, David F.; Tye, S.-H. Henry

    2015-02-01

    At its very beginning, the universe is believed to have grown exponentially in size via the mechanism of inflation. The almost scale-invariant density perturbation spectrum predicted by inflation is strongly supported by cosmological observations, in particular the cosmic microwave background (MB) radiation. However, the universe's precise inflationary scenario remains a profound problem for cosmology and for fundamental physics. String theory, the most-studied theory as the final physical theory of nature, should provide an answer to this question. Some of the proposals on how inflation is realized in string theory are reviewed. Since everything is made of strings, some string loops of cosmological sizes are likely to survive in the hot big bang that followed inflation. They appear as cosmic strings, which can have intricate properties. Because of the warped geometry in flux compactification of the extra spatial dimensions in string theory, some of the cosmic strings may have tensions substantially below the Planck or string scale. Such strings cluster in a manner similar to dark matter leading to hugely enhanced densities. As a result, numerous fossil remnants of the low tension cosmic strings may exist within the galaxy. They can be revealed through the optical lensing of background stars in the near future and studied in detail through gravitational wave emission. We anticipate that these cosmic strings will permit us to address central questions about the properties of string theory as well as the birth of our universe.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Peter

    2009-08-01

    With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics

  18. Explaining TeV cosmic-ray anisotropies with non-diffusive cosmic-ray propagation

    DOE PAGES

    Harding, James Patrick; Fryer, Chris Lee; Mendel, Susan Marie

    2016-05-11

    Constraining the behavior of cosmic ray data observed at Earth requires a precise understanding of how the cosmic rays propagate in the interstellar medium. The interstellar medium is not homogeneous; although turbulent magnetic fields dominate over large scales, small coherent regions of magnetic field exist on scales relevant to particle propagation in the nearby Galaxy. Guided propagation through a coherent field is significantly different from random particle diffusion and could be the explanation of spatial anisotropies in the observed cosmic rays. We present a Monte Carlo code to propagate cosmic particle through realistic magnetic field structures. We discuss the detailsmore » of the model as well as some preliminary studies which indicate that coherent magnetic structures are important effects in local cosmic-ray propagation, increasing the flux of cosmic rays by over two orders of magnitude at anisotropic locations on the sky. Furthermore, the features induced by coherent magnetic structure could be the cause of the observed TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy.« less

  19. Explaining TeV cosmic-ray anisotropies with non-diffusive cosmic-ray propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, James Patrick; Fryer, Chris Lee; Mendel, Susan Marie

    2016-05-11

    Constraining the behavior of cosmic ray data observed at Earth requires a precise understanding of how the cosmic rays propagate in the interstellar medium. The interstellar medium is not homogeneous; although turbulent magnetic fields dominate over large scales, small coherent regions of magnetic field exist on scales relevant to particle propagation in the nearby Galaxy. Guided propagation through a coherent field is significantly different from random particle diffusion and could be the explanation of spatial anisotropies in the observed cosmic rays. We present a Monte Carlo code to propagate cosmic particle through realistic magnetic field structures. We discuss the details of the model as well as some preliminary studies which indicate that coherent magnetic structures are important effects in local cosmic-ray propagation, increasing the flux of cosmic rays by over two orders of magnitude at anisotropic locations on the sky. Furthermore, the features induced by coherent magnetic structure could be the cause of the observed TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy.

  20. Level crossing analysis of cosmic microwave background radiation: a method for detecting cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Movahed, M. Sadegh; Khosravi, Shahram E-mail: khosravi@ipm.ir

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we study the footprint of cosmic string as the topological defects in the very early universe on the cosmic microwave background radiation. We develop the method of level crossing analysis in the context of the well-known Kaiser-Stebbins phenomenon for exploring the signature of cosmic strings. We simulate a Gaussian map by using the best fit parameter given by WMAP-7 and then superimpose cosmic strings effects on it as an incoherent and active fluctuations. In order to investigate the capability of our method to detect the cosmic strings for the various values of tension, Gμ, a simulated pure Gaussian map is compared with that of including cosmic strings. Based on the level crossing analysis, the superimposed cosmic string with Gμ∼>4 × 10{sup −9} in the simulated map without instrumental noise and the resolution R = 1' could be detected. In the presence of anticipated instrumental noise the lower bound increases just up to Gμ∼>5.8 × 10{sup −9}.

  1. THE SPINE OF THE COSMIC WEB

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Platen, Erwin; Van de Weygaert, Rien

    2010-11-01

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between the watershed basins to trace the critical points in the density field and the separatrices defined by them. The separatrices are classified into walls and the spine, the network of filaments and nodes in the matter distribution. Testing the method with a heuristic Voronoi model yields outstanding results. Following the discussion of the test results, we apply the SpineWeb method to a set of cosmological N-body simulations. The latter illustrates the potential for studying the structure and dynamics of the Cosmic Web.

  2. Cosmic Microwave Background Bispectrum from Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiqi; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2013-03-01

    We compute the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities at recombination on all scales. We use CosmoLib2nd, a numerical Boltzmann code at second order to compute cosmic microwave background bispectra on the full sky. We consistently include all effects except gravitational lensing, which can be added to our result using standard methods. The bispectrum is peaked on squeezed triangles and agrees with the analytic approximation in the squeezed limit at the few percent level for all the scales where this is applicable. On smaller scales, we recover previous results on perturbed recombination. For cosmic-variance limited data to lmax⁡=2000, its signal-to-noise ratio is S/N=0.47, corresponding to fNLeff=-2.79, and will bias a local signal by fNLloc≃0.82.

  3. Microphysics of Cosmic Ray Driven Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Brandenburg, A.; Malkov, M. A.; Osipov, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    Energetic nonthermal particles (cosmic rays, CRs) are accelerated in supernova remnants, relativistic jets and other astrophysical objects. The CR energy density is typically comparable with that of the thermal components and magnetic fields. In this review we discuss mechanisms of magnetic field amplification due to instabilities induced by CRs. We derive CR kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic equations that govern cosmic plasma systems comprising the thermal background plasma, comic rays and fluctuating magnetic fields to study CR-driven instabilities. Both resonant and non-resonant instabilities are reviewed, including the Bell short-wavelength instability, and the firehose instability. Special attention is paid to the longwavelength instabilities driven by the CR current and pressure gradient. The helicity production by the CR current-driven instabilities is discussed in connection with the dynamo mechanisms of cosmic magnetic field amplification.

  4. Microphysics of Cosmic Ray Driven Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Brandenburg, A.; Malkov, M. A.; Osipov, S. M.

    Energetic nonthermal particles (cosmic rays, CRs) are accelerated in supernova remnants, relativistic jets and other astrophysical objects. The CR energy density is typically comparable with that of the thermal components and magnetic fields. In this review we discuss mechanisms of magnetic field amplification due to instabilities induced by CRs. We derive CR kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic equations that govern cosmic plasma systems comprising the thermal background plasma, comic rays and fluctuating magnetic fields to study CR-driven instabilities. Both resonant and non-resonant instabilities are reviewed, including the Bell short-wavelength instability, and the firehose instability. Special attention is paid to the longwavelength instabilities driven by the CR current and pressure gradient. The helicity production by the CR current-driven instabilities is discussed in connection with the dynamo mechanisms of cosmic magnetic field amplification.

  5. Weak cosmic censorship: as strong as ever.

    PubMed

    Hod, Shahar

    2008-03-28

    Spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. This is the essence of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The hypothesis, put forward by Penrose 40 years ago, is still one of the most important open questions in general relativity. In this Letter, we reanalyze extreme situations which have been considered as counterexamples to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In particular, we consider the absorption of scalar particles with large angular momentum by a black hole. Ignoring back reaction effects may lead one to conclude that the incident wave may overspin the black hole, thereby exposing its inner singularity to distant observers. However, we show that when back reaction effects are properly taken into account, the stability of the black-hole event horizon is irrefutable. We therefore conclude that cosmic censorship is actually respected in this type of gedanken experiments.

  6. Anomalous isotopic composition of cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-06-20

    Recent measurements of nonsolar isotopic patterns for the elements neon and (perhaps) magnesium in cosmic rays are interpreted within current models of stellar nucleosynthesis. One possible explanation is that the stars currently responsible for cosmic-ray synthesis in the Galaxy are typically super-metal-rich by a factor of two to three. Other possibilities include the selective acceleration of certain zones or masses of supernovas or the enhancement of /sup 22/Ne in the interstellar medium by mass loss from red giant stars and planetary nebulas. Measurements of critical isotopic ratios are suggested to aid in distinguishing among the various possibilities. Some of these explanations place significant constraints on the fraction of cosmic ray nuclei that must be fresh supernova debris and the masses of the supernovas involved. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  7. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Cosmic vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, Artur D.

    2001-11-01

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered.

  8. Cosmic-Ray Observations with HAWC30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorino, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a TeV gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector currently under construction at an altitude of 4100 meters on the slope of Volc'an Sierra Negra near Puebla, Mexico. HAWC is an extensive air-shower array comprising 300 optically-isolated water Cherenkov detectors. Each detector contains 200,000 liters of filtered water and four upward-facing photomultiplier tubes. Since September 2012, 30 water Cherenkov detectors have been instrumented and operated in data acquisition. With 10 percent of the detector complete and six months of operation, the event statistics are already sufficient to perform detailed studies of cosmic rays observed at the site. We will report on cosmic-ray observations with HAWC30, in particular the detection and study of the shadow of the moon. From these observations, we infer the pointing accuracy of the detector and our angular resolution of the detector reconstruction.

  9. Cosmic dust in modern ferromanganese nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, G. S.

    2017-03-01

    This work is about the identification of modern cosmic dust that had survived heating during its high-velocity passage through the Earth's atmosphere from 3He isotope concentrations in marine (Gulf of Finland) ferromanganese nodules (FMNs). The measured bulk composition of helium includes components of various origins, enabling the determination of the age (1800 years) of the shallow-water Baltic FMNs and the average time of exposure (8 × 107 years) of cosmic dust particles during their existence in space. The concentration of cosmic dust per gram of FMN material is found to be 0.036 μg. The contribution of solar-wind helium to the Earth's atmospheric helium is found to be small. The experiments are conducted by the stepheating method in vacuo with the subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of the helium released from the samples.

  10. The Astrobiological Case for Our Cosmic Ancestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    With steadily mounting evidence that points to a cosmic origin of terrestrial life, a cultural barrier prevails against admitting that such a connection exists. Astronomy continues to reveal the presence of organic molecules and organic dust on a huge cosmic scale, amounting to a third of interstellar carbon tied up in this form. Just as the overwhelming bulk of organics on Earth stored over geological timescales are derived from the degradation of living cells, so it seems most likely that interstellar organics in large measure also derive from biology. As we enter a new decade -- the year 2010 -- a clear pronouncement of our likely alien ancestry and of the existence of extraterrestrial life on a cosmic scale would seem to be overdue.

  11. Ion acceleration to cosmic ray energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Martin A.

    1990-01-01

    The acceleration and transport environment of the outer heliosphere is described schematically. Acceleration occurs where the divergence of the solar-wind flow is negative, that is at shocks, and where second-order Fermi acceleration is possible in the solar-wind turbulence. Acceleration at the solar-wind termination shock is presented by reviewing the spherically-symmetric calculation of Webb et al. (1985). Reacceleration of galactic cosmic rays at the termination shock is not expected to be important in modifying the cosmic ray spectrum, but acceleration of ions injected at the shock up to energies not greater than 300 MeV/charge is expected to occur and to create the anomalous cosmic ray component. Acceleration of energetic particles by solar wind turbulence is expected to play almost no role in the outer heliosphere. The one exception is the energization of interstellar pickup ions beyond the threshold for acceleration at the quasi-perpendicular termination shock.

