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Sample records for 293-epstein-barr virus nuclear

  1. Nuclear entry of DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses undertake their replication within the cell nucleus, and therefore they must first deliver their genome into the nucleus of their host cells. Thus, trafficking across the nuclear envelope is at the basis of DNA virus infections. Nuclear transport of molecules with diameters up to 39 nm is a tightly regulated process that occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to the enormous diversity of virus size and structure, each virus has developed its own strategy for entering the nucleus of their host cells, with no two strategies alike. For example, baculoviruses target their DNA-containing capsid to the NPC and subsequently enter the nucleus intact, while the hepatitis B virus capsid crosses the NPC but disassembles at the nuclear side of the NPC. For other viruses such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, although both dock at the NPC, they have each developed a distinct mechanism for the subsequent delivery of their genome into the nucleus. Remarkably, other DNA viruses, such as parvoviruses and human papillomaviruses, access the nucleus through an NPC-independent mechanism. This review discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms used by DNA viruses to deliver their genome into the nucleus, and further presents the experimental evidence for such mechanisms. PMID:26029198

  2. Epizootiology of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    Joseph S. Elkinton; John P. Burand; Kathleen D. Murray; Stephen A. Woods

    1991-01-01

    Recent experimental findings demonstrate that two distinct waves of mortality of gypsy moth larvae from nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) occurs during larval development. The evidence suggests that early instars acquire lethal doses of NPV from the surface of the egg mass and the cadavers of these larvae produce inoculum that causes a second wave of mortality among...

  3. Nuclear Proteins Hijacked by Mammalian Cytoplasmic Plus Strand RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. PMID:25818028

  4. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Richard E

    2015-05-01

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups.

  5. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Richard E.

    2015-05-15

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication.

  6. Nuclear entry and CRM1-dependent nuclear export of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein

    PubMed Central

    Scheifele, Lisa Z.; Garbitt, Rachel A.; Rhoads, Jonathan D.; Parent, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The retroviral Gag polyprotein directs budding from the plasma membrane of infected cells. Until now, it was believed that Gag proteins of type C retroviruses, including the prototypic oncoretrovirus Rous sarcoma virus, were synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and targeted directly to the plasma membrane. Here we reveal a previously unknown step in the subcellular trafficking of the Gag protein, that of transient nuclear localization. We have identified a targeting signal within the N-terminal matrix domain that facilitates active nuclear import of the Gag polyprotein. We also found that Gag is transported out of the nucleus through the CRM1 nuclear export pathway, based on observations that treatment of virus-expressing cells with leptomycin B resulted in the redistribution of Gag proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Internal deletion of the C-terminal portion of the Gag p10 region resulted in the nuclear sequestration of Gag and markedly diminished budding, suggesting that the nuclear export signal might reside within p10. Finally, we observed that a previously described matrix mutant, Myr1E, was insensitive to the effects of leptomycin B, apparently bypassing the nuclear compartment during virus assembly. Myr1E has a defect in genomic RNA packaging, implying that nuclear localization of Gag might be involved in viral RNA interactions. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that nuclear entry and egress of the Gag polyprotein are intrinsic components of the Rous sarcoma virus assembly pathway. PMID:11891341

  7. Genome Assembly of Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear Type Reveals a Close Association with Orchid Fleck Virus

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Andrew; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Shao, Jonathan; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K.; Hollingsworth, Charla R.; Hartung, John S.; Schneider, William L.

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type (CiLV-N) was identified by small RNA sequencing utilizing leprosis-affected citrus samples collected from the state of Querétaro, Mexico. The nucleotide identity and phylogenetic analysis indicate that CiLV-N is very closely related to orchid fleck virus, which typically infects Cymbidium species. PMID:23887919

  8. Genome assembly of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type reveals a close association with orchid fleck virus.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avijit; Stone, Andrew; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Shao, Jonathan; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K; Hollingsworth, Charla R; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2013-07-25

    The complete genome of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type (CiLV-N) was identified by small RNA sequencing utilizing leprosis-affected citrus samples collected from the state of Querétaro, Mexico. The nucleotide identity and phylogenetic analysis indicate that CiLV-N is very closely related to orchid fleck virus, which typically infects Cymbidium species.

  9. Chikungunya virus capsid protein contains nuclear import and export signals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. After autoproteolytic cleavage, the CHIKV capsid protein (CP) is involved in RNA binding and assembly of the viral particle. The monomeric CP is approximately 30 kDa in size and is small enough for passive transport through nuclear pores. Some alphaviruses are found to harbor nuclear localization signals (NLS) and transport of these proteins between cellular compartments was shown to be energy dependent. The active nuclear import of cytoplasmic proteins is mediated by karyopherins and their export by exportins. As nuclear and cytoplasmic trafficking may play a role in the life cycle of CHIKV, we have sought to identify nuclear localization and nuclear export signals in CHIKV CP in a virus-free system. Methods EGFP-fusion proteins of CHIKV CP and mutants thereof were created and used to monitor their intracellular localization. Binding of cellular proteins was confirmed in pull-down assays with purified CP using co-immuoprecipitation. Nuclear localization was demonstrated in a virus-free system using fluorescence microscopy. Results Here we show that CHIKV CP is a nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein with an active NLS that binds to karyopherin α (Karα) for its nuclear translocation. We also found that the Karα4 C-terminal NLS binding site is sufficient for this interaction. We further demonstrate that CHIKV CP interacts directly with the export receptor CRM1 to transport this viral protein out of the nucleus via a nuclear export signal (NES). The CHIKV CP NES was mapped between amino acids 143 and 155 of CP. Deduced from in silico analyses we found that the NES has a mode of binding similar to the snurportin-1 CRM1 complex. Conclusions We were able to show that in a virus-free system that the CHIKV capsid protein contains both, a NLS and a NES, and that it is actively transported between the cytoplasma and the nucleus. We conclude that CHIKV CP has the ability to shuttle via

  10. Chikungunya virus capsid protein contains nuclear import and export signals.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Saijo; Rai, Jagdish; John, Lijo; Schaefer, Stephan; Pützer, Brigitte M; Herchenröder, Ottmar

    2013-08-28

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. After autoproteolytic cleavage, the CHIKV capsid protein (CP) is involved in RNA binding and assembly of the viral particle. The monomeric CP is approximately 30 kDa in size and is small enough for passive transport through nuclear pores. Some alphaviruses are found to harbor nuclear localization signals (NLS) and transport of these proteins between cellular compartments was shown to be energy dependent. The active nuclear import of cytoplasmic proteins is mediated by karyopherins and their export by exportins. As nuclear and cytoplasmic trafficking may play a role in the life cycle of CHIKV, we have sought to identify nuclear localization and nuclear export signals in CHIKV CP in a virus-free system. EGFP-fusion proteins of CHIKV CP and mutants thereof were created and used to monitor their intracellular localization. Binding of cellular proteins was confirmed in pull-down assays with purified CP using co-immuoprecipitation. Nuclear localization was demonstrated in a virus-free system using fluorescence microscopy. Here we show that CHIKV CP is a nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein with an active NLS that binds to karyopherin α (Karα) for its nuclear translocation. We also found that the Karα4 C-terminal NLS binding site is sufficient for this interaction. We further demonstrate that CHIKV CP interacts directly with the export receptor CRM1 to transport this viral protein out of the nucleus via a nuclear export signal (NES). The CHIKV CP NES was mapped between amino acids 143 and 155 of CP. Deduced from in silico analyses we found that the NES has a mode of binding similar to the snurportin-1 CRM1 complex. We were able to show that in a virus-free system that the CHIKV capsid protein contains both, a NLS and a NES, and that it is actively transported between the cytoplasma and the nucleus. We conclude that CHIKV CP has the ability to shuttle via interaction with karyopherins for its

  11. Enzyme immunoassays for detection of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    Michael Ma

    1985-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for detecting gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). They were used to detect the presence of NPV in hemoplymph samples collected from infected larvae. The incorporation of hybridoma antibodies with these procedures would make them even more specific for gypsy moth...

  12. Searching for nuclear export elements in hepatitis D virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Natália; Cunha, Celso

    2013-08-12

    To search for the presence of cis elements in hepatitis D virus (HDV) genomic and antigenomic RNA capable of promoting nuclear export. We made use of a well characterized chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase reporter system based on plasmid pDM138. Twenty cDNA fragments corresponding to different HDV genomic and antigenomic RNA sequences were inserted in plasmid pDM138, and used in transfection experiments in Huh7 cells. The relative amounts of HDV RNA in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions were then determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Northern blotting. The secondary structure of the RNA sequences that displayed nuclear export ability was further predicted using a web interface. Finally, the sensitivity to leptomycin B was assessed in order to investigate possible cellular pathways involved in HDV RNA nuclear export. Analysis of genomic RNA sequences did not allow identifying an unequivocal nuclear export element. However, two regions were found to promote the export of reporter mRNAs with efficiency higher than the negative controls albeit lower than the positive control. These regions correspond to nucleotides 266-489 and 584-920, respectively. In addition, when analyzing antigenomic RNA sequences a nuclear export element was found in positions 214-417. Export mediated by the nuclear export element of HDV antigenomic RNA is sensitive to leptomycin B suggesting a possible role of CRM1 in this transport pathway. A cis-acting nuclear export element is present in nucleotides 214-417 of HDV antigenomic RNA.

  13. Influenza Virus mRNA Trafficking Through Host Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Amir; White, Alexander; Zhang, Ke; Thompson, Matthew; Esparza, Matthew; Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Koide, Kazunori; Lynch, Kristen W.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fontoura, Beatriz M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a human pathogen whose genome is comprised of eight viral RNA segments that replicate in the nucleus. Two viral mRNAs are alternatively spliced. The unspliced M1 mRNA is translated into the matrix M1 protein while the ion channel M2 protein is generated after alternative splicing. These proteins are critical mediators of viral trafficking and budding. We show that influenza virus utilizes nuclear speckles to promote post-transcriptional splicing of its M1 mRNA. We assign previously unknown roles for the viral NS1 protein and cellular factors to an intranuclear trafficking pathway that targets the viral M1 mRNA to nuclear speckles, mediates splicing at these nuclear bodies, and exports the spliced M2 mRNA from the nucleus. Since nuclear speckles are storage sites for splicing factors, which leave these sites to splice cellular pre-mRNAs at transcribing genes, we reveal a functional subversion of nuclear speckles to promote viral gene expression. PMID:27347430

  14. Nuclear trafficking of influenza virus ribonuleoproteins in heterokaryons.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, G; Bui, M; Helenius, A

    1996-01-01

    The influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein (M1), and ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) undergo regulated nuclear import and export during infection. Their trafficking was analyzed by using interspecies heterokaryons containing nuclei from infected and uninfected cells. Under normal conditions, it was demonstrated that the vRNPs which were assembled in the nucleus and transported to the cytosol were prevented from reimport into the nucleus. To be import competent, they must first assemble into virions and enter by the endosomal entry pathway. In influenza virus mutant ts51, in which M1 is defective, direct reimport took place but was inhibited by heterologous expression of wild-type M1. These data confirm M1's role as the inhibitor of premature nuclear import and as the main regulator of nuclear transport of vRNPs. In addition to this vRNP shuttling, M1 also shuttled between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in ts51-infected cells. When NP was expressed in the absence of virus infection, it was also found to be a shuttling protein. PMID:8627748

  15. 40 CFR 180.1027 - Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1027 Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzSNPV). The identity of the seed virus must be assured by...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1027 - Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1027 Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzSNPV). The identity of the seed virus must be assured by...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1027 - Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1027 Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzSNPV). The identity of the seed virus must be assured by...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1027 - Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1027 Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzSNPV). The identity of the seed virus must be assured by...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1027 - Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1027 Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzSNPV). The identity of the seed virus must be assured by...

  20. Response of gypsy moth larvae to homologous and heterologous nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    Kathleen S. Shields; Edward M. Dougherty

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is not particularly susceptible to baculoviruses other than the nuclear polyhedrosis virus originally isolated from the species (LdMNPV). The multiple enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica (AcMNPV), a very virulent baculovirus that replicates in a large number of...

  1. Replication and inclusion body characteristics of two Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus plaque variants

    Treesearch

    James M. Slavicek; Carita Lanner-Herrera; Nancy Hayes-Plazolles; Mary Ellen Kelly; Martha Fikes

    1991-01-01

    Propagation of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in cell culture results in the generation of a mutant virus, termed few polyhedra. This plaque variant is characterized by a high budded virus titer, the formation of few polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs), and the production of PIBs exhibiting a low potency against its natural host....

  2. Inactivation of nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Baculovirus subgroup A) by monochromatic UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, V.M.; Martignoni, M.E.; Claycomb, A.E.

    1985-03-01

    Monochromatic radiation at wavelengths of 290, 300, 310, and 320 nm inactivated occluded nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata. Data indicate that all of the wavelengths are capable of causing virus inactivation; much greater fluences are needed for virus inactivation as the wavelength increases.

  3. A nuclear export signal in the matrix protein of Influenza A virus is required for efficient virus replication.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Xiaoling; Yu, Maorong; Li, Jing; Jia, Xiaojuan; Bi, Yuhai; Sun, Lei; Gao, George F; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-05-01

    The influenza A virus matrix 1 protein (M1) shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus during the viral life cycle and plays an important role in the replication, assembly, and budding of viruses. Here, a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) was identified specifically for the nuclear export of the M1 protein. The predicted NES, designated the Flu-A-M1 NES, is highly conserved among all sequences from the influenza A virus subtype, but no similar NES motifs are found in the M1 sequences of influenza B or C viruses. The biological function of the Flu-A-M1 NES was demonstrated by its ability to translocate an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-NES fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in transfected cells, compared to the even nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of EGFP. The translocation of EGFP-NES from the nucleus to the cytoplasm was not inhibited by leptomycin B. NES mutations in M1 caused a nuclear retention of the protein and an increased nuclear accumulation of NEP during transfection. Indeed, as shown by rescued recombinant viruses, the mutation of the NES impaired the nuclear export of M1 and significantly reduced the virus titer compared to titers of wild-type viruses. The NES-defective M1 protein was retained in the nucleus during infection, accompanied by a lowered efficiency of the nuclear export of viral RNPs (vRNPs). In conclusion, M1 nuclear export was specifically dependent on the Flu-A-M1 NES and critical for influenza A virus replication.

  4. Influenza Virus-Induced Caspase-Dependent Enlargement of Nuclear Pores Promotes Nuclear Export of Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mühlbauer, Dirk; Dzieciolowski, Julia; Hardt, Martin; Hocke, Andreas; Schierhorn, Kristina L.; Mostafa, Ahmed; Müller, Christin; Wisskirchen, Christian; Herold, Susanne; Wolff, Thorsten; Ziebuhr, John

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses (IAV) replicate their segmented RNA genome in the nucleus of infected cells and utilize caspase-dependent nucleocytoplasmic export mechanisms to transport newly formed ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) to the site of infectious virion release at the plasma membrane. In this study, we obtained evidence that apoptotic caspase activation in IAV-infected cells is associated with the degradation of the nucleoporin Nup153, an integral subunit of the nuclear pore complex. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed a distinct enlargement of nuclear pores in IAV-infected cells. Transient expression and subcellular accumulation studies of multimeric marker proteins in virus-infected cells provided additional evidence for increased nuclear pore diameters facilitating the translocation of large protein complexes across the nuclear membrane. Furthermore, caspase 3/7 inhibition data obtained in this study suggest that active, Crm1-dependent IAV RNP export mechanisms are increasingly complemented by passive, caspase-induced export mechanisms at later stages of infection. IMPORTANCE In contrast to the process seen with most other RNA viruses, influenza virus genome replication occurs in the nucleus (rather than the cytoplasm) of infected cells. Therefore, completion of the viral replication cycle critically depends on intracellular transport mechanisms that ensure the translocation of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes across the nuclear membrane. Here, we demonstrate that virus-induced cellular caspase activities cause a widening of nuclear pores, thereby facilitating nucleocytoplasmic translocation processes and, possibly, promoting nuclear export of newly synthesized RNPs. These passive transport mechanisms are suggested to complement Crm1-dependent RNP export mechanisms known to occur at early stages of the replication cycle and may contribute to highly efficient production of infectious virus progeny at late stages of the viral

  5. The influenza virus NEP (NS2 protein) mediates the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, R E; Talon, J; Palese, P

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear import and export of viral nucleic acids is crucial for the replication cycle of many viruses, and elucidation of the mechanism of these steps may provide a paradigm for understanding general biological processes. Influenza virus replicates its RNA genome in the nucleus of infected cells. The influenza virus NS2 protein, which had no previously assigned function, was shown to mediate the nuclear export of virion RNAs by acting as an adaptor between viral ribonucleoprotein complexes and the nuclear export machinery of the cell. A functional domain on the NS2 with characteristics of a nuclear export signal was mapped: it interacts with cellular nucleoporins, can functionally replace the effector domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein and mediates rapid nuclear export when cross-linked to a reporter protein. Microinjection of anti-NS2 antibodies into infected cells inhibited nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins, suggesting that the Rev-like NS2 mediates this process. Therefore, we have renamed this Rev-like factor the influenza virus nuclear export protein or NEP. We propose a model by which NEP acts as a protein adaptor molecule bridging viral ribonucleoproteins and the nuclear pore complex. PMID:9427762

  6. Roles of hepatocyte nuclear factors in hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doo Hyun; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Kyun-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 350 million people are estimated to be persistently infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. HBV maintains persistent infection by employing covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), a template for all HBV RNAs. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are currently treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and tenofovir. However, these treatments rarely cure CHB because they are unable to inhibit cccDNA transcription and inhibit only a late stage in the HBV life cycle (the reverse transcription step in the nucleocapsid). Therefore, an understanding of the factors regulating cccDNA transcription is required to stop this process. Among numerous factors, hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) play the most important roles in cccDNA transcription, especially in the generation of viral genomic RNA, a template for HBV replication. Therefore, proper control of HNF function could lead to the inhibition of HBV replication. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current understanding of the roles of HNFs in the HBV life cycle and the upstream factors that regulate HNFs. This knowledge will enable the identification of new therapeutic targets to cure CHB. PMID:27610013

  7. Fate of the inner nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor and nuclear lamins in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Scott, E S; O'Hare, P

    2001-09-01

    During herpesvirus egress, capsids bud through the inner nuclear membrane. Underlying this membrane is the nuclear lamina, a meshwork of intermediate filaments with which it is tightly associated. Details of alterations to the lamina and the inner nuclear membrane during infection and the mechanisms involved in capsid transport across these structures remain unclear. Here we describe the fate of key protein components of the nuclear envelope and lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. We followed the distribution of the inner nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor (LBR) and lamins A and B(2) tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live infected cells. Together with additional results from indirect immunofluorescence, our studies reveal major morphologic distortion of nuclear-rim LBR and lamins A/C, B(1), and B(2). By 8 h p.i., we also observed a significant redistribution of LBR-GFP to the endoplasmic reticulum, where it colocalized with a subpopulation of cytoplasmic glycoprotein B by immunofluorescence. In addition, analysis by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching reveals that LBR-GFP exhibited increased diffusional mobility within the nuclear membrane of infected cells. This is consistent with the disruption of interactions between LBR and the underlying lamina. In addition to studying stably expressed GFP-lamins by fluorescence microscopy, we studied endogenous A- and B-type lamins in infected cells by Western blotting. Both approaches reveal a loss of lamins associated with virus infection. These data indicate major disruption of the nuclear envelope and lamina of HSV-1-infected cells and are consistent with a virus-induced dismantling of the nuclear lamina, possibly in order to gain access to the inner nuclear membrane.

  8. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a biological control agent for Malacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    Treesearch

    R.A. Progar; M.J. Rinella; D. Fekedulegn; L. Butler

    2010-01-01

    In addition to damaging trees, the eastern tent caterpillar is implicated in early fetal loss and late-term abortion in horses. In a field study, we evaluated the potential biological control of the caterpillar using eastern tent caterpillar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (ETNPV), a naturally occurring virus that is nearly species-specific. Egg masses were hatched and...

  9. Characterization of the replication cycle of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    Christopher I. Riegel; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    The life cycle of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) was characterized through analysis of budded virus (BV) release, the temporal formation of polyhedra, the temporal transcription pattern of representative early, late, and hyper-expressed late genes, and the onset of DNA replication in the Ld652Y cell line. Transcripts from...

  10. Properties of two Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus isolates obtained from the microbial pesticide Gypchek

    Treesearch

    James M. Slavicek; John Podgwaite; Carita. Lanner-Herrera

    1992-01-01

    Two Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus isolates, 5-6 and A2-1, differing in the phenotypic characteristic of the number of viral occlusions in infected cells, were obtained from a production lot of the microbial pesticide Gypchek and several of their replication properties were investigated and compared. Budded virus titer produced in cell...

  11. A nuclear export signal within the structural Gag protein is required for prototype foamy virus replication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Gag polyproteins play distinct roles during the replication cycle of retroviruses, hijacking many cellular machineries to fulfill them. In the case of the prototype foamy virus (PFV), Gag structural proteins undergo transient nuclear trafficking after their synthesis, returning back to the cytoplasm for capsid assembly and virus egress. The functional role of this nuclear stage as well as the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for Gag nuclear export are not understood. Results We have identified a leptomycin B (LMB)-sensitive nuclear export sequence (NES) within the N-terminus of PFV Gag that is absolutely required for the completion of late stages of virus replication. Point mutations of conserved residues within this motif lead to nuclear redistribution of Gag, preventing subsequent virus egress. We have shown that a NES-defective PFV Gag acts as a dominant negative mutant by sequestrating its wild-type counterpart in the nucleus. Trans-complementation experiments with the heterologous NES of HIV-1 Rev allow the cytoplasmic redistribution of FV Gag, but fail to restore infectivity. Conclusions PFV Gag-Gag interactions are finely tuned in the cytoplasm to regulate their functions, capsid assembly, and virus release. In the nucleus, we have shown Gag-Gag interactions which could be involved in the nuclear export of Gag and viral RNA. We propose that nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced PFV RNAs relies on two complementary mechanisms, which take place successively during the replication cycle. PMID:21255441

  12. Nuclear Import of Hepatitis B Virus Capsids and Genome

    PubMed Central

    Gallucci, Lara; Kann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped pararetrovirus with a DNA genome, which is found in an up to 36 nm-measuring capsid. Replication of the genome occurs via an RNA intermediate, which is synthesized in the nucleus. The virus must have thus ways of transporting its DNA genome into this compartment. This review summarizes the data on hepatitis B virus genome transport and correlates the finding to those from other viruses. PMID:28117723

  13. Molecular analysis of an enhancin gene in the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    David S. Bischoff; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    A Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) gene has been identified that encodes a homolog to the granulovirus (GV) enhancin proteins that are capable of enhancing the infection of other baculoviruses. Enhancin genes have been identified and sequenced for three species of GVs but have not been found in any other nuclear...

  14. Anti-nuclear antibody detection in cryoprecipitates: distinctive patterns in hepatitis C virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Basile, Umberto; Gulli, Francesca; Torti, Eleonora; De Matthaeis, Nicoletta; Colacicco, Luigi; Cattani, Paola; Rapaccini, Gian Lodovico

    2015-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibodies are immunoglobulins directed against nuclear antigens. They are associated with many autoimmune disorders, but are frequently found in patients infected with hepatitis C virus, possibly indicating an underlying common origin. Likewise, mixed cryoglobulinemia often accompanies autoimmune diseases and hepatitis C infection. To compare anti-nuclear antibodies and immunoglobulin content of cryoprecipitates from hepatitis C virus-positive patients in order to assess their predictive value in the onset of hepatitis C virus-driven extrahepatic disorders. Serum from 40 hepatitis C virus-positive patients and 50 controls with rheumatoid arthritis was processed for cryoglobulin detection: all subjects presented with Type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. Immunoglobulin content and immunoglobulin subclasses of cryoprecipitates were assessed by immunofixation and tested by ELISA for rheumatoid factor. Cryoprecipitates were also analysed for anti-nuclear antibodies by indirect immuno-fluorescence to identify specific patterns typical of each condition. Anti-nuclear antibody patterns differed significantly; 26 infected subjects (65%) were IgG3 positive: of these, 25 were also anti-nuclear antibody-positive (96.1%). IgG3 are autoreactive clones unrelated to viral recognition and possibly involved in autoimmune disorders. Altogether, these results may represent useful diagnostic device for early detection of hepatitis C virus-induced autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutations within the nuclear localization signal of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein attenuate virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhee; Hodgins, Douglas; Calvert, Jay G.; Welch, Siao-Kun W.; Jolie, Rika; Yoo, Dongwan . E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

    2006-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm, but the nucleocapsid (N) protein is specifically localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in virus-infected cells. A 'pat7' motif of 41-PGKK(N/S)KK has previously been identified in the N protein as the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS); however, the biological consequences of N protein nuclear localization are unknown. In the present study, the role of N protein nuclear localization during infection was investigated in pigs using an NLS-null mutant virus. When two lysines at 43 and 44 at the NLS locus were substituted to glycines, the modified NLS with 41-PGGGNKK restricted the N protein to the cytoplasm. This NLS-null mutation was introduced into a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. Upon transfection of cells, the NLS-null full-length clone induced cytopathic effects and produced infectious progeny. The NLS-null virus grew to a titer 100-fold lower than that of wild-type virus. To examine the response to NLS-null PRRSV in the natural host, three groups of pigs, consisting of seven animals per group, were intranasally inoculated with wild-type, placebo, or NLS-null virus, and the animals were maintained for 4 weeks. The NLS-null-infected pigs had a significantly shorter mean duration of viremia than wild-type-infected pigs but developed significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Mutations occurred at the NLS locus in one pig during viremia, and four types of mutations were identified: 41-PGRGNKK, 41-PGGRNKK, and 41-PGRRNKK, and 41-PGKKSKK. Both wild-type and NLS-null viruses persisted in the tonsils for at least 4 weeks, and the NLS-null virus persisting in the tonsils was found to be mutated to either 41-PGRGNKK or 41-PGGRNKK in all pigs. No other mutation was found in the N gene. All types of reversions which occurred during viremia and persistence were able to translocate the mutated N proteins to the nucleus, indicating a

  16. Retention of the virus-derived sequences in the nuclear genome of grapevine as a potential pathway to virus resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, Christophe; Beuve, Monique; Dolja, Valerian V; Wirth, Marion; Pelsy, Frédérique; Herrbach, Etienne; Lemaire, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have revealed a wide-spread occurence of the partial and complete genomes of the reverse-transcribing pararetroviruses in the nuclear genomes of herbaceous plants. Although the absence of the virus-encoded integrases attests to the random and incidental incorporation of the viral sequences, their presence could have functional implications for the virus-host interactions. Hypothesis Analyses of two nuclear genomes of grapevine revealed multiple events of horizontal gene transfer from pararetroviruses. The ~200–800 bp inserts that corresponded to partial ORFs encoding reverse transcriptase apparently derived from unknown or extinct caulimoviruses and tungroviruses, were found in 11 grapevine chromosomes. In contrast to the previous reports, no reliable cases of the inserts derived from the positive-strand RNA viruses were found. Because grapevine is known to be infected by the diverse positive-strand RNA viruses, but not pararetroviruses, we hypothesize that pararetroviral inserts have conferred host resistance to these viruses. Furthermore, we propose that such resistance involves RNA interference-related mechanisms acting via small RNA-mediated methylation of pararetroviral DNAs and/or via degradation of the viral mRNAs. Conclusion The pararetroviral sequences in plant genomes may be maintained due to the benefits of virus resistance to this class of viruses conferred by their presence. Such resistance could be particularly significant for the woody plants that must withstand years- to centuries-long virus assault. Experimental research into the RNA interference pathways involving the integrated pararetroviral inserts is required to test this hypothesis. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Arcady R. Mushegian, I. King Jordan, and Eugene V. Koonin. PMID:19558678

  17. Retention of the virus-derived sequences in the nuclear genome of grapevine as a potential pathway to virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Christophe; Beuve, Monique; Dolja, Valerian V; Wirth, Marion; Pelsy, Frédérique; Herrbach, Etienne; Lemaire, Olivier

    2009-06-26

    Previous studies have revealed a wide-spread occurence of the partial and complete genomes of the reverse-transcribing pararetroviruses in the nuclear genomes of herbaceous plants. Although the absence of the virus-encoded integrases attests to the random and incidental incorporation of the viral sequences, their presence could have functional implications for the virus-host interactions. Analyses of two nuclear genomes of grapevine revealed multiple events of horizontal gene transfer from pararetroviruses. The approximately 200-800 bp inserts that corresponded to partial ORFs encoding reverse transcriptase apparently derived from unknown or extinct caulimoviruses and tungroviruses, were found in 11 grapevine chromosomes. In contrast to the previous reports, no reliable cases of the inserts derived from the positive-strand RNA viruses were found. Because grapevine is known to be infected by the diverse positive-strand RNA viruses, but not pararetroviruses, we hypothesize that pararetroviral inserts have conferred host resistance to these viruses. Furthermore, we propose that such resistance involves RNA interference-related mechanisms acting via small RNA-mediated methylation of pararetroviral DNAs and/or via degradation of the viral mRNAs. The pararetroviral sequences in plant genomes may be maintained due to the benefits of virus resistance to this class of viruses conferred by their presence. Such resistance could be particularly significant for the woody plants that must withstand years- to centuries-long virus assault. Experimental research into the RNA interference pathways involving the integrated pararetroviral inserts is required to test this hypothesis. This article was reviewed by Arcady R. Mushegian, I. King Jordan, and Eugene V. Koonin.

  18. The role of nuclear NS1 protein in highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Mok, Bobo Wing-Yee; Liu, Honglian; Chen, Pin; Liu, Siwen; Lau, Siu-Ying; Huang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yen-Chin; Wang, Pui; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Chen, Honglin

    2017-09-10

    The non-structural protein (NS1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) performs multiple functions during viral infection. NS1 contains two nuclear localization signals (NLS): NLS1 and NLS2. The NS1 protein is located predominantly in the nucleus during the early stages of infection and subsequently exported to the cytoplasm. A nonsense mutation that results in a large deletion in the carboxy-terminal region of the NS1 protein that contains the NLS2 domain was found in some IAV subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 and H5N1 viruses. We introduced different mutations into the NLS domains of NS1 proteins in various strains of IAV, and demonstrated that mutation of the NLS2 region in the NS1 protein of HPAI H5N1 viruses severely affects its nuclear localization pattern. H5N1 viruses expressing NS1 protein that is unable to localize to the nucleus are less potent in antagonizing cellular antiviral responses than viruses expressing wild-type NS1. However, no significant difference was observed with respect to viral replication and pathogenesis. In contrast, the replication and antiviral defenses of H1N1 viruses are greatly attenuated when nuclear localization of the NS1 protein is blocked. Our data reveals a novel functional plasticity for NS1 proteins among different IAV subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Sorting of influenza A virus RNA genome segments after nuclear export

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, Naoki; Kumakura, Michiko; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2010-06-05

    The genome of the influenza A virus consists of eight different segments. These eight segments are thought to be sorted selectively in infected cells. However, the cellular compartment where segments are sorted is not known. We examined using temperature sensitive (ts) mutant viruses and cell fusion where segments are sorted in infected cells. Different cells were infected with different ts mutant viruses, and these cells were fused. In fused cells, genome segments are mixed only in the cytoplasm, because M1 prevents their re-import into the nucleus. We made a marker ts53 virus, which has silent mutations in given segments and determined the reassortment frequency on all segments using ts1 and marker ts53. In both co-infected and fused cells, all of marker ts53 segments and ts1 segments were incorporated into progeny virions in a random fashion. These results suggest that influenza virus genome segments are sorted after nuclear export.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1149 - Inclusion bodies of the multi-nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1149 Section 180... Inclusion bodies of the multi-nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from the... polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all raw...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1149 - Inclusion bodies of the multi-nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1149 Section 180... Inclusion bodies of the multi-nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from the... polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all raw...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1149 - Inclusion bodies of the multi-nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1149 Section 180... Inclusion bodies of the multi-nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from the... polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all raw...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1149 - Inclusion bodies of the multi-nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1149 Section 180... Inclusion bodies of the multi-nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from the... polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all raw...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1149 - Inclusion bodies of the multi-nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1149 Section 180... Inclusion bodies of the multi-nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera; exemption from the... polyhedrosis virus of Anagrapha falcifera is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all raw...

  10. The tobamovirus Turnip Vein Clearing Virus 30-kilodalton movement protein localizes to novel nuclear filaments to enhance virus infection.

    PubMed

    Levy, Amit; Zheng, Judy Y; Lazarowitz, Sondra G

    2013-06-01

    Plant viruses overcome the barrier of the plant cell wall by encoding cell-to-cell movement proteins (MPs), which direct newly replicated viral genomes to, and across, the wall. The paradigm for how a single MP regulates and coordinates these activities is the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 30-kDa protein (MP(TMV)). Detailed studies demonstrate that TMV multiplies exclusively in the cytoplasm and have documented associations of MP(TMV) with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, microtubules, and plasmodesmata throughout the course of infection. As TMV poorly infects Arabidopsis thaliana, Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV) is the tobamovirus of choice for studies in this model plant. A key problem, which has contributed to confusion in the field, is the unproven assumption that the TVCV and TMV life cycles are identical. We engineered an infectious TVCV replicon that expressed a functional fluorescence-tagged MP(TVCV) and report here the unexpected discovery that MP(TVCV), beyond localizing to ER membrane and plasmodesmata, targeted to the nucleus in a nuclear localization signal (NLS)-dependent manner, where it localized to novel F-actin-containing filaments that associated with chromatin. The MP(TVCV) NLS appeared to be conserved in the subgroup 3 tobamoviruses, and our mutational analyses showed that nuclear localization of MP(TVCV) was necessary for efficient TVCV cell-to-cell movement and systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our studies identify a novel nuclear stage in TVCV infection and suggest that nuclear MP encoded by TVCV and other subgroup 3 tobamoviruses interacts with F-actin and chromatin to modulate host defenses or cellular physiology to favor virus movement and infection.

  11. Identification of a Functional, CRM-1-Dependent Nuclear Export Signal in Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Andrea; Maillard, Patrick; Minisini, Rosalba; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Roohvand, Farzin; Pecheur, Eve-Isabelle; Pirisi, Mario; Budkowska, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV core protein is involved in nucleocapsid formation, but it also interacts with multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear molecules and plays a crucial role in the development of liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. The core protein is found mostly in the cytoplasm during HCV infection, but also in the nucleus in patients with hepatocarcinoma and in core-transgenic mice. HCV core contains nuclear localization signals (NLS), but no nuclear export signal (NES) has yet been identified. We show here that the aa(109–133) region directs the translocation of core from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the CRM-1-mediated nuclear export pathway. Mutagenesis of the three hydrophobic residues (L119, I123 and L126) in the identified NES or in the sequence encoding the mature core aa(1–173) significantly enhanced the nuclear localisation of the corresponding proteins in transfected Huh7 cells. Both the NES and the adjacent hydrophobic sequence in domain II of core were required to maintain the core protein or its fragments in the cytoplasmic compartment. Electron microscopy studies of the JFH1 replication model demonstrated that core was translocated into the nucleus a few minutes after the virus entered the cell. The blockade of nucleocytoplasmic export by leptomycin B treatment early in infection led to the detection of core protein in the nucleus by confocal microscopy and coincided with a decrease in virus replication. Our data suggest that the functional NLS and NES direct HCV core protein shuttling between the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, with at least some core protein transported to the nucleus. These new properties of HCV core may be essential for virus multiplication and interaction with nuclear molecules, influence cell signaling and the pathogenesis of HCV infection. PMID:22039426

  12. Identification of a functional, CRM-1-dependent nuclear export signal in hepatitis C virus core protein.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Andrea; Maillard, Patrick; Minisini, Rosalba; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Roohvand, Farzin; Pecheur, Eve-Isabelle; Pirisi, Mario; Budkowska, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV core protein is involved in nucleocapsid formation, but it also interacts with multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear molecules and plays a crucial role in the development of liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. The core protein is found mostly in the cytoplasm during HCV infection, but also in the nucleus in patients with hepatocarcinoma and in core-transgenic mice. HCV core contains nuclear localization signals (NLS), but no nuclear export signal (NES) has yet been identified.We show here that the aa(109-133) region directs the translocation of core from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the CRM-1-mediated nuclear export pathway. Mutagenesis of the three hydrophobic residues (L119, I123 and L126) in the identified NES or in the sequence encoding the mature core aa(1-173) significantly enhanced the nuclear localisation of the corresponding proteins in transfected Huh7 cells. Both the NES and the adjacent hydrophobic sequence in domain II of core were required to maintain the core protein or its fragments in the cytoplasmic compartment. Electron microscopy studies of the JFH1 replication model demonstrated that core was translocated into the nucleus a few minutes after the virus entered the cell. The blockade of nucleocytoplasmic export by leptomycin B treatment early in infection led to the detection of core protein in the nucleus by confocal microscopy and coincided with a decrease in virus replication.Our data suggest that the functional NLS and NES direct HCV core protein shuttling between the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, with at least some core protein transported to the nucleus. These new properties of HCV core may be essential for virus multiplication and interaction with nuclear molecules, influence cell signaling and the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  13. Outer nuclear membrane fusion of adjacent nuclei in varicella-zoster virus-induced syncytia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Lianwei; Huang, Xiumin; Fu, Wenkun; Pan, Dequan; Cai, Linli; Ye, Jianghui; Liu, Jian; Xia, Ningshao; Cheng, Tong; Zhu, Hua

    2017-09-11

    Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one typical syncytia-inducing virus that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Here, we report, for the first time, an interesting observation of apparent fusion of the outer nuclear membranes from juxtaposed nuclei that comprise VZV syncytia both in ARPE-19 human epithelial cells in vitro and in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo. This work reveals a novel aspect of VZV-related cytopathic effect in the context of multinucleated syncytia. Additionally, the information provided by this study could be helpful for future studies on interactions of viruses with host cell nuclei. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and characterization of the ecdysteroid UDPglucosyltransferase gene of the Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    Christopher I. Riegel; Carita Lanner-Herrera; James M. Slavicek

    1994-01-01

    We have located, cloned, sequenced and characterized the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase gene (egt) gene from the baculovirus Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus,(LdMNPV), which is specific for the gypsy moth (L. dispar). The egt gene from the related baculovirus Autographa californica...

  15. Identification and characterization of an early gene in the Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    David S. Bischoff; James M. Slavicek

    1995-01-01

    The Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) gene encoding G22 was cloned and sequenced. The G22 gene codes for a 191 amino acid protein with a predicted Mr of 22000. Expression of G22 in a rabbit reticulocyte system generated a protein with an M...

  16. Interactions between nuclear polyhedrosis virus and Nosema sp. infecting gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    L. S. Bauer; M. McManus; J. Maddox

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) is the only entomopathogen that plays an important role in the natural regulation of North American gypsy moth populations. Recent European studies suggest that populations of gypsy moth in Eurasia are regulated primarily by the interactions between NPV and several species of microsporidia. Researchers have proposed that the...

  17. Vectoring gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus by Apanteles melanoscelus (Hym.:Braconidae)

    Treesearch

    B. Raimo; R.C. Reardon; J.D. Podgwaite

    1977-01-01

    Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. larvae were exposed to Apanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) females contaminated with nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Three methods of contamination (ovipositor, total body surface, and exposure to infected hosts) and two exposure periods (2 and 24 hours) were tested. A significantly greater incidence of...

  18. Identification and characterization of a protein kinase gene in the Lymantria dispar nultinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    David S. Bischoff; James M. Slavicek

    1994-01-01

    The Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) gene encoding vPK has been cloned and sequenced. LdMNPV vPK shows a 24% amino acid identity to the catalytic domains of the eucaryotic protein kinases nPKC from rabbits, HSPKCE from humans, APLPKCB from Aplysia californica, and dPKC98F from ...

  19. Identification, cloning, and expression analysis of three putative Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus immediate early genes

    Treesearch

    James M. Slavicek; Nancy Hayes-Plazolles

    1991-01-01

    Viral immediate early gene products are usually regulatory proteins that control expression of other viral genes at the transcriptional level or are proteins that are part of the viral DNA replication complex. The identification and functional characterization of the immediate early gene products of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV...

  20. Autographa caljfornica nuclear polyhedrosis virus replication in non-permissive Lymantria dispar cell lines

    Treesearch

    Edward M. Dougherty; David Guzo; Kathleen S. Shields; Dwight E. Lynn; Susan K. Braun

    1991-01-01

    Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) the prototypic group A baculovirus, has the widest reported host range of the baculoviruses and is considered to be one of the most virulent baculoviruses studied. The gypsy moth Lymantria dispar is not considered a natural host of AcNPV, however. To determine the factors...

  1. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  2. Characterization of a nuclear localization signal in the foot-and-mouth disease virus polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Aparicio, Maria Teresa; Rosas, Maria Flora; Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-09-15

    We have experimentally tested whether the MRKTKLAPT sequence in FMDV 3D protein (residues 16 to 24) can act as a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Mutants with substitutions in two basic residues within this sequence, K18E and K20E, were generated. A decreased nuclear localization was observed in transiently expressed 3D and its precursor 3CD, suggesting a role of K18 and K20 in nuclear targeting. Fusion of MRKTKLAPT to the green fluorescence protein (GFP) increased the nuclear localization of GFP, which was not observed when GFP was fused to the 3D mutated sequences. These results indicate that the sequence MRKTKLAPT can be functionally considered as a NLS. When introduced in a FMDV full length RNA replacements K18E and K20E led to production of revertant viruses that replaced the acidic residues introduced (E) by K, suggesting that the presence of lysins at positions 18 and 20 of 3D is essential for virus multiplication. - Highlights: • The FMDV 3D polymerase contains a nuclear localization signal. • Replacements K18E and K20E decrease nuclear localization of 3D and its precursor 3CD. • Fusion of the MRKTKLAPT 3D motif to GFP increases the nuclear localization of GFP. • Replacements K18E and K20E abolish the ability of MRKTKLAPT to relocate GFP. • RNAs harboring replacements K18E and K20E lead to recovery of revertant FMDVs.

  3. Crosstalk between viruses and PML nuclear bodies: a network-based approach.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Ellen; Van Ostade, Xaveer

    2011-06-01

    Due to the recent advances in instrumental and scientific methods, cell biology data are generated with increasing speed and quantity. One of these fast developing fields is the crosstalk between promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) and viruses. PML-NBs are dynamic nuclear protein aggregates which are targeted by entire viral particles, viral proteins or viral nucleic acids. Their possible anti-viral properties motivated researchers to investigate the interaction between PML-NBs and viruses in depth. Based on extensive literature data mining, we created a comprehensive PML-NB/virus crosstalk Cytoscape network, which groups not only the most common relations but also less well described findings. The network is easy to navigate and provides a biologically relevant overview which can help finding interesting case studies.

  4. Murine leukemia virus uses NXF1 for nuclear export of spliced and unspliced viral transcripts.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Toshie; Davila, Jaime I; Malcolm, Jessica A; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Tonne, Jason M; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    Intron-containing mRNAs are subject to restricted nuclear export in higher eukaryotes. Retroviral replication requires the nucleocytoplasmic transport of both spliced and unspliced RNA transcripts, and RNA export mechanisms of gammaretroviruses are poorly characterized. Here, we report the involvement of the nuclear export receptor NXF1/TAP in the nuclear export of gammaretroviral RNA transcripts. We identified a conserved cis-acting element in the pol gene of gammaretroviruses, including murine leukemia virus (MLV) and xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), named the CAE (cytoplasmic accumulation element). The CAE enhanced the cytoplasmic accumulation of viral RNA transcripts and the expression of viral proteins without significantly affecting the stability, splicing, or translation efficiency of the transcripts. Insertion of the CAE sequence also facilitated Rev-independent HIV Gag expression. We found that the CAE sequence interacted with NXF1, whereas disruption of NXF1 ablated CAE function. Thus, the CAE sequence mediates the cytoplasmic accumulation of gammaretroviral transcripts in an NXF1-dependent manner. Disruption of NXF1 expression impaired cytoplasmic accumulations of both spliced and unspliced RNA transcripts of XMRV and MLV, resulting in their nuclear retention or degradation. Thus, our results demonstrate that gammaretroviruses use NXF1 for the cytoplasmic accumulation of both spliced and nonspliced viral RNA transcripts. Murine leukemia virus (MLV) has been studied as one of the classic models of retrovirology. Although unspliced host messenger RNAs are rarely exported from the nucleus, MLV actively exports unspliced viral RNAs to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive studies, how MLV achieves this difficult task has remained a mystery. Here, we have studied the RNA export mechanism of MLV and found that (i) the genome contains a sequence which supports the efficient nuclear export of viral RNAs, (ii) the cellular factor NXF1 is involved in the

  5. The N Terminus of the Influenza B Virus Nucleoprotein Is Essential for Virus Viability, Nuclear Localization, and Optimal Transcription and Replication of the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Lee; Smith, Matt; Davidson, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza viruses is a multifunctional protein with essential roles throughout viral replication. Despite influenza A and B viruses belonging to separate genera of the Orthomyxoviridae family, their NP proteins share a relatively high level of sequence conservation. However, NP of influenza B viruses (BNP) contains an evolutionarily conserved N-terminal 50-amino-acid extension that is absent from NP of influenza A viruses. There is conflicting evidence as to the functions of the BNP N-terminal extension; however, this has never been assessed in the context of viral infection. We have used reverse genetics to assess the significance of this region on the functions of BNP and virus viability. The truncation of more than three amino acids prevented virus recovery, suggesting that the N-terminal extension is essential for virus viability. Mutational analysis indicated that multiple regions of the protein are involved in the nuclear localization of BNP, with the entire N-terminal extension required for this to function efficiently. Viruses containing mutations in the first 10 residues of BNP demonstrated few differences in nuclear localization; however, the viruses exhibited significant reductions in viral mRNA transcription and genome replication, resulting in significantly attenuated phenotypes. Mutations introduced to ablate a previously reported nuclear localization signal also resulted in a significant decrease in mRNA production during early stages of viral replication. Overall, our results demonstrate that the N-terminal extension of BNP is essential to virus viability not only for directing nuclear localization of BNP but also for regulating viral mRNA transcription and genome replication. IMPORTANCE The multifunctional NP of influenza viruses has roles throughout the viral replication cycle; therefore, it is essential for virus viability. Despite high levels of homology between the NP of influenza A and B viruses, the NP of

  6. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C.; Dauer, William; Johnson, David; Roller, Richard J.

    2014-07-15

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. - Highlights: • We show that wild-type HSV can induce breakdown of the nuclear envelope in a specific cell system. • The viral fusion proteins gB and gH are required for induction of nuclear envelope breakdown. • Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the HSV UL34 gene.

  7. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Lalime, Erin N.; Pekosz, Andrew

    2014-06-15

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate that the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Mutations were introduced into influenza NS1 NLS1. • NS1 R37A, R38A, K41A viruses had minimal changes in replication and NS1 localization. • Viruses from NS1 R35A rescue all contained additional mutations at D39. • NS1 R35A D39X mutations recover dimerization lost in NS1 R35A mutations. • These results reaffirm the importance of dimerization for NS1 protein function.

  8. Structural diversity and nuclear protein binding sites in the long terminal repeats of feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, R; Plumb, M; Shield, L; Neil, J C

    1990-01-01

    The long terminal repeat U3 sequences were determined for multiple feline leukemia virus proviruses isolated from naturally occurring T-cell tumors. Heterogeneity was evident, even among proviruses cloned from individual tumors. Proviruses with one, two, or three repeats of the long terminal repeat enhancer sequences coexisted in one tumor, while two proviruses with distinct direct repeats were found in another. The enhancer repeats are characteristic of retrovirus variants with accelerated leukemogenic potential and occur between -155 and -244 base pairs relative to the RNA cap site. The termini of the repeats occur at or near sequence features which have been recognized at other retrovirus recombinational junctions. In vitro footprint analysis of the feline leukemia virus enhancer revealed three major nuclear protein binding sites, located at consensus sequences for the simian virus 40 core enhancer, the nuclear factor 1 binding site, and an indirect repeat which is homologous to the PEA2 binding site in the polyomavirus enhancer. Only the simian virus 40 core enhancer sequence is present in all of the enhancer repeats. Cell type differences in binding activities to the three motifs may underlie the selective process which leads to outgrowth of viruses with specific sequence duplications. Images PMID:2157050

  9. Antiviral activity of KR-23502 targeting nuclear export of influenza B virus ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yejin; Lee, Hye Won; Shin, Jin Soo; Go, Yun Young; Kim, Chonsaeng; Shin, Daeho; Malpani, Yashwardhan; Han, Soo Bong; Jung, Young-Sik; Kim, Meehyein

    2016-10-01

    The spiro compound 5,6-dimethyl-3H,3'H-spiro(benzofuran-2,1'-isobenzofuran)-3,3'-dione (KR-23502) has antiviral activity against influenza A and more potently B viruses. The aim of this study is to elucidate its mechanism of action. Subcellular localization and time-course expression of influenza B viral proteins, nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein 1 (M1), showed that KR-23502 reduced their amounts within 5 h post-infection. Early steps of virus life cycle, including virus entry, nuclear localization of NP and viral RNA-dependent RNA replication, were not affected by KR-23502. Instead it interrupted a later event corresponding to nuclear export of NP and M1 proteins. Delivery of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP)-M1 complex has been known to be mediated by the viral nuclear export protein (NEP) through interaction with cellular chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein. In this study, we experimentally demonstrated that the compound targets the nuclear export of vRNP. Moreover, a single mutation (aspartate to glycine) at amino acid position 54 in M1 [M1(D54G)] was detected after 18 passages in the presence of KR-23502 with a 2-fold increase in 50% effective concentration indicating that this compound has a relatively high genetic barrier to resistance. Interestingly, it was observed that proteasome-mediated degradation of M1(D54G) was attenuated by KR-23502. In conclusion, we suggest that KR-23502 shows its anti-influenza activity by downregulating NEP/CRM1-mediated nuclear export of influenza vRNP and M1. KR-23502 provides a core chemical skeleton for further structure-based design of novel antivirals against influenza viruses.

  10. Single hepatitis-B virus core capsid binding to individual nuclear pore complexes in Hela cells.

    PubMed

    Lill, Yoriko; Lill, Markus A; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Schwarz-Herion, Kyrill; Paulillo, Sara; Aebi, Ueli; Hecht, Bert

    2006-10-15

    We investigate the interaction of hepatitis B virus capsids lacking a nuclear localization signal with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in permeabilized HeLa cells. Confocal and wide-field optical images of the nuclear envelope show well-spaced individual NPCs. Specific interactions of capsids with single NPCs are characterized by extended residence times of capsids in the focal volume which are characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. In addition, single-capsid-tracking experiments using fast wide-field fluorescence microscopy at 50 frames/s allow us to directly observe specific binding via a dual-color colocalization of capsids and NPCs. We find that binding occurs with high probability on the nuclear-pore ring moiety, at 44 +/- 9 nm radial distance from the central axis.

  11. A second CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal in the influenza A virus NS2 protein contributes to the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengping; Chen, Jingjing; Chen, Quanjiao; Wang, Huadong; Yao, Yanfeng; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Ze

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus NS2 protein, also called nuclear export protein (NEP), is crucial for the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins. However, the molecular mechanisms of NEP mediation in this process remain incompletely understood. A leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES2) in NEP, located at the predicted N2 helix of the N-terminal domain, was identified in the present study. NES2 was demonstrated to be a transferable NES, with its nuclear export activity depending on the nuclear export receptor chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-mediated pathway. The interaction between NEP and CRM1 is coordinately regulated by both the previously reported NES (NES1) and now the new NES2. Deletion of the NES1 enhances the interaction between NEP and CRM1, and deletion of the NES1 and NES2 motifs completely abolishes this interaction. Moreover, NES2 interacts with CRM1 in the mammalian two-hybrid system. Mutant viruses containing NES2 alterations generated by reversed genetics exhibit reduced viral growth and delay in the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs). The NES2 motif is highly conserved in the influenza A and B viruses. The results demonstrate that leucine-rich NES2 is involved in the nuclear export of vRNPs and contributes to the understanding of nucleocytoplasmic transport of influenza virus vRNPs.

  12. Functional Characterization of Nuclear Trafficking Signals in Pseudorabies Virus pUL31

    PubMed Central

    Paßvogel, Lars; Klupp, Barbara G.; Granzow, Harald; Fuchs, Walter

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpesviral nuclear egress complex (NEC), consisting of pUL31 and pUL34 homologs, mediates efficient translocation of newly synthesized capsids from the nucleus to the cytosol. The tail-anchored membrane protein pUL34 is autonomously targeted to the nuclear envelope, while pUL31 is recruited to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) by interaction with pUL34. A nuclear localization signal (NLS) in several pUL31 homologs suggests importin-mediated translocation of the protein. Here we demonstrate that deletion or mutation of the NLS in pseudorabies virus (PrV) pUL31 resulted in exclusively cytosolic localization, indicating active nuclear export. Deletion or mutation of a predicted nuclear export signal (NES) in mutant constructs lacking a functional NLS resulted in diffuse nuclear and cytosolic localization, indicating that both signals are functional. pUL31 molecules lacking the complete NLS or NES were not recruited to the INM by pUL34, while site-specifically mutated proteins formed the NEC and partially complemented the defect of the UL31 deletion mutant. Our data demonstrate that the N terminus of pUL31, encompassing the NLS, is required for efficient nuclear targeting but not for pUL34 interaction, while the C terminus, containing the NES but not necessarily the NES itself, is required for complex formation and efficient budding of viral capsids at the INM. Moreover, pUL31-ΔNLS displayed a dominant negative effect on wild-type PrV replication, probably by diverting pUL34 to cytoplasmic membranes. IMPORTANCE The molecular details of nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids are still enigmatic. Although the key players, homologs of herpes simplex virus pUL34 and pUL31, which interact and form the heterodimeric nuclear egress complex, are well known, the molecular basis of this interaction and the successive budding, vesicle formation, and scission from the INM, as well as capsid release into the cytoplasm, remain largely obscure. Here we show that

  13. Structural basis for the regulation of nuclear import of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) by phosphorylation of the nuclear localization signal.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Ryohei; Hirano, Hidemi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-02-26

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is expressed in every EBV-positive tumor and is essential for the maintenance, replication, and transcription of the EBV genome in the nucleus of host cells. EBNA1 is a serine phosphoprotein, and it has been shown that phosphorylation of S385 in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of EBNA1 increases the binding affinity to the nuclear import adaptor importin-α1 as well as importin-α5, and stimulates nuclear import of EBNA1. To gain insights into how phosphorylation of the EBNA1 NLS regulates nuclear import, we have determined the crystal structures of two peptide complexes of importin-α1: one with S385-phosphorylated EBNA1 NLS peptide, determined at 2.0 Å resolution, and one with non-phosphorylated EBNA1 NLS peptide, determined at 2.2 Å resolution. The structures show that EBNA1 NLS binds to the major and minor NLS-binding sites of importin-α1, and indicate that the binding affinity of the EBNA1 NLS to the minor NLS-binding site could be enhanced by phosphorylation of S385 through electrostatic interaction between the phosphate group of phospho-S385 and K392 of importin-α1 (corresponding to R395 of importin-α5) on armadillo repeat 8.

  14. Nuclear pore composition and gating in herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Hofemeister, Helmut; O'Hare, Peter

    2008-09-01

    The mechanism by which herpes simplex virus (HSV) exits the nucleus remains a matter of controversy. The generally accepted route proposes that capsids exit via primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and subsequent fusion of this primary particle with the outer nuclear membrane to gain capsid entry to the cytoplasm. However, recent observations indicate that HSV may induce gross morphological alterations of nuclear pores, resulting in the loss of normal pores and the appearance of dilated gaps in the nuclear membrane of up to several 100 nm. On this basis, it was proposed that a main route of capsid exit from the nucleus is directly through these altered pores. Here, we examine the biochemical composition of some of the major nuclear pore components in uninfected and HSV-infected cells. We show that total levels of major nucleoporins and their sedimentation patterns in density gradients remain largely unchanged up to 18 h after HSV infection. Some alteration in modification of one nucleoporin, Nup358/RanBP2, was observed during enrichment with anti-nucleoporin antibody and probing for O glycosylation. In addition, we examine functional gating within the nucleus in live cells, using microinjection of labeled dextran beads and a recombinant virus expressing GFP-VP16 to track the progress of infection. The nuclear permeability barrier for molecules bigger than 70 kDa remained intact throughout infection. Thus, in a functional assay in live cells, we find no evidence for gross perturbation to the gating of nuclear pores, although this might not exclude a small population of modified pores.

  15. Six distinct nuclear factors interact with the 75-base-pair repeat of the Moloney murine leukemia virus enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Speck, N A; Baltimore, D

    1987-01-01

    Binding sites for six distinct nuclear factors on the 75-base-pair repeat of the Moloney murine leukemia virus enhancer have been identified by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay combined with methylation interference. Three of these factors, found in WEHI 231 nuclear extracts, which we have named LVa, LVb, and LVc (for leukemia virus factors a, b, and c) have not been previously identified. Nuclear factors that bind to the conserved simian virus 40 corelike motif, the NF-1 motif, and the glucocorticoid response element were also detected. Testing of multiple cell lines showed that most factors appeared ubiquitous, except that the NF-1 binding factor was found neither in nuclear extracts from MEL cells nor in the embryonal carcinoma cell lines PCC4 and F9, and core-binding factor was relatively depleted from MEL and F9 nuclear extracts. Images PMID:3561410

  16. Nuclear localization and shuttling of herpes simplex virus tegument protein VP13/14.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, M; Elliott, G

    2001-03-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 gene UL47 encodes the tegument proteins referred to collectively as VP13/14, which are believed to be differentially modified forms of the same protein. Here we show that the major product of the UL47 gene during transient expression is VP14, suggesting that some feature of virus infection is required to produce VP13. We have tagged VP13/14 with green fluorescent protein and have demonstrated that the protein is targeted efficiently to the nucleus, where it often localizes in numerous punctate domains. Furthermore, we show that removal of the N-terminal 127 residues of the protein abrogates nuclear accumulation, and we have identified a 14-amino-acid peptide from this region that is sufficient to function as a nuclear targeting signal and transport a heterologous protein to the nucleus. This short peptide contains two runs of four arginine residues, suggesting that the VP13/14 nuclear localization signal may behave in a manner similar to that of the arginine-rich nuclear localization signals of the retrovirus transactivator proteins Tat, Rev, and Rex. In addition, by using heterokaryon assays, we show that VP13/14 is capable of shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell, a property that may be attributed to three leucine-rich stretches in the C-terminal half of the protein that again bear similarity to the nuclear export signals of Rev and Rex. This is the first demonstration of a tegument protein that is specifically targeted to the nucleus, a feature which may be relevant both during virus entry, when VP13/14 enters the cell as a component of the tegument, and at later times, when large amounts of newly synthesized VP13/14 are present within the cell.

  17. The Role of Nuclear Antiviral Factors against Invading DNA Viruses: The Immediate Fate of Incoming Viral Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nagata, Kyosuke; Wodrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has been suggested that host cells exert intrinsic mechanisms to control nuclear replicating DNA viruses. This cellular response involves nuclear antiviral factors targeting incoming viral genomes. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is the best-studied model in this context, and it was shown that upon nuclear entry HSV-1 genomes are immediately targeted by components of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) and the nuclear DNA sensor IFI16 (interferon gamma inducible protein 16). Based on HSV-1 studies, together with limited examples in other viral systems, these phenomena are widely believed to be a common cellular response to incoming viral genomes, although formal evidence for each virus is lacking. Indeed, recent studies suggest that the case may be different for adenovirus infection. Here we summarize the existing experimental evidence for the roles of nuclear antiviral factors against incoming viral genomes to better understand cellular responses on a virus-by-virus basis. We emphasize that cells seem to respond differently to different incoming viral genomes and discuss possible arguments for and against a unifying cellular mechanism targeting the incoming genomes of different virus families. PMID:27782081

  18. A field release of genetically engineered gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (LdNPV)

    Treesearch

    Vincent D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Michael L. McManus; John P. Burand

    1999-01-01

    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus was genetically engineered for nonpersistence by removal of the gene coding for polyhedrin production and stabilized using a coocclusion process. A β-galactosidase marker gene was inserted into the genetically engineered virus (LdGEV) so that infected larvae could be tested for...

  19. Evaluation of Aerially-Applied Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus for Suppression of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar L.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Wollam; W.G. Yendol; F.B. Lewis

    1978-01-01

    Single and double applications of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Lymantria dispar L. were evaluated for suppression of a gypsy moth infestation in Pennsylvania. The virus material, purified by isopynic centrifugation, was applied by air at the rate of 2.47 x 1012 polyhedral inclusion bodies per hectare. Two formulations of...

  20. Rapid formation of few polyhedral mutants of Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus during serial passage in cell culture

    Treesearch

    James M. Slavicek; Nancy Hayes-Plazolles; Mary Ellen. Kelly

    1995-01-01

    Four genotypic variants of Lymantria dispar multimucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) were used to investigate the generation of few polyhedra (FP) mutants during viral propagation in the L. dispar 652Y cell line. Titers of budded virus, the percentage of infected cells producting polyhedra, the amount of polyhedra...

  1. Genome assembly of citurs leprosis virus nuclear type reveals a close association with orchid fleck virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type (CiLV-C) was detected in states...

  2. Uncoupling Uncoating of Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes from Their Nuclear Import and Gene Expression▿†

    PubMed Central

    Rode, Kathrin; Döhner, Katinka; Binz, Anne; Glass, Mandy; Strive, Tanja; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Incoming capsids of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enter the cytosol by fusion of the viral envelopes with host cell membranes and use microtubules and microtubule motors for transport to the nucleus. Upon docking to the nuclear pores, capsids release their genomes into the nucleoplasm. Progeny genomes are replicated in the nucleoplasm and subsequently packaged into newly assembled capsids. The minor capsid protein pUL25 of alphaherpesviruses is required for capsid stabilization after genome packaging and for nuclear targeting of incoming genomes. Here, we show that HSV-1 pUL25 bound to mature capsids within the nucleus and remained capsid associated during assembly and nuclear targeting. Furthermore, we tested potential interactions between parental pUL25 bound to incoming HSV-1 capsids and host factors by competing for such interactions with an experimental excess of cytosolic pUL25. Overexpression of pUL25, GFPUL25, or UL25GFP prior to infection reduced gene expression of HSV-1. Electron microscopy and in situ hybridization studies revealed that an excess of GFPUL25 or UL25GFP prevented efficient nuclear import and/or transcription of parental HSV-1 genomes, but not nuclear targeting of capsids or the uncoating of the incoming genomes at the nuclear pore. Thus, the uncoating of HSV-1 genomes could be uncoupled from their nuclear import and gene expression. Most likely, surplus pUL25 competed with important interactions between the parental capsids, and possibly between authentic capsid-associated pUL25, and cytosolic or nuclear host factors required for functional interaction of the incoming genomes with the nuclear machinery. PMID:21345968

  3. Murine Leukemia Virus Uses NXF1 for Nuclear Export of Spliced and Unspliced Viral Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Toshie; Davila, Jaime I.; Malcolm, Jessica A.; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A.; Tonne, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intron-containing mRNAs are subject to restricted nuclear export in higher eukaryotes. Retroviral replication requires the nucleocytoplasmic transport of both spliced and unspliced RNA transcripts, and RNA export mechanisms of gammaretroviruses are poorly characterized. Here, we report the involvement of the nuclear export receptor NXF1/TAP in the nuclear export of gammaretroviral RNA transcripts. We identified a conserved cis-acting element in the pol gene of gammaretroviruses, including murine leukemia virus (MLV) and xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), named the CAE (cytoplasmic accumulation element). The CAE enhanced the cytoplasmic accumulation of viral RNA transcripts and the expression of viral proteins without significantly affecting the stability, splicing, or translation efficiency of the transcripts. Insertion of the CAE sequence also facilitated Rev-independent HIV Gag expression. We found that the CAE sequence interacted with NXF1, whereas disruption of NXF1 ablated CAE function. Thus, the CAE sequence mediates the cytoplasmic accumulation of gammaretroviral transcripts in an NXF1-dependent manner. Disruption of NXF1 expression impaired cytoplasmic accumulations of both spliced and unspliced RNA transcripts of XMRV and MLV, resulting in their nuclear retention or degradation. Thus, our results demonstrate that gammaretroviruses use NXF1 for the cytoplasmic accumulation of both spliced and nonspliced viral RNA transcripts. IMPORTANCE Murine leukemia virus (MLV) has been studied as one of the classic models of retrovirology. Although unspliced host messenger RNAs are rarely exported from the nucleus, MLV actively exports unspliced viral RNAs to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive studies, how MLV achieves this difficult task has remained a mystery. Here, we have studied the RNA export mechanism of MLV and found that (i) the genome contains a sequence which supports the efficient nuclear export of viral RNAs, (ii) the cellular factor NXF1 is

  4. Characterization of the nuclear localization signal of the hepatitis delta virus antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Carolina; Freitas, Natalia; Cunha, Celso

    2008-01-05

    The delta antigen (HDAg) is the only protein encoded by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA genome. The HDAg contains an RNA binding domain, a dimerization domain, and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The nuclear import of HDV RNPs is thought to be one of the first tasks of the HDAg during the HDV replication cycle. Using c-myc-PK fusions with several regions of the HDAg in transfection assays in Huh7 cells, we found that the HDAg NLS consists of a single stretch of 10 amino acids, EGAPPAKRAR, located in positions 66-75. Deletion and mutation analysis of this region showed that both the acidic glutamic acid residue at position 66 and the basic arginine residue at position 75 are essential for promoting nuclear import.

