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Sample records for 293t hek293t cells

  1. Characterization of crude Echis carinatus venom-induced cytotoxicity in HEK 293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Rebecca D; Kim, Ethan S; Girton, Lance W; McMurry, Jonathan L; Francis, Joshua W; Albrecht, Eric A

    2011-01-01

    Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) produces potent hemorrhagic venom that causes the development of apoptotic and necrotic tissues. In this study, we used polyethyleneimine (PEI) to enhance cellular adherence, and to determine whether the substrate attachment influenced the survival of cells treated with crude E. carinatus venom. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells were grown for 18hr in tissue culture plates with or without polyethyleneimine (PEI), and were then stimulated with crude E. carinatus venom for 3 or 12hr. HEK 293T cells grown without PEI displayed a robust oxidative response to corresponding substrate detachment, loss of plasma membrane integrity and decreased cell viability. Cells grown on PEI adsorbed substrates demonstrated prolonged substrate attachment resulting in significantly higher cell viabilities. These observations suggest that the cytotoxicity of crude E. carinatus venom is dependent upon cellular detachment. PMID:22331993

  2. Characterization of crude Echis carinatus venom-induced cytotoxicity in HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Rebecca D; Kim, Ethan S; Girton, Lance W; McMurry, Jonathan L; Francis, Joshua W; Albrecht, Eric A

    2011-01-01

    Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) produces potent hemorrhagic venom that causes the development of apoptotic and necrotic tissues. In this study, we used polyethyleneimine (PEI) to enhance cellular adherence, and to determine whether the substrate attachment influenced the survival of cells treated with crude E. carinatus venom. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells were grown for 18hr in tissue culture plates with or without polyethyleneimine (PEI), and were then stimulated with crude E. carinatus venom for 3 or 12hr. HEK 293T cells grown without PEI displayed a robust oxidative response to corresponding substrate detachment, loss of plasma membrane integrity and decreased cell viability. Cells grown on PEI adsorbed substrates demonstrated prolonged substrate attachment resulting in significantly higher cell viabilities. These observations suggest that the cytotoxicity of crude E. carinatus venom is dependent upon cellular detachment. PMID:22331993

  3. HEK293T Cells Are Heterozygous for CCR5 Delta 32 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Chunxia; Jia, Xiaopeng; Lu, Lingling; Ma, Ping; Wei, Min

    2016-01-01

    C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and a co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into the target CD4+ cells. CCR5 delta 32 deletion is a loss-of-function mutation, resistant to HIV-1 infection. We tried to induce the CCR5 delta 32 mutation harnessing the genome editing technique, CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, CRISPR and CRISPR associated protein 9, Cas9) in the commonly used cell line human embryonic kidney HEK 293T cells. Surprisingly, we found that HEK293T cells are heterozygous for CCR5 delta 32 mutation, in contrast to the wild type CCR5 cells, human acute T cell leukemia cell line Jurkat and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 cells. This finding indicates that at least one human cell line is heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 mutation. We also found that in PCR amplification, wild type CCR5 DNA and mutant delta 32 DNA can form mismatched heteroduplex and move slowly in gel electrophoresis. PMID:27042825

  4. Lentiviral Vectors Mediate Long-Term and High Efficiency Transgene Expression in HEK 293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yingying; Yan, Renhe; Li, Andrew; Zhang, Yanling; Li, Jinlong; Du, Hongyan; Chen, Baihong; Wei, Wenjin; Zhang, Yi; Sumners, Colin; Zheng, Haifa; Li, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    . Surprisingly, neither the HS4 insulator nor the UCOE sequence improved the GFP expression level or stability. Clonal cell lines with HCV E1 gene were generated from LV-CMV-E1 vector-infected 293T cells. A representative recombinant cell line maintained stable E1expression for at least 9 weeks without significant difference in morphology compared with untreated 293T cells. Conclusion: The results suggest that all five vectors can stably transduce 293T cells, producing long term transgene expression with different efficiencies. However, neither the insulator nor the UCOE improved the GFP expression. The vectors containing the promoter CMV or CMV (β-globin intron) generated the highest gene expressions, manifesting as more favorable candidates for recombinant protein production in HEK293T cells. PMID:26005375