  12. Cosmic-ray streaming and anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. A.; Gleeson, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the differential current densities and anisotropies that exist in the interplanetary cosmic-ray gas, and in particular with a correct formulation and simple interpretation of the momentum equation that describes these on a local basis. Two examples of the use of this equation in the interpretation of previous data are given. It is demonstrated that in interplanetary space, the electric-field drifts and convective flow parallel to the magnetic field of cosmic-ray particles combine as a simple convective flow with the solar wind, and that there exist diffusive currents and transverse gradient drift currents. Thus direct reference to the interplanetary electric-field drifts is eliminated, and the study of steady-state and transient cosmic-ray anisotropies is both more systematic and simpler.

  13. Cusps on cosmic superstrings with junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Rajamanoharan, Senthooran; Nelson, William; Sakellariadou, Mairi E-mail: william.nelson@kcl.ac.uk E-mail: mairi.sakellariadou@kcl.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    The existence of cusps on non-periodic strings ending on D-branes is demonstrated and the conditions for which such cusps are generic are derived. The dynamics of F-strings, D-strings and FD-string junctions are investigated. It is shown that pairs of FD-string junctions, such as would form after intercommutations of F-strings and D-strings, generically contain cusps. This new feature of cosmic superstrings opens up the possibility of extra channels of energy loss from a string network. The phenomenology of cusps on such cosmic superstring networks is compared to that of cusps formed on networks of their field theory analogues, the standard cosmic strings.

  14. Measuring anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Tully, Christopher G.

    2014-10-01

    Neutrino capture on tritium has emerged as a promising method for detecting the cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ). We show that relic neutrinos are captured most readily when their spin vectors are antialigned with the polarization axis of the tritium nuclei and when they approach along the direction of polarization. As a result, C ν B observatories may measure anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino velocity and spin distributions by polarizing the tritium targets. A small dipole anisotropy in the C ν B is expected due to the peculiar velocity of the lab frame with respect to the cosmic frame and due to late-time gravitational effects. The PTOLEMY experiment, a tritium observatory currently under construction, should observe a nearly isotropic background. This would serve as a strong test of the cosmological origin of a potential signal. The polarized-target measurements may also constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions that would induce larger anisotropies and help discriminate between Majorana versus Dirac neutrinos.

  15. Cosmic ray antiprotons at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Cosmic ray antiprotons provide a powerful tool to probe dark matter annihilations in our galaxy. The sensitivity of this important channel is, however, diluted by sizable uncertainties in the secondary antiproton background. In this work, we improve the calculation of secondary antiproton production with a particular focus on the high energy regime. We employ the most recent collider data and identify a substantial increase of antiproton cross sections with energy. This increase is driven by the violation of Feynman scaling as well as by an enhanced strange hyperon production. The updated antiproton production cross sections are made publicly available for independent use in cosmic ray studies. In addition, we provide the correlation matrix of cross section uncertainties for the AMS-02 experiment. At high energies, the new cross sections improve the compatibility of the AMS-02 data with a pure secondary origin of antiprotons in cosmic rays.

  16. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  17. The HEAO-3 Cosmic Ray Isotope spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouffard, M.; Engelmann, J. J.; Koch, L.; Soutoul, A.; Lund, N.; Peters, B.; Rasmussen, I. L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the Cosmic Ray Isotope instrument launched aboard the HEAO-3 satellite on September 20, 1979. The primary purpose of the experiment is to measure the isotopic composition of cosmic ray nuclei from Be-7 to Fe-58 over the energy range 0.5 to 7 GeV/nucleon. In addition charge spectra will be measured between beryllium and tin over the energy range 0.5 to 25 GeV/nucleon. The charge and isotope abundances measured by the experiment provide essential information needed to further our understanding of the origin and propagation of high energy cosmic rays. The instrument consists of 5 Cerenkov counters, a 4 element neon flash tube hodoscope and a time-of-flight system. The determination of charge and energy for each particle is based on the multiple Cerenkov technique and the mass determination will be based upon a statistical analysis of particle trajectories in the geomagnetic field.

  18. The LDEF ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smit, A.; Domingo, C.

    1992-01-01

    The LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) used 16 side viewing LDEF trays giving a total geometry factor for high energy cosmic rays of 30 sq m sr. The total exposure factor was 170 sq m sr y. The experiment is based on a modular array of 192 solid state nuclear track detector stacks, mounted in sets of four in 48 pressure vessels. The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced potential scientific yield from the UHCRE. Initial scanning results indicate that at least 1800 cosmic ray nuclei with Z greater than 65 were collected, including the world's first statistically significant sample of actinides. Post flight work to date and the current status of the experiment are reviewed.

  19. The LDEF ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smit, A.; Domingo, C.

    1991-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) used 16 side viewing LDEF trays giving a total geometry factor for high energy cosmic rays of 30 sq m sr. The total exposure factor was 170 sq m sr y. The experiment is based on a modular array of 192 solid state nuclear track detector stacks, mounted in sets of 4 pressure vessels (3 experiment tray). The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced potential scientific yield from the UHCRE. Initial scanning results indicate that at least 2000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z greater than 65 were collected, including the world's first statistically significant sample of actinides. Postflight work to date and the current status of the experiment are reviewed. Provisional results from analysis of preflight and postflight calibrations are presented.

  20. The astrobiological case for our cosmic ancestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2010-04-01

    With steadily mounting evidence that points to a cosmic origin of terrestrial life, a cultural barrier prevails against admitting that such a connection exists. Astronomy continues to reveal the presence of organic molecules and organic dust on a huge cosmic scale, amounting to a third of interstellar carbon tied up in this form. Just as the overwhelming bulk of organics on Earth stored over geological timescales are derived from the degradation of living cells, so it seems likely that interstellar organics in large measure also derive from biology. As we enter a new decade - the year 2010 - a clear pronouncement of our likely alien ancestry and of the existence of extraterrestrial life on a cosmic scale would seem to be overdue.

  1. Positrons and Antiprotons in Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowsik, R.

    2016-10-01

    I consider the impact of recent measurements of positron and antiproton spectra in cosmic rays on our understanding of the origins and propagation of cosmic rays, as well as on the annihilation and decay characteristics of particles of Galactic dark matter, from the perspective of current models postulating energy-dependent leakage of cosmic rays from the Galaxy and of the nested leaky-box model, in which the leakage from the Galaxy is independent of energy. The nested leaky-box model provides a straightforward and consistent explanation of the observed spectral intensities, and finds no compelling need for a contribution from the annihilation or decay of Galactic dark matter. Improved observations and modeling efforts are needed to probe the properties of dark matter deeply enough to be significant to particle physics and cosmology.

  2. Cosmic Radiation | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-16

    Radiation from space is constantly hitting the Earth. Radiation from space is called cosmic radiation. Cosmic radiation makes up about five percent of annual radiation exposure of an average person in the United States.

  3. The ALPHA Magnetic Spectrometer for the Search of Cosmic Antimatter in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallraff, W.

    1997-02-01

    The apparent absence of antimatter (anti-helium, anti-carbon, etc.) in the universe is a major puzzle of particle physics. The ALPHA Magnetic Spectrometer AMS is a high resolution tracking detector under construction. It will improve the sensitivity for antimatter search by a factor of more than 104. For more than 3 years AMS will sample cosmic rays in space while orbiting around earth on the international space station ISSA.

  4. A Cosmic Baby-Boom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    Large Population of Galaxies Found in the Young Universe with ESO's VLT The Universe was a more fertile place soon after it was formed than has previously been suspected. A team of French and Italian astronomers [1] made indeed the surprising discovery of a large and unknown population of distant galaxies observed when the Universe was only 10 to 30% its present age. ESO PR Photo 29a/05 ESO PR Photo 29a/05 New Population of Distant Galaxies [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 424 pix - 191k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 847 pix - 449k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2269 x 2402 pix - 2.0M] ESO PR Photo 29b/05 ESO PR Photo 29b/05 Average Spectra of Distant Galaxies [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 506 pix - 141k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1012 pix - 320k] This breakthrough is based on observations made with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) as part of the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). The VVDS started early 2002 on Melipal, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope Array [2]. In a total sample of about 8,000 galaxies selected only on the basis of their observed brightness in red light, almost 1,000 bright and vigorously star forming galaxies were discovered that were formed between 9 and 12 billion years ago (i.e. about 1,500 to 4,500 million years after the Big Bang). "To our surprise, says Olivier Le Fèvre, from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (France) and co-leader of the VVDS project, "this is two to six times higher than had been found previously. These galaxies had been missed because previous surveys had selected objects in a much more restrictive manner than we did. And they did so to accommodate the much lower efficiency of the previous generation of instruments." While observations and models have consistently indicated that the Universe had not yet formed many stars in the first billion years of cosmic time, the discovery announced today by scientists calls for a significant change in this picture. The astronomers indeed find that stars formed two to three times

  5. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie

    2015-10-01

    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  6. Cosmic Blasts Much More Common, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    A cosmic explosion seen last February may have been the "tip of an iceberg," showing that powerful, distant gamma ray bursts are outnumbered ten-to-one by less-energetic cousins, according to an international team of astronomers. The VLA The Very Large Array CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for VLA gallery) A study of the explosion with X-ray and radio telescopes showed that it is "100 times less energetic than gamma ray bursts seen in the distant universe. We were able to see it because it's relatively nearby," said Alicia Soderberg, of Caltech, leader of the research team. The scientists reported their findings in the August 31 issue of the journal Nature. The explosion is called an X-ray flash, and was detected by the Swift satellite on February 18. The astronomers subsequently studied the object using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Ryle radio telescope in the UK. "This object tells us that there probably is a rich diversity of cosmic explosions in our local Universe that we only now are starting to detect. These explosions aren't playing by the rules that we thought we understood," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The February blast seems to fill a gap between ordinary supernova explosions, which leave behind a dense neutron star, and gamma ray bursts, which leave behind a black hole, a concentration of mass so dense that not even light can escape it. Some X-ray flashes, the new research suggests, leave behind a magnetar, a neutron star with a magnetic field 100-1000 times stronger than that of an ordinary neutron star. "This explosion occurred in a galaxy about 470 million light-years away. If it had been at the distances of gamma ray bursts, as much as billions of light-years away, we would not have been able to see it," Frail said. "We think that the principal difference between gamma ray bursts and X-ray flashes and ordinary supernova

  7. Plasma effects on extragalactic ultra-high-energy cosmic ray hadron beams in cosmic voids

    SciTech Connect

    Krakau, S.; Schlickeiser, R. E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de

    2014-07-01

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam (Γ {sub b} ≈ 10{sup 6}) in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is investigated with respect to the excitation of collective electrostatic and aperiodic electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 15} eV) from their distant sources to Earth. We calculate minimum instability growth times that are orders of magnitude shorter than the cosmic ray propagation time in the IGM. Due to nonlinear effects, especially the modulation instability, the cosmic ray beam stabilizes and can propagate with nearly no energy loss through the IGM.

  8. COSMIC. [Coherent Optical System of Modular Image Collectors (COSMIC); spaceborne telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    1987-01-01

    The design goals of the COSMIC spaceborne telescope array concept are outlined. These include a high degree of structural stiffness, a wide field of view, and a broad wavelength band. These properties directly enhance the scientific productivity and technical reliability of the array. If a sufficiently stiff structure can be designed, COSMIC can operate as a phased array; if the structure relaxes before it can be rephased on a reference star, it degrades to a coherent array. The COSMIC engineering study suggests that passively-stabilized, phased arrays are feasible.

  9. Cosmic Origins Program Annual Technology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Bruce Thai; Neff, Susan Gale

    2016-01-01

    What is the Cosmic Origins (COR) Program? From ancient times, humans have looked up at the night sky and wondered: Are we alone? How did the universe come to be? How does the universe work? COR focuses on the second question. Scientists investigating this broad theme seek to understand the origin and evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day, determining how the expanding universe grew into a grand cosmic web of dark matter enmeshed with galaxies and pristine gas, forming, merging, and evolving over time.