  5. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C; Dauer, William; Johnson, David; Roller, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional analysis of the Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein: pathogenicity and nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzeng; Tzfira, Tzvi; Gaba, Victor; Citovsky, Vitaly; Palukaitis, Peter; Gal-On, Amit

    2004-10-01

    The 2b protein encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been shown to be a silencing suppressor and pathogenicity determinant in solanaceous hosts, but a movement determinant in cucumber. In addition, synergistic interactions between CMV and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) have been described in several cucurbit species. Here, it was shown that deletion of the 2b gene from CMV prevented extensive systemic movement of the virus in zucchini squash, which could not be complemented by co-infection with ZYMV. Thus, ZYMV expressing a silencing suppressor with a different target could not complement the CMV 2b-specific movement function. Expression of the 2b protein from an attenuated ZYMV vector resulted in a synergistic response, largely restoring infection symptoms of wild-type ZYMV in several cucurbit species. Deletion or alteration of either of two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) did not affect nuclear localization in two assays, but did affect pathogenicity in several cucurbit species, whilst deletion of both NLSs led to loss of nuclear localization. The 2b protein interacted with an Arabidopsis thaliana karyopherin alpha protein (AtKAPalpha) in the yeast two-hybrid system, as did each of the two single NLS-deletion mutants. However, 2b protein containing a deletion of both NLSs was unable to interact with AtKAPalpha. These data suggest that the 2b protein localizes to the nucleus by using the karyopherin alpha-mediated system, but demonstrate that nuclear localization was insufficient for enhancement of the 2b-mediated pathogenic response in cucurbit hosts. Thus, the sequences corresponding to the two NLSs must have another role leading to pathogenicity enhancement.

  7. Turnip vein clearing virus movement protein nuclear activity: Do Tobamovirus movement proteins play a role in immune response suppression?

    PubMed

    Levy, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Plant viruses' cell-to-cell movement requires the function of virally encoded movement proteins (MPs). The Tobamovirus, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has served as the model virus to study the activities of single MPs. However, since TMV does not infect the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana I have used a related Tobamovirus, Turnip vein-clearing virus (TVCV). I recently showed that, despite belonging to the same genus, the behavior of the 2 viruses MPs differ significantly during infection. Most notably, MP(TVCV), but not MP(TMV), targets the nucleus and induces the formation of F actin-containing filaments that associate with chromatin. Mutational analyses showed that nuclear localization of MP(TVCV) was necessary for TVCV local and systemic infection in both Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis. In this addendum, I propose possible targets for the MP(TVCV) nuclear activity, and suggest viewing MPs as viral effector-like proteins, playing a role in the inhibition of plant defense.

  8. Molecular analysis of an enhancin gene in the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, D S; Slavicek, J M

    1997-01-01

    A Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) gene has been identified that encodes a homolog to the granulovirus (GV) enhancin proteins that are capable of enhancing the infection of other baculoviruses. Enhancin genes have been identified and sequenced for three species of GVs but have not been found in any other nuclear polyhedrosis virus to date. The LdMNPV enhancin gene is located between 67.6 and 70.1 kbp on the viral genome. Northern and primer extension analyses of viral RNAs indicate that the enhancin gene transcripts are expressed at late times postinfection from a consensus baculovirus late promoter. The LdMNPV enhancin exhibits 29% amino acid identity to the enhancin proteins of the Trichoplusia ni, Pseudaletia unipuncta, and Helicoverpa armigera GVs. All four proteins contain a conserved zinc-binding domain characteristic of metalloproteases. A recombinant virus (enhancin::cat) was constructed in which the LdMNPV enhancin gene was inactivated by insertion mutagenesis in order to ascertain the effect of the enhancin protein on viral potency. The bioassay results indicate that disruption of the enhancin gene in the LdMNPV results in a reduction in viral potency. PMID:9343163

  9. Murine leukemia virus uses TREX components for efficient nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Toshie; Tonne, Jason M; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2014-03-10

    Previously we reported that nuclear export of both unspliced and spliced murine leukemia virus (MLV) transcripts depends on the nuclear export factor (NXF1) pathway. Although the mRNA export complex TREX, which contains Aly/REF, UAP56, and the THO complex, is involved in the NXF1-mediated nuclear export of cellular mRNAs, its contribution to the export of MLV mRNA transcripts remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the involvement of TREX components in the export of MLV transcripts. Depletion of UAP56, but not Aly/REF, reduced the level of both unspliced and spliced viral transcripts in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, depletion of THO components, including THOC5 and THOC7, affected only unspliced viral transcripts in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the RNA immunoprecipitation assay showed that only the unspliced viral transcript interacted with THOC5. These results imply that MLV requires UAP56, THOC5 and THOC7, in addition to NXF1, for nuclear export of viral transcripts. Given that naturally intronless mRNAs, but not bulk mRNAs, require THOC5 for nuclear export, it is plausible that THOC5 plays a key role in the export of unspliced MLV transcripts.

  10. Antibodies specific for Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 cross-react with human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, J. William; deGannes, Samantha L.; Pate, Kimberly A.; Zhao, Xiurong

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and antibodies to the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) are consistently increased in MS patients. The hypothesis of this study is that anti-EBNA-1 antibodies cross-react with a self antigen in MS patients. We affinity purified anti-EBNA-1 antibodies from human plasma, used the anti-EBNA-1 to immunoprecipitate antigens from human brain, and identified bound antigens with mass spectrometry. Anti-EBNA-1 consistently bound heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (HNRNPL). We expressed both the long and short isoforms of this protein, and verified with Western blots and ELISA that the long isoform cross-reacts with EBNA-1. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that anti-EBNA-1 bound to an antigen in the nucleus of cultured rat central nervous system cells. ELISA demonstrated the presence of antibodies to HNRNPL in the plasma of both healthy controls and MS patients, but anti-HNRNPL was not increased in MS patients. We conclude that HNRNPL is an autoantigen which cross-reacts with EBNA-1. The relevance of this autoantigen to MS and other autoimmune diseases remains to be investigated. PMID:26637929

  11. Antibodies specific for Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 cross-react with human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, J William; deGannes, Samantha L; Pate, Kimberly A; Zhao, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and antibodies to the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) are consistently increased in MS patients. The hypothesis of this study is that anti-EBNA-1 antibodies cross-react with a self antigen in MS patients. We affinity purified anti-EBNA-1 antibodies from human plasma, used the anti-EBNA-1 to immunoprecipitate antigens from human brain, and identified bound antigens with mass spectrometry. Anti-EBNA-1 consistently bound heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (HNRNPL). We expressed both the long and short isoforms of this protein, and verified with Western blots and ELISA that the long isoform cross-reacts with EBNA-1. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that anti-EBNA-1 bound to an antigen in the nucleus of cultured rat central nervous system cells. ELISA demonstrated the presence of antibodies to HNRNPL in the plasma of both healthy controls and MS patients, but anti-HNRNPL was not increased in MS patients. We conclude that HNRNPL is an autoantigen which cross-reacts with EBNA-1. The relevance of this autoantigen to MS and other autoimmune diseases remains to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimized expression, solubilization and purification of nuclear inclusion protein b of cardamom mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jebasingh, T; Jacob, T; Shah, M; Das, D; Krishnaswamy, S; Usha, R

    2008-04-01

    All RNA viruses encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that is required for replication of the viral genome. Nuclear inclusion b (NIb) gene codes for the RdRp in Potyviridae viruses. In this study, expression, solubilization and purification of NIb protein of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) is reported. The objective of the present study was to express and purify the NIb protein of CdMV on a large scale for structural characterization, as the structure of the RdRp from a plant virus is yet to be determined. However, the expression of NIb protein with hexa-histidine tag in Escherichia coli led to insoluble aggregates. Out of all the approaches [making truncated versions to reduce the size of protein; replacing an amino acid residue likely to be involved in hydrophobic intermolecular interactions with a hydrophilic one; expressing the protein along with chaperones; expression in Origami cells for proper disulphide bond formation, in E. coli as a fusion with maltose-binding protein (MBP) and in Nicotiana tabacum] to obtain the RdRp in a soluble form, only expression in E. coli as a fusion with MBP and its expression in N. tabacum were successful. The NIb expressed in plant or as a fusion with MBP in E. coli can be scaled up for further work.

  13. Nuclear dynamics of influenza A virus ribonucleoproteins revealed by live-cell imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Loucaides, Eva M.; Kirchbach, Johann C. von; Foeglein, Agnes; Sharps, Jane; Fodor, Ervin; Digard, Paul

    2009-11-10

    The negative sense RNA genome of influenza A virus is transcribed and replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by the viral RNA polymerase. Only four viral polypeptides are required but multiple cellular components are potentially involved. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to characterise the dynamics of GFP-tagged viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) components in living cells. The nucleoprotein (NP) displayed very slow mobility that significantly increased on formation of transcriptionally active RNPs. Conversely, single or dimeric polymerase subunits showed fast nuclear dynamics that decreased upon formation of heterotrimers, suggesting increased interaction of the full polymerase complex with a relatively immobile cellular component(s). Treatment with inhibitors of cellular transcription indicated that in part, this reflected an interaction with cellular RNA polymerase II. Analysis of mutated influenza virus polymerase complexes further suggested that this was through an interaction between PB2 and RNA Pol II separate from PB2 cap-binding activity.

  14. Surface localization of the nuclear receptor CAR in influenza A virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Tadanobu; Moriyama, Yusuke; Ikari, Akira; Sugatani, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miwa, Masao

    2008-04-11

    Constitutive active/androstane receptor CAR is a member of the nuclear receptors which regulate transcription of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes. CAR is usually localized in the cytosol and nucleus. Here, we found that CAR was localized at the cell surface of influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that expression of a viral envelope glycoprotein, either hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA), but not viral nucleoprotein (NP), was responsible for this localization. This report is the first demonstration of CAR at the surface of tissue culture cells, and suggests that CAR may exert the IAV infection mechanism.

  15. Comparative Analysis of HIV-1 and Murine Leukemia Virus Three-Dimensional Nuclear Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Quercioli, Valentina; Di Primio, Cristina; Casini, Antonio; Mulder, Lubbertus C. F.; Vranckx, Lenard S.; Borrenberghs, Doortje; Gijsbers, Rik; Debyser, Zeger

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy allow three-dimensional analysis of HIV-1 preintegration complexes in the nuclei of infected cells. To extend this investigation to gammaretroviruses, we engineered a fluorescent Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) system consisting of MLV-integrase fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (MLV-IN-EGFP). A comparative analysis of lentiviral (HIV-1) and gammaretroviral (MLV) fluorescent complexes in the nuclei of infected cells revealed their different spatial distributions. This research tool has the potential to achieve new insight into the nuclear biology of these retroviruses. PMID:26962222

  16. Varicella-zoster virus induces the formation of dynamic nuclear capsid aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, Marielle; Thelen, Nicolas; Thiry, Marc; Riva, Laura; Ote, Isabelle; Condé, Claude; Vandevenne, Patricia; Di Valentin, Emmanuel; Bontems, Sébastien; Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine

    2014-04-15

    The first step of herpesviruses virion assembly occurs in the nucleus. However, the exact site where nucleocapsids are assembled, where the genome and the inner tegument are acquired, remains controversial. We created a recombinant VZV expressing ORF23 (homologous to HSV-1 VP26) fused to the eGFP and dually fluorescent viruses with a tegument protein additionally fused to a red tag (ORF9, ORF21 and ORF22 corresponding to HSV-1 UL49, UL37 and UL36). We identified nuclear dense structures containing the major capsid protein, the scaffold protein and maturing protease, as well as ORF21 and ORF22. Correlative microscopy demonstrated that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates and time-lapse video imaging showed that they appear prior to the accumulation of cytoplasmic capsids, presumably undergoing the secondary egress, and are highly dynamic. Our observations suggest that these structures might represent a nuclear area important for capsid assembly and/or maturation before the budding at the inner nuclear membrane. - Highlights: • We created a recombinant VZV expressing the small capsid protein fused to the eGFP. • We identified nuclear dense structures containing capsid and procapsid proteins. • Correlative microscopy showed that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates. • Procapsids and partial capsids are found within the aggregates of WT and eGFP-23 VZV. • FRAP and FLIP experiments demonstrated that they are dynamic structures.

  17. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Edward I.; Dombrovski, Andrew K.; Swarbrick, Crystall M.D.; Raidal, Shane R.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface.

  18. Verdinexor, a Novel Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export, Reduces Influenza A Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Perwitasari, Olivia; Johnson, Scott; Yan, Xiuzhen; Howerth, Elizabeth; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef; Baloglu, Erkan; McCauley, Dilara; Tamir, Sharon; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza is a global health concern, causing death, morbidity, and economic losses. Chemotherapeutics that target influenza virus are available; however, rapid emergence of drug-resistant strains is common. Therapeutic targeting of host proteins hijacked by influenza virus to facilitate replication is an antiviral strategy to reduce the development of drug resistance. Nuclear export of influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) from infected cells has been shown to be mediated by exportin 1 (XPO1) interaction with viral nuclear export protein tethered to vRNP. RNA interference screening has identified XPO1 as a host proinfluenza factor where XPO1 silencing results in reduced influenza virus replication. The Streptomyces metabolite XPO1 inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) has been shown to limit influenza virus replication in vitro; however, LMB is toxic in vivo, which makes it unsuitable for therapeutic use. In this study, we tested the anti-influenza virus activity of a new class of orally available small-molecule selective inhibitors of nuclear export, specifically, the XPO1 antagonist KPT-335 (verdinexor). Verdinexor was shown to potently and selectively inhibit vRNP export and effectively inhibited the replication of various influenza virus A and B strains in vitro, including pandemic H1N1 virus, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus, and the recently emerged H7N9 strain. In vivo, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of verdinexor protected mice against disease pathology following a challenge with influenza virus A/California/04/09 or A/Philippines/2/82-X79, as well as reduced lung viral loads and proinflammatory cytokine expression, while having minimal toxicity. These studies show that verdinexor acts as a novel anti-influenza virus therapeutic agent. IMPORTANCE Antiviral drugs represent important means of influenza virus control. However, substantial resistance to currently approved influenza therapeutic drugs has developed. New antiviral

  19. Insights into the nuclear export of murine leukemia virus intron-containing RNA.

    PubMed

    Pessel-Vivares, Lucie; Houzet, Laurent; Lainé, Sébastien; Mougel, Marylène

    2015-01-01

    The retroviral genome consists of an intron-containing transcript that has essential cytoplasmic functions in the infected cell. This viral transcript can escape splicing, circumvent the nuclear checkpoint mechanisms and be transported to the cytoplasm by hijacking the host machinery. Once in the cytoplasm, viral unspliced RNA acts as mRNA to be translated and as genomic RNA to be packaged into nascent viruses. The murine leukemia virus (MLV) is among the first retroviruses discovered and is classified as simple Retroviridae due to its minimal encoding capacity. The oncogenic and transduction abilities of MLV are extensively studied, whereas surprisingly the crucial step of its nuclear export has remained unsolved until 2014. Recent work has revealed the recruitment by MLV of the cellular NXF1/Tap-dependent pathway for export. Unconventionally, MLV uses of Tap to export both spliced and unspliced viral RNAs. Unlike other retroviruses, MLV does not harbor a unique RNA signal for export. Indeed, multiple sequences throughout the MLV genome appear to promote export of the unspliced MLV RNA. We review here the current understanding of the export mechanism and highlight the determinants that influence MLV export. As the molecular mechanism of MLV export is elucidated, we will gain insight into the contribution of the export pathway to the cytoplasmic fate of the viral RNA.

  20. Insights into the nuclear export of murine leukemia virus intron-containing RNA

    PubMed Central

    Pessel-Vivares, Lucie; Houzet, Laurent; Lainé, Sébastien; Mougel, Marylène

    2015-01-01

    The retroviral genome consists of an intron-containing transcript that has essential cytoplasmic functions in the infected cell. This viral transcript can escape splicing, circumvent the nuclear checkpoint mechanisms and be transported to the cytoplasm by hijacking the host machinery. Once in the cytoplasm, viral unspliced RNA acts as mRNA to be translated and as genomic RNA to be packaged into nascent viruses. The murine leukemia virus (MLV) is among the first retroviruses discovered and is classified as simple Retroviridae due to its minimal encoding capacity. The oncogenic and transduction abilities of MLV are extensively studied, whereas surprisingly the crucial step of its nuclear export has remained unsolved until 2014. Recent work has revealed the recruitment by MLV of the cellular NXF1/Tap-dependent pathway for export. Unconventionally, MLV uses of Tap to export both spliced and unspliced viral RNAs. Unlike other retroviruses, MLV does not harbor a unique RNA signal for export. Indeed, multiple sequences throughout the MLV genome appear to promote export of the unspliced MLV RNA. We review here the current understanding of the export mechanism and highlight the determinants that influence MLV export. As the molecular mechanism of MLV export is elucidated, we will gain insight into the contribution of the export pathway to the cytoplasmic fate of the viral RNA. PMID:26158194

  1. Asymmetric Arginine dimethylation of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 promotes DNA targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Henrik; Barth, Stephanie; Mamiani, Alfredo; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; West, Michelle J.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Graesser, Friedrich A.

    2010-02-20

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth-transforms B-lymphocytes. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for transformation and activates gene expression by association with DNA-bound transcription factors such as RBPJkappa (CSL/CBF1). We have previously shown that EBNA2 contains symmetrically dimethylated Arginine (sDMA) residues. Deletion of the RG-repeat results in a reduced ability of the virus to immortalise B-cells. We now show that the RG repeat also contains asymmetrically dimethylated Arginines (aDMA) but neither non-methylated (NMA) Arginines nor citrulline residues. We demonstrate that only aDMA-containing EBNA2 is found in a complex with DNA-bound RBPJkappa in vitro and preferentially associates with the EBNA2-responsive EBV C, LMP1 and LMP2A promoters in vivo. Inhibition of methylation in EBV-infected cells results in reduced expression of the EBNA2-regulated viral gene LMP1, providing additional evidence that methylation is a prerequisite for DNA-binding by EBNA2 via association with the transcription factor RBPJkappa.

  2. Semipermissive replication of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica in a gypsy moth cell line

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, J.T.; Dougherty, E.M.; Weiner, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Several gypsy moth cell lines have been previously described as nonpermissive for the multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica (AcMNPV). In this report, the authors demonstrate the semipermissive infection of a gypsy moth cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y, with AcMNPV. IPLB-LD-652Y cells infected with AcMNPV produced classic cytopathic effects but failed to yield infectious progeny virus. Results of experiments employing DNA-DNA dot hybridization suggested that AcMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated from 8 to 12 h postinfection (p.i.), continued at a maximum rate from 12 to 20 h p.i., and declined from 20 to 36 h p.i. The rate of AcMNPV DNA synthesis approximated that observed in the permissive TN-368 cell line. AcMNPV-infected IPLB-LD-652Y cells, pulse-labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine at various time intervals p.i. and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, revealed four virus-induced proteins, one novel to the semipermissive system and three early ..cap alpha.. proteins, synthesized from 1 to 20 h p.i. Thereafter, both host and viral protein synthesis was completely suppressed. These results suggest that AcMNPV adsorbed, penetrated, and initiated limited macromolecular synthesis in the semipermissive gypsy moth cell line. However, the infection cycle was restricted during the early phase of AcMNPV replication.

  3. Studies of Choristoneura fumiferana nuclear polyhedrosis virus gene expression in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, W; Liu, J J; Carstens, E B

    1996-03-15

    To investigate the mechanisms regulating baculovirus virulence and host range we have begun to study Choristoneura fumiferana nuclear polyhedrosis virus (CfMNPV) and its gene expression in permissive and nonpermissive cells. We have identified and mapped three genes on the CfMNPV genome. The polyhedrin gene is located from 0.0 to 2.0 m.u. and two other genes, dnapol and p143, both of which are essential for baculovirus DNA replication, are located from 35.3 to 40.9 m.u. and 55.5 to 63.4 m.u., respectively. To gain insight into the expression of CfMNPV genes in permissive C. fumiferana and nonpermissive Spodoptera frugiperda cells, we constructed three expression plasmids in which the promoter region of the dnapol, the p143, and polyhedrin genes were placed in front of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. All three CfMNPV promoters were active in nonpermissive cells in the presence of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) DNA, but no activity was detected in permissive cells either in the presence of CfMNPV DNA or AcMNPV DNA. This lack of promoter activity was not due to failure of viral or plasmid DNA to enter the cell nucleus. It was possible that the reporter plasmids were inefficient templates for transcriptional transactivation so we developed a CfMNPV transfer vector and generated a recombinant virus in which the polyhedrin promoter driving CAT gene cassette was integrated into the CfMNPV genome. In this case, the CfMNPV polyhedrin promoter was highly active in the permissive cells.

  4. Replication but not transcription of simian virus 40 DNA is dependent on nuclear domain 10.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Bell, P; Tegtmeyer, P; Maul, G G

    2000-10-01

    DNA viruses from several families including herpes simplex virus type 1, adenovirus type 5, and simian virus 40 (SV40), start their transcription and replication adjacent to a specific nuclear domain, ND10. We asked whether a specific viral DNA sequence determines the location of these synthetic activities at such restricted nuclear sites. Partial and overlapping SV40 sequences were introduced into a beta-galactosidase expression vector, and the beta-galactosidase transcripts were localized by in situ hybridization. Transcripts derived from control plasmids were found throughout the nucleus and at highly concentrated sites but not at ND10. SV40 genomic segments supported ND10-associated transcription only when the origin and the coding sequence for the large T antigen were present. When the large T-antigen coding sequence was eliminated but the T antigen was constitutively expressed in COS-7 cells, the viral origin was sufficient to localize transcription and replication to ND10. Deletion analysis showed that only the large T-antigen binding site II (the core origin) was required but the T antigen was needed for detectable transcription at ND10. Large T antigen expressed from plasmids without the viral core origin did not bind or localize to ND10. Blocking of DNA replication prevented the accumulation of transcripts at ND10, indicating that only sites with replicating templates accumulated transcripts. Transcription at ND10 did not enhance total protein synthesis of plasmid transcripts. These findings suggest that viral transcription at ND10 may only be a consequence of viral genomes directed to ND10 for replication. Although plasmid transcription can take place anywhere in the nucleus, T-antigen-directed replication is apparently restricted to ND10.

  5. Nuclear import of influenza B virus nucleoprotein: Involvement of an N-terminal nuclear localization signal and a cleavage-protection motif

    SciTech Connect

    Wanitchang, Asawin; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2013-08-15

    The nucleoprotein of influenza B virus (BNP) shares several characteristics with its influenza A virus counterpart (ANP), including localization in the host's nucleus. However, while the nuclear localization signal(s) (NLS) of ANP are well characterized, little is known about those of BNP. In this study, we showed that the fusion protein bearing the BNP N-terminus fused with GFP (N70–GFP) is exclusively nuclear, and identified a highly conserved KRXR motif spanning residues 44–47 as a putative NLS. In addition, we demonstrated that residues 3–15 of BNP, though not an NLS, are also crucial for nuclear import. Results from mutational analyses of N70–GFP and the full-length BNP suggest that this region may be required for protection of the N-terminus from proteolytic cleavage. Altogether, we propose that the N-terminal region of BNP contains the NLS and cleavage-protection motif, which together drive its nuclear localization. - Highlights: • The N-terminal region of BNP is required for nuclear accumulation. • The conserved motif at position 44–47 is a putative nuclear localization signal. • The first 15 amino acids of BNP may function as a cleavage-protection motif. • BNP may get access to the nucleus via a mechanism distinct from ANP.

  6. DNA hybridization assay for detection of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus in infected gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, S.T.; Burand, J.P.; Elkinton, J.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Radiolabeled Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA probes were used in a DNA hybridization assay to detect the presence of viral DNA in extracts from infected larvae. Total DNA was extracted from larvae, bound to nitrocellulose filters, and assayed for the presence of viral DNA by two methods: slot-blot vacuum filtration and whole-larval squashes. The hybridization results were closely correlated with mortality observed in reared larvae. Hybridization of squashes of larvae frozen 4 days after receiving the above virus treatments also produced accurate measures of the incidence of virus infection.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Scala, G; Quinto, I; Ruocco, M R; Mallardo, M; Ambrosino, C; Squitieri, B; Tassone, P; Venuta, S

    1993-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected subjects show a high incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. This suggests that EBV may function as a cofactor that affects HIV-1 activation and may play a major role in the progression of AIDS. To test this hypothesis, we generated two EBV-negative human B-cell lines that stably express the EBNA2 gene of EBV. These EBNA2-positive cell lines were transiently transfected with plasmids that carry either the wild type or deletion mutants of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. There was a consistently higher HIV-1 LTR activation in EBNA2-expressing cells than in control cells, which suggested that EBNA2 proteins could activate the HIV-1 promoter, possibly by inducing nuclear factors binding to HIV-1 cis-regulatory sequences. To test this possibility, we used CAT-based plasmids carrying deletions of the NF-kappa B (pNFA-CAT), Sp1 (pSpA-CAT), or TAR (pTAR-CAT) region of the HIV-1 LTR and retardation assays in which nuclear proteins from EBNA2-expressing cells were challenged with oligonucleotides encompassing the NF-kappa B or Sp1 region of the HIV-1 LTR. We found that both the NF-kappa B and the Sp1 sites of the HIV-1 LTR are necessary for EBNA2 transactivation and that increased expression resulted from the induction of NF-kappa B-like factors. Moreover, experiments with the TAR-deleted pTAR-CAT and with the tat-expressing pAR-TAT plasmids indicated that endogenous Tat-like proteins could participate in EBNA2-mediated activation of the HIV-1 LTR and that EBNA2 proteins can synergize with the viral tat transactivator. Transfection experiments with plasmids expressing the EBNA1, EBNA3, and EBNALP genes did not cause a significant HIV-1 LTR activation. Thus, it appears that among the latent EBV genes tested, EBNA2 was the only EBV gene active on the HIV-1 LTR. The transactivation function of EBNA2 was also observed in the HeLa epithelial cell line

  8. Extragenic Suppression of a Mutation in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL34 That Affects Lamina Disruption and Nuclear Egress

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Amber; Poyzer, Chelsea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear egress of herpesviruses is accompanied by changes in the architecture of the nuclear membrane and nuclear lamina that are thought to facilitate capsid access to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and curvature of patches of the INM around the capsid during budding. Here we report the properties of a point mutant of pUL34 (Q163A) that fails to induce gross changes in nuclear architecture or redistribution of lamin A/C. The UL34(Q163A) mutant shows a roughly 100-fold defect in single-step growth, and it forms small plaques. This mutant has a defect in nuclear egress, and furthermore, it fails to disrupt nuclear shape or cause observable displacement of lamin A/C despite retaining the ability to recruit the pUS3 and PKC protein kinases and to mediate phosphorylation of emerin. Extragenic suppressors of the UL34(Q163A) phenotype were isolated, and all of them carry a single mutation of arginine 229 to leucine in UL31. Surprisingly, although this UL31 mutation largely restores virus replication, it does not correct the lamina disruption defect, suggesting that, in Vero cells, changes in nuclear shape and gross displacements of lamin A/C may facilitate but are unnecessary for nuclear egress. IMPORTANCE Herpesvirus nuclear egress is an essential and conserved process that requires close association of the viral capsid with the inner nuclear membrane and budding of the capsid into that membrane. Access to the nuclear membrane and tight curvature of that membrane are thought to require disruption of the nuclear lamina that underlies the inner nuclear membrane, and consistent with this idea, herpesvirus infection induces biochemical and architectural changes at the nuclear membrane. The significance of the nuclear membrane architectural changes is poorly characterized. The results presented here address that deficiency in our understanding and show that a combination of mutations in two of the viral nuclear egress factors results in a failure to accomplish at

  9. Nipah virus V protein evades alpha and gamma interferons by preventing STAT1 and STAT2 activation and nuclear accumulation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jason J; Parisien, Jean-Patrick; Horvath, Curt M

    2002-11-01

    Characterization of recent outbreaks of fatal encephalitis in southeast Asia identified the causative agent to be a previously unrecognized enveloped negative-strand RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, Nipah virus. One feature linking Nipah virus to this family is a conserved cysteine-rich domain that is the hallmark of paramyxovirus V proteins. The V proteins of other paramyxovirus species have been linked with evasion of host cell interferon (IFN) signal transduction and subsequent antiviral responses by inducing proteasomal degradation of the IFN-responsive transcription factors, STAT1 or STAT2. Here we demonstrate that Nipah virus V protein escapes IFN by a distinct mechanism involving direct inhibition of STAT protein function. Nipah virus V protein differs from other paramyxovirus V proteins in its subcellular distribution but not in its ability to inhibit cellular IFN responses. Nipah virus V protein does not induce STAT degradation but instead inhibits IFN responses by forming high-molecular-weight complexes with both STAT1 and STAT2. We demonstrate that Nipah virus V protein accumulates in the cytoplasm by a Crm1-dependent mechanism, alters the STAT protein subcellular distribution in the steady state, and prevents IFN-stimulated STAT redistribution. Consistent with the formation of complexes, STAT protein tyrosine phosphorylation is inhibited in cells expressing the Nipah virus V protein. As a result, Nipah virus V protein efficiently prevents STAT1 and STAT2 nuclear translocation in response to IFN, inhibiting cellular responses to both IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma.

  10. Super-resolution imaging of nuclear import of adeno-associated virus in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Kelich, Joseph M; Ma, Jiong; Dong, Biao; Wang, Qizhao; Chin, Mario; Magura, Connor M; Xiao, Weidong; Yang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been developed as a promising human gene therapy vector. Particularly, recombinant AAV vector (rAAV) achieves its transduction of host cells by crossing at least three physiological barriers including plasma membrane, endosomal membrane, and nuclear envelope (NE). So far, the AAV transduction mechanism has not been explored thoroughly at the single viral particle level. In this study, we employed high-speed super-resolution single-point edge-excitation sub-diffraction (SPEED) microscopy to map the events of single rAAV2 particles infecting live human cells with an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution of 9–12 nm and 2–20 ms. Data reveal that rAAV2 particles are imported through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) rather than nuclear membrane budding into the nucleus. Moreover, approximately 17% of the rAAV2 molecules starting from the cytoplasm successfully transverse the NPCs to reach the nucleoplasm, revealing that the NPCs act as a strict selective step for AAV delivery. This study lastly suggests a new pathway to improve AAV vectors for human gene therapy. PMID:26665132

  11. The Pseudorabies Virus DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit UL42 Directs Nuclear Transport of the Holoenzyme

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Du, Wen-Juan; Huang, Li-Ping; Wei, Yan-Wu; Wu, Hong-Li; Feng, Li; Liu, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) DNA replication occurs in the nuclei of infected cells and requires the viral DNA polymerase. The PRV DNA polymerase comprises a catalytic subunit, UL30, and an accessory subunit, UL42, that confers processivity to the enzyme. Its nuclear localization is a prerequisite for its enzymatic function in the initiation of viral DNA replication. However, the mechanisms by which the PRV DNA polymerase holoenzyme enters the nucleus have not been determined. In this study, we characterized the nuclear import pathways of the PRV DNA polymerase catalytic and accessory subunits. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that UL42 localizes independently in the nucleus, whereas UL30 alone predominantly localizes in the cytoplasm. Intriguingly, the localization of UL30 was completely shifted to the nucleus when it was coexpressed with UL42, demonstrating that nuclear transport of UL30 occurs in an UL42-dependent manner. Deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the two proteins showed that UL42 contains a functional and transferable bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at amino acids 354–370 and that K354, R355, and K367 are important for the NLS function, whereas UL30 has no NLS. Coimmunoprecipitation assays verified that UL42 interacts with importins α3 and α4 through its NLS. In vitro nuclear import assays demonstrated that nuclear accumulation of UL42 is a temperature- and energy-dependent process and requires both importins α and β, confirming that UL42 utilizes the importin α/β-mediated pathway for nuclear entry. In an UL42 NLS-null mutant, the UL42/UL30 heterodimer was completely confined to the cytoplasm when UL42 was coexpressed with UL30, indicating that UL30 utilizes the NLS function of UL42 for its translocation into the nucleus. Collectively, these findings suggest that UL42 contains an importin α/β-mediated bipartite NLS that transports the viral DNA polymerase holoenzyme into the nucleus in an in vitro expression system

  12. Constitutive expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs and nuclear antigen during latency and after induction of Epstein-Barr virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, R; Fischer, D K; Heston, L; Miller, G

    1985-01-01

    We examined the fate of two major products of latency as Epstein-Barr virus was induced to replicate. We studied a superinducible clone of HR-1 cells in the presence and absence of induction by phorbol ester, and we analyzed the X50-7 line with and without superinfection by an HR-1 viral variant which disrupts latency. The two methods of induction yielded qualitatively similar results. After induction, there was abundant synthesis of viral transcripts, amplification of viral DNA, and the appearance of many new viral polypeptides. Nonetheless, there were no changes in the cytoplasmic abundance of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs and no alteration in the level of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen mRNA or polypeptide. Thus, under conditions in which numerous other Epstein-Barr virus gene products are activated, the two major latent gene products are expressed at a constitutive level. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs and nuclear antigen must therefore be regulated in a manner completely different from expression of replicative functions. Images PMID:2981344

  13. Temporal analysis and spatial mapping of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus transcripts and in-vitro translation products

    Treesearch

    James M. Slavicek; Nancy Hayes-Plazolles

    1991-01-01

    The Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus LdNPV) is being used as a biopesticide against the gypsy moth. We are attempting to enhance the potency of the LdNPV through recombinant DNA technology. As a prerequisite to genetic manipulation, we have characterized LdNPV gene expression in cell culture through the generation of transcription and...

  14. Interaction between a Nosema sp. (Microspora: Nosematidae) and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Infecting the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)1

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Joseph V. Maddox; Michael L. McManus

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous and sequential per os inoculations of gypsy moth larvae with the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) and a Nosema sp. from Portugal demonstrated that the interaction of two pathogens during coinfection was variable, ranging from synergistic to antagonistic. Susceptibility of gypsy...

  15. Temporal analysis and spatial mapping of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus transcripts and in vitro translation polypeptides

    Treesearch

    James M. Slavicek

    1991-01-01

    Genomic expression of the Lymantriu dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) was studied. Viral specific transcripts expressed in cell culture at various times from 2 through 72 h postinfection were identified and their genomic origins mapped through Northern analysis. Sixty-five distinct transcripts were identified in this...

  16. The Primary Enveloped Virion of Herpes Simplex Virus 1: Its Role in Nuclear Egress.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, William W; Fontana, Juan; Winkler, Dennis C; Cheng, Naiqian; Heymann, J Bernard; Steven, Alasdair C

    2017-06-13

    Many viruses migrate between different cellular compartments for successive stages of assembly. The HSV-1 capsid assembles in the nucleus and then transfers into the cytoplasm. First, the capsid buds through the inner nuclear membrane, becoming coated with nuclear egress complex (NEC) protein. This yields a primary enveloped virion (PEV) whose envelope fuses with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing the capsid into the cytoplasm. We investigated the associated molecular mechanisms by isolating PEVs from US3-null-infected cells and imaging them by cryo-electron microscopy and tomography. (pUS3 is a viral protein kinase in whose absence PEVs accumulate in the perinuclear space.) Unlike mature extracellular virions, PEVs have very few glycoprotein spikes. PEVs are ~20% smaller than mature virions, and the little space available between the capsid and the NEC layer suggests that most tegument proteins are acquired later in the egress pathway. Previous studies have proposed that NEC is organized as hexamers in honeycomb arrays in PEVs, but we find arrays of heptameric rings in extracts from US3-null-infected cells. In a PEV, NEC contacts the capsid predominantly via the pUL17/pUL25 complexes which are located close to the capsid vertices. Finally, the NEC layer dissociates from the capsid as it leaves the nucleus, possibly in response to pUS3-mediated phosphorylation. Overall, nuclear egress emerges as a process driven by a program of multiple weak interactions.IMPORTANCE On its maturation pathway, the newly formed HSV-1 nucleocapsid must traverse the nuclear envelope, while respecting the integrity of that barrier. Nucleocapsids (125 nm in diameter) are too large to pass through the nuclear pore complexes that conduct most nucleocytoplasmic traffic. It is now widely accepted that the process involves envelopment/de-envelopment of a key intermediate-the primary enveloped virion. In wild-type infections, PEVs are short-lived, which has impeded study. Using a mutant

  17. Characterization of 3'----5' exonuclease associated with DNA polymerase of silkworm nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailov, V S; Marlyev, K A; Ataeva, J O; Kullyev, P K; Atrazhev, A M

    1986-01-01

    3'----5' Exonuclease specific for single-stranded DNA copurified with DNA polymerase of nuclear polyhedrosis virus of silkworm Bombyx mori (BmNPV Pol). BmNPV Pol has no detectable 5'----3' exonuclease activity on single-stranded or duplex DNA. Analysis of the products of 3'----5' exonucleolytic reaction showed that deoxynucleoside monophosphates were released during the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA. The exonuclease activity cosedimented with the polymerase activity during ultracentrifugation of BmNPV Pol in glycerol gradient. The polymerase and the exonuclease activities of BmNPV Pol were inactivated by heat with nearly identical kinetics. The mode of the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA by BmNPV Pol-associated exonuclease was strictly distributive. The enzyme dissociated from single-stranded DNA after the release of a single dNMP and then reassociated with a next polynucleotide being degradated. Images PMID:3012482

  18. DNA restriction polymorphism in wild isolates of Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, D I; Fuxa, J R; Braymer, H D; Pashley, D P

    1991-07-01

    Restriction endonuclease analysis was used to examine variation in DNA of 22 wild isolates of Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SfNPV). Eleven of the 15 isolated from Louisiana were distinguishable based on restriction fragment profiles from the enzymes BamHI, HindIII, and EcoRI. There was significant genetic variation in SfNPV isolates within single agricultural fields. Nucleotide sequence divergence values, based on restriction fragment profiles, indicated that genetic variation among isolates foreign to Louisiana (Ohio, Ecuador, Mexico, Georgia, Colombia, and Venezuela) was greater than that among the Louisiana isolates. However, certain foreign isolates were similar to or identical with Louisiana isolates. Genetic variation of the viral DNA was not influenced by the insect's host plan species.

  19. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 Hijacks the Host Kinase CK2 To Disrupt PML Nuclear Bodies▿

    PubMed Central

    Sivachandran, Nirojini; Cao, Jennifer Yinuo; Frappier, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is an important causative factor in the development of several cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The one EBV protein expressed in the nucleus of NPC cells, EBNA1, has been shown to disrupt promyelocitic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) by inducing the degradation of PML proteins, leading to impaired DNA repair and increased cell survival. Although EBNA1-mediated PML disruption is likely to be an important factor in the development of NPC, little is known about its mechanism. We now show that an interaction between EBNA1 and the host CK2 kinase is crucial for EBNA1 to disrupt PML bodies and degrade PML proteins. EBNA1 increases the association of CK2 with PML proteins, thereby increasing the phosphorylation of PML proteins by CK2, a modification that is known to trigger the polyubiquitylation and degradation of PML. The interaction between EBNA1 and CK2 is direct and occurs through the β regulatory subunit of CK2 and EBNA1 amino acids 387 to 394. The binding of EBNA1 to the host ubiquitin specific protease USP7 has also been shown to be important for EBNA1-mediated PML disruption. We show that EBNA1 also increases the occupancy of USP7 at PML NBs and that CK2 and USP7 bind independently and simultaneously to EBNA1 to form a ternary complex. The combined results indicate that EBNA1 usurps two independent cellular pathways to trigger the loss of PML NBs. PMID:20719947

  20. The hypersensitive response to tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus nuclear shuttle protein is inhibited by transcriptional activator protein.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mazhar; Mansoor, Shahid; Iram, Shazia; Zafar, Yusuf; Briddon, Rob W

    2007-12-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is a common feature of plant disease resistance reactions and a type of programmed cell death (PCD). Many pathogens are able to modulate pathways involved in cell death. In contrast to animal viruses, inhibitors of PCD activity have not been identified for plant-infecting viruses. Previously, we have reported that the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) induces an HR in Nicotiana tabacum and Lycopersicon esculentum plants when expressed under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. However, HR is not evident in plants infected with ToLCNDV, suggesting that the virus encodes a factor (or factors) that counters this response. Analysis of all ToLCNDV-encoded genes pinpointed the transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) as the factor mediating the anti-HR effect. Deletion mutagenesis showed the central region of TrAP, containing a zinc finger domain and nuclear localization signal, to be important in inhibiting the HR. These results demonstrate that TrAP counters HR-induced cell death, the first such activity identified for a plant-infecting virus.

  1. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A.; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic. PMID:26988202

  2. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import.

    PubMed

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-03-18

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic.

  3. Fast track, dynein-dependent nuclear targeting of human immunodeficiency virus Vpr protein; impaired trafficking in a clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Caly, Leon; Kassouf, Vicki T; Moseley, Gregory W; Diefenbach, Russell J; Cunningham, Anthony L; Jans, David A

    2016-02-12

    Nuclear import of the accessory protein Vpr is central to infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We previously identified the Vpr F72L mutation in a HIV-infected, long-term non-progressor, showing that it resulted in reduced Vpr nuclear accumulation and altered cytoplasmic localisation. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the effects of nuclear accumulation of the F72L mutation are due to impairment of microtubule-dependent-enhancement of Vpr nuclear import. We use high resolution imaging approaches including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and other approaches to document interaction between Vpr and the dynein light chain protein, DYNLT1, and impaired interaction of the F72L mutant with DYNLT1. The results implicate MTs/DYNLT1 as drivers of Vpr nuclear import and HIV infection, with important therapeutic implications.

  4. Hepatitis B virus X promotes hepatocellular carcinoma development via nuclear protein 1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Bak, Yesol; Shin, Hye-jun; Bak, In seon; Yoon, Do-young; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2015-10-30

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for HCC. Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein relates to trigger oncogenesis. HBx has oncogenic properties with a hyperproliferative response to HCC. Nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1) is a stress-response protein, frequently upregulated in several cancers. Recent data revealed that NUPR1 is involved in tumor progression, but its function in HCC is not revealed yet. Here we report HBx can induce NUPR1 in patients, mice, and HCC cell lines. In an HBx transgenic mouse model, we found that HBx overexpression upregulates NUPR1 expression consistently with tumor progression. Further, in cultured HBV positive cells, HBx knockdown induces downregulation of NUPR1. Smad4 is a representative transcription factor, regulated by HBx, and we showed that HBx upregulates NUPR1 by Smad4 dependent way. We found that NUPR1 can inhibit cell death and induce vasculogenic mimicry in HCC cell lines. Moreover, NUPR1 silencing in HepG2-HBx showed reduced cell motility. These results suggest that HBx can modulate NUPR1 expression through the Smad4 pathway and NUPR1 has a role in hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

  5. Sequence Variation Analysis of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 Gene in the Virus Associated Lymphomas of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingling; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Song; Liu, Xia; Sun, Zhifu; Luo, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein expressed in all EBV-positive tumors as it is essential for the maintenance, replication and transcription of the virus genome. According to the polymorphism of residue 487 in EBNA1 gene, EBV isolates can be classified into five subtypes: P-ala, P-thr, V-val, V-leu and V-pro. Whether these EBNA1 subtypes contribute to different tissue tropism of EBV and are consequently associated with certain malignancies remain to be determined. To elucidate the relationship, one hundred and ten EBV-positive lymphoma tissues of different types from Northern China, a non-NPC endemic area, were tested for the five subtypes by nested-PCR and DNA sequencing. In addition, EBV type 1 and type 2 classification was typed by using standard PCR assays across type-specific regions of the EBNA3C genes. Four EBNA1 subtypes were identified: V-val (68.2%, 75/110), P-thrV (15.5%, 17/110), V-leuV (3.6%, 4/110) and P-ala (10.9%, 12/110). The distribution of the EBNA1 subtypes in the four lymphoma groups was not significantly different (p = 0.075), neither was that of the EBV type 1/type 2 (p = 0.089). Compared with the previous data of gastric carcinoma (GC), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and throat washing (TW) from healthy donors, the distribution of EBNA1 subtypes in lymphoma differed significantly (p = 0.016), with a little higher frequency of P-ala subtype. The EBV type distribution between lymphoma and the other three groups was significantly different (p = 0.000, p = 0.000, p = 0.001, respectively). The proportion of type 1 and type 2 mixed infections was higher in lymphoma than that in GC, NPC and TW. In lymphomas, the distribution of EBNA1 subtypes in the three EBV types was not significantly different (p = 0.546). These data suggested that the variation patterns of EBNA1 gene may be geographic-associated rather than tumor-specific and the role of EBNA1 gene variations in tumorigenesis needs more extensive and

  6. Sequence Variation Analysis of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 Gene in the Virus Associated Lymphomas of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lingling; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Song; Liu, Xia; Sun, Zhifu; Luo, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein expressed in all EBV-positive tumors as it is essential for the maintenance, replication and transcription of the virus genome. According to the polymorphism of residue 487 in EBNA1 gene, EBV isolates can be classified into five subtypes: P-ala, P-thr, V-val, V-leu and V-pro. Whether these EBNA1 subtypes contribute to different tissue tropism of EBV and are consequently associated with certain malignancies remain to be determined. To elucidate the relationship, one hundred and ten EBV-positive lymphoma tissues of different types from Northern China, a non-NPC endemic area, were tested for the five subtypes by nested-PCR and DNA sequencing. In addition, EBV type 1 and type 2 classification was typed by using standard PCR assays across type-specific regions of the EBNA3C genes. Four EBNA1 subtypes were identified: V-val (68.2%, 75/110), P-thrV (15.5%, 17/110), V-leuV (3.6%, 4/110) and P-ala (10.9%, 12/110). The distribution of the EBNA1 subtypes in the four lymphoma groups was not significantly different (p = 0.075), neither was that of the EBV type 1/type 2 (p = 0.089). Compared with the previous data of gastric carcinoma (GC), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and throat washing (TW) from healthy donors, the distribution of EBNA1 subtypes in lymphoma differed significantly (p = 0.016), with a little higher frequency of P-ala subtype. The EBV type distribution between lymphoma and the other three groups was significantly different (p = 0.000, p = 0.000, p = 0.001, respectively). The proportion of type 1 and type 2 mixed infections was higher in lymphoma than that in GC, NPC and TW. In lymphomas, the distribution of EBNA1 subtypes in the three EBV types was not significantly different (p = 0.546). These data suggested that the variation patterns of EBNA1 gene may be geographic-associated rather than tumor-specific and the role of EBNA1 gene variations in tumorigenesis needs more extensive and

  7. Nuclear Translocation of Crk Adaptor Proteins by the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ylösmäki, Leena; Fagerlund, Riku; Kuisma, Inka; Julkunen, Ilkka; Saksela, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    The non-structural protein-1 (NS1) of many influenza A strains, especially those of avian origin, contains an SH3 ligand motif, which binds tightly to the cellular adaptor proteins Crk (Chicken tumor virus number 10 (CT10) regulator of kinase) and Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL). This interaction has been shown to potentiate NS1-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but additional effects on the host cell physiology may exist. Here we show that NS1 can induce an efficient translocation of Crk proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, which results in an altered pattern of nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation. This was not observed using NS1 proteins deficient in SH3 binding or engineered to be exclusively cytoplasmic, indicating a physical role for NS1 as a carrier in the nuclear translocation of Crk. These data further emphasize the role of Crk proteins as host cell interaction partners of NS1, and highlight the potential for host cell manipulation gained by a viral protein simply via acquiring a short SH3 binding motif. PMID:27092521

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus M2-1 protein induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, Kerstin . E-mail: reimers.kerstin@mh-hannover.de; Buchholz, Katja; Werchau, Hermann

    2005-01-20

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces the production of a number of cytokines and chemokines by activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). The activation of NF-{kappa}B has been shown to depend on viral replication in the infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of RSV M2-1 protein, a transcriptional processivity and anti-termination factor, is sufficient to activate NF-{kappa}B in A549 cells. Electromobility shift assays show increased NF-{kappa}B complexes in the nuclei of M2-1-expressing cells. M2-1 protein is found in nuclei of M2-1-expressing cells and in RSV-infected cells. Co-immunoprecipitations of nuclear extracts of M2-1-expressing cells and of RSV-infected cells revealed an association of M2-1 with Rel A protein. Furthermore, the activation of NF-{kappa}B depends on the C-terminus of the RSV M2-1 protein, as shown by NF-{kappa}B-induced gene expression of a reporter gene construct.

  9. Effect of aluminum chloride and zinc sulfate on Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus (ACNPV) replication in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S A; Smith, G C; Vaughn, J L; Dougherty, E M; Tompkins, G J

    1982-11-01

    When IPL-SF-21AE III continuous insect cell line was grown and maintained in IPL-41 insect cell culture medium supplemented with 16 microM of AlCl3 or 0.24 microM of ZnSO4 . 7H2O, or both metallic salts, and then infected with Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus, virus replication was increased significantly. The yield of polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) was enhanced up to 121%. Synthesis of cell-free nonoccluded virus was increased to 365% when infectivity was assayed by the plaque method. Newly applied electron microscopic quantitation and stereological techniques also revealed a significant increase in virus particles (VP) and in amount and size of PIB as well as number of VP per PIB.

  10. N-terminal sequences from Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus envelope proteins ODV-E66 and ODV-E25 are sufficient to direct reporter proteins to the nuclear envelope, intranuclear microvesicles and the envelope of occlusion derived virus.

    PubMed

    Hong, T; Summers, M D; Braunagel, S C

    1997-04-15

    Baculovirus occlusion-derived virus (ODV) derives its envelope from an intranuclear membrane source. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) envelope proteins, ODV-E66 and ODV-E25 (23 and 24 amino acids, respectively) are highly hydrophobic. Recombinant viruses that express the two N-terminal amino acid sequences fused to green fluorescent protein (23GFP or 24GFP) provided visual markers to follow protein transport and localization within the nucleus during infection. Autoflourescence was first detected along the cytoplasmic periphery of the nucleus and subsequently localized as foci to discrete locations within the nucleus. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that these foci predominantly contained intranuclear microvesicles and the reporter fusion proteins were also detected in cytoplasmic membranes near the nucleus, and the outer and inner nuclear membrane. Therefore, these defined hydrophobic domains are sufficient to direct native and fusion proteins to induced membrane microvesicles within a baculovirus-infected cell nucleus and the viral envelope. In addition, these data suggest that movement of these proteins into the nuclear envelope may initiate through cytoplasmic membranes, such as endoplasmic reticulum, and that transport into the nucleus may be mediated through the outer and inner nuclear membrane.

  11. CHD3 facilitates vRNP nuclear export by interacting with NES1 of influenza A virus NS2.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhang, Anding; Zhou, Hongbo; Liu, Ziduo; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-03-01

    NS2 from influenza A virus mediates Crm1-dependent vRNP nuclear export through interaction with Crm1. However, even though the nuclear export signal 1 (NES1) of NS2 does not play a requisite role in NS2-Crm1 interaction, there is no doubt that NES1 is crucial for vRNP nuclear export. While the mechanism of the NES1 is still unclear, it is speculated that certain host partners might mediate the NES1 function through their interaction with NES1. In the present study, chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 3 (CHD3) was identified as a novel host nuclear protein for locating NS2 and Crm1 on dense chromatin for NS2 and Crm1-dependent vRNP nuclear export. CHD3 was confirmed to interact with NES1 in NS2, and a disruption to this interaction by mutation in NES1 significantly delayed viral vRNPs export and viral propagation. Further, the knockdown of CHD3 would affect the propagation of the wild-type virus but not the mutant with the weakened NS2-CHD3 interaction. Therefore, this study demonstrates that NES1 is required for maximal binding of NS2 to CHD3, and that the NS2-CHD3 interaction on the dense chromatin contributed to the NS2-mediated vRNP nuclear export.

  12. Coat proteins of Rice tungro bacilliform virus and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus contain multiple nuclear-localization signals and interact with importin alpha.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Peraza, O; Kirk, D; Seltzer, V; Veluthambi, K; Schmit, A C; Hohn, T; Herzog, E

    2005-06-01

    Transport of the viral genome into the nucleus is an obligatory step in the replication cycle of plant pararetro- and geminiviruses. In both these virus types, the multifunctional coat protein (CP) is thought to be involved in this process. Here, a green fluorescent protein tagging approach was used to demonstrate nuclear import of the CPs of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus--Vigna (MYMV) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts. In both cases, at least two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were identified and characterized. The NLSs of RTBV CP are located within both N- and C-terminal regions (residues 479KRPK/497KRK and 744KRK/758RRK), and those of MYMV CP within the N-terminal part (residues 3KR and 41KRRR). The MYMV and RTBV CP NLSs resemble classic mono- and bipartite NLSs, respectively. However, the N-terminal MYMV CP NLS and both RTBV CP NLSs show peculiarities in the number and position of basic residues. In vitro pull-down assays revealed interaction of RTBV and MYMV CPs with the nuclear import factor importin alpha, suggesting that both CPs are imported into the nucleus via an importin alpha-dependent pathway. The possibility that this pathway could serve for docking of virions to the nucleus is discussed.

  13. Basic Amino Acid Mutations in the Nuclear Localization Signal of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus p23 Inhibit Virus Long Distance Movement

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s) of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K), arginine (R) and histidine (H) that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement. PMID:24019944

  14. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s) of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K), arginine (R) and histidine (H) that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  15. The Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus Rev Protein: Identification of a Novel Nuclear Import Pathway and Nuclear Export Signal among Retroviral Rev/Rev-Like Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gomez Corredor, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The Rev protein is essential for the replication of lentiviruses. Rev is a shuttling protein that transports unspliced and partially spliced lentiviral RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm via the nucleopore. To transport these RNAs, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev uses the karyopherin β family importin β and CRM1 proteins that interact with the Rev nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear exportation signal (NES), respectively. Recently, we reported the presence of new types of bipartite NLS and nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Rev protein. Here we report the characterization of the nuclear import and export pathways of BIV Rev. By using an in vitro nuclear import assay, we showed that BIV Rev is transported into the nucleus by a cytosolic and energy-dependent importin α/β classical pathway. Results from glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays that showed the binding of BIV Rev with importins α3 and α5 were in agreement with those from the nuclear import assay. We also identified a leptomycin B-sensitive NES in BIV Rev, which indicates that the protein is exported via CRM1 like HIV-1 Rev. Mutagenesis experiments showed that the BIV Rev NES maps between amino acids 109 to 121 of the protein. Remarkably, the BIV Rev NES was found to be of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) type instead of the HIV-1 Rev type. In summary, our data showed that the nuclear import mechanism of BIV Rev is novel among Rev proteins characterized so far in lentiviruses. PMID:22379104

  16. Infectious salmon anaemia virus nuclear export protein is encoded by a spliced gene product of genomic segment 7.

    PubMed

    Ramly, Rimatulhana Binti; Olsen, Christel M; Braaen, Stine; Rimstad, Espen

    2013-10-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus causing anaemia and circulatory disease with high mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Orthomyxoviruses are unusual as RNA viruses as they replicate in the nucleus and some viral transcripts undergo splicing. The nuclear replication necessitates a tightly controlled nuclear import and export of viral proteins. From ISAV genomic segment 7 two known mRNAs are transcribed; one collinear with the genomic segment, coding for the non-structural protein, and one spliced transcript, S7ORF2, coding for a protein with unknown function. Here we report initial functional analysis of the S7ORF2 protein. The results indicate that S7ORF2 protein gradually accumulates in the host cell during virus replication cycle, locates predominantly in the cytoplasm and is a part of purified virus particles. Trapping of S7ORF2 in the nucleus was obtained by treatment with leptomycin B, an inhibitor of CRM1-mediated nuclear export, indicating that S7ORF2 use CRM1 for the nuclear exit. Immunofluorescent staining of cells over-expressing both S7ORF2 and matrix protein (M) showed co-localization in the nucleus. However, S7ORF2 protein was found to interact with both the viral nucleoprotein (NP) and M proteins in ISAV infected cells as well as in purified viral particles. These results indicate that the S7ORF2 could be called the ISAV nuclear export protein, ISAV/NEP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [The effect of fodder on the susceptibility of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) to nuclear polyhedrosis virus].

    PubMed

    Bakhvalov, S A; Bakhvalova, V N

    2009-01-01

    Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) growing on different feeding substrates was shown to affect their susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). The insects feeding on birch leaves had the lowest sensitivity to NPV than those on willow leaves, but the insects growing on pine needles showed the highest susceptibility. The sensitivity of the gypsy moths on willow leaves was higher than that of the gypsy moths on birch leaves and lower than that of those on pine needles. At the same time, it did not differ from that of the caterpillars on artificial feeding. The virus polyhedrons formed in the caterpillars on birch or willow leaves were more than those on another fodder.

  18. Single Hepatitis-B Virus Core Capsid Binding to Individual Nuclear Pore Complexes in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lill, Yoriko; Lill, Markus A.; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Schwarz-Herion, Kyrill; Paulillo, Sara; Aebi, Ueli; Hecht, Bert

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of hepatitis B virus capsids lacking a nuclear localization signal with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in permeabilized HeLa cells. Confocal and wide-field optical images of the nuclear envelope show well-spaced individual NPCs. Specific interactions of capsids with single NPCs are characterized by extended residence times of capsids in the focal volume which are characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. In addition, single-capsid-tracking experiments using fast wide-field fluorescence microscopy at 50 frames/s allow us to directly observe specific binding via a dual-color colocalization of capsids and NPCs. We find that binding occurs with high probability on the nuclear-pore ring moiety, at 44 ± 9 nm radial distance from the central axis. PMID:16877503

  19. Transfection of influenza A virus nuclear export protein induces the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Lara-Sampablo, Alejandra; Flores-Alonso, Juan Carlos; De Jesús-Ortega, Nereyda; Santos-López, Gerardo; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Herrera-Camacho, Irma; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2014-06-24

    Influenza A virus genomic segments eight codes for non-structural 1 (NS1) protein that is involved in evasion of innate antiviral response, and nuclear export protein (NEP) that participates in the export of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, transcription and replication. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is highly expressed during influenza virus infections and is considered an anti-infective cytokine. NS1 and NEP proteins were overexpressed and their role on TNF-α expression was evaluated. Both TNF-α mRNA and protein increased in cells transfected with NEP but not with NS1. We further investigate if NS1 or NEP regulates the activity of TNF-α promoter. In the presence of NEP the activity of TNF-α promoter increased significantly compared with the control (83.5±2.9 vs. 30.9±2.8, respectively; p=0.001). This effect decreased 15-fold when the TNF-α promoter distal region was deleted, suggesting the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and NF-kB response elements. This was corroborated by testing the effect produced on TNF-α promoter by the treatment with Raf/MEK/ERK (U0126), NF-kB (Bay-11-7082) and PI3K (Ly294-002) cell signaling inhibitors. Treatment with U0126 and Bay-117082 reduced the activity of TNF-α promoter mediated by NEP (41.5±3.2, 70% inhibition; and 80.6±7.4, 35% inhibition, respectively) compared to mock-treated control. The results suggest a new role for NEP protein that participates in the transcriptional regulation of human TNF-α expression.

  20. Hepatitis B virus X promotes hepatocellular carcinoma development via nuclear protein 1 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Yesol; Shin, Hye-jun; Bak, In seon; Yoon, Do-young

    2015-10-30

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for HCC. Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein relates to trigger oncogenesis. HBx has oncogenic properties with a hyperproliferative response to HCC. Nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1) is a stress-response protein, frequently upregulated in several cancers. Recent data revealed that NUPR1 is involved in tumor progression, but its function in HCC is not revealed yet. Here we report HBx can induce NUPR1 in patients, mice, and HCC cell lines. In an HBx transgenic mouse model, we found that HBx overexpression upregulates NUPR1 expression consistently with tumor progression. Further, in cultured HBV positive cells, HBx knockdown induces downregulation of NUPR1. Smad4 is a representative transcription factor, regulated by HBx, and we showed that HBx upregulates NUPR1 by Smad4 dependent way. We found that NUPR1 can inhibit cell death and induce vasculogenic mimicry in HCC cell lines. Moreover, NUPR1 silencing in HepG2-HBx showed reduced cell motility. These results suggest that HBx can modulate NUPR1 expression through the Smad4 pathway and NUPR1 has a role in hepatocellular carcinoma progression. - Highlights: • NUPR1 is overexpressed in HBx transgenic mouse and HCC patients. • NUPR1 inactivation hampers the HBx induced growth, VM formation, and migration of HepG2 cells in vitro. • NUPR1 has a role for survival of HCC and mechanistically NUPR1 is activated by HBx-Smad4 axis.

  1. Rift Valley fever virus NSS gene expression correlates with a defect in nuclear mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the localization of host mRNA during Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that infection with RVFV altered the localization of host mRNA. mRNA accumulated in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. Further, overexpression of the NSS gene, but not the N, GN or NSM genes correlated with mRNA nuclear accumulation. Nuclear accumulation of host mRNA was not observed in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding NSS, confirming that expression of NSS is likely responsible for this phenomenon.

  2. The nuclear export protein of H5N1 influenza A viruses recruits Matrix 1 (M1) protein to the viral ribonucleoprotein to mediate nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Brunotte, Linda; Flies, Joe; Bolte, Hardin; Reuther, Peter; Vreede, Frank; Schwemmle, Martin

    2014-07-18

    In influenza A virus-infected cells, replication and transcription of the viral genome occurs in the nucleus. To be packaged into viral particles at the plasma membrane, encapsidated viral genomes must be exported from the nucleus. Intriguingly, the nuclear export protein (NEP) is involved in both processes. Although NEP stimulates viral RNA synthesis by binding to the viral polymerase, its function during nuclear export implicates interaction with viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP)-associated M1. The observation that both interactions are mediated by the C-terminal moiety of NEP raised the question whether these two features of NEP are linked functionally. Here we provide evidence that the interaction between M1 and the vRNP depends on the NEP C terminus and its polymerase activity-enhancing property for the nuclear export of vRNPs. This suggests that these features of NEP are linked functionally. Furthermore, our data suggest that the N-terminal domain of NEP interferes with the stability of the vRNP-M1-NEP nuclear export complex, probably mediated by its highly flexible intramolecular interaction with the NEP C terminus. On the basis of our data, we propose a new model for the assembly of the nuclear export complex of Influenza A vRNPs.

  3. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) by LNA-mediated nuclear interference with HBV DNA transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhen; Xiang, Wenqing; Guo, Yajuan; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Wei; Lu, Daru

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} LNA-modified oligonucleotides can pass through the plasma membrane of cultured cells even without using transfection machinery. {yields} LNA-modified oligonucleotides passed efficiently across the cell membrane, and lipid-coating facilitated translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. {yields} LNA-oligonucleotide designed to target nuclear HBV DNA efficiently suppresses HBV replication and transcription in cultured hepatic cells. -- Abstract: Silencing target genes with small regulatory RNAs is widely used to investigate gene function and therapeutic drug development. Recently, triplex-based approaches have provided another attractive means to achieve targeted gene regulation and gene manipulation at the molecular and cellular levels. Nuclear entry of oligonucleotides and enhancement of their affinity to the DNA targets are key points of such approaches. In this study, we developed lipid-based transport of a locked-nucleic-acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA interference in human hepatocytes expressing HBV genomic DNA. In these cells, the LNA-modified oligonucleotides passed efficiently across the cell membrane, and lipid-coating facilitated translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The oligonucleotide specifically targeting HBV DNA clearly interfered with HBV DNA transcription as shown by a block in pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) production. The HBV DNA-targeted oligonucleotide suppressed HBV DNA replication and HBV protein production more efficiently than small interfering RNAs directed to the pgRNA. These results demonstrate that fusion with lipid can carry LNA-modified oligonucleotides to the nucleus where they regulate gene expression. Interfering with HBV DNA transcription by LNA-modified oligonucleotides has strong potential as a new strategy for HBV inhibition.