  5. Pharmacological characterization of emerging synthetic cannabinoids in HEK293T cells and hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Costain, Willard J; Tauskela, Joseph S; Rasquinha, Ingrid; Comas, Tanya; Hewitt, Melissa; Marleau, Vincent; Soo, Evelyn C

    2016-09-01

    There has been a worldwide proliferation of synthetic cannabinoids that have become marketed as legal alternatives to cannabis (marijuana). Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information about the pharmacological effects of many of these emerging synthetic cannabinoids (ESCs), which presents a challenge for regulatory authorities that need to take such scientific evidence into consideration in order to regulate ECSs as controlled substances. We aimed to characterize the pharmacological properties of ten ESCs using two cell based assays that enabled the determination of potency and efficacy relative to a panel of well-characterized cannabinoids. Agonist-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels was monitored in live HEK293T cells transfected with human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) and pGloSensor-22F. Pharmacological analysis of this data indicated that all of the ESCs tested were full agonists, with the following rank order of potency: Win 55212-2≈5F-PB-22≈AB-PINACA≈EAM-2201≈MAM-2201>JWH-250≈ PB-22>AKB48 N-(5FP)>AKB-48≈STS-135>XLR-11. Assessment of agonist-stimulated depression of Ca(2+) transients was also used to confirm the efficacy of five ESCs (XLR-11, JWH-250, AB-PINACA, 5F-PB-22, and MAM-2201) in cultured primary hippocampal neurons. This work aims to help inform decisions made by regulatory agencies concerned with the profusion of these poorly characterized recreational drugs. PMID:27260125

  6. Measuring Ca2+-Dependent Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels in HEK-293T Cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jessica R; Lee, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) (Cav) channels regulate a variety of biological processes, such as muscle contraction, gene expression, and neurotransmitter release. Cav channels are subject to diverse forms of regulation, including those involving the Ca(2+) ions that permeate the pore. High voltage-activated Cav channels undergo Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation (CDI) and facilitation (CDF), which can regulate processes such as cardiac rhythm and synaptic plasticity. CDI and CDF differ slightly between Cav1 (L-type) and Cav2 (P/Q-, N-, and R-type) channels. Human embryonic kidney cells transformed with SV40 large T-antigen (HEK-293T) are advantageous for studying CDI and CDF of a particular type of Cav channel. HEK-293T cells do not express endogenous Cav channels, but Cav channels can be expressed exogenously at high levels in these cells by transient transfection. This protocol describes how to characterize and analyze Ca(2+)-dependent modulation of recombinant Cav channels in HEK-293T cells. PMID:27587775

  7. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals a Signature Profile for Tick-Borne Flavivirus Persistence in HEK 293T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Martens, Craig; Sturdevant, Daniel; Turner, Charles V.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) cause febrile illnesses, which may progress to severe encephalitis and/or death in humans globally. Most people who recover from severe acute disease suffer from debilitating neurological sequelae, which may be due to viral persistence, infection-induced neurological cell damage, host response, or some combination of these. Acute TBFV infection of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells in vitro results in the death of >95% of infected cells by day 5. However, replacing cell growth medium allows surviving cells to repopulate and become persistently infected for extended periods of time. The mechanisms responsible for initiation and maintenance of viral persistence remain vague. We subjected the HEK 293T cell transcriptome to deep sequencing to identify genes differentially expressed during acute infection and persistent infection. A total of 451 genes showed unique significant differential expression levels in persistently infected cells relative to the acute phase of infection. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis results suggested that the expression of prosurvival oncogenes AKT2 and ERBB2 was upregulated in persistently infected cells, whereas proapoptotic genes, such as Bad and the beta interferon 1 (IFN-β1) gene, were downregulated. Genes encoding antiviral cytokines such as the CCL5, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CXCL10 genes were upregulated during the acute phase, but the same genes were relatively quiescent in persistently infected cells. Exogenous induction of apoptosis demonstrated that persistently infected cells were resistant to apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the differential transcriptome profiles of acute-phase compared to persistently infected HEK 293T cells demonstrated an evasion of apoptosis, which may be critical for a chronic TBFV infection state. These results provide a basis for further study of the mechanisms of TBFV persistence. PMID:27222466