  10. Cosmic Ray Mass Measurements with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitink, Stijn; Bonardi, Antonio; Corstanje, Arthur; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hörandel, Jörg R.; Mitra, Pragati; Mulrey, Katie; Nelles, Anna; Rachen, Jörg Paul; Rossetto, Laura; Schellart, Pim; Scholten, Olaf; Thoudam, Satyendra; Trinh, Gia; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    In the dense core of LOFAR individual air showers are detected by hundreds of dipole antennas simultaneously. We reconstruct Xmax by using a hybrid technique that combines a two-dimensional fit of the radio profile to CoREAS simulations and a one-dimensional fit of the particle density distribution. For high-quality detections, the statistical uncertainty on Xmax is smaller than 20 g/cm2. We present results of cosmic-ray mass analysis in the energy regime of 1017 - 1017.5 eV. This range is of particular interest as it may harbor the transition from a Galactic to an extragalactic origin of cosmic rays.

  11. Cosmic Coincidences: Investigations for Neutron Background Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Heimbach, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    Two experimental investigations were made in order to reduce background counts in neutron detectors. Each investigation relied upon the fact that neutron background is largely due to cosmic ray interactions with the air and ground. The first attempt was to look at neutron arrival times. Neutron events close in time were taken to have been of a common origin due to cosmic rays. The second investigation was similar, but based on coincident neutron/muon events. The investigations showed only a small effect, not practical for the suppression of neutron background. PMID:27110457

  12. Cosmic Coincidences: Investigations for Neutron Background Suppression.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, Craig R

    2007-01-01

    Two experimental investigations were made in order to reduce background counts in neutron detectors. Each investigation relied upon the fact that neutron background is largely due to cosmic ray interactions with the air and ground. The first attempt was to look at neutron arrival times. Neutron events close in time were taken to have been of a common origin due to cosmic rays. The second investigation was similar, but based on coincident neutron/muon events. The investigations showed only a small effect, not practical for the suppression of neutron background.

  13. Search for cosmic strings at MITO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Petris, M.; Melchiorri, B.; Melchiorri, F.; Signore, M.

    MITO (Millimetric and Infrared Testagrigia Observatory) is a 3 meter telescope dedicated to the study of Cosmic Background Anisotropies. It is located at 3500 m above sea level at Plateau Rosa', Cervinia. The authors describe the Observatory and discuss two ongoing research programs: a cleaning procedure in order to remove galactic dust signals from cosmological data and a search for cosmic strings toward double lensed quasars. Both the programs will be carried out by means of an He-3 photometer operating at the frequencies of 5, 10, 12, 30 cm-1.

  14. The cosmic web in our own backyard.

    PubMed

    Ibata, Rodrigo A; Lewis, Geraint F

    2008-01-04

    On the largest scales, matter is strung out on an intricate pattern known as the cosmic web. The tendrils of this web should reach right into our own cosmic backyard, lacing the Galactic halo with lumps of dark matter. The search for these lumps, lit up by stars that formed within them, is a major astronomical endeavor, although it has failed to find the huge expected population. Is this a dark matter crisis, or does it provide clues to the complexities of gas physics in the early universe? New technologies in the coming decade will reveal the answer.

  15. Cosmic strings: Gravitation without local curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Helliwell, T.M.; Konkowski, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    Cosmic strings are very long, thin structures which might stretch over vast reaches of the universe. If they exist, they would have been formed during phase transitions in the very early universe. The space-time surrounding a straight cosmic string is flat but nontrivial: A two-dimensional spatial section is a cone rather than a plane. This feature leads to unique gravitational effects. The flatness of the cone means that many of the gravitational effects can be understood with no mathematics beyond trigonometry. This includes the observational predictions of the double imaging of quasars and the truncation of the images of galaxies.

  16. Cosmic strings: A problem or a solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.P.; Bouchet, F.R.

    1987-10-01

    The most fundamental issue in the theory of cosmic strings is addressed by means of Numerical Simulations: the existence of a scaling solution. The resolution of this question will determine whether cosmic strings can form the basis of an attractive theory of galaxy formation or prove to be a cosmological disaster like magnetic monopoles or domain walls. After a brief discussion of our numerical technique, results are presented which, though still preliminary, offer the best support to date of this scaling hypothesis. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Time variation of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evenson, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Time variations in the flux of galactic cosmic rays are the result of changing conditions in the solar wind. Maximum cosmic ray fluxes, which occur when solar activity is at a minimum, are well defined. Reductions from this maximum level are typically systematic and predictable but on occasion are rapid and unexpected. Models relating the flux level at lower energy to that at neutron monitor energy are typically accurate to 20 percent of the total excursion at that energy. Other models, relating flux to observables such as sunspot number, flare frequency, and current sheet tilt are phenomenological but nevertheless can be quite accurate.

  18. Cosmic Rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  19. Heliosphere Dimension and Cosmic Ray Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobik, P.; Boschini, M. J.; Consolandi, C.; Della Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; Kudela, K.; Noventa, F.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.

    2012-08-01

    The differential intensities of Cosmic Rays at Earth were calculated using a 2D stochastic Montecarlo diffusion code and compared with observation data. We evaluated the effect of stretched and compressed heliospheres on the Cosmic Ray intensities at the Earth. This was studied introducing a dependence of the diffusion parameter on the heliospherical size. Then, we found that the optimum value of the heliospherical radius better accounting for experimental data. We also found that the obtained values depends on solar activity. Our results are compatible with Voyager observations and with models of heliospherical size modulation.

  20. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Rubín de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters.

  1. Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

  2. A solution to the cosmic ray anisotropy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsch, P.; Funk, S.

    2015-10-01

    Observations of the cosmic ray (CR) anisotropy are widely advertised as a means of finding nearby sources. This idea has recently gained currency after the discovery of a rise in the positron fraction and is the goal of current experimental efforts, e.g., with AMS-02 on the International Space Station. Yet, even the anisotropy observed for hadronic CRs is not understood, in the sense that isotropic diffusion models overpredict the dipole anisotropy in the TeV-PeV range by almost two orders of magnitude. Here, we consider two additional effects normally not considered in isotropic diffusion models: anisotropic diffusion due to the presence of a background magnetic field and intermittency effects of the turbulent magnetic fields. We numerically explore these effect by tracking test-particles through individual realisations of the turbulent field. We conclude that a large misalignment between the CR gradient and the background field can explain the observed low level of anisotropy.

  3. What is your Cosmic Connection to the Elements?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Lochner, James; Rohrbach, Gail; Cochrane, Kim

    2003-01-01

    This information and activity booklet describes the roles of the Big Bang, types of stars, supernovae, cosmic ray interactions, and radioactive decay in the formation of the elements. The booklet includes instructions for the following classroom activities, intended for students in Grades 9-12: Grandma's Apple Pie; Cosmic Shuffle; Nickel-odeon; Kinesthetic Big Bang; Elemental Haiku; Cosmic Ray Collisions; Cosmic Abundances; and What's Out There.

  4. Long-Term Solar and Cosmic Radiation Data Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    determine the magnitude of the variations in the cosmic ray intensity caused by solar activity. Neutron monitors, with their much lower energy threshold...expression that neutron monitors are sensors on spacecraft EARTH. Here we will consider cosmic ray detectors to measure two components of cosmic ...A comparison with the solar cycle as illustrated by the sunspot number in Fig. 1. shows that the maximum cosmic ray intensity occurs near sunspot

  5. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    that the programme will be less resilient to an event like the Cluster mission loss in 1996 where a recovery was instituted in 4 years. The approved scenario, stretching over ten years, naturally includes some uncertainties. These will be exploited to the best advantage of the overall programme in a flexible way: Within each combined set of missions (Herschel/ Planck/ Eddington; BepiColombo/ Solar Orbiter) the launch sequence can be optimised. Work will start immediately on GAIA to ensure earlier launch dates remain a possibility. Launch dates of some major collaborative elements of the programme (e.g. STEP, NGST, LISA) are outside the control of ESA. Parallel (ESA controlled) activities need to be carried out in a flexible way to adjust to the workload. Further international collaboration on missions and payloads can be beneficial. Specifically a significant contribution from NASA on Solar Orbiter as part of the International Living with a Star (ILWS) programme may be linked to European participation in other elements of the American LWS/STP programme. Speaking of his feelings about the new plan, the Director of Science, David Southwood said 'Apparent miracles or no, one should realise that much of this is simply our building on the legacy of my predecessor, Roger Bonnet. Of course, we are pushing further. However, his culture of welcoming change and demanding commitment to science from everyone involved lie at the base of what we are doing.' Whilst the new name 'Cosmic Vision' refers to the universe, the programme is also providing vision in technological and managerial innovation down here on Earth. The overall funding assumption underlying the new plan is that the buying power will be preserved in the years following 2005. Is this unduly pessimistic? The Executive feels that no more proofs are needed that the science programme is an extremely good investment. More resources can only improve the leverage. Should they become available, literally the heavens would be

  6. Cosmic Ballet or Devil's Mask?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    Stars like our Sun are members of galaxies, and most galaxies are themselves members of clusters of galaxies. In these, they move around among each other in a mostly slow and graceful ballet. But every now and then, two or more of the members may get too close for comfort - the movements become hectic, sometimes indeed dramatic, as when galaxies end up colliding. ESO PR Photo 12/04 shows an example of such a cosmic tango. This is the superb triple system NGC 6769-71, located in the southern Pavo constellation (the Peacock) at a distance of 190 million light-years. This composite image was obtained on April 1, 2004, the day of the Fifth Anniversary of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It was taken in the imaging mode of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). The two upper galaxies, NGC 6769 (upper right) and NGC 6770 (upper left), are of equal brightness and size, while NGC 6771 (below) is about half as bright and slightly smaller. All three galaxies possess a central bulge of similar brightness. They consist of elderly, reddish stars and that of NGC 6771 is remarkable for its "boxy" shape, a rare occurrence among galaxies. Gravitational interaction in a small galaxy group NGC 6769 is a spiral galaxy with very tightly wound spiral arms, while NGC 6770 has two major spiral arms, one of which is rather straight and points towards the outer disc of NGC 6769. NGC 6770 is also peculiar in that it presents two comparatively straight dark lanes and a fainter arc that curves towards the third galaxy, NGC 6771 (below). It is also obvious from this new VLT photo that stars and gas have been stripped off NGC 6769 and NGC 6770, starting to form a common envelope around them, in the shape of a Devil's Mask. There is also a weak hint of a tenuous bridge between NGC 6769 and NGC 6771. All of these features testify to strong gravitational interaction between the three galaxies

  7. Cosmic Rays Astrophysics: The Discipline, Its Scope, and Its Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the discipline surrounding cosmic ray astrophysics. It includes information on recent assertions surrounding cosmic rays, exposure levels, and a short history with specific information on the origin, acceleration, transport, and modulation of cosmic rays.

  8. Re-evaluation of cosmic ray cutoff terminology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. J.; Humble, J. E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Lund, N.; Rasmussen, I. L.; Byrnak, B.; Goret, P.; Petrou, N.

    1985-01-01

    The study of cosmic ray access to locations inside the geomagnetic field has evolved in a manner that has led to some misunderstanding and misapplication of the terminology originally developed to describe particle access. This paper presents what is believed to be a useful set of definitions for cosmic ray cutoff terminology for use in theoretical and experimental cosmic ray studies.

  9. Formation of Cosmic Carbon Dust Analogues in Plasma Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic carbon dust analogs are produced, processed and analyzed in the laboratory using NASA's COSmIC (COSmIC Simulation Chamber) Facility. These experiments can be used to derive information on the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars.