  4. Characterization of baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kitajima, Masayuki; Hamazaki, Hiroyuki; Miyano-Kurosaki, Naoko; Takaku, Hiroshi . E-mail: hiroshi.takaku@it-chiba.ac.jp

    2006-05-05

    The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) is used as a vector in many gene therapy studies. Wild-type AcMNPV infects many mammalian cell types in vitro, but does not replicate. We investigated the dynamics of AcMNPV genomic DNA in infected mammalian cells and used flow cytometric analysis to demonstrate that recombinant baculovirus containing a cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter/enhancer with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed high levels of GFP in Huh-7 cells, but not B16, Raw264.7, or YAC-1 cells. The addition of butyrate, a deacetylase inhibitor, markedly enhanced the percentage of GFP-expressing Huh-7 and B16 cells, but not Raw264.7 and YAC-1 cells. The addition of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, had no enhancing effect. Polymerase chain reaction analysis using AcMNPV-gp64-specific primers indicated that AcMNPV infected not only Huh-7 and B16 cells, but also Raw264.7 and YAC-1 cells in vitro. The genomic DNA was detected in Huh-7 and B16 cells 96 h after infection. Genomic AcMNPV DNA in YAC-1 cells was not transported to the nucleus. Luciferase assay indicated that AcMNPV p35 gene mRNA and p35 promoter activity were clearly expressed only in Huh-7 and B16 cells. These results suggest that viral genomic DNA expression is restricted by different host cell factors, such as degradation, deacetylation, and inhibition of nuclear transport, depending on the mammalian cell type.

  5. BGLF4 Kinase Modulates the Structure and Transport Preference of the Nuclear Pore Complex To Facilitate Nuclear Import of Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chou-Wei; Lee, Chung-Pei; Su, Mei-Tzu; Tsai, Ching-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT BGLF4 kinase, the only Ser/Thr protein kinase encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, phosphorylates multiple viral and cellular substrates to optimize the cellular environment for viral DNA replication and the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids. Previously, we found that nuclear targeting of BGLF4 is through direct interaction with the FG repeat-containing nucleoporins (FG-Nups) Nup62 and Nup153 independently of cytosolic transport factors. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of BGLF4 on the structure and biological functions of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). In EBV-positive NA cells, the distribution of FG-Nups was modified during EBV reactivation. In transfected cells, BGLF4 changed the staining pattern of Nup62 and Nup153 in a kinase activity-dependent manner. Detection with anti-phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro MPM-2 antibody demonstrated that BGLF4 induced the phosphorylation of Nup62 and Nup153. The nuclear targeting of importin β was attenuated in the presence of BGLF4, leading to inhibition of canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS)-mediated nuclear import. An in vitro nuclear import assay revealed that BGLF4 induced the nuclear import of larger molecules. Notably, we found that BGLF4 promoted the nuclear import of several non-NLS-containing EBV proteins, including the viral DNA-replicating enzymes BSLF1, BBLF2/3, and BBLF4 and the major capsid protein (VCA), in cotransfected cells. The data presented here suggest that BGLF4 interferes with the normal functions of Nup62 and Nup153 and preferentially helps the nuclear import of viral proteins for viral DNA replication and assembly. In addition, the nuclear import-promoting activity was found in cells expressing the BGLF4 homologs of another two gammaherpesviruses but not those from alpha- and betaherpesviruses. IMPORTANCE During lytic replication, many EBV genome-encoded proteins need to be transported into the nucleus, not only for viral DNA replication but also for the assembly of

  6. Evaluation of the Abington isolate of the gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus against a formulation of Gypchek in small field plots

    Treesearch

    R. E. Webb; M. Shapiro; J. D. Podgwaite; D. D. Cohen; R. L. Ridgway

    1991-01-01

    The "Abington" isolate of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) was compared with a formulation of Gypchek against a natural gypsy moth population in the Swallow Falls State Forest in Garrett County, MD.

  7. Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein Promotes Efficient Nuclear Export of Unspliced Viral M1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carina F; Read, Eliot K C; Wise, Helen M; Amorim, Maria J; Digard, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Influenza A virus mRNAs are transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the cell nucleus before being exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Segment 7 produces two major transcripts: an unspliced mRNA that encodes the M1 matrix protein and a spliced transcript that encodes the M2 ion channel. Export of both mRNAs is dependent on the cellular NXF1/TAP pathway, but it is unclear how they are recruited to the export machinery or how the intron-containing but unspliced M1 mRNA bypasses the normal quality-control checkpoints. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization to monitor segment 7 mRNA localization, we found that cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced M1 mRNA was inefficient in the absence of NS1, both in the context of segment 7 RNPs reconstituted by plasmid transfection and in mutant virus-infected cells. This effect was independent of any major effect on steady-state levels of segment 7 mRNA or splicing but corresponded to a ∼5-fold reduction in the accumulation of M1. A similar defect in intronless hemagglutinin (HA) mRNA nuclear export was seen with an NS1 mutant virus. Efficient export of M1 mRNA required both an intact NS1 RNA-binding domain and effector domain. Furthermore, while wild-type NS1 interacted with cellular NXF1 and also increased the interaction of segment 7 mRNA with NXF1, mutant NS1 polypeptides unable to promote mRNA export did neither. Thus, we propose that NS1 facilitates late viral gene expression by acting as an adaptor between viral mRNAs and the cellular nuclear export machinery to promote their nuclear export.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus is a major pathogen of a wide variety of mammalian and avian species that threatens public health and food security. A fuller understanding of the virus life cycle is important to aid control strategies. The virus has a small genome that encodes relatively few proteins that are often multifunctional. Here, we characterize a new function for the NS1 protein, showing that, as well as

  8. Entrapment of Viral Capsids in Nuclear PML Cages Is an Intrinsic Antiviral Host Defense against Varicella-Zoster Virus

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Mike; Wang, Li; Sommer, Marvin; Perrino, John; Nour, Adel M.; Sen, Nandini; Baiker, Armin; Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    The herpesviruses, like most other DNA viruses, replicate in the host cell nucleus. Subnuclear domains known as promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), or ND10 bodies, have been implicated in restricting early herpesviral gene expression. These viruses have evolved countermeasures to disperse PML-NBs, as shown in cells infected in vitro, but information about the fate of PML-NBs and their functions in herpesvirus infected cells in vivo is limited. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus with tropism for skin, lymphocytes and sensory ganglia, where it establishes latency. Here, we identify large PML-NBs that sequester newly assembled nucleocapsids (NC) in neurons and satellite cells of human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and skin cells infected with VZV in vivo. Quantitative immuno-electron microscopy revealed that these distinctive nuclear bodies consisted of PML fibers forming spherical cages that enclosed mature and immature VZV NCs. Of six PML isoforms, only PML IV promoted the sequestration of NCs. PML IV significantly inhibited viral infection and interacted with the ORF23 capsid surface protein, which was identified as a target for PML-mediated NC sequestration. The unique PML IV C-terminal domain was required for both capsid entrapment and antiviral activity. Similar large PML-NBs, termed clastosomes, sequester aberrant polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins, such as Huntingtin (Htt), in several neurodegenerative disorders. We found that PML IV cages co-sequester HttQ72 and ORF23 protein in VZV infected cells. Our data show that PML cages contribute to the intrinsic antiviral defense by sensing and entrapping VZV nucleocapsids, thereby preventing their nuclear egress and inhibiting formation of infectious virus particles. The efficient sequestration of virion capsids in PML cages appears to be the outcome of a basic cytoprotective function of this distinctive category of PML-NBs in sensing and safely containing nuclear aggregates of aberrant

  9. Modulation of Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2-dependent transcription by protein arginine methyltransferase 5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Fang, Jia-Shih; Chen, Ling-Chih; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Catalytic active PRMT5 substantially binds to the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 augments the EBNA2-dependent transcription. ► PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 enhances the promoter occupancy of EBNA2 on its target promoters. -- Abstract: Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) 2 features an Arginine–Glycine repeat (RG) domain at amino acid positions 335–360, which is a known target for protein arginine methyltransferaser 5 (PRMT5). In this study, we performed protein affinity pull-down assays to demonstrate that endogenous PRMT5 derived from lymphoblastoid cells specifically associated with the protein bait GST-E2 RG. Transfection of a plasmid expressing PRMT5 induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in EBNA2-dependent transcription of both the LMP1 promoter in AKATA cells, which contain the EBV genome endogenously, and a Cp-Luc reporter plasmid in BJAB cells, which are EBV negative. Furthermore, we showed that there was a 2-fold enrichment of EBNA2 occupancy in target promoters in the presence of exogenous PRMT5. Taken together, we show that PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of EBNA2 RG domain to coordinate with EBNA2-mediated transcription. This modulation suggests that PRMT5 may play a role in latent EBV infection.

  10. Ribosome Protein L4 is essential for Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 function

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Liu, Cheng-Der; You, Ren-In; Ching, Yung-Hao; Liang, Jun; Ke, Liangru; Chen, Ya-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Liou, Je-Wen; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-mediated origin of plasmid replication (oriP) DNA episome maintenance is essential for EBV-mediated tumorigenesis. We have now found that EBNA1 binds to Ribosome Protein L4 (RPL4). RPL4 shRNA knockdown decreased EBNA1 activation of an oriP luciferase reporter, EBNA1 DNA binding in lymphoblastoid cell lines, and EBV genome number per lymphoblastoid cell line. EBV infection increased RPL4 expression and redistributed RPL4 to cell nuclei. RPL4 and Nucleolin (NCL) were a scaffold for an EBNA1-induced oriP complex. The RPL4 N terminus cooperated with NCL-K429 to support EBNA1 and oriP-mediated episome binding and maintenance, whereas the NCL C-terminal K380 and K393 induced oriP DNA H3K4me2 modification and promoted EBNA1 activation of oriP-dependent transcription. These observations provide new insights into the mechanisms by which EBV uses NCL and RPL4 to establish persistent B-lymphoblastoid cell infection. PMID:26858444

  11. Identification, localization, transcription, and sequence analysis of the Choristoneura fumiferana nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA polymerase gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, J J; Carstens, E B

    1995-06-01

    The location of the Choristoneura fumiferana baculovirus DNA polymerase gene was determined by hybridization analysis using a probe prepared from the previously identified polymerase gene from the Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the Choristoneura fumiferana baculovirus DNA polymerase gene consists of 2970 base pairs encoding 990 amino acids (114.2 kDa). Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that overlapping transcripts of 3.2 and 4.6 kb, first detected at 6 hr postinfection, potentially coded for the DNA polymerase gene. The major transcription starts sites, identified at 6 hr postinfection, mapped to baculovirus consensus early start sites CGTGCTCA and CAGT. The relatively low level and late initiation of the DNA polymerase gene coupled with our previous data on the temporal control of DNA replication and late gene synthesis (Liu and Carstens, 1993) suggests that the low virulence of the spruce budworm baculovirus may be related to the regulation of its gene expression at the transcriptional level.

  12. Cellular Nuclear Export Factors TAP and Aly Are Required for HDAg-L-mediated Assembly of Hepatitis Delta Virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, Chung-Pei; Liu, Hui-Kang; Chang, Ming-Fu; Lai, Yu-Heng; Lee, Yu-Ching; Huang, Cheng

    2016-12-09

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HDV genome encodes two forms of hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), small HDAg (HDAg-S), which is required for viral replication, and large HDAg (HDAg-L), which is essential for viral assembly. HDAg-L is identical to HDAg-S except that it bears a 19-amino acid extension at the C terminus. Both HDAgs contain a nuclear localization signal (NLS), but only HDAg-L contains a CRM1-independent nuclear export signal at its C terminus. The nuclear export activity of HDAg-L is important for HDV particle formation. However, the mechanisms of HDAg-L-mediated nuclear export of HDV ribonucleoprotein are not clear. In this study, the host cellular RNA export complex TAP-Aly was found to form a complex with HDAg-L, but not with an export-defective HDAg-L mutant, in which Pro(205) was replaced by Ala. HDAg-L was found to colocalize with TAP and Aly in the nucleus. The C-terminal domain of HDAg-L was shown to directly interact with the N terminus of TAP, whereas an HDAg-L mutant lacking the NLS failed to interact with full-length TAP. In addition, small hairpin RNA-mediated down-regulation of TAP or Aly reduced nuclear export of HDAg-L and assembly of HDV virions. Furthermore, a peptide, TAT-HDAg-L(198-210), containing the 10-amino acid TAT peptide and HDAg-L(198-210), inhibited the interaction between HDAg-L and TAP and blocked HDV virion assembly and secretion. These data demonstrate that formation and release of HDV particles are mediated by TAP and Aly.

  13. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a host factor required for dengue virus and Junín virus multiplication.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Jesús E; Scolaro, Luis A; Castilla, Viviana

    2015-05-04

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are cellular factors involved in the replication of several viruses. In this study we analyzed the expression and intracellular localization of hnRNP A2 and hnRNP K in cell cultures infected with two viruses that cause human hemorrhagic fevers: dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and Junín virus (JUNV). We determined that DENV-2 promoted the cytoplasmic translocation of hnRNP K and to a lesser extent of hnRNP A2, meanwhile, JUNV infection induced an increase in hnRNP K cytoplasmic localization whereas hnRNP A2 remained mainly in the nucleus of infected cells. Both hnRNP K and hnRNP A2 were localized predominantly in the nucleus of JUNV persistently-infected cells even after superinfection with JUNV indicating that persistent infection does not alter nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of these hnRNPs. Total levels of hnRNP K expression were unaffected by DENV-2 or JUNV infection. In addition we determined, using small interfering RNAs, that hnRNP K knockout inhibits DENV-2 and JUNV multiplication. Our results indicate that DENV-2 and JUNV induce hnRNP K cytoplasmic translocation to favor viral multiplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein complex: Interaction of Hsc70 with viral proteins M1 and NS2.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Shimizu, Teppei; Noda, Saiko; Tsukahara, Fujiko; Maru, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The influenza virus replicates in the host cell nucleus, and the progeny viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) is exported to the cytoplasm prior to maturation. NS2 has a nuclear export signal that mediates the nuclear export of vRNP by the vRNP-M1-NS2 complex. We previously reported that the heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) protein binds to M1 protein and mediates vRNP export. However, the interactions among M1, NS2, and Hsc70 are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that Hsc70 interacts with M1 more strongly than with NS2 and competes with NS2 for M1 binding, suggesting an important role of Hsc70 in the nuclear export of vRNP.

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Induces the Cytoplasmic Retention of Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1 by Disrupting Nuclear Import

    PubMed Central

    Monette, Anne; Ajamian, Lara; López-Lastra, Marcelo; Mouland, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) co-opts host proteins and cellular machineries to its advantage at every step of the replication cycle. Here we show that HIV-1 enhances heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 expression and promotes the relocalization of hnRNP A1 to the cytoplasm. The latter was dependent on the nuclear export of the unspliced viral genomic RNA (vRNA) and to alterations in the abundance and localization of the FG-repeat nuclear pore glycoprotein p62. hnRNP A1 and vRNA remain colocalized in the cytoplasm supporting a post-nuclear function during the late stages of HIV-1 replication. Consistently, we show that hnRNP A1 acts as an internal ribosomal entry site trans-acting factor up-regulating internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation initiation of the HIV-1 vRNA. The up-regulation and cytoplasmic retention of hnRNP A1 by HIV-1 would ensure abundant expression of viral structural proteins in cells infected with HIV-1. PMID:19737937

  16. Risk of equine infectious anemia virus disease transmission through in vitro embryo production using somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Gregg, K; Polejaeva, I

    2009-08-01

    Prevention and regulation of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) disease transmission solely depend on identification, isolation, and elimination of infected animals because of lack of an effective vaccine. Embryo production via the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology uses oocytes collected mainly from untested animals, which creates a potential risk of EIAV transmission through infected embryos. The current review examines the risk of EIAV disease transmission through SCNT embryo production and transfer. Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus from the family Retroviridae. Because of a lack of direct reports on this subject, relevant information gathered from close relatives of EIAV, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), is summarized and used to predict the biological plausibility of EIAV disease transmission through transfers of the equine SCNT embryos. Based on published information regarding interaction of oocytes with lentiviruses and the sufficiency of oocyte and embryo washing procedures to prevent lentivirus transmission from in vitro-produced embryos of various species, we predicted the risk of EIAV transmission through SCNT embryo production and transfer to be very small or absent.

  17. Nuclear imprisonment of host cellular mRNA by nsp1β protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Han, Mingyuan; Ke, Hanzhong; Zhang, Qingzhan; Yoo, Dongwan

    2017-02-18

    Positive-strand RNA genomes function as mRNA for viral protein synthesis which is fully reliant on host cell translation machinery. Competing with cellular protein translation apparatus needs to ensure the production of viral proteins, but this also stifles host innate defense. In the present study, we showed that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), whose replication takes place in the cytoplasm, imprisoned host cell mRNA in the nucleus, which suggests a novel mechanism to enhance translation of PRRSV genome. PRRSV nonstructural protein (nsp) 1β was identified as the nuclear protein playing the role for host mRNA nuclear retention and subversion of host protein synthesis. A SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, and PIAS) motif was identified in nsp1β with the consensus sequence of 126-LQxxLxxxGL-135. In situ hybridization unveiled that SAP mutants were unable to cause nuclear retention of host cell mRNAs and did not suppress host protein synthesis. In addition, these SAP mutants reverted PRRSV-nsp1β-mediated suppression of interferon (IFN) production, IFN signaling, and TNF-α production pathway. Using reverse genetics, a series of SAP mutant PRRS viruses, vK124A, vL126A, vG134A, and vL135A were generated. No mRNA nuclear retention was observed during vL126A and vL135A infections. Importantly, vL126A and vL135A did not suppress IFN production. For other arteriviruses, mRNA nuclear accumulation was also observed for LDV-nsp1β and SHFV-nsp1β. EAV-nsp1 was exceptional and did not block the host mRNA nuclear export.

  18. A mechanism for negative gene regulation in Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leisy, D.J.; Rasmussen, C.; Owusu, E.O.; Rohrmann, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) ie-1 gene product (IE-1) is thought to play a central role in stimulating early viral transcription. IE-1 has been demonstrated to activate several early viral gene promoters and to negatively regulate the promoters of two other AcMNPV regulatory genes, ie-0 and ie-2. Our results indicate that IE-1 negatively regulates the expression of certain genes by binding directly, or as part of a complex, to promoter regions containing a specific IE-1-binding motif (5'-ACBYGTAA-3') near their mRNA start sites. The IE-1 binding motif was also found within the palindromic sequences of AcMNPV homologous repeat (hr) regions that have been shown to bind IE-1. The role of this IE-1 binding motif in the regulation of the ie-2 and pe-38 promoters was examined by introducing mutations in these promoters in which the central 6 bp were replaced with Bg/II sites. GUS reporter constructs containing ie-2 and pe-38 promoter fragments with and without these specific mutations were cotransfected into Sf9 cells with various amounts of an ie-1-containing plasmid (ple-1). Comparisons of GUS expression produced by the mutant and wild-type constructs demonstrated that the IE-1 binding motif mediated a significant decrease in expression from the ie-2 and pe-38 promoters in response to increasing pIe-1 concentrations. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with pIe-1-transfected cell extracts and supershift assays with IE-1- specific antiserum demonstrated that IE-1 binds to promoter fragments containing the IE-1 binding motif but does not bind to promoter fragments lacking this motif.

  19. Fusion between perinuclear virions and the outer nuclear membrane requires the fusogenic activity of herpes simplex virus gB.

    PubMed

    Wright, Catherine C; Wisner, Todd W; Hannah, Brian P; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Johnson, David C

    2009-11-01

    Herpesviruses cross nuclear membranes (NMs) in two steps, as follows: (i) capsids assemble and bud through the inner NM into the perinuclear space, producing enveloped virus particles, and (ii) the envelopes of these virus particles fuse with the outer NM. Two herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins, gB and gH (the latter, likely complexed as a heterodimer with gL), are necessary for the second step of this process. Mutants lacking both gB and gH accumulate in the perinuclear space or in herniations (membrane vesicles derived from the inner NM). Both gB and gH/gL are also known to act directly in fusing the virion envelope with host cell membranes during HSV entry into cells, i.e., both glycoproteins appear to function directly in different aspects of the membrane fusion process. We hypothesized that HSV gB and gH/gL also act directly in the membrane fusion that occurs during virus egress from the nucleus. Previous studies of the role of gB and gH/gL in nuclear egress involved HSV gB and gH null mutants that could potentially also possess gross defects in the virion envelope. Here, we produced recombinant HSV-expressing mutant forms of gB with single amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic "fusion loops." These fusion loops are thought to play a direct role in membrane fusion by insertion into cellular membranes. HSV recombinants expressing gB with any one of four fusion loop mutations (W174R, W174Y, Y179K, and A261D) were unable to enter cells. Moreover, two of the mutants, W174Y and Y179K, displayed reduced abilities to mediate HSV cell-to-cell spread, and W174R and A261D exhibited no spread. All mutant viruses exhibited defects in nuclear egress, enveloped virions accumulated in herniations and in the perinuclear space, and fewer enveloped virions were detected on cell surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that gB functions directly to mediate the fusion between perinuclear virus particles and the outer NM.

  20. [Effect of the attenuated strain (TC-83) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus on nuclear transcription in rat brain cells].

    PubMed

    Valero-Fuenmayor, N; Añez, F; Teruel-López, M E

    1996-03-01

    In the present study the effect of the attenuated strain TC-83 of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus on the nuclear transcription in brain cells of rats was assessed. The transcription activity of the DNA depending RNA polymerases (types I and II) in the isolated nuclei of brain of infected rats and controls was determinated by incorporation of the (3H) UTP. Simultaneously a viral replication curve in the brain and the serum was carried out by plaque forming method in chicken embryo cell cultures. RNA polymerase I activity was only significantly reduced after 25 hours of infection, respect to control values, while polymerase II activity was progressive and significantly diminished from inicial stages of the viral infection at 10, 15, 20 y 25 hours post-infection compared to control values. The virus was not detected in the brain but after 25 hours post-infection with very low titers (< 0.7 log10 P.F.U./ml.), while the viral presence in the blood was demonstrated after a 10 hour period. Our results demonstrated a marked effect of the attenuated strain on the brain nuclear transcription, although the presence of the virus was not detected in the brain of the infected rats. This finding suggest a mechanism of action which deserves further studies to elucidate the cerebral metabolic response and the pathogenesis of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis infection.

  1. Fast track, dynein-dependent nuclear targeting of human immunodeficiency virus Vpr protein; impaired trafficking in a clinical isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Caly, Leon; Kassouf, Vicki T.; Moseley, Gregory W.; Diefenbach, Russell J.; Cunningham, Anthony L.; Jans, David A.

    2016-02-12

    Nuclear import of the accessory protein Vpr is central to infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We previously identified the Vpr F72L mutation in a HIV-infected, long-term non-progressor, showing that it resulted in reduced Vpr nuclear accumulation and altered cytoplasmic localisation. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the effects of nuclear accumulation of the F72L mutation are due to impairment of microtubule-dependent-enhancement of Vpr nuclear import. We use high resolution imaging approaches including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and other approaches to document interaction between Vpr and the dynein light chain protein, DYNLT1, and impaired interaction of the F72L mutant with DYNLT1. The results implicate MTs/DYNLT1 as drivers of Vpr nuclear import and HIV infection, with important therapeutic implications. - Highlights: • HIV-1 Vpr utilizes the microtubule network to traffic towards the nucleus. • Mechanism relies on interaction between Vpr and dynein light chain protein DYNLT1. • Long-term non-progressor derived mutation (F72L) impairs this interaction. • Key residues in the vicinity of F72 contribute to interaction with DYNLT1.

  2. Identification and analysis of an Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural protein of the occlusion-derived virus envelope: ODV-E56.

    PubMed

    Braunagel, S C; Elton, D M; Ma, H; Summers, M D

    1996-03-01

    An Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus gene encoding an occlusion-derived virus (ODV) envelope protein of 56 kDa was identified and sequenced. Transcription initiates from a conserved baculovirus late motif (ATAAG) with transcripts detected from 16 through 72 hr p.i. The protein is detected in infected cell extracts from 36 hr p.i. Western blot assay of ODV, BV, viral envelope, and nucleocapsid preparations coupled with immunoelectron microscopy reveal that this protein localizes to the ODV envelope. This protein is named ODV-E56 to identify its viral origin, envelope location, and apparent molecular weight. ODV-E56 is enriched in viral induced intranuclear microvesicles as determined by immunogold labeling. A mutant was constructed with the C-terminal portion of the protein replaced with beta-galactosidase. The fusion protein, E56-beta-gal, locates to the viral nucleocapsids and not to the ODV envelope or intranuclear microvesicles. This suggests that the signals necessary for transport and/or retention into these structures lies within the C-terminal portion of ODV-E56. Additionally, both ODV-E56 and E56-beta-gal are enriched in electron dense regions that cluster around the inner nuclear membrane and within the nucleoplasm.

  3. Dual function of the nuclear export signal of the Borna disease virus nucleoprotein in nuclear export activity and binding to viral phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Mako; Sakai, Madoka; Makino, Akiko; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2017-07-11

    Borna disease virus (BoDV), which has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, causes persistent infection in the cell nucleus. The nuclear export signal (NES) of the viral nucleoprotein (N) consisting of leucine at positions 128 and 131 and isoleucine at positions 133 and 136 overlaps with one of two predicted binding sites for the viral phosphoprotein (P). A previous study demonstrated that higher expression of BoDV-P inhibits nuclear export of N; however, the function of N NES in the interaction with P remains unclear. We examined the subcellular localization, viral polymerase activity, and P-binding ability of BoDV-N NES mutants. We also characterized a recombinant BoDV (rBoDV) harboring an NES mutation of N. BoDV-N with four alanine-substitutions in the leucine and isoleucine residues of the NES impaired its cytoplasmic localization and abolished polymerase activity and P-binding ability. Although an alanine-substitution at position 131 markedly enhanced viral polymerase activity as determined by a minigenome assay, rBoDV harboring this mutation showed expression of viral RNAs and proteins relative to that of wild-type rBoDV. Our results demonstrate that BoDV-N NES has a dual function in BoDV replication, i.e., nuclear export of N and an interaction with P, affecting viral polymerase activity in the nucleus.

  4. Characterization of a nuclear export signal within the human T cell leukemia virus type I transactivator protein Tax.

    PubMed

    Alefantis, Timothy; Barmak, Kate; Harhaj, Edward W; Grant, Christian; Wigdahl, Brian

    2003-06-13

    Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-I transactivator protein Tax plays an integral role in the etiology of adult T cell leukemia, as expression of Tax in T lymphocytes has been shown to result in immortalization. In addition, Tax is known to interface with numerous transcription factor families, including activating transcription factor/cAMP response element-binding protein and nuclear factor-kappaB, requiring Tax to localize to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. In this report, the nucleocytoplasmic localization of Tax was examined in Jurkat, HeLa, and U-87 MG cells. The results reported herein indicate that Tax contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that, when fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), can direct nuclear export via the CRM-1 pathway, as determined by leptomycin B inhibition of nuclear export. However, cytoplasmic localization of full-length Tax was not altered by treatment with leptomycin B, suggesting that native Tax utilizes another nuclear export pathway. Additional support for the presence of a functional NES has also been shown because the NES mutant Tax(L200A)-GFP localized to the nuclear membrane in the majority of U-87 MG cells. Evidence has also been provided suggesting that the Tax NES likely exists as a conditionally masked signal because the truncation mutant TaxDelta214-GFP localized constitutively to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that Tax localization may be directed by specific changes in Tax conformation or by specific interactions with cellular proteins leading to changes in the availability of the Tax NES and nuclear localization signal.

  5. Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE) domains function as nuclear protein quality control centers during HSV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Christine M; Ifrim, Marius F; Cowan, Ann E; Weller, Sandra K

    2009-10-01

    Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE) domains form adjacent to nuclear viral replication compartments (RC) during the early stages of HSV-1 infection. Between 2 and 3 hours post infection at a MOI of 10, host protein quality control machinery such as molecular chaperones (e.g. Hsc70), the 20S proteasome and ubiquitin are reorganized from a diffuse nuclear distribution pattern to sequestration in VICE domains. The observation that VICE domains contain putative misfolded proteins suggests that they may be similar to nuclear inclusion bodies that form under conditions in which the protein quality control machinery is overwhelmed by the presence of misfolded proteins. The detection of Hsc70 in VICE domains, but not in nuclear inclusion bodies, indicates that Hsc70 is specifically reorganized by HSV-1 infection. We hypothesize that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of nuclear protein quality control centers to remodel or degrade aberrant nuclear proteins that would otherwise interfere with productive infection. Detection of proteolytic activity in VICE domains suggests that substrates may be degraded by the 20S proteasome in VICE domains. FRAP analysis reveals that GFP-Hsc70 is dynamically associated with VICE domains, suggesting a role for Hsc70 in scanning the infected nucleus for misfolded proteins. During 42 degrees C heat shock, Hsc70 is redistributed from VICE domains into RC perhaps to remodel viral replication and regulatory proteins that have become insoluble in these compartments. The experiments presented in this paper suggest that VICE domains are nuclear protein quality control centers that are modified by HSV-1 to promote productive infection.

  6. Adaptive mutation in nuclear export protein allows stable transgene expression in a chimaeric influenza A virus vector.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Irina; Shurygina, Anna-Polina; Wolf, Brigitte; Wolschek, Markus; Enzmann, Florian; Sansyzbay, Abylay; Khairullin, Berik; Sandybayev, Nurlan; Stukova, Marina; Kiselev, Oleg; Egorov, Andrej; Bergmann, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The development of influenza virus vectors with long insertions of foreign sequences remains difficult due to the small size and instable nature of the virus. Here, we used the influenza virus inherent property of self-optimization to generate a vector stably expressing long transgenes from the NS1 protein ORF. This was achieved by continuous selection of bright fluorescent plaques of a GFP-expressing vector during multiple passages in mouse B16f1 cells. The newly generated vector acquired stability in IFN-competent cell lines and in vivo in murine lungs. Although improved vector fitness was associated with the appearance of four coding mutations in the polymerase (PB2), haemagglutinin and non-structural (NS) segments, the stability of the transgene expression was dependent primarily on the single mutation Q20R in the nuclear export protein (NEP). Importantly, a longer insert, such as a cassette of 1299 nt encoding two Mycobacterium tuberculosis Esat6 and Ag85A proteins, could substitute for the GFP transgene. Thus, the inherent property of the influenza virus to adapt can also be used to adjust a vector backbone to give stable expression of long transgenes.

  7. Identification, molecular cloning, and transcription analysis of the Choristoneura fumiferana nuclear polyhedrosis virus spindle-like protein gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, J J; Carstens, E B

    1996-09-15

    The Choristoneura fumiferana nuclear polyhedrosis virus spindle-like protein (slp) gene has been identified and localized immediately downstream and in the same orientation as the CfMNPV DNA polymerase gene. The slp gene is 1101 bp long, predicted to code for a 366 amino acid (42.1 kDa) polypeptide. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the CfMNPV slp gene is expressed at late times postinfection, beginning at 24 hr postinfection and is most abundantly expressed after 36 hr. Transcription initiates within a single baculovirus consensus late start site sequence (GTAAG) at position -18 relative to the translation start codon. Based on amino acid comparisons, the CfMNPV gene is closely related to other similar baculovirus genes and distantly but recognizably related to the fusolin proteins of two entomopoxviruses. The conservation of amino acid sequence, glycosylation signals and specific domains throughout the protein suggest that this gene product may play an important role in insect DNA virus replication.

  8. Mimicry between the hepatitis C virus polyprotein and antigenic targets of nuclear and smooth muscle antibodies in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, G V; Choudhuri, K; Ma, Y; Pensati, P; Iorio, R; Grant, P; Garson, J; Bogdanos, D P; Vegnente, A; Mieli-Vergani, G; Vergani, D

    2003-09-01

    Autoantibodies to smooth muscle (SMA) and nuclear components (ANA) arise in the natural course of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. In view of the growing evidence for 'molecular mimicry' as a mechanism of autoimmunity we investigated whether cross-reactive immune reactions between host smooth muscle/nuclear components and HCV antigens may contribute to the formation of SMA and ANA in chronic HCV infection. Computer-assisted protein database search methods were used to identify three smooth muscle (smoothelin698-717, myosin1035-1054, vimentin69-88) and three nuclear (matrin722-741, histone H2A11-30, replication protein A133-152) host antigens with the highest local sequence similarity to the HCV polyprotein and 20-mer peptides corresponding to these regions were constructed. Sera from 51 children with chronic HCV infection [median age: 8 (2-16); 27 boys], 26 SMA positive and five ANA positive, were tested for reactivity to the synthesized HCV peptides and their human homologues by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sera from patients with HBV infection and chronic liver disease of different aetiologies were used as controls. 'Double reactivity' to HCV peptides and smooth muscle/nuclear homologues was associated strongly with HCV infection (P < 0.001 for both). Humoral cross-reactivity was established as the basis for double recognition by competition ELISA. Double-reactivity to smooth muscle and HCV peptide antigens correlated with SMA positivity by indirect immunofluouresence (P = 0.05). Of 15 patients double-reactive to myosin1035-1054 and its HCV homologue, 13 recognized whole myosin by immunoblot. These results suggest that ANA and SMA in chronic HCV infection may arise, at least in part, as a consequence of cross-reactive immune responses to HCV and host smooth muscle/nuclear antigens.

  9. Identification of three redundant segments responsible for herpes simplex virus 1 ICP0 to fuse with ND10 nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Gu, Haidong

    2015-04-01

    Infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a key regulator in both lytic and latent infections. In lytic infection, an important early event is the colocalization of ICP0 to nuclear domain 10 (ND10), the discrete nuclear bodies that impose restrictions on viral expression. ICP0 contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase that degrades promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) and Sp100, two major components of ND10, and disperses ND10 to alleviate repression. We previously reported that the association between ICP0 and ND10 is a dynamic process that includes three steps: adhesion, fusion, and retention. ICP0 residues 245 to 474, defined as ND10 entry signal (ND10-ES), is a region required for the fusion step. Without ND10-ES, ICP0 adheres at the ND10 surface but fails to enter. In the present study, we focus on characterizing ND10-ES. Here we report the following. (i) Fusion of ICP0 with ND10 relies on specific sequences located within ND10-ES. Replacement of ND10-ES by the corresponding region from ORF61 of varicella-zoster virus did not rescue ND10 fusion. (ii) Three tandem ND10 fusion segments (ND10-FS1, ND10-FS2, and ND10-FS3), encompassing 200 amino acids within ND10-ES, redundantly facilitate fusion. Each of the three segments is sufficient to independently drive the fusion process, but none of the segments by themselves are necessary for ND10 fusion. Only when all three segments are deleted is fusion blocked. (iii) The SUMO interaction motif located within ND10-FS2 is not required for ND10 fusion but is required for the complete degradation of PML, suggesting that PML degradation and ND10 fusion are regulated by different molecular mechanisms. ND10 nuclear bodies are part of the cell-intrinsic antiviral defenses that restrict viral gene expression upon virus infection. As a countermeasure, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) localizes to ND10s, degrades the ND10 organizer, and disperses ND10 components in order to

  10. Identification of Three Redundant Segments Responsible for Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0 To Fuse with ND10 Nuclear Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a key regulator in both lytic and latent infections. In lytic infection, an important early event is the colocalization of ICP0 to nuclear domain 10 (ND10), the discrete nuclear bodies that impose restrictions on viral expression. ICP0 contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase that degrades promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) and Sp100, two major components of ND10, and disperses ND10 to alleviate repression. We previously reported that the association between ICP0 and ND10 is a dynamic process that includes three steps: adhesion, fusion, and retention. ICP0 residues 245 to 474, defined as ND10 entry signal (ND10-ES), is a region required for the fusion step. Without ND10-ES, ICP0 adheres at the ND10 surface but fails to enter. In the present study, we focus on characterizing ND10-ES. Here we report the following. (i) Fusion of ICP0 with ND10 relies on specific sequences located within ND10-ES. Replacement of ND10-ES by the corresponding region from ORF61 of varicella-zoster virus did not rescue ND10 fusion. (ii) Three tandem ND10 fusion segments (ND10-FS1, ND10-FS2, and ND10-FS3), encompassing 200 amino acids within ND10-ES, redundantly facilitate fusion. Each of the three segments is sufficient to independently drive the fusion process, but none of the segments by themselves are necessary for ND10 fusion. Only when all three segments are deleted is fusion blocked. (iii) The SUMO interaction motif located within ND10-FS2 is not required for ND10 fusion but is required for the complete degradation of PML, suggesting that PML degradation and ND10 fusion are regulated by different molecular mechanisms. IMPORTANCE ND10 nuclear bodies are part of the cell-intrinsic antiviral defenses that restrict viral gene expression upon virus infection. As a countermeasure, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) localizes to ND10s, degrades the ND10 organizer, and disperses ND10 components

  11. Nuclear import of Maize fine streak virus proteins in Drosophila S2 cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) is a member of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae and is transmitted by the leafhopper Graminella nigrifons. The virus replicates in both its plant host and in its insect vector. Nucleorhabdoviruses replicate in the nucleus and assemble at the inner nu...

  12. Characterization of the subcellular localization and nuclear import molecular mechanisms of herpes simplex virus 1 UL2.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mingsheng; Huang, Zebin; Liao, Zongmin; Chen, Tao; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Si; Chen, Daixiong; Peng, Tao; Bian, Yun; Hong, Gengde; Yang, Hang; Zeng, Zhancheng; Li, Xiaowei; Li, Meili

    2017-04-01

    As a crucial protein, the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL2 protein has been shown to take part in various stages of viral infection, nonetheless, its exact subcellular localization and transport molecular determinants are not well known thus far. In the present study, by using live cells fluorescent microscopy assay, UL2 tagged with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein was transiently expressed in live cells and showed a completely nuclear accumulation without the presence of other HSV-1 proteins. Moreover, the nuclear transport of UL2 was characterized to be assisted by multiple transport pathways through Ran-, importin α1-, α5-, α7-, β1- and transportin-1 cellular transport receptors. Consequently, these results will improve understanding of UL2-mediated biological functions in HSV-1 infection cycles.

  13. Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): vectors of invasive, non-systemic cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses in plants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Childers, Carl C

    2013-02-01

    Multi-directional interactions occur among plant hosts, Brevipalpus mites and the plant viruses they transmit. Such interactions should be considered when evaluating the severity of a disease such as citrus leprosis. The current understanding of Brevipalpus-transmitted viruses relies on the capability of the vector to transmit the disease, the persistence of the virus in the host plant and the ability of the disease to spread. Previously, we discussed the Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) and its importance and spread over the past decade into new areas of South and Central America, most recently into southern Mexico and Belize. Here, we address key questions to better understand the biology of the mite vector, fitness costs, and the peculiarities of Brevipalpus mite reproduction, virus survival, transmissibility and spread, and the expansion of the host plant range of Brevipalpus species vectoring the disease.

  14. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A; Kieff, Elliott; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence that targeting EBNA1 dimer, an EBV onco-antigen, can be achievable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small molecule and a peptide as EBNA1 dimerization inhibitors identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both inhibitors associated with EBNA1 and blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also, prevented its dimerization, and repressed viral gene transcription. -- Abstract: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with human B cell lymphomas and certain carcinomas. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)'s DNA binding domain (DBD)/dimerization domain (DD)-mediated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Homodimerization of EBNA1 is essential for EBNA1 DNA binding and transactivation. In this study, we characterized a novel small molecule EBNA1 inhibitor EiK1, screened from the previous high throughput screening (HTS). The EiK1 compound specifically inhibited the EBNA1-dependent, OriP-enhanced transcription, but not EBNA1-independent transcription. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biacore assay revealed that EiK1 associates with EBNA1 amino acid 459-607 DBD/DD. Consistent with the SPR data, in vitro gel shift assays showed that EiK1 suppressed the activity of EBNA1 binding to the cognate familial repeats (FR) sequence, but not control RBP-J{kappa} binding to the J{kappa} site. Subsequently, a cross-linker-mediated in vitro multimerization assay and EBNA1 homodimerization-dependent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that EiK1 significantly inhibited EBNA1 dimerization. In an attempt to identify more highly specific peptide inhibitors, small peptides encompassing the EBNA1 DBD/DD were screened for inhibition of EBNA1 DBD-mediated DNA binding function. The small peptide P85, covering EBNA1 a.a. 560-574, significantly blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity in vitro, prevented dimerization in vitro and in vivo, associated with

  15. Functional characterization of nuclear localization and export signals in hepatitis C virus proteins and their role in the membranous web.

    PubMed

    Levin, Aviad; Neufeldt, Christopher J; Pang, Daniel; Wilson, Kristen; Loewen-Dobler, Darci; Joyce, Michael A; Wozniak, Richard W; Tyrrell, D Lorne J

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive strand RNA virus of the Flavivirus family that replicates in the cytoplasm of infected hepatocytes. Previously, several nuclear localization signals (NLS) and nuclear export signals (NES) have been identified in HCV proteins, however, there is little evidence that these proteins travel into the nucleus during infection. We have recently shown that nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins (termed nucleoporins or Nups) are present in the membranous web and are required during HCV infection. In this study, we identify a total of 11 NLS and NES sequences in various HCV proteins. We show direct interactions between HCV proteins and importin α5 (IPOA5/kapα1), importin β3 (IPO5/kap β3), and exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) both in-vitro and in cell culture. These interactions can be disrupted using peptides containing the specific NLS or NES sequences of HCV proteins. Moreover, using a synchronized infection system, we show that these peptides inhibit HCV infection during distinct phases of the HCV life cycle. The inhibitory effects of these peptides place them in two groups. The first group binds IPOA5 and inhibits infection during the replication stage of HCV life cycle. The second group binds IPO5 and is active during both early replication and early assembly. This work delineates the entire life cycle of HCV and the active involvement of NLS sequences during HCV replication and assembly. Given the abundance of NLS sequences within HCV proteins, our previous finding that Nups play a role in HCV infection, and the relocation of the NLS double-GFP reporter in HCV infected cells, this work supports our previous hypothesis that NPC-like structures and nuclear transport factors function in the membranous web to create an environment conducive to viral replication.

  16. Highly specific antibody to Rous sarcoma virus src gene product recognizes nuclear and nucleolar antigens in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    David-Pfeuty, T; Nouvian-Dooghe, Y

    1995-01-01

    An antiserum to the Rous sarcoma virus-transforming protein pp60v-src, raised in rabbits immunized with the bacterially produced protein alpha p60 serum (M. D. Resh and R. L. Erikson, J. Cell Biol. 100:409-417, 1985) previously reported to detect very specifically a novel population of pp60v-src and pp60c-src molecules associated with juxtareticular nuclear membranes in normal and Rous sarcoma virus-infected cells of avian and mammalian origin, was used here to investigate by immunofluorescence microscopy localization patterns of Src molecules in human cell lines, either normal or derived from spontaneous tumors. We found that the alpha p60 serum reveals nuclear and nucleolar concentrations of antigens in all the human cell lines tested and in two rat and mouse hepatoma cell lines derived from adult tumorous tissues but not in any established rat and mouse cell lines either untransformed or transformed by the src and ras oncogenes. Both the nuclear and nucleolar stainings can be totally extinguished by preincubation of the serum with highly purified chicken c-Src. We show also that the partitioning of the alpha p60-reactive proteins among the whole nucleus and the nucleolus depends mostly on two different parameters: the position in the cell cycle and the degree of cell confluency. Our observations raise the attractive possibility that, in differentiated cells, pp60c-src and related proteins might be involved not only in mediating the transduction of mitogenic signals at the plasma membrane level but also in controlling progression through the cell cycle and entry in mitosis by interacting with cell division cycle regulatory components at the nuclear level. PMID:7853507

  17. Functional Characterization of Nuclear Localization and Export Signals in Hepatitis C Virus Proteins and Their Role in the Membranous Web

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Aviad; Neufeldt, Christopher J.; Pang, Daniel; Wilson, Kristen; Loewen-Dobler, Darci; Joyce, Michael A.; Wozniak, Richard W.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne J

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive strand RNA virus of the Flavivirus family that replicates in the cytoplasm of infected hepatocytes. Previously, several nuclear localization signals (NLS) and nuclear export signals (NES) have been identified in HCV proteins, however, there is little evidence that these proteins travel into the nucleus during infection. We have recently shown that nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins (termed nucleoporins or Nups) are present in the membranous web and are required during HCV infection. In this study, we identify a total of 11 NLS and NES sequences in various HCV proteins. We show direct interactions between HCV proteins and importin α5 (IPOA5/kapα1), importin β3 (IPO5/kap β3), and exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) both in-vitro and in cell culture. These interactions can be disrupted using peptides containing the specific NLS or NES sequences of HCV proteins. Moreover, using a synchronized infection system, we show that these peptides inhibit HCV infection during distinct phases of the HCV life cycle. The inhibitory effects of these peptides place them in two groups. The first group binds IPOA5 and inhibits infection during the replication stage of HCV life cycle. The second group binds IPO5 and is active during both early replication and early assembly. This work delineates the entire life cycle of HCV and the active involvement of NLS sequences during HCV replication and assembly. Given the abundance of NLS sequences within HCV proteins, our previous finding that Nups play a role in HCV infection, and the relocation of the NLS double-GFP reporter in HCV infected cells, this work supports our previous hypothesis that NPC-like structures and nuclear transport factors function in the membranous web to create an environment conducive to viral replication. PMID:25485706

  18. The Ubiquitin Ligase Itch and Ubiquitination Regulate BFRF1-Mediated Nuclear Envelope Modification for Epstein-Barr Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung-Pei; Liu, Guan-Ting; Kung, Hsiu-Ni; Liu, Po-Ting; Liao, Yen-Tzu; Chow, Lu-Ping; Chang, Ling-Shih; Chang, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Chou-Wei; Shu, Wen-Chi; Angers, Annie; Farina, Antonella; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Bouamr, Fadila

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) was recently found to mediate important morphogenesis processes at the nuclear envelope (NE). We previously showed that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BFRF1 protein recruits the ESCRT-associated protein Alix to modulate NE structure and promote EBV nuclear egress. Here, we uncover new cellular factors and mechanisms involved in this process. BFRF1-induced NE vesicles are similar to those observed following EBV reactivation. BFRF1 is ubiquitinated, and elimination of possible ubiquitination by either lysine mutations or fusion of a deubiquitinase hampers NE-derived vesicle formation and virus maturation. While it interacts with multiple Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligases, BFRF1 preferentially binds Itch ligase. We show that Itch associates with Alix and BFRF1 and is required for BFRF1-induced NE vesicle formation. Our data demonstrate that Itch, ubiquitin, and Alix control the BFRF1-mediated modulation of the NE and EBV maturation, uncovering novel regulatory mechanisms of nuclear egress of viral nucleocapsids. IMPORTANCE The nuclear envelope (NE) of eukaryotic cells not only serves as a transverse scaffold for cellular processes, but also as a natural barrier for most DNA viruses that assemble their nucleocapsids in the nucleus. Previously, we showed that the cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is required for the nuclear egress of EBV. Here, we further report the molecular interplay among viral BFRF1, the ESCRT adaptor Alix, and the ubiquitin ligase Itch. We found that BFRF1-induced NE vesicles are similar to those observed following EBV reactivation. The lysine residues and the ubiquitination of BFRF1 regulate the formation of BFRF1-induced NE-derived vesicles and EBV maturation. During the process, a ubiquitin ligase, Itch, preferably associates with BFRF1 and is required for BFRF1-induced NE vesicle formation. Therefore, our data indicate that Itch

  19. Domains involved in calcineurin phosphatase inhibition and nuclear localisation in the African swine fever virus A238L protein

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, Charles C.; Chapman, Dave A.G.; Silk, Rhiannon; Liverani, Elisabetta; Dixon, Linda K.

    2008-05-10

    The African swine fever virus A238L protein inhibits calcineurin phosphatase activity and activation of NF-{kappa}B and p300 co-activator. An 82 amino acid domain containing residues 157 to 238 at the C-terminus of A238L was expressed in E. coli and purified. This purified A238L fragment acted as a potent inhibitor of calcineurin phosphatase in vitro with an IC{sub 50} of approximately 70 nM. Two putative nuclear localisation signals were identified between residues 80 to 86 (NLS-1) and between residues 203 to 207 overlapping with the N-terminus of the calcineurin docking motif (NLS-2). Mutation of these motifs independently did not reduce nuclear localisation compared to the wild type A238L protein, whereas mutation of both motifs significantly reduced nuclear localisation of A238L. Mutation of the calcineurin docking motif resulted in a dramatic increase in the nuclear localisation of A238L provided an intact NLS was present. We propose that binding of calcineurin to A238L masks NLS-2 contributing to the cytoplasmic retention of A238L.

  20. Nuclear import of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 is mediated by KPNA1, KPNA6 and KPNA7.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jihui; Tang, Zhiqin; Mu, Hong; Zhang, Guojun

    2016-08-01

    Bel1, a transactivator of the prototype foamy virus (PFV), plays pivotal roles in the replication of PFV. Previous studies have demonstrated that Bel1 bears a nuclear localization signal (NLS); however, its amino acid sequence remains unclear and the corresponding adaptor importins have not yet been identified. In this study, we inserted various fragments of Bel1 into an EGFP-GST fusion protein and investigated their subcellular localization by fluorescence microscopy. We found that the 215PRQKRPR221 fragment, which accords with the consensus sequence K(K/R)X(K/R) of the monopartite NLS, directed the nuclear translocation of Bel1. Point mutation experiments revealed that K218, R219 and R221 were essential for the nuclear localization of Bel1. The results of GST pull-down assay revealed that the Bel1 peptide 215-221, which bears the NLS, interacted with the nucleocytoplasmic transport receptors, karyopherin alpha 1 (importin alpha 5) (KPNA1), karyopherin alpha 6 (importin alpha 7) (KPNA6) and karyopherin alpha 7 (importin alpha 8) (KPNA7). Finally, in vitro nuclear import assays demonstrated that KPNA1, KPNA6 or KPNA7, along with other necessary nuclear factors, caused Bel1 to localize to the nucleus. Thus, the findings of our study indicate that KPNA1, KPNA6 and KPNA7 are involved in Bel1 nuclear distribution.

  1. A Novel Nuclear Trafficking Module Regulates the Nucleocytoplasmic Localization of the Rabies Virus Interferon Antagonist, P Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Oksayan, Sibil; Wiltzer, Linda; Rowe, Caitlin L.; Blondel, Danielle; Jans, David A.; Moseley, Gregory W.

    2012-01-01

    Regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins is central to cellular function and dysfunction during processes such as viral infection. Active protein trafficking into and out of the nucleus is dependent on the presence within cargo proteins of intrinsic specific modular signals for nuclear import (nuclear localization signals, NLSs) and export (nuclear export signals, NESs). Rabies virus (RabV) phospho (P) protein, which is largely responsible for antagonising the host anti-viral response, is expressed as five isoforms (P1–P5). The subcellular trafficking of these isoforms is thought to depend on a balance between the activities of a dominant N-terminal NES (N-NES) and a distinct C-terminal NLS (C-NLS). Specifically, the N-NES-containing isoforms P1 and P2 are cytoplasmic, whereas the shorter P3–P5 isoforms, which lack the N-NES, are believed to be nuclear through the activity of the C-NLS. Here, we show for the first time that RabV P contains an additional strong NLS in the N-terminal region (N-NLS), which, intriguingly, overlaps with the N-NES. This arrangement represents a novel nuclear trafficking module where the N-NLS is inactive in P1 but becomes activated in P3, concomitant with truncation of the N-NES, to become the principal targeting signal conferring nuclear accumulation. Understanding this unique switch arrangement of overlapping, co-regulated NES/NLS sequences is vital to delineating the critical role of RabV P protein in viral infection. PMID:22700958

  2. The interaction between herpes simplex virus 1 genome and promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) as a hallmark of the entry in latency.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Patrick

    2016-11-04

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen that establishes latency in the nucleus of infected neurons in the PNS and the CNS. At the transcriptional level latency is characterized by a quasi-complete silencing of the extrachromosomal viral genome that otherwise expresses more than 80 genes during the lytic cycle. In neurons, latency is anticipated to be the default transcriptional program; however, limited information exists on the molecular mechanisms that force the virus to enter the latent state. Our recent study demonstrates that the interaction of the viral genomes with the nuclear architecture and specifically the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) is a major determinant for the entry of HSV-1 into latency (Maroui MA, Callé A et al. (2016). Latency entry of herpes simplex virus 1 is determined by the interaction of its genome with the nuclear environment. PLoS Pathogens 12(9): e1005834.).

  3. The interaction between herpes simplex virus 1 genome and promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) as a hallmark of the entry in latency

    PubMed Central

    Lomonte, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen that establishes latency in the nucleus of infected neurons in the PNS and the CNS. At the transcriptional level latency is characterized by a quasi-complete silencing of the extrachromosomal viral genome that otherwise expresses more than 80 genes during the lytic cycle. In neurons, latency is anticipated to be the default transcriptional program; however, limited information exists on the molecular mechanisms that force the virus to enter the latent state. Our recent study demonstrates that the interaction of the viral genomes with the nuclear architecture and specifically the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) is a major determinant for the entry of HSV-1 into latency (Maroui MA, Callé A et al. (2016). Latency entry of herpes simplex virus 1 is determined by the interaction of its genome with the nuclear environment. PLoS Pathogens 12(9): e1005834.). PMID:28357326

  4. A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A.; Hiscox, Julian A.

    2008-08-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus.

  5. Ebola virus VP24 targets a unique NLS-binding site on karyopherin5 to selectively compete with nuclear import of phosphorylated STAT1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Edwards, Megan R.; Borek, Dominika M.; Feagins, Alicia R.; Mittal, Anuradha; Alinger, Joshua B.; Berry, Kayla N.; Yen, Benjamin; Hamilton, Jennifer; Brett, Tom J.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Leung, Daisy W.; Basler, Christopher F.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During anti-viral defense, interferon (IFN) signaling triggers nuclear transport of tyrosine phosphorylated STAT1 (PY-STAT1), which occurs via a subset of karyopherin alpha (KPNA) nuclear transporters. Many viruses, including Ebola virus, actively antagonize STAT1 signaling to counteract the antiviral effects of IFN. Ebola virus VP24 protein (eVP24) binds KPNA to inhibit PY-STAT1 nuclear transport and render cells refractory to IFNs. We describe the structure of human KPNA5 C-terminus in complex with eVP24. In the complex, eVP24 recognizes a unique non-classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) binding site on KPNA5 that is necessary for efficient PY-STAT1 nuclear transport. eVP24 binds KPNA5 with very high affinity to effectively compete with and inhibit PY-STAT1 nuclear transport. In contrast, eVP24 binding does not affect the transport of classical NLS cargo. Thus, eVP24 counters cell-intrinsic innate immunity by selectively targeting PY-STAT1 nuclear import while leaving the transport of other cargo that maybe required for viral replication unaffected. PMID:25121748

  6. Influenza A Virus Polymerase Recruits the RNA Helicase DDX19 to Promote the Nuclear Export of Viral mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Diot, Cédric; Fournier, Guillaume; Dos Santos, Mélanie; Magnus, Julie; Komarova, Anastasia; van der Werf, Sylvie; Munier, Sandie; Naffakh, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing the knowledge of host factors that are required for efficient influenza A virus (IAV) replication is essential to address questions related to pathogenicity and to identify targets for antiviral drug development. Here we focused on the interplay between IAV and DExD-box RNA helicases (DDX), which play a key role in cellular RNA metabolism by remodeling RNA-RNA or RNA-protein complexes. We performed a targeted RNAi screen on 35 human DDX proteins to identify those involved in IAV life cycle. DDX19 was a major hit. In DDX19-depleted cells the accumulation of viral RNAs and proteins was delayed, and the production of infectious IAV particles was strongly reduced. We show that DDX19 associates with intronless, unspliced and spliced IAV mRNAs and promotes their nuclear export. In addition, we demonstrate an RNA-independent association between DDX19 and the viral polymerase, that is modulated by the ATPase activity of DDX19. Our results provide a model in which DDX19 is recruited to viral mRNAs in the nucleus of infected cells to enhance their nuclear export. Information gained from this virus-host interaction improves the understanding of both the IAV replication cycle and the cellular function of DDX19. PMID:27653209

  7. Rift Valley fever virus NS{sub S} gene expression correlates with a defect in nuclear mRNA export

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Van Deusen, Nicole M.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the localization of host mRNA during Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that infection with RVFV altered the localization of host mRNA. mRNA accumulated in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. Further, overexpression of the NS{sub S} gene, but not the N, G{sub N} or NS{sub M} genes correlated with mRNA nuclear accumulation. Nuclear accumulation of host mRNA was not observed in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding NS{sub S}, confirming that expression of NS{sub S} is likely responsible for this phenomenon. - Highlights: • Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection alters the localization of host mRNA. • mRNA accumulates in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. • NS{sub S} is likely responsible for mRNA relocalization to the nucleus.

  8. Latency Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Is Determined by the Interaction of Its Genome with the Nuclear Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Camille; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Texier, Pascale; Takissian, Julie; Rousseau, Antoine; Poccardi, Nolwenn; Welsch, Jérémy; Corpet, Armelle; Schaeffer, Laurent; Labetoulle, Marc; Lomonte, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in trigeminal ganglia (TG) sensory neurons of infected individuals. The commitment of infected neurons toward the viral lytic or latent transcriptional program is likely to depend on both viral and cellular factors, and to differ among individual neurons. In this study, we used a mouse model of HSV-1 infection to investigate the relationship between viral genomes and the nuclear environment in terms of the establishment of latency. During acute infection, viral genomes show two major patterns: replication compartments or multiple spots distributed in the nucleoplasm (namely “multiple-acute”). Viral genomes in the “multiple-acute” pattern are systematically associated with the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein in structures designated viral DNA-containing PML nuclear bodies (vDCP-NBs). To investigate the viral and cellular features that favor the acquisition of the latency-associated viral genome patterns, we infected mouse primary TG neurons from wild type (wt) mice or knock-out mice for type 1 interferon (IFN) receptor with wt or a mutant HSV-1, which is unable to replicate due to the synthesis of a non-functional ICP4, the major virus transactivator. We found that the inability of the virus to initiate the lytic program combined to its inability to synthesize a functional ICP0, are the two viral features leading to the formation of vDCP-NBs. The formation of the “multiple-latency” pattern is favored by the type 1 IFN signaling pathway in the context of neurons infected by a virus able to replicate through the expression of a functional ICP4 but unable to express functional VP16 and ICP0. Analyses of TGs harvested from HSV-1 latently infected humans showed that viral genomes and PML occupy similar nuclear areas in infected neurons, eventually forming vDCP-NB-like structures. Overall our study designates PML protein and PML-NBs to be major cellular components involved in the control of HSV-1 latency

  9. Data for increase of Lymantria dispar male survival after topical application of single-stranded RING domain fragment of IAP-3 gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    PubMed Central

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V.; Laikova, Kateryna V.; Zaitsev, Aleksei S.; Gushchin, Vladimir A.; Skorokhod, Oleksii A.

    2016-01-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled “The RING for gypsy moth control: topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide” [1]. This article reports on significantly higher survival of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar male individuals in response to topical application of single-stranded DNA, based on RING (really interesting new gene) domain fragment of LdMNPV (L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene and acted as DNA insecticide. PMID:27054151

  10. High expression of the Epstein-Barr virus latent protein EB nuclear antigen-2 on pyothorax-associated lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Sasajima, Y.; Yamabe, H.; Kobashi, Y.; Hirai, K.; Mori, S.

    1993-01-01

    Pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) is a rare tumor associated with long-standing tuberculous pyothorax. Most of these lymphomas are B-cell lymphomas of high-grade malignancy. Over 50 cases have been reported in Japan, but no cases have been described in Western countries. Its pathogenesis remains unknown. We studied immunohistologically the expression of Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV) encoded latent gene products, EB nuclear antigen-2 and LMP-1, in four cases of PAL. Fifty B-cell lymphomas unrelated to pyothorax, and five EBV-bearing lymphoblastic tumors produced in severe combined immune deficient mice (severe combined immune deficient-EBV+ tumors) were also studied as controls. Marked expression of EB nuclear antigen-2 was demonstrated on all four PALs. LMP-1 was also present in all cases, but both the staining intensity and the number of stained cells remained less than on severe combined immune deficient-EBV+ tumors. Neither EB nuclear antigen-2 nor LMP-1 was observed in the 50 control B-cell lymphomas. Additional molecular genetic analysis revealed that EBVs are incorporated into each PAL clonally. These results confirm the definite association of EBV with PALs, although the significance of weak expression of LMP-1 awaits further study. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8238246

  11. p32 Is a Novel Target for Viral Protein ICP34.5 of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Facilitates Viral Nuclear Egress*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Yang, Yin; Wu, Songfang; Pan, Shuang; Zhou, Chaodong; Ma, Yijie; Ru, Yongxin; Dong, Shuxu; He, Bin; Zhang, Cuizhu; Cao, Youjia

    2014-01-01

    As a large double-stranded DNA virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) assembles capsids in the nucleus where the viral particles exit by budding through the inner nuclear membrane. Although a number of viral and host proteins are involved, the machinery of viral egress is not well understood. In a search for host interacting proteins of ICP34.5, which is a virulence factor of HSV-1, we identified a cellular protein, p32 (gC1qR/HABP1), by mass spectrophotometer analysis. When expressed, ICP34.5 associated with p32 in mammalian cells. Upon HSV-1 infection, p32 was recruited to the inner nuclear membrane by ICP34.5, which paralleled the phosphorylation and rearrangement of nuclear lamina. Knockdown of p32 in HSV-1-infected cells significantly reduced the production of cell-free viruses, suggesting that p32 is a mediator of HSV-1 nuclear egress. These observations suggest that the interaction between HSV-1 ICP34.5 and p32 leads to the disintegration of nuclear lamina and facilitates the nuclear egress of HSV-1 particles. PMID:25355318

  12. Recombinant adeno-associated virus utilizes host cell nuclear import machinery to enter the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, Sarah C; Samulski, R Jude

    2014-04-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors have garnered much promise in gene therapy applications. However, widespread clinical use has been limited by transduction efficiency. Previous studies suggested that the majority of rAAV accumulates in the perinuclear region of cells, presumably unable to traffic into the nucleus. rAAV nuclear translocation remains ill-defined; therefore, we performed microscopy, genetic, and biochemical analyses in vitro in order to understand this mechanism. Lectin blockade of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) resulted in inhibition of nuclear rAAV2. Visualization of fluorescently labeled particles revealed that rAAV2 localized to importin-β-dense regions of cells in late trafficking steps. Additionally, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of importin-β partially inhibited rAAV2 nuclear translocation and inhibited transduction by 50 to 70%. Furthermore, coimmunopreciptation (co-IP) analysis revealed that capsid proteins from rAAV2 could interact with importin-β and that this interaction was sensitive to the small GTPase Ran. More importantly, mutations to key basic regions in the rAAV2 capsid severely inhibited interactions with importin-β. We tested several other serotypes and found that the extent of importin-β interaction varied, suggesting that different serotypes may utilize alternative import proteins for nuclear translocation. Co-IP and siRNA analyses were used to investigate the role of other karyopherins, and the results suggested that rAAV2 may utilize multiple import proteins for nuclear entry. Taken together, our results suggest that rAAV2 interacts with importin-β alone or in complex with other karyopherins and enters the nucleus via the NPC. These results may lend insight into the design of novel AAV vectors that have an enhanced nuclear entry capability and transduction potential. Use of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors for gene therapy applications is limited by relatively low transduction

  13. Hendra virus V protein inhibits interferon signaling by preventing STAT1 and STAT2 nuclear accumulation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jason J; Wang, Lin-Fa; Horvath, Curt M

    2003-11-01

    The V protein of the recently emerged paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, has been shown to inhibit interferon (IFN) signal transduction through cytoplasmic sequestration of cellular STAT1 and STAT2 in high-molecular-weight complexes. Here we demonstrate that the closely related Hendra virus V protein also inhibits cellular responses to IFN through binding and cytoplasmic sequestration of both STAT1 and STAT2, but not STAT3. These findings demonstrate a V protein-mediated IFN signal evasion mechanism that is a general property of the known Henipavirus species.