  8. Protective effect of reduced glutathione C60 derivative against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Zhou, Chi; He, Jun; Hu, Zheng; Guan, Wen-Chao; Liu, Sheng-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and free radicals cause oxidative stress, which induces cellular injuries, metabolic dysfunction, and even cell death in various clinical abnormalities. Fullerene (C60) is critical for scavenging oxygen free radicals originated from cell metabolism, and reduced glutathione (GSH) is another important endogenous antioxidant. In this study, a novel water-soluble reduced glutathione fullerene derivative (C60-GSH) was successfully synthesized, and its beneficial roles in protecting against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cultured HEK 293T cells were investigated. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to confirm the chemical structure of C60-GSH. Our results demonstrated that C60-GSH prevented the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell damage. Additionally, C60-GSH pretreatment significantly attenuated H2O2-induced superoxide dismutase (SOD) consumption and malondialdehyde (MDA) elevation. Furthermore, C60-GSH inhibited intracellular calcium mobilization, and subsequent cell apoptosis via bcl-2/bax-caspase-3 signaling pathway induced by H2O2 stimulation in HEK 293T cells. Importantly, these protective effects of C60-GSH were superior to those of GSH. In conclusion, these results suggested that C60-GSH has potential to protect against H2O2-induced cell apoptosis by scavenging free radicals and maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis without evident toxicity. PMID:27376803

  9. Measured Effects of Wnt3a on Proliferation of HEK293T Cells Depend on the Applied Assay

    PubMed Central

    Reischmann, Patricia; Fiebeck, Johanna; von der Weiden, Nadine; Müller, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway has been associated with many essential cell processes. This study aims to examine the effects of Wnt signaling on proliferation of cultured HEK293T cells. Cells were incubated with Wnt3a, and the activation of the Wnt pathway was followed by analysis of the level of the β-catenin protein and of the expression levels of the target genes MYC and CCND1. The level of β-catenin protein increased up to fourfold. While the mRNA levels of c-Myc and cyclin D1 increased slightly, the protein levels increased up to a factor of 1.5. Remarkably, MTT and BrdU assays showed different results when measuring the proliferation rate of Wnt3a stimulated HEK293T cells. In the BrdU assays an increase of the proliferation rate could be detected, which correlated to the applied Wnt3a concentration. Oppositely, this correlation could not be shown in the MTT assays. The MTT results, which are based on the mitochondrial activity, were confirmed by analysis of the succinate dehydrogenase complex by immunofluorescence and by western blotting. Taken together, our study shows that Wnt3a activates proliferation of HEK293 cells. These effects can be detected by measuring DNA synthesis rather than by measuring changes of mitochondrial activity. PMID:26798342