  10. Review of the Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Humberto

    2009-04-01

    The Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics was held in Puebla, Mexico, on August 30 to September 8, 2006. It included subjects like experimental techniques, primary spectrum and composition of cosmic rays, high-energy interactions, gamma ray astronomy, neutrino astrophysics, cosmic ray detectors, etc. I present a very short review of some of the lectures given there.

  11. Cosmic ray muons for spent nuclear fuel monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos

    There is a steady increase in the volume of spent nuclear fuel stored on-site (at reactor) as currently there is no permanent disposal option. No alternative disposal path is available and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage containers is anticipated for the near future. In this dissertation, a capability to monitor spent nuclear fuel stored within dry casks using cosmic ray muons is developed. The motivation stems from the need to investigate whether the stored content agrees with facility declarations to allow proliferation detection and international treaty verification. Cosmic ray muons are charged particles generated naturally in the atmosphere from high energy cosmic rays. Using muons for proliferation detection and international treaty verification of spent nuclear fuel is a novel approach to nuclear security that presents significant advantages. Among others, muons have the ability to penetrate high density materials, are freely available, no radiological sources are required and consequently there is a total absence of any artificial radiological dose. A methodology is developed to demonstrate the applicability of muons for nuclear nonproliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel dry casks. Purpose is to use muons to differentiate between spent nuclear fuel dry casks with different amount of loading, not feasible with any other technique. Muon scattering and transmission are used to perform monitoring and imaging of the stored contents of dry casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel. It is shown that one missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the scattering distributions with 300,000 muons or more. A Bayesian monitoring algorithm was derived to allow differentiation of a fully loaded dry cask from one with a fuel assembly missing in the order of minutes and negligible error rate. Muon scattering and transmission simulations are used to reconstruct the stored contents of sealed dry casks

  12. Cosmic Rays in the "Urusvati" Institute from Archives of Nicolas Roerich Centre-Museum (Moscow)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.; Sidorov, V. I.

    2013-02-01

    The history of cosmic ray study by means of ground-based methods in the 1930s contains some gaps. The press barely covered the study of cosmic rays at the "Urusvati» Himalayan Research Institute that functioned in the Indian Himalayas in 1928-1939. Archival materials of the "Urusvati" Institute now stored at the International Centre-Museum named after N.K. Roerich (Moscow), give evidence to the active participation of the Institute staff in the study of cosmic rays. By the initiative of A.H. Compton, in 1932 several expeditions on the studies of cosmic rays were organized in different parts of the world. One of these expeditions passed through the Himalayas in the region of the South-Eastern Ladakh. The report on this highland expedition which took place at the altitude of 19,500 feet above the sea level was published by J.M. Benade in the "Urusvati Journal" (was issued during 1931-1933). Cooperation between George Roerich, the Institute Director, and Prof. J.M. Benade in expedition to Ladakh has been documented.

  13. Natural radiation doses for cosmic and terrestrial components in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Picado, Esteban; Minato, Susumu

    2007-01-01

    A study of external natural radiation, cosmic and terrestrial components, was carried out with in situ measurements using NaI scintillation counters while driving along the roads in Costa Rica for the period July 2003-July 2005. The geographical distribution of the terrestrial air-absorbed dose rates and the total effective dose rates (including cosmic) are represented on contour maps. Information on the population density of the country permitted the calculation of the per capita doses. The average effective dose for the total cosmic component was 46.88+/-18.06 nSvh(-1) and the average air-absorbed dose for the terrestrial component was 29.52+/-14.46 nGyh(-1). The average total effective dose rate (cosmic plus terrestrial components) was 0.60+/-0.18 mSv per year. The effective dose rate per capita was found to be 83.97 nSvh(-1) which gives an annual dose of 0.74 mSv. Assuming the world average for the internal radiation component, the natural radiation dose for Costa Rica will be 2.29 mSv annually.

  14. Cosmic radiation in aviation: radiological protection of Air France aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Desmaris, G

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance. A graded approach proportionate with the time of exposure is recommended to implement the optimisation principle. The objective is to keep exposures of the most exposed aircraft members to reasonable levels. ICRP also recommends that information about cosmic radiation be disseminated, and that awareness about cosmic radiation be raised in order to favour informed decision-making by all concerned stakeholders.

  15. In Search of Cosmic Rays: A Student Physics Project Aimed at Finding the Origin of Cosmic Rays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonelli, Jamie; Mahoney, Sean; Streich, Derek; Liebl, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Describes an ongoing project, the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP), being conducted by the University of Nebraska in partnership with several high schools. Each school group has installed cosmic ray detectors, and initial activities have included calibrating equipment, gathering preliminary data, and learning about cosmic ray showers. Aims to…

  16. Inflation Fossils in Cosmic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    The agreement of the predictions of inflation with increasingly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large-scale-structure (LSS) data is remarkable. The notion that such a simple early-Universe scenario, based on still-mysterious ultra-high-energy physics, can explain such a wealth of precise data is simply amazing. An active ongoing program of research is afoot to seek the CMB polarization signatures of inflationary gravitational waves and measure the primordial bispectrum in order to learn about inflation. Still, there is far more that can be done to probe inflationary physics, and no stone should be left unturned in this quest. Here we propose a multi-component program of theoretical research that includes model building, new CMB/LSS tests, a potentially powerful new survey strategy, and the investigation of a new observational avenue for large-scale structure. We propose to broaden the circle of ideas to empirically probe inflation. To begin, the hemispherical power asymmetry seen in WMAP and Planck is truly striking. While it may simply be an unusual statistical fluke, a more tantalizing possibility is that it is a remnant of the pre-inflationary Universe. We propose to develop and study several physical models for this asymmetry and work out other testable predictions of these models. Only by pursuing other signatures of whatever new physics may be responsible for this asymmetry will we be able to infer if it is truly a window to new physics. We also plan to develop departures from statistical isotropy (SI) as a test of inflationary models. We have recently shown that single-field slow-roll inflation generically predicts a quadrupolar departure from SI in primordial perturbations, albeit a very small one. The power quadrupole is expected, however, to be significantly larger in more general inflationary models. We propose to calculate these power quadrupoles so that new constraints to the power quadrupole from CMB and LSS data can be applied to test

  17. Future Observations of Cosmic Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slysh, V.

    Cosmic masers became a powerful tool for study of stellar evolution in the Galaxy, bursts of star-formation in external galaxies, and accretion disks around central black holes in active galaxies. Due to the small size and narrow line width of maser spots it is possible to measure transversal and radial velocity with high accuracy. Kinematics of the maser spots often reveals expansion and outflow of the matter from proto-stars and new-born stars, or rotation of circumstellar and circumnuclear disks. Stellar may disks contain proto-planets, and maser spots can trace their orbits. Parameters of the circumnuclear disks measured with maser spot motion are directly related to the mass of the central black hole. Another result of the study of maser kinematics is determination of distance to proto-stars and to galaxies. In the latter case the distance determination is independent of the red shift distance and may be used for the determination of the geometry of the Universe. The accuracy of the kinematic measurements of masers is limited by the available angular resolution, time span and sensitivity of VLBI systems used for such observations. The available time span is limited by the fast time variations of masers, especially variations in H2O masers. Many of the masers studied with VLBI have unresolved maser spots, even at the highest resolution. Examples of OH masers unresolved on the space-ground baselines of the Japanese interferometer HALCA are given in [1,2]. In H2O maser W3(OH) the fringe amplitude remains constant from zero baseline up to 635 M λ, which corresponds to the angular size of less than 0.06 milliarcsec [3]. High angular resolution images of methanol maser spots reveal presence of the position-velocity gradient across the spots from 3.3 to 50 AU/km s-1 . Bandwidth smearing of maser spot images may cause apparent increase of the size when measured with low spectral resolution. In NGC7538 0.1 km s-1 spectral resolution will cause increase of the angular

  18. Cosmic Explosions in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Peter; Kumar, Pawan; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2011-08-01

    . X. Timmes and E. F. Brown; Part III. Theory of Core Collapse Supernovae: 21. Rotation of core collapse progenitors: single and binary stars N. Langer; 22. Large scale convection and the convective Supernova mechanism S. Colgate and M. E. Herant; 23. Topics in core-collapse Supernova A. Burrows, C. D. Ott and C. Meakin; 24. MHD Supernova jets: the missing link D. Meier and M. Nakamura; 25. Effects of super strong magnetic fields in core collapse Supernovae I. S. Akiyama; 26. Non radial instability of stalled accretion shocks advective-acoustic cycle T. Foglizzo and P. Galletti; 27. Asymmetry effects in Hypernovae K. Maeda, K. Nomoto, J. Deng and P.A. Mazzali; 28. Turbulent MHD jet collimation and thermal driving P. T. Williams; Part IV. Magnetars, N-Stars, Pulsars: 29. Supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae R. Chevalier; 30. X-Ray signatures of Supernovae D. Swartz; 31. Asymmetric Supernovae and Neutron Star Kicks D. Lai and D. Q. Lamb; 32. Triggers of magnetar outbursts R. Duncan; 33. Turbulent MHD Jet Collimation and Thermal Driving P. Williams; 34. The interplay between nuclear electron capture and fluid dynamics in core collapse Supernovae W. R. Hix, O. E. B. Messer and A. Mezzacappa; Part V. Gamma-Ray Bursts: 35. GRB 021004 and Gamma-ray burst distances B. E. Schaefer; 36. Gamma-ray bursts as a laboratory for the study of Type Ic Supernovae D. Q. Lamb, T. Q. Donaghy and C. Graziani; 37. The diversity of cosmic explosions: Gamma-ray bursts and Type Ib/c Supernovae E. Berger; 38. A GRB simulation using 3D relativistic hydrodynamics J. Cannizo, N. Gehrels and E. T. Vishniac; 39. The first direct link in the Supernova/GRB connection: GRB 030329 and SN 2003dh T. Matheson; Part VI. Summary: 40. Three-dimensional explosions C. Wheeler.

  19. Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for

  20. Research in particles and fields. [cosmic rays, gamma rays, and cosmic plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Buffington, A.; Davis, L., Jr.; Prince, T. A.; Vogt, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are reviewed. Energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons were used to carry out the investigations. Specific instruments mentioned are: the high energy isotope spectrometer telescope, the electron/isotope spectrometer, the heavy isotope spectrometer telescope, and magnetometers. Solar flares, planetary magnetospheres, element abundance, the isotopic composition of low energy cosmic rays, and heavy nuclei are among the topics receiving research attention.

  1. The COBE cosmic 3 K anisotropy experiment: A gravity wave and cosmic string probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Smoot, George F.

    1989-01-01

    Among the experiments to be carried into orbit next year, by the COBE satellite, are differential microwave radiometers. They will make sensitive all-sky maps of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation at three frequencies, giving dipole, quadrupole, and higher order multipole measurements of the background radiation. The experiment will either detect, or place significant constraints on, the existence of cosmic strings and long wavelength gravity waves.

  2. Emergent cosmic space in Rastall theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fang-Fang; Huang, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Padmanabhan’s emergent cosmic space proposal is exploited to study the Rastall theory which involves modifying the covariant conservation law of energy-momentum tensor. As necessary elements for this approach, we firstly find the Komar energy and the general entropy of apparent horizon in this theory. After that, a modified expansion law is invoked to re-obtain the Friedmann equations.