  14. Dynamic Response of IFI16 and Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Body Components to Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intrinsic immunity is an aspect of antiviral defense that operates through diverse mechanisms at the intracellular level through a wide range of constitutively expressed cellular proteins. In the case of herpesviruses, intrinsic resistance involves the repression of viral gene expression during the very early stages of infection, a process that is normally overcome by viral tegument and/or immediate-early proteins. Thus, the balance between cellular repressors and virus-counteracting proteins determines whether or not a cell becomes productively infected. One aspect of intrinsic resistance to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is conferred by components of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs), which respond to infection by accumulating at sites that are closely associated with the incoming parental HSV-1 genomes. Other cellular proteins, including IFI16, which has been implicated in sensing pathogen DNA and initiating signaling pathways that lead to an interferon response, also respond to viral genomes in this manner. Here, studies of the dynamics of the response of PML NB components and IFI16 to invading HSV-1 genomes demonstrated that this response is extremely rapid, occurring within the first hour after addition of the virus, and that human Daxx (hDaxx) and IFI16 respond more rapidly than PML. In the absence of HSV-1 regulatory protein ICP0, which counteracts the recruitment process, the newly formed, viral-genome-induced PML NB-like foci can fuse with existing PML NBs. These data are consistent with a model involving viral genome sequestration into such structures, thereby contributing to the low probability of initiation of lytic infection in the absence of ICP0. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses have intimate interactions with their hosts, with infection leading either to the productive lytic cycle or to a quiescent infection in which viral gene expression is suppressed while the viral genome is maintained in the host cell nucleus. Whether a cell

  15. Pseudorabies Virus pUL46 Induces Activation of ERK1/2 and Regulates Herpesvirus-Induced Nuclear Envelope Breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Katharina S.; Liu, XueQiao; Klupp, Barbara G.; Granzow, Harald; Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpesvirus capsid morphogenesis occurs in the nucleus, while final maturation takes place in the cytosol, requiring translocation of capsids through the nuclear envelope. The nuclear egress complex, consisting of homologs of herpes simplex virus pUL31 and pUL34, is required for efficient nuclear egress via primary envelopment and de-envelopment. Recently, we described an alternative mode of nuclear escape by fragmentation of the nuclear envelope induced by replication-competent pUL31 and pUL34 deletion mutants of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV), which had been selected by serial passaging in cell culture. Both passaged viruses carry congruent mutations in seven genes, including UL46, which encodes one of the major tegument proteins. Herpesvirus pUL46 homologs have recently been shown to activate the PI3K-Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, which are involved in regulation of mitosis and apoptosis. Since in uninfected cells fragmentation of the nuclear envelope occurs during mitosis and apoptosis, we analyzed whether pUL46 of PrV is involved in signaling events impairing the integrity of the nuclear envelope. We show here that PrV pUL46 is able to induce phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and, thus, expression of ERK1/2 target genes but fails to activate the PI3K-Akt pathway. Deletion of UL46 from PrV-ΔUL34Pass and PrV-ΔUL31Pass or replacement by wild-type UL46 resulted in enhanced nuclear envelope breakdown, indicating that the mutations in pUL46 may limit the extent of NEBD. Thus, although pUL46 induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation, controlling the integrity of the nuclear envelope is independent of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. IMPORTANCE Herpesvirus nucleocapsids can leave the nucleus by regulated, vesicle-mediated transport through the nuclear envelope, designated nuclear egress, or by inducing nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). The viral proteins involved in NEBD are unknown. We show here that the pseudorabies virus tegument protein pUL46 induces the

  16. A ΩXaV motif in the Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein is essential for degrading p62, forming nuclear filaments and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, Normand; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Lecoq, Lauriane; Guendel, Irene; Chabot, Philippe R.; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Omichinski, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a single-stranded RNA virus capable of inducing fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. A key component of RVFV virulence is its ability to form nuclear filaments through interactions between the viral nonstructural protein NSs and the host general transcription factor TFIIH. Here, we identify an interaction between a ΩXaV motif in NSs and the p62 subunit of TFIIH. This motif in NSs is similar to ΩXaV motifs found in nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors and transcription factors known to interact with p62. Structural and biophysical studies demonstrate that NSs binds to p62 in a similar manner as these other factors. Functional studies in RVFV-infected cells show that the ΩXaV motif is required for both nuclear filament formation and degradation of p62. Consistent with the fact that the RVFV can be distinguished from other Bunyaviridae-family viruses due to its ability to form nuclear filaments in infected cells, the motif is absent in the NSs proteins of other Bunyaviridae-family viruses. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that p62 binding to NSs through the ΩXaV motif is essential for degrading p62, forming nuclear filaments and enhancing RVFV virulence. In addition, these results show how the RVFV incorporates a simple motif into the NSs protein that enables it to functionally mimic host cell proteins that bind the p62 subunit of TFIIH. PMID:25918396

  17. Passage of infectious nuclear polyhedrosis virus through the alimentary tracts of two small mammal predators of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    Treesearch

    R.A. Lautenschlager; J.D. Podgwaite

    1977-01-01

    The white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque, and the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda Say, 2 small mammal predators of the gypsy moth, have demonstrated the ability to pass significant amounts of infectious nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) through their alimentary tracts. Ninety-five percent of the gypsy moth...

  18. Reduced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB p65 in the footpad epidermis of dogs infected with distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Friess, M; Engelhardt, P; Dobbelaere, D; Zurbriggen, A; Gröne, A

    2005-01-01

    Infection of canine footpads with the canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause massive epidermal thickening (hard pad disease), as a consequence of increased proliferation of keratinocytes and hyperkeratosis. Keratinocytes of canine footpad epidermis containing detectable CDV nucleoprotein antigen and CDV mRNA were shown previously to have increased proliferation indices. Because various proteins that play a role in the proliferation of epidermal cells are viral targets, the potential participation of such proteins in CDV-associated keratinocyte proliferation was investigated. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), cell cycle regulatory proteins p21, p27 and p53, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB transcription factor components p50 and p65 were studied in the footpad epidermis from the following groups of dogs inoculated with CDV: group 1, consisting of seven dogs with clinical distemper and CDV in the footpad epidermis; group 2, consisting of four dogs with clinical distemper but no CDV in the footpad epidermis; group 3, consisting of eight dogs with neither clinical distemper nor CDV in the footpad epithelium. Group 4 consisted of two uninoculated control dogs. The expression of TGF-alpha, p21, p27 and p53, and p50 in the basal layer, lower and upper spinous layers, and in the granular layer did not differ statistically between CDV-positive (group 1) and CDV-negative (groups 2-4) footpad epidermis. However, there were differences in the levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic p65 expression between group 1 dogs and the other three groups. Thus, footpads from group 1 dogs had more keratinocytes containing p65 in the cytoplasm and, conversely, fewer nuclei that were positive for p65. These findings indicate that p65 translocation into the nucleus is reduced in CDV-infected footpad epidermis. Such decreased translocation of p65 may help to explain increased keratinocyte proliferation in hard pad disease and suggests interference of CDV with the NF-kappaB pathway.

  19. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the rabies virus P protein requires a nuclear localization signal and a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal

    SciTech Connect

    Pasdeloup, David; Poisson, Nicolas; Raux, Helene; Gaudin, Yves; Ruigrok, Rob W.H. . E-mail: danielle.blondel@vms.cnrs-gif.fr

    2005-04-10

    Rabies virus P protein is a co-factor of the viral RNA polymerase. It has been shown previously that P mRNA directs the synthesis of four N-terminally truncated P products P2, P3, P4, and P5 due to translational initiation by a leaky scanning mechanism at internal Met codons. Whereas P and P2 are located in the cytoplasm, P3, P4, and P5 are found in the nucleus. Here, we have analyzed the molecular basis of the subcellular localization of these proteins. Using deletion mutants fused to GFP protein, we show the presence of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the C-terminal part of P (172-297). This domain contains a short lysine-rich stretch ({sup 211}KKYK{sup 214}) located in close proximity with arginine 260 as revealed by the crystal structure of P. We demonstrate the critical role of lysine 214 and arginine 260 in NLS activity. In the presence of Leptomycin B, P is retained in the nucleus indicating that it contains a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). The subcellular distribution of P deletion mutants indicates that the domain responsible for export is the amino-terminal part of the protein. The use of fusion proteins that have amino terminal fragments of P fused to {beta}-galactosidase containing the NLS of SV40 T antigen allows us to identify a NES between residues 49 and 58. The localization of NLS and NES determines the cellular distribution of the P gene products.

  20. Microscopy based studies on the interaction of bio-based silver nanoparticles with Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Tamilselvan, Selvaraj; Ashokkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Govindaraju, Kasivelu

    2017-04-01

    In the present investigation, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) interactions with Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) were characterized using High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microcopy (AFM) and Confocal Microscope (CM). HR-SEM study reveals that the biosynthesized AgNPs have interacted with BmNPV and were found on the surface. TEM micrographs of normal and viral polyhedra treated with AgNPs showed that the nanoparticles were accumulated in the membrane and it was noted that some of the AgNPs successfully penetrated the membrane by reaching the capsid of BmNPV. AFM and confocal microscopy studies reveal that the disruption in the shell membrane tends to lose its stability due to exposure of AgNPs to BmNPV.

  1. Herpes simplex virus 2 UL13 protein kinase disrupts nuclear lamins

    SciTech Connect

    Cano-Monreal, Gina L.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Cao, Feng; Tavis, John E.; Morrison, Lynda A.

    2009-09-15

    Herpesviruses must cross the inner nuclear membrane and underlying lamina to exit the nucleus. HSV-1 US3 and PKC can phosphorylate lamins and induce their dispersion but do not elicit all of the phosphorylated lamin species produced during infection. UL13 is a serine threonine protein kinase conserved among many herpesviruses. HSV-1 UL13 phosphorylates US3 and thereby controls UL31 and UL34 nuclear rim localization, indicating a role in nuclear egress. Here, we report that HSV-2 UL13 alone induced conformational changes in lamins A and C and redistributed lamin B1 from the nuclear rim to intranuclear granular structures. HSV-2 UL13 directly phosphorylated lamins A, C, and B1 in vitro, and the lamin A1 tail domain. HSV-2 infection recapitulated the lamin alterations seen upon expression of UL13 alone, and other alterations were also observed, indicating that additional viral and/or cellular proteins cooperate with UL13 to alter lamins during HSV-2 infection to allow nuclear egress.

  2. Identification of the Nuclear Export Signal and STAT-Binding Domains of the Nipah Virus V Protein Reveals Mechanisms Underlying Interferon Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jason J.; Cruz, Cristian D.; Horvath, Curt M.

    2004-01-01

    The V proteins of Nipah virus and Hendra virus have been demonstrated to bind to cellular STAT1 and STAT2 proteins to form high-molecular-weight complexes that inhibit interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral transcription by preventing STAT nuclear accumulation. Analysis of the Nipah virus V protein has revealed a region between amino acids 174 and 192 that functions as a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). This peptide is sufficient to complement an export-defective human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein, and deletion and substitution mutagenesis revealed that this peptide is necessary for both V protein shuttling and cytoplasmic retention of STAT1 and STAT2 proteins. However, the NES is not required for V-dependent IFN signaling inhibition. IFN signaling is blocked primarily by interaction between Nipah virus V residues 100 to 160 and STAT1 residues 509 to 712. Interaction with STAT2 requires a larger Nipah virus V segment between amino acids 100 and 300, but deletion of residues 230 to 237 greatly reduced STAT2 coprecipitation. Further, V protein interactions with cellular STAT1 is a prerequisite for STAT2 binding, and sequential immunoprecipitations demonstrate that V, STAT1, and STAT2 can form a tripartite complex. These findings characterize essential regions for Henipavirus V proteins that represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:15113915

  3. Identification of the nuclear export signal and STAT-binding domains of the Nipah virus V protein reveals mechanisms underlying interferon evasion.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jason J; Cruz, Cristian D; Horvath, Curt M

    2004-05-01

    The V proteins of Nipah virus and Hendra virus have been demonstrated to bind to cellular STAT1 and STAT2 proteins to form high-molecular-weight complexes that inhibit interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral transcription by preventing STAT nuclear accumulation. Analysis of the Nipah virus V protein has revealed a region between amino acids 174 and 192 that functions as a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). This peptide is sufficient to complement an export-defective human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein, and deletion and substitution mutagenesis revealed that this peptide is necessary for both V protein shuttling and cytoplasmic retention of STAT1 and STAT2 proteins. However, the NES is not required for V-dependent IFN signaling inhibition. IFN signaling is blocked primarily by interaction between Nipah virus V residues 100 to 160 and STAT1 residues 509 to 712. Interaction with STAT2 requires a larger Nipah virus V segment between amino acids 100 and 300, but deletion of residues 230 to 237 greatly reduced STAT2 coprecipitation. Further, V protein interactions with cellular STAT1 is a prerequisite for STAT2 binding, and sequential immunoprecipitations demonstrate that V, STAT1, and STAT2 can form a tripartite complex. These findings characterize essential regions for Henipavirus V proteins that represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  4. Characterization of a nuclear localization signal in the C-terminus of the adeno-associated virus Rep68/78 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cassell, Geoffrey D.; Weitzman, Matthew D. . E-mail: weitzman@salk.edu

    2004-10-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) replicates in the nucleus of infected cells, and therefore multiple nuclear import events are required for productive infection. We analyzed nuclear import of the viral Rep proteins and characterized a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the C-terminus. We demonstrate that basic residues in this region constitute an NLS that is transferable and mediates interaction with the nuclear import receptor importin {alpha} in vitro. Mutant Rep proteins are predominantly cytoplasmic and are severely compromised for interactions with importin {alpha}, but retain their enzymatic functions in vitro. Interestingly, mutations of the NLS had significantly less effect on importin {alpha} interaction and replication in the context of Rep78 than when incorporated into the Rep68 protein. Together, our results demonstrate that a bipartite NLS exists in the shared part of Rep68 and Rep78, and suggest that an alternate entry mechanism may also contribute to nuclear localization of the Rep78 protein.

  5. The Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 reprograms transcription by mimicry of high mobility group A proteins

    PubMed Central

    Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Mughal, Nouman; Callegari, Simone; Sompallae, Ramakrishna; Caja, Laia; Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; Dantuma, Nico P.; Moustakas, Aristidis; Masucci, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Viral proteins reprogram their host cells by hijacking regulatory components of protein networks. Here we describe a novel property of the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) that may underlie the capacity of the virus to promote a global remodeling of chromatin architecture and cellular transcription. We found that the expression of EBNA1 in transfected human and mouse cells is associated with decreased prevalence of heterochromatin foci, enhanced accessibility of cellular DNA to micrococcal nuclease digestion and decreased average length of nucleosome repeats, suggesting de-protection of the nucleosome linker regions. This is a direct effect of EBNA1 because targeting the viral protein to heterochromatin promotes large-scale chromatin decondensation with slow kinetics and independent of the recruitment of adenosine triphosphate–dependent chromatin remodelers. The remodeling function is mediated by a bipartite Gly-Arg rich domain of EBNA1 that resembles the AT-hook of High Mobility Group A (HMGA) architectural transcription factors. Similar to HMGAs, EBNA1 is highly mobile in interphase nuclei and promotes the mobility of linker histone H1, which counteracts chromatin condensation and alters the transcription of numerous cellular genes. Thus, by regulating chromatin compaction, EBNA1 may reset cellular transcription during infection and prime the infected cells for malignant transformation. PMID:23358825

  6. Humoral markers of active Epstein-Barr virus infection associate with anti-extractable nuclear antigen autoantibodies and plasma galectin-3 binding protein in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, N S; Nielsen, C T; Houen, G; Jacobsen, S

    2016-12-01

    We investigated if signs of active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections associate with certain autoantibodies and a marker of type I interferon activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. IgM and IgG plasma levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse and cytomegalovirus pp52 were applied as humoral markers of ongoing/recently active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections, respectively. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein served as a surrogate marker of type I interferon activity. The measurements were conducted in 57 systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 29 healthy controls using ELISAs. Regression analyses and univariate comparisons were performed for associative evaluation between virus serology, plasma galectin-3 binding protein and autoantibodies, along with other clinical and demographic parameters. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein concentrations were significantly higher in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (P = 0.009) and associated positively with Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse-directed antibodies and the presence of autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens in adjusted linear regressions (B = 2.02 and 2.02, P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, systemic lupus erythematosus patients with anti-extractable nuclear antigens had significantly higher antibody levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (P = 0.02). Our study supports a link between active Epstein-Barr virus infections, positivity for anti-extractable nuclear antigens and increased plasma galectin-3 binding protein concentrations/type I interferon activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

  7. Specific binding of a HeLa cell nuclear protein to RNA sequences in the human immunodeficiency virus transactivating region.

    PubMed Central

    Gaynor, R; Soultanakis, E; Kuwabara, M; Garcia, J; Sigman, D S

    1989-01-01

    The transactivator protein, tat, encoded by the human immunodeficiency virus is a key regulator of viral transcription. Activation by the tat protein requires sequences downstream of the transcription initiation site called the transactivating region (TAR). RNA derived from the TAR is capable of forming a stable stem-loop structure and the maintenance of both the stem structure and the loop sequences located between +19 and +44 is required for complete in vivo activation by tat. Gel retardation assays with RNA from both wild-type and mutant TAR constructs generated in vitro with SP6 polymerase indicated specific binding of HeLa nuclear proteins to the TAR. To characterize this RNA-protein interaction, a method of chemical "imprinting" has been developed using photoactivated uranyl acetate as the nucleolytic agent. This reagent nicks RNA under physiological conditions at all four nucleotides in a reaction that is independent of sequence and secondary structure. Specific interaction of cellular proteins with TAR RNA could be detected by enhanced cleavages or imprints surrounding the loop region. Mutations that either disrupted stem base-pairing or extensively changed the primary sequence resulted in alterations in the cleavage pattern of the TAR RNA. Structural features of the TAR RNA stem-loop essential for tat activation are also required for specific binding of the HeLa cell nuclear protein. Images PMID:2544877

  8. Functional study of hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 induced by Tobacco mosaic virus from nuclear proteome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Kwon, Sun Jae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Ohkmae K.; Paek, Kyung-Hee . E-mail: khpaek95@korea.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied for the screening of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-induced hot pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Bugang) nuclear proteins. From differentially expressed protein spots, we acquired the matched peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) data, analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, from the non-redundant hot pepper EST protein FASTA database using the VEMS 2.0 software. Among six identified nuclear proteins, the hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 (CaRPN7) was subjected to further study. The level of CaRPN7 mRNA was specifically increased during incompatible TMV-P{sub 0} interaction, but not during compatible TMV-P{sub 1.2} interaction. When CaRPN7::GFP fusion protein was targeted in onion cells, the nuclei had been broken into pieces. In the hot pepper leaves, cell death was exacerbated and genomic DNA laddering was induced by Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaPRN7. Thus, this report presents that the TMV-induced CaRPN7 may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in the hot pepper plant.

  9. Functional study of hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 induced by Tobacco mosaic virus from nuclear proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Kwon, Sun Jae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Ohkmae K; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2006-12-15

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied for the screening of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-induced hot pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Bugang) nuclear proteins. From differentially expressed protein spots, we acquired the matched peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) data, analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, from the non-redundant hot pepper EST protein FASTA database using the VEMS 2.0 software. Among six identified nuclear proteins, the hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 (CaRPN7) was subjected to further study. The level of CaRPN7 mRNA was specifically increased during incompatible TMV-P(0) interaction, but not during compatible TMV-P(1.2) interaction. When CaRPN7::GFP fusion protein was targeted in onion cells, the nuclei had been broken into pieces. In the hot pepper leaves, cell death was exacerbated and genomic DNA laddering was induced by Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaPRN7. Thus, this report presents that the TMV-induced CaRPN7 may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in the hot pepper plant.

  10. Nucleoporins nup98 and nup214 participate in nuclear export of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev.

    PubMed

    Zolotukhin, A S; Felber, B K

    1999-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal that is essential for its nucleocytoplasmic export mediated by hCRM1. We examined the role of selected nucleoporins, which are located in peripheral structures of the nuclear pore complex and are thought to be involved in export, in Rev function in human cells. First, we found that upon actinomycin D treatment, Nup98, but not Nup214 or Nup153, is able to translocate to the cytoplasm of HeLa cells, demonstrating that Nup98 may act as a soluble factor. We further showed that Rev can recruit Nup98 and Nup214, but not Nup153, to the nucleolus. We also found that the isolated FG-containing repeat domains of Nup98 and Nup214, but not those of Nup153, competitively inhibit the Rev/RRE-mediated expression of HIV. Taken together, the recruitment of Nup98 and Nup214 by Rev and the competitive inhibition exhibited by their NP domains demonstrate direct participation of Nup98 and Nup214 in the Rev-hCRM1-mediated export.

  11. Involvement of the UL24 protein in herpes simplex virus 1-induced dispersal of B23 and in nuclear egress

    SciTech Connect

    Lymberopoulos, Maria H.; Bourget, Amelie; Abdeljelil, Nawel Ben; Pearson, Angela

    2011-04-10

    UL24 of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is widely conserved within the Herpesviridae family. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that UL24, which we have previously shown to induce the redistribution of nucleolin, also affects the localization of the nucleolar protein B23. We found that HSV-1-induced dispersal of B23 was dependent on UL24. The conserved N-terminal portion of UL24 was sufficient to induce the redistribution of B23 in transient transfection assays. Mutational analysis revealed that the endonuclease motif of UL24 was important for B23 dispersal in both transfected and infected cells. Nucleolar protein relocalization during HSV-1 infection was also observed in non-immortalized cells. Analysis of infected cells by electron microscopy revealed a decrease in the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear viral particles in cells infected with a UL24-deficient strain compared to KOS-infected cells. Our results suggest that UL24 promotes nuclear egress of nucleocapsids during HSV-1 infection, possibly though effects on nucleoli.

  12. Cell cycle regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration in T cells: antagonistic effects of nuclear envelope breakdown and chromatin condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Mannioui, Abdelkrim . E-mail: karim.mannioui@chu-stlouis.fr; Schiffer, Cecile . E-mail: cecile.schiffer@voila.fr; Felix, Nathalie . E-mail: nathalie.felix@chu-stlouis.fr

    2004-11-10

    We examined the influence of mitosis on the kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration in T cells. Single-round infection of cells arrested in G1b or allowed to synchronously proceed through division showed that mitosis delays virus integration until 18-24 h postinfection, whereas integration reaches maximum levels by 15 h in G1b-arrested cells. Subcellular fractionation of metaphase-arrested cells indicated that, while nuclear envelope disassembly facilitates docking of viral DNA to chromatin, chromosome condensation directly antagonizes and therefore delays integration. As a result of the balance between the two effects, virus integration efficiency is eventually up to threefold greater in dividing cells. At the single-cell level, using a green fluorescent protein-expressing reporter virus, we found that passage through mitosis leads to prominent asymmetric segregation of the viral genome in daughter cells without interfering with provirus expression.

  13. The Role of Nuclear Medicine in the Staging and Management of Human Immune Deficiency Virus Infection and Associated Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ankrah, Alfred O; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Klein, Hans C; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Sathekge, Mike

    2017-06-01

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a leading cause of death. It attacks the immune system, thereby rendering the infected host susceptible to many HIV-associated infections, malignancies and neurocognitive disorders. The altered immune system affects the way the human host responds to disease, resulting in atypical presentation of these disorders. This presents a diagnostic challenge and the clinician must use all diagnostic avenues available to diagnose and manage these conditions. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the mortality associated with HIV infection but has also brought in its wake problems associated with adverse effects or drug interaction and may even modulate some of the HIV-associated disorders to the detriment of the infected human host. Nuclear medicine techniques allow non-invasive visualisation of tissues in the body. By using this principle, pathophysiology in the body can be targeted and the treatment of diseases can be monitored. Being a functional imaging modality, it is able to detect diseases at the molecular level, and thus it has increased our understanding of the immunological changes in the infected host at different stages of the HIV infection. It also detects pathological changes much earlier than conventional imaging based on anatomical changes. This is important in the immunocompromised host as in some of the associated disorders a delay in diagnosis may have dire consequences. Nuclear medicine has played a huge role in the management of many HIV-associated disorders in the past and continues to help in the diagnosis, prognosis, staging, monitoring and assessing the response to treatment of many HIV-associated disorders. As our understanding of the molecular basis of disease increases nuclear medicine is poised to play an even greater role. In this review we highlight the functional basis of the clinicopathological correlation of HIV from a metabolic view and discuss how the use of

  14. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 interacts with regulator of chromosome condensation 1 dynamically throughout the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Thibaut; Bazot, Quentin; Leske, Derek M; MacLeod, Ruth; Mompelat, Dimitri; Tafforeau, Lionel; Lotteau, Vincent; Maréchal, Vincent; Baillie, George S; Gruffat, Henri; Wilson, Joanna B; Manet, Evelyne

    2017-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in viral episome replication and segregation, by recruiting the cellular complex of DNA replication onto the origin (oriP) and by tethering the viral DNA onto the mitotic chromosomes. Whereas the mechanisms of viral DNA replication are well documented, those involved in tethering EBNA1 to the cellular chromatin are far from being understood. Here, we have identified regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) as a novel cellular partner for EBNA1. RCC1 is the major nuclear guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Ran enzyme. RCC1, associated with chromatin, is involved in the formation of RanGTP gradients critical for nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle formation and nuclear envelope reassembly following mitosis. Using several approaches, we have demonstrated a direct interaction between these two proteins and found that the EBNA1 domains responsible for EBNA1 tethering to the mitotic chromosomes are also involved in the interaction with RCC1. The use of an EBNA1 peptide array confirmed the interaction of RCC1 with these regions and also the importance of the N-terminal region of RCC1 in this interaction. Finally, using confocal microscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer analysis to follow the dynamics of interaction between the two proteins throughout the cell cycle, we have demonstrated that EBNA1 and RCC1 closely associate on the chromosomes during metaphase, suggesting an essential role for the interaction during this phase, perhaps in tethering EBNA1 to mitotic chromosomes.

  15. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, M.K.; Moon, C.H.; Ko, M.S.; Lee, U.-H.; Cho, W.; Cha, S.J.; Do, J.W.; Heo, G.J.; Jeong, S.G.; Hahm, Y.S.; Harmache, A.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.; Park, J.-W.

    2011-01-01

    The nonvirion (NV) protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the 32EGDL35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the 32EGDL35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV) or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP) were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.). While treatment with poly I:C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I:C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of 32EGDL35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  16. Nuclear Relocalization of Polyadenylate Binding Protein during Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection Involves Expression of the NSs Gene

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Altamura, Louis A.; Van Deusen, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), an ambisense member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus, is the causative agent of Rift Valley fever, an important zoonotic infection in Africa and the Middle East. Phlebovirus proteins are translated from virally transcribed mRNAs that, like host mRNA, are capped but, unlike host mRNAs, are not polyadenylated. Here, we investigated the role of PABP1 during RVFV infection of HeLa cells. Immunofluorescence studies of infected cells demonstrated a gross relocalization of PABP1 to the nucleus late in infection. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies of nuclear proteins revealed costaining between PABP1 and markers of nuclear speckles. PABP1 relocalization was sharply decreased in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding the RVFV nonstructural protein S (NSs). To determine whether PABP1 was required for RVFV infection, we measured the production of nucleocapsid protein (N) in cells transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting PABP1. We found that the overall percentage of RVFV N-positive cells was not changed by siRNA treatment, indicating that PABP1 was not required for RVFV infection. However, when we analyzed populations of cells producing high versus low levels of PABP1, we found that the percentage of RVFV N-positive cells was decreased in cell populations producing physiologic levels of PABP1 and increased in cells with reduced levels of PABP1. Together, these results suggest that production of the NSs protein during RVFV infection leads to sequestration of PABP1 in the nuclear speckles, creating a state within the cell that favors viral protein production. PMID:23966414

  17. Expression of cloned herpesvirus genes. I. Detection of nuclear antigens from herpes simplex virus type 2 inverted repeat regions in transfected mouse cells.

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, M H; Reyes, G R; Ciufo, D M; Buchan, A; Macnab, J C; Hayward, G S

    1982-01-01

    Three different recombinant plasmids containing the entire 15-kilobase L and S inverted repeat sequence of herpes simplex virus type 2 DNA have been introduced into cultured Ltk- or BSC cells by both the calcium and DEAE-dextran transfection procedures. In each case, after 24 h approximately 1% of the cells gave strongly positive nuclear staining when assayed by immunofluorescence with hyperimmune antisera made against early and immediate-early infected-cell polypeptides. The nuclear fluorescence pattern and intensity mimicked that observed within 2 to 3 h after infection of Ltk- cells with either herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 wild-type virus. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (KOStsB2)-infected Ltk- cells under nonpermissive conditions did not express these antigens in the nucleus. Therefore, we conclude that either one or both of the 185,000- and 110,000-molecular-weight immediate early proteins, or some other as yet unknown gene product encoded entirely within the inverted repeats, can be transiently expressed in large amounts in transfected cells in the absence of other viral genes or accompanying virion components. Permanent mouse cell lines derived from transfection with these plasmids by using the thymidine kinase coselection procedure did not express sufficient nuclear antigen to be detectable by immunofluorescence. Images PMID:6292452

  18. Identification of a highly conserved, functional nuclear localization signal within the N-terminal region of herpes simplex virus type 1 VP1-2 tegument protein.

    PubMed

    Abaitua, F; O'Hare, P

    2008-06-01

    VP1-2 is a large structural protein assembled into the tegument compartment of the virion, conserved across the herpesviridae, and essential for virus replication. In herpes simplex virus (HSV) and pseudorabies virus, VP1-2 is tightly associated with the capsid. Studies of its assembly and function remain incomplete, although recent data indicate that in HSV, VP1-2 is recruited onto capsids in the nucleus, with this being required for subsequent recruitment of additional structural proteins. Here we have developed an antibody to characterize VP1-2 localization, observing the protein in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, frequently in clusters in both locations. Within the nucleus, a subpopulation of VP1-2 colocalized with VP26 and VP5, though VP1-2-positive foci devoid of these components were observed. We note a highly conserved basic motif adjacent to the previously identified N-terminal ubiquitin hydrolase domain (DUB). The DUB domain in isolation exhibited no specific localization, but when extended to include the adjacent motif, it efficiently accumulated in the nucleus. Transfer of the isolated motif to a test protein, beta-galactosidase, conferred specific nuclear localization. Substitution of a single amino acid within the motif abolished the nuclear localization function. Deletion of the motif from intact VP1-2 abrogated its nuclear localization. Moreover, in a functional assay examining the ability of VP1-2 to complement growth of a VP1-2-ve mutant, deletion of the nuclear localization signal abolished complementation. The nuclear localization signal may be involved in transport of VP1-2 early in infection or to late assembly sites within the nucleus or, considering the potential existence of VP1-2 cleavage products, in selective localization of subdomains to different compartments.

  19. Comparative analysis of seven viral nuclear export signals (NESs) reveals the crucial role of nuclear export mediated by the third NES consensus sequence of nucleoprotein (NP) in influenza A virus replication.

    PubMed

    Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Kakisaka, Michinori; Yamada, Kazunori; Aida, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    The assembly of influenza virus progeny virions requires machinery that exports viral genomic ribonucleoproteins from the cell nucleus. Currently, seven nuclear export signal (NES) consensus sequences have been identified in different viral proteins, including NS1, NS2, M1, and NP. The present study examined the roles of viral NES consensus sequences and their significance in terms of viral replication and nuclear export. Mutation of the NP-NES3 consensus sequence resulted in a failure to rescue viruses using a reverse genetics approach, whereas mutation of the NS2-NES1 and NS2-NES2 sequences led to a strong reduction in viral replication kinetics compared with the wild-type sequence. While the viral replication kinetics for other NES mutant viruses were also lower than those of the wild-type, the difference was not so marked. Immunofluorescence analysis after transient expression of NP-NES3, NS2-NES1, or NS2-NES2 proteins in host cells showed that they accumulated in the cell nucleus. These results suggest that the NP-NES3 consensus sequence is mostly required for viral replication. Therefore, each of the hydrophobic (Φ) residues within this NES consensus sequence (Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, or Φ4) was mutated, and its viral replication and nuclear export function were analyzed. No viruses harboring NP-NES3 Φ2 or Φ3 mutants could be rescued. Consistent with this, the NP-NES3 Φ2 and Φ3 mutants showed reduced binding affinity with CRM1 in a pull-down assay, and both accumulated in the cell nucleus. Indeed, a nuclear export assay revealed that these mutant proteins showed lower nuclear export activity than the wild-type protein. Moreover, the Φ2 and Φ3 residues (along with other Φ residues) within the NP-NES3 consensus were highly conserved among different influenza A viruses, including human, avian, and swine. Taken together, these results suggest that the Φ2 and Φ3 residues within the NP-NES3 protein are important for its nuclear export function during viral

  20. Two Domains of the V Protein of Virulent Canine Distemper Virus Selectively Inhibit STAT1 and STAT2 Nuclear Import▿

    PubMed Central

    Röthlisberger, Anne; Wiener, Dominique; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes in dogs a severe systemic infection, with a high frequency of demyelinating encephalitis. Among the six genes transcribed by CDV, the P gene encodes the polymerase cofactor protein (P) as well as two additional nonstructural proteins, C and V; of these V was shown to act as a virulence factor. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which the P gene products of the neurovirulent CDV A75/17 strain disrupt type I interferon (IFN-α/β)-induced signaling that results in the establishment of the antiviral state. Using recombinant knockout A75/17 viruses, the V protein was identified as the main antagonist of IFN-α/β-mediated signaling. Importantly, immunofluorescence analysis illustrated that the inhibition of IFN-α/β-mediated signaling correlated with impaired STAT1/STAT2 nuclear import, whereas the phosphorylation state of these proteins was not affected. Coimmunoprecipitation assays identified the N-terminal region of V (VNT) responsible for STAT1 targeting, which correlated with its ability to inhibit the activity of the IFN-α/β-mediated antiviral state. Conversely, while the C-terminal domain of V (VCT) could not function autonomously, when fused to VNT it optimally interacted with STAT2 and subsequently efficiently suppressed the IFN-α/β-mediated signaling pathway. The latter result was further supported by a single mutation at position 110 within the VNT domain of CDV V protein, resulting in a mutant that lost STAT1 binding while retaining a partial STAT2 association. Taken together, our results identified the CDV VNT and VCT as two essential modules that complement each other to interfere with the antiviral state induced by IFN-α/β-mediated signaling. Hence, our experiments reveal a novel mechanism of IFN-α/β evasion among the morbilliviruses. PMID:20427537

  1. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C Interacts with and Enhances the Stability of the c-Myc Oncoprotein▿

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Bharat G.; Murakami, Masanao; Cai, Qiliang; Verma, Subhash C.; Lan, Ke; Robertson, Erle S.

    2008-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human DNA virus to be associated with cancer. Its oncogenic potential was further demonstrated by its ability to transform primary B lymphocytes in vitro. EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is one of a small subset of latent antigens critical for the transformation of human primary B lymphocytes. Although EBNA3C has been shown to modulate several cellular functions, additional targets involved in cellular transformation remain to be explored. EBNA3C can recruit key components of the SCFSkp2 ubiquitin ligase complex. In this report, we show that EBNA3C residues 130 to 190, previously shown to bind to the SCFSkp2 complex, also can strongly associate with the c-Myc oncoprotein. Additionally, the interaction of EBNA3C with c-Myc was mapped to the region of c-Myc that includes the highly conserved Skp2 binding domain. Skp2 has been shown to regulate c-Myc stability and also has been shown to function as a coactivator of transcription for c-Myc target genes. We now show that the EBV latent oncoprotein EBNA3C can stabilize c-Myc and that the recruitment of both c-Myc and its cofactor Skp2 to c-Myc-dependent promoters can enhance c-Myc-dependent transcription. This same region of EBNA3C also recruits and modulates the activity of retinoblastoma and p27, both major regulators of the mammalian cell cycle. The inclusion of c-Myc in the group of cellular targets modulated by this domain further accentuates the importance of these critical residues of EBNA3C in bypassing the cell cycle checkpoints. PMID:18256156

  2. Picornaviruses and nuclear functions: targeting a cellular compartment distinct from the replication site of a positive-strand RNA virus

    PubMed Central

    Flather, Dylan; Semler, Bert L.

    2015-01-01

    The compartmentalization of DNA replication and gene transcription in the nucleus and protein production in the cytoplasm is a defining feature of eukaryotic cells. The nucleus functions to maintain the integrity of the nuclear genome of the cell and to control gene expression based on intracellular and environmental signals received through the cytoplasm. The spatial separation of the major processes that lead to the expression of protein-coding genes establishes the necessity of a transport network to allow biomolecules to translocate between these two regions of the cell. The nucleocytoplasmic transport network is therefore essential for regulating normal cellular functioning. The Picornaviridae virus family is one of many viral families that disrupt the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of cells to promote viral replication. Picornaviruses contain positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes and replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. As a result of the limited coding capacity of these viruses, cellular proteins are required by these intracellular parasites for both translation and genomic RNA replication. Being of messenger RNA polarity, a picornavirus genome can immediately be translated upon entering the cell cytoplasm. However, the replication of viral RNA requires the activity of RNA-binding proteins, many of which function in host gene expression, and are consequently localized to the nucleus. As a result, picornaviruses disrupt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to exploit protein functions normally localized to a different cellular compartment from which they translate their genome to facilitate efficient replication. Furthermore, picornavirus proteins are also known to enter the nucleus of infected cells to limit host-cell transcription and down-regulate innate antiviral responses. The interactions of picornavirus proteins and host-cell nuclei are extensive, required for a productive infection, and are the focus of this review. PMID:26150805

  3. Viral and host cellular transcription in Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus-infected gypsy moth cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Guzo, D; Rathburn, H; Guthrie, K; Dougherty, E

    1992-01-01

    Infection of two gypsy moth cell lines (IPLB-Ld652Y and IPLB-LdFB) by the Autographa californica multiple-enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) is characterized by extremely attenuated viral protein synthesis followed by a total arrest of all viral and cellular protein production. In this study, AcMNPV- and host cell-specific transcription were examined. Overall levels of viral RNAs in infected gypsy moth cells were, at most measured times, comparable to RNA levels from an infected cell line (TN-368) permissive for AcMNPV replication. Northern blot (RNA) analyses using viral and host gene-specific probes revealed predominantly normal-length virus- and cell-specific transcripts postinfection. Transport of viral RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and transcript stability in infected gypsy moth cells also appeared normal compared with similar parameters for AcMNPV-infected TN-368 cells. Host cellular and viral mRNAs extracted from gypsy moth and TN-368 cells at various times postinfection and translated in vitro yielded similar spectra of host and viral proteins. Treatment of infected gypsy moth cells with the DNA synthesis inhibitor aphidicolin eliminated the total protein synthesis shutoff in infected IPLB-LdFB cells but had no effect on protein synthesis inhibition in infected IPLB-Ld652Y cells. The apparent selective block in the translation of viral transcripts early in infection and the absence of normal translation or transcription of host cellular genes at later times is discussed. Images PMID:1560533

  4. Nuclear factors that bind two regions important to transcriptional activity of the simian immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Winandy, S; Renjifo, B; Li, Y; Hopkins, N

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies identified two regions in the U3 region of a molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmac142, that are important to transcriptional activity under conditions of induction as well as basal-level expression (B. Renjifo, N. A. Speck, S. Winandy, N. Hopkins, and Y. Li, J. Virol. 64:3130-3134, 1990). One region includes the NF-kappa B binding site, while the other lies just 5' of this site between nucleotides -162 and -114 (the -162 to -114 region). The fact that the NF-kappa B site mutation attenuated transcriptional activity in uninduced T cells and fibroblasts where activated NF-kappa B would not be present suggested that a factor(s) other than NF-kappa B could be acting through this site. In this study, we have identified a factor which binds to a cis element overlapping the NF-kappa B site. This factor, which we call simian factor 3 (SF3), would play a role in regulation under conditions of basal level expression, whereas under conditions of induction, NF-kappa B would act via this region. SF3 may also bind to an element in the -162 to -114 region. In addition, we have identified two other factors that bind the -162 to -114 region. One, which we designated SF1, is a ubiquitous basal factor, and the other, SF2, is a T-cell-predominant phorbol myristate acetate-inducible factor. Through identification of nuclear factors that interact with the U3 region of the SIVmac142 long terminal repeat, we can gain insight into how this virus is transcriptionally regulated under conditions of basal-level expression as well as conditions of T-cell activation. Images PMID:1501272

  5. Two domains of the V protein of virulent canine distemper virus selectively inhibit STAT1 and STAT2 nuclear import.

    PubMed

    Röthlisberger, Anne; Wiener, Dominique; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes in dogs a severe systemic infection, with a high frequency of demyelinating encephalitis. Among the six genes transcribed by CDV, the P gene encodes the polymerase cofactor protein (P) as well as two additional nonstructural proteins, C and V; of these V was shown to act as a virulence factor. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which the P gene products of the neurovirulent CDV A75/17 strain disrupt type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta)-induced signaling that results in the establishment of the antiviral state. Using recombinant knockout A75/17 viruses, the V protein was identified as the main antagonist of IFN-alpha/beta-mediated signaling. Importantly, immunofluorescence analysis illustrated that the inhibition of IFN-alpha/beta-mediated signaling correlated with impaired STAT1/STAT2 nuclear import, whereas the phosphorylation state of these proteins was not affected. Coimmunoprecipitation assays identified the N-terminal region of V (VNT) responsible for STAT1 targeting, which correlated with its ability to inhibit the activity of the IFN-alpha/beta-mediated antiviral state. Conversely, while the C-terminal domain of V (VCT) could not function autonomously, when fused to VNT it optimally interacted with STAT2 and subsequently efficiently suppressed the IFN-alpha/beta-mediated signaling pathway. The latter result was further supported by a single mutation at position 110 within the VNT domain of CDV V protein, resulting in a mutant that lost STAT1 binding while retaining a partial STAT2 association. Taken together, our results identified the CDV VNT and VCT as two essential modules that complement each other to interfere with the antiviral state induced by IFN-alpha/beta-mediated signaling. Hence, our experiments reveal a novel mechanism of IFN-alpha/beta evasion among the morbilliviruses.

  6. Viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

  7. Nuclear Sensing of Viral DNA, Epigenetic Regulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection, and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. Herpes viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. PMID:25742715

  8. Early events in polyoma virus infection: attachment, penetration, and nuclear entry.

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, R L; Consigli, R A

    1976-01-01

    The plaque-assay technique was used as a tool to determine the optimal conditions for adsorption of polyoma virions to host cells. Using these optimal conditions of adsorption, an electron microscopy study of the early events of infection was performed. By electron microscopy and autoradiography, it was demonstrated that both the viral coat proteins and DNA arrive simultaneously in the nucleus as early as 15 min postinfection. When horseradish peroxidase-labeled virions, pseudovirions, and capsids were used to infect cells, only the particles with nucleic acid or a factor(s) associated with the nucleic acid, i.e., histones, appeared to enter the nucleus. Moreover, when virions were used to infect either permissive or nonpermissive cells, identical early events of viral infection, i.e., adsorption, penetration, and nuclear transport, were observed, suggesting that these early events of infection are a property of the virion and not the host cell. Images PMID:183018

  9. Nuclear Expression of Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Is Associated with Recurrence of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinomas: Role of Viral Protein in Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jing; Jung, Hae Yoen; Lee, Kyu Ho; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Jang, Ja-June; Lee, Kyoung-Bun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays well-known roles in tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in infected patients. However, HBV-associated protein status in tumor tissues and the relevance to tumor behavior has not been reported. Our study aimed to examine the expression of HBV-associated proteins in HCC and adjacent nontumorous tissue and their clinicopathologic implication in HCC patients. Methods: HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV core antigen (HBcAg), and HBV X protein (HBx) were assessed in 328 HBV-associated HCCs and in 155 matched nontumorous tissues by immunohistochemistry staining. Results: The positive rates of HBsAg and cytoplasmic HBx staining in tumor tissue were lower than those in nontumorous tissue (7.3% vs. 57.4%, p < .001; 43.4% vs. 81.3%, p < .001). Conversely, nuclear HBx was detected more frequently in tumors than in nontumorous tissue (52.1% vs. 30.3%, p < .001). HCCs expressing HBsAg, HBcAg, or cytoplasmic HBx had smaller size; lower Edmondson-Steiner (ES) nuclear grade, pT stage, and serum alpha-fetoprotein, and less angioinvasion than HCCs not expressing HBV-associated proteins. Exceptionally, nuclear HBx-positive HCCs showed higher ES nuclear grade and more frequent large-vessel invasion than did nuclear HBx-negative HCCs. In survival analysis, only nuclear HBx-positive HCCs had shorter disease-free survival than nuclear HBx-negative HCCs in pT1 and ES nuclear grade 1–2 HCC subgroup (median, 126 months vs. 35 months; p = .015). Conclusions: Our data confirmed that expression of normal HBV-associated proteins generally decreases in tumor cells in comparison to nontumorous hepatocytes, with the exception of nuclear HBx, which suggests that nuclear HBx plays a role in recurrence of well-differentiated and early-stage HCCs. PMID:27086597

  10. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio; Dietzgen, Ralf G.

    2015-09-15

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.

  11. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A protein regulates CDKN2B transcription via interaction with MIZ-1

    PubMed Central

    Bazot, Quentin; Deschamps, Thibaut; Tafforeau, Lionel; Siouda, Maha; Leblanc, Pascal; Harth-Hertle, Marie L.; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Lotteau, Vincent; Kempkes, Bettina; Tommasino, Massimo; Gruffat, Henri; Manet, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3 family of protein is critical for the EBV-induced primary B-cell growth transformation process. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified 22 novel cellular partners of the EBNA3s. Most importantly, among the newly identified partners, five are known to play direct and important roles in transcriptional regulation. Of these, the Myc-interacting zinc finger protein-1 (MIZ-1) is a transcription factor initially characterized as a binding partner of MYC. MIZ-1 activates the transcription of a number of target genes including the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN2B. Focusing on the EBNA3A/MIZ-1 interaction we demonstrate that binding occurs in EBV-infected cells expressing both proteins at endogenous physiological levels and that in the presence of EBNA3A, a significant fraction of MIZ-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, we show that a trimeric complex composed of a MIZ-1 recognition DNA element, MIZ-1 and EBNA3A can be formed, and that interaction of MIZ-1 with nucleophosmin (NPM), one of its coactivator, is prevented by EBNA3A. Finally, we show that, in the presence of EBNA3A, expression of the MIZ-1 target gene, CDKN2B, is downregulated and repressive H3K27 marks are established on its promoter region suggesting that EBNA3A directly counteracts the growth inhibitory action of MIZ-1. PMID:25092922

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of RNA Structures at the 3'-End of the Hepatitis C Virus Genome.

    PubMed

    Kranawetter, Clayton; Brady, Samantha; Sun, Lizhen; Schroeder, Mark; Chen, Shi-Jie; Heng, Xiao

    2017-09-19

    The 3'-end of the genomic RNA of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) embeds conserved elements that regulate viral RNA synthesis and protein translation by mechanisms that have yet to be elucidated. Previous studies with oligo-RNA fragments have led to multiple, mutually exclusive secondary structure predictions, indicating that HCV RNA structure may be context-dependent. Here we employed a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach that involves long-range adenosine interaction detection, coupled with site-specific (2)H labeling, to probe the structure of the intact 3'-end of the HCV genome (385 nucleotides). Our data reveal that the 3'-end exists as an equilibrium mixture of two conformations: an open conformation in which the 98 nucleotides of the 3'-tail (3'X) form a two-stem-loop structure with the kissing-loop residues sequestered and a closed conformation in which the 3'X rearranges its structure and forms a long-range kissing-loop interaction with an upstream cis-acting element 5BSL3.2. The long-range kissing species is favored under high-Mg(2+) conditions, and the intervening sequences do not affect the equilibrium as their secondary structures remain unchanged. The open and closed conformations are consistent with the reported function regulation of viral RNA synthesis and protein translation, respectively. Our NMR detection of these RNA conformations and the structural equilibrium in the 3'-end of the HCV genome support its roles in coordinating various steps of HCV replication.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 specifically induces expression of the B-cell activation antigen CD23

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.; Gregory, C.D.; Rowe, M.; Rickinson, A.B.; Wang, D.; Birkenbach, M.; Kikutani, H.; Kishimoto, T.; Kieff, E.

    1987-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of EBV-negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells includes some changes similar to those seen in normal B lymphocytes that have been growth transformed by EBV. The role of individual EBV genes in this process was evaluated by introducing each of the viral genes that are normally expressed in EBV growth-transformed and latently infected lymphoblasts into an EBV-negative BL cell line, using recombinant retrovirus-mediated transfer. Clones of cells were derived that stably express the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), EBNA-2, EBNA-3, EBNA-leader protein, or EBV latent membrane protein (LMP). These were compared with control clones infected with the retrovirus vector. All 10 clones converted to EBNA-2 expression differed from control clones or clones expressing other EBV proteins by growth in tight clumps and by markedly increased expression of one particular surface marker of B-cell activation, CD23. Other activation antigens were unaffected by EBNA-2 expression, as were markers already expressed on the parent BL cell line. The results indicate that EBNA-2 is a specific direct or indirect trans-activator of CD23. This establishes a link between an EBV gene and cell gene expression. Since CD23 has been implicated in the transduction of B-cell growth signals, its specific induction by EBNA-2 could be important in EBV induction of B-lymphocyte transformation.

  14. Conserved cell cycle regulatory properties within the amino terminal domain of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Nikhil; Knight, Jason S.; Robertson, Erle S. . E-mail: erle@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-03-15

    The gammaherpesviruses Rhesus lymphocryptovirus (LCV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are closely related phylogenetically. Rhesus LCV efficiently immortalizes Rhesus B cells in vitro. However, despite a high degree of conservation between the Rhesus LCV and EBV genomes, Rhesus LCV fails to immortalize human B cells in vitro. This species restriction may, at least in part, be linked to the EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) and latent membrane proteins (LMPs), known to be essential for B cell transformation. We compared specific properties of EBNA3C, a well-characterized and essential EBV protein, with its Rhesus counterpart to determine whether EBNA3C phenotypes which contribute to cell cycle regulation are conserved in the Rhesus LCV. We show that both EBNA3C and Rhesus EBNA3C bind to a conserved region of mammalian cyclins, regulate pRb stability, and modulate SCF{sup Skp2}-dependent ubiquitination. These results suggest that Rhesus LCV restriction from human B cell immortalization is independent of the conserved cell cycle regulatory functions of the EBNA3C protein.

  15. Mapping of Early and Late Transcripts Encoded by the Autographa californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Genome: Is Viral RNA Spliced?

    PubMed Central

    Lübbert, Hermann; Doerfler, Walter

    1984-01-01

    Early and late transcripts were mapped on the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome by Northern blotting and hybridization with the cloned viral EcoRI fragments. At least 11 early and about 90 late RNAs were compared with over 32 polypeptides synthesized by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected RNA. The latter method, of course, had its limitations also and did not guarantee that all viral RNAs could be detected in this way. A comparison of cytoplasmic and total cellular RNAs showed no clear-cut differences in their size distributions. We found that there were more RNA classes than corresponding proteins encoded by them and mapped by in vitro translation. By using the Berk-Sharp method and analyses of DNA-RNA hybrids by one-dimensional or two-dimensional neutral and alkaline gel electrophoreses, we were unable to adduce evidence for RNA splicing in this viral system. Minor splices, particularly at sites close to the termini of RNA molecules, could not be excluded. Images PMID:16789249

  16. The non-structural protein NS-2 of Bombyx mori parvo-like virus is localized to the nuclear membrane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenghua; Hu, Zhaoyang; He, Yuanqing; Li, Guohui; Kong, Jie; Cao, Jian; Chen, Keping; Yao, Qin

    2011-07-01

    Bombyx mori parvo-like virus (BmPLV) has two complementary single-stranded DNA genome (VD1 and VD2) and owns a self-encoding DNA polymerase motif, but its replication mechanism is unclear. In our previous research, a protein encoded by VD1-ORF1 was indentified in the midgut of BmPLV China Zhenjiang isolate-(BmPLV-Z) infected silkworm larvae via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). This protein was named as non-structural protein 2 (NS2), which showed no similarity to that of parvoviruses. To date, little is known about it. In this study, sequence alignment results showed that NS2 shared homology with some chromosomal replication initiator protein dnaA and DNA-binding response regulators. The ns2 was cloned and expressed in E. coli, and then a polyclonal antibody of the NS2 protein was prepared successfully. The data from real-time quantitative PCR displayed that the transcription of VD1-ORF1 from BmPLV-Z-infected midguts started from 28-h post inoculation (h p.i.) in low amounts, but in high amounts at late stages of infection. Immunofluorescence showed that NS2 ultimately concentrated on the nuclear membrane in BmN cells at late stages, indicating that NS2 might be associated with integral membrane protein.

  17. [Retracted] Nuclear import of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 is mediated by KPNA1, KPNA6 and KPNA7.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jihui; Tang, Zhiqin; Mu, Hong; Zhang, Guojun

    2017-03-01

    We would like to retract the article entitled "Nuclear import of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 is mediated by KPNA1, KPNA6 and KPNA7" published in International Journal of Molecular Medicine 38: 339-406, 2016. The results presented in Fig. 6 have been demonstrated to be unreproducible, and we cannot provide an explanation for this. Furthermore, we have recently identified that the cell cultures used in our experiments were partly contaminated with Mycoplasma, which could have contributed to the irreproducibility of the results. In addition, we are currently in dispute with a colleague who has contributed towards this study, but does not wish to be included as a named author on the paper. We are therefore going to retract this article. All the authors unanimously agree to the retraction of this paper, and we deeply apologize to readers and editors for any inconvenience caused by this retraction. [the original article was published in the International Journal of Molecular Medicine 38: 399-406, 2016; DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2016.2635].

  18. The Nuclear Inclusion a (NIa) Protease of Turnip Mosaic Virus (TuMV) Cleaves Amyloid-β

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hye-Eun; Sellamuthu, Saravanan; Shin, Bae Hyun; Lee, Yong Jae; Song, Sungmin; Seo, Ji-Seon; Baek, In-Sun; Bae, Jeomil; Kim, Hannah; Yoo, Yung Joon; Jung, Yong-Keun; Song, Woo Keun; Han, Pyung-Lim; Park, Woo Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background The nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. NIa was previously shown to possess a relatively strict substrate specificity with a preference for Val-Xaa-His-Gln↓, with the scissile bond located after Gln. The presence of the same consensus sequence, Val12-His-His-Gln15, near the presumptive α-secretase cleavage site of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide led us to hypothesize that NIa could possess activity against Aβ. Methodology/Principal Findings Western blotting results showed that oligomeric as well as monomeric forms of Aβ can be degraded by NIa in vitro. The specific cleavage of Aβ was further confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. NIa was shown to exist predominantly in the cytoplasm as observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The overexpression of NIa in B103 neuroblastoma cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell death caused by both intracellularly generated and exogenously added Aβ. Moreover, lentiviral-mediated expression of NIa in APPsw/PS1 transgenic mice significantly reduced the levels of Aβ and plaques in the brain. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the degradation of Aβ in the cytoplasm could be a novel strategy to control the levels of Aβ, plaque formation, and the associated cell death. PMID:21187975

  19. The nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) cleaves amyloid-β.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye-Eun; Sellamuthu, Saravanan; Shin, Bae Hyun; Lee, Yong Jae; Song, Sungmin; Seo, Ji-Seon; Baek, In-Sun; Bae, Jeomil; Kim, Hannah; Yoo, Yung Joon; Jung, Yong-Keun; Song, Woo Keun; Han, Pyung-Lim; Park, Woo Jin

    2010-12-20

    The nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. NIa was previously shown to possess a relatively strict substrate specificity with a preference for Val-Xaa-His-Gln↓, with the scissile bond located after Gln. The presence of the same consensus sequence, Val(12)-His-His-Gln(15), near the presumptive α-secretase cleavage site of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide led us to hypothesize that NIa could possess activity against Aβ. Western blotting results showed that oligomeric as well as monomeric forms of Aβ can be degraded by NIa in vitro. The specific cleavage of Aβ was further confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. NIa was shown to exist predominantly in the cytoplasm as observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The overexpression of NIa in B103 neuroblastoma cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell death caused by both intracellularly generated and exogenously added Aβ. Moreover, lentiviral-mediated expression of NIa in APP(sw)/PS1 transgenic mice significantly reduced the levels of Aβ and plaques in the brain. These results indicate that the degradation of Aβ in the cytoplasm could be a novel strategy to control the levels of Aβ, plaque formation, and the associated cell death.

  20. Molecular modeling and expression of the Litopenaeus vannamei proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after white spot syndrome virus shrimp infection.

    PubMed

    de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Islas-Osuna, Maria A; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Brieba, Luis G; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2011-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the eukaryotic sliding clamp that tethers DNA polymerase to DNA during replication. The full-length cDNA of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei PCNA (LvPCNA) was cloned and encoded a protein of 260 amino acids that is highly similar to other Crustacean PCNAs. The theoretical shrimp PCNA structure has all the domains that are necessary for its interaction with template DNA and DNA polymerase. RT-PCR analysis showed that LvPCNA is expressed mainly in muscle and hemocytes and much less in hepatopancreas and gills. LvPCNA mRNA levels are not statistically different in muscle from healthy and challenged shrimp with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In contrast, the mRNA levels of the viral DNA polymerase show a biphasic pattern with expression at 6 h post-infection and later at 24 and 48 h. These results suggest that in shrimp muscle LvPCNA levels are steadily kept to allow viral replication and that WSSV DNA polymerase (WSSV-DNApol) is more responsive towards later stages of infection. More knowledge of the DNA replication machinery would result in a better understanding of the mechanism and components of viral replication, since the WSSV genome does not have all the components required for assembly of a fully functional replisome.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Tian, Wen-Dong; Xu, Xia; Nie, Biao; Lu, Juan; Liu, Xiong; Zhang, Bao; Dong, Qi; Sunwoo, John B; Li, Gang; Li, Xiang-Ping

    2014-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded EB nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for maintenance and transmission of the viral episome in EBV-infected cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of EBNA1 protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Tissue samples from 48 patients with NPC and 12 patients with chronic nasopharyngitis were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of EBNA1 expression. EBNA1 combinational DNA was used to overexpress EBNA1 protein in NPC cell lines to assess tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), colony formation, migration and invasion, and gene expression. EBNA1 protein was highly expressed in NPC tissue specimens, and its expression was associated with NPC lymph node metastasis. EBNA1 expression affected NPC cell morphology and the expression of EMT markers in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of EBNA1 inhibited the expression of microRNA 200a (miR-200a) and miR-200b and, in turn, up-regulated expression of their target genes, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 ( ZEB1) and ZEB2, which are well known mediators of EMT. In addition, EBNA1-regulated miR-200a and miR-200b expression was mediated by transforming growth factor-β1. The current findings provided novel insight into the vital role of EBNA1 in manipulating a molecular switch of EMT in EBV-positive NPC cells. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  2. Nucleolin is important for Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 1-mediated episome binding, maintenance, and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Zhao, Bo; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Shen, Chih-Long; Chiu, Shu-Jun; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-wen

    2014-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for EBV episome maintenance, replication, and transcription. These effects are mediated by EBNA1 binding to cognate oriP DNA, which comprise 20 imperfect copies of a 30-bp dyad symmetry enhancer and an origin for DNA replication. To identify cell proteins essential for these EBNA1 functions, EBNA1 associated cell proteins were immune precipitated and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Nucleolin (NCL) was identified to be EBNA1 associated. EBNA1's N-terminal 100 aa and NCL's RNA-binding domains were critical for EBNA1/NCL interaction. Lentivirus shRNA-mediated NCL depletion substantially reduced EBNA1 recruitment to oriP DNA, EBNA1-dependent transcription of an EBV oriP luciferase reporter, and EBV genome maintenance in lymphoblastoid cell lines. NCL RNA-binding domain K429 was critical for ATP and EBNA1 binding. NCL overexpression increased EBNA1 binding to oriP and transcription, whereas NCL K429A was deficient. Moreover, NCL silencing impaired lymphoblastoid cell line growth. These experiments reveal a surprisingly critical role for NCL K429 in EBNA1 episome maintenance and transcription, which may be a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24344309

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure of the Human Polyoma JC Virus Agnoprotein.

    PubMed

    Coric, Pascale; Saribas, A Sami; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Childers, Wayne; Condra, Jon; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut; Bouaziz, Serge

    2017-03-10

    Agnoprotein is an important regulatory protein of the human polyoma JC virus (JCV) and plays critical roles during the viral replication cycle. It forms highly stable dimers and oligomers through its Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain, which is important for the stability and function of the protein. We recently resolved the partial 3D structure of this protein by NMR using a synthetic peptide encompassing amino acids Thr17 to Gln52, where the Leu/Ile/Phe- rich domain was found to adopt a major alpha-helix conformation spanning amino acids 23 to 39. Here, we report the resolution of the 3D structure of full-length JCV agnoprotein by NMR, which not only confirmed the existence of the previously reported major α-helix domain at the same position but also revealed the presence of an additional minor α-helix region spanning amino acid residues Leu6 to Ala10. The remaining regions of the protein adopt an intrinsically unstructured conformation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear sensing of viral DNA, epigenetic regulation of herpes simplex virus infection, and innate immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Knipe, David M.

    2015-05-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. HSV viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. - Highlights: • HSV lytic and latent gene expression is regulated differentially by epigenetic processes. • The sensors of foreign DNA have not been defined fully. • IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to sense viral DNA in HSV-infected cells. • IFI16 plays a role in both innate sensing of HSV DNA and in restricting its expression.

  5. Crystal structure of importin-α bound to the nuclear localization signal of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-LP protein.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Ryohei; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-04-06

    Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-LP protein is a transcriptional coactivator of EBNA2. Efficient nuclear localization of EBNA-LP is essential for cooperation with EBNA2. Here we report the crystal structure of the nuclear import adaptor importin-α1 bound to the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of EBNA-LP that shows EBNA-LP residues 44-RRVRRR-49 binding to the major NLS-binding site at the P0-P5 positions. In contrast to previously characterized classical NLSs that invariably have a basic residue [either lysine (in the vast majority of cases) or arginine] at the P2 position, the EBNA-LP NLS is unique in that it has valine at the P2 position. The loss of the critical P2 lysine (or arginine) is compensated by arginine at the P0 position in the EBNA-LP NLS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Ivermectin is a specific inhibitor of importin α/β-mediated nuclear import able to inhibit replication of HIV-1 and dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Sivakumaran, Haran; Heaton, Steven M.; Harrich, David; Jans, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The movement of proteins between the cytoplasm and nucleus mediated by the importin superfamily of proteins is essential to many cellular processes, including differentiation and development, and is critical to disease states such as viral disease and oncogenesis. We recently developed a high-throughput screen to identify specific and general inhibitors of protein nuclear import, from which ivermectin was identified as a potential inhibitor of importin α/β-mediated transport. In the present study, we characterized in detail the nuclear transport inhibitory properties of ivermectin, demonstrating that it is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of importin α/β nuclear import, with no effect on a range of other nuclear import pathways, including that mediated by importin β1 alone. Importantly, we establish for the first time that ivermectin has potent antiviral activity towards both HIV-1 and dengue virus, both of which are strongly reliant on importin α/β nuclear import, with respect to the HIV-1 integrase and NS5 (non-structural protein 5) polymerase proteins respectively. Ivermectin would appear to be an invaluable tool for the study of protein nuclear import, as well as the basis for future development of antiviral agents. PMID:22417684

  7. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C regulated genes in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Mar, Jessica C.; Maruo, Seiji; Lee, Sungwook; Gewurz, Benjamin E.; Johannsen, Eric; Holton, Kristina; Rubio, Renee; Takada, Kenzo; Quackenbush, John; Kieff, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is an essential transcription factor for EBV transformed lymphoblast cell line (LCL) growth. To identify EBNA3C-regulated genes in LCLs, microarrays were used to measure RNA abundances in each of three different LCLs that conditionally express EBNA3C fused to a 4-OH-Tamoxifen–dependent estrogen receptor hormone binding domain (EBNA3CHT). At least three RNAs were assayed for each EBNA3CHT LCL under nonpermissive conditions, permissive conditions, and nonpermissive conditions with wild-type EBNA3C transcomplementation. Using a two-way ANOVA model of EBNA3C levels, we identified 550 regulated genes that were at least 1.5-fold up- or down-regulated with false discovery rates < 0.01. EBNA3C-regulated genes overlapped significantly with genes regulated by EBNA2 and EBNA3A consistent with coordinated effects on cell gene transcription. Of the 550 EBNA3C-regulated genes, 106 could be placed in protein networks. A seeded Bayesian network analysis of the 80 most significant EBNA3C-regulated genes suggests that RAC1, LYN, and TNF are upstream of other EBNA3C-regulated genes. Gene set enrichment analysis found enrichment for MAP kinase signaling, cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions, JAK-STAT signaling, and cell adhesion molecules, implicating these pathways in EBNA3C effects on LCL growth or survival. EBNA3C significantly up-regulated the CXCL12 ligand and its CXCR4 receptor and increased LCL migration. CXCL12 up-regulation depended on EBNA3C's interaction with the cell transcription factor, RBPJ, which is essential for LCL growth. EBNA3C also up-regulated MYC 1.3-fold and down-regulated CDKN2A exons 2 and 3, shared by p16 and p14, 1.4-fold, with false discovery rates < 5 × 10−4. PMID:21173222

  8. The 91-205 amino acid region of AcMNPV ORF34 (Ac34), which comprises a potential C3H zinc finger, is required for its nuclear localization and optimal virus multiplication.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jianxiang; Tang, Zhimin; Yuan, Meijin; Wu, Wenbi; Yang, Kai

    2017-01-15

    During baculovirus infection, most viral proteins must be imported to the nucleus to support virus multiplication. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf34 (ac34) is an alphabaculovirus unique gene that is required for optimal virus production. Ac34 distributes in both the cytoplasm and the nuclei of virus-infected Sf9 cells, but contains no conventional nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, we investigated the nuclear targeting domains in Ac34. Transient expression assays showed that Ac34 localized in both the cytoplasm and the nuclei of Sf9 cells, indicating that no viral protein is required for Ac34 nuclear localization. Subcellular localization analysis of Ac34 truncations and internal deletions fused with green fluorescent protein in plasmid-transfected Sf9 cells identified that the 91-205 amino acid (aa) region is required for Ac34 nuclear localization. Mutations in a potential C3H zinc finger (aa 116-131) in Ac34 resulted in exclusive cytoplasmic distribution of GFP:Ac34, suggesting that the zinc finger is required for Ac34 nuclear localization. To assess the functional importance of Ac34 in the nucleus during virus replication, recombinant AcMNPV bacmids containing a series of Ac34 truncations, internal deletions, or site mutations fused with HA tags were constructed. Subcellular localization analysis showed that Ac34 with internal deletions in aa 91-205 or site mutations in the potential zinc finger was predominantly distributed in the cytoplasm. Viral plaque assays and virus growth curves indicated that disruption of Ac34 nuclear localization significantly impaired virus replication. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that the nuclear localization of Ac34 requires the 91-205 aa region and its nuclear localization is essential for optimal virus replication.