  10. A Cleavable N-Terminal Signal Peptide Promotes Widespread Olfactory Receptor Surface Expression in HEK293T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Blythe D.; Natarajan, Niranjana; Protzko, Ryan J.; Acres, Omar W.; Pluznick, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are G protein-coupled receptors that detect odorants in the olfactory epithelium, and comprise the largest gene family in the genome. Identification of OR ligands typically requires OR surface expression in heterologous cells; however, ORs rarely traffic to the cell surface when exogenously expressed. Therefore, most ORs are orphan receptors with no known ligands. To date, studies have utilized non-cleavable rhodopsin (Rho) tags and/or chaperones (i.e. Receptor Transporting Protein, RTP1S, Ric8b and Gαolf) to improve surface expression. However, even with these tools, many ORs still fail to reach the cell surface. We used a test set of fifteen ORs to examine the effect of a cleavable leucine-rich signal peptide sequence (Lucy tag) on OR surface expression in HEK293T cells. We report here that the addition of the Lucy tag to the N-terminus increases the number of ORs reaching the cell surface to 7 of the 15 ORs (as compared to 3/15 without Rho or Lucy tags). Moreover, when ORs tagged with both Lucy and Rho were co-expressed with previously reported chaperones (RTP1S, Ric8b and Gαolf), we observed surface expression for all 15 receptors examined. In fact, two-thirds of Lucy-tagged ORs are able to reach the cell surface synergistically with chaperones even when the Rho tag is removed (10/15 ORs), allowing for the potential assessment of OR function with only an 8-amino acid Flag tag on the mature protein. As expected for a signal peptide, the Lucy tag was cleaved from the mature protein and did not alter OR-ligand binding and signaling. Our studies demonstrate that widespread surface expression of ORs can be achieved in HEK293T cells, providing promise for future large-scale deorphanization studies. PMID:23840901

  11. Development of a Model System for Tick-Borne Flavivirus Persistence in HEK 293T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mlera, Luwanika; Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F.; Melik, Wessam

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We devised a model system to study persistent infection by the tick-borne flavivirus Langat virus (LGTV) in 293T cells. Infection with a molecularly cloned LGTV strain produced an acute lytic crisis that left few surviving cells. The culture was repopulated by cells that were ~90% positive for LGTV E protein, thus initiating a persistent infection that was maintained for at least 35 weeks without additional lytic crises. Staining of cells for viral proteins and ultrastructural analysis revealed only minor differences from the acute phase of infection. Infectious LGTV decreased markedly over the study period, but the number of viral genomes remained relatively constant, suggesting the development of defective interfering particles (DIPs). Viral genome changes were investigated by RNA deep sequencing. At the initiation of persistent infection, levels of DIPs were below the limit of detection at a coverage depth of 11,288-fold, implying that DIPs are not required for initiation of persistence. However, after 15 passages, DIPs constituted approximately 34% of the total LGTV population (coverage of 1,293-fold). Furthermore, at this point, one specific DIP population predominated in which nucleotides 1058 to 2881 had been deleted. This defective genome specified an intact polyprotein that coded for a truncated fusion protein containing 28 N-terminal residues of E and 134 C-terminal residues of NS1. Such a fusion protein has not previously been described, and a possible function in persistent infection is uncertain. DIPs are not required for the initiation of persistent LGTV infection but may play a role in the maintenance of viral persistence. PMID:26045539

  12. Plasmonic activation of gold nanorods for remote stimulation of calcium signaling and protein expression in HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, Sandra P; Sauer, Jeremy P; Stanley, Sarah A; Qian, Xi; Gottesdiener, Andrew; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2016-10-01

    Remote activation of specific cells of a heterogeneous population can provide a useful research tool for clinical and therapeutic applications. Here, we demonstrate that photostimulation of gold nanorods (AuNRs) using a tunable near-infrared (NIR) laser at specific longitudinal surface plasmon resonance wavelengths can induce the selective and temporal internalization of calcium in HEK 293T cells. Biotin-PEG-Au nanorods coated with streptavidin Alexa Fluor-633 and biotinylated anti-His antibodies were used to decorate cells genetically modified with His-tagged TRPV1 temperature-sensitive ion channel and AuNRs conjugated to biotinylated RGD peptide were used to decorate integrins in unmodified cells. Plasmonic activation can be stimulated at weak laser power (0.7-4.0 W/cm(2) ) without causing cell damage. Selective activation of TRPV1 channels could be controlled by laser power between 1.0 and 1.5 W/cm(2) . Integrin targeting robustly stimulated calcium signaling due to a dense cellular distribution of nanoparticles. Such an approach represents a functional tool for combinatorial activation of cell signaling in heterogeneous cell populations. Our results suggest that it is possible to induce cell activation via NIR-induced gold nanorod heating through the selective targeting of membrane proteins in unmodified cells to produce calcium signaling and downstream expression of specific genes with significant relevance for both in vitro and therapeutic applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2228-2240. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27563853

  13. COG Complex Complexities: Detailed Characterization of a Complete Set of HEK293T Cells Lacking Individual COG Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Bailey Blackburn, Jessica; Pokrovskaya, Irina; Fisher, Peter; Ungar, Daniel; Lupashin, Vladimir V.