  3. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Vipan K.; Allen, Barrett D.; Caressi, Chongshan; Kwok, Stephanie; Chu, Esther; Tran, Katherine K.; Chmielewski, Nicole N.; Giedzinski, Erich; Acharya, Munjal M.; Britten, Richard A.; Baulch, Janet E.; Limoli, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation. Radiation-induced impairments in spatial, episodic and recognition memory were temporally coincident with deficits in executive function and reduced rates of fear extinction and elevated anxiety. Irradiation caused significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density and altered spine morphology along medial prefrontal cortical neurons known to mediate neurotransmission interrogated by our behavioral tasks. Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure. Behavioral deficits for individual animals correlated significantly with reduced spine density and increased synaptic puncta, providing quantitative measures of risk for developing cognitive impairment. Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain. PMID:27721383

  4. Current Status of Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    2016-03-01

    I will review the current instrumentation and recent results. I will discuss which measurements have to be done in the near future to significantly advance our knowledge about the phenomenon of cosmic rays, their sources, and their interactions with the interstellar medium. A support from NASA APRA Grant No. NNX13AC47G is greatly acknowledged.

  5. Cosmic microwave anisotropies from BPS semilocal strings

    SciTech Connect

    Urrestilla, Jon; Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R E-mail: n.bevis@imperial.ac.uk E-mail: martin.kunz@physics.unige.ch

    2008-07-15

    We present the first ever calculation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectra from semilocal cosmic strings, obtained via simulations of a classical field theory. Semilocal strings are a type of non-topological defect arising in some models of inflation motivated by fundamental physics, and are thought to relax the constraints on the symmetry breaking scale as compared to models with (topological) cosmic strings. We derive constraints on the model parameters, including the string tension parameter {mu}, from fits to cosmological data, and find that in this regard Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) semilocal strings resemble global textures more than topological strings. The observed microwave anisotropy at l=10 is reproduced if G{mu} = 5.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} (G is Newton's constant). However as with other defects the spectral shape does not match observations, and in models with inflationary perturbations plus semilocal strings the 95% confidence level upper bound is G{mu}<2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} when CMB, Hubble key project and big bang nucleosynthesis data are used (cf G{mu}<0.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} for cosmic strings). We additionally carry out a Bayesian model comparison of several models with and without defects, showing that models with defects are neither conclusively favoured nor disfavoured at present.

  6. Ritz Procedure for COSMIC/NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citerley, R. L.; Woytowitz, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis procedure has been developed and incorporated into COSMIC/NASTRAN that permits large dynamic degree of freedom models to be processed accurately with little or no extra effort required by the user. The method employs existing capabilities without the need for approximate Guyan reduction techniques. Comparisons to existing solution procedures presently within NASTRAN are discussed.

  7. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Vipan K; Allen, Barrett D; Caressi, Chongshan; Kwok, Stephanie; Chu, Esther; Tran, Katherine K; Chmielewski, Nicole N; Giedzinski, Erich; Acharya, Munjal M; Britten, Richard A; Baulch, Janet E; Limoli, Charles L

    2016-10-10

    The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation. Radiation-induced impairments in spatial, episodic and recognition memory were temporally coincident with deficits in executive function and reduced rates of fear extinction and elevated anxiety. Irradiation caused significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density and altered spine morphology along medial prefrontal cortical neurons known to mediate neurotransmission interrogated by our behavioral tasks. Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure. Behavioral deficits for individual animals correlated significantly with reduced spine density and increased synaptic puncta, providing quantitative measures of risk for developing cognitive impairment. Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain.

  8. Primary cosmic rays on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernov, S. N.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for determination of the galactic cosmic ray flux during various time intervals in the 1965-1972 period, on the basis of data from the instruments of a spacecraft that made a soft landing on the lunar surface, and from the radioactivity of samples returned by the spacecraft. During minimum solar activity (the second half of 1965 and the beginning of 1966) I sub 0 (E greater than or equal to 30 percent MeV/nucleon) was determined to be 0.43 (plus or minus 10 percent). These values, within the error limits of the determinations, agree with the corresponding values of galactic cosmic ray intensities determined by stratospheric measurements. The mean flux of galactic cosmic rays over the past million years is equal to I (E greater or equal to 100 MeV/nucleon) + 0.28 (plus or minus 20 percent). This value agrees with the mean flux of modulated cosmic rays during the period of the nineteenth solar cycle. The mean flux of solar protons between 1965 and 1972 was 2.46.

  9. Searching for Dark Matter with Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2015-04-01

    One of the most exciting possibilities in cosmic ray research is the potential to discover new phenomena. A number of elementary particles were discovered in cosmic rays before modern-day accelerators became available to study their detailed properties. Since the discovery of cosmic ray antiprotons in 1979 using a balloon-borne magnet spectrometer, a series of magnet spectrometers have been flown to search for the signature of dark matter annihilation in antiprotons and positrons. Being the same as particles except for their opposite charge sign, antiparticles are readily distinguished as they bend in opposite directions in the magnetic field. As long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica became available, not only antiproton to proton ratios but also measurements of antiproton energy spectra became possible. More recently, space missions are also providing precision measurements of electron and position energy spectra. With other measurements to constrain cosmic ray propagation models, these new measurements play key roles in constraining dark-matter models for understanding the nature of dark matter. Recent results, their implications, and outlook for the field will be presented.

  10. A database of charged cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, D.; Melot, F.; Taillet, R.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: This paper gives a description of a new online database and associated online tools (data selection, data export, plots, etc.) for charged cosmic-ray measurements. The experimental setups (type, flight dates, techniques) from which the data originate are included in the database, along with the references to all relevant publications. Methods: The database relies on the MySQL5 engine. The web pages and queries are based on PHP, AJAX and the jquery, jquery.cluetip, jquery-ui, and table-sorter third-party libraries. Results: In this first release, we restrict ourselves to Galactic cosmic rays with Z ≤ 30 and a kinetic energy per nucleon up to a few tens of TeV/n. This corresponds to more than 200 different sub-experiments (i.e., different experiments, or data from the same experiment flying at different times) in as many publications. Conclusions: We set up a cosmic-ray database (CRDB) and provide tools to sort and visualise the data. New data can be submitted, providing the community with a collaborative tool to archive past and future cosmic-ray measurements. http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/crdb; Contact: crdatabase@lpsc.in2p3.fr

  11. Goldstone bosons as fractional cosmic neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Steven

    2013-06-14

    It is suggested that Goldstone bosons may be masquerading as fractional cosmic neutrinos, contributing about 0.39 to what is reported as the effective number of neutrino types in the era before recombination. The broken symmetry associated with these Goldstone bosons is further speculated to be the conservation of the particles of dark matter.

  12. Catching Cosmic Rays with a DSLR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outer space that continually strike the Earth's atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles, which reach the surface of the Earth, mainly in the form of muons. These particles can be detected with scintillator detectors, Geiger counters, cloud chambers, and also can be recorded with commonly…

  13. Cosmic Ray Transport in the Distant Heliosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florinski, V.; Adams, James H.; Washimi, H.

    2011-01-01

    The character of energetic particle transport in the distant heliosheath and especially in the vicinity of the heliopause could be quite distinct from the other regions of the heliosphere. The magnetic field structure is dominated by a tightly wrapped oscillating heliospheric current sheet which is transported to higher latitudes by the nonradial heliosheath flows. Both Voyagers have, or are expected to enter a region dominated by the sectored field formed during the preceding solar maximum. As the plasma flow slows down on approach to the heliopause, the distance between the folds of the current sheet decreases to the point where it becomes comparable to the cyclotron radius of an energetic ion, such as a galactic cosmic ray. Then, a charged particle can effectively drift across a stack of magnetic sectors with a speed comparable with the particle s velocity. Cosmic rays should also be able to efficiently diffuse across the mean magnetic field if the distance between sector boundaries varies. The region of the heliopause could thus be much more permeable to cosmic rays than was previously thought. This new transport proposed mechanism could explain the very high intensities (approaching the model interstellar values) of galactic cosmic rays measured by Voyager 1 during 2010-2011.

  14. CosmicPy: Interactive cosmology computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, Francois; Rassat, Anais; Starck, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    CosmicPy performs simple and interactive cosmology computations for forecasting cosmological parameters constraints; it computes tomographic and 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel power spectra as well as Fisher matrices for galaxy clustering. Written in Python, it relies on a fast C++ implementation of Fourier-Bessel related computations, and requires NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib.

  15. Numerical likelihood analysis of cosmic ray anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Hojvat et al.

    2003-07-02

    A numerical likelihood approach to the determination of cosmic ray anisotropies is presented which offers many advantages over other approaches. It allows a wide range of statistically meaningful hypotheses to be compared even when full sky coverage is unavailable, can be readily extended in order to include measurement errors, and makes maximum unbiased use of all available information.

  16. High energy interactions of cosmic ray particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The highlights of seven sessions of the Conference dealing with high energy interactions of cosmic rays are discussed. High energy cross section measurements; particle production-models of experiments; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collision; searches for magnetic monopoles; and studies of nucleon decay are covered.

  17. Cosmic ray propagation with CRPropa 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves Batista, R.; Erdmann, M.; Evoli, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kuempel, D.; Mueller, G.; Sigl, G.; Van Vliet, A.; Walz, D.; Winchen, T.

    2015-05-01

    Solving the question of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) requires the development of detailed simulation tools in order to interpret the experimental data and draw conclusions on the UHECR universe. CRPropa is a public Monte Carlo code for the galactic and extragalactic propagation of cosmic ray nuclei above ∼ 1017 eV, as well as their photon and neutrino secondaries. In this contribution the new algorithms and features of CRPropa 3, the next major release, are presented. CRPropa 3 introduces time-dependent scenarios to include cosmic evolution in the presence of cosmic ray deflections in magnetic fields. The usage of high resolution magnetic fields is facilitated by shared memory parallelism, modulated fields and fields with heterogeneous resolution. Galactic propagation is enabled through the implementation of galactic magnetic field models, as well as an efficient forward propagation technique through transformation matrices. To make use of the large Python ecosystem in astrophysics CRPropa 3 can be steered and extended in Python.

  18. Cosmic ray interactions in the ground: Temporal variations in cosmic ray intensities and geophysical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Temporal variations in cosmic ray intensity have been deduced from observations of products of interactions of cosmic ray particles in the Moon, meteorites, and the Earth. Of particular interest is a comparison between the information based on Earth and that based on other samples. Differences are expected at least due to: (1) differences in the extent of cosmic ray modulation, and (2) changes in the geomagnetic dipole field. Any information on the global changes in the terrestrial cosmic ray intensity is therefore of importance. In this paper a possible technique for detecting changes in cosmic ray intensity is presented. The method involves human intervention and is applicable for the past 10,000 yrs. Studies of changes over longer periods of time are possible if supplementary data on age and history of the sample are available using other methods. Also discussed are the possibilities of studying certain geophysical processes, e.g., erosion, weathering, tectonic events based on studies of certain cosmic ray-produced isotopes for the past several million years.

  19. Zipping and unzipping of cosmic string loops in collision

    SciTech Connect

    Firouzjahi, H.; Karouby, J.; Khosravi, S.; Brandenberger, R.

    2009-10-15

    In this paper the collision of two cosmic string loops is studied. After collision junctions are formed and the loops are entangled. We show that after their formation the junctions start to unzip and the loops disentangle. This analysis provides a theoretical understanding of the unzipping effect observed in numerical simulations of a network of cosmic strings with more than one type of cosmic strings. The unzipping phenomena have important effects in the evolution of cosmic string networks when junctions are formed upon collision, such as in a network of cosmic superstrings.

  20. The intergalactic propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Sarkar, Subir; Taylor, Andrew M.; /Oxford U.

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic ray nuclei (A = 1-56) from cosmologically distant sources through the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Various models for the injected composition and spectrum and of the cosmic infrared background are studied using updated photodisintegration cross-sections. The observational data on the spectrum and the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are jointly consistent with a model where all of the injected primary cosmic rays are iron nuclei (or a mixture of heavy and light nuclei).