  9. Identification of Conserved Amino Acids in pUL34 Which Are Critical for Function of the Pseudorabies Virus Nuclear Egress Complex

    PubMed Central

    Paßvogel, Lars; Janke, Una; Klupp, Barbara G.; Granzow, Harald

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids is mediated by a conserved heterodimeric complex of two viral proteins, designated pUL34 and pUL31 in herpes simplex virus and pseudorabies virus (PrV). pUL34, a tail-anchored membrane protein, is targeted to the nuclear envelope and recruits pUL31 to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) to provide the docking and envelopment machinery for the nascent capsid. While the less conserved C-terminal part of pUL34 is required for correct positioning of the nuclear egress complex (NEC) at the INM, the conserved N-terminal part functions as a docking site for pUL31. Since no crystal structure of NEC is available yet, structure-function studies depend on mutational analyses, with several approaches already being performed for different herpesvirus NECs. Here, we extended our studies on PrV pUL34 and identified two asparagine residues (N75, N103) and a dileucine motif (LL166/167), adjacent to an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, which are absolutely required for NEC function. While the pUL34–N75A substitution mutant is unable to interact with pUL31, the pUL34–N103A mutant is nonfunctional, despite continuing complex formation. Surprisingly, mutant pUL34–G77A, which does not efficiently recruit pUL31 to the nuclear rim after cotransfection, nonetheless complements a UL34 deletion mutant, indicating that the NEC may be stabilized by additional viral factors during infection. IMPORTANCE In the absence of a crystal structure of the nuclear egress complex (NEC) required for herpesvirus maturation, site-directed mutagenesis studies provide important information on critical amino acid residues. Here, we identify conserved amino acid residues in the membrane-bound component of the NEC which are relevant for its function. PMID:24648464

  10. Variations of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas from Guangzhou, southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-ning; Zhang, Na-na; Jiang, Ye; Hui, Da-yang; Wen, Zi-jin; Li, Hai-gang; Ding, Yun-gang; Du, Hong; Shao, Chun-kui

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein consistently expressed in all EBV-associated malignancies, and play a critical role in the onset, progression, and/or maintenance of these tumors. Based on the signature changes at amino acid residue 487, EBNA1 is classified into five distinct subtypes: P-ala, P-thr, V-leu, V-val and V-pro. In the present study, the sequence variations of EBNA1 in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) and throat washing (TW) samples of healthy EBV carriers in Guangzhou, southern China, where nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic, were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. V-val subtype was the most predominant (53.6%, 15/28) in EBVaGC, followed by P-ala (42.9%, 12/28) and V-leu (32.1%, 9/28) subtypes. In TWs of healthy EBV carriers, V-val subtype was also predominant (85.7%, 18/21). The sequence variations of EBNA1 in EBVaGC were similar to those in TW of healthy EBV carriers (p>0.05), suggesting that the EBV strains in EBVaGC might originate from the viral strains prevalent within the background population. The predominance of V-val subtype in EBVaGC in Guangzhou was similar to that in EBVaGC in northern China and Japan, but was different from that in EBVaGC in America, suggesting that the variations of EBNA1 in EBVaGC represent geographic-associated polymorphisms rather than tumor-specific mutations. In addition, the EBNA1 variations in EBVaGC in gastric remnant carcinoma were also determined. V-leu subtype was detected in all 4 (100%) cases, although 2 cases occurred as mixed infection with P-ala subtype. This is different from the predominant V-val subtype in EBVaGC in conventional gastric carcinoma, suggesting that V-leu might be a subtype that adapts particularly well to the microenvironment within the gastric stump and enters the remnant gastric mucosa epithelia easily. This, to our best knowledge, is the first investigation of EBNA1 polymorphisms in EBVaGC from endemic area of NPC.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A protein regulates CDKN2B transcription via interaction with MIZ-1.

    PubMed

    Bazot, Quentin; Deschamps, Thibaut; Tafforeau, Lionel; Siouda, Maha; Leblanc, Pascal; Harth-Hertle, Marie L; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Lotteau, Vincent; Kempkes, Bettina; Tommasino, Massimo; Gruffat, Henri; Manet, Evelyne

    2014-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3 family of protein is critical for the EBV-induced primary B-cell growth transformation process. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified 22 novel cellular partners of the EBNA3s. Most importantly, among the newly identified partners, five are known to play direct and important roles in transcriptional regulation. Of these, the Myc-interacting zinc finger protein-1 (MIZ-1) is a transcription factor initially characterized as a binding partner of MYC. MIZ-1 activates the transcription of a number of target genes including the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN2B. Focusing on the EBNA3A/MIZ-1 interaction we demonstrate that binding occurs in EBV-infected cells expressing both proteins at endogenous physiological levels and that in the presence of EBNA3A, a significant fraction of MIZ-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, we show that a trimeric complex composed of a MIZ-1 recognition DNA element, MIZ-1 and EBNA3A can be formed, and that interaction of MIZ-1 with nucleophosmin (NPM), one of its coactivator, is prevented by EBNA3A. Finally, we show that, in the presence of EBNA3A, expression of the MIZ-1 target gene, CDKN2B, is downregulated and repressive H3K27 marks are established on its promoter region suggesting that EBNA3A directly counteracts the growth inhibitory action of MIZ-1. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Variations of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 gene in gastric carcinomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas from Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Liu, Xia; Xing, Xiaoming; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Chengquan; Luo, Bing

    2010-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), the only viral protein consistently expressed in all EBV-associated tumors, is classified into five distinct subtypes: P-ala, P-thr, V-leu, V-val and V-pro based on the signature changes at amino acid residue 487. By now, whether the EBNA1 subtypes preferentially associate with particular malignancies or represent geographical polymorphism remains controversial. In China, most studies of the EBNA1 variations focused on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in endemic area, among which some suggested the V-val subtype is preferentially associated with NPC. To characterize the variations of EBNA1 in NPC non-endemic area in China and to explore the association of EBNA1 variations with EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) and NPC, the C-terminal sequences of EBNA1 were analyzed for 41 EBVaGC, 41 NPC biopsies and 55 throat washing (TW) samples from healthy donors in Northern China. Three major patterns of the EBNA1 variations, V-val, P-thrV and V-leuV, were observed, and V-val was the most common subtype in all the three groups, followed by P-thrV and V-leuV. The distribution of the EBNA1 subtypes among EBVaGC, NPC and healthy donors was not significantly different (P>0.05). In addition, preferential linkages between EBNA1 subtypes and EBNA3C variants were found to exist. There was no evidence that particular EBNA1 subtypes are preferentially associated with EBVaGC or NPC in Northern China, suggesting that EBNA1 gene variations are geographically restricted rather than tumor-specific polymorphisms. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tumor microenvironment contributes to Epstein-Barr virus anti-nuclear antigen-1 antibody production in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ping; Li, Zhiping; Jiang, Yong; Song, Changping; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Huaizhong; Wang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear antigen-1 (NA1) protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is expressed in EBV-infected cells in the microenvironment of cancer. Since immune cells infiltrate abundantly in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumor tissues, we hypothesized that the local tumor microenvironment may perform an important role in the production of antibodies directed at NA1. Furthermore, we hypothesized that anti-NA1 antibody originating in the local microenvironment could be secreted into the saliva of patients with NPC. In the present study, 20 healthy controls and 39 patients with NPC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy were recruited for the study. Saliva and serum samples were collected from the NPC patients, and nasopharyngeal tissue samples from the patients with NPC. The titers of anti-NA1 antibody [immunoglobulin A (IgA)] were determined by ELISA. Expression of NA1, human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related (HLA-DR), cluster of differentiation (CD)80, CD86, CD3, CD4, CD19 and IgA was detected by immunohistochemical staining on paraffin-embedded nasopharyngeal tissue sections. Anti-NA1 antibodies were detected in the serum and saliva samples of the patients with NPC. In infiltrating cells, expression of HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, CD3, CD4, CD19 and IgA was detected, indicating that dendritic cells, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes were all present in the local tumor tissues. Furthermore, expression of EBNA1 protein was detected on the membrane of the NPC tumor cells. Therefore, the NPC tumor microenvironment has the potential to initiate a humoral response to EBNA1 by producing IgA antibodies.

  14. A Novel Antiviral Target Structure Involved in the RNA Binding, Dimerization, and Nuclear Export Functions of the Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kazunori; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Hikono, Hirokazu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Tomii, Kentaro; Saito, Takehiko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Developing antiviral therapies for influenza A virus (IAV) infection is an ongoing process because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. The ideal strategy is to develop drugs that target well-conserved, functionally restricted, and unique surface structures without affecting host cell function. We recently identified the antiviral compound, RK424, by screening a library of 50,000 compounds using cell-based infection assays. RK424 showed potent antiviral activity against many different subtypes of IAV in vitro and partially protected mice from a lethal dose of A/WSN/1933 (H1N1) virus in vivo. Here, we show that RK424 inhibits viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) activity, causing the viral nucleoprotein (NP) to accumulate in the cell nucleus. In silico docking analysis revealed that RK424 bound to a small pocket in the viral NP. This pocket was surrounded by three functionally important domains: the RNA binding groove, the NP dimer interface, and nuclear export signal (NES) 3, indicating that it may be involved in the RNA binding, oligomerization, and nuclear export functions of NP. The accuracy of this binding model was confirmed in a NP-RK424 binding assay incorporating photo-cross-linked RK424 affinity beads and in a plaque assay evaluating the structure-activity relationship of RK424. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and pull-down assays showed that RK424 inhibited both the NP-RNA and NP-NP interactions, whereas size exclusion chromatography showed that RK424 disrupted viral RNA-induced NP oligomerization. In addition, in vitro nuclear export assays confirmed that RK424 inhibited nuclear export of NP. The amino acid residues comprising the NP pocket play a crucial role in viral replication and are highly conserved in more than 7,000 NP sequences from avian, human, and swine influenza viruses. Furthermore, we found that the NP pocket has a surface structure different from that of the pocket in host molecules. Taken

  15. Differential effect of acute and persistent Junin virus infections on the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking and expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins type A and B.

    PubMed

    Maeto, Cynthia A; Knott, María E; Linero, Florencia N; Ellenberg, Paula C; Scolaro, Luis A; Castilla, Viviana

    2011-09-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A and B (hnRNPs A/B), cellular RNA-binding proteins that participate in splicing, trafficking, translation and turnover of mRNAs, have been implicated in the life cycles of several cytoplasmic RNA viruses. Here, we demonstrate that silencing of hnRNPs A1 and A2 significantly reduces the replication of the arenavirus Junín virus (JUNV), the aetiological agent of Argentine haemorrhagic fever. While acute JUNV infection did not modify total levels of expression of hnRNPs A/B in comparison with uninfected cells, non-cytopathic persistent infection exhibited low levels of these cell proteins. Furthermore, acutely infected cells showed a cytoplasmic relocalization of overexpressed hnRNP A1, probably related to the involvement of this protein in virus replicative cycle. This cytoplasmic accumulation was also observed in cells expressing viral nucleoprotein (N), and co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed the interaction between hnRNP A1 and N protein. By contrast, a predominantly nuclear distribution of overexpressed hnRNP A1 was found during persistent infection, even in the presence of endogenous or overexpressed N protein, indicating a differential modulation of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking in acute and persistent JUNV infections.

  16. Role of flanking sequences and phosphorylation in the recognition of the simian-virus-40 large T-antigen nuclear localization sequences by importin-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Marcos R M; Teh, Trazel; Toth, Gabor; John, Anna; Pavo, Imre; Jans, David A; Kobe, Bostjan

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear import of simian-virus-40 large T-antigen (tumour antigen) is enhanced via phosphorylation by the protein kinase CK2 at Ser112 in the vicinity of the NLS (nuclear localization sequence). To determine the structural basis of the effect of the sequences flanking the basic cluster KKKRK, and the effect of phosphorylation on the recognition of the NLS by the nuclear import factor importin-alpha (Impalpha), we co-crystallized non-autoinhibited Impalpha with peptides corresponding to the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of the NLS, and determined the crystal structures of the complexes. The structures show that the amino acids N-terminally flanking the basic cluster make specific contacts with the receptor that are distinct from the interactions between bipartite NLSs and Impalpha. We confirm the important role of flanking sequences using binding assays. Unexpectedly, the regions of the peptides containing the phosphorylation site do not make specific contacts with the receptor. Binding assays confirm that phosphorylation does not increase the affinity of the T-antigen NLS to Impalpha. We conclude that the sequences flanking the basic clusters in NLSs play a crucial role in nuclear import by modulating the recognition of the NLS by Impalpha, whereas phosphorylation of the T-antigen enhances nuclear import by a mechanism that does not involve a direct interaction of the phosphorylated residue with Impalpha. PMID:12852786

  17. Herpesvirus gB-induced fusion between the virion envelope and outer nuclear membrane during virus egress is regulated by the viral US3 kinase.

    PubMed

    Wisner, Todd W; Wright, Catherine C; Kato, Akihisa; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Mou, Fan; Baines, Joel D; Roller, Richard J; Johnson, David C

    2009-04-01

    Herpesvirus capsids collect along the inner surface of the nuclear envelope and bud into the perinuclear space. Enveloped virions then fuse with the outer nuclear membrane (NM). We previously showed that herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins gB and gH act in a redundant fashion to promote fusion between the virion envelope and the outer NM. HSV mutants lacking both gB and gH accumulate enveloped virions in herniations, vesicles that bulge into the nucleoplasm. Earlier studies had shown that HSV mutants lacking the viral serine/threonine kinase US3 also accumulate herniations. Here, we demonstrate that HSV gB is phosphorylated in a US3-dependent manner in HSV-infected cells, especially in a crude nuclear fraction. Moreover, US3 directly phosphorylated the gB cytoplasmic (CT) domain in in vitro assays. Deletion of gB in the context of a US3-null virus did not add substantially to defects in nuclear egress. The majority of the US3-dependent phosphorylation of gB involved the CT domain and amino acid T887, a residue present in a motif similar to that recognized by US3 in other proteins. HSV recombinants lacking gH and expressing either gB substitution mutation T887A or a gB truncated at residue 886 displayed substantial defects in nuclear egress. We concluded that phosphorylation of the gB CT domain is important for gB-mediated fusion with the outer NM. This suggested a model in which the US3 kinase is incorporated into the tegument layer (between the capsid and envelope) in HSV virions present in the perinuclear space. By this packaging, US3 might be brought close to the gB CT tail, leading to phosphorylation and triggering fusion between the virion envelope and the outer NM.

  18. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear and early antigens in patients with infectious mononucleosis and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Halprin, J; Scott, A L; Jacobson, L; Levine, P H; Ho, J H; Niederman, J C; Hayward, S D; Milman, G

    1986-03-01

    A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure titers of IgG antibodies against bacterially synthesized Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen and early antigen in sera from 100 healthy North Americans, 40 North American patients with infectious mononucleosis, and 48 Asian patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. All healthy persons previously infected with Epstein-Barr virus had antibodies to nuclear antigen, and 70% had very low but detectable antibody titers to early antigen. In contrast, patients with mononucleosis had nondetectable or very low levels of antibodies to nuclear antigen and high antibody levels to early antigen. High levels of antibody to early antigen also were seen in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and a decrease in this response during the first 12 months after diagnosis and treatment was a significant prognostic indicator of survival. The probability of survival was 75% for patients whose antibody concentration to early antigen remained constant or decreased, and near 0% for patients with increasing levels of antibody.

  19. Effects of the nuclear localization of the N(pro) protein of classical swine fever virus on its virulence in pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Shen, Liang; Sun, Yuan; Wang, Xiao; Li, Chao; Huang, Junhua; Chen, Jianing; Li, Lianfeng; Zhao, Bibo; Luo, Yuzi; Li, Su; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2014-12-05

    The N(pro) protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. However, it is unknown whether the nuclear localization of N(pro) correlates with the virulence of CSFV in the host. Previously, we showed that the N(pro) protein fused with interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was present only in the cytoplasm. Here, we generated and evaluated a recombinant CSFV vSM-IRF3 harboring the IRF3 gene inserted into the N(pro) gene of the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain. Compared to the even nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-N(pro) fusion expressed by the recombinant CSFV EGFP-CSFV, vSM-IRF3 expressed an IRF3-N(pro) fusion protein that only was localized in the cytoplasm. vSM-IRF3 was markedly attenuated in vitro and in vivo, and the inoculated pigs were completely protected from lethal CSFV challenge, whereas the parental virus as well as EGFP-CSFV exhibited a typical virulent phenotype. Taken together, the nuclear localization of N(pro) plays a significant role in the CSFV replication and virulence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nuclear import via Vpr-Importin {alpha} interactions as a novel HIV-1 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsunori; Yamamoto, Norio; Nonaka, Mizuho; Hashimoto, Yoshie; Matsuda, Go; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsuyama, Megumi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Kato, Shingo; Aida, Yoko

    2009-03-20

    The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises the efficacy of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy and limits treatment options. Therefore, new targets that can be used to develop novel antiviral agents need to be identified. One such target is the interaction between Vpr, one of the accessory gene products of HIV-1 and Importin {alpha}, which is crucial, not only for the nuclear import of Vpr, but also for HIV-1 replication in macrophages. We have identified a potential parent compound, hematoxylin, which suppresses Vpr-Importin {alpha} interaction, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 replication in a Vpr-dependent manner. Analysis by real-time PCR demonstrated that hematoxylin specifically inhibited nuclear import step of pre-integration complex. Thus, hematoxylin is a new anti-HIV-1 inhibitor that targets the nuclear import of HIV-1 via the Vpr-Importin {alpha} interaction, suggesting that a specific inhibitor of the interaction between viral protein and the cellular factor may provide a new strategy for HIV-1 therapy.

  1. Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus: subcellular localization and protein trafficking of BV/ODV-E26 to intranuclear membranes and viral envelopes.

    PubMed

    Beniya, H; Braunagel, S C; Summers, M D

    1998-01-05

    The Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus da26 gene codes for an envelope protein of both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus (ODV). Western blot and temporal analysis of infected cell extracts detected a protein of 26 kDa by 4 h postinfection (p.i.). The amount of protein increased by 16 h p.i. and remained at high levels throughout infection. By 36 h p.i. several additional immunoreactive proteins were detected which migrated at approximately 18 kDa and remained through 96 h p.i. Western blot analysis of purified virus envelope and nucleocapsid preparations revealed that both the 26- and 18-kDa proteins are structural proteins of the envelope of BV and ODV. Immunoelectron microscopy performed at a time when only the 26-kDa species of the protein was present confirmed that the protein located to ODV envelope. The protein was named BV/ODV-E26 to designate incorporation into viral progeny, envelope location, and apparent molecular weight. Studies designed to follow localization of BV/ODV-E26 demonstrated that early in infection, the protein was incorporated into cytoplasmic vesicles and by 16 h p.i., BV/ODV-E26 was detected in the nucleus associated with virus-induced intranuclear microvesicles and ODV envelope. Coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid assays showed that BV/ODV-E26 and FP25K were capable of interacting with each other to form a complex and coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated that cellular actin was a third component of this complex. Together, these data suggest that FP25K and cellular actin may participate in the regulation, or movement through the cell, of baculovirus proteins and/or virus nucleocapsids.

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Recruits CD98 Heavy Chain and β1 Integrin to the Nuclear Membrane for Viral De-Envelopment

    PubMed Central

    Hirohata, Yoshitaka; Arii, Jun; Liu, Zhuoming; Shindo, Keiko; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Sagara, Hiroshi; Kato, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpesviruses have evolved a unique mechanism for nucleocytoplasmic transport of nascent nucleocapsids: the nucleocapsids bud through the inner nuclear membrane (INM; primary envelopment), and the enveloped nucleocapsids then fuse with the outer nuclear membrane (de-envelopment). Little is known about the molecular mechanism of herpesviral de-envelopment. We show here that the knockdown of both CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) and its binding partner β1 integrin induced membranous structures containing enveloped herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) virions that are invaginations of the INM into the nucleoplasm and induced aberrant accumulation of enveloped virions in the perinuclear space and in the invagination structures. These effects were similar to those of the previously reported mutation(s) in HSV-1 proteins gB, gH, UL31, and/or Us3, which were shown here to form a complex(es) with CD98hc in HSV-1-infected cells. These results suggested that cellular proteins CD98hc and β1 integrin synergistically or independently regulated HSV-1 de-envelopment, probably by interacting directly and/or indirectly with these HSV-1 proteins. IMPORTANCE Certain cellular and viral macromolecular complexes, such as Drosophila large ribonucleoprotein complexes and herpesvirus nucleocapsids, utilize a unique vesicle-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport: the complexes acquire primary envelopes by budding through the inner nuclear membrane into the space between the inner and outer nuclear membranes (primary envelopment), and the enveloped complexes then fuse with the outer nuclear membrane to release de-enveloped complexes into the cytoplasm (de-envelopment). However, there is a lack of information on the molecular mechanism of de-envelopment fusion. We report here that HSV-1 recruited cellular fusion regulatory proteins CD98hc and β1 integrin to the nuclear membrane for viral de-envelopment fusion. This is the first report of cellular proteins required for efficient de-envelopment of

  3. Nuclear Localization but Not PML Protein Is Required for Incorporation of the Papillomavirus Minor Capsid Protein L2 into Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Katrin A.; Florin, Luise; Sapp, Cornelia; Maul, Gerd G.; Sapp, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that nuclear domain(s) 10 (ND10) is the site of papillomavirus morphogenesis. The viral genome replicates in or close to ND10. In addition, the minor capsid protein, L2, accumulates in these subnuclear structures and recruits the major capsid protein, L1. We have now used cell lines deficient for promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein, the main structural component of ND10, to study the role of this nuclear protein for L2 incorporation into virus-like particles (VLPs). L2 expressed in PML protein knockout (PML−/−) cells accumulated in nuclear dots, which resemble L2 aggregates forming at ND10 in PML protein-containing cells. These L2 assemblies also attracted L1 and the transcriptional repressor Daxx, suggesting that they are functional in the absence of PML protein. In addition, L2-containing VLPs assembled in PML−/− cells. In order to analyze whether incorporation of L2 into VLPs requires any specific subcellular localization, an L1 mutant defective for nuclear transport and L2 mutants deficient in nuclear translocation and/or ND10 localization were constructed. Using this approach, we identified two independent L2 domains interacting with L1. Mutant L2 proteins not accumulating in ND10 were incorporated into VLPs. Mutant L1 protein, which assembled into VLPs in the cytoplasm, did not incorporate L2 defective for nuclear translocation. The same mutant L2 protein, which passively diffuses into the nucleus, is incorporated into wild-type L1-VLPs in the nucleus. Our data demonstrate that the incorporation of L2 into VLPs requires nuclear but not ND10 localization. PMID:14722267

  4. Sphingosine Kinase 1 Serves as a Pro-Viral Factor by Regulating Viral RNA Synthesis and Nuclear Export of Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complex upon Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Jin; Pritzl, Curtis J.; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Bomb, Kavita; McClain, Mariah E.; Alexander, Stephen; Hahm, Bumsuk

    2013-01-01

    Influenza continues to pose a threat to humans by causing significant morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is imperative to investigate mechanisms by which influenza virus manipulates the function of host factors and cellular signal pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that influenza virus increases the expression and activation of sphingosine kinase (SK) 1, which in turn regulates diverse cellular signaling pathways. Inhibition of SK suppressed virus-induced NF-κB activation and markedly reduced the synthesis of viral RNAs and proteins. Further, SK blockade interfered with activation of Ran-binding protein 3 (RanBP3), a cofactor of chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1), to inhibit CRM1-mediated nuclear export of the influenza viral ribonucleoprotein complex. In support of this observation, SK inhibition altered the phosphorylation of ERK, p90RSK, and AKT, which is the upstream signal of RanBP3/CRM1 activation. Collectively, these results indicate that SK is a key pro-viral factor regulating multiple cellular signal pathways triggered by influenza virus infection. PMID:24137500

  5. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus type 1 nuclear antigen 3C sequence patterns of nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas in northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guocai; Wang, Yun; Chao, Yan; Jia, Yuping; Zhao, Chengquan; Luo, Bing

    2012-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen protein 3C (EBNA3C) is a 992-amino-acid protein that has been shown to play a complex regulatory role in the transcription of viral and cellular genes. In this study, we successfully amplified 26 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGCs), 50 nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) and 27 throat washing (TW) samples from healthy donors. Based on a phylogenetic tree, the samples could be divided into three patterns. 3C-6 was the predominant subtype in northern China, and the variations between the strains sequenced in our study and those from southern China and Japan were similar, but differences were also identified. The distribution of EBNA3C subtypes among EBVaGCs, NPCs and healthy donors was not significantly different. These data suggest that EBNA3C gene variations are geographically restricted rather than tumor-specific polymorphisms.

  6. Nuclear Localization of the C1 Factor (Host Cell Factor) in Sensory Neurons Correlates with Reactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus from Latency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristie, Thomas M.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Sears, Amy E.

    1999-02-01

    After a primary infection, herpes simplex virus is maintained in a latent state in neurons of sensory ganglia until complex stimuli reactivate viral lytic replication. Although the mechanisms governing reactivation from the latent state remain unknown, the regulated expression of the viral immediate early genes represents a critical point in this process. These genes are controlled by transcription enhancer complexes whose assembly requires and is coordinated by the cellular C1 factor (host cell factor). In contrast to other tissues, the C1 factor is not detected in the nuclei of sensory neurons. Experimental conditions that induce the reactivation of herpes simplex virus in mouse model systems result in rapid nuclear localization of the protein, indicating that the C1 factor is sequestered in these cells until reactivation signals induce a redistribution of the protein. The regulated localization suggests that C1 is a critical switch determinant of the viral lytic-latent cycle.

  7. A high-throughput screening system targeting the nuclear export pathway via the third nuclear export signal of influenza A virus nucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Michinori; Mano, Takafumi; Aida, Yoko

    2016-06-02

    Two classes of antiviral drugs, M2 channel inhibitors and neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, are currently approved for the treatment of influenza; however, the development of resistance against these agents limits their efficacy. Therefore, the identification of new targets and the development of new antiviral drugs against influenza are urgently needed. The third nuclear export signal (NES3) of nucleoprotein (NP) is the most important for viral replication among seven NESs encoded by four viral proteins, NP, M1, NS1, and NS2. NP-NES3 is critical for the nuclear export of NP, and targeting NP-NES3 is therefore a promising strategy that may lead to the development of antiviral drugs. However, a high-throughput screening (HTS) system to identify inhibitors of NP nuclear export has not been established. Here, we developed a novel HTS system to evaluate the inhibitory effects of compounds on the nuclear export pathway mediated by NP-NES3 using a MDCK cell line stably expressing NP-NES3 fused to a green fluorescent protein from aequorea coerulescens (AcGFP-NP-NES3) and a cell imaging analyzer. This HTS system was used to screen a 9600-compound library, leading to the identification of several hit compounds with inhibitory activity against the nuclear export of AcGFP-NP-NES3. The present HTS system provides a useful strategy for the identification of inhibitors targeting the nuclear export of NP via its NES3 sequence.

  8. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Claus-Henning; Binz, Anne; Sodeik, Beate; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Bailer, Susanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Progeny capsids of herpesviruses leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. Two viral proteins, the membrane protein pUL34 and the nucleo-phosphoprotein pUL31 form the nuclear egress complex that is required for capsid egress out of the nucleus. All pUL31 orthologs are composed of a diverse N-terminal domain with 1 to 3 basic patches and a conserved C-terminal domain. To decipher the functions of the N-terminal domain, we have generated several Herpes simplex virus mutants and show here that the N-terminal domain of pUL31 is essential with basic patches being critical for viral propagation. pUL31 and pUL34 entered the nucleus independently of each other via separate routes and the N-terminal domain of pUL31 was required to prevent their premature interaction in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal embedded in this domain was not required for nuclear import of pUL31. In the nucleus, pUL31 associated with the nuclear envelope and newly formed capsids. Viral mutants lacking the N-terminal domain or with its basic patches neutralized still associated with nucleocapsids but were unable to translocate them to the nuclear envelope. Replacing the authentic basic patches with a novel artificial one resulted in HSV1(17+)Lox-UL31-hbpmp1mp2, that was viable but delayed in nuclear egress and compromised in viral production. Thus, while the C-terminal domain of pUL31 is sufficient for the interaction with nucleocapsids, the N-terminal domain was essential for capsid translocation to sites of nuclear egress and a coordinated interaction with pUL34. Our data indicate an orchestrated sequence of events with pUL31 binding to nucleocapsids and escorting them to the inner nuclear envelope. We propose a common mechanism for herpesviral nuclear egress: pUL31 is required for intranuclear translocation of nucleocapsids and subsequent interaction with pUL34 thereby coupling capsid maturation with primary envelopment. PMID:26083367

  9. Lysine 242 within helix 10 of the pseudorabies virus nuclear egress complex pUL31 component is critical for primary envelopment of nucleocapsids.

    PubMed

    Rönfeldt, Sebastian; Klupp, Barbara G; Franzke, Kati; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2017-09-06

    Newly assembled herpesvirus nucleocapsids are translocated from the nucleus to the cytosol by a vesicle-mediated process engaging the nuclear membranes. This transport is governed by the conserved nuclear egress complex (NEC), consisting of the alphaherpesviral pUL34 and pUL31 homologs. The NEC is not only required for efficient nuclear egress but also sufficient for vesicle formation from the inner nuclear membrane (INM) as well as from synthetic lipid bilayers. The recently solved crystal structures for the NECs from different herpesviruses revealed molecular details of this membrane deformation and scission machinery uncovering the interfaces involved in complex and coat formation. However, the interaction domain with the nucleocapsid remained undefined. Since the NEC assembles a curved hexagonal coat on the nucleoplasmic side of the INM consisting of tightly interwoven pUL31/pUL34 heterodimers arranged in hexamers, only the membrane-distal end of the NEC formed by pUL31 residues appears accessible for interaction with the nucleocapsid cargo. To identify the amino acids involved in capsid incorporation we mutated the corresponding regions in the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV). Site-specifically mutated pUL31 were tested for localization, interaction with pUL34 and complementation of PrV-ΔUL31. Here, we identify a conserved lysine residue at amino acid position 242 in PrV pUL31 located in the alpha-helical domain H10 exposed on the membrane-distal end of the NEC as a key residue for nucleocapsid incorporation into the nascent primary particle.IMPORTANCE Vesicular transport through the nuclear envelope is a focus of research but still not well understood. Herpesviruses pioneered this mechanism for translocation of the newly assembled nucleocapsid from the nucleus into the cytosol via vesicles derived from the inner nuclear membrane which fuse in a well-tuned process with the outer nuclear membrane to release their content. The structure of the viral

  10. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3 (EBNA3) Proteins Regulate EBNA2 Binding to Distinct RBPJ Genomic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anqi; Welch, Rene; Zhao, Bo; Ta, Tram; Keleş, Sündüz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latent infection of B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in vitro results in their immortalization into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs); this latency program is controlled by the EBNA2 viral transcriptional activator, which targets promoters via RBPJ, a DNA binding protein in the Notch signaling pathway. Three other EBNA3 proteins (EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C) interact with RBPJ to regulate cell gene expression. The mechanism by which EBNAs regulate different genes via RBPJ remains unclear. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis of the EBNA3 proteins analyzed in concert with prior EBNA2 and RBPJ data demonstrated that EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C bind to distinct, partially overlapping genomic locations. Although RBPJ interaction is critical for EBNA3A and EBNA3C growth effects, only 30 to 40% of EBNA3-bound sites colocalize with RBPJ. Using LCLs conditional for EBNA3A or EBNA3C activity, we demonstrate that EBNA2 binding at sites near EBNA3A- or EBNA3C-regulated genes is specifically regulated by the respective EBNA3. To investigate EBNA3 binding specificity, we identified sequences and transcription factors enriched at EBNA3A-, EBNA3B-, and EBNA3C-bound sites. This confirmed the prior observation that IRF4 is enriched at EBNA3A- and EBNA3C-bound sites and revealed IRF4 enrichment at EBNA3B-bound sites. Using IRF4-negative BJAB cells, we demonstrate that IRF4 is essential for EBNA3C, but not EBNA3A or EBNA3B, binding to specific sites. These results support a model in which EBNA2 and EBNA3s compete for distinct subsets of RBPJ sites to regulate cell genes and where EBNA3 subset specificity is determined by interactions with other cell transcription factors. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent gene products cause human cancers and transform B lymphocytes into immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines in vitro. EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) and membrane proteins constitutively activate pathways important for

  11. A Novel Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein-Like Protein Interacts with NS1 of the Minute Virus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Colin E.; Boden, Richard A.; Astell, Caroline R.

    1999-01-01

    NS1, the major nonstructural parvovirus protein of the minute virus of mice, is a multifunctional protein responsible for several aspects of viral replication. NS1 transactivates the P38 promoter (used to express the structural proteins), as well as its own strong promoter, P4. To study the mechanism of activation and to map regions of NS1 responsible for transactivation, NS1 and various deletions of NS1 were cloned in frame with the GAL4DB and cotransfected into COS-7 and LA9 cells with a synthetic GAL4-responsive reporter plasmid. These studies showed NS1 can directly activate transcription through its 129 carboxyl-terminal amino acid residues. Any deletion from this region of the C terminus, even as few as 8 amino acids, completely abolishes transactivation. A yeast two-hybrid system used to identify protein-protein interactions demonstrated that NS1 is able to dimerize when expressed in yeast cells. However, only an almost complete NS11–638 bait was able to interact with the full-length NS1. A two-hybrid screen identified a HeLa cell cDNA clone (NS1-associated protein 1 [NSAP1]) that interacts with NS11–276 and NS11–638. An additional sequence was predicted from human EST (expressed sequence tag) data, and the cDNA was estimated to be at least 2,221 bp long, potentially encoding a 562-amino-acid protein product. A polyclonal antibody raised to a synthetic peptide within NSAP1 recognizes an ∼65-kDa cellular protein. This NSAP1 cDNA has not previously been characterized, but the predicted protein sequence is 80% identical to the recently identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) R (W. Hassfeld et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 26:439–445, 1998). NSAP1 contains four ribonucleoprotein domains, as well as a highly repetitive C-terminal region. A closely related mouse cDNA (deduced from murine EST data) encodes a protein with only a single amino acid residue change from the human protein. NSAP1 is predicted to be a 65-kDa polynucleotide binding

  12. A redundant nuclear protein binding site contributes to negative regulation of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat.

    PubMed

    Bramblett, D; Hsu, C L; Lozano, M; Earnest, K; Fabritius, C; Dudley, J

    1995-12-01

    The tissue specificity of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) expression is controlled by regulatory elements in the MMTV long terminal repeat (LTR). These regulatory elements include the hormone response element, located approximately between -200 and -75, as well as binding sites for NF-1, Oct-1 (OTF-1), and mammary gland enhancer factors. Naturally occurring MMTV deletion variants isolated from T-cell and kidney tumors, transgenic-mouse experiments with MMTV LTR deletions, and transient transfection assays with LTR constructs indicate that there are additional transcription regulatory elements, including a negative regulatory element (NRE), located upstream of the hormone response element. To further define this regulatory region, we have constructed a series of BAL 31 deletion mutants in the MMTV LTR for use in transient transfection assays. These assays indicated that deletion of two regions (referred to as promoter-distal and -proximal NREs) between -637 and -201 elevated basal MMTV promoter activity in the absence of glucocorticoids. The region between -637 and -264 was surveyed for the presence of nuclear protein binding sites by gel retardation assays. Only one type of protein complex (referred to as NRE-binding protein or NBP) bound exclusively to sites that mapped to the promoter-distal and -proximal NREs identified by BAL 31 mutations. The promoter-proximal binding site was mapped further by linker substitution mutations and transfection assays. Mutations that mapped to a region containing an inverted repeat beginning at -287 relative to the start of transcription elevated basal expression of a reporter gene driven by the MMTV LTR. A 59-bp DNA fragment from the distal NRE also bound the NBP complex. Gel retardation assays showed that mutations within both inverted repeats of the proximal NRE eliminated NBP binding and mutations within single repeats altered NBP binding. Intriguingly, the NBP complex was detected in extracts from T cells and lung cells but

  13. A redundant nuclear protein binding site contributes to negative regulation of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Bramblett, D; Hsu, C L; Lozano, M; Earnest, K; Fabritius, C; Dudley, J

    1995-01-01

    The tissue specificity of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) expression is controlled by regulatory elements in the MMTV long terminal repeat (LTR). These regulatory elements include the hormone response element, located approximately between -200 and -75, as well as binding sites for NF-1, Oct-1 (OTF-1), and mammary gland enhancer factors. Naturally occurring MMTV deletion variants isolated from T-cell and kidney tumors, transgenic-mouse experiments with MMTV LTR deletions, and transient transfection assays with LTR constructs indicate that there are additional transcription regulatory elements, including a negative regulatory element (NRE), located upstream of the hormone response element. To further define this regulatory region, we have constructed a series of BAL 31 deletion mutants in the MMTV LTR for use in transient transfection assays. These assays indicated that deletion of two regions (referred to as promoter-distal and -proximal NREs) between -637 and -201 elevated basal MMTV promoter activity in the absence of glucocorticoids. The region between -637 and -264 was surveyed for the presence of nuclear protein binding sites by gel retardation assays. Only one type of protein complex (referred to as NRE-binding protein or NBP) bound exclusively to sites that mapped to the promoter-distal and -proximal NREs identified by BAL 31 mutations. The promoter-proximal binding site was mapped further by linker substitution mutations and transfection assays. Mutations that mapped to a region containing an inverted repeat beginning at -287 relative to the start of transcription elevated basal expression of a reporter gene driven by the MMTV LTR. A 59-bp DNA fragment from the distal NRE also bound the NBP complex. Gel retardation assays showed that mutations within both inverted repeats of the proximal NRE eliminated NBP binding and mutations within single repeats altered NBP binding. Intriguingly, the NBP complex was detected in extracts from T cells and lung cells but

  14. Genome-wide analysis of host-chromosome binding sites for Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1).

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang; Wikramasinghe, Priyankara; Norseen, Julie; Tsai, Kevin; Wang, Pu; Showe, Louise; Davuluri, Ramana V; Lieberman, Paul M

    2010-10-07

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in proliferating B-lymphocytes. EBNA1 is a multifunctional DNA-binding protein that stimulates DNA replication at the viral origin of plasmid replication (OriP), regulates transcription of viral and cellular genes, and tethers the viral episome to the cellular chromosome. EBNA1 also provides a survival function to B-lymphocytes, potentially through its ability to alter cellular gene expression. To better understand these various functions of EBNA1, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the viral and cellular DNA sites associated with EBNA1 protein in a latently infected Burkitt lymphoma B-cell line. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) combined with massively parallel deep-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) was used to identify cellular sites bound by EBNA1. Sites identified by ChIP-Seq were validated by conventional real-time PCR, and ChIP-Seq provided quantitative, high-resolution detection of the known EBNA1 binding sites on the EBV genome at OriP and Qp. We identified at least one cluster of unusually high-affinity EBNA1 binding sites on chromosome 11, between the divergent FAM55 D and FAM55B genes. A consensus for all cellular EBNA1 binding sites is distinct from those derived from the known viral binding sites, suggesting that some of these sites are indirectly bound by EBNA1. EBNA1 also bound close to the transcriptional start sites of a large number of cellular genes, including HDAC3, CDC7, and MAP3K1, which we show are positively regulated by EBNA1. EBNA1 binding sites were enriched in some repetitive elements, especially LINE 1 retrotransposons, and had weak correlations with histone modifications and ORC binding. We conclude that EBNA1 can interact with a large number of cellular genes and chromosomal loci in latently infected cells, but that these sites are likely to represent a complex ensemble of direct and indirect EBNA1 binding sites.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of host-chromosome binding sites for Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in proliferating B-lymphocytes. EBNA1 is a multifunctional DNA-binding protein that stimulates DNA replication at the viral origin of plasmid replication (OriP), regulates transcription of viral and cellular genes, and tethers the viral episome to the cellular chromosome. EBNA1 also provides a survival function to B-lymphocytes, potentially through its ability to alter cellular gene expression. To better understand these various functions of EBNA1, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the viral and cellular DNA sites associated with EBNA1 protein in a latently infected Burkitt lymphoma B-cell line. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) combined with massively parallel deep-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) was used to identify cellular sites bound by EBNA1. Sites identified by ChIP-Seq were validated by conventional real-time PCR, and ChIP-Seq provided quantitative, high-resolution detection of the known EBNA1 binding sites on the EBV genome at OriP and Qp. We identified at least one cluster of unusually high-affinity EBNA1 binding sites on chromosome 11, between the divergent FAM55 D and FAM55B genes. A consensus for all cellular EBNA1 binding sites is distinct from those derived from the known viral binding sites, suggesting that some of these sites are indirectly bound by EBNA1. EBNA1 also bound close to the transcriptional start sites of a large number of cellular genes, including HDAC3, CDC7, and MAP3K1, which we show are positively regulated by EBNA1. EBNA1 binding sites were enriched in some repetitive elements, especially LINE 1 retrotransposons, and had weak correlations with histone modifications and ORC binding. We conclude that EBNA1 can interact with a large number of cellular genes and chromosomal loci in latently infected cells, but that these sites are likely to represent a complex ensemble of direct and indirect EBNA1 binding sites. PMID

  16. A novel nuclear export signal and a REF interaction domain both promote mRNA export by the Epstein-Barr virus EB2 protein.

    PubMed

    Hiriart, Edwige; Farjot, Geraldine; Gruffat, Henri; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Sergeant, Alain; Manet, Evelyne

    2003-01-03

    A striking characteristic of mRNA export factors is that they shuttle continuously between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. This shuttling is mediated by specific factors interacting with peptide motifs called nuclear export signals (NES) and nuclear localization signals. We have identified a novel CRM-1-independent transferable NES and two nuclear localization signals in the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor EB2 (also called BMLF1, Mta, or SM) localized at the N terminus of the protein between amino acids 61 and 146. We have also found that a previously described double NES (amino acids 213-236) does not mediate the nuclear shuttling of EB2, but is an interaction domain with the cellular export factor REF in vitro. This newly characterized REF interaction domain is essential for EB2-mediated mRNA export. Accordingly, in vivo, EB2 is found in complexes containing REF as well as the cellular factor TAP. However, these interactions are RNase-sensitive, suggesting that the RNA is an essential component of these complexes.

  17. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gB and gH function in fusion between the virion envelope and the outer nuclear membrane.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, Aaron; Wisner, Todd W; Webb, Michael; Roller, Richard; Cohen, Gary; Eisenberg, Roselyn; Johnson, David C

    2007-06-12

    Herpesviruses must traverse the nuclear envelope to gain access to the cytoplasm and, ultimately, to exit cells. It is believed that herpesvirus nucleocapsids enter the perinuclear space by budding through the inner nuclear membrane (NM). To reach the cytoplasm these enveloped particles must fuse with the outer NM and the unenveloped capsids then acquire a second envelope in the trans-Golgi network. Little is known about the process by which herpesviruses virions fuse with the outer NM. Here we show that a herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutant lacking both the two putative fusion glycoproteins gB and gH failed to cross the nuclear envelope. Enveloped virions accumulated in the perinuclear space or in membrane vesicles that bulged into the nucleoplasm (herniations). By contrast, mutants lacking just gB or gH showed only minor or no defects in nuclear egress. We concluded that either HSV gB or gH can promote fusion between the virion envelope and the outer NM. It is noteworthy that fusion associated with HSV entry requires the cooperative action of both gB and gH, suggesting that the two types of fusion (egress versus entry) are dissimilar processes.

  18. The C Terminus of the Herpes Simplex Virus UL25 Protein Is Required for Release of Viral Genomes from Capsids Bound to Nuclear Pores.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Jamie B; Daniel, Gina R; Falck-Pedersen, Erik; Huet, Alexis; Smith, Greg A; Conway, James F; Homa, Fred L

    2017-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) capsid is released into the cytoplasm after fusion of viral and host membranes, whereupon dynein-dependent trafficking along microtubules targets it to the nuclear envelope. Binding of the capsid to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by the capsid protein pUL25 and the capsid-tethered tegument protein pUL36. Temperature-sensitive mutants in both pUL25 and pUL36 dock at the NPC but fail to release DNA. The uncoating reaction has been difficult to study due to the rapid release of the genome once the capsid interacts with the nuclear pore. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a truncation mutant of pUL25. Live-cell imaging and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the mutant was not impaired in penetration of the host cell or in trafficking of the capsid to the nuclear membrane. However, expression of viral proteins was absent or significantly delayed in cells infected with the pUL25 mutant virus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed capsids accumulated at nuclear pores that retained the viral genome for at least 4 h postinfection. In addition, cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of virion capsids did not detect any obvious differences in the location or structural organization for the pUL25 or pUL36 proteins on the pUL25 mutant capsids. Further, in contrast to wild-type virus, the antiviral response mediated by the viral DNA-sensing cyclic guanine adenine synthase (cGAS) was severely compromised for the pUL25 mutant. These results demonstrate that the pUL25 capsid protein has a critical role in releasing viral DNA from NPC-bound capsids.IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. Early steps in infection include release of the capsid into the cytoplasm, docking of the capsid at a nuclear pore, and release of the viral genome into the nucleus

  19. Tap and Dbp5, but not Gag, are involved in DR-mediated nuclear export of unspliced Rous sarcoma virus RNA

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, Jason J.; Uddowla, Sabena; Abraham, Benjamin; Clatterbuck, Sarah; Beemon, Karen L. . E-mail: KLB@jhu.edu

    2007-07-05

    All retroviruses must circumvent cellular restrictions on the export of unspliced RNAs from the nucleus. While the unspliced RNA export pathways for HIV and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus are well characterized, that of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is not. We have previously reported that the RSV direct repeat (DR) elements are involved in the cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced viral RNA. Here, using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we demonstrate that unspliced viral RNAs bearing a single point mutation (G8863C) in the DR exhibit a restricted cellular localization in and around the nucleus. In contrast, wild type unspliced viral RNA had a diffuse localization throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm. Since the RSV Gag protein has a transient localization in the nucleus, we examined the effect of Gag over-expression on a DR-mediated reporter construct. While Gag did not enhance DR-mediated nuclear export, the dominant-negative expression of two cellular export factors, Tap and Dbp5, inhibited expression of the same reporter construct. Furthermore, FISH studies using the dominant-negative Dbp5 demonstrated that unspliced wild type RSV RNA was retained within the nucleus. Taken together, these results further implicate the DR in nuclear RNA export through interactions with Tap and Dbp5.

  20. The Nuclear and Adherent Junction Complex Component Protein Ubinuclein Negatively Regulates the Productive Cycle of Epstein-Barr Virus in Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Gruffat, Henri; Lupo, Julien; Morand, Patrice; Boyer, Véronique; Manet, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) productive cycle is initiated by the expression of the viral trans-activator EB1 (also called Zebra, Zta, or BZLF1), which belongs to the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family. We have previously identified the cellular NACos (nuclear and adherent junction complex components) protein ubinuclein (Ubn-1) as a partner for EB1, but the function of this complex has never been studied. Here, we have evaluated the consequences of this interaction on the EBV productive cycle and find that Ubn-1 overexpression represses the EBV productive cycle whereas Ubn-1 downregulation by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) increases virus production. By a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, we show that Ubn-1 blocks EB1-DNA interaction. We also show that in epithelial cells, relocalization and sequestration of Ubn-1 to the tight junctions of nondividing cells allow increased activation of the productive cycle. We propose a model in which Ubn-1 is a modulator of the EBV productive cycle: in proliferating epithelial cells, Ubn-1 is nuclear and inhibits activation of the productive cycle, whereas in differentiated cells, Ubn-1 is sequestrated to tight junctions, thereby allowing EB1 to fully function in the nucleus. PMID:21084479

  1. The nuclear and adherent junction complex component protein ubinuclein negatively regulates the productive cycle of Epstein-Barr virus in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gruffat, Henri; Lupo, Julien; Morand, Patrice; Boyer, Véronique; Manet, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) productive cycle is initiated by the expression of the viral trans-activator EB1 (also called Zebra, Zta, or BZLF1), which belongs to the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family. We have previously identified the cellular NACos (nuclear and adherent junction complex components) protein ubinuclein (Ubn-1) as a partner for EB1, but the function of this complex has never been studied. Here, we have evaluated the consequences of this interaction on the EBV productive cycle and find that Ubn-1 overexpression represses the EBV productive cycle whereas Ubn-1 downregulation by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) increases virus production. By a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, we show that Ubn-1 blocks EB1-DNA interaction. We also show that in epithelial cells, relocalization and sequestration of Ubn-1 to the tight junctions of nondividing cells allow increased activation of the productive cycle. We propose a model in which Ubn-1 is a modulator of the EBV productive cycle: in proliferating epithelial cells, Ubn-1 is nuclear and inhibits activation of the productive cycle, whereas in differentiated cells, Ubn-1 is sequestrated to tight junctions, thereby allowing EB1 to fully function in the nucleus.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Viral Responsive Protein 15 and Its Possible Role in Nuclear Export of Virus in Black Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Jaturontakul, Krisadaporn; Jatuyosporn, Thapanan; Laohawutthichai, Pasunee; Kim, Sun-Yong; Mori, Tomoyuki; Supungul, Premruethai; Hakoshima, Toshio; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Krusong, Kuakarun

    2017-07-26

    A viral responsive protein 15 from Penaeus monodon (PmVRP15) has been reported to be important for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in vivo. This work aims to characterize PmVRP15 and investigate its possible role in nuclear import/export of the virus. Circular dichroism spectra showed that PmVRP15 contains high helical contents (82%). Analytical ultracentrifugation suggested that PmVRP15 could possibly form oligomers in solution. A subcellular fractionation study showed that PmVRP15 was found in heavy and light membrane fractions, indicating that PmVRP15 may be associated with endoplasmic reticulum. Double-stranded RNAi-mediated knockdown of PmVRP15 gene expression in vitro showed no effect on WSSV copy number in whole hemocyte cells. However, PmVRP15 silencing resulted in an accumulation of WSSV DNA in the nucleus of PmVRP15-silenced hemocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed that PmVRP15 knockdown hemocytes had a much lower level of VP28 (WSSV envelope protein), in comparison to that in the control. It is likely that PmVRP15 may play a role in viral nuclear egress.

  3. Interference of fisetin with targets of the nuclear factor-κB signal transduction pathway activated by Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Liang, Hong-Ying; Li, Ming-Yong; Lin, Chun-Yan; Shi, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Xiu-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Fisetin is an effective compound extracted from lacquer which has been used in the treatment of various diseases. Preliminary data indicate that it also exerts specific anti-cancer effects. However, the manner in which fisetin regulates cancer growth remains unknown. In this study, we elucidated interference of fisetin with targets of the nuclear factorκB signal transduction pathway activated by Epstein-Barr virus encoding latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1)in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, Results showed that fisetin inhibited the survival rate of CNE-LMP1 cells and NF-κB activation caused by LMP1. Fisetin also suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65) and IκBα phosphorylation, while inhibiting CyclinD1, all key targets of the NF-κB signal transduction pathway. It was suggested that interference effects of fisetin with signal transduction activated by LMP1 encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus may play an important role in its anticancer potential.

  4. Large scale in vivo risk assessment of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through transfer of bovine embryos produced via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

    PubMed

    Gregg, K; Gosch, G; Guerra, T; Chen, S H; Xiang, T; Broek, D; Bruner, B; Polejaeva, I

    2010-10-15

    The objective was to use the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) as a model to assess the risk of infectious disease transmission in the system of in vitro embryo production and transfer via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The risks of BVDV transmission in the SCNT embryo production were previously evaluated. In that in vitro study, following standard operating procedures (SOP), including pre-nuclear transfer donor cell testing, oocyte decontamination and virus-free cell and embryo culture conditions, SCNT embryos produced were free of detectable viral RNA. The current study focused on the evaluation of the potential risk of disease transmission from SCNT embryos to recipients, and the risk of producing persistently infected animals via SCNT embryo transfer. Blood samples were collected from 553 recipients of SCNT embryos and 438 cloned calves and tested for the presence of BVDV viral RNA via a sensitive real time PCR method. All samples tested were negative. These results, in conjunction with the previous in vitro study, confirmed that the established SCNT embryo production and transfer system is safe and presents no detectable risk of disease transmission.

  5. Inhibitory function of adapter-related protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit in the process of nuclear translocation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, Yukiko; Kameoka, Masanori Shoji-Kawata, Sanae; Iwabu, Yukie; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Tokunaga, Kenzo; Fujino, Masato; Natori, Yukikazu; Yura, Yoshiaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2008-03-30

    The transfection of human cells with siRNA against adapter-related protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit (AP2{alpha}) was revealed to significantly up-regulate the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This effect was confirmed by cell infection with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein-pseudotyped HIV-1 as well as CXCR4-tropic and CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Viral adsorption, viral entry and reverse transcription processes were not affected by cell transfection with siRNA against AP2{alpha}. In contrast, viral nuclear translocation as well as the integration process was significantly up-regulated in cells transfected with siRNA against AP2{alpha}. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that a subpopulation of AP2{alpha} was not only localized in the cytoplasm but was also partly co-localized with lamin B, importin {beta} and Nup153, implying that AP2{alpha} negatively regulates HIV-1 replication in the process of nuclear translocation of viral DNA in the cytoplasm or the perinuclear region. We propose that AP2{alpha} may be a novel target for disrupting HIV-1 replication in the early stage of the viral life cycle.

  6. Application of bioinformatics-coupled experimental analysis reveals a new transport-competent nuclear localization signal in the nucleoprotein of Influenza A virus strain

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Krishna Mohan V; Atreya, Chintamani D

    2008-01-01

    Background Two nuclear localization sequences (NLS) in influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) have been demonstrated to be critical for nuclear import of NP and viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. However, a deletion mutant lacking these two signals was still able to localize to the nucleus suggesting the presence of yet another (a third) potential NLS in the NP protein. In order to identify the nature of this potential NLS signal in the NP of a WS/33L influenza virus A strain, we utilized the tools of bioinformatics coupled with functional experimental analyses in the present study. Results Comparison of the deduced aa sequence of NP of WS/33L strain with the published WS/33 NP sequences revealed that a single amino acid (aa) change (Met to Arg) at position 105 results in converting the flanking regions (between aa position 90–121, a 32-residue stretch) into two classical overlapping bipartite NLS (obpNLS). GenBank search revealed that 9 out of 500 published NP sequences contain a similar Arg at position 105 (instead of Met) with a 100% homology to the obpNLS region. Various NP-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs with and without the signal (obpNLS-Arg105) were utilized to understand the functional nature of this signal. We analyzed the transport competency of the expressed chimeric proteins in terms of their cellular localization by confocal immunofluorescence assay. Our analysis revealed that all NP-GFP constructs containing the wild-type (R105) sequence localized predominantly to the nucleus. Constructs lacking the obpNLS or constructs with reverse mutation (R105 to M105) on the other hand exhibited predominant cytoplasmic localization pattern. Interestingly, when the 32 aa obpNLS was fused with an unrelated viral protein (rotavirus NSP6) that has been known to be cytoplasmic protein, the chimeric protein (obpNLS-NSP6) was efficiently transported into the nucleus, indicating an efficient nuclear transport function of the 32-residue obpNLS in the NP

  7. The RING for gypsy moth control: Topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide.

    PubMed

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies suggest a cellular origin for the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) anti-apoptosis genes IAPs, thus opening a possibility to use the fragments of these genes for modulation of host metabolism. We report here the strong insecticidal and metabolic effect of single-stranded antisense DNA fragment from RING (really interesting new gene) domain of gypsy moth LdMNPV IAP-3 gene: specifically, on reduction of biomass (by 35%) and survival of L. dispar caterpillars. The treatment with this DNA fragment leads to a significantly higher mortality rates of female insects (1.7 fold) accompanied with the signs of apoptosis. Additionally, we show increased expression of host IAP-1, caspase-4 and gelsolin genes in eggs laid by survived females treated with RING DNA fragment accompanied with calcium and magnesium imbalance, indicating that the strong stress reactions and metabolic effects are not confined to treated insects but likely led to apoptosis in eggs too. The proposed new approach for insect pest management, which can be considered as advancement of "microbial pesticides", is based on the application of the specific virus DNA, exploiting the knowledge about virus-pest interactions and putting it to the benefit of mankind. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinct roles of enhancer nuclear factor 1 (NF1) sites in plasmacytoma and osteopetrosis induction by Akv1-99 murine leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Sorensen, Annette Balle; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kunder, Sandra; Schmidt, Joerg; Pedersen, Finn Skou . E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

    2005-04-10

    Murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) can be lymphomagenic and bone pathogenic. In this work, the possible roles of two distinct proviral enhancer nuclear factor 1 (NF1) binding sites in osteopetrosis and tumor induction by B-lymphomagenic Akv1-99 MLV were investigated. Akv1-99 and mutants either with NF1 site 1, NF1 site 2 or both sites disrupted induced tumors (plasma cell proliferations by histopathology) with remarkably similar incidence and mean latency in inbred NMRI mice. Clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement detection, by Southern analysis, confirmed approximately half of the tumors induced by each virus to be plasmacytomas while the remaining lacked detectable clonally rearranged Ig genes and were considered polyclonal; a demonstration that enhancer NF1 sites are dispensable for plasmacytoma induction by Akv1-99. In contrast, X-ray analysis revealed significant differences in osteopetrosis induction by the four viruses strongly indicating that NF1 site 2 is critical for viral bone pathogenicity, whereas NF1 site 1 is neutral or moderately inhibitory. In conclusion, enhancer NF1 sites are major determinants of osteopetrosis induction by Akv1-99 without significant influence on viral oncogenicity.

  9. La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus V protein antagonizes type I interferon response by binding STAT2 protein and preventing STATs nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Laurent-Rolle, Maudry; Manicassamy, Balaji; Belicha-Villanueva, Alan; Morrison, Juliet; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Iovane, Giuseppe; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2016-02-02

    La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus (LPMV) is a member of the Rubulavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. LPMV is the etiologic agent of "blue eye disease", causing a significant disease burden in swine in Mexico with long-term implications for the agricultural industry. This virus mainly affects piglets and is characterized by meningoencephalitis and respiratory distress. It also affects adult pigs, causing reduced fertility and abortions in females, and orchitis and epididymitis in males. Viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family evade the innate immune response by targeting components of the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. The V protein, expressed by most paramyxoviruses, is a well-characterized IFN signaling antagonist. Until now, there were no reports on the role of the LPMV-V protein in inhibiting the IFN response. In this study we demonstrate that LPMV-V protein antagonizes type I but not type II IFN signaling by binding STAT2, a component of the type I IFN cascade. Our results indicate that the last 18 amino acids of LPMV-V protein are required for binding to STAT2 in human and swine cells. While LPMV-V protein does not affect the protein levels of STAT1 or STAT2, it does prevent the IFN-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2 thereby inhibiting cellular responses to IFN α/β.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) induced cytotoxicity in epithelial cells is associated with EBNA1 degradation and processing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard J; Smith, Laura J; Dawson, Christopher W; Haigh, Tracy; Blake, Neil W; Young, Lawrence S

    2003-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) has a central role in the maintenance and segregation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome and by virtue of a glycine-alanine repeat domain is prevented from being endogenously processed for recognition by HLA class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We found that EBNA1 expression resulted in growth inhibition and a G2/M arrest in human squamous epithelial cell lines (SCC12F, SVK) but not epithelial cell lines of glandular origin (Hela, Ad/AH). The cytotoxicity of EBNA1 was associated with EBNA1 degradation and both these effects were blocked in SCC12F cells expressing either the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein or the EBV homolog of bcl-2, BHRF1. The endogenous degradation of EBNA1 in SVK epithelial cells was associated with specific CTL recognition, an effect not evident in EBNA1-expressing Hela cells. Consistent with the inability of SVK cells to tolerate EBNA1 expression, studies with a recombinant EBV demonstrated that SVK cells are unable to maintain stable virus infection, whereas Hela cells are able to efficiently establish latent EBV infection. These data have important implications for both the cellular requirements necessary to sustain a stable EBV infection and for the possible role of CTL responses in controlling EBV infection of epithelial cells.

  11. La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus V protein antagonizes type I interferon response by binding STAT2 protein and preventing STATs nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Laurent-Rolle, Maudry; Manicassamy, Balaji; Belicha-Villanueva, Alan; Morrison, Juliet; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Iovane, Giuseppe; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus (LPMV) is a member of the Rubulavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. LPMV is the etiologic agent of “blue eye disease”, causing a significant disease burden in swine in Mexico with long-term implications for the agricultural industry. This virus mainly affects piglets and is characterized by meningoencephalitis and respiratory distress. It also affects adult pigs, causing reduced fertility and abortions in females, and orchitis and epididymitis in males. Viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family evade the innate immune response by targeting components of the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. The V protein, expressed by most paramyxoviruses, is a well-characterized IFN signaling antagonist. Until now, there were no reports on the role of the LPMV-V protein in inhibiting the IFN response. In this study we demonstrate that LPMV-V protein antagonizes type I but not type II IFN signaling by binding STAT2, a component of the type I IFN cascade. Our results indicate that the last 18 amino acids of LPMV-V protein are required for binding to STAT2 in human and swine cells. While LPMV-V protein does not affect the protein levels of STAT1 or STAT2, it does prevent the IFN-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2 thereby inhibiting cellular responses to IFN α/β PMID:26546155

  12. Baculovirus replication: characterization of DNA and proteins synthesized by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Lymantria dispar, the gypsy moth, in a homologous cell line

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (LdMNPV), is used for biological control. However, LdMNPV has low natural virulence and a long infection cycle in relation to other NPVs. Therefore, the replicative cycle of LdMNPV was investigated using a homologous cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y. Based on analyses of virus growth curves LdMNPV nonoccluded virus and polyhedral inclusion bodies appeared approximately 20 and 50 hr postinfection (p.i.), respectively. LdMNPV polypeptides, identified by autoradiography of (/sup 35/S)-methionine labeled fractions in SDS-PAGE, were synthesized in sequential phases: (1) an early ..cap alpha.. phase of replication (4 polypeptides from 4 to 12 hr p.i.), (2) an intermediate ..beta.. phase (20 polypeptides from 12 to 24 hr p.i.), and a late ..gamma.. phase (4 polypeptides from 24 to 28 hr p.i.). In infected cells at least four polypeptides were post-translational cleaved and/or modified. Pulse-labeling with (/sup 3/H)-mannose, (/sup 3/H)-N-acetyl-glucosamine or (/sup 32/P)-monosodium phosphate revealed several viral polypeptides which were glycosylated and/or phosphorylated. DNA:DNA dot hybridization experiments suggested that LdMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated between 12 to 16 hr p.i., increasing significantly thereafter.

  13. Expression of the Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Cells Mediates Up-Regulation of CCL20 and the Migration of Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baumforth, Karl R.N.; Birgersdotter, Anna; Reynolds, Gary M.; Wei, Wenbin; Kapatai, Georgia; Flavell, Joanne R.; Kalk, Emma; Piper, Karen; Lee, Steve; Machado, Lee; Hadley, Kerry; Sundblad, Anne; Sjoberg, Jan; Bjorkholm, Magnus; Porwit, Anna A.; Yap, Lee-Fah; Teo, Soohwang; Grundy, Richard G.; Young, Lawrence S.; Ernberg, Ingemar; Woodman, Ciaran B.J.; Murray, Paul G.