    2016-01-01

    The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi complex is an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit tethering complex (MTC) that is crucial for intracellular membrane trafficking and Golgi homeostasis. The COG complex interacts with core vesicle docking and fusion machinery at the Golgi; however, its exact mechanism of action is still an enigma. Previous studies of COG complex were limited to the use of CDGII (Congenital disorders of glycosylation type II)-COG patient fibroblasts, siRNA mediated knockdowns, or protein relocalization approaches. In this study we have used the CRISPR approach to generate HEK293T knock-out (KO) cell lines missing individual COG subunits. These cell lines were characterized for glycosylation and trafficking defects, cell proliferation rates, stability of COG subunits, localization of Golgi markers, changes in Golgi structure, and N-glycan profiling. We found that all KO cell lines were uniformly deficient in cis/medial-Golgi glycosylation and each had nearly abolished binding of Cholera toxin. In addition, all cell lines showed defects in Golgi morphology, retrograde trafficking and sorting, sialylation and fucosylation, but severities varied according to the affected subunit. Lobe A and Cog6 subunit KOs displayed a more severely distorted Golgi structure, while Cog2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 knock outs had the most hypo glycosylated form of Lamp2. These results led us to conclude that every subunit is essential for COG complex function in Golgi trafficking, though to varying extents. We believe that this study and further analyses of these cells will help further elucidate the roles of individual COG subunits and bring a greater understanding to the class of MTCs as a whole. PMID:27066481

  14. Impact of phosphomimetic and non-phosphorylatable mutations of phospholemman on L-type calcium channels gating in HEK 293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Yue-Peng; Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Jiang, Yi-Bo; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Meng; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phospholemman (PLM) is an important phosphorylation substrate for protein kinases A and C in the heart. Until now, the association between PLM phosphorylation status and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) gating has not been fully understood. We investigated the kinetics of LTCCs in HEK 293T cells expressing phosphomimetic or nonphosphorylatable PLM mutants. Methods: The LTCCs gating was measured in HEK 293T cells transfected with LTCC and wild-type (WT) PLM, phosphomimetic or nonphosphorylatable PLM mutants: 6263AA, 6869AA, AAAA, 6263DD, 6869DD or DDDD. Results: WT PLM significantly slowed LTCCs activation and deactivation while enhanced voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). PLM mutants 6869DD and DDDD significantly increased the peak of the currents. 6263DD accelerated channel activation, while 6263AA slowed it more than WT PLM. 6869DD significantly enhanced PLM-induced increase of VDI. AAAA slowed the channel activation more than 6263AA, and DDDD accelerated the channel VDI more than 6869DD. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that phosphomimetic PLM could stimulate LTCCs and alter their dynamics, while PLM nonphosphorylatable mutant produced the opposite effects. PMID:25656605

  15. Inhibition of NAMPT pathway by FK866 activates the function of p53 in HEK293T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Basant Kumar; Dittrich, Tino; Chandra, Prakash; Becker, Annette; Lippka, Yannick; Selvakumar, Divakarvel; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Reinhardt, Dirk; Welte, Karl