  1. Supernova Remnants, Cosmic Rays, and GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Steve

    2006-02-13

    The shock waves of supernova remnants (SNRs) are the traditional sources of Galactic cosmic rays, at least up to about 3000 TeV (the "knee" energy in the cosmic-ray spectrum). In the last decade or so, X-ray observations have confirmed in a few SNRs the presence of synchrotron-X-ray-emitting electrons with energies of order 100 TeV. TeV photons from SNRs have been observed with ground-based air Cerenkov telescopes as well, but it is still unclear whether they are due to hadronic processes (inelastic p-p scattering of cosmic-ray protons from thermal gas, with secondary neutral pions decaying to gamma rays), or to leptonic processes (inverse-Compton upscattering of cosmic microwave background photons, or bremsstrahlung). The spatial structure of synchrotron X-rays as observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory suggests the remarkable possibility that magnetic fields are amplified by orders of magnitude in strong shock waves. The electron spectra inferred from X-rays reach 100 TeV, but at that energy are cutting off steeply, well below the "knee" energy. Are the cutoff processes due only to radiative losses so that ion spectra might continue unsteepened? Can we confirm the presence of energetic ions in SNRs at all? Are typical SNRs capable of supplying the pool of Galactic cosmic rays? Is strong magnetic-field amplification a property of strong astrophysical shocks in general? These major questions require the next generation of observational tools. I shall outline the theoretical and observational framework of particle acceleration to high energies in SNRs, and shall describe how GLAST will advance this field.

  2. Supernova Remnants, Cosmic Rays, and GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Steve

    2006-02-13

    The shock waves of supernova remnants (SNRs) are the traditional sources of Galactic cosmic rays, at least up to about 3000 TeV (the 'knee' energy in the cosmic-ray spectrum). In the last decade or so, X-ray observations have confirmed in a few SNRs the presence of synchrotron-X-ray-emitting electrons with energies of order 100 TeV. TeV photons from SNRs have been observed with ground-based air Cerenkov telescopes as well, but it is still unclear whether they are due to hadronic processes (inelastic p-p scattering of cosmic-ray protons from thermal gas, with secondary neutral pions decaying to gamma rays), or to leptonic processes (inverse-Compton upscattering of cosmic microwave background photons, or bremsstrahlung). The spatial structure of synchrotron X-rays as observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory suggests the remarkable possibility that magnetic fields are amplified by orders of magnitude in strong shock waves. The electron spectra inferred from X-rays reach 100 TeV, but at that energy are cutting off steeply, well below the 'knee' energy. Are the cutoff processes due only to radiative losses so that ion spectra might continue unsteepened? Can we confirm the presence of energetic ions in SNRs at all? Are typical SNRs capable of supplying the pool of Galactic cosmic rays? Is strong magnetic-field amplification a property of strong astrophysical shocks in general? These major questions require the next generation of observational tools. I shall outline the theoretical and observational framework of particle acceleration to high energies in SNRs, and shall describe how GLAST will advance this field.

  3. Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic Rays Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic RaysModulation B. K. Tiwari Department of Physics, A. P. S. University, Rewa (M.P.), btiwari70@yahoo.com Cosmic rays (CRs) flux at earth is modulated by the heliosphereric magnetic field and the structure of the heliosphere, controls by solar outputs and their variability. Sunspots numbers (SSN) is often treated as a primary indicator of solar activity (SA). GCRs entering the helioshphere are affected by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind speed, their modulation varies with the varying solar activity. The observation based on data recoded from Omniweb data Centre for solar- interplanetary activity indices and monthly mean count rate of cosmic ray intensity (CRI) data from neutron monitors of different cut-off rigidities(Rc) (Moscow Rc=2.42Gv and Oulu Rc=0.80Gv). During minimum solar activity periodof solar cycle 23/24, the sun is remarkably quiet, weakest strength of the IMF and least dense and slowest, solar wind speed, whereas, in 2003, highest value of yearly averaged solar wind speed (~568 Km/sec) associated with several coronal holes, which generate high speed wind stream has been recorded. It is observed that GCRs fluxes reduces and is high anti-correlated with SSN (0.80) and IMF (0.86). CRI modulation produces by a strong solar flare, however, CME associated solar flare produce more disturbance in the interplanetary medium as well as in geomagnetic field. It is found that count rate of cosmic ray intensity and solar- interplanetary parameters were inverse correlated and solar indices were positive correlated. Keywords- Galactic Cosmic rays (GCRs), Sunspot number (SSN), Solar activity (SA), Coronal Mass Ejection (CME), Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)

  4. Ultrahigh-energy particles from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, P. . Astronomy and Astrophysics Center Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1991-02-01

    The idea of production of ultrahigh-energy particles in the present universe due to annihilation or collapse of topological defects is discussed. Topological defects, formed in symmetry-breaking phase transitions in the early universe, can survive till today owing to their topological stability. However, under certain circumstances, topological defects may be physically destroyed. When topological defects are destroyed, the energy contained in the defects can be released in the form of massive gauge- and Higgs bosons of the underlying spontaneously broken gauge theory. Subsequent decay of these massive particles can give rise to energetic particles ranging up to an energy on the order of the mass of the original particles released from the defects. This may give us a natural'' mechanism of production of extremely energetic cosmic ray particles in the universe today, without the need for any acceleration mechanism. To illustrate this idea, I describe in detail the calculation of the expected ultrahigh-energy proton spectrum due to a specific process which involves collapse or multiple self-intersections of a class of closed cosmic string loops formed in a phase transition at a grand unification energy scale. I discuss the possibility that some of the highest-energy cosmic ray particles are of this origin. By comparing with the observational results on the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, we derive an upper limit to the average fraction of the total energy in all primary'' cosmic string loops that may be released in the form of particles due to collapse or multiple self-intersections of these loops. No nuclei such as {alpha}'s or Fe's are in the spectrum. 43 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Satellite Constellations for Space Weather and Ionospheric Studies: Overview of the COSMIC and COSMIC-2 Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, W. S.; Yue, X.; Kuo, B.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements from constellations of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are proving extremely useful for ionospheric science and space weather studies. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), a joint US/Taiwan mission launched in April 2006, is a six micro-satellite constellation that is flying three scientific payloads on each spacecraft: 1) a Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) receiver, 2) a nadir-viewing Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP), and 3) a Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography (CERTO) tri-band beacon transmitter. COSMIC has collected a large amount of useful data from these scientific payloads and is still currently collecting 1,500 RO measurement events per day on average. The GPS RO dual-frequency L-band phase and amplitude measurements can be used to observe absolute Total Electron Content (TEC) and scintillation on lines of sight between the LEO and GPS satellites, and electron density profiles (EDP) via the radio occultation (RO) method when GPS satellites are occulted by Earth's ionosphere. The large number and complete global and local time coverage of COSMIC data are allowing scientists to observe ionospheric and plasmaspheric phenomena that are difficult to see with other instruments. The success of COSMIC has prompted U.S. agencies to execute a COSMIC follow-on mission (called COSMIC-2) with Taiwan that will put twelve satellites with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) RO payloads into orbit on two launches in the 2016-18 time frame. The first launch will place six satellites is in a near Equatorial orbit, which is ideal for hurricane prediction and space weather forecasting, and the second launch is in a polar orbit, which is good for global coverage and prediction of all storms. COSMIC-2 will also carry twelve space weather payloads that will fly on the first launch into low inclination orbits: six RF Beacon transmitters, and six Ion Velocity Meter instruments. COSMIC

  6. Cosmic Spider is Good Mother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    supernovae, blasting material away at tremendous speed and creating a web of entangled filaments. More explosions will come soon - in astronomical terms - as three red supergiants are indeed present in Hodge 301 that will end their life in the gigantic firework of a supernova within the next million years. ESO PR Photo 13d/06 ESO PR Photo 13d/06 Gas Pillars in Tarantula Nebula While some stars are dying in this spidery cosmic inferno, others are yet to be born. Some structures, seen in the lower part of the image, have the appearance of elephant trunks, not unlike the famous and fertile "Pillars of Creation" at the top of which stars are forming. In fact, it seems that stars form all over the place in this gigantic stellar nursery and in all possible masses, at least down to the mass of our Sun. In some places, in a marvellous recycling process, it is the extreme radiation from the hot and massive stars and the shocks created by the supernova explosions that has compressed the gas to such extent to allow stars to form. To the right and slightly below the central cluster, a red bubble is visible. The star that blows the material making this bubble is thought to be 20 times more massive, 130 000 times more luminous, 10 times larger and 6 times hotter than our Sun. A possible fainter example of such a bubble is also visible just above the large red bubble in the image. ESO PR Photo 13e/06 ESO PR Photo 13e/06 Red Bubbles in Tarantula Nebula Earlier colour composite images of the Tarantula nebula have been made with other instruments and/or filters at ESO's telescopes, e.g. PR Photo 05a/00 in visual light with FORS2 at the VLT at Paranal, and PR Photos 14a-g/02 and 34a-h/04 with the Wide-Field Imager at the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope at La Silla.

  7. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L. (Editor); Wefel, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  8. Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) Launch and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    We request continued NASA support for the on-going Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) project. The balloon-borne CREAM instrument was flown for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica, the longest known exposure for a single balloon project. Building on the success of those balloon missions, one of the two balloon payloads was successfully transformed for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF). Following completion of its systemlevel qualification and verification, this ISS-CREAM payload was delivered to the NASA Kennedy Space Center in August 2015 to await its launch to the ISS. The ISS-CREAM mission would achieve the primary science objectives of the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS), which was given high priority in the 2001 NRC Decadal Study Report. Its nuclei composition data between 10^12 and 10^15 eV would enable detailed study of the spectral hardening first reported by the CREAM balloon project and recently confirmed for protons and helium by the PAMELA and AMS-02 space missions using permanent magnet spectrometers. In addition, multiTeV energy electron data allow searches for local sources and the signature of darkmatter, etc. The ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with redundant and complementary particle detectors capable of precise measurements of elemental spectra for Z = 1 - 26 nuclei, as well as electrons. The four layers of its finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector provide charge measurements, and its ionization calorimeter provides energy measurements. Its segmented scintillator-based Top and Bottom Counting Detectors separate electrons from nuclei using shower profile differences. Its Boronated Scintillator Detector distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is possible by utilizing the ISS to reach the highest

  9. Cosmic Heavyweights in Free-for-all

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    their environment on scales of many millions of light years," said team member Harald Ebeling, also from University of Hawaii. "This is a wonderful system for studying how clusters grow as material falls into them along filaments." Computer simulations show that the most massive galaxy clusters should grow in regions where large-scale filaments of intergalactic gas, galaxies, and dark matter intersect, and material falls inward along the filaments. "It's exciting that the data we get from MACSJ0717 appear to beautifully match the scenario depicted in the simulations," said Ma. Multiwavelength data were crucial for this work. The optical data from Hubble and Keck give information about the motion and density of galaxies along the line of sight, but not about their course perpendicular to that direction. By combining the X-ray and optical data, scientists were able to determine the three-dimensional geometry and motion in the system. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act NASA Announces 2009 Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellows Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy In the future, Ma and his team hope to use even deeper X-ray data to measure the temperature of gas over the full 13-million-light-year extent of the filament. Much remains to be learned about the properties of hot gas in filaments and whether its infall along these structures can significantly heat the gas in clusters over large scales. "This is the most spectacular and most disturbed cluster I have ever seen," says Ma, "and we think that we can learn a whole lot more from it about how structure in our Universe grows and evolves." The paper describing these results appeared in the March 10th issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical

  10. Cosmic Pressure Fronts Mapped by Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    A colossal cosmic "weather system" produced by the collision of two giant clusters of galaxies has been imaged by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. For the first time, the pressure fronts in the system can be traced in detail, and they show a bright, but relatively cool 50 million degree Celsius central region embedded in large elongated cloud of 70 million degree Celsius gas, all of which is roiling in a faint "atmosphere"of 100 million degree Celsius gas. "We can compare this to an intergalactic cold front," said Maxim Markevitch of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass. and leader of the international team involved in the analysis of the observations. "A major difference is that in this case, cold means 70 million degree Celsius." The gas clouds are in the core of a galaxy cluster known as Abell 2142. The cluster is six million light years across and contains hundreds of galaxies and enough gas to make a thousand more. It is one of the most massive objects in the universe. Galaxy clusters grow to vast sizes as smaller clusters are pulled inward under the influence of gravity. They collide and merge over the course of billions of years, releasing tremendous amounts of energy that heats the cluster gas to 100 million degrees Celsius. The Chandra data provides the first detailed look at the late stages of this merger process. Previously, scientists had used the German-US Roentgensatellite to produce a broad brush picture of the cluster. The elongated shape of the bright cloud suggested that two clouds were in the process of coalescing into one, but the details remained unclear. Chandra is able to measure variations of temperature, density, and pressure with unprecedented resolution. "Now we can begin to understand the physics of these mergers, which are among the most energetic events in the universe," said Markevitch. "The pressure and density maps of the cluster show a sharp boundary that can only exist in the moving environment of a

  11. Measurement of Solar and Cosmic Radiation during Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häder, Donat-P.; Dachev, Tsvetan

    2003-05-01

    The external platform of the International Space Station (ISS) will provide a unique opportunity for exobiological studies under space conditions, e.g., space vacuum, solar UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature extremes. In order to facilitate this research, ESA is developing the EXPOSE facility to be attached to the External Pallet of the truss structure of the ISS. The experiment is planned for a duration of 18 months during the ISS early utilization period. Experiments on the ``Responses of Organisms to the Space Environment (ROSE)'' will study the survival of spores from bacteria, fungi, ferns, etc., under space conditions and thus investigate whether life could potentially survive extended travel through space. In parallel to the exposure of the biological material, the charged particle and solar extraterrestrial radiation will be measured with a multichannel dosimeter. This instrument is based on two separate developments. The dosimeter which determines solar radiation in four channels is based on the ground-based ELDONET (European light dosimeter network) instrument which has been developed to measure solar UV and visible radiation in three channels. The other part of the instrument is based on a 256 channel dosimeter of cosmic radiation which was developed and used on the Russian space station Mir. A final miniature prototype has been developed to fit the space available. The instrument incorporates the latest technologies such as Surface Mounted Devices (SMDs), switchable amplifiers, as well as on-board microprocessor control. Several software packages have been developed to record the solar visible and UV, and charged particle, radiations, to display them in graphical form and to store them for future analysis. All recorded data will be made available to the public via the Internet.

  12. Advanced Cosmic Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Wefel, John P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), was selected by NASA's Administrator as a joint collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The AMS program was chartered to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments which were evolving from the Office of Space Science. The first such experiment to come forward was ACCESS in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to place a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the ISS, and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's sub-orbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer-review. This process is still on-going and the Accommodation Study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today. Further detail on the history, scope, and background of the study is provided in Appendix A.

  13. Recommendations for a Static Cosmic Ray Shield for Enriched Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Orrell, John L.; Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.

    2011-09-21

    This document provides a detailed study of cost and materials that could be used to shield the detector material of the international Tonne-scale germanium neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment from hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at the Earth's surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during storage; in particular, when the detector material is being worked on at the detector manufacturer's facility. This work considers two options for shielding the detector material from cosmic ray particles. One option is to use a pre-existing structure already located near the detector manufacturer, such as Canberra Industries in Meriden, Connecticut. The other option is to build a shield onsite at a detector manufacturer's site. This paper presents a cost and efficiency analysis of such construction.

  14. a Cosmic Ray Detector Array for Schools in the Cambridge Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotton, S. A.; Goodrick, M. J.; Hommels, B.; Parker, M. A.

    2011-06-01

    Particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology are areas of research that have captured the imagination of the general public in recent years. By giving school students first-hand experience of building and operating a particle detector and the analysis of the data in a collaborative environment we anticipate that they will gain a deeper insight into the many and diverse facets of experimental particle physics. Cosmic rays provide a readily available source of high energy particles and other projects have already exploited this in building arrays of cosmic ray detectors located in schools and linked together via the internet. We aim to extend this concept by creating our own network of detectors in our region with a particular emphasis on hands-on involvement by school students in the partner schools. This talk outlines our plans towards the implementation of this project and our wider goals of integrating our local network with other projects both nationally and internationally.

  15. Absolute measurements of the cosmic microwave background from Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bersanelli, S.; Bonelli, G.; Sironi, G. ); Levin, S. ); Smoot, G.F.; Bensadoun, M.; De Amici, G.; Limon, M.; Vinje, W. )

    1993-01-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background play a central role in modern cosmology. The existence of the CMB as a remanent of the early Universe has constituted a pillar for the Big Bang scenario. The recent cosmic background explorer differential microwave radiometer results have provided further support to the generally accepted standard model by detecting for the first time primordial fluctuations in the CMB field at the limits expected by structure formation theories. An international program of ground-based absoluted measurements of the CMB at the centimeter and multicentimeter wavelengths was initiated in 1982. This paper reports results at the South Pole, one of a few areas of low-background environments. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Cosmic Ray Muon Imaging of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage Casks

    DOE PAGES

    Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; Morris, Christopher L.; ...

    2016-04-29

    In this paper, cosmic ray muon radiography has been used to identify the absence of spent nuclear fuel bundles inside a sealed dry storage cask. The large amounts of shielding that dry storage casks use to contain radiation from the highly radioactive contents impedes typical imaging methods, but the penetrating nature of cosmic ray muons allows them to be used as an effective radiographic probe. This technique was able to successfully identify missing fuel bundles inside a sealed Westinghouse MC-10 cask. This method of fuel cask verification may prove useful for international nuclear safeguards inspectors. Finally, muon radiography may findmore » other safety and security or safeguards applications, such as arms control verification.« less

  17. A Novel Cosmic Ray Tagger System for Liquid Argon TPC Neutrino Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, M.; Del Tutto, M.; Ereditato, A.; Fleming, B.; Goeldi, D.; Gramellini, E.; Guenette, R.; Ketchum, W.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Lorca, D.; Luethi, M.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Sinclair, J. R.; Soleti, S. R.; Weber, M.

    2016-12-14

    The Fermilab Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program aims to observe and reconstruct thousands of neutrino-argon interactions with its three detectors (SBND, MicroBooNE and ICARUS-T600), using their hundred of tonnes Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers to perform a rich physics analysis program, in particular focused in the search for sterile neutrinos. Given the relatively shallow depth of the detectors, the continuos flux of cosmic ray particles which crossing their volumes introduces a constant background which can be falsely identified as part of the event of interest. Here we present the Cosmic Ray Tagger (CRT) system, a novel technique to tag and identify these crossing particles using scintillation modules which measure their time and coordinates relative to events internal to the neutrino detector, mitigating therefore their effect in the event tracking reconstruction.

  18. Catalogue of electron precipitation events as observed in the long-duration cosmic ray balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhmutov, V. S.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Stozhkov, Yu. I.; Svirzhevskaya, A. K.; Svirzhevsky, N. S.

    2016-11-01

    Since the International Geophysical Year (1957), the Lebedev Physical Institute performs the regular measurements of charged particle fluxes in the Earth's atmosphere (from the ground level up to 30-35 km) at several latitudes. The unique experimental data base obtained during 58 years of cosmic rays observations in the atmosphere allows to investigate temporal, spatial and energetic characteristics of galactic and solar cosmic rays as well as the role of charged particles in the atmospheric processes. Analysis of this data base also revealed a special class of numerous events caused by energetic electron precipitation recorded in the atmosphere at polar latitudes. In this paper we present Catalogue of electron precipitation events observed in the polar atmosphere during 1961-2014 and briefly outline the previous results of this data set analysis.

  19. Cosmic Origins Program Annual Technology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Bruce Thai; Neff, Susan Gale

    2015-01-01

    What is the Cosmic Origins (COR) Program? From ancient times, humans have looked up at the night sky and wondered: Are we alone? How did the universe come to be? How does the universe work? COR focuses on the second question. Scientists investigating this broad theme seek to understand the origin and evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day, determining how the expanding universe grew into a grand cosmic web of dark matter enmeshed with galaxies and pristine gas, forming, merging, and evolving over time. COR also seeks to understand how stars and planets form from clouds in these galaxies to create the heavy elements that are essential to life starting with the first generation of stars to seed the universe, and continuing through the birth and eventual death of all subsequent generations of stars. The COR Programs purview includes the majority of the field known as astronomy, from antiquity to the present.

  20. INTRINSIC BISPECTRA OF COSMIC MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.

    2011-06-01

    Forthcoming data sets from the Planck experiment and others are in a position to probe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) non-Gaussianity with higher accuracy than has yet been possible, and potentially open a new window into the physics of the very early universe. However, a signal need not necessarily be inflationary in origin, and possible contaminants should be examined in detail. One such is provided by early universe magnetic fields, which can be produced by a variety of models including during an inflationary phase, at phase transitions, or seeded by cosmic defects. Should such fields have been extant in the early universe, they would provide a natural source of CMB non-Gaussianity. Knowledge of the CMB angular bispectrum requires the complete Fourier-space (or 'intrinsic') bispectrum. In this paper, I consider in detail the intrinsic bispectra of an early-universe magnetic field for a range of power-law magnetic spectra.

  1. Cosmic rays, solar activity and the climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    Although it is generally believed that the increase in the mean global surface temperature since industrialization is caused by the increase in green house gases in the atmosphere, some people cite solar activity, either directly or through its effect on cosmic rays, as an underestimated contributor to such global warming. In this letter a simplified version of the standard picture of the role of greenhouse gases in causing the global warming since industrialization is described. The conditions necessary for this picture to be wholly or partially wrong are then introduced. Evidence is presented from which the contributions of either cosmic rays or solar activity to this warming is deduced. The contribution is shown to be less than 10% of the warming seen in the twentieth century.

  2. Cosmic rays from primordial black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgibbon, Jane H.; Carr, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    The quark and gluon emission from primordial black holes (PBHs) which may have formed from initial density perturbations or phase transitions in the early universe are investigated. If the PBHs formed from scale-invariant initial density perturbations in the radiation dominated era, it is found that the emission can explain or contribute significantly to the extragalactic photon and interstellar cosmic-ray electron, positron, and antiproton spectra around 0.1-1 GeV. In particular, the PBH emission strongly resembles the cosmic-ray gamma-ray spectrum between 50 and 170 MeV. The upper limits on the PBH density today from the gamma-ray, e(+), e(-), and antiproton data are comparable, provided that the PBHs cluster to the same degree as the other matter in the Galactic halo.

  3. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1989-10-30

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Astroparticle Physics: Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Humberto; Villaseñor, Luis

    2006-09-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the measurement of the muon lifetime and the ratio of positive to negative muons in the natural background of cosmic ray muons at 2000 m.a.s.l. Next we describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector as well as a technique to separate isolated particles. We also describe the detection of isolated muons and electrons in a liquid scintillator detector and their separation. Next we describe the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) with a hybrid detector array consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, located at the campus of the University of Puebla. Finally we describe work in progress to detect EAS at 4600 m.a.s.l. with a water Cherenkov detector array and a fluorescence telescope at the Sierra Negra mountain.

  5. Galactic cosmic radiation model and its applications.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; O'Neill, P M

    1996-01-01

    A model for the differential energy spectra of galactic cosmic radiation as a function of solar activity is described. It is based on the standard diffusion-convection theory of solar modulation. Estimates of the modulation potential based on fitting this theory to observed spectral measurements from 1954 to 1989 are correlated to the Climax neutron counting rates and to the sunspot numbers at earlier times taking into account the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field at the time of observations. These regression lines then provide a method for predicting the modulation at later times. The results of this model are quantitatively compared to a similar Moscow State University (MSU) model. These model cosmic ray spectra are used to predict the linear energy transfer spectra, differential energy spectra of light (charge < or = 2) ions, and single event upset rates in memory devices. These calculations are compared to observations made aboard the Space Shuttle.