    2008-01-01

    In ∼50% of patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus, is present in tumor cells. After microarray profiling of both HL tumors and cell lines, we found that EBV infection increased the expression of the chemokine CCL20 in both primary Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells and Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cell-derived cell lines. Additionally, this up-regulation could be mediated by the EBV nuclear antigen 1 protein. The higher levels of CCL20 in the supernatants of EBV-infected HL cell lines increased the migration of CD4+ lymphocytes that expressed FOXP3, a marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are specialized CD4+ T cells that inhibit effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In HL, an increased number of Tregs is associated with the loss of EBV-specific immunity. Our results identify a mechanism by which EBV can recruit Tregs to the microenvironment of HL by inducing the expression of CCL20 and, by doing so, prevent immune responses against the virus-infected tumor population. Further investigation of how EBV recruits and modifies Tregs will contribute not only to our understanding of the pathogenesis of virus-associated tumors but also to the development of therapeutic strategies designed to manipulate Treg activity. PMID:18502823

  14. 14-Deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide exerts anti-influenza A virus activity and inhibits replication of H5N1 virus by restraining nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wentao; Li, Yongtao; Chen, Sunrui; Wang, Mengli; Zhang, Anding; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-06-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has become a worldwide public health threat, and current antiviral therapies have limited activity against the emerging, resistant influenza viruses. Therefore, effective drugs with novel targets against influenza A viruses, H5N1 strains in particular, should be developed. In the present study, 14-deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide (DAP), a major component of the traditional Chinese medicine Andrographis paniculata, exerted potent anti-influenza A virus activity against A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1), A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1), A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/NanChang/08/2010 (H1N1) and A/HuNan/01/2014 (H3N2) in vitro. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, a series of experiments was conducted using A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1) as an example. Our results demonstrated that DAP strongly inhibited H5N1 replication by reducing the production of viral nucleoprotein (NP) mRNA, NP and NS1proteins, whereas DAP had no effect on the absorption and release of H5N1 towards/from A549 cells. DAP also effectively restrained the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. This inhibitory effect ought to be an important anti-H5N1 mechanism of DAP. Meanwhile, DAP significantly reduced the upregulated expression of all the tested proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-α, IL-1β and IFN-β) and chemokines (CXCL-10 and CCL-2) stimulated by H5N1. Overall results suggest that DAP impairs H5N1 replication at least in part by restraining nuclear export of vRNP complexes, and the inhibition of viral replication leads to a subsequent decrease of the intense proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression. In turn, the effect of modification of the host excessive immune response may contribute to overcoming H5N1. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of DAP in vitro against H5N1 influenza A virus infection.

  15. Recruitment of activated IRF-3 and CBP/p300 to herpes simplex virus ICP0 nuclear foci: Potential role in blocking IFN-{beta} induction

    SciTech Connect

    Melroe, Gregory T.; Silva, Lindsey; Schaffer, Priscilla A.; Knipe, David M. . E-mail: david_knipe@hms.harvard.edu

    2007-04-10

    The host innate response to viral infection includes the production of interferons, which is dependent on the coordinated activity of multiple transcription factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been shown to block efficient interferon expression by multiple mechanisms. We and others have demonstrated that HSV-1 can inhibit the transcription of genes promoted by interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), including interferon beta (IFN-{beta}), and that the immediate-early ICP0 protein is sufficient for this function. However, the exact mechanism by which ICP0 blocks IRF-3 activity has yet to be determined. Unlike some other viral proteins that inhibit IRF-3 activity, ICP0 does not appear to affect phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF-3. Here, we show that a portion of activated IRF-3 co-localizes with nuclear foci containing ICP0 at early times after virus infection. Co-localization to ICP0-containing foci is also seen with the IRF-3-binding partners and transcriptional co-activators, CBP and p300. In addition, using immunoprecipitation of infected cell lysates, we can immunoprecipitate a complex containing ICP0, IRF-3, and CBP. Thus we hypothesize that ICP0 recruits activated IRF-3 and CBP/p300 to nuclear structures, away from the host chromatin. This leads to the inactivation and accelerated degradation of IRF-3, resulting in reduced transcription of IFN-{beta} and an inhibition of the host response. Therefore, ICP0 provides an example of how viruses can block IFN-{beta} induction by sequestration of important transcription factors essential for the host response.

  16. Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27.

    PubMed

    Braunagel, S C; He, H; Ramamurthy, P; Summers, M D

    1996-08-01

    This paper identifies two structural proteins of the occluded derived viral envelope of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV): ODV-E18 and ODV-E35. In addition, we identify a protein, ODV-EC27, that is incorporated into the capsid of occluded virus, which is not detected in budded virus. The genes for these proteins reside within the IE0 intron. The intron was sequenced, and five open reading frames (ORF) were identified. ORF 3 (genomic ORF 143) codes for the ODV envelope protein, ODV-E18. ORF 4 (genomic ORF 144) codes for ODV-EC27, and Western blot analyses locate this protein to both the ODV capsid and envelope. Transcripts for both ODV-E18 and ODV-EC27 initiate from conserved TAAG motifs, and transcripts are detected from 16 through 72 hr p.i. Antiserum to ODV-E18 recognizes a band of 18 kDa on Western blots of extracts from infected cells and bands of 18 and 35 kDa on Western blots of proteins from purified ODV envelope. N-terminal amino acid sequencing reveals that both ODV-E18 and ODV-E35 contain the same N-terminus. Antiserum to ODV-EC27 recognizes a protein of 27 kDa on Western blots of extracts from infected cells and bands of 27 and 35 kDa on Western blots of proteins from purified ODV. Using immunogold labeling techniques, ODV-E18 and/or ODV-E35 are detected in viral induced intranuclear microvesicles and are not detected in the plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membranes, or the nuclear envelope. Immunogold labeling using antisera to ODV-EC27 detects this protein on both the ODV envelope and capsid.

  17. Impaired nuclear transport and uncoating limit recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 vector-mediated transduction of primary murine hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Li; Li, Weiming; Yang, Zuocheng; Qing, Keyun; Tan, Mengqun; Hansen, Jonathan; Li, Yanjun; Chen, Linyuan; Chan, Rebecca J; Bischof, Daniela; Maina, Njeri; Weigel-Kelley, Kirsten A; Zhao, Weihong; Larsen, Steven H; Yoder, Mervin C; Shou, Weinian; Srivastava, Arun

    2004-12-01

    Controversies abound concerning hematopoietic stem cell transduction by recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV) vectors. For human hematopoietic cells, we have shown that this problem is related to the extent of expression of the cellular receptor for AAV. At least a small subset of murine hematopoietic cells, on the other hand, does express both the AAV receptor and the coreceptor, yet is transduced poorly. In the present study, we have found that approximately 85% of AAV genomes were present in the cytoplasmic fraction of primary murine c-Kit(+)Lin- hematopoietic cells. However, when mice were injected intraperitoneally with hydroxyurea before isolation of these cells, the extent to which AAV genomes were detected in the cytoplasmic fraction was reduced to approximately 40%, with a corresponding increase to approximately 60% in the nuclear fraction, indicating that hydroxyurea facilitated nuclear transport of AAV. It was apparent, nonetheless, that a significant fraction of the AAV genomes present in the nuclear fraction from cells obtained from hydroxyurea-treated mice was single stranded. We next tested whether the single-stranded AAV genomes were derived from virions that failed to undergo uncoating in the nucleus. A substantial fraction of the signal in the nuclear fraction of hematopoietic cells obtained from hydroxyurea-treated mice was also resistant to DNase I. That AAV particles were intact and biologically active was determined by successful transduction of 293 cells by virions recovered from murine hematopoietic cells 48 hr postinfection. Although hydroxyurea facilitated nuclear transport of AAV, most of the virions failed to undergo uncoating, thereby leading to only a partial improvement in viral second- strand DNA synthesis and transgene expression. A better understanding of the underlying mechanism of viral uncoating has implications in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy.

  18. The putative pocket protein binding site of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus BV/ODV-C42 is required for virus-induced nuclear actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Wang, Yun; Bai, Huimin; Wang, Qian; Song, Jianhua; Zhou, Yuan; Wu, Chunchen; Chen, Xinwen

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear filamentous actin (F-actin) is essential for nucleocapsid morphogenesis of lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses. Previously, we had demonstrated that Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) BV/ODV-C42 (C42) is involved in nuclear actin polymerization by recruiting P78/83, an AcMNPV orf9-encoded N-WASP homology protein that is capable of activating an actin-related-protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex to initiate actin polymerization, to the nucleus. To further investigate the role of C42 in virus-induced actin polymerization, the recombinant bacmid vAc(p78/83nls-gfp), with a c42 knockout, p78/83 tagged with a nuclear localization signal coding sequence, and egfp as a reporter gene under the control of the Pp10 promoter, was constructed and transfected to Sf9 cells. In the nuclei of vAc(p78/83nls-gfp)-transfected cells, polymerized F-actin filaments were absent, whereas other actin polymerization elements (i.e., P78/83, G-actin, and Arp2/3 complex) were present. This in vivo evidence indicated that C42 actively participates in the nuclear actin polymerization process as a key element, besides its role in recruiting P78/83 to the nucleus. In order to collect in vitro evidence for the participation of C42 in actin polymerization, an anti-C42 antibody was used to neutralize the viral nucleocapsid, which is capable of initiating actin polymerization in vitro. Both the kinetics of pyrene-actin polymerization and F-actin-specific staining by phalloidin indicated that anti-C42 can significantly attenuate the efficiency of F-actin formation compared to that with control antibodies. Furthermore, we have identified the putative pocket protein binding sequence (PPBS) on C42 that is essential for C42 to exert its function in nuclear actin polymerization.

  19. Hepatitis B virus nuclear export elements: RNA stem-loop α and β, key parts of the HBV post-transcriptional regulatory element.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chun Shen; Brown, Chris M

    2016-09-01

    Many viruses contain RNA elements that modulate splicing and/or promote nuclear export of their RNAs. The RNAs of the major human pathogen, hepatitis B virus (HBV) contain a large (~600 bases) composite cis-acting 'post-transcriptional regulatory element' (PRE). This element promotes expression from these naturally intronless transcripts. Indeed, the related woodchuck hepadnavirus PRE (WPRE) is used to enhance expression in gene therapy and other expression vectors. These PRE are likely to act through a combination of mechanisms, including promotion of RNA nuclear export. Functional components of both the HBV PRE and WPRE are 2 conserved RNA cis-acting stem-loop (SL) structures, SLα and SLβ. They are within the coding regions of polymerase (P) gene, and both P and X genes, respectively. Based on previous studies using mutagenesis and/or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), here we propose 2 covariance models for SLα and SLβ. The model for the 30-nucleotide SLα contains a G-bulge and a CNGG(U) apical loop of which the first and the fourth loop residues form a CG pair and the fifth loop residue is bulged out, as observed in the NMR structure. The model for the 23-nucleotide SLβ contains a 7-base-pair stem and a 9-nucleotide loop. Comparison of the models with other RNA structural elements, as well as similarity searches of human transcriptome and viral genomes demonstrate that SLα and SLβ are specific to HBV transcripts. However, they are well conserved among the hepadnaviruses of non-human primates, the woodchuck and ground squirrel.

  20. BZLF1, an Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early protein, induces p65 nuclear translocation while inhibiting p65 transcriptional function

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Thomas E.; Kenney, Shannon C. . E-mail: shann@med.unc.edu

    2004-10-25

    We have previously demonstrated that the Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early BZLF1 protein interacts with, and is inhibited by, the NF-{kappa}B family member p65. However, the effects of BZLF1 on NF-{kappa}B activity have not been intensively studied. Here we show that BZLF1 inhibits p65-dependent gene expression. BZLF1 inhibited the ability of IL-1, as well as transfected p65, to activate the expression of two different NF-{kappa}B-responsive genes, ICAM-1 and I{kappa}B-{alpha}. BZLF1 also reduced the constitutive level of I{kappa}B-{alpha} protein in HeLa and A549 cells, and increased the amount of nuclear NF-{kappa}B to a similar extent as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) treatment. In spite of this BZLF1-associated increase in the nuclear form of NF-{kappa}B, BZLF1 did not induce binding of NF-{kappa}B to NF-{kappa}B responsive promoters (as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay) in vivo, although TNF-{alpha} treatment induced NF-{kappa}B binding as expected. Overexpression of p65 dramatically inhibited the lytic replication cycle of EBV in 293-EBV cells, confirming that NF-{kappa}B also inhibits BZLF1 transcriptional function. Our results are consistent with a model in which BZLF1 inhibits the transcriptional function of p65, resulting in decreased transcription of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, decreased expression of I{kappa}B-{alpha} protein, and subsequent translocation of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. This nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B may promote viral latency by negatively regulating BZLF1 transcriptional activity. In situations where p65 activity is limiting in comparison to BZLF1, the ability of BZLF1 to inhibit p65 transcriptional function may protect the virus from the host immune system during the lytic form of infection.

  1. MORC3, a Component of PML Nuclear Bodies, Has a Role in Restricting Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Anne; Everett, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously reported that MORC3, a protein associated with promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs), is a target of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0-mediated degradation (E. Sloan, et al., PLoS Pathog 11:e1005059, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005059). Since it is well known that certain other components of the PML NB complex play an important role during an intrinsic immune response to HSV-1 and are also degraded or inactivated by ICP0, here we further investigate the role of MORC3 during HSV-1 infection. We demonstrate that MORC3 has antiviral activity during HSV-1 infection and that this antiviral role is counteracted by ICP0. In addition, MORC3's antiviral role extends to wild-type (wt) human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, as its plaque-forming efficiency increased in MORC3-depleted cells. We found that MORC3 is recruited to sites associated with HSV-1 genomes after their entry into the nucleus of an infected cell, and in wt infections this is followed by its association with ICP0 foci prior to its degradation. The RING finger domain of ICP0 was required for degradation of MORC3, and we confirmed that no other HSV-1 protein is required for the loss of MORC3. We also found that MORC3 is required for fully efficient recruitment of PML, Sp100, hDaxx, and γH2AX to sites associated with HSV-1 genomes entering the host cell nucleus. This study further unravels the intricate ways in which HSV-1 has evolved to counteract the host immune response and reveals a novel function for MORC3 during the host intrinsic immune response. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses have devised ways to manipulate the host intrinsic immune response to promote their own survival and persistence within the human population. One way in which this is achieved is through degradation or functional inactivation of PML NB proteins, which are recruited to viral genomes in order to repress viral transcription. Because MORC3 associates with PML NBs in uninfected cells and

  2. Japanese Encephalitis Virus NS5 Inhibits the Type I Interferon Production by Blocking the Nuclear Translocation of IRF3 and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Li, Yunchuan; Zhao, Zikai; He, Wen; Zohaib, Ali; Song, Yunfeng; Deng, Chenglin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Huanchun; Cao, Shengbo

    2017-02-08

    The type I interferon (IFN) response is part of a first-line defense against viral infection. To initiate replication, viruses have developed powerful evasion strategies to counteract host IFN responses. In present study, we found that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) NS5 protein could inhibit double strand RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-β expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our data further demonstrated that JEV NS5 suppressed the activation of IFN transcriptional factors, IRF3 and NF-κB. However, there was no defect in the phosphorylation of IRF3 and degradation of IκB, an upstream inhibitor of NF-κB, upon NS5 expression, indicating a direct inhibition of the nuclear localization of IRF3 and NF-κB by NS5. Mechanically, NS5 was shown to interact with the nuclear transport proteins, KPNA2, KPNA3 and KPNA4, which competitively blocked the interaction of KPNA3 and KPNA4 with their cargo molecules, IRF3 and p65, a subunit of NF-κB, and thus inhibited the nuclear translocation of IRF3 and NF-κB. Furthermore, overexpression of KPNA3 and KPNA4 restored the activity of IRF3 and NF-κB and increased the production of IFN-β in NS5-expressing or JEV-infected cells. Additionally, an up-regulated replication level of JEV was shown upon KPNA3 or KPNA4 overexpression. These results suggest that JEV NS5 inhibits the induction of type I IFN by targeting KPNA3 and KPNA4.IMPORTANCE JEV is the major cause of viral encephalitis in South and Southeast Asia with high mortality. However, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the severe pathogenesis are poorly understood. The ability of JEV to counteract the host innate immune response may be one of the potential mechanisms responsible for JEV virulence. Here, we demonstrate the ability of JEV NS5 to interfere with the dsRNA-induced nuclear translocation of IRF3 and NF-κB by competitively inhibiting the interaction of IRF3 and NF-κB with nuclear transport proteins. Via this mechanism, JEV NS5 suppresses the induction of type I

  3. Amino Acids of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A Essential for Repression of Jκ-Mediated Transcription and Their Evolutionary Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Dalbiès-Tran, Rozenn; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Dotson, Travis; Sample, Clare E.

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3A (EBNA-3A) is essential for virus-mediated immortalization of B lymphocytes in vitro and is believed to regulate transcription of cellular and/or viral genes. One known mechanism of regulation is through its interaction with the cellular transcription factor Jκ. This interaction downregulates transcription mediated by EBNA-2 and Jκ. To identify the amino acids that play a role in this interaction, we have generated mutant EBNA-3A proteins. A mutant EBNA-3A protein in which alanine residues were substituted for amino acids 199, 200, and 202 no longer downregulated transcription. Surprisingly, this mutant protein remained able to coimmunoprecipitate with Jκ. Using a reporter gene assay based on the recruitment of Jκ by various regions spanning EBNA-3A, we have shown that this mutation abolished binding of Jκ to the N-proximal region (amino acids 125 to 222) and that no other region of EBNA-3A alone was sufficient to mediate an association with Jκ. To determine the biological significance of the interaction of EBNA-3A with Jκ, we have studied its conservation in the simian lymphocryptovirus herpesvirus papio (HVP) by cloning HVP-3A, the homolog of EBNA-3A encoded by this virus. This 903-amino-acid protein exhibited 37% identity with its EBV counterpart, mainly within the amino-terminal half. HVP-3A also interacted with Jκ through a region located between amino acids 127 and 223 and also repressed transcription mediated through EBNA-2 and Jκ. The evolutionary conservation of this function, in proteins that have otherwise significantly diverged, argues strongly for an important biological role in virus-mediated immortalization of B lymphocytes. PMID:11119577

  4. Yellow mosaic symptom caused by the nuclear shuttle protein gene of mungbean yellow mosaic virus is associated with single-stranded DNA accumulation and mesophyll spread of the virus.

    PubMed

    Kuruba, B L; Buvani, A P; Veluthambi, K

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-[India:Vigna] (MYMV-[IN:Vig]), a blackgram isolate of MYMV, causes yellow mosaic disease in blackgram and mungbean. Two variable DNA-B components, KA22 and KA27, cause distinct symptoms in blackgram [V. mungo (L.) Hepper] with the same DNA-A component. KA22 + DNA-A-agroinoculated blackgram plants displayed yellow mosaic symptom and accumulated high levels of viral single-stranded (ss) DNA. KA27 + DNA-A-agroinoculated blackgram plants displayed severe stunting symptom and accumulated very low levels of viral ssDNA. However, in mungbean [V. radiata (L.) Wilczek], KA27 + DNA-A caused yellow mosaic symptom and a high level of viral ssDNA accumulated. Swapping of KA27 DNA-B with the nuclear shuttle protein gene (NSP) of KA22 DNA-B (KA27xKA22 NSP) caused yellow mosaic symptom in blackgram, suggesting that KA22 NSP is the determinant of yellow mosaic symptom. Interestingly, KA27xKA22 NSP-infected blackgram plants accumulated high levels of viral ssDNA, comparable to that of KA22 DNA-B infection, suggesting that the KA22 NSP is responsible for accumulation of high levels of viral ssDNA. MYMV distribution was studied in blackgram and mungbean plants by leaf tissue hybridization, which showed mesophyll spread of the virus in KA22-infected blackgram leaflets and in KA27-infected mungbean leaflets, both of which displayed yellow mosaic symptom. However, the virus did not accumulate in the mesophyll in the case of KA27-infected blackgram leaflets. Interestingly, the swapped KA27xKA22 NSP-infected blackgram leaflets showed mesophyll accumulation of the virus, suggesting that KA22 NSP determines its mesophyll spread.

  5. The hepatitis B virus X protein activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) by a cyclosporin A-sensitive pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Pezzi, E; Armesilla, A L; Majano, P L; Redondo, J M; López-Cabrera, M

    1998-01-01

    The X gene product of the human hepatitis B virus (HBx) is a transcriptional activator of various viral and cellular genes. We recently have determined that the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by HBV-infected hepatocytes is transcriptionally up-regulated by HBx, involving nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT)-dependent activation of the TNF-alpha gene promoter. Here we show that HBx activates NF-AT by a cyclosporin A-sensitive mechanism involving dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor. Luciferase gene expression assays demonstrated that HBx transactivates transcription through NF-AT-binding sites and activates a Gal4-NF-AT chimeric protein. DNA-protein interaction assays revealed that HBx induces the formation of NF-AT-containing DNA-binding complexes. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that HBx induces the nuclear translocation of NF-AT, which can be blocked by the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. Furthermore, immunoblot analysis showed that the HBx-induced activation and translocation of NF-AT are associated with its dephosphorylation. Thus, HBx may play a relevant role in the intrahepatic inflammatory processes by inducing locally the expression of cytokines that are regulated by NF-AT. PMID:9843511

  6. Epstein-Barr virus protein EB2 contains an N-terminal transferable nuclear export signal that promotes nucleocytoplasmic export by directly binding TAP/NXF1.

    PubMed

    Juillard, Franceline; Hiriart, Edwige; Sergeant, Nicolas; Vingtdeux-Didier, Valérie; Drobecq, Hervé; Sergeant, Alain; Manet, Evelyne; Gruffat, Henri

    2009-12-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus early protein EB2 (also called BMLF1, Mta, or SM), which allows the nuclear export of a subset of early and late viral mRNAs derived from intronless genes, is essential for the production of infectious virions. An important feature of mRNA export factors is their capacity to shuttle continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In a previous study, we identified a novel CRM1-independent transferable nuclear export signal (NES) at the N terminus of EB2, between amino acids 61 and 146. Here we show that this NES contains several small arginine-rich domains that cooperate to allow efficient interaction with TAP/NXF1. Recruitment of TAP/NXF1 correlates with this NES-mediated efficient nuclear export when it is fused to a heterologous protein. Moreover, the NES can export mRNAs bearing MS2 RNA-binding sites from the nucleus when tethered to the RNA via the MS2 phage coat protein RNA-binding domain.

  7. Epstein-Barr Virus Protein EB2 Contains an N-Terminal Transferable Nuclear Export Signal That Promotes Nucleocytoplasmic Export by Directly Binding TAP/NXF1▿

    PubMed Central

    Juillard, Franceline; Hiriart, Edwige; Sergeant, Nicolas; Vingtdeux-Didier, Valérie; Drobecq, Hervé; Sergeant, Alain; Manet, Evelyne; Gruffat, Henri

    2009-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus early protein EB2 (also called BMLF1, Mta, or SM), which allows the nuclear export of a subset of early and late viral mRNAs derived from intronless genes, is essential for the production of infectious virions. An important feature of mRNA export factors is their capacity to shuttle continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In a previous study, we identified a novel CRM1-independent transferable nuclear export signal (NES) at the N terminus of EB2, between amino acids 61 and 146. Here we show that this NES contains several small arginine-rich domains that cooperate to allow efficient interaction with TAP/NXF1. Recruitment of TAP/NXF1 correlates with this NES-mediated efficient nuclear export when it is fused to a heterologous protein. Moreover, the NES can export mRNAs bearing MS2 RNA-binding sites from the nucleus when tethered to the RNA via the MS2 phage coat protein RNA-binding domain. PMID:19793817

  8. Molecular characterization of NDP52, a novel protein of the nuclear domain 10, which is redistributed upon virus infection and interferon treatment

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear domain (ND)10 also described as POD or Kr bodies is involved in the development of acute promyelocytic leukemia and virus- host interactions. Immunofluorescence analysis using a variety of human autoimmune sera and monoclonal antibodies showed a typical dot like nuclear staining for ND10, suggesting that this structure consists of several proteins. Two of the ND10 proteins, Sp100 and PML are genetically characterized and show homology with several transcription factors. Here we describe NDP52, an additional novel protein of the ND10. We raised a new mAb C8A2, that specifically recognizes NDP52. Immunofluorescence analysis using this mAb showed a typical nuclear dot staining as it was described for ND10. Isolation and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA revealed that NDP52 has a predicted molecular mass of 52 kD. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits an extended central coiled coil domain containing a leucine zipper motif. The COOH terminus of NDP52 shows homology with LIM domains, that have recently been described to mediate protein interactions, which let NDP52 appear as a suitable candidate for mediating interactions between ND10 proteins. In vivo, NDP52 is transcribed in all human tissues analyzed. Furthermore, we show that NDP52 colocalizes with the ND10 protein PML and can be redistributed upon viral infection and interferon treatment. These data suggest that ND10 proteins play an important role in the viral life cycle. PMID:7540613

  9. ICP27-dependent resistance of herpes simplex virus type 1 to leptomycin B is associated with enhanced nuclear localization of ICP4 and ICP0

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel, Joy; Strain, Anna K.; Perkins, Keith D.; Rice, Stephen A. . E-mail: ricex019@umn.edu

    2006-09-01

    It was previously shown that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is sensitive to leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of nuclear export factor CRM1, and that a single methionine to threonine change at residue 50 (M50T) of viral immediate-early (IE) protein ICP27 can confer LMB resistance. In this work, we show that deletion of residues 21-63 from ICP27 can also confer LMB resistance. We further show that neither the M50T mutation nor the presence of LMB affects the nuclear shuttling activity of ICP27, suggesting that another function of ICP27 determines LMB resistance. A possible clue to this function emerged when it was discovered that LMB treatment of HSV-1-infected cells dramatically enhances the cytoplasmic accumulation of two other IE proteins, ICP0 and ICP4. This effect is completely dependent on ICP27 and is reversed in cells infected with LMB-resistant mutants. Moreover, LMB-resistant mutations in ICP27 enhance the nuclear localization of ICP0 and ICP4 even in the absence of LMB, and this effect can be discerned in transfected cells. Thus, the same amino (N)-terminal region of ICP27 that determines sensitivity to LMB also enhances ICP27's previously documented ability to promote the cytoplasmic accumulation of ICP4 and ICP0. We speculate that ICP27's effects on ICP4 and ICP0 may contribute to HSV-1 LMB sensitivity.

  10. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein K interacts with Sindbis virus nonstructural proteins and viral subgenomic mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, Andrew J.; Gong, Lei; Hardy, Richard W.

    2007-10-10

    Alphaviruses are a group of arthropod-borne human and animal pathogens that can cause epidemics of significant public health and economic consequence. Alphavirus RNA synthesis requires four virally encoded nonstructural proteins and probably a number of cellular proteins. Using comparative two-dimensional electrophoresis we were able to identify proteins enriched in cytoplasmic membrane fractions containing viral RNA synthetic complexes following infection with Sindbis virus. Our studies demonstrated the following: (i) the host protein hnRNP K is enriched in cytoplasmic membrane fractions following Sindbis virus infection, (ii) viral nonstructural proteins co-immunoprecipitate with hnRNP K, (iii) nsP2 and hnRNP K co-localize in the cytoplasm of Sindbis virus infected cells, (iv) Sindbis virus subgenomic mRNA, but not genomic RNA co-immunoprecipitates with hnRNP K, (v) viral RNA does not appear to be required for the interaction of hnRNP K with the nonstructural proteins. Potential functions of hnRNP K during virus replication are discussed.

  11. Inhibition of host protein synthesis by Sindbis virus: correlation with viral RNA replication and release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miguel A; García-Moreno, Manuel; Carrasco, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Infection of mammalian cells by Sindbis virus (SINV) profoundly blocks cellular mRNA translation. Experimental evidence points to viral non-structural proteins (nsPs), in particular nsP2, as the mediator of this inhibition. However, individual expression of nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 or nsP1-4 does not block cellular protein synthesis in BHK cells. Trans-complementation of a defective SINV replicon lacking most of the coding region for nsPs by the co-expression of nsP1-4 propitiates viral RNA replication at low levels, and inhibition of cellular translation is not observed. Exit of nuclear proteins including T-cell intracellular antigen and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein is clearly detected in SINV-infected cells, but not upon the expression of nsPs, even when the defective replicon was complemented. Analysis of a SINV variant with a point mutation in nsP2, exhibiting defects in the shut-off of host protein synthesis, indicates that both viral RNA replication and the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm are greatly inhibited. Furthermore, nucleoside analogues that inhibit cellular and viral RNA synthesis impede the blockade of host mRNA translation, in addition to the release of nuclear proteins. Prevention of the shut-off of host mRNA translation by nucleoside analogues is not due to the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, as this prevention is also observed in PKR(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not phosphorylate eIF2α after SINV infection. Collectively, our observations are consistent with the concept that for the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis to occur, viral RNA replication must take place at control levels, leading to the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Alteration of hepatic nuclear receptor-mediated signaling pathways in hepatitis C virus patients with and without a history of alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuanghong; Gilroy, Richard; Taylor, Ryan; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Abdulkarim, Bashar; Forster, Jameson; O'Neil, Maura; Damjanov, Ivan; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2011-12-01

    The current study tests a hypothesis that nuclear receptor signaling is altered in chronic hepatitis C patients and that the altered pattern is specific to alcohol drinking history. The expression of a panel of more than 100 genes encoding nuclear receptors, coregulators, and their direct/indirect targets was studied in human livers. Gene expression pattern was compared between 15 normal donor livers and 23 hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1-positive livers from patients without a drinking history (matched for age, sex, and body mass index). HCV infection increased the expression of nuclear receptors small heterodimer partner and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) as well as genes involved in fatty acid trafficking, bile acid synthesis and uptake, and inflammatory response. However, the expression of retinoid X receptor (RXR) α, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and β as well as steroid regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c was decreased in HCV-infected livers. Gene expression pattern was compared in chronic hepatitis C patients with and without a drinking history. Alcohol drinking increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake, trafficking, and oxidation, but decreased the expression of genes responsible for gluconeogenesis. These changes were consistent with reduced fasting plasma glucose levels and altered expression of upstream regulators that include RXRα, PPARα, and CAR. The messenger RNA levels of fibroblast growth factor 21, interleukin-10, and fatty acid synthase, which are all regulated by nuclear receptors, showed independent correlation with hepatic HCV RNA levels. Our findings suggest that those genes and pathways that showed altered expression could potentially be therapeutic targets for HCV infection and/or alcohol drinking-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Localization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II Tax protein is dependent upon a nuclear localization determinant in the N-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Turci, Marco; Romanelli, Maria Grazia; Lorenzi, Pamela; Righi, Paola; Bertazzoni, Umberto

    2006-01-03

    Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) types I and II are closely related oncogenic retroviruses that have been associated with lymphoproliferative and neurological disorders. The proviral genome encodes a trans-regulatory Tax protein that activates viral genes and upregulates various cellular genes involved in both cell growth and transformation. Tax proteins of HTLV-I (Tax-I) and HTLV-II (Tax-II) exhibit more than 77% aa homology and expression of either Tax-I or Tax-II is sufficient for immortalization of cultured T lymphocytes. Tax-I shuttles from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and accumulates within the nucleus, whereas Tax-II is found mainly in the cytoplasm. In the present study we have used recombinant vectors to analyze the size and structure of the nuclear localization domain within the Tax-II protein sequence. The Tax-II protein was expressed in HeLa cells either as the complete protein, or regions thereof, that were individually fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Immunoblot analysis of the fused Tax-II products confirmed their expression and size. Fluorescence microscopy studies indicated that the complete Tax-II as well as N-truncated forms presented a punctuate cytoplasmic distribution and that a nuclear localization determinant is confined to within the first 60 aa of Tax-II. Accordingly, site directed mutagenesis and deletion of specific sequences within the first 60 aa showed that the nuclear determinant lies within the first 41 residues of Tax-II. These results point to a direct involvement of the amino-terminal residues of Tax-II protein in determining its nuclear functionality.

  14. Protein synthesis in cells infected by Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Ac-NPV): the effect of cytosine arabinoside.

    PubMed

    Dobos, P; Cochran, M A

    1980-06-01

    Twenty-two virion polypeptides (VP) were detected reproducibly when the occluded form (OV) of [35S]methionine-labeled Ac-NPV, purified from polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB), was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Ten of the VPs and the polyhedral protein (PP) were phosphorylated and 6 VPs were glycoproteins. Purified, nonoccluded virus (NOV) revealed 25 polypeptides. During a single cycle of virus replication, the synthesis of 33 infected cell polypeptides (1CP) was detected in different relative proportions at different times. They were arbitrarily designated as early (0-12hr), middle (12-18 hr), and late 18-24 hr) polypeptides. Most of the middle and late proteins seemed to be viral structural proteins. Rapid post-translational cleavage of IPCs was not observed; however, pulse-chase experiments revealed post-translational modifications of at least four polypeptides. Inhibition of DNA synthesis at the time of infection did not prevent the synthesis of ICPs, VPs, or the formation of PIBs. Progeny PIB from both control and cytosine arabinoside (Ara C)-treated cells that were infected with radiochemically pure [3H]thymidine-labeled NOV contained parental virus DNA. Electron micrographs of thin sections showed that, whereas PIBs from control cultures contained complete virions, those from Ara (C-treated cells contained both full and empty virus.

  15. Expression dynamics and ultrastructural localization of epitope-tagged Abutilon mosaic virus nuclear shuttle and movement proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinow, Tatjana; Tanwir, Fariha; Kocher, Cornelia; Krenz, Bjoern; Wege, Christina; Jeske, Holger

    2009-09-01

    The geminivirus Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) encodes two proteins which are essential for viral spread within plants. The nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) transfers viral DNA between the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas the movement protein (MP) facilitates transport between cells through plasmodesmata and long-distance via phloem. An inducible overexpression system for epitope-tagged NSP and MP in plants yielded unprecedented amounts of both proteins. Western blots revealed extensive posttranslational modification and truncation for MP, but not for NSP. Ultrastructural examination of Nicotiana benthamiana tissues showed characteristic nucleopathic alterations, including fibrillar rings, when epitope-tagged NSP and MP were simultaneously expressed in leaves locally infected with an AbMV DNA A in which the coat protein gene was replaced by a green fluorescent protein encoding gene. Immunogold labelling localized NSP in the nucleoplasm and in the fibrillar rings. MP appeared at the cell periphery, probably the plasma membrane, and plasmodesmata.

  16. [Detection of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA in samples from eggs and caterpillars at different stages of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) population dynamics].

    PubMed

    Bakhvalov, S A; Martem'ianov, V V; Bakhvalova, V N; Morozova, O V

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) DNA was detected in samples from eggs and caterpillars of the gypsy moth collected in natural populations of the Western Siberia and Ural by means of PCR with primers corresponding to the polyhedrin gene. According to censuring data, the gypsy moth populations of Western Siberia were at the depression stage. The NPV DNA detection frequencies in eggs (8.6 +/- 4.8% - 13.6 +/- 5.2%) and caterpillars (21.0 +/- 6.3% - 22.2 +/- 6.7%) were not significantly differed. In the Urals, collection of the insects was performed in their gradation focus at the phase of maximal abundance. The DNA detection rate in eggs (11.4 +/- 5.0%) was confidently (p < 0.001) lower than in caterpillars (59.8 +/- 5.6%). Consequently, variations of the NPV infection prevalence during ontogenesis of Lymantria dispar (L.) was associated with the gradation cycle of the insect population dynamics.

  17. Abortive infection of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in Sf-9 cells after mutation of the putative DNA helicase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, S G; Maeda, S

    1996-01-01

    Homologous recombination between the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) genome and a 0.6-kbp-long DNA fragment derived from the putative DNA helicase gene of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus generates eh2-AcNPV, an expanded-host-range AcNPV mutant (S. Maeda, S.G. Kamita, and A. Kondo, J. Virol. 67:6234-6238, 1993). After inoculation at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI), eh2-AcNPV replicates efficiently in both the Sf-9 (AcNPV-permissive) and BmN (non-AcNPV-permissive) cell lines. In this study, we found that after the inoculation of Sf-9 cells at a low MOI (i.e., 1 and 0.1 PFU per cell), the release of eh2-AcNPV virions was dramatically reduced (approximately 900- and 10,000-fold, respectively, at 72 h postinoculation) compared with that of wild-type AcNPV. In addition, the titer of eh2-AcNPV determined by plaque assay on Sf-9 cells was approximately 200-fold lower than that determined by plaque assay on BmN cells. Analyses of gene expression and viral DNA replication after low-MOI eh2-AcNPV inoculation of Sf-9 cells indicated that viral early genes were expressed normally. However, DNA replication and late-gene expression were significantly reduced. These findings suggested that abortive infection occurred at the stage of viral DNA replication in nearly all low-MOI eh2-AcNPV-infected Sf-9 cells. In the larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda, the organism from which Sf-9 cells are derived, the infectivity of eh2-AcNPV was lower than that of AcNPV; however, abortive infection was not found. PMID:8709251

  18. Single-stranded DNA fragments of insect-specific nuclear polyhedrosis virus act as selective DNA insecticides for gypsy moth control.

    PubMed

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2014-07-01

    This paper focuses on the DNA insecticides as a novel preparation against gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) based on DNA fragments of the anti-apoptotic gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus. It was found that the external application of a solution with two single-stranded DNA fragments from BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV (L.dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene induces a significantly higher mortality of gypsy moth caterpillars in comparison with the application of the control solutions. This effect does not depend on the infection of caterpillars with LdMNPV. The results also show that DNA insecticides based on LdMNPV IAP-3 gene fragments can be selective in action, and at least are not harmful to tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon). Part of the gypsy moth genome cloned with the fragments of BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV IAP-3 gene as primers, has an overlap with the corresponding part of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene and L.dispar IAP-1 mRNA for an inhibitor of apoptosis protein with the high cover by query, allows assuming that we cloned a part of gypsy moth anti-apoptosis gene. This finding gives the grounding that proposed here DNA insecticides might act through the blocking of the mechanisms involved in post transcriptional expression of insect anti-apoptosis genes. The results show the insecticidal potential of the viral genome fragments that can be used to create safe and relatively fast-acting DNA insecticides to control the quantity of gypsy moth populations, important task for forestry and agriculture.

  19. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit; Kundu, Chanakya N.; Verma, Subhash C.; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2014-01-05

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. - Highlights: • EBV-encoded EBNA3C suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas. • EBNA3C binds to p73 to suppress its apoptotic effect. • EBNA3C maintains latency by regulating downstream mitochondrial pathways.

  20. CA150, a nuclear protein associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, is involved in Tat-activated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Suñé, C; Hayashi, T; Liu, Y; Lane, W S; Young, R A; Garcia-Blanco, M A

    1997-01-01

    Maximal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression requires specific cellular factors in addition to the virus-encoded trans-activator protein Tat and the RNA element TAR. We developed a functional assay, based on transcriptional activation in vitro, to identify these cellular factors. Here, we describe the purification and molecular cloning of CA150, a nuclear protein that is associated with the human RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and is involved in Tat-dependent HIV-1 transcriptional activation. The sequence of CA150 contains an extensive glutamine- and alanine-rich repeat that is found in transcriptional modulators such as GAL11 and SSN6 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zeste in Drosophila melanogaster. Immunodepletion of CA150 abolished Tat trans activation in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of a mutant CA150 protein specifically and dramatically decreased Tat-mediated activation of the HIV-1 promoter in vivo, strongly suggesting a role for CA150 in HIV-1 gene regulation. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that both CA150 and Tat associate with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Furthermore, we found that functional Tat associates with the holoenzyme whereas activation-deficient Tat mutants do not. Thus, we propose that Tat action is transduced via an RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that contains CA150. PMID:9315662

  1. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit; Kundu, Chanakya N; Verma, Subhash C; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2014-01-05

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C.

  2. Expression of epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen 1 is associated with enhanced expression of CD25 in the Hodgkin cell line L428.

    PubMed

    Kube, D; Vockerodt, M; Weber, O; Hell, K; Wolf, J; Haier, B; Grässer, F A; Müller-Lantzsch, N; Kieff, E; Diehl, V; Tesch, H

    1999-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus is associated with several human malignancies including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Hodgkin's disease (HD). To examine the effect of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) in the pathogenesis of HD, we transfected the gene into the HD cell line L428. EBNA-1 expression was associated with significantly enhanced CD25 expression (interleukin 2 [IL-2]-receptor alpha chain) in transient and stably transfected L428 cells but did not affect the expression of IL-2 receptor beta and gamma chains. There was no up-regulation of the B-cell activation molecules CD23, CD30, CD39, CD40, CD44, CD71, and CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) or enhanced production of IL-6, IL-10, lymphotoxin alpha, and the soluble form of CD25. Stable EBNA-1-expressing L428 cells were nontumorigenic in SCID mice but showed enhanced lymphoma development in nonobese diabetic-SCID mice compared to mock-transfected cells.

  3. Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 egress

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerke, Susan L.; Roller, Richard J. . E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu

    2006-04-10

    Cells infected with wild type HSV-1 showed significant lamin A/C and lamin B rearrangement, while U{sub L}34-null virus-infected cells exhibited few changes in lamin localization, indicating that U{sub L}34 is necessary for lamin disruption. During HSV infection, U{sub S}3 limited the development of disruptions in the lamina, since cells infected with a U{sub S}3-null virus developed large perforations in the lamin layer. U{sub S}3 regulation of lamin disruption does not correlate with the induction of apoptosis. Expression of either U{sub L}34 or U{sub S}3 proteins alone disrupted lamin A/C and lamin B localization. Expression of U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 together had little effect on lamin A/C localization, suggesting a regulatory interaction between the two proteins. The data presented in this paper argue for crucial roles for both U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 in regulating the state of the nuclear lamina during viral infection.

  4. Enhanced responsiveness to nuclear factor kappa B contributes to the unique phenotype of simian immunodeficiency virus variant SIVsmmPBj14.

    PubMed Central

    Dollard, S C; Gummuluru, S; Tsang, S; Fultz, P N; Dewhurst, S

    1994-01-01

    Infection with a variant of simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVsmmPBj14, leads to severe acute disease in macaques. This study was designed to investigate the functional significance of previously described mutations in the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and to elucidate their contribution to the unique phenotype of SIVsmmPBj14. LTR-directed transcription was measured by using luciferase reporter constructs that were transiently transfected into cultured cells. In a wide range of cell types, the basal transcriptional activity of the LTR from SIVsmmPBj14 was found to be 2- to 4.5-fold higher than that of an LTR from a non-acutely pathogenic strain. These LTRs differ by five point mutations and a 22-bp duplication in SIVsmmPBj14, which includes a nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) site. Transcriptional differences between these LTRs were further enhanced by two- to threefold upon treatment of cells with phorbol ester or tumor necrosis factor alpha or by cotransfection with plasmids expressing NF kappa B subunits. Mutagenesis studies, and the use of a reporter construct containing an enhancerless promoter, indicate that these transcriptional effects are due principally to the 22-bp sequence duplication and the NF kappa B site contained within it. Finally, infectious virus stocks that were isogenic except for the LTR were generated. The LTR from SIVsmmPBj14 was found to confer an increase in the kinetics of virus replication in cultured cells. Inclusion of this LTR in recombinant SIVs also resulted in a two- to threefold rise in the extent of cellular proliferation that was induced in quiescent simian peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These studies are consistent with the hypothesis that LTR mutations assist SIVsmmPBj14 in responding efficiently to cellular stimulation and allow it to replicate to high titers during the acute phase of viral infection. Images PMID:7966569

  5. Amaryllidaceae alkaloids inhibit nuclear-to-cytoplasmic export of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1.

    PubMed

    He, Jun; Qi, Wen-Bao; Wang, Lei; Tian, Jin; Jiao, Pei-Rong; Liu, Guo-Qian; Ye, Wen-Cai; Liao, Ming

    2013-11-01

    Few drugs are currently licensed to treat influenza A infection, and new therapies are needed, especially for highly pathogenic strains. Traditional medicinal plants, such as Lycoris radiata, are a potential source of new antiviral agents. To test 15 Amaryllidaceae alkaloids isolated from the bulbs of L. radiata in vitro for antiviral activities against influenza virus type A, A/Chicken/GuangDong/178/2004 (H5N1, 178). Antiviral activities of the compounds were tested in time-of-addition assays, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays, neuraminidase (NA) activity assays, and viral entry inhibition assays using H5N1-HIV pseudoviruses. Effects of the compounds on localization and activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) were determined by immunofluorescence and an RNP minigenome assay, respectively. Among the alkaloids, lycorine (AA1), hippeastrine (AA2), hemanthamine (AA3) and 11-hydroxy vittatine (AA4) exhibited antiviral activities, with EC90 values of 0·52, 82·07, 4·15, and 13·45 μm, respectively. These compounds did not affect the function of the outer membrane proteins or the viral entry process and viral RNP activity. As AA1 and AA3 exhibited stronger antiviral activities, they were further analyzed. Intracellular nucleoprotein (NP) localization showed that AA1 and AA3 inhibited the RNP complex in the nucleus at an early stage of a single-round and multi-round of replication. Four Amaryllidaceae alkaloids were first determined that could exert anti-influenza activities after virus entry into cells. Furthermore, AA1 and AA3 could inhibit nuclear-to-cytoplasmic export of the RNP complex of virus replication. Thus, these compounds may be developed further as anti-influenza drug candidates. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Relocalization of nuclear ALY proteins to the cytoplasm by the tomato bushy stunt virus P19 pathogenicity protein.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Joachim F; Canto, Tomas; Marshall, David; MacFarlane, Stuart A

    2004-08-01

    The P19 protein of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is a multifunctional pathogenicity determinant involved in suppression of posttranscriptional gene silencing, virus movement, and symptom induction. Here, we report that P19 interacts with the conserved RNA-binding domain of an as yet uncharacterized family of plant ALY proteins that, in animals, are involved in export of RNAs from the nucleus and transcriptional coactivation. We show that the four ALY proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome and two ALY proteins from Nicotiana benthamiana are localized to the nucleus. Moreover, and in contrast to animal ALY, all but one of the proteins are also in the nucleolus, with distinct subnuclear localizations. Infection of plants by TBSV or expression of P19 from Agrobacterium results in relocation of three of the six ALY proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm demonstrating specific targeting of the ALY proteins by P19. The differential effects on subcellular localization indicate that, in plants, the various ALY proteins may have different functions. Interaction with and relocalization of ALY is prevented by mutation of P19 at residues previously shown to be important for P19 function in plants. Down-regulation of expression of two N. benthamiana ALY genes by virus-induced gene silencing did not interfere with posttranscriptional gene silencing. Targeting of ALY proteins during TBSV infection may therefore be related to functions of P19 in addition to its silencing suppression activity.

  7. Clustered basic amino acids of the small sendai virus C protein Y1 are critical to its RAN GTPase-mediated nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Irie, Takashi; Yoshida, Asuka; Sakaguchi, Takemasa

    2013-01-01

    The Sendai virus (SeV) C proteins are shown to exert multiple functions during the course of infection. Perhaps reflecting their many functions, they occur at multiple sites of the cell. In this study, we focused on the nuclear-localizing ability of the smaller C protein, Y1, and found that this translocation is mediated by Ran GTPase but not by passive diffusion, and that basic residues within the 149-157 amino acid region are critical for that. The mechanism of inhibition of interferon (IFN)-signaling seemed to differ between the C and Y1 proteins, since deletion of 12 C-terminal amino acids resulted in a loss of the function for the C but not for the Y1 protein. The ability of Y1 mutants to inhibit IFN-α-induced, ISRE-driven expression of a reporter gene almost paralleled with that to localize in the nucleus. These results suggest that nuclear localization of the Y1 protein might be important for the inhibitory effect on type-I IFN-stimulated gene expression.

  8. Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication by MyD88 Involves Accelerated Degradation of Pregenomic RNA and Nuclear Retention of Pre-S/S RNAs▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhua; Lin, Shanshan; Chen, Qiying; Peng, Lu; Zhai, Jianwei; Liu, Yinghui; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2010-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88), which can be induced by alpha interferon (IFN-α), has an antiviral activity against the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The mechanism of this antiviral activity remains poorly understood. Here, we report that MyD88 inhibited HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells and in a mouse model. The knockdown of MyD88 expression weakened the IFN-α-induced inhibition of HBV replication. Furthermore, MyD88 posttranscriptionally reduced the levels of viral RNA. Remarkably, MyD88 accelerated the decay of viral pregenomic RNA in the cytoplasm. Mapping analysis showed that the RNA sequence located in the 5′-proximal region of the pregenomic RNA was critical for the decay. In addition, MyD88 inhibited the nuclear export of pre-S/S RNAs via the posttranscriptional regulatory element (PRE). The retained pre-S/S RNAs were shown to degrade in the nucleus. Finally, we found that MyD88 inhibited the expression of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), a key nuclear export factor for PRE-containing RNA. Taken together, our results define a novel antiviral mechanism against HBV mediated by MyD88. PMID:20410269

  9. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus latency associated nuclear antigen protein release the G2/M cell cycle blocks by modulating ATM/ATR mediated checkpoint pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Maji, Santanu; Reddy, R Rajendra; Jha, Asutosh K; Goswami, Chandan; Kundu, Chanakya N; Rajasubramaniam, Shanmugam; Verma, Subhash C; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2014-01-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infects the human population and maintains latency stage of viral life cycle in a variety of cell types including cells of epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial origin. The establishment of latent infection by KSHV requires the expression of an unique repertoire of genes among which latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome. LANA regulates the transcription of a number of viral and cellular genes essential for the survival of the virus in the host cell. The present study demonstrates the disruption of the host G2/M cell cycle checkpoint regulation as an associated function of LANA. DNA profile of LANA expressing human B-cells demonstrated the ability of this nuclear antigen in relieving the drug (Nocodazole) induced G2/M checkpoint arrest. Caffeine suppressed nocodazole induced G2/M arrest indicating involvement of the ATM/ATR. Notably, we have also shown the direct interaction of LANA with Chk2, the ATM/ATR signalling effector and is responsible for the release of the G2/M cell cycle block.

  10. A conserved RNA structural element within the hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional regulatory element enhance nuclear export of intronless transcripts and repress the splicing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Visootsat, Akasit; Payungporn, Sunchai; T-Thienprasert, Nattanan P

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a primary cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis worldwide. To develop novel antiviral drugs, a better understanding of HBV gene expression regulation is vital. One important aspect is to understand how HBV hijacks the cellular machinery to export unspliced RNA from the nucleus. The HBV post-transcriptional regulatory element (HBV PRE) has been proposed to be the HBV RNA nuclear export element. However, the function remains controversial, and the core element is unclear. This study, therefore, aimed to identify functional regulatory elements within the HBV PRE and investigate their functions. Using bioinformatics programs based on sequence conservation and conserved RNA secondary structures, three regulatory elements were predicted, namely PRE 1151-1410, PRE 1520-1620 and PRE 1650-1684. PRE 1151-1410 significantly increased intronless and unspliced luciferase activity in both HepG2 and COS-7 cells. Likewise, PRE 1151-1410 significantly elevated intronless and unspliced HBV surface transcripts in liver cancer cells. Moreover, motif analysis predicted that PRE 1151-1410 contains several regulatory motifs. This study reported the roles of PRE 1151-1410 in intronless transcript nuclear export and the splicing mechanism. Additionally, these results provide knowledge in the field of HBV RNA regulation. Moreover, PRE 1151-1410 may be used to enhance the expression of other mRNAs in intronless reporter plasmids.

  11. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) interacts with Regulator of Chromosome Condensation (RCC1) dynamically throughout the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Thibaut; Quentin, Bazot; Leske, Derek M; MacLeod, Ruth; Mompelat, Dimitri; Tafforeau, Lionel; Lotteau, Vincent; Maréchal, Vincent; Baillie, George S; Gruffat, Henri; Wilson, Joanna B; Manet, Evelyne

    2016-12-12

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein which plays an essential role in viral episome replication and segregation, by recruiting the cellular complex of DNA replication onto the origin (oriP) and by tethering the viral DNA onto the mitotic chromosomes. Whereas the mechanisms of viral DNA replication are well documented, those involved in tethering EBNA1 to the cellular chromatin are far from being understood. Here, we have identified Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1 (RCC1) as a novel cellular partner for EBNA1. RCC1 is the major nuclear guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RanGEF) for the small GTPase Ran enzyme. RCC1, associated with chromatin, is involved in the formation of RanGTP gradients critical for nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle formation, and nuclear envelope reassembly following mitosis. Using several approaches, we have demonstrated a direct interaction between these two proteins and found that the EBNA1 domains responsible for EBNA1 tethering to the mitotic chromosomes are also involved in the interaction with RCC1. The use of an EBNA1 peptide array confirmed the interaction of RCC1 with these regions and also the importance of the N-terminal region of RCC1 in this interaction. Finally, using confocal microscopy and FRET analysis to follow the dynamics of interaction between the two proteins throughout the cell cycle, we have demonstrated that EBNA1 and RCC1 closely associate on the chromosomes during metaphase, suggesting an essential role for the interaction during this phase, perhaps in tethering EBNA1 to mitotic chromosomes.

  12. Basic residues of the helix six domain of influenza virus M1 involved in nuclear translocation of M1 can be replaced by PTAP and YPDL late assembly domain motifs.

    PubMed

    Hui, Eric Ka-Wai; Barman, Subrata; Yang, Tae Yong; Nayak, Debi P

    2003-06-01

    Influenza type A virus matrix (M1) protein possesses multiple functional motifs in the helix 6 (H6) domain (amino acids 91 to 105), including nuclear localization signal (NLS) (101-RKLKR-105) involved in translocating M1 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. To determine the role of the NLS motif in the influenza virus life cycle, we mutated these and the neighboring sequences by site-directed mutagenesis, and influenza virus mutants were generated by reverse genetics. Our results show that infectious viruses were rescued by reverse genetics from all single alanine mutations of amino acids in the H6 domain and the neighboring region except in three positions (K104A and R105A within the NLS motif and E106A in loop 6 outside the NLS motif). Among the rescued mutant viruses, R101A and R105K exhibited reduced growth and small-plaque morphology, and all other mutant viruses showed the wild-type phenotype. On the other hand, three single mutations (K104A, K105A, and E106A) and three double mutations (R101A/K102A, K104A/K105A, and K102A/R105A) failed to generate infectious virus. Deletion (Delta YRKL) or mutation (4A) of YRKL also abolished generation of infectious virus. However, replacement of the YRKL motif with PTAP or YPDL as well as insertion of PTAP after 4A mutation yielded infectious viruses with the wild-type phenotype. Furthermore, mutant M1 proteins (R101A/K102A, Delta YRKL, 4A, PTAP, 4A+PTAP, and YPDL) when expressed alone from cloned cDNAs were only cytoplasmic, whereas the wild-type M1 expressed alone was both nuclear and cytoplasmic as expected. These results show that the nuclear translocation function provided by the positively charged residues within the NLS motif does not play a critical role in influenza virus replication. Furthermore, these sequences of H6 domain can be replaced by late (L) domain motifs and therefore may provide a function similar to that of the L domains of other negative-strand RNA and retroviruses.

  13. Basic Residues of the Helix Six Domain of Influenza Virus M1 Involved in Nuclear Translocation of M1 Can Be Replaced by PTAP and YPDL Late Assembly Domain Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Eric Ka-Wai; Barman, Subrata; Yang, Tae Yong; Nayak, Debi P.

    2003-01-01

    Influenza type A virus matrix (M1) protein possesses multiple functional motifs in the helix 6 (H6) domain (amino acids 91 to 105), including nuclear localization signal (NLS) (101-RKLKR-105) involved in translocating M1 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. To determine the role of the NLS motif in the influenza virus life cycle, we mutated these and the neighboring sequences by site-directed mutagenesis, and influenza virus mutants were generated by reverse genetics. Our results show that infectious viruses were rescued by reverse genetics from all single alanine mutations of amino acids in the H6 domain and the neighboring region except in three positions (K104A and R105A within the NLS motif and E106A in loop 6 outside the NLS motif). Among the rescued mutant viruses, R101A and R105K exhibited reduced growth and small-plaque morphology, and all other mutant viruses showed the wild-type phenotype. On the other hand, three single mutations (K104A, K105A, and E106A) and three double mutations (R101A/K102A, K104A/K105A, and K102A/R105A) failed to generate infectious virus. Deletion (ΔYRKL) or mutation (4A) of YRKL also abolished generation of infectious virus. However, replacement of the YRKL motif with PTAP or YPDL as well as insertion of PTAP after 4A mutation yielded infectious viruses with the wild-type phenotype. Furthermore, mutant M1 proteins (R101A/K102A, ΔYRKL, 4A, PTAP, 4A+PTAP, and YPDL) when expressed alone from cloned cDNAs were only cytoplasmic, whereas the wild-type M1 expressed alone was both nuclear and cytoplasmic as expected. These results show that the nuclear translocation function provided by the positively charged residues within the NLS motif does not play a critical role in influenza virus replication. Furthermore, these sequences of H6 domain can be replaced by late (L) domain motifs and therefore may provide a function similar to that of the L domains of other negative-strand RNA and retroviruses. PMID:12768027

  14. Improper Tagging of the Non-Essential Small Capsid Protein VP26 Impairs Nuclear Capsid Egress of Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Binz, Anne; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the subcellular trafficking of herpesvirus capsids, the small capsid protein has been labeled with different fluorescent proteins. Here, we analyzed the infectivity of several HSV1(17+) strains in which the N-terminal region of the non-essential small capsid protein VP26 had been tagged at different positions. While some variants replicated with similar kinetics as their parental wild type strain, others were not infectious at all. Improper tagging resulted in the aggregation of VP26 in the nucleus, prevented efficient nuclear egress of viral capsids, and thus virion formation. Correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy showed that these aggregates had sequestered several other viral proteins, but often did not contain viral capsids. The propensity for aggregate formation was influenced by the type of the fluorescent protein domain, the position of the inserted tag, the cell type, and the progression of infection. Among the tags that we have tested, mRFPVP26 had the lowest tendency to induce nuclear aggregates, and showed the least reduction in replication when compared to wild type. Our data suggest that bona fide monomeric fluorescent protein tags have less impact on proper assembly of HSV1 capsids and nuclear capsid egress than tags that tend to dimerize. Small chemical compounds capable of inducing aggregate formation of VP26 may lead to new antiviral drugs against HSV infections. PMID:22952920

  15. JC virus inclusions in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: scaffolding promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies grow with cell cycle transition through an S-to-G2-like state in enlarging oligodendrocyte nuclei.

    PubMed

    Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Yazawa, Takuya; Nagane, Motoo; Higuchi, Kayoko; Abe-Suzuki, Shiho; Kurata, Morito; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Kamma, Hiroshi; Uchihara, Toshiki

    2014-05-01

    In progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus-infected oligodendroglia display 2 distinct patterns of intranuclear viral inclusions: full inclusions in which progeny virions are present throughout enlarged nuclei and dot-shaped inclusions in which virions are clustered in subnuclear domains termed "promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies" (PML-NBs). Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies may serve a scaffolding role in viral progeny production. We analyzed the formation process of intranuclear viral inclusions by morphometry and assessed PML-NB alterations in the brains of 2 patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. By immunohistochemistry, proliferating cell nuclear antigen was most frequently detected in smaller nuclei; cyclin A was detected in larger nuclei. This suggests an S-to-G2 cell cycle transition in infected cells associated with nuclear enlargement. Sizes of PML-NBs were variable, but they were usually either small speckles 200 to 400 nm in diameter or distinct spherical shells with a diameter of 1 μm or more. By confocal microscopy, JC virus capsid proteins were associated with both small and large PML-NBs, but disruption of large PML-NBs was observed by ground-state depletion fluorescence nanoscopy. Clusters of progeny virions were also detected by electron microscopy. Our data suggest that, in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus produces progeny virions in enlarging oligodendrocyte nuclei in association with growing PML-NBs and with cell cycle transition through an S-to-G2-like state.

  16. Nuclear import inhibitor N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide targets Zika virus (ZIKV) nonstructural protein 5 to inhibit ZIKV infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxiao; Yang, Sundy N Y; Smith, Kate; Forwood, Jade K; Jans, David A

    2017-10-04

    In the absence of approved therapeutics, Zika virus (ZIKV)'s recent prolific outbreaks in the Americas, together with impacts on unborn fetuses of infected mothers, make it a pressing human health concern worldwide. Although a key player in viral replication in the infected host cell cytoplasm, ZIKV non-structural protein 5 (NS5) appears to contribute integrally to pathogenesis by localising in the host cell nucleus, in similar fashion to NS5 from Dengue virus (DENV). We show here for the first time that ZIKV NS5 is recognised with high nanomolar affinity by the host cell importin α/β1 heterodimer, and that this interaction can be blocked by the novel DENV NS5 targeting inhibitor N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR). Importantly, we show that 4-HPR has potent anti-ZIKV activity at low μM concentrations. With an established safety profile for human use, 4-HPR represents an exciting possibility as an anti-ZIKV agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Requirements for the Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Translocation of Infected-Cell Protein 0 of Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Pascal; Van Sant, Charles; Roizman, Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that wild-type infected-cell protein 0 (ICP0), a key herpes simplex virus regulatory protein, translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts within several hours after infection (Y. Kawaguchi, R. Bruni, and B. Roizman, J. Virol. 71:1019–1024, 1997). Translocation of ICP0 was also observed in cells infected with the d120 mutant, in which both copies of the gene encoding ICP4, the major regulatory protein, had been deleted (V. Galvan, R. Brandimarti, J. Munger, and B. Roizman, J. Virol. 74:1931–1938, 2000). Furthermore, a mutant (R7914) carrying the D199A substitution in ICP0 does not bind or stabilize cyclin D3 and is retained in the nucleus (C. Van Sant, P. Lopez, S. J. Advani, and B. Roizman, J. Virol. 75:1888–1898, 2001). Studies designed to elucidate the requirements for the translocation of ICP0 between cellular compartments revealed the following. (i) Translocation of ICP0 to the cytoplasm in productive infection maps to the D199 amino acid, inasmuch as wild-type ICP0 delivered in trans to cells infected with an ICP0 null mutant was translocated to the cytoplasm whereas the D199A-substituted mutant ICP0 was not. (ii) Translocation of wild-type ICP0 requires a function expressed late in infection, inasmuch as phosphonoacetate blocked the translocation of ICP0 in wild-type virus-infected cells but not in d120 mutant-infected cells. Moreover, whereas in d120 mutant-infected cells ICP0 was translocated rapidly from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at approximately 5 h after infection, the translocation of ICP0 in wild-type virus-infected cells extended from 5 to at least 9 h after infection. (iii) In wild-type virus-infected cells, the MG132 proteasomal inhibitor blocked the translocation of ICP0 to the cytoplasm early in infection, but when added late in infection, it caused ICP0 to be relocated back to the nucleus from the cytoplasm. (iv) MG132 blocked the translocation of ICP0 in d120 mutant

  18. Potential cellular functions of Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) of Epstein-Barr Virus.

    PubMed

    Westhoff Smith, Danielle; Sugden, Bill

    2013-01-16

    Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a multifunctional protein encoded by EBV. EBNA1's role in maintaining EBV in latently proliferating cells, by mediating EBV genome synthesis and nonrandom partitioning to daughter cells, as well as regulating viral gene transcription, is well characterized. Less understood are the roles of EBNA1 in affecting the host cell to provide selective advantages to those cells that harbor EBV. In this review we will focus on the interactions between EBNA1 and the host cell that may provide EBV-infected cells selective advantages beyond the maintenance of EBV.

  19. Potential Cellular Functions of Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) of Epstein-Barr Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Danielle Westhoff; Sugden, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a multifunctional protein encoded by EBV. EBNA1’s role in maintaining EBV in latently proliferating cells, by mediating EBV genome synthesis and nonrandom partitioning to daughter cells, as well as regulating viral gene transcription, is well characterized. Less understood are the roles of EBNA1 in affecting the host cell to provide selective advantages to those cells that harbor EBV. In this review we will focus on the interactions between EBNA1 and the host cell that may provide EBV-infected cells selective advantages beyond the maintenance of EBV. PMID:23325328

  20. Multiple HLA A11-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes of different immunogenicities in the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 4.

    PubMed

    Gavioli, R; Kurilla, M G; de Campos-Lima, P O; Wallace, L E; Dolcetti, R; Murray, R J; Rickinson, A B; Masucci, M G

    1993-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous herpesvirus, induces potent HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Analyses of target antigen choice have shown that the very strong CTL responses which are often observed through the HLA A11 allele map are due almost entirely to a single transformation-associated EBV protein, the nuclear antigen EBNA4. Here, we sought to determine the number and relative immunogenicities of HLA A11-restricted epitopes within this 938-amino-acid protein. An initial screening with a series of recombinant vaccinia virus vectors encoding progressively truncated forms of EBNA4 was followed by peptide sensitization experiments using overlapping 14- or 15-mers from the entire sequence. These two approaches allowed the identification of five epitope regions located between residues 101 and 115, 416 and 429, 396 and 410, 481 and 495, and 551 and 564 of the EBNA4 molecule. CTL preparations from all seven HLA A11-positive donors tested had demonstrable reactivities against the 416-to-429 peptide, whereas reactivities against the other epitopes either tended to be lost on serial passage or, for some of the donors, were never detected. The immunodominance of the 416-to-429 epitope was further supported by peptide dilution assays using polyclonal effectors and by CTL cloning experiments. Analysis of the 416-to-429 region identified the nanomer 416-424 (IVTDFSVIK) as the cognate peptide. This peptide was able to sensitize targets to lysis by A11-restricted CTL clones at concentrations as low as 5 x 10(-14) M.

  1. An Occult Hepatitis B-Derived Hepatoma Cell Line Carrying Persistent Nuclear Viral DNA and Permissive for Exogenous Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Chien, Rong-Nan; Lin, Shi-Ming; Ke, Po-Yuan; Lin, Chen-Chun; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is defined as persistence of HBV DNA in liver tissues, with or without detectability of HBV DNA in the serum, in individuals with negative serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Despite accumulating evidence suggesting its important clinical roles, the molecular and virological basis of occult hepatitis B remains unclear. In an attempt to establish new hepatoma cell lines, we achieved a new cell line derived from a hepatoma patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and occult HBV infection. Characterization of this cell line revealed previously unrecognized properties. Two novel human hepatoma cell lines were established. Hep-Y1 was derived from a male hepatoma patient negative for HCV and HBV infection. Hep-Y2 was derived from a female hepatoma patient suffering from chronic HCV and occult HBV infection. Morphological, cytogenetic and functional studies were performed. Permissiveness to HBV infection was assessed. Both cell lines showed typical hepatocyte-like morphology under phase-contrast and electron microscopy and expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, and aldolase B. Cytogenetic analysis revealed extensive chromosomal anomalies. An extrachromosomal form of HBV DNA persisted in the nuclear fraction of Hep-Y2 cells, while no HBsAg was detected in the medium. After treated with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide, both cell lines were permissive for exogenous HBV infection with transient elevation of the replication intermediates in the cytosol with detectable viral antigens by immunoflurescence analysis. In conclusions, we established two new hepatoma cell lines including one from occult HBV infection (Hep-Y2). Both cell lines were permissive for HBV infection. Additionally, Hep-Y2 cells carried persistent extrachromosomal HBV DNA in the nuclei. This cell line could serve as a useful tool to establish the molecular and virological basis of occult HBV infection. PMID:23734258

  2. A Genome-Wide Integrative Genomic Study Localizes Genetic Factors Influencing Antibodies against Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA-1)

    PubMed Central

    Rubicz, Rohina; Yolken, Robert; Drigalenko, Eugene; Carless, Melanie A.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Bauman, Lara; Melton, Phillip E.; Kent, Jack W.; Harley, John B.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Cole, Shelley A.; Almasy, Laura; Moses, Eric K.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Kraig, Ellen; Blangero, John; Leach, Charles T.; Göring, Harald H. H.

    2013-01-01

    Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is highly prevalent worldwide, and it has been associated with infectious mononucleosis and severe diseases including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal lymphoma, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Although EBV has been the focus of extensive research, much still remains unknown concerning what makes some individuals more sensitive to infection and to adverse outcomes as a result of infection. Here we use an integrative genomics approach in order to localize genetic factors influencing levels of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG antibodies, as a measure of history of infection with this pathogen, in large Mexican American families. Genome-wide evidence of both significant linkage and association was obtained on chromosome 6 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and replicated in an independent Mexican American sample of large families (minimum p-value in combined analysis of both datasets is 1.4×10−15 for SNPs rs477515 and rs2516049). Conditional association analyses indicate the presence of at least two separate loci within MHC class II, and along with lymphocyte expression data suggest genes HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 as the best candidates. The association signals are specific to EBV and are not found with IgG antibodies to 12 other pathogens examined, and therefore do not simply reveal a general HLA effect. We investigated whether SNPs significantly associated with diseases in which EBV is known or suspected to play a role (namely nasopharyngeal lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis) also show evidence of associated with EBNA-1 antibody levels, finding an overlap only for the HLA locus, but none elsewhere in the genome. The significance of this work is that a major locus related to EBV infection has been identified, which may ultimately reveal the underlying mechanisms by which the immune system regulates infection with this pathogen

  3. An occult hepatitis B-derived hepatoma cell line carrying persistent nuclear viral DNA and permissive for exogenous hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Chien, Rong-Nan; Lin, Shi-Ming; Ke, Po-Yuan; Lin, Chen-Chun; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is defined as persistence of HBV DNA in liver tissues, with or without detectability of HBV DNA in the serum, in individuals with negative serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Despite accumulating evidence suggesting its important clinical roles, the molecular and virological basis of occult hepatitis B remains unclear. In an attempt to establish new hepatoma cell lines, we achieved a new cell line derived from a hepatoma patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and occult HBV infection. Characterization of this cell line revealed previously unrecognized properties. Two novel human hepatoma cell lines were established. Hep-Y1 was derived from a male hepatoma patient negative for HCV and HBV infection. Hep-Y2 was derived from a female hepatoma patient suffering from chronic HCV and occult HBV infection. Morphological, cytogenetic and functional studies were performed. Permissiveness to HBV infection was assessed. Both cell lines showed typical hepatocyte-like morphology under phase-contrast and electron microscopy and expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, and aldolase B. Cytogenetic analysis revealed extensive chromosomal anomalies. An extrachromosomal form of HBV DNA persisted in the nuclear fraction of Hep-Y2 cells, while no HBsAg was detected in the medium. After treated with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide, both cell lines were permissive for exogenous HBV infection with transient elevation of the replication intermediates in the cytosol with detectable viral antigens by immunoflurescence analysis. In conclusions, we established two new hepatoma cell lines including one from occult HBV infection (Hep-Y2). Both cell lines were permissive for HBV infection. Additionally, Hep-Y2 cells carried persistent extrachromosomal HBV DNA in the nuclei. This cell line could serve as a useful tool to establish the molecular and virological basis of occult HBV infection.

  4. Epitopes and nuclear localization analyses of canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein by expression of its deletion mutants.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, E; Shin, Y S; Iwatsuki, K; Gemma, T; Miyashita, N; Tomonaga, K; Hirayama, N; Mikami, T; Kai, C

    1999-05-01

    A series of nucleocapsid protein (NP)-deleted genes of the Onderstepoort strain was constructed in order to locate antigenic regions of the NP of canine distemper virus. The expression of proteins from 5'-deleted NP genes was examined in COS-7 cells by indirect immunofluorescence assay using three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), c-5, f-5 and h-6, and a rabbit serum against NP. These MAbs reacted with two regions of NP. Amino acid residues from 1 to 80, and 337-358, were necessary and sufficient for formation of the epitopes identified by MAbs f-5 and h-6, and c-5, respectively. The proteins translated from intact or 3'-deleted genes were found to be localized in the nuclei of COS-7 cells, whereas the proteins from the 5'-deleted genes were mainly detected in the cytoplasm. These results suggested that 80 amino acid residues at the N-terminus are required for transportation of NP into the nucleus.

  5. Use of second-site homologous recombination to demonstrate that Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 3B is not important for lymphocyte infection or growth transformation in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Tomkinson, B; Kieff, E

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant Epstein-Barr viruses with a stop codon inserted into the nuclear protein 3B (EBNA 3B) open reading frame were generated by second-site homologous recombination. These mutant viruses infected and growth transformed primary B lymphocytes, resulting in the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Polymerase chain reaction analysis and Southern hybridizations with infected cell DNA demonstrated the presence of the mutant EBNA 3B and the absence of wild-type EBNA 3B. Immunoblot analysis of the LCLs with affinity-purified EBNA 3B antibodies confirmed the absence of EBNA 3B cross-reactive protein. Virus was reactivated from two of these infected LCLs and serially passaged through primary B lymphocytes. The newly infected cells contained only the mutant recombinant virus. No difference was noted between mutant and wild-type recombinants, derived in parallel, in latent (other than EBNA 3B) or lytic cycle-infected cell virus protein expression or in the growth of the latently infected transformed cell lines. These data indicate that the EBNA 3B protein is not critical for primary B-lymphocyte infection, growth transformation, or lytic virus infection in vitro. Images PMID:1313908

  6. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Nuclear Citrus leprosis virus, a Member of the Proposed Dichorhavirus Genus Infecting Multiple Citrus Species in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avijit; Stone, Andrew L; Shao, Jonathan; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-04-01

    Citrus leprosis is one of the most destructive diseases of Citrus spp. and is associated with two unrelated virus groups that produce particles primarily in either the cytoplasm or nucleus of infected plant cells. Symptoms of leprosis, including chlorotic spots surrounded by yellow haloes on leaves and necrotic spots on twigs and fruit, were observed on leprosis-affected mandarin and navel sweet orange trees in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. Serological and molecular assays showed that the cytoplasmic types of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV-C) often associated with leprosis symptomatic tissues were absent. However, using transmission electron microscopy, bullet-shaped rhabdovirus-like virions were observed in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the citrus leprosis-infected leaf tissues. An analysis of small RNA populations from symptomatic tissue was carried out to determine the genome sequence of the rhabdovirus-like particles observed in the citrus leprosis samples. The complete genome sequence showed that the nuclear type of CiLV (CiLV-N) present in the samples consisted of two negative-sense RNAs: 6,268-nucleotide (nt)-long RNA1 and 5,847-nt-long RNA2, excluding the poly(A) tails. CiLV-N had a genome organization identical to that of Orchid fleck virus (OFV), with the exception of shorter 5' untranslated regions in RNA1 (53 versus 205 nt) and RNA2 (34 versus 182 nt). Phylogenetic trees constructed with the amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid (N) and glycoproteins (G) and the RNA polymerase (L protein) showed that CiLV-N clusters with OFV. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of N protein established CiLV-N as a member of the proposed genus Dichorhavirus. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction primers for the detection of CiLV-N were designed based on the sequence of the N gene and the assay was optimized and tested to detect the presence of CiLV-N in both diseased and symptom-free plants.

  7. A theoretical study of rotational diffusion models for rod-shaped viruses. The influence of motion on 31P nuclear magnetic resonance lineshapes and transversal relaxation.

    PubMed Central

    Magusin, P C; Hemminga, M A

    1993-01-01

    Information about the interaction between nucleic acids and coat proteins in intact virus particles may be obtained by studying the restricted backbone dynamics of the incapsulated nucleic acids using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In this article, simulations are carried out to investigate how reorientation of a rod-shaped virus particle as a whole and isolated nucleic acid motions within the virion influence the 31P NMR lineshape and transversal relaxation dominated by the phosphorus chemical shift anisotropy. Two opposite cases are considered on a theoretical level. First, isotropic rotational diffusion is used as a model for mobile nucleic acids that are loosely or partially bound to the protein coat. The effect of this type of diffusion on lineshape and transversal relaxation is calculated by solving the stochastic Liouville equation by an expansion in spherical functions. Next, uniaxial rotational diffusion is assumed to represent the mobility of phosphorus in a virion that rotates as a rigid rod about its length axis. This type of diffusion is approximated by an exchange process among discrete sites. As turns out from these simulations, the amplitude and the frequency of the motion can only be unequivocally determined from experimental data by a combined analysis of the lineshape and the transversal relaxation. In the fast motional region both the isotropic and the uniaxial diffusion model predict the same transversal relaxation as the Redfield theory. For very slow motion, transversal relaxation resembles the nonexponential relaxation as observed for water molecules undergoing translational diffusion in a magnetic field gradient. In this frequency region T2e is inversely proportional to the cube root of the diffusion coefficient. In addition to the isotropic and uniaxial diffusion models, a third model is presented, in which fast restricted nucleic acid backbone motions dominating the lineshape are superimposed on a slow rotation of the

  8. Reactivity with A monoclonal antibody to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 defines a subset of aggressive breast cancers in the absence of the EBV genome.

    PubMed

    Murray, Paul G; Lissauer, David; Junying, Jia; Davies, Gillian; Moore, Sukhjinder; Bell, Andrew; Timms, Judith; Rowlands, David; McConkey, Christopher; Reynolds, Gary M; Ghataura, Suk; England, David; Caroll, Rebecca; Young, Lawrence S

    2003-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that common breast cancers are associated with EBV. We used a highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR method to screen whole tumor sections of breast cancers for the presence of the EBV genome. EBV DNA was detected in 19 of 92 (21%) tumors, but viral load was very low in positive samples (mean = 1.1 copy EBV/1000 cells, maximum = 7.1 copies EBV/1000 cells). Importantly, quantitative real-time PCR failed to detect the EBV genome in microdissected tumor cells from any case. Using a monoclonal antibody (2B4-1) reactive against the EBV nuclear antigen-1, we noted strong staining of tumor nuclei in a proportion of those breast cancers that had tested negative for the presence of the EBV genome. Because nuclear staining with the 2B4-1 antibody was previously observed more frequently in poor prognosis breast cancers, we examined a larger series of breast cancers with complete clinical follow-up. Strong punctate staining of tumor cell nuclei was observed in 47 of 153 (31%) breast cancers; 2B4-1-positive tumors were significantly more likely to be ER-negative (P < 0.0001), to be of higher grade (P = 0.001) and larger (P = 0.03), to involve more regional lymph nodes (P = 0.01), and to have higher Nottingham Prognostic Index scores (P = 0.0003). Conclusions are: (a) EBV can be regularly detected in whole sections of breast cancers but viral copy number is very low; (b) in these cases, tumor cells do not harbor virus; and (c) reactivity with the monoclonal antibody 2B4-1 is detectable in the absence of the EBV genome and is strongly associated with ER-negative breast tumors and with prognostically unfavorable disease. Additional studies should be directed to the identification of this protein and to elucidation of its role in breast cancer.

  9. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 modulate nuclear factor kappaB activity and nitric oxide synthase-2 expression in Theiler's virus-infected brain astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Arévalo-Martín, Angel; Castrillo, Antonio; Boscá, Lisardo; Vela, José M; Guaza, Carmen

    2002-06-01

    In brain astrocytes, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is activated by stimuli that produce cellular stress causing the expression of genes involved in defence, including the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2). Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a persistent CNS infection and chronic immune-mediated demyelination, similar to human multiple sclerosis. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, counteracting the inflammatory process. Our study reports that infection of cultured astrocytes with TMEV resulted in a time-dependent phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, degradation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta, activation of NF-kappaB and expression of NOS-2. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 blocked TMEV-induced nitrite accumulation, NOS-2 mRNA expression and phospho-IkappaBalpha degradation, suggesting NF-kappaB-dependent NOS-2 expression. Pretreatment of astrocytes with IL-4 or IL-10 decreased p65 nuclear translocation, NF-kappaB binding activity and NOS-2 transcription. IL-4 and IL-10 caused an accumulation of IkappaBalpha in TMEV-infected astrocytes without affecting IkappaBbeta levels. The IkappaB kinase activity and the degradation rate of both IkappaBs were not modified by either cytokine, suggesting de novo synthesis of IkappaBalpha. Indeed, IL-4 or IL-10 up-regulated IkappaBalpha mRNA levels after TMEV infection. Therefore, the accumulation of IkappaBalpha might impair the translocation of the NF-kappaB to the nucleus, mediating the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. Overall, these data suggest a novel mechanism of action of IL-4 and IL-10, which abrogates NOS-2 expression in viral-infected glial cells.

  10. Diminished Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcription and Nuclear Transport in Primary Macrophages Arrested in Early G1 Phase of the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Zwart, Bianca M.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2000-01-01

    Previously, we and others have demonstrated that the process of reverse transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is disturbed in nondividing macrophages and quiescent T lymphocytes. Here we analyzed which phase of the cell cycle in macrophages is crucial for early steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle. HIV-1 Ba-L-inoculated macrophages arrested early in the G1 phase by n-butyrate contained incomplete products of reverse transcription. In gamma-irradiated macrophages, reverse transcription was successfully completed but proviral integration could not be detected. In these cells, nuclear import was disturbed as reflected by the absence of two-long-terminal-repeat circles. In macrophages arrested late in G1 phase by aphidicolin or 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), reverse transcription was unaffected. Proviral integration occurred efficiently in DRB-treated macrophages, whereas integrated proviral DNA could not be detected after aphidicolin treatment. Arrest at G2 phase of the cell cycle by nocodazole did not affect reverse transcription or proviral integration. Treatment of macrophages with hydroxyurea (HU), which reduces the intracellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pool by blocking the de novo synthesis of dNTP, resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcription. This could partially be restored by the addition of nucleoside precursors. Addition of nucleoside precursors enhanced both reverse transcription and cell proliferation. However, the disturbed reverse transcription observed in the nonproliferating and n-butyrate-treated macrophages could not be restored by addition of nucleoside precursors. Similar to observations in quiescent T lymphocytes, incomplete proviral DNA species were arrested in the cytoplasm of the macrophages. Our results indicate that also in primary macrophages the intracellular nucleotide pools and other cellular factors that coincide with late G1 phase of the cell cycle may

  11. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen 1 Mimics Epstein-Barr Virus EBNA1 Immune Evasion through Central Repeat Domain Effects on Protein Processing▿

    PubMed Central

    Kwun, Hyun Jin; da Silva, Suzane Ramos; Shah, Ishita M.; Blake, Neil; Moore, Patrick S.; Chang, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/human herpesvirus 8 [HHV8]) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV/HHV4) are distantly related gammaherpesviruses causing tumors in humans. KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen 1 (LANA1) is functionally similar to the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) protein expressed during viral latency, although they have no amino acid similarities. EBNA1 escapes cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) antigen processing by inhibiting its own proteosomal degradation and retarding its own synthesis to reduce defective ribosomal product processing. We show here that the LANA1 QED-rich central repeat (CR) region, particularly the CR2CR3 subdomain, also retards LANA1 synthesis and markedly enhances LANA1 stability in vitro and in vivo. LANA1 isoforms have half-lives greater than 24 h, and fusion of the LANA1 CR2CR3 domain to a destabilized heterologous protein markedly decreases protein turnover. Unlike EBNA1, the LANA1 CR2CR3 subdomain retards translation regardless of whether it is fused to the 5′ or 3′ end of a heterologous gene construct. Manipulation of sequence order, orientation, and composition of the CR2 and CR3 subdomains suggests that specific peptide sequences rather than RNA structures are responsible for synthesis retardation. Although mechanistic differences exist between LANA1 and EBNA1, the primary structures of both proteins have evolved to minimize provoking CTL immune responses. Simple strategies to eliminate these viral inhibitory regions may markedly improve vaccine effectiveness by maximizing CTL responses. PMID:17522213

  12. Nuclear Export and Expression of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 tax/rex mRNA Are RxRE/Rex Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bai, X. T.; Sinha-Datta, U.; Ko, N. L.; Bellon, M.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus associated with the lymphoproliferative disease adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the neurodegenerative disorder tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). Replication of HTLV-1 is under the control of two major trans-acting proteins, Tax and Rex. Previous studies suggested that Tax activates transcription from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) through recruitment of cellular CREB and transcriptional coactivators. Other studies reported that Rex acts posttranscriptionally and allows the cytoplasmic export of unspliced or incompletely spliced viral mRNAs carrying gag/pol and env only. As opposed to HIV's Rev-responsive element (RRE), the Rex-responsive element (RxRE) is present in all viral mRNAs in HTLV-1. However, based on indirect observations, it is believed that nuclear export and expression of the doubly spliced tax/rex RNA are Rex independent. In this study, we demonstrate that Rex does stimulate Tax expression, through nuclear-cytoplasmic export of the tax/rex RNA, even though a Rex-independent basal export mechanism exists. This effect was dependent upon the RxRE element and the RNA-binding activity of Rex. In addition, Rex-mediated export of tax/rex RNA was CRM1 dependent and inhibited by leptomycin B treatment. RNA immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP) experiments confirmed Rex binding to the tax/rex RNA in both transfected cells with HTLV-1 molecular clones and HTLV-1-infected T cells. Since both Rex and p30 interact with the tax/rex RNA and with one another, this may offer a temporal and dynamic regulation of HTLV-1 replication. Our results shed light on HTLV-1 replication and reveal a more complex regulatory network than previously anticipated. PMID:22318152

  13. Nuclear export of human hepatitis B virus core protein and pregenomic RNA depends on the cellular NXF1-p15 machinery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-Chun; Huang, Er-Yi; Li, Hung-Cheng; Su, Pei-Yi; Shih, Chiaho

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. Cytoplasm-predominant HBc is clinically associated with severe liver inflammation. Previously, we found that HBc arginine-rich domain (ARD) can associate with a host factor NXF1 (TAP) by coimmunoprecipitation. It is well known that NXF1-p15 heterodimer can serve as a major export receptor of nuclear mRNA as a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). In the NXF1-p15 pathway, TREX (transcription/export) complex plays an important role in coupling nuclear pre-mRNA processing with mRNA export in mammalian cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis whether HBc and HBV specific RNA can be exported via the TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated pathway. We demonstrated here that HBc can physically and specifically associate with TREX components, and the NXF1-p15 export receptor by coimmunoprecipitation. Accumulation of HBc protein in the nucleus can be induced by the interference with TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated RNA export machinery. HBV transcripts encodes a non-spliced 3.5 kb pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) which can serve as a template for reverse transcription. Cytoplasmic HBV pgRNA appeared to be reduced by siRNA treatment specific for the NXF1-p15 complex by quantitative RT-qPCR and Northern blot analyses. This result suggests that the pgRNA was also exported via the NXF1-p15 machinery. We entertain the hypothesis that HBc protein can be exported as an RNP cargo via the mRNA export pathway by hijacking the TREX and NXF1-p15 complex. In our current and previous studies, HBc is not required for pgRNA accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, HBc ARD can mediate nuclear export of a chimeric protein containing HBc ARD in a pgRNA-independent manner. Taken together, it suggests that while both pgRNA and HBc protein exports are dependent on NXF1-p15, they are using the same export machinery in a manner independent of each other.

  14. Characterization and serology of the matrix protein from a nuclear-polyhedrosis virus of Trichoplusia ni before and after degradation by an endogenous proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Eppstein, D A; Thoma, J A

    1977-01-01

    The intact matrix protein from a nuclear-polyhedrosis virus of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), isolated after inhibition of an endogenous serine-type proteinase, was further purified by molecular-sieve chromatography. The matrix protein was associated with carbohydrate moieties, and the carbohydrate content was determined for the two major peptides isolated after proteolysis by the endogenous proteinase. The association-dissociation interactions of the intact and proteinase-hydrolysed monomer units were characterized at high and low pH. At pH1.9, proteinase-degraded matrix protein dissociated into two different peptide fractions, FI and FII. Fraction FII, a single peptide of 9400 daltons, comprised one-third of the monomer unit of 28 000 daltons. At pH9.5, the degraded peptides were tightly associated in units equivalent to the intact monomer. These monomer equivalents associated to form a series of interconverting aggregates. The predominant aggregate sedimented at 11S and had a mol.wt greater than or equal to 200 000. Two non-cross-reacting antigens were present in the aggregate mixture. The presence of these two antigens does not reflect the presence of two different matrix proteins; rather, the expression of the antigens correlates with the degree of aggregation of the matrix protein. Images Fig. 2. PLATE 1 PMID:23107

  15. Virus-Like Particles Derived from HIV-1 for Delivery of Nuclear Proteins: Improvement of Production and Activity by Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Robert, Marc-André; Lytvyn, Viktoria; Deforet, Francis; Gilbert, Rénald; Gaillet, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from retroviruses and lentiviruses can be used to deliver recombinant proteins without the fear of causing insertional mutagenesis to the host cell genome. In this study we evaluate the potential of an inducible lentiviral vector packaging cell line for VLP production. The Gag gene from HIV-1 was fused to a gene encoding a selected protein and it was transfected into the packaging cells. Three proteins served as model: the green fluorescent protein and two transcription factors-the cumate transactivator (cTA) of the inducible CR5 promoter and the human Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). The sizes of the VLPs were 120-150 nm in diameter and they were resistant to freeze/thaw cycles. Protein delivery by the VLPs reached up to 100% efficacy in human cells and was well tolerated. Gag-cTA triggered up to 1100-fold gene activation of the reporter gene in comparison to the negative control. Protein engineering was required to detect Gag-KLF4 activity. Thus, insertion of the VP16 transactivation domain increased the activity of the VLPs by eightfold. An additional 2.4-fold enhancement was obtained by inserting nuclear export signal. In conclusion, our platform produced VLPs capable of efficient protein transfer, and it was shown that protein engineering can be used to improve the activity of the delivered proteins as well as VLP production.

  16. Characterization of the baculovirus Choristoneura fumiferana multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus p10 gene indicates that the polypeptide contains a coiled-coil domain.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J A; Hill, J E; Kuzio, J; Faulkner, P

    1995-12-01

    The DNA sequence and transcription pattern of the p10 gene from the spruce budworm baculovirus Choristoneura fumiferana multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (CfMNPV) were analysed. The CfMNPV p10 gene codes for a protein 81 amino acids in length: this is the shortest p10 peptide identified thus far. A novel characteristic of the CfMNPV p10 gene is that it contains tandem late initiation sites (TAAG) having different temporal transcription patterns. Comparative analysis of CfMNPV p10 and the amino acid sequences of other p10 gene products showed that they each appear to have a similar N-terminal structure: an amphipathic alpha-helical terminus which condenses as coiled-coil multimers. Another feature of the p10 N terminus is that the central region of the coiled-coil domain resembles a bend or hairpin loop and could fold into a hairpin or form a bent rod structure. The condensation of p10 monomers to coiled-coil multimers is likely to be a step leading to the formation of p10 fibrous bodies in infected cells.

  17. Heat shock factor 1 upregulates transcription of Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear antigen 1 by binding to a heat shock element within the BamHI-Q promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng-Wei; Wu, Xian-Rui; Liu, Wen-Ju; Liao, Yi-Ji; Lin, Sheng; Zong, Yong-Sheng; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Mai, Shi-Juan; Xie, Dan

    2011-12-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for maintenance of the episome and establishment of latency. In this study, we observed that heat treatment effectively induced EBNA1 transcription in EBV-transformed B95-8 and human LCL cell lines. Although Cp is considered as the sole promoter used for the expression of EBNA1 transcripts in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, the RT-PCR results showed that the EBNA1 transcripts induced by heat treatment arise from Qp-initiated transcripts. Using bioinformatics, a high affinity and functional heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-binding element within the - 17/+4 oligonucleotide of the Qp was found, and was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, heat shock and exogenous HSF1 expression induced Qp activity in reporter assays. Further, RNA interference-mediated HSF1 gene silencing attenuated heat-induced EBNA1 expression in B95-8 cells. These results provide evidence that EBNA1 is a new target for the transcription factor HSF1.

  18. Gene variations of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A in nasopharyngeal carcinomas, gastric carcinomas and healthy carriers in northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Guocai; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhifu; Luo, Bing

    2013-10-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen protein 3A (EBNA-3A), a protein of 944 amino acids, is one of five EBNAs (EBNA-1, -2, -LP, -3A and -3C) essential for conversion of primary B lymphocytes to lymphoblastoid cell lines. To characterize the variations of the EBNA-3A gene and explore the association between EBNA-3A gene variations and EBV-associated diseases, we sequenced the key regions of EBNA-3A in the isolates of 30 EBV-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGCs), 44 nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) and 48 samples from healthy donors in northern China. We found that EBNA-3A shares a common evolutionary origin with isolates from southern China and Japan but has the character of a geographical variant. Based on a phylogenetic tree, all of the samples can be subdivided into three patterns, named 3A-8, 3A-5 and B95-8-like. The distribution of EBNA-3A subtypes among EBVaGC, NPC and healthy donors is not significantly different. The subtype 3A-8 is predominant not only in northern China but also in southern China; it is a geographically associated polymorphism in China.

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals that caspase-1 and serine protease may be involved in silkworm resistance to Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lvgao; Xia, Hengchuan; Shi, Haifeng; Zhou, Yajing; Chen, Liang; Yao, Qin; Liu, Xiaoyong; Feng, Fan; Yuan, Yi; Chen, Keping

    2012-06-27

    The silkworm Bombyx mori is of great economic value. The B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) is one of the most common and severe pathogens for silkworm. Although certain immune mechanisms exist in silkworms, most silkworms are still susceptible to BmNPV infection. Interestingly, BmNPV infection resistance in some silkworm strains is varied and naturally existing. We have previously established a silkworm strain NB by genetic cross, which is highly resistant to BmNPV invasion. To investigate the molecular mechanism of silkworm resistance to BmNPV infection, we employed proteomic approach and genetic cross to globally identify proteins differentially expressed in parental silkworms NB and 306, a BmNPV-susceptible strain, and their F(1) hybrids. In all, 53 different proteins were found in direct cross group (NB♀, 306♂, F(1) hybrid) and 21 in reciprocal cross group (306♀, NB♂, F(1) hybrid). Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed that most of these different proteins are located in cytoplasm and are involved in many important metabolisms. Caspase-1 and serine protease expressed only in BmNPV-resistant silkworms, but not in BmNPV-susceptible silkworms, which was further confirmed by Western blot. Taken together, our data suggests that both caspase-1 and serine protease play a critical role in silkworm resistance against BmNPV infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2A forms oligomers in vitro and in vivo through a region required for B-cell transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, S; Schubach, W H

    1994-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) has been shown to be indispensable for immortalization of latently infected B lymphocytes, and it has been shown that EBNA-2 exists in a high-molecular-weight complex in these cells. In order to study the components of this protein machinery, we have purified baculovirus-expressed EBNA-2 from insect cells to greater than 95% homogeneity. We have shown by both gel filtration and sucrose gradient analysis that the purified material corresponds to a multimer containing eight EBNA-2 subunits. This multimeric complex is stable in 1.0 M NaCl, suggesting that the self-association is quite strong in vitro. By expressing portions of the EBNA-2 open reading frame to generate fusion proteins in yeast cells, we have used the two-hybrid system to demonstrate that this self-association occurs in vivo and is mediated at least in part by a domain of EBNA-2 encompassing amino acids 122 to 344. Mutational analysis of the self-association function suggests that two subdomains that flank amino acid 232 may each play a role in EBNA-2 protein-protein interaction. Images PMID:8207803

  1. Small Molecule Inhibition of Epstein - Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen-1 DNA Binding Activity Interferes with Replication and Persistence of the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ka-Won; Joo, Eun Hye; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The replication and persistence of extra chromosomal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome in latently infected cells are primarily dependent on the binding of EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) to the cognate EBV oriP element. In continuation of the previous study, herein we characterized EBNA1 small molecule inhibitors (H20, H31) and their underlying inhibitory mechanisms. In silico docking analyses predicted that H20 fits into a pocket in the EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD). However, H20 did not significantly affect EBNA1 binding to its cognate sequence. A limited structure-relationship study of H20 identified a hydrophobic compound H31, as an EBNA1 inhibitor. An in vitro EBNA1 EMSA and in vivo EGFP-EBNA1 confocal microscopy analysis showed that H31 inhibited EBNA1-dependent oriP sequence-specific DNA binding activity, but not sequence-nonspecific chromosomal association. Consistent with this, H31 repressed the EBNA1-dependent transcription, replication, and persistence of an EBV oriP plasmid. Furthermore, H31 induced progressive loss of EBV episome. In addition, H31 selectively retarded the growth of EBV-infected LCL or Burkitt’s lymphoma cells. These data indicate that H31 inhibition of EBNA1-dependent DNA binding decreases transcription from and persistence of EBV episome in EBV-infected cells. These new compounds might be useful probes for dissecting EBNA1 functions in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24486954

  2. Risk and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using oocytes from persistently infected donors.

    PubMed

    Gregg, K; Riddell, K P; Chen, S H; Galik, P K; Xiang, T; Guerra, T; Marley, M S; Polejaeva, I; Givens, M D

    2010-07-01

    The objective was to assess the risk of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), with oocytes obtained from persistently infected (PI) donors. Using ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration following superstimulation, oocytes were obtained from five female beef cattle, including three that were PI and two that were negative for BVDV. In the three PI cattle, seven aspirations yielded 32 oocytes (PI-1: three aspirations yielding six oocytes; PI-2: two aspirations yielding 14 oocytes; and PI-3: two aspirations yielding 12 oocytes). The oocyte recovery rate was better in negative control cattle, with 32 oocytes obtained from the two cattle in a single superstimulation and aspiration session. Oocytes were processed individually for SCNT, evaluated, and tested for BVDV. Nearly all (31/32) oocytes from the three PI donors were positive for BVDV by PCR, with detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 1 to 1.1 x 10(5). The proportion of oocytes acceptable for SCNT embryo production (based on oocyte quality and maturation status) was only 16 to 35% from PI donors, but was 81% from control donors. Therefore, routine testing of unacceptable (discarded) oocytes could be an effective approach to identify batches that might contain infected oocytes from PI donors. Identification and removal of high-risk batches of oocytes would minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through SCNT embryo production.

  3. The nuclear localization of the Arabidopsis transcription factor TIP is blocked by its interaction with the coat protein of Turnip crinkle virus

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Tao; Qu Feng; Morris, T. Jack . E-mail: jmorris@unlnotes.unl.edu

    2005-01-20

    We have previously reported that TIP, an Arabidopsis protein, interacts with the coat protein (CP) of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) in yeast cells and that this interaction correlated with the resistance response in the TCV-resistant Arabidopsis ecotype Dijon-17. TIP was also able to activate transcription of reporter genes in yeast cells, suggesting that it is likely a transcription factor. We have now verified the physical interaction between TIP and TCV CP in vitro and showed that CP mutants unable to interact with TIP in yeast cells bind TIP with much lower affinity in vitro. Secondly, we have performed gel shift experiments demonstrating that TIP does not bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. The subcellular localization of TIP was also investigated by transiently expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged TIP in Nicotiana benthamiana plant cells, which showed that GFP-tagged TIP localizes primarily to nuclei. Significantly, co-expression of TCVCP and GFP-TIP prevented the nuclear localization of TIP. Together, these results suggest that TIP might be a transcription factor involved in regulating the defense response of Arabidopsis to TCV and that its normal role is compromised by interaction with the invading viral CP.

  4. Notch1, Notch2, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 signaling differentially affects proliferation and survival of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells.

    PubMed

    Kohlhof, Hella; Hampel, Franziska; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Burtscher, Helmut; Weidle, Ulrich H; Hölzel, Michael; Eick, Dirk; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Strobl, Lothar J

    2009-05-28

    The canonical mode of transcriptional activation by both the Epstein-Barr viral protein, Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), and an activated Notch receptor (Notch-IC) requires their recruitment to RBPJ, suggesting that EBNA2 uses the Notch pathway to achieve B-cell immortalization. To gain further insight into the biologic equivalence between Notch-IC and EBNA2, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis, revealing that Notch-IC and EBNA2 exhibit profound differences in the regulation of target genes. Whereas Notch-IC is more potent in regulating genes associated with differentiation and development, EBNA2 is more potent in inducing viral and cellular genes involved in proliferation, survival, and chemotaxis. Because both EBNA2 and Notch-IC induced the expression of cell cycle-associated genes, we analyzed whether Notch1-IC or Notch2-IC can replace EBNA2 in B-cell immortalization. Although Notch-IC could drive quiescent B cells into the cell cycle, B-cell immortalization was not maintained, partially due to an increased apoptosis rate in Notch-IC-expressing cells. Expression analysis revealed that both EBNA2 and Notch-IC induced the expression of proapoptotic genes, but only in EBNA2-expressing cells were antiapoptotic genes strongly up-regulated. These findings suggest that Notch signaling in B cells and B-cell lymphomas is only compatible with proliferation if pathways leading to antiapototic signals are active.

  5. Aberrant activation of the interleukin-2 autocrine loop through the nuclear factor of activated T cells by nonleukemogenic human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 but not by leukemogenic type 1 virus.

    PubMed

    Niinuma, Akiko; Higuchi, Masaya; Takahashi, Masahiko; Oie, Masayasu; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Gejyo, Fumitake; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sugamura, Kazuo; Xie, Li; Green, Patrick L; Fujii, Masahiro

    2005-09-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) but not HTLV-2 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia. We found that HTLV-2 Tax2 protein stimulated reporter gene expression regulated by the interleukin (IL)-2 promoter through the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in a human T-cell line (Jurkat). However, the activity of HTLV-1 Tax1 was minimal in this system. T-cell lines immortalized by HTLV-2 but not HTLV-1 constitutively exhibited activated NFAT in the nucleus and constitutively expressed IL-2 mRNA. Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of NFAT activation, abrogated the induction of IL-2 mRNA in HTLV-2-immortalized T-cell lines and concomitantly inhibited cell growth. This growth inhibition was rescued by the addition of IL-2 to the culture. Furthermore, anti-IL-2 receptor antibodies significantly reduced the proliferation of HTLV-2-infected T-cell lines but not that of HTLV-1-infected cells. Our results suggest that Tax2 activates an IL-2 autocrine loop mediated through NFAT that supports the growth of HTLV-2-infected cells under low-IL-2 conditions. This mechanism would be especially important in vivo, where this autocrine mechanism establishes a nonleukemogenic life-long HTLV-2 infection. The results also suggest that differences in long-term cytokine production between HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection are another factor for the differences in pathogenesis.

  6. Cooperativity among Rev-Associated Nuclear Export Signals Regulates HIV-1 Gene Expression and Is a Determinant of Virus Species Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Aligeti, Mounavya; Behrens, Ryan T.; Pocock, Ginger M.; Schindelin, Johannes; Dietz, Christian; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Swanson, Chad M.; Malim, Michael H.; Ahlquist, Paul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Murine cells exhibit a profound block to HIV-1 virion production that was recently mapped to a species-specific structural attribute of the murine version of the chromosomal region maintenance 1 (mCRM1) nuclear export receptor and rescued by the expression of human CRM1 (hCRM1). In human cells, the HIV-1 Rev protein recruits hCRM1 to intron-containing viral mRNAs encoding the Rev response element (RRE), thereby facilitating viral late gene expression. Here we exploited murine 3T3 fibroblasts as a gain-of-function system to study hCRM1's species-specific role in regulating Rev's effector functions. We show that Rev is rapidly exported from the nucleus by mCRM1 despite only weak contributions to HIV-1's posttranscriptional stages. Indeed, Rev preferentially accumulates in the cytoplasm of murine 3T3 cells with or without hCRM1 expression, in contrast to human HeLa cells, where Rev exhibits striking en masse transitions between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. Efforts to bias Rev's trafficking either into or out of the nucleus revealed that Rev encoding a second CRM1 binding domain (Rev-2xNES) or Rev-dependent viral gag-pol mRNAs bearing tandem RREs (GP-2xRRE), rescue virus particle production in murine cells even in the absence of hCRM1. Combined, these results suggest a model wherein Rev-associated nuclear export signals cooperate to regulate the number or quality of CRM1's interactions with viral Rev/RRE ribonucleoprotein complexes in the nucleus. This mechanism regulates CRM1-dependent viral gene expression and is a determinant of HIV-1's capacity to produce virions in nonhuman cell types. IMPORTANCE Cells derived from mice and other nonhuman species exhibit profound blocks to HIV-1 replication. Here we elucidate a block to HIV-1 gene expression attributable to the murine version of the CRM1 (mCRM1) nuclear export receptor. In human cells, hCRM1 regulates the nuclear export of viral intron-containing mRNAs through the activity of the viral Rev

  7. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C targets p53 and modulates its transcriptional and apoptotic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Fuming; Saha, Abhik; Murakami, Masanao; Kumar, Pankaj; Knight, Jason S.; Cai Qiliang; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Robertson, Erle S.

    2009-06-05

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is one of the most commonly mutated genes in human cancers and the corresponding encoded protein induces apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest at the G1/S checkpoint in response to DNA damage. To date, previous studies have shown that antigens encoded by human tumor viruses such as SV40 large T antigen, adenovirus E1A and HPV E6 interact with p53 and disrupt its functional activity. In a similar fashion, we now show that EBNA3C, one of the EBV latent antigens essential for the B-cell immortalization in vitro, interacts directly with p53. Additionally, we mapped the interaction of EBNA3C with p53 to the C-terminal DNA-binding and the tetramerization domain of p53, and the region of EBNA3C responsible for binding to p53 was mapped to the N-terminal domain of EBNA3C (residues 130-190), previously shown to interact with a number of important cell-cycle components, specifically SCF{sup Skp2}, cyclin A, and cMyc. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EBNA3C substantially represses the transcriptional activity of p53 in luciferase based reporter assays, and rescues apoptosis induced by ectopic p53 expression in SAOS-2 (p53{sup -/-}) cells. Interestingly, we also show that the DNA-binding ability of p53 is diminished in the presence of EBNA3C. Thus, the interaction between the p53 and EBNA3C provides new insights into the mechanism(s) by which the EBNA3C oncoprotein can alter cellular gene expression in EBV associated human cancers.

  8. [Viruses as biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Akçali, Alper

    2005-07-01

    The destruction made by nuclear, biological and chemical weapons used by governments and terrorist groups in the near history is posing anxiety and fear for human being. Rumour about the possible use of these agents leads to the development of serious negative effects on populations. Since there are no vaccine and therapy for most viral agents and cost of production as biological weapons is low, interest rate is rising for viruses. In this review, general characteristics, diagnosis, therapy and protective measures for viral agents such as variola virus, hemorrhagic fever viruses, encephalitis viruses, Hantaviruses and Nipah viruses, those can be used as biological weapon, have been summarized.

  9. Implication of inflammatory macrophages, nuclear receptors and interferon regulatory factors in increased virulence of pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus after host adaptation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses were responsible for numerous severe infections in humans, these viruses do not typically cause corresponding severe disease in mammalian models. However, the generation of a virulent 2009 H1N1 virus following serial lung passage in mice has allowed for...

  10. Investigation of the binding and cleavage characteristics of N1 neuraminidases from avian, seasonal, and pandemic influenza viruses using saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jean-Michel; Lai, Jimmy C C; Haselhorst, Thomas; Choy, Ka Tim; Yen, Hui-Ling; Peiris, Joseph S M; von Itzstein, Mark; Nicholls, John M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The main function of influenza neuraminidase (NA) involves enzymatic cleavage of sialic acid from the surface of host cells resulting in the release of the newly produced virions from infected cells, as well as aiding the movement of virions through sialylated mucus present in the respiratory tract. However, there has previously been little information on the binding affinity of different forms of sialylated glycan with NA. Our objectives were then to investigate both sialic acid binding and cleavage of neuraminidase at an atomic resolution level. Design Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to investigate pH and temperature effects on binding and cleavage as well as to interrogate the selectivity of human-like or avian-like receptors for influenza neuraminidase N1 derived from a range of different influenza virus strains including human seasonal H1N1, H1N1pdm09 and avian H5N1. Results We demonstrated that an acidic pH and physiological temperature are required for efficient NA enzymatic activity; however a change in the pH had a minimum effect on the NA-sialic acid binding affinity. Our data comparing α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialyllactose indicated that the variation in neuraminidase activity on different ligands correlated with a change in binding affinity. Epitope mapping of the sialylglycans interacting with NAs from different viral origin showed different binding profiles suggesting that different binding conformations were adopted. Conclusions The data presented in this study demonstrated that physicochemical conditions (pH in particular) could affect the NA enzymatic activity with minor effect on ligand binding. NA cleavage specificity seemed to be associated with a difference in binding affinity to different ligands, suggesting a relationship between the two events. These findings have implications regarding the replication cycle of influenza infection in the host where different sialidase activities would influence penetration

  11. Expression of VCA (viral capsid antigen) and EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1) genes of Epstein-Barr virus in Pichia pastoris and application of the products in a screening test for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Hong, Guoqiang; Li, Zhaoxia; Xu, Jue; Zhu, Zhenyu; Li, Lin

    2007-05-01

    EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) serological tests have been used for many years as accessory diagnostic predictors of NPC (nasopharyngeal carcinoma). To date, IF (indirect immunofluorescence) assays still serve as the 'gold standard' for EBV serodiagnosis. However, IF assays are time-consuming, unsuitable for automatic handling and difficult to standardize. This makes their application in mass screening of populations inconvenient. Some of the technical difficulties associated with IF have been overcome by the development of specific ELISAs, but, at present, high sensitivity and specificity cannot be achieved simultaneously by using recombinant protein-based ELISAs, as the diagnostic value of different fragments of EBV in NPC is different. In an attempt to determine a suitable recombinant EBV protein for diagnostic purposes, fragments of EBV VCA (viral capsid antigen) and EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1) genes were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and a novel ELISA was established using P. pastoris-expressed VCA-BALF4 [aa (amino acids) 287-623; the BALF4 gene encodes the EBV glycoprotein gp125], EBNA1 (aa 390-641) and VCA-BFRF3 (the gene BFRF3 encodes a viral structural capsid protein or tegument protein VCA p18) proteins. Serum samples were collected from patients with NPC and healthy controls and were tested using this ELISA. The sensitivity of VCA-BFRF3, VCA-BALF4 and EBNA1 tests in the NPC sera were 65.0 (195/300), 76.3 (229/300) and 81.4% (244/300) respectively, whereas the specificity of normal individuals were 92 (460/500), 96 (480/500) and 95.8% (479/500). The optimum combination is VCA-BALF4 plus EBNA1, which identified 90.3% (271/300) of the NPC patients and had a specificity of 92.8% (464/500) for normal individuals. The results obtained from the evaluation of three antibodies to EBV as markers for detecting NPC suggests that a combination of EBNA1 (aa 390-641) and VCA-BALF4 (aa 287-623) assays would give better results

  12. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun

    2014-01-20

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication.

  13. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Ebola virus and Marburg virus By Mayo Clinic Staff Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic ... Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades. Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animal hosts, ...

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Revealed that the Human Polyomavirus JC Virus Agnoprotein Contains an α-Helix Encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-Rich Domain

    PubMed Central

    Coric, Pascale; Saribas, A. Sami; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Childers, Wayne; White, Martyn K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agnoprotein is a small multifunctional regulatory protein required for sustaining the productive replication of JC virus (JCV). It is a mostly cytoplasmic protein localizing in the perinuclear area and forms highly stable dimers/oligomers through a Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain. There have been no three-dimensional structural data available for agnoprotein due to difficulties associated with the dynamic conversion from monomers to oligomers. Here, we report the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a synthetic agnoprotein peptide spanning amino acids Thr17 to Glu55 where Lys23 to Phe39 encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain forms an amphipathic α-helix. On the basis of these structural data, a number of Ala substitution mutations were made to investigate the role of the α-helix in the structure and function of agnoprotein. Single L29A and L36A mutations exhibited a significant negative effect on both protein stability and viral replication, whereas the L32A mutation did not. In addition, the L29A mutant displayed a highly nuclear localization pattern, in contrast to the pattern for the wild type (WT). Interestingly, a triple mutant, the L29A+L32A+L36A mutant, yielded no detectable agnoprotein expression, and the replication of this JCV mutant was significantly reduced, suggesting that Leu29 and Leu36 are located at the dimer interface, contributing to the structure and stability of agnoprotein. Two other single mutations, L33A and E34A, did not perturb agnoprotein stability as drastically as that observed with the L29A and L36A mutations, but they negatively affected viral replication, suggesting that the role of these residues is functional rather than structural. Thus, the agnoprotein dimerization domain can be targeted for the development of novel drugs active against JCV infection. IMPORTANCE Agnoprotein is a small regulatory protein of JC virus (JCV) and is required for the successful completion of the viral replication cycle. It forms

  15. Dynamic Imaging of Pancreatic Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) Activation in Live Mice Using Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Infusion and Bioluminescence*

    PubMed Central

    Orabi, Abrahim I.; Sah, Swati; Javed, Tanveer A.; Lemon, Kathryn L.; Good, Misty L.; Guo, Ping; Xiao, Xiangwei; Prasadan, Krishna; Gittes, George K.; Jin, Shunqian; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is an important signaling molecule that plays a critical role in the development of acute pancreatitis. Current methods for examining NF-κB activation involve infection of an adenoviral NF-κB-luciferase reporter into cell lines or electrophoretic mobility shift assay of lysate. The use of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) has proven to be an effective method of transfecting whole organs in live animals. We examined whether intrapancreatic duct infusion of AAV containing an NF-κB-luciferase reporter (AAV-NF-κB-luciferase) can reliably measure pancreatic NF-κB activation. We confirmed the infectivity of the AAV-NF-κB-luciferase reporter in HEK293 cells using a traditional luciferase readout. Mice were infused with AAV-NF-κB-luciferase 5 weeks before induction of pancreatitis (caerulein, 50 μg/kg). Unlike transgenic mice that globally express NF-κB-luciferase, AAV-infused mice showed a 15-fold increase in pancreas-specific NF-κB bioluminescence following 12 h of caerulein compared with baseline luminescence (p < 0.05). The specificity of the NF-κB-luciferase signal to the pancreas was confirmed by isolating the pancreas and adjacent organs and observing a predominant bioluminescent signal in the pancreas compared with liver, spleen, and stomach. A complementary mouse model of post-ERCP-pancreatitis also induced pancreatic NF-κB signals. Taken together these data provide the first demonstration that NF-κB activation can be examined in a live, dynamic fashion during pancreatic inflammation. We believe this technique offers a valuable tool to study real-time activation of NF-κB in vivo. PMID:25802340

  16. Berberine inhibits the proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via an Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Yaqian; Guo, Wei; Long, Cong; Wang, Jingchao; Liu, Limei; Sun, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy derived from the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx cavity, and is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In addition to NPC, EBV causes various human malignancies, such as gastric cancer, hematological tumors and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) encoded by EBV is indispensable for replication, partition, transcription and maintenance of viral genomes. Berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, shows anti-inflammatory, anticholinergic, antioxidative, and anticancer activities. In the present study, the antitumor effect of berberine was studied. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays were performed to demonstrate whether the proliferation of EBV-positive NPC cells was inhibited by berberine. Flow cytometric results revealed that berberine induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Quantitative-PCR and western blotting results indicated that berberine decreased the expression of EBNA1 at both the mRNA and protein levels in the EBV-positive NPC cells. The function of EBNA1 promoter Qp which is to drive EBNA1 transcription in type Ⅱ latent infection was strongly suppressed by berberine. Overexpression of EBNA1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Berberine also suppressed the activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 which is a new therapeutic target in a series of malignancies, including NPC. Viral titer experiments demonstrated that berberine decreased the production of virions in HONE1 and HK1-EBV cells. In a mouse xenograft model of NPC induced by HONE1 cells, berberine significantly inhibited tumor formation. Altogether, these results indicate that berberine decreases the expression of EBNA1 and exhibits an antitumor effect against NPC both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-dependent Recruitment of Origin Recognition Complex (Orc) on oriP of Epstein-Barr Virus with Purified Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Kenji; Yoshizawa-Sugata, Naoko; Obuse, Chikashi; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Masai, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Origin recognition complex (Orc) plays an essential role in directing assembly of prereplicative complex at selective sites on chromosomes. However, Orc from vertebrates is reported to bind to DNA in a sequence-nonspecific manner, and it is still unclear how it selects specific genomic loci and how Cdc6, another conserved AAA+ factor known to interact with Orc, participates in this process. Replication from oriP, the latent origin of Epstein-Barr virus, provides an excellent model system for the study of initiation on the host chromosomes because it is known to depend on prereplicative complex factors, including Orc and Mcm. Here, we show that Orc is recruited selectively at the essential dyad symmetry element in nuclear extracts in a manner dependent on EBNA1, which specifically binds to dyad symmetry. With purified proteins, EBNA1 can recruit both Cdc6 and Orc independently on a DNA containing EBNA1 binding sites, and Cdc6 facilitates the Orc recruitment by EBNA1. Purified Cdc6 directly binds to EBNA1, whereas association of Orc with EBNA1 requires the presence of the oriP DNA. Nuclease protection assays suggest that Orc associates with DNA segments on both sides adjacent to the EBNA1 binding sites and that this process is stimulated by the presence of Cdc6. Thus, EBNA1 can direct localized assembly of Orc in a process that is facilitated by Cdc6. The possibility of similar modes of recruitment of Orc/Cdc6 at the human chromosomal origins will be discussed. PMID:22589552

  18. Macrophage colony stimulating factor regulation by nuclear factor kappa B: a relevant pathway in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Michael; Haine, Valerie; Ke, Yuxong; Wigdahl, Brian; Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Rappaport, Jay

    2012-03-01

    Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a cytokine that promotes monocyte differentiation and survival. When overexpressed, M-CSF contributes to pathology in a wide variety of diseases, including osteoporosis, obesity, certain human cancers, and in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, particularly with respect to monocyte/macrophage infection and the development of HIV-1 associated central nervous system disorders. In this study, our aim was to expand the current knowledge of M-CSF regulation, focusing on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor playing a prominent role during inflammation and HIV-1 infection. Our results suggest that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) promotes M-CSF secretion in primary macrophages and activates the -1310/+48 bp M-CSF promoter in Mono-Mac 1 cells. Inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway diminish this response. We identified four putative NF-κB and four CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta binding sites within the M-CSF promoter. Our findings, using promoter constructs mutated at individual NF-κB sites within the M-CSF promoter region, suggest that these sites are redundant with respect to NF-κB regulation. TNF-α treatment promoted NF-κB p65 binding to the M-CSF promoter in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treated U937 cells chronically infected with HIV-1 (U1 cells), but not in PMA treated uninfected U937 cells, suggesting that the presence of HIV-1 increases the NF-κB response. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that NF-κB induces M-CSF expression on a promoter level via multiple functional NF-κB binding sites and that this pathway is likely relevant in HIV-1 infection of macrophages.

  19. Comparative Transcriptomics of Buzura suppressaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Assembled De Novo Yield Insights Into Response After Buzura suppressaria Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ji; Zhong, Yating; Zhu, Jiyu; Zhou, Guoying; Huang, Huayan; Wu, Yaojun

    2017-06-01

    Buzura suppressaria Guenee (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a defoliator that seriously harms eucalyptus trees in South China. Buzura suppressaria nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BsNPV) is a baculovirus that infects B. suppressaria with high specificity and efficiency. Transcriptomes of B. suppressaria were sequenced before and after BsNPV infection using an Illumina-based platform to probe for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of B. suppressaria after viral infection. On average, ∼57.4 million high-quality clean reads were generated and assembled de novo into 69,761 unigenes. The NCBI nonredundant protein, Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Gene ontology (GO), and Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases were used to annotate unigenes through NCBI BLAST; 33,575 unigenes (48.1%) were then mapped to at least one of these databases, and 4,366 unigenes (6.3%) were mapped to all databases. Differential expression analysis showed that 25,212 unigenes were upregulated and 22,880 unigenes were downregulated in at least one pairwise comparison. Control versus 48 h had more DEGs than other two pairwise comparisons in either the GO or KEGG database, because the number of regulated gene would increase as BsNPV infected more tissues and would decrease as more tissues were disabled. To ascertain B. suppressaria immune response to BsNPV infection, DEGs were annotated to the GO and KEGG databases. In total, 89 GO categories are related to immune response and 1,007 DEGs are annotated to these GO categories. Furthermore, 7 downregulated DEGs and 37 upregulated were obtained simultaneously in all three groups. These DEGs were considered to possess a central role throughout viral infection. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. SUMO Ligase Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT1 (PIAS1) Is a Constituent Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Body Protein That Contributes to the Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    PubMed

    Brown, James R; Conn, Kristen L; Wasson, Peter; Charman, Matthew; Tong, Lily; Grant, Kyle; McFarlane, Steven; Boutell, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Aspects of intrinsic antiviral immunity are mediated by promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body (PML-NB) constituent proteins. During herpesvirus infection, these antiviral proteins are independently recruited to nuclear domains that contain infecting viral genomes to cooperatively promote viral genome silencing. Central to the execution of this particular antiviral response is the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) signaling pathway. However, the participating SUMOylation enzymes are not fully characterized. We identify the SUMO ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) as a constituent PML-NB protein. We show that PIAS1 localizes at PML-NBs in a SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-dependent manner that requires SUMOylated or SUMOylation-competent PML. Following infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), PIAS1 is recruited to nuclear sites associated with viral genome entry in a SIM-dependent manner, consistent with the SIM-dependent recruitment mechanisms of other well-characterized PML-NB proteins. In contrast to that of Daxx and Sp100, however, the recruitment of PIAS1 is enhanced by PML. PIAS1 promotes the stable accumulation of SUMO1 at nuclear sites associated with HSV-1 genome entry, whereas the accumulation of other evaluated PML-NB proteins occurs independently of PIAS1. We show that PIAS1 cooperatively contributes to HSV-1 restriction through mechanisms that are additive to those of PML and cooperative with those of PIAS4. The antiviral mechanisms of PIAS1 are counteracted by ICP0, the HSV-1 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase, which disrupts the recruitment of PIAS1 to nuclear domains that contain infecting HSV-1 genomes through mechanisms that do not directly result in PIAS1 degradation. Adaptive, innate, and intrinsic immunity cooperatively and efficiently restrict the propagation of viral pathogens. Intrinsic immunity mediated by constitutively expressed cellular proteins represents the first line of intracellular defense against infection. PML

  1. SUMO Ligase Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT1 (PIAS1) Is a Constituent Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Body Protein That Contributes to the Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James R.; Conn, Kristen L.; Wasson, Peter; Charman, Matthew; Tong, Lily; Grant, Kyle; McFarlane, Steven

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspects of intrinsic antiviral immunity are mediated by promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body (PML-NB) constituent proteins. During herpesvirus infection, these antiviral proteins are independently recruited to nuclear domains that contain infecting viral genomes to cooperatively promote viral genome silencing. Central to the execution of this particular antiviral response is the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) signaling pathway. However, the participating SUMOylation enzymes are not fully characterized. We identify the SUMO ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) as a constituent PML-NB protein. We show that PIAS1 localizes at PML-NBs in a SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-dependent manner that requires SUMOylated or SUMOylation-competent PML. Following infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), PIAS1 is recruited to nuclear sites associated with viral genome entry in a SIM-dependent manner, consistent with the SIM-dependent recruitment mechanisms of other well-characterized PML-NB proteins. In contrast to that of Daxx and Sp100, however, the recruitment of PIAS1 is enhanced by PML. PIAS1 promotes the stable accumulation of SUMO1 at nuclear sites associated with HSV-1 genome entry, whereas the accumulation of other evaluated PML-NB proteins occurs independently of PIAS1. We show that PIAS1 cooperatively contributes to HSV-1 restriction through mechanisms that are additive to those of PML and cooperative with those of PIAS4. The antiviral mechanisms of PIAS1 are counteracted by ICP0, the HSV-1 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase, which disrupts the recruitment of PIAS1 to nuclear domains that contain infecting HSV-1 genomes through mechanisms that do not directly result in PIAS1 degradation. IMPORTANCE Adaptive, innate, and intrinsic immunity cooperatively and efficiently restrict the propagation of viral pathogens. Intrinsic immunity mediated by constitutively expressed cellular proteins represents the first line of intracellular defense against

  2. Replication inhibition by nucleoside analogues of a recombinant Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus harboring the herpes thymidine kinase gene driven by the IE-1(0) promoter: a new way to select recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Godeau, F; Saucier, C; Kourilsky, P

    1992-01-01

    The expression of the thymidine-thymidylate kinase (HSV1-TK), (ATP: thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.21) of herpes simplex virus type 1 endows the host cell with a conditional lethal phenotype which depends on the presence of nucleoside analogues metabolized by this enzyme into toxic inhibitors of DNA replication. To generate a recombinant baculovirus that could be selected against by nucleoside analogs, the HSV1-tk coding sequence was placed under the control of the Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) immediate early promoterm IE-1(0), and this construction was introduced via homologous recombination into the polyhedrin locus of AcMNPV. Two recombinant baculoviruses harboring this gene construct at the polyhedrin locus were isolated and tested for their ability to replicate in the presence of various concentrations of the nucleoside analog 9-(1,3-Dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (Ganciclovir). Neither Sf9 lepidopteran cell viability nor replication of wild type or beta-Galactosidase-expressing recombinant AcMNPVs were affected by concentrations of Ganciclovir up to 100 microM. In contrast, replication of the recombinant AcMNPV virus harboring the HSV1-tk gene was inhibited by Ganciclovir in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was detectable at 2 microM and complete at 100 microM. This property was exploited in model isolations aimed at purifying new recombinant viruses having lost this counter-selectable gene marker as a result of homologous recombination at the polyhedrin locus after cotransfection of the viral DNA with a replacement vector. After being propagated in the presence of Ganciclovir, the progeny of such co-transfections contained over 85% recombinant viruses, demonstrating that counter-selection of parental HSV1-tk-containing viruses by Ganciclovir constitutes a novel approach for recombinant baculovirus isolation. Images PMID:1335569

  3. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun

    2014-01-20

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation.

  4. Nuclear Imprisonment: Viral Strategies to Arrest Host mRNA Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Sharon K.; Mata, Miguel A.; Zhang, Liang; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA) that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export of host mRNAs, including targeting mRNA export factors and nucleoporins to compromise their roles in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of cellular mRNA. Here, we present a review of research focused on suppression of host mRNA nuclear export by viruses, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, and the impact of this viral suppression on host antiviral responses. PMID:23872491

  5. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Up-Regulates AKR1C1 Expression Through Nuclear Factor-Y in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Ding, Shijia; Chen, Ke; Qin, Dongdong; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Sen; Sheng, Yanrui; Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Limin; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has long been recognized as an important transcriptional transactivator of several genes. Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), a member of the family of AKR1CS, is significantly increased in HBx-expressed cells. This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of HBx in regulating AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells and the role of AKR1C1 for HBV-induced HCC. RT-PCR was performed to detect AKR1C1 expression on mRNA level in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cell. The promoter activity of AKR1C1 was assayed by transient transfection and Dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The AKR1C1 promoter sequence was screened using the TFSEARCH database and the ALIBABA 2.0 software. The potential transcription factors binding sites were identified using 5' functional deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. In this study, we found that HBx promoted AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Knockdown of HBx inhibited AKR1C1 activation. The role of HBx expression in regulating the promoter activity of human AKR1C1 gene was analyzed. The 5'functional deletion analysis identified that the region between -128 and -88 was the minimal promoter region of HBx to activate AKR1C1 gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested that nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) plays an important role in this HBx-induced AKR1C1 activation. In HepG2.2.1.5 cell, HBx can promote AKR1C1 promoter activity and thus activates the basal transcription of AKR1C1 gene. This process is mediated by the transcription factor NF-Y. This study explored the mechanism for the regulation of HBV on AKR1C1 expression and has provided a new understanding of HBV-induced HCC.