  6. COSMIC DUST AGGREGATION WITH STOCHASTIC CHARGING

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.; Shotorban, Babak

    2013-10-20

    The coagulation of cosmic dust grains is a fundamental process which takes place in astrophysical environments, such as presolar nebulae and circumstellar and protoplanetary disks. Cosmic dust grains can become charged through interaction with their plasma environment or other processes, and the resultant electrostatic force between dust grains can strongly affect their coagulation rate. Since ions and electrons are collected on the surface of the dust grain at random time intervals, the electrical charge of a dust grain experiences stochastic fluctuations. In this study, a set of stochastic differential equations is developed to model these fluctuations over the surface of an irregularly shaped aggregate. Then, employing the data produced, the influence of the charge fluctuations on the coagulation process and the physical characteristics of the aggregates formed is examined. It is shown that dust with small charges (due to the small size of the dust grains or a tenuous plasma environment) is affected most strongly.

  7. Radiative Energy Loss by Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahern, Sean C.; Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between galactic cosmic rays and matter are a primary focus of the NASA radiation problem. The electromagnetic forces involved are for the most part well documented. Building on previous research, this study investigated the relative importance of the weak forces that occur when a cosmic ray impinges on different types of materials. For the familiar electromagnetic case, it is known that energy lost in the form of radiation is more significant than that lost via contact collisions the rate at which the energy is lost is also well understood. Similar results were derived for the weak force case. It was found that radiation is also the dominant mode of energy loss in weak force interactions and that weak force effects are indeed relatively weak compared to electromagnetic effects.

  8. Diffusion-convection function of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, G.; Yang, G.

    1985-01-01

    The fundamental properties and some numerical results of the solution of the diffusion equation of an impulsive cosmic-ray point source in an uniform, unbounded and spherically symmetrical moving medium is presented. The diffusion-convection(D-C) function is an elementary composite function of the solution of the D-C equation for the particles injected impulsively from a diffusive point source into the medium. It is the analytic solution derived by the dimensional method for the propagation equation of solar cosmic rays in the heliosphere, i.e. the interplanetary space. Because of the introduction of convection effect of solar wind, a nonhomogeneous term appears in the propagation equation, it is difficult to express its solution in terms of the ordinary special functions. The research made so far has led to a solution containing only the first order approximation of the convection effect.

  9. Cosmic muons, as messengers from the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Brancus, I. M.; Rebel, H.

    2015-02-24

    Penetrating from the outer space into the Earth atmosphere, primary cosmic rays are producing secondary radiation by the collisions with the air target subsequently decaying in hadrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons, phenomenon called Extensive air Shower (EAS). The muons, considered as the “penetrating” component, survive the propagation to the Earth and even they are no direct messenger of the Universe, they reflect the features of the primary particles. The talk gives a description of the development of the extensive air showers generating the secondary particles, especially the muon component. Results of the muon flux and of the muon charge ratio, (the ratio between the positive and the negative muons), obtained in different laboratories and in WILLI experiment, are shown. At the end, the contribution of the muons measured in EAS to the investigation of the nature of the primary cosmic rays is emphasized in KASCADE and WILLI-EAS experiments.

  10. Resolving photons from cosmic ray in DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zunlei; Chang, Jin; Li, Xiang; Dong, TieKuang; Zang, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer(DAMPE), which took to the skies on 17 December, is designed for high energy cosmic ray ion detection. The proportion of photons in the cosmic ray is very small, so it's difficult to distinguish between photons and 'background', but necessary for any DAMPE gamma-ray science goals.The paper present a algorithm to identify photons from 'background' mainly by the tracker/converter, which promote pair conversion and measure the directions of incident particles, and an anticoincidence detector,featuring an array of plastic scintillator to detect the charged particles.The method has been studied by simulating using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code and adjusted by the BeamTest at CERN in December,2014.In addition,DAMPE photon detection capabilities can be checked using the flight data.

  11. A Detector for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, T.; U-yen, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary design and development work on polarized detectors intended to enable Cosmic Microwave Background polarization measurements that will probe the first moments of the universe. The ultimate measurement will be challenging, requiring background-limited detectors and good control of systematic errors. Toward this end, we are integrating the beam control of HE-11 feedhorns with the sensitivity of transition-edge sensors. The coupling between these two devices is achieved via waveguide probe antennas and superconducting microstrip lines. This implementation allows band-pass filters to be incorporated on the detector chip. We believe that a large collection of single-mode polarized detectors will eventually be required for the reliable detection of the weak polarized signature that is expected to result from gravitational waves produced by cosmic inflation. This focal plane prototype is an important step along the path to this detection, resulting in a capability that will enable various future high performance instrument concepts.

  12. Detection Prospects of the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Feng

    The existence of the cosmic neutrino background (CνB) is a fundamental prediction of the standard Big Bang cosmology. Although current cosmological probes provide indirect observational evidence, the direct detection of the CνB in a laboratory experiment is a great challenge to the present experimental techniques. We discuss the future prospects for the direct detection of the CνB, with the emphasis on the method of captures on beta-decaying nuclei and the PTOLEMY project. Other possibilities using the electron-capture (EC) decaying nuclei, the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos (EHECνs) at the Z-resonance, and the atomic de-excitation method are also discussed in this review.

  13. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

  14. Report of the cosmic and heliospheric panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, Richard A.; Mason, Glenn M.; Barnes, Aaron; Binns, W. Robert; Burlaga, Leonard F.; Cherry, Michael L.; Holzer, Thomas E.; Jokipii, J. R.; Jones, Vernon; Ling, James C.

    1991-01-01

    The Cosmic and Heliospheric Branch proposes a bold new program for the years 1995 to 2010 that is centered on the following two themes: (1) the global heliosphere and interstellar space; and (2) cosmic particle acceleration and the evolution of matter. Within these major themes are more specific goals that have been studied and continue to be examined for a better understanding of their processes. These include: origin, structure, and evolution of the solar wind; interaction of the heliosphere, the solar wind, and the interstellar medium; fundamental microscopic and macroscopic plasma processes; acceleration and transport of energetic particles; and the origin and evolution of matter. Finally, the report summarizes a wide variety of proposed small and large space missions.

  15. Cosmic signatures in earth's seismic tremor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Even in absence of earthquakes, each site on earth experiences continuous elastic vibrations which are mostly traced to the nonlinear interactions of ocean waves. However, the fine structure of the spectrum at mHz frequencies shows many persistent and highly significant narrow bandwidth peaks in surprising coincidence with solar acoustic eigenmodes. The feasibility of a common cosmic origin is evaluated through an estimate of the gravitational wave cross-section of the earth, combined with its elastic response and with the stochastic amplification produced by the interference of the cosmic signal with tremor of oceanic origin. The measured spectral peaks appear compatible with a gravitational monochromatic illumination at strains h ≳ 10-20, larger than those expected for any known gravitational stellar source. Hence, a gravitational source attribution to the tremor spectral peaks would call for a population of unknown non-luminous sources with well-defined mass-distance ratios.

  16. Cosmic Gauge-Field Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devulder, Christopher; Caldwell, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We present a cosmological model in which dark energy consists of a cosmic gauge field. At early times it behaves like radiation; at late times it drives cosmic acceleration. By varying the number of fields, their coupling strength and handedness, a wide range of behavior is shown to emerge. Joint constraints on the model from SNe, BAO and CMB data are presented. We discuss the possibility that the gauge field may seed a spectrum of primordial gravitational waves with a distinct imprint on the power spectrum, as well as act like a dissipative medium for high frequency gravitational waves. We show that this model could have an impact on the B-mode polarization pattern in the CMB, as well as future probes that use standard sirens to constrain the energy budget of the Universe.

  17. Simulating the formation of cosmic structure.

    PubMed

    Frenk, C S

    2002-06-15

    A timely combination of new theoretical ideas and observational discoveries has brought about significant advances in our understanding of cosmic evolution. Computer simulations have played a key role in these developments by providing the means to interpret astronomical data in the context of physical and cosmological theory. In the current paradigm, our Universe has a flat geometry, is undergoing accelerated expansion and is gravitationally dominated by elementary particles that make up cold dark matter. Within this framework, it is possible to simulate in a computer the emergence of galaxies and other structures from small quantum fluctuations imprinted during an epoch of inflationary expansion shortly after the Big Bang. The simulations must take into account the evolution of the dark matter as well as the gaseous processes involved in the formation of stars and other visible components. Although many unresolved questions remain, a coherent picture for the formation of cosmic structure is now beginning to emerge.

  18. Paradigm transition in cosmic plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1982-01-01

    New discoveries in cosmic plasma physics are described, and their applications to solar, interstellar, galactic, and cosmological problems are discussed. The new discoveries include the existence of double layers in magnetized plasmas and in the low magnetosphere, and energy transfer by electric current in the auroral circuit. It is argued that solar flares and the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction should not be interpreted in terms of magnetic merging theories, and that electric current needs to be explicitly taken account of in understanding these phenomena. The filamentary structure of cosmic plasmas may be caused by electric currents in space, and the pinch effect may have a central role to play in the evolutionary history of interstellar clouds, stars, and solar systems. Space may have a cellular structure, with the cell walls formed by thin electric current layers. Annihilation may be the source of energy for quasars and the Hubble expansion, and the big bang cosmology may well be wrong.

  19. Cross-Correlating the Cosmic Infrared and Cosmic X-Ray Background Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Rachel Ann; Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Urry, C. Megan; Guo, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    Studying unresolved (i.e., undetected) sources is a way to probe the faintest, and thus the least understood, source populations. In particular, such studies have suggested a population of high redshift accreting black holes. We present cross-power spectra and coherence between the cosmic infrared and cosmic x-ray background fluctuations, using infrared images from Spitzer Space Telescope and x-ray images from XMM-Newton of the ˜2 square degree area of the COSMOS field. We first masked all known sources and subtracted model images of the masked x-ray sources’ PSF tails so as to isolate the unresolved cosmic backgrounds. We have considered infrared data from two bands, 3.6 and 4.5 μm, and x-ray data from five bands, [0.3-0.5], [0.5-1], [1-2], [0.5-2], and [2-10] keV. We find strong correlation between the cosmic infrared and cosmic x-ray backgrounds, which suggests an origin in a common population, i.e., stars and/or growing black holes.

  20. Cosmic Bubble Image Wins NRAO Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-10-01

    A striking image of an enormous bubble blown into the dusty gas disk of our own Milky Way galaxy has won first place in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's second annual Radio Astronomy Image Contest. Dr. Jayanne English of the University of Manitoba led the team that made the winning image using data from the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. Cosmic Bubble Image Giant "Bubble" in Milky Way's Gas CREDIT: English et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for large files and full information English and her collaborators Jeroen Stil and Russ Taylor, from the University of Calgary, will share the grand prize of $1,000 from Associated Universities, Inc., the research corporation that operates the observatory for the NSF. "We congratulate Dr. English for producing an outstanding image that beautifully illustrates the power of our radio telescopes," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanding image gallery on the observatory's Web site. English's winning image shows a giant bubble in the Milky Way's dusty gas disk. The bubble has been sculpted by the wind and radiation force from a few dozen hot, massive stars along with the explosive force of supernova explosions from dying stars. The bubble, seen in the faint radio glow of hydrogen gas, is some 30,000 light-years from Earth and measures 1,100 by 520 light-years. If the bubble, in the constellation Vulpecula, were visible to human eyes, it would appear to be eight times the diameter of the full Moon in the sky. The image was made using data collected as part of the VLA Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS), a set of systematic observations of the Milky Way. This survey, led by