  6. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Up-Regulates AKR1C1 Expression Through Nuclear Factor-Y in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Ding, Shijia; Chen, Ke; Qin, Dongdong; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Sen; Sheng, Yanrui; Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Limin; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has long been recognized as an important transcriptional transactivator of several genes. Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), a member of the family of AKR1CS, is significantly increased in HBx-expressed cells. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of HBx in regulating AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells and the role of AKR1C1 for HBV-induced HCC. Materials and Methods RT-PCR was performed to detect AKR1C1 expression on mRNA level in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cell. The promoter activity of AKR1C1 was assayed by transient transfection and Dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The AKR1C1 promoter sequence was screened using the TFSEARCH database and the ALIBABA 2.0 software. The potential transcription factors binding sites were identified using 5’ functional deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. Results In this study, we found that HBx promoted AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Knockdown of HBx inhibited AKR1C1 activation. The role of HBx expression in regulating the promoter activity of human AKR1C1 gene was analyzed. The 5’functional deletion analysis identified that the region between -128 and -88 was the minimal promoter region of HBx to activate AKR1C1 gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested that nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) plays an important role in this HBx-induced AKR1C1 activation. Conclusions In HepG2.2.1.5 cell, HBx can promote AKR1C1 promoter activity and thus activates the basal transcription of AKR1C1 gene. This process is mediated by the transcription factor NF-Y. This study explored the mechanism for the regulation of HBV on AKR1C1 expression and has provided a new understanding of HBV-induced HCC. PMID:24003325

  7. Complementary serum test of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 and early antigen: a possible alternative for primary screening of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-Ping; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Chang, Yu-Liang; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chen, Chin-Kuo; Lee, Ta-Jen; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Huang, Chung-Guei; Chang, Yu-Sun; Yu, Jau-Song; Hao, Sheng-Po

    2008-08-01

    This hospital-based cohort study evaluated the efficacy of three Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - associated assays for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) primary screening and monitoring treatment outcome. Five hundred and seventeen consecutive subjects, including 156 NPC patients, 264 healthy volunteers and 97 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were enrolled. The sensitivity and specificity of EBV IgAs to viral capsid antigen (VCA), complementary EBV IgAs to early antigen and nuclear antigen-1 (EA+EBNA-1), and EBV DNA load were examined by immunofluorescent assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. After constructing the receiver operating characteristics to demonstrate screening efficacy, EBV EA+EBNA-1 IgA (AUC: 0.952; 95% CI, 0.930-0.974) was proved superior to EBV VCA IgA (AUC: 0.888; 95% CI, 0.854-0.922) or EBV DNA load (AUC: 0.893; 95% CI, 0.854-0.932) in differentiating NPC patients from controls. Comparison of screening efficacy between NPC patients and HNSCC patients revealed EBV EA+EBNA-1 IgA (AUC: 0.964; 95% CI, 0.943-0.985) still outperformed EBV VCA IgA (AUC: 0.884; 95% CI, 0.845-0.923). In subjects with higher serum titer or level equal to or above 1:80 and 6 EU/ml for EBV VCA IgA and EA+EBNA-1 IgA, the specificity reached as high as 99.2% and 95.1%, respectively, in the control groups. However, correlation of these three assays with clinicopathological manifestations of NPC, revealed only EBV DNA load significantly associated with N stage and overall stage in NPC patients. Additionally, EBV DNA load could be used to further raise the specificity of EBV EA+EBNA-1 IgA assays and was also the only assay to be consistently predictive of tumor relapse in post-treatment patients according to serial test results by time frame. Consequently, an EBV EA+EBNA-1 IgA-based protocol is recommended for mass screening, but EBV DNA load should be used solely for post-treatment monitoring for NPC in

  8. How viruses access the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah; Au, Shelly; Panté, Nelly

    2011-09-01

    Many viruses depend on nuclear proteins for replication. Therefore, their viral genome must enter the nucleus of the host cell. In this review we briefly summarize the principles of nucleocytoplasmic transport, and then describe the diverse strategies used by viruses to deliver their genomes into the host nucleus. Some of the emerging mechanisms include: (1) nuclear entry during mitosis, when the nuclear envelope is disassembled, (2) viral genome release in the cytoplasm followed by entry of the genome through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), (3) capsid docking at the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, followed by genome release, (4) nuclear entry of intact capsids through the NPC, followed by genome release, and (5) nuclear entry via virus-induced disruption of the nuclear envelope. Which mechanism a particular virus uses depends on the size and structure of the virus, as well as the cellular cues used by the virus to trigger capsid disassembly and genome release. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Signaling and Cellular Fate through Modulation of Nuclear Protein Import. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binds to Importin alpha Proteins and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-19

    two dis- tinct types of human disease: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) * Corresponding author ...School of Medicine, New York, New York 100292 Received 12 May 2008/Accepted 14 November 2008 Hantaviruses such as Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Andes virus...cause two human diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, respectively. For both, disease pathogenesis is

  10. A Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A/B-Related Protein Binds to Single-Stranded DNA near the 5′ End or within the Genome of Feline Parvovirus and Can Modify Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dai; Parrish, Colin R.

    1999-01-01

    Phage display of cDNA clones prepared from feline cells was used to identify host cell proteins that bound to DNA-containing feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) capsids but not to empty capsids. One gene found in several clones encoded a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-related protein (DBP40) that was very similar in sequence to the A/B-type hnRNP proteins. DBP40 bound specifically to oligonucleotides representing a sequence near the 5′ end of the genome which is exposed on the outside of the full capsid but did not bind most other terminal sequences. Adding purified DBP40 to an in vitro fill-in reaction using viral DNA as a template inhibited the production of the second strand after nucleotide (nt) 289 but prior to nt 469. DBP40 bound to various regions of the viral genome, including a region between nt 295 and 330 of the viral genome which has been associated with transcriptional attenuation of the parvovirus minute virus of mice, which is mediated by a stem-loop structure of the DNA and cellular proteins. Overexpression of the protein in feline cells from a plasmid vector made them largely resistant to FPV infection. Mutagenesis of the protein binding site within the 5′ end viral genome did not affect replication of the virus. PMID:10438866

  11. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  12. Suppression of influenza A virus nuclear antigen production and neuraminidase activity by a nutrient mixture containing ascorbic acid, green tea extract and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Jariwalla, R J; Roomi, M W; Gangapurkar, B; Kalinovsky, T; Niedzwiecki, A; Rath, M

    2007-01-01

    Influenza, one of the oldest and most common infections, poses a serious health problem causing significant morbidity and mortality, and imposing substantial economic costs. The efficacy of current drugs is limited and improved therapies are needed. A unique nutrient mixture (NM), containing ascorbic acid, green tea extract, lysine, proline, N-acetyl cysteine, selenium among other micronutrients, has been shown to exert anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Many of the constituents of NM have been shown to have an inhibitory effect on replication of influenza virus and HIV. This prompted us to study the effect of NM on influenza A virus multiplication in infected cells and neuraminidase activity (NA) in virus particles. Addition of NM to Vero or MDCK cells post infection resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of viral nucleoprotein (NP) production in infected cells. NM-mediated inhibition of viral NP was selective and not due to cytotoxicity towards host cells. This antiviral effect was enhanced by pretreatment of virus with the nutrient mixture. Individual components of NM, namely ascorbic acid and green tea extract, also blocked viral NP production, conferring enhanced inhibition when tested in combination. Incubation of cell-free virus with NM resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of associated NA enzyme activity. In conclusion, the nutrient mixture exerts an antiviral effect against influenza A virus by lowering viral protein production in infected cells and diminishing viral enzymatic activity in cell-free particles.

  13. Heartland Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  14. The genome of Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus provides novel insight into the evolution of nuclear arthropod-specific large circular double-stranded DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Jehle, Johannes A

    2011-06-01

    The Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) is a dsDNA virus with enveloped, rod-shaped virions. Its genome is 127,615 bp in size and contains 139 predicted protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). In-depth genome sequence comparisons revealed a varying number of shared gene homologues, not only with other nudiviruses (NVs) and baculoviruses, but also with other arthropod-specific large dsDNA viruses, including the so-called Monodon baculovirus (MBV), the salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Nudivirus genomes contain 20 baculovirus core gene homologues associated with transcription (p47, lef-8, lef-9, lef-4, vlf-1, and lef-5), replication (dnapol and helicase), virus structure (p74, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, 19kda/pif-4, odv-e56/pif-5, vp91, vp39, and 38K), and unknown functions (ac68, ac81, and p33). Most strikingly, a set of homologous genes involved in peroral infection (p74, pif-1, pif-2, and pif-3) are common to baculoviruses, nudiviruses, SGHVs, and WSSV indicating an ancestral mode of infection in these highly diverged viruses. A gene similar to polyhedrin/granulin encoding the baculovirus occlusion body protein was identified in non-occluded NVs and in Musca domestica SGHV evoking the question of the evolutionary origin of the baculovirus polyhedrin/granulin gene. Based on gene homologies, we further propose that the shrimp MBV is an occluded member of the nudiviruses. We conclude that baculoviruses, NVs and the shrimp MBV, the SGHVs and WSSV share the significant number of conserved genetic functions, which may point to a common ancestry of these viruses.

  15. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tof protein contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal that is able to functionally replace the amino-terminal domain of Rex.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, D M; Ciminale, V; Zotti, L; Rosato, A; Chieco-Bianchi, L

    1997-01-01

    The X region of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) encodes two nucleolar/nuclear proteins, the posttranscriptional regulator of mRNA expression Rex and a protein of unknown function named Tof. To gain insight into the possible biological role of Tof, we investigated the mechanism governing its intracellular trafficking and identified its nucleolar/nuclear localization signal (NLS). Mutational analysis of Tof revealed that its NLS was located between amino acids 71 and 98 and contained two arginine-rich domains that functioned in an interdependent manner. Studies of Tof-Rex hybrid proteins showed that the Tof NLS could functionally replace the NLS of Rex at the level of nuclear targeting. As the NLS of Rex is known to mediate its interaction with its RNA target, the Rex-responsive element (RXRE), we tested whether the NLS of Tof could replace that of Rex in mediating activation of a RXRE-containing mRNA. Results showed that the NLS of Tof was indeed able to mediate activation of RXRE-containing mRNAs, suggesting that Tof itself may function as a regulator of RNA expression and utilization. A comparison of their compartmentalization in response to actinomycin D treatment indicated that Tof did not share Rex's shuttling pathway. Expression of Tof from its natural multiply spliced mRNA required the presence of Rex, suggesting that Tof may regulate viral or cellular mRNA expression during the later stages of viral replication.

  16. MHC II tetramers visualize human CD4+ T cell responses to Epstein–Barr virus infection and demonstrate atypical kinetics of the nuclear antigen EBNA1 response

    PubMed Central

    Long, Heather M.; Chagoury, Odette L.; Leese, Alison M.; Ryan, Gordon B.; James, Eddie; Morton, Laura T.; Abbott, Rachel J.M.; Sabbah, Shereen; Kwok, William

    2013-01-01

    Virus-specific CD4+ T cells are key orchestrators of host responses to viral infection yet, compared with their CD8+ T cell counterparts, remain poorly characterized at the single cell level. Here we use nine MHC II–epitope peptide tetramers to visualize human CD4+ T cell responses to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a disease associated with large virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses. We find that, while not approaching virus-specific CD8+ T cell expansions in magnitude, activated CD4+ T cells specific for epitopes in the latent antigen EBNA2 and four lytic cycle antigens are detected at high frequencies in acute IM blood. They then fall rapidly to values typical of life-long virus carriage where most tetramer-positive cells display conventional memory markers but some, unexpectedly, revert to a naive-like phenotype. In contrast CD4+ T cell responses to EBNA1 epitopes are greatly delayed in IM patients, in line with the well-known but hitherto unexplained delay in EBNA1 IgG antibody responses. We present evidence from an in vitro system that may explain these unusual kinetics. Unlike other EBNAs and lytic cycle proteins, EBNA1 is not naturally released from EBV-infected cells as a source of antigen for CD4+ T cell priming. PMID:23569328

  17. MHC II tetramers visualize human CD4+ T cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus infection and demonstrate atypical kinetics of the nuclear antigen EBNA1 response.

    PubMed

    Long, Heather M; Chagoury, Odette L; Leese, Alison M; Ryan, Gordon B; James, Eddie; Morton, Laura T; Abbott, Rachel J M; Sabbah, Shereen; Kwok, William; Rickinson, Alan B

    2013-05-06

    Virus-specific CD4(+) T cells are key orchestrators of host responses to viral infection yet, compared with their CD8(+) T cell counterparts, remain poorly characterized at the single cell level. Here we use nine MHC II-epitope peptide tetramers to visualize human CD4(+) T cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a disease associated with large virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. We find that, while not approaching virus-specific CD8(+) T cell expansions in magnitude, activated CD4(+) T cells specific for epitopes in the latent antigen EBNA2 and four lytic cycle antigens are detected at high frequencies in acute IM blood. They then fall rapidly to values typical of life-long virus carriage where most tetramer-positive cells display conventional memory markers but some, unexpectedly, revert to a naive-like phenotype. In contrast CD4(+) T cell responses to EBNA1 epitopes are greatly delayed in IM patients, in line with the well-known but hitherto unexplained delay in EBNA1 IgG antibody responses. We present evidence from an in vitro system that may explain these unusual kinetics. Unlike other EBNAs and lytic cycle proteins, EBNA1 is not naturally released from EBV-infected cells as a source of antigen for CD4(+) T cell priming.

  18. A nuclear localization signal in the matrix of spleen necrosis virus (SNV) does not allow efficient gene transfer into quiescent cells with SNV-derived vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Caron, Marie-Christine; Caruso, Manuel . E-mail: manuel.caruso@crhdq.ulaval.ca

    2005-08-01

    A major limitation in gene therapy for vectors derived from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) is that they only deliver genes into dividing cells. In this study, a careful comparison of spleen necrosis virus (SNV)-derived vectors with MLV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 retroviral vectors indicated that SNV vectors can deliver genes 4-fold more efficiently than MLV vectors into aphidicolin-arrested cells, although at a 25-fold lower efficiency than HIV-1-derived vectors. Furthermore, the addition of a NLS in the SNV matrix (MA) that mimics the one located in HIV-1 MA did not increase the ability of SNV vectors to transfer genes into arrested cells. Also, we found that the RD114 envelope was able to pseudotype SNV viral particles in a very efficient manner.

  19. Multiple vesiculoviral matrix proteins inhibit both nuclear export and import

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jeannine M.; Her, Lu-Shiun; Dahlberg, James E.

    2001-01-01

    The matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus inhibits both nuclear import and export. Here, we demonstrate that this inhibitory property is conserved between the M proteins from two other vesiculoviruses, chandipura virus and spring viremia carp virus. All three M proteins completely block nuclear transport of spliced mRNA, small nuclear RNAs, and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and slow the nuclear transport of many other cargoes. In all cases where transport was merely slowed by the M proteins, the chandipura virus M protein had the strongest inhibitory activity. When expressed in transfected HeLa cells, active M proteins displayed prominent association with the nuclear rim. Moreover, mutation of a conserved methionine abolished both the inhibitory activity and efficient targeting of the M proteins to the nuclear rim. We propose that all of the vesiculoviral M proteins associate with the same nuclear target, which is likely to be a component of the nuclear pore complex. PMID:11447272

  20. Temperature-Sensitive Mutants in the Influenza A Virus RNA Polymerase: Alterations in the PA Linker Reduce Nuclear Targeting of the PB1-PA Dimer and Result in Viral Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Bruno; Sausset, Alix; Munier, Sandie; Ghounaris, Alexandre; Naffakh, Nadia; Le Goffic, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes genome replication and transcription within the cell nucleus. Efficient nuclear import and assembly of the polymerase subunits PB1, PB2, and PA are critical steps in the virus life cycle. We investigated the structure and function of the PA linker (residues 197 to 256), located between its N-terminal endonuclease domain and its C-terminal structured domain that binds PB1, the polymerase core. Circular dichroism experiments revealed that the PA linker by itself is structurally disordered. A large series of PA linker mutants exhibited a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype (reduced viral growth at 39.5°C versus 37°C/33°C), suggesting an alteration of folding kinetic parameters. The ts phenotype was associated with a reduced efficiency of replication/transcription of a pseudoviral reporter RNA in a minireplicon assay. Using a fluorescent-tagged PB1, we observed that ts and lethal PA mutants did not efficiently recruit PB1 to reach the nucleus at 39.5°C. A protein complementation assay using PA mutants, PB1, and β-importin IPO5 tagged with fragments of the Gaussia princeps luciferase showed that increasing the temperature negatively modulated the PA-PB1 and the PA-PB1-IPO5 interactions or complex stability. The selection of revertant viruses allowed the identification of different types of compensatory mutations located in one or the other of the three polymerase subunits. Two ts mutants were shown to be attenuated and able to induce antibodies in mice. Taken together, our results identify a PA domain critical for PB1-PA nuclear import and that is a “hot spot” to engineer ts mutants that could be used to design novel attenuated vaccines. IMPORTANCE By targeting a discrete domain of the PA polymerase subunit of influenza virus, we were able to identify a series of 9 amino acid positions that are appropriate to engineer temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants. This is the first time that a large

  1. Identification and molecular characterization of nuclear Citrus leprosis virus, an unassigned Dichorhavirus genus member associated with citrus leprosis disease in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type (CiLV-C) was detected in states...

  2. Coxsackievirus B1-induced chronic inflammatory myopathy: differences in induction of autoantibodies to muscle and nuclear antigens by cloned myopathic and amyopathic viruses.

    PubMed

    Tam, Patricia E; Fontana, Donna R; Messner, Ronald P

    2003-09-01

    Infection of susceptible strains of mice with the myopathic Tucson strain of coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1(T)) leads to the development of chronic inflammatory myopathy (CIM). The underlying mechanism of CIM appears to be immunopathic, but it is not known whether autoimmunity is involved. The objectives of this study were to determine whether autoantibodies are produced and whether they correlate with the pathology of CIM. Mice were infected with either a myopathic (MP1.23 or MP1.24) or an amyopathic (AMP2.17) CVB1(T) cloned virus. The two myopathic (MP) viruses cause CIM, whereas the amyopathic (AMP) virus, derived from a variant of the same parent, causes the same acute disease but does not cause CIM. Antimuscle IgG was found in 51% of MP1.23-infected and 58% of MP1.24-infected mice but in just 18% of mice infected with AMP2.17 and in 10% of controls (MP vs AMP: chi(2), P < or =.006). Several staining patterns were observed, indicating that autoantibodies of multiple specificities were produced. Antinuclear antibodies were found in 57% of MP1.23-infected and 27% of MP1.24-infected mice but were rare in mice infected with AMP2.17 (0%) or in controls (4%) (MP vs AMP: chi(2), P < or =.01). Antiviral-antibody titers were higher with MP virus than with AMP virus (ANOVA, P <.001). A trend toward an association between antiviral antibody or autoantibodies and the presence or severity of clinical measures of CIM was noted but was not significant. These data suggest that the autoantibodies do not mediate muscle disease but are an independent manifestation of an immunopathic response induced by infection with MP but not AMP CVB1(T).

  3. Residues R{sup 199}H{sup 200} of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 contribute to its binding with LTR and IP promoters but not its nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Qinglin; Tan, Juan; Cui, Xiaoxu; Luo, Di; Yu, Miao; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2014-01-20

    Prototype foamy virus encodes a transactivator called Bel1 that enhances viral gene transcription and is essential for PFV replication. Nuclear localization of Bel1 has been reported to rely on two proximal basic motifs R{sup 199}H{sup 200} and R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} that likely function together as a bipartite nuclear localization signal. In this study, we report that mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}, but not R{sup 199}H{sup 200}, relocates Bel1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting an essential role for R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} in the nuclear localization of Bel1. Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. Results of EMSA reveal that the R{sup 199}H{sup 200} residues are vital for the binding of Bel1 to viral promoter DNA. Moreover, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}. Collectively, our findings suggest that R{sup 199}H{sup 200} directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA and are indispensible for Bel1 transactivation activity. - Highlights: • The R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} residues are essential for the nuclear localization of Bel1. • Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. • The R{sup 199}H{sup 200} residues directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA. • Mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}.

  4. CD4+ T-cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA1 in Chinese populations are highly focused on novel C-terminal domain-derived epitopes.

    PubMed

    Tsang, C W; Lin, X; Gudgeon, N H; Taylor, G S; Jia, H; Hui, E P; Chan, A T C; Lin, C K; Rickinson, A B

    2006-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA1, the one viral protein uniformly expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), represents a prime target for T-cell-based immunotherapy. However, little is known about the EBNA1 epitopes, particularly CD4 epitopes, presented by HLA alleles in Chinese people, the group at highest risk for NPC. We analyzed the CD4+ T-cell responses to EBNA1 in 78 healthy Chinese donors and found marked focusing on a small number of epitopes in the EBNA1 C-terminal region, including a DP5-restricted epitope that was recognized by almost half of the donors tested and elicited responses able to recognize EBNA1-expressing, DP5-positive target cells.

  5. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  6. Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Natalie R.; Roller, Richard J.

    2010-10-10

    The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

  7. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  8. Follicular dendritic cells in multicentric Castleman disease present human herpes virus type 8 (HHV8)-latent nuclear antigen 1 (LANA1) in a proportion of cases and is associated with an enhanced T-cell response.

    PubMed

    El-Daly, Hesham; Bower, Mark; Naresh, Kikkeri N

    2010-02-01

    Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a rare human herpes virus type 8 (HHV8)-associated lymphoproliferative disorder that occurs more frequently in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In tissue samples, HHV8-infected plasmablasts localise to the mantle zones of the lymphoid follicles. We revisited the immunohistological features in 25 lymph node (LN) and three spleen samples of MCD. In five (20%) LN and one (33%) spleen sample, HHV8 latent nuclear antigen 1 (LANA1) staining was also noted on the follicular dendritic cells (FDC). The HHV8-positive FDC subgroup of patients had significantly higher numbers of CD3-positive T cells infiltrating the follicles when compared to the HHV8-negative FDC subgroup (P = 0.047). Furthermore, the numbers of HHV8-positive plasmablasts and serum HHV8 viral copy numbers were lower among the HHV8-positive FDC subgroup when compared to the HHV8-negative FDC subgroup (not statistically significant). Our findings show, for the first time, possible 'presentation' of an HHV8 antigen by FDCs in MCD.

  9. Changes in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma nuclear proteome induced by the EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus reveal potential roles for EBNA1 in metastasis and oxidative stress responses.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jennifer Yinuo; Mansouri, Sheila; Frappier, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causatively associated with a variety of human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The only viral nuclear protein expressed in NPC is EBNA1, which can alter cellular properties in ways that may promote oncogenesis. Here, we used 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DiGE) to profile changes in the nuclear proteome that occur after stable expression of EBNA1 in the EBV-negative NPC cell line CNE2. We found that EBNA1 consistently altered the levels of a small percentage of the nuclear proteins. The identification of 19 of these proteins by mass spectrometry revealed that EBNA1 upregulated three proteins affecting metastatic potential (stathmin 1, maspin, and Nm23-H1) and several proteins in the oxidative stress response pathway, including the antioxidants superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1). Western blot analysis verified that EBNA1 expression upregulated and EBNA1 silencing downregulated these proteins. In addition, transcripts for stathmin 1 were induced by EBNA1, whereas EBNA1 only affected Prx1 and SOD1 at the protein level. Further investigation of the EBNA1 effects on the redox pathway showed that long-term EBNA1 expression in NPC resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased levels of the NADPH oxidases NOX1 and NOX2, known to generate ROS. In addition, EBNA1 depletion in EBV-positive cells decreased NOX2 and ROS. The results show multiple roles for EBNA1 in the oxidative stress response pathway and suggest mechanisms by which EBNA1 may promote NPC metastases.

  10. Changes in the Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Nuclear Proteome Induced by the EBNA1 Protein of Epstein-Barr Virus Reveal Potential Roles for EBNA1 in Metastasis and Oxidative Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jennifer Yinuo; Mansouri, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causatively associated with a variety of human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The only viral nuclear protein expressed in NPC is EBNA1, which can alter cellular properties in ways that may promote oncogenesis. Here, we used 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DiGE) to profile changes in the nuclear proteome that occur after stable expression of EBNA1 in the EBV-negative NPC cell line CNE2. We found that EBNA1 consistently altered the levels of a small percentage of the nuclear proteins. The identification of 19 of these proteins by mass spectrometry revealed that EBNA1 upregulated three proteins affecting metastatic potential (stathmin 1, maspin, and Nm23-H1) and several proteins in the oxidative stress response pathway, including the antioxidants superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1). Western blot analysis verified that EBNA1 expression upregulated and EBNA1 silencing downregulated these proteins. In addition, transcripts for stathmin 1 were induced by EBNA1, whereas EBNA1 only affected Prx1 and SOD1 at the protein level. Further investigation of the EBNA1 effects on the redox pathway showed that long-term EBNA1 expression in NPC resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased levels of the NADPH oxidases NOX1 and NOX2, known to generate ROS. In addition, EBNA1 depletion in EBV-positive cells decreased NOX2 and ROS. The results show multiple roles for EBNA1 in the oxidative stress response pathway and suggest mechanisms by which EBNA1 may promote NPC metastases. PMID:22013061

  11. Herpes simplex virus 2 modulates apoptosis and stimulates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation during infection in human epithelial HEp-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yedowitz, Jamie C.; Blaho, John A. . E-mail: john.blaho@mssm.edu

    2005-11-25

    Virus-mediated apoptosis is well documented in various systems, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-2 is closely related to HSV-1 but its apoptotic potential during infection has not been extensively scrutinized. We report that (i) HEp-2 cells infected with HSV-2(G) triggered apoptosis, assessed by apoptotic cellular morphologies, oligosomal DNA laddering, chromatin condensation, and death factor processing when a translational inhibitor (CHX) was added at 3 hpi. Thus, HSV-2 induced apoptosis but was unable to prevent the process from killing cells. (ii) Results from a time course of CHX addition experiment indicated that infected cell protein produced between 3 and 5 hpi, termed the apoptosis prevention window, are required for blocking virus-induced apoptosis. This corresponds to the same prevention time frame as reported for HSV-1. (iii) Importantly, CHX addition prior to 3 hpi led to less apoptosis than that at 3 hpi. This suggests that proteins produced immediately upon infection are needed for efficient apoptosis induction by HSV-2. This finding is different from that observed previously with HSV-1. (iv) Infected cell factors produced during the HSV-2(G) prevention window inhibited apoptosis induced by external TNF{alpha} plus cycloheximide treatment. (v) NF-{kappa}B translocated to nuclei and its presence in nuclei correlated with apoptosis prevention during HSV-2(G) infection. (vi) Finally, clinical HSV-2 isolates induced and prevented apoptosis in HEp-2 cells in a manner similar to that of laboratory strains. Thus, while laboratory and clinical HSV-2 strains are capable of modulating apoptosis in human HEp-2 cells, the mechanism of HSV-2 induction of apoptosis differs from that of HSV-1.

  12. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  13. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  14. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  15. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  16. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  17. Cell lines that support replication of a novel herpes simplex virus 1 U{sub L}31 deletion mutant can properly target U{sub L}34 protein to the nuclear rim in the absence of U{sub L}31

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Li; Tanaka, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Baines, Joel D. . E-mail: jdb11@cornell.edu

    2004-11-10

    Previous results indicated that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) U{sub L}31 gene is necessary and sufficient for localization of the U{sub L}34 protein exclusively to the nuclear membrane of infected Hep2 cells. In the current studies, a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the entire HSV-1 strain F genome was used to construct a recombinant viral genome in which a gene encoding kanamycin resistance was inserted in place of 262 codons of the 306 codon U{sub L}31 open reading frame. The deletion virus produced virus titers approximately 10- to 50-fold lower in rabbit skin cells, more than 2000-fold lower in Vero cells, and more than 1500-fold lower in CV1 cells, compared to a virus bearing a restored U{sub L}31 gene. The replication of the U{sub L}31 deletion virus was restored on U{sub L}31-complementing cell lines derived either from rabbit skin cells or CV1 cells. Confocal microscopy indicated that the majority of U{sub L}34 protein localized aberrantly in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of Vero cells and CV1 cells, whereas U{sub L}34 protein localized at the nuclear membrane in rabbit skin cells, and U{sub L}31 complementing CV1 cells infected with the U{sub L}31 deletion virus. We conclude that rabbit skin cells encode a function that allows proper localization of U{sub L}34 protein to the nuclear membrane. We speculate that this function partially complements that of U{sub L}31 and may explain why U{sub L}31 is less critical for replication in rabbit skin cells as opposed to Vero and CV1 cells.

  18. Investigation of the persistence and replication of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses in vertebrate and insect cell cultures by the use of hybridization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, W.; Goldstein, D.A.; Alvidrez, C.; Spizizen, J.; William, C.B.

    1980-05-01

    The Health Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, conducts a coordinaged environmental health research program in toxicology, epidemiology, and clinical studies using human volunteer subjects. These studies address problems in air pollution, non-ionizing radiation, environmental carcinogenesis, and the toxicology of pesticides as well as other chemical pollutants. The Laboratory develops and revises air quality criteria documents on pollutants for which national ambient air quality standards exist or are proposed, provides the data for registration of new pesticides or proposed suspension of those already in use, conducts research on hazardous and toxic materials, and is preparing the health basis for non-ionizing radiation standards. The majority of the registered pesticides are chemical agents. A few, however, are biological in nature because the active ingredients are microbial. Of these micro-organisms, viruses are perhaps the most unique in structure, biology, and the intimacy of their parasitic relationship with their hosts. This report considers whether potential biohazards to human health and other biological components of the environment exist when insect viruses are used as pesticides.

  19. A family of serine proteases expressed exclusively in myelo-monocytic cells specifically processes the nuclear factor-kappa B subunit p65 in vitro and may impair human immunodeficiency virus replication in these cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Two groups of U937 promonocytic cells were obtained by limiting dilution cloning which differed strikingly in their ability to support human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replication. "Plus" clones replicated the virus efficiently, whereas "minus" clones did not. We examined these clones for differences in nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B activity which might account for the observed phenomenon. Stimulation of plus clones liberated the classical p50-p65 complex from cytoplasmic pools, whereas minus clones produced an apparently novel, faster- migrating complex, as judged by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. It is surprising that the faster-migrating complex was composed also of p50 and p65. However, the p65 subunit was COOH-terminally truncated, as shown by immunoprecipitation. The truncation resulted from limited proteolysis of p65 during cellular extraction which released particular lysosomal serine proteases, such as elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase 3. These specific proteases are coordinately expressed and were present exclusively in the minus U937 clones, but not in the plus clones, as demonstrated in the case of cathepsin G. In addition, these proteases were detected in certain subclones of THP-1 and HL-60 cells and in primary monocytes, in each case correlating with the truncated from of p65. We demonstrate in vitro cleavage of p65 by purified elastase and cathepsin G. It is possible that particular serine proteases may have inhibiting effects on the replication of HIV-1 in myelo-monocytic cells. The data also demonstrate that special precautions must be taken when making extracts from myelo-monocytic cells. PMID:7931077

  20. Fusion of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1-derived glycine-alanine repeat to trans-dominant HIV-1 Gag increases inhibitory activities and survival of transduced cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Diana; Wild, Jens; Ludwig, Christine; Asbach, Benedikt; Notka, Frank; Wagner, Ralf

    2008-06-01

    Trans-dominant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag derivatives have been shown to efficiently inhibit late steps of HIV-1 replication in vitro by interfering with Gag precursor assembly, thus ranking among the interesting candidates for gene therapy approaches. However, efficient antiviral activities of corresponding transgenes are likely to be counteracted in particular by cell-mediated host immune responses toward the transgene-expressing cells. To decrease this potential immunogenicity, a 24-amino acid Gly-Ala (GA) stretch derived from Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) and known to overcome proteasomal degradation was fused to a trans-dominant Gag variant (sgD1). To determine the capacity of this fusion polypeptide to repress viral replication, PM-1 cells were transduced with sgD1 and GAsgD1 transgenes, using retroviral gene transfer. Challenge of stably transfected permissive cell lines with various viral strains indicated that N-terminal GA fusion even enhanced the inhibitory properties of sgD1. Further studies revealed that the GA stretch increased protein stability by blocking proteasomal degradation of Gag proteins. Immunization of BALB/c mice with a DNA vaccine vector expressing sgD1 induced substantial Gag-specific immune responses that were, however, clearly diminished in the presence of GA. Furthermore, recognition of cells expressing the GA-fused transgene by CD8(+) T cells was drastically reduced, both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in prolonged survival of the transduced cells in recipient mice.

  1. Hepatitis B virus X protein stimulates the Hedgehog-Gli activation through protein stabilization and nuclear localization of Gli1 in liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Cho, Hyun Kook; Hong, Sung Pyo; Cheong, Jaehun

    2011-10-28

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver diseases, which frequently results in hepatits, cirrhosis, fibrosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies have shown the activation of Hedgehog signaling in HCC. Here, we provide evidences that HBV induces Gli-directed gene transactivation. HBx increases the protein stability of Gli proteins, which are key transcription factors of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, and nucleus translocation of Gli1 through direct protein interaction of HBx and Gli1. This functional synergism of Gli1 protein by HBx increases the Hedgehog activation-directed gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest that HBV infection might induce hepatocellular carcinoma by modulating post-translational activation of the hedgehog signaling components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stable transfection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 in lymphoma cells containing the EBV P3HR1 genome induces expression of B-cell activation molecules CD21 and CD23.

    PubMed Central

    Cordier, M; Calender, A; Billaud, M; Zimber, U; Rousselet, G; Pavlish, O; Banchereau, J; Tursz, T; Bornkamm, G; Lenoir, G M

    1990-01-01

    A set of B-cell activation molecules, including the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) receptor CR2 (CD21) and the B-cell activation antigen CD23 (Blast2/Fc epsilon RII), is turned on by infecting EBV-negative B-lymphoma cell lines with immortalizing strains of the viruslike B95-8 (BL/B95 cells). This up regulation may represent one of the mechanisms involved in EBV-mediated B-cell immortalization. The P3HR1 nonimmortalizing strain of the virus, which is deleted for the entire Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) protein open reading frame, is incapable of inducing the expression of CR2 and CD23, suggesting a crucial role for EBNA2 in the activation of these molecules. In addition, lymphoma cells containing the P3HR1 genome (BL/P3HR1 cells) do not express the viral latent membrane protein (LMP), which is regularly expressed in cells infected with immortalizing viral strains. Using electroporation, we have transfected the EBNA2 gene cloned in an episomal vector into BL/P3HR1 cells and have obtained cell clones that stably express the EBNA2 protein. In these clones, EBNA2 expression was associated with an increased amount of CR2 and CD23 steady-state RNAs. Of the three species of CD23 mRNAs described, the Fc epsilon RIIa species was preferentially expressed in these EBNA2-expressing clones. An increased cell surface expression of CR2 but not of CD23 was observed, and the soluble form of CD23 molecule (SCD23) was released. We were, however, not able to detect any expression of LMP in these cell clones. These data demonstrate that EBNA2 gene is able to complement P3HR1 virus latent functions to induce the activation of CR2 and CD23 expression, and they emphasize the role of EBNA2 protein in the modulation of cellular gene implicated in B-cell proliferation and hence in EBV-mediated B-cell immortalization. Nevertheless, EBNA2 expression in BL/P3HR1 cells is not able to restore the level of CR2 and CD23 expression observed in BL/B95 cells, suggesting that other cellular or viral

  3. Investigation of the curvature induction and membrane localization of the influenza virus M2 protein using static and off-magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented bicelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2015-04-07

    A wide variety of membrane proteins induce membrane curvature for function; thus, it is important to develop new methods to simultaneously determine membrane curvature and protein binding sites in membranes with multiple curvatures. We introduce solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods based on magnetically oriented bicelles and off-magic-angle spinning (OMAS) to measure membrane curvature and the binding site of proteins in mixed-curvature membranes. We demonstrate these methods on the influenza virus M2 protein, which not only acts as a proton channel but also mediates virus assembly and membrane scission. An M2 peptide encompassing the transmembrane (TM) domain and an amphipathic helix, M2(21-61), was studied and compared with the TM peptide (M2TM). Static (31)P NMR spectra of magnetically oriented 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) bicelles exhibit a temperature-independent isotropic chemical shift in the presence of M2(21-61) but not M2TM, indicating that the amphipathic helix confers the ability to generate a high-curvature phase. Two-dimensional (2D) (31)P spectra indicate that this high-curvature phase is associated with the DHPC bicelle edges, suggestive of the structure of budding viruses from the host cell. (31)P- and (13)C-detected (1)H relaxation times of the lipids indicate that the majority of M2(21-61) is bound to the high-curvature phase. Using OMAS experiments, we resolved the (31)P signals of lipids with identical headgroups based on their distinct chemical shift anisotropies. On the basis of this resolution, 2D (1)H-(31)P correlation spectra show that the amide protons in M2(21-61) correlate with the DMPC but not DHPC (31)P signal of the bicelle, indicating that a small percentage of M2(21-61) partitions into the planar region of the bicelles. These results show that the amphipathic helix induces high membrane curvature and localizes the protein to this phase, in good

  4. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  5. Virus Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-01

    viruses are capable of inducing cancer, it is obvious that virus carcinogenesis cannot be considered in an isolated fashion, without some reference to...intradermal inoculations of vaccinia virus . One of the viruses most widely investigated with respect to quantitative dose- response relationships is the...than the rule. Figure 6 shows the type of deviation most commonly observed with viruses of infectious diseases. VIRUS CARCINOGENESIS 131 It is a

  6. Expression of alpha V integrin is modulated by Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C and the metastasis suppressor Nm23-H1 through interaction with the GATA-1 and Sp1 transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhuri, Tathagata; Verma, Subhash C.; Lan, Ke; Robertson, Erle S. . E-mail: erle@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-07-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a lymphotrophic herpesvirus infecting most of the world's population. It is associated with a number of human lymphoid and epithelial tumors and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised patients. A subset of latent EBV antigens is required for immortalization of primary B-lymphocytes. The metastatic suppressor Nm23-H1 which is downregulated in human invasive breast carcinoma reduces the migration and metastatic activity of breast carcinoma cells when expressed from a heterologous promoter. Interestingly, the EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) reverses these activities of Nm23-H1. The alpha V integrins recognize a variety of ligands for signaling and are involved in cell migration and proliferation and also serve as major receptors for extracellular-matrix-mediated cell adhesion and migration. The goal of this study was to determine if Nm23-H1 and EBNA3C can modulate alpha V integrin expression and downstream activities. The results of our studies indicate that Nm23-H1 downregulates alpha V intregrin expression in a dose responsive manner. In contrast, EBNA3C can upregulate alpha V integrin expression. Furthermore, the study showed that the association of the Sp1 and GATA transcription factors with Nm23-H1 is required for modulation of the alpha V integrin activity. Thus, these results suggest a direct correlation between the alpha V integrin expression and the interaction of Nm23-H1 with EBNA3C.

  7. Transcription of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 promoter Qp is repressed by transforming growth factor-beta via Smad4 binding element in human BL cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, C L; Tsai, C N; Chung, P J; Chen, J L; Sun, C M; Chen, R H; Hong, J H; Chang, Y S

    2000-11-10

    In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected BL cells, the oncogenic EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA 1) gene is directed from the latent promoter Qp. Yeast one-hybrid screen analysis using the -50 to -37 sequence of Qp as the bait was carried out to identify transcriptional factors that may control Qp activity. Results showed that Smad4 binds the -50 to -37 sequence of Qp, indicating that this promoter is potentially regulated by TGF-beta. The association of Smad4 with Qp was further confirmed by supershift of EMSA complexes using Smad4-specific antibody. The transfection of a Qp reporter construct in two EBV(+) BL cell lines, Rael and WW2, showed that Qp activity is repressed in response to the TGF-beta treatment. This repression involves the interaction of a Smad3/Smad4 complex and the transcriptional repressor TGIF, as determined by cotransfection assay and coimmunoprecipitation analysis. Results suggest that TGF-beta may transcriptionally repress Qp through the Smad4-binding site in human BL cells.

  8. Amino acid substitution analyses of the DNA contact region, two amphipathic alpha-helices and a recognition-helix-like helix outside the dimeric beta-barrel of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Ikeda, M; Kusano, S; Yamazaki, M; Ito, S; Obayashi, M; Yanagi, K

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), which is essential for EBV latency, homodimerizes and binds to the EBV replication origin, oriP. We analyzed the dimerization/DNA-binding domain of EBNA-1 by random and site-directed amino acid substitution. Random point mutations that resulted in reduced DNA binding clustered in the DNA contact region (a.a. 461-473) and at or near the termini of alpha-helix II (514-527). Three substitutions of Gly in the DNA contact region each greatly reduced binding to a single binding site oligonucleotide. Substitutions at and near the termini of alpha-helix II diminished DNA binding. A helix-deforming substitution in alpha-helix I (477-489) blocked DNA binding. A helix-deforming substitution in alpha-helix III (568-582) abolished dimerization and DNA binding. Similarities in surface electrostatic properties and conserved amino acids were found between alpha-helix II and recognition helices of papillomavirus E2 proteins. The basic DNA contact region is crucial for the specific interaction of EBNA-1 with a single binding site. Alpha-helix I477 is indispensable for oriP binding, and alpha-helix III568 contributes to the homodimeric structure of EBNA-1. Alpha-helix II514 contributes to oriP binding, perhaps changing its alignment with DNA. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Identifying sites bound by Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) in the human genome: defining a position-weighted matrix to predict sites bound by EBNA1 in viral genomes.

    PubMed

    Dresang, Lindsay R; Vereide, David T; Sugden, Bill

    2009-04-01

    We identified binding sites for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) in the human genome using chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarrays. The sequences for these newly identified sites were used to generate a position-weighted matrix (PWM) for EBNA1's DNA-binding sites. This PWM helped identify additional DNA-binding sites for EBNA1 in the genomes of EBV, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and cercopithecine herpesvirus 15 (CeHV-15) (also called herpesvirus papio 15). In particular, a homologue of the Rep* locus in EBV was predicted in the genome of CeHV-15, which is notable because Rep* of EBV was not predicted by the previously developed consensus sequence for EBNA1's binding DNA. The Rep* of CeHV-15 functions as an origin of DNA synthesis in the EBV-positive cell line Raji; this finding thus builds on a set of DNA-binding sites for EBNA1 predicted in silico.

  10. Identification of Major Phosphorylation Sites of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Leader Protein (EBNA-LP): Ability of EBNA-LP To Induce Latent Membrane Protein 1 Cooperatively with EBNA-2 Is Regulated by Phosphorylation†

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tanaka, Michiko; Matsuda, Go; Kato, Kentaro; Kanamori, Mikiko; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Hisashi; Kitabayashi, Issay; Ohki, Misao; Hirai, Kanji; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) is a phosphoprotein suggested to play important roles in EBV-induced immortalization of B cells. One of the potential functions of EBNA-LP is a cooperative induction with EBNA-2 of viral and cellular gene expression, including that of the genes for viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) and cellular cyclin D2. We report here that the phosphorylation of EBNA-LP by cellular kinase(s) is critical to its ability to cooperate with EBNA-2 in up-regulating the expression of LMP-1 in a B-lymphoma cell line. Our conclusion is based on the following observations. (i) Mass-spectrometric analysis of purified EBNA-LP and mutational analyses of EBNA-LP revealed that the serine residue at position 35 in the W2 repeat domain is the major phosphorylation site of EBNA-LP in vivo. (ii) Substitutions of this site in each W2 repeat domain with alanine markedly reduced the ability of the protein to induce LMP-1 expression in combination with EBNA-2 in Akata cells. (iii) Replacement at the major phosphorylation sites with glutamic acids restored the wild-type phenotype. It is well established that this substitution mimics constitutive phosphorylation. These results indicated that the coactivator function of EBNA-LP is regulated by phosphorylation. PMID:11333893

  11. Identification of MEF2B, EBF1, and IL6R as Direct Gene Targets of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 Critical for EBV-Infected B-Lymphocyte Survival

    PubMed Central

    Tempera, Italo; De Leo, Alessandra; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Cesaroni, Matteo; Song, Hui; Dawany, Noor; Showe, Louise; Lu, Fang; Wikramasinghe, Priyankara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen and sequence-specific DNA binding protein required for viral origin binding and episome maintenance during latency. EBNA1 can also bind to numerous sites in the cellular genome and can provide a host cell survival function, but it is not yet known how EBNA1 sequence-specific binding is responsible for host cell survival. Here, we integrate EBNA1 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) with transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) after EBNA1 depletion to identify cellular genes directly regulated by EBNA1 that are also essential for B-cell survival. We first compared EBNA1 ChIP-Seq patterns in four different EBV-positive cell types, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). EBNA1 binds to ∼1,000 sites that are mostly invariant among cell types and share a consensus recognition motif. We found that a large subset of EBNA1 binding sites are located proximal to transcription start sites and correlate genome-wide with transcription activity. EBNA1 bound to genes of high significance for B-cell growth and function, including MEF2B, IL6R, and EBF1. EBNA1 depletion from latently infected LCLs results in the loss of cell proliferation and the loss of gene expression for some EBNA1-bound genes, including MEF2B, EBF1, and IL6R. Depletion of MEF2B, EBF1, or IL6R partially phenocopies EBNA1 depletion by decreasing the cell growth and viability of cells latently infected with EBV. These findings suggest that EBNA1 binds to a large cohort of cellular genes important for cell viability and implicates EBNA1 as a critical regulator of transcription of host cell genes important for enhanced survival of latently infected cells. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection is responsible for a variety of lymphoid and epithelial cell malignancies. EBNA1 is the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen that is

  12. Foodborne viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  13. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  14. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  15. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  16. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Related Documents: Nuclear Medicine Fact Sheet.pdf SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  17. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  18. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  19. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of influenza A virus proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Meng; Zheng, Weinan; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-05-22

    Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1), nucleoprotein (NP), nonstructural protein (NS1), and nuclear export protein (NEP), summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  20. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A promotes cellular proliferation by repression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1.

    PubMed

    Tursiella, Melissa L; Bowman, Emily R; Wanzeck, Keith C; Throm, Robert E; Liao, Jason; Zhu, Junjia; Sample, Clare E

    2014-10-01

    Latent infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is highly associated with the endemic form of Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), which typically limits expression of EBV proteins to EBNA-1 (Latency I). Interestingly, a subset of eBLs maintain a variant program of EBV latency - Wp-restricted latency (Wp-R) - that includes expression of the EBNA-3 proteins (3A, 3B and 3C), in addition to EBNA-1. In xenograft assays, Wp-R BL cell lines were notably more tumorigenic than their counterparts that maintain Latency I, suggesting that the additional latency-associated proteins expressed in Wp-R influence cell proliferation and/or survival. Here, we evaluated the contribution of EBNA-3A. Consistent with the enhanced tumorigenic potential of Wp-R BLs, knockdown of EBNA-3A expression resulted in abrupt cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 that was concomitant with conversion of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) to its hypophosphorylated state, followed by a loss of Rb protein. Comparable results were seen in EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), consistent with the previous observation that EBNA-3A is essential for sustained growth of these cells. In agreement with the known ability of EBNA-3A and EBNA-3C to cooperatively repress p14(ARF) and p16(INK4a) expression, knockdown of EBNA-3A in LCLs resulted in rapid elevation of p14(ARF) and p16I(NK4a). By contrast, p16(INK4a) was not detectably expressed in Wp-R BL and the low-level expression of p14(ARF) was unchanged by EBNA-3A knockdown. Amongst other G1/S regulatory proteins, only p21(WAF1/CIP1), a potent inducer of G1 arrest, was upregulated following knockdown of EBNA-3A in Wp-R BL Sal cells and LCLs, coincident with hypophosphorylation and destabilization of Rb and growth arrest. Furthermore, knockdown of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in Wp-R BL correlated with an increase in cellular proliferation. This novel function of EBNA-3A is distinct from the functions previously described that are shared with EBNA-3C, and likely contributes to the

  2. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A Promotes Cellular Proliferation by Repression of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1

    PubMed Central

    Tursiella, Melissa L.; Bowman, Emily R.; Wanzeck, Keith C.; Throm, Robert E.; Liao, Jason; Zhu, Junjia; Sample, Clare E.

    2014-01-01

    Latent infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is highly associated with the endemic form of Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), which typically limits expression of EBV proteins to EBNA-1 (Latency I). Interestingly, a subset of eBLs maintain a variant program of EBV latency - Wp-restricted latency (Wp-R) - that includes expression of the EBNA-3 proteins (3A, 3B and 3C), in addition to EBNA-1. In xenograft assays, Wp-R BL cell lines were notably more tumorigenic than their counterparts that maintain Latency I, suggesting that the additional latency-associated proteins expressed in Wp-R influence cell proliferation and/or survival. Here, we evaluated the contribution of EBNA-3A. Consistent with the enhanced tumorigenic potential of Wp-R BLs, knockdown of EBNA-3A expression resulted in abrupt cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 that was concomitant with conversion of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) to its hypophosphorylated state, followed by a loss of Rb protein. Comparable results were seen in EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), consistent with the previous observation that EBNA-3A is essential for sustained growth of these cells. In agreement with the known ability of EBNA-3A and EBNA-3C to cooperatively repress p14ARF and p16INK4a expression, knockdown of EBNA-3A in LCLs resulted in rapid elevation of p14ARF and p16INK4a. By contrast, p16INK4a was not detectably expressed in Wp-R BL and the low-level expression of p14ARF was unchanged by EBNA-3A knockdown. Amongst other G1/S regulatory proteins, only p21WAF1/CIP1, a potent inducer of G1 arrest, was upregulated following knockdown of EBNA-3A in Wp-R BL Sal cells and LCLs, coincident with hypophosphorylation and destabilization of Rb and growth arrest. Furthermore, knockdown of p21WAF1/CIP1 expression in Wp-R BL correlated with an increase in cellular proliferation. This novel function of EBNA-3A is distinct from the functions previously described that are shared with EBNA-3C, and likely contributes to the proliferation of

  3. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  4. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  5. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  6. The life span of major histocompatibility complex-peptide complexes influences the efficiency of presentation and immunogenicity of two class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 4

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the reactivity to two human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) A11-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes derived from amino acids 416-424 (IVTDFSVIK, designated IVT) and 399-408 (AVFDRKSVAK, designated AVF) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) 4. A strong predominance of CTL clones specific for the IVT epitope was demonstrated in polyclonal cultures generated by stimulation of lymphocytes from the EBV-seropositive donor BK with the autologous B95.8 virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). This was not due to intrinsic differences of CTL efficiency since clones specific for the two epitopes lysed equally well A11- positive phytohemagglutinin blasts and LCLs pulsed with the relevant synthetic peptide. Irrespective of the endogenous levels of EBNA4 expression, untreated LCLs were lysed more efficiently by the IVT- specific effectors, suggesting that a higher density of A11-IVT complexes is presented at the cell surface. In accordance, 10-50-fold higher amounts of IVT peptides were found in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions of acid extracts corresponding to an abundance of about 350-12,800 IVT and 8-760 AVF molecules per cell. Peptide- mediated competition of CTL sensitization, transport assays in streptolysin-O permeabilized cells, and induction of A11 expression in the transporter associated with antigen presentation-deficient T2/A11 transfectant demonstrated that the IVT and AVF peptides bind with similar affinities to A11, are translocated with equal efficiency to the endoplasmic reticulum, and form complexes of comparable stability over a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. A rapid surface turnover of A11 molecules containing the AVF peptide was demonstrated in metabolically active T2/A11 cells corresponding to a half-life of approximately 3.5 as compared to approximately 2 h for molecules induced at 26 degrees C in the absence of exogenous peptides and >12 h for IVT

  7. Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Briggs, Christian

    2014-03-01

    For decades it has been theorized that just below nuclear saturation density matter undergoes a series of phase transitions. These phases, which are expected to exist in core-collapse supernovae and neutron stars, involve a range of exotic nuclear shapes collectively known as nuclear pasta. Recently, Jose Pons and collaborators suggested that ``the maximum period of isolated X-ray pulsars may be the first observational evidence for an amorphous inner crust, ..., possibly owing to the existence of a nuclear pasta phase.'' In this talk we present results of semi-classical molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta and discuss how each phase might contribute to neutron star crust properties.

  8. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Nuclear networking.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  10. Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein inhibition suppresses human T cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein-mediated tumorigenesis by inhibiting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuewei; Qi, Jun; Bradner, James E; Xiao, Gutian; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2013-12-13

    The etiology of human T cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1)-mediated adult T cell leukemia is associated with the ability of viral oncoprotein Tax to induce sustained NF-κB activation and the expression of many NF-κB target genes. Acetylation of the RelA subunit of NF-κB and the subsequent recruitment of bromodomain-containing factor Brd4 are important for the expression of NF-κB target genes in response to various stimuli. However, their contributions to Tax-mediated NF-κB target gene expression and tumorigenesis remain unclear. Here we report that Tax induced the acetylation of lysine 310 of RelA and the binding of Brd4 to acetylated RelA to facilitate Tax-mediated transcriptional activation of NF-κB. Depletion of Brd4 down-regulated Tax-mediated NF-κB target gene expression and cell proliferation. Inhibiting the interaction of Brd4 and acetylated RelA with the bromodomain extraterminal protein inhibitor JQ1 suppressed the proliferation of Tax-expressing rat fibroblasts and Tax-positive HTLV-1-infected cells and Tax-mediated cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Moreover, JQ1 attenuated the Tax-mediated transcriptional activation of NF-κB, triggering the polyubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of constitutively active nuclear RelA. Our results identify Brd4 as a key regulator for Tax-mediated NF-κB gene expression and suggest that targeting epigenetic regulators such as Brd4 with the bromodomain extraterminal protein inhibitor might be a potential therapeutic strategy for cancers and other diseases associated with HTLV-1 infection.

  11. [Characteristic of nuclear antigen 1 gene and latent membrane protein 1 gene of Epstein-Barr virus in primary EBV infection in children in Beijing area in 2005-2010].

    PubMed

    Ai, Jun-Hong; Xie, Zheng-De; Liu, Chun-Yan; Gao, Li-Wei; Yan, Jing

    2012-10-01

    To analyze the characteristic of nuclear antigen 1 gene and latent membrane protein 1 gene of Epstein-Barr virus in primary EBV infection in children in Beijing area in 2005-2012. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the EBNA-3C, EBNA1 and LMP1 genes. The amplified products were sequenced directly and the sequences were analyzed by BioEdit 7. 0. 9 and MEGA 4. 0. 2. Type A EBV was detected in 98% samples. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the carboxy-terminal region of EBNA1 showed that Vvvl was deteted in 98% samples. DNA sequence analysis of LMP1 C-terminus indicated that China 1 was 90% in this study. There were no significant differences in the frequency of Vvv1 and China 1 between the IM and HLH samples (P = 1.00). Linkage analysis of EBV types, EBNA1 and LMP1 variants indicated that 90% of EBV type A was associated with EBNA1-Vvv1 variant and LMP1-China 1 variant in 40 cases. Full length of LMP1 gene was successfully amplified in 35 cases. Four Chinese groups (CG1-4) were identified. The percentage of CG1-CG4 were 85%, 6%, 6% and 3%, respectively. EBV type A is predominant in primary EBV infection in children in Beijing Area. EBNA1-Vvv1 and LMP1-China 1 variants were predominant genotypes in this area. There is a high linkage between EBNA1-Vvv1 variant and LMP1-China 1 variant. Four Chinese groups (CG1-4) were identified according to the full length of LMP1 gene and CG1 was the most prevalent.

  12. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)-dependent recruitment of origin recognition complex (Orc) on oriP of Epstein-Barr virus with purified proteins: stimulation by Cdc6 through its direct interaction with EBNA1.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Kenji; Yoshizawa-Sugata, Naoko; Obuse, Chikashi; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Masai, Hisao

    2012-07-06

    Origin recognition complex (Orc) plays an essential role in directing assembly of prereplicative complex at selective sites on chromosomes. However, Orc from vertebrates is reported to bind to DNA in a sequence-nonspecific manner, and it is still unclear how it selects specific genomic loci and how Cdc6, another conserved AAA(+) factor known to interact with Orc, participates in this process. Replication from oriP, the latent origin of Epstein-Barr virus, provides an excellent model system for the study of initiation on the host chromosomes because it is known to depend on prereplicative complex factors, including Orc and Mcm. Here, we show that Orc is recruited selectively at the essential dyad symmetry element in nuclear extracts in a manner dependent on EBNA1, which specifically binds to dyad symmetry. With purified proteins, EBNA1 can recruit both Cdc6 and Orc independently on a DNA containing EBNA1 binding sites, and Cdc6 facilitates the Orc recruitment by EBNA1. Purified Cdc6 directly binds to EBNA1, whereas association of Orc with EBNA1 requires the presence of the oriP DNA. Nuclease protection assays suggest that Orc associates with DNA segments on both sides adjacent to the EBNA1 binding sites and that this process is stimulated by the presence of Cdc6. Thus, EBNA1 can direct localized assembly of Orc in a process that is facilitated by Cdc6. The possibility of similar modes of recruitment of Orc/Cdc6 at the human chromosomal origins will be discussed.

  13. [The clinical significance of serum Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)/latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) assay in patients with nasal type extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Yao, Na; Cui, Xueying; Wang, Jingwen

    2015-02-01

    To explore the clinical significance of the serum Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)/latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) in patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL). The serum EBNA1 and LMP1 were detected by real-time PCR in 36 ENKL patients hospitalized in Beijing Tongren Hospital from August 2010 to August 2013. Twenty healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. The median serum EBNA1 was 1.9×10(4) (ranged from 0 to 11.0×10(4)) copies/µl in ENKL patients and 8.0 (ranged from 0 to 43.8) copies/µl in healthy volunteers. The median serum LMP1 was 3.9×10(3) (ranged from 118.3 to 24.0×10(3)) copies/µl in ENKL patients and 3.3 (ranged from 0 to 33.3) copies/µl in healthy volunteers. Both EBNA1 and LMP1 were higher in ENKL patients than healthy volunteers (all P < 0.01). The median EBNA1 and LMP1 in ENKL patients posttreatment were 1.0×10(3) (ranged from 0 to 2.0 × 10(3)) copies/µl and 300.8 (ranged from 0 to 825.7) copies/µl respectively, which were both significantly decreased than pretreatment (all P < 0.05). The EBNA1 and LMP1 were decreased in effective treatment group versus ineffective treatment group (P < 0.05). The serum EBNA1 and LMP1 were positively correlated with lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level (r = 0.364,0.546; P = 0.040,0.012). (1) The measurement of EBNA1/LMP1 may be useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect. (2) The serum EBNA1/LMP1 may reflect the tumor load in ENKL patients.

  14. Nuclear Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Erich

    2010-07-27

    We show that extreme nuclear halos are caused only by pairs of s-wave neutrons (or single s-wave neutrons) and that such states occur much more frequently in the periodic table than previously believed. Besides lingering long near zero neutron separation energy such extreme halos have very remarkable properties: they can contribute significantly to the nuclear density at more than twice the normal nuclear radius and their spreading width can be very narrow. The properties of these states are primarily determined by the ''thickness'' of the nuclear surface in the mean-free nuclear potential and thus their importance increases greatly as we approach the neutron drip line. We discuss what such extreme halos are, where they occur, what their properties are and some of their impact on nuclear observations.

  15. The intracellular localization of poliomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    KAPLAN, A S; MELNICK, J L

    1953-01-01

    A study was made of the intracellular localization of Type 2 poliomyelitis virus, using the technique of Mirsky and Pollister (23) for cellular fractionation. After isotonic saline homogenization of central nervous system tissue from infected mice, and subsequent centrifugation of the suspension, the virus present in the supernatant fluid was held to be of cytoplasmic origin. Upon serial washings of the sediment with physiological saline, the resulting supernates contained progressively less virus until by the seventh washing, virtually none was present. At this point extraction of the washed sediment with molar NaCl, which lyses the nuclei, yielded substantial amounts of virus, and this was assumed to be from nuclear sources. The possibility has not been excluded however that the "nuclear" sediment was contaminated by cytoplasmic particles too large to remain in the supernate. Experiments on the increase of virus during the incubation and acute stages of infection have revealed that it was first detectable in the "cytoplasmic" fraction and subsequently in the "nuclear" fraction. Virus in the "nuclear" fraction from paralyzed mice sometimes reached titers almost as high as those found in the "cytoplasm." Adsorption experiments indicated that the "nuclear" fraction of CNS tissue from normal, uninoculated mice did not adsorb added Type 2 poliomyelitis virus, nor did such fractions adsorb virus procured from the "cytoplasm" or "nuclei" of infected cells. Although individual mice varied in their response after virus injection, the "cytoplasmic" fraction of paralytic mice was found to contain virus regularly, whereas little more than half of the non-paralytic mice yielded it. When virus was present in the "cytoplasm," it could be found in the "nuclear" fraction of paralytic mice with much greater regularity than in that of non-paralytic mice. A comparison between the lines of the MEF1 strain of poliomyelitis virus, "adapted" and "non-adapted" to newborn mice, and the

  16. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  17. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  18. Chikungunya Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... is key! Prevent Infection. Use mosquito repellent. Chikungunya Virus Distribution Chikungunya in the U.S. What's New Surveillance ... Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya ...

  19. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  20. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  1. Nuclear Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  2. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

  3. Hepadna viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

  4. Nuclear Exodus: Herpesviruses Lead the Way

    PubMed Central

    Bigalke, Janna M.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.

    2016-01-01

    Most DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus and exit it either by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Unusually, herpesviruses have evolved a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. Although this general scheme is accepted in the field, the players and their roles are still debated. Recent studies illuminated critical mechanistic features of this enigmatic process and uncovered surprising parallels with a novel cellular nuclear export process. This review summarizes our current understanding of nuclear egress in herpesviruses, examines the experimental evidence and models, and outlines outstanding questions with the goal of stimulating new research in this area. PMID:27482898

  5. Nuclear Exodus: Herpesviruses Lead the Way.

    PubMed

    Bigalke, Janna M; Heldwein, Ekaterina E

    2016-09-29

    Most DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus and exit it either by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Unusually, herpesviruses have evolved a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. Although this general scheme is accepted in the field, the players and their roles are still debated. Recent studies illuminated critical mechanistic features of this enigmatic process and uncovered surprising parallels with a novel cellular nuclear export process. This review summarizes our current understanding of nuclear egress in herpesviruses, examines the experimental evidence and models, and outlines outstanding questions with the goal of stimulating new research in this area.

  6. Pathology of Lassa Virus Infection in the Rhesus Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    examined. Lassa fever ’- is an infectious, febrile disease nuclear cell infiltrates and mucosal hemorrhages. of man caused by Lassa virus (LASV), a member... virus titers, suggests that virus replication 1. Buckley, S. M., and Casals, J., 1973. Lassa fever , in the kidney parenchyma was unlikely. A few a new...A., 1973. Comparative pathology of phology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses . BDg. Lassa virus infection in monkeys, guinea pip, W.H.O., 52: 409-419

  7. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  8. Dengue Type-2 Virus Envelope Protein Made Using Recombinant Baculovirus Protects Mice Against Virus Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    the envelope (E) glycoprotein of dengue 2 virus was cloned into baculovirus (IAutographa californical nuclear polyhedrosis virus, AcNPV). The...polyclonal, anti- dengue type 2 antibody and a dengue type 2-specific, neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Balb/c mice immunized with the recombinant...antigen produced only non-neutralizing antibody against dengue 2 virus but were partially protected against morbidity and mortality after

  9. Virus maturation.

    PubMed

    Delgui, Laura R; Rodríguez, José F

    2013-01-01

    The formation of infectious virus particles is a highly complex process involving a series of sophisticated molecular events. In most cases, the assembly of virus structural elements results in the formation of immature virus particles unable to initiate a productive infection. Accordingly, for most viruses the final stage of the assembly pathway entails a set of structural transitions and/or biochemical modifications that transform inert precursor particles into fully infectious agents. In this chapter, we review the most relevant maturation mechanisms involved in the generation of infectious virions for a wide variety of viruses.

  10. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  11. Nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) processes plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. This fact sheet responds to your September 6, 1991, request, that we describe the methods and facilities for DOE's plutonium processing. Plutonium, which is used to make nuclear weapons, does not exist in nature and has to be produced. However, DOE no longer produces plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. Instead, DOE processes and recycles the plutonium from retired nuclear weapons and the plutonium that remains as scrap or residue from plutonium processing. This paper reports that DOE recovers plutonium through two basic processes-aqueous and pyrochemical-at four processing sites-Rocky Flats, Savannah River, Hanford, and Los Alamos. However, because of environmental and safety concerns and reductions in nuclear weapons, DOE has closed or may close most of the processing facilities. Only Los Alamos' processing facilities are currently operating.

  12. Design stars: how small DNA viruses remodel the host nucleus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mengxi; Imperiale, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Numerous host components are encountered by viruses during the infection process. While some of these host structures are left unchanged, others may go through dramatic remodeling processes. In this review, we summarize these host changes that occur during small DNA virus infections, with a focus on host nuclear components and pathways. Although these viruses differ significantly in their genome structures and infectious pathways, there are common nuclear targets that are altered by various viral factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that these nuclear remodeling processes are often essential for productive viral infections and/or viral-induced transformation. Understanding the complex interactions between viruses and these host structures and pathways will help to build a more integrated network of how the virus completes its life cycle and point toward the design of novel therapeutic regimens that either prevent harmful viral infections or employ viruses as nontraditional treatment options or molecular tools.

  13. Mutations of amino acids in the DNA-recognition domain of Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA protein alter its sub-nuclear localization and affect formation of replication compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Richard; Heston, Lee; Shedd, Duane; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2008-12-20

    ZEBRA, a transcription factor and DNA replication protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene, plays indispensable roles in the EBV lytic cycle. We recently described the phenotypes of 46 single amino acid substitutions introduced into the DNA-recognition region of ZEBRA [Heston, L., El-Guindy, A., Countryman, J., Dela Cruz, C., Delecluse, H.J., and Miller, G. 2006]. The 27 DNA-binding-proficient mutants exhibited distinct defects in their ability to activate expression of the kinetic classes of viral genes. Four phenotypic variants could be discerned: wild-type, defective at activating Rta, defective at activating early genes, and defective at activating late genes. Here we analyze the distribution of ZEBRA within the nucleus and the localization of EA-D (the viral DNA polymerase processivity factor), an indicator of the development of replication compartments, in representatives of each phenotypic group. Plasmids encoding wild-type (WT) and mutant ZEBRA were transfected into 293 cells containing EBV-bacmids. WT ZEBRA protein was diffusely and smoothly distributed throughout the nucleus, sparing nucleoli, and partially recruited to globular replication compartments. EA-D induced by WT ZEBRA was present diffus