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In 293T cells, p53 is considered to be inactive due to its interaction with the large T-antigen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation of p53 at lysine 382 is important for its functional activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First evidence to document the presence of a functional p53 in 293T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of NAMPT/SIRT pathway by FK866 in 293T cells increases the functional activity of p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This activation of p53 involves reversible acetylation of p53 at lysine 382. -- Abstract: Inactivation of p53 protein by endogenous and exogenous carcinogens is involved in the pathogenesis of different human malignancies. In cancer associated with SV-40 DNA tumor virus, p53 is considered to be non-functional mainly due to its interaction with the large T-antigen. Using the 293T cell line (HEK293 cells transformed with large T antigen) as a model, we provide evidence that p53 is one of the critical downstream targets involved in FK866-mediated killing of 293T cells. A reduced rate of apoptosis and an increased number of cells in S-phase was accompanied after knockdown of p53 in these cells. Inhibition of NAMPT by FK866, or inhibition of SIRT by nicotinamide decreased proliferation and triggered death of 293T cells involving the p53 acetylation pathway. Additionally, knockdown of p53 attenuated the effect of FK866 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. The data presented here shed light on two important facts: (1) that p53 in 293T cells is active in the presence of FK866, an inhibitor of NAMPT pathway; (2) the apoptosis induced by FK866 in 293T cells is associated with increased acetylation of p53 at Lys382, which is required for the functional activity of p53.

  16. Using HEK293T Expression System to Study Photoactive Plant Cryptochromes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liang; Wang, Xu; Deng, Weixian; Mo, Weiliang; Gao, Jie; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Chuanyu; Wang, Qin; Lin, Chentao; Zuo, Zecheng

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors that are conserved in plants and animals. Although the light-dependent catalytic mechanism of photolyase is well studied, the photochemical mechanism of cryptochromes remains largely unknown. Lack of an appropriate protein expression system to obtain photochemically active cryptochrome holoproteins is a technical obstacle for the study of plant cryptochromes. We report here an easy-to-use method to express and study Arabidopsis cryptochrome in HEK293T cells. Our results indicate that Arabidopsis cryptochromes expressed in HEK293T are photochemically active. We envision a broad use of this method in the functional investigation of plant proteins, especially in the large-scale analyses of photochemical activities of cryptochromes such as blue light-dependent protein–protein interactions. PMID:27446167

  17. Electron tomography of HEK293T cells using scanning electron microscope-based scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    You, Yun-Wen; Chang, Hsun-Yun; Liao, Hua-Yang; Kao, Wei-Lun; Yen, Guo-Ji; Chang, Chi-Jen; Tsai, Meng-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2012-10-01

    Based on a scanning electron microscope operated at 30 kV with a homemade specimen holder and a multiangle solid-state detector behind the sample, low-kV scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is presented with subsequent electron tomography for three-dimensional (3D) volume structure. Because of the low acceleration voltage, the stronger electron-atom scattering leads to a stronger contrast in the resulting image than standard TEM, especially for light elements. Furthermore, the low-kV STEM yields less radiation damage to the specimen, hence the structure can be preserved. In this work, two-dimensional STEM images of a 1-μm-thick cell section with projection angles between ±50° were collected, and the 3D volume structure was reconstructed using the simultaneous iterative reconstructive technique algorithm with the TomoJ plugin for ImageJ, which are both public domain software. Furthermore, the cross-sectional structure was obtained with the Volume Viewer plugin in ImageJ. Although the tilting angle is constrained and limits the resulting structural resolution, slicing the reconstructed volume generated the depth profile of the thick specimen with sufficient resolution to examine cellular uptake of Au nanoparticles, and the final position of these nanoparticles inside the cell was imaged. PMID:23026379

  18. Characterization of Cav1.4 Complexes (α11.4, β2, and α2δ4) in HEK293T Cells and in the Retina*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Amy; Wang, Shiyi; Williams, Brittany; Hagen, Jussara; Scheetz, Todd E.; Haeseleer, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    In photoreceptor synaptic terminals, voltage-gated Cav1.4 channels mediate Ca2+ signals required for transmission of visual stimuli. Like other high voltage-activated Cav channels, Cav1.4 channels are composed of a main pore-forming Cav1.4 α1 subunit and auxiliary β and α2δ subunits. Of the four distinct classes of β and α2δ, β2 and α2δ4 are thought to co-assemble with Cav1.4 α1 subunits in photoreceptors. However, an understanding of the functional properties of this combination of Cav subunits is lacking. Here, we provide evidence that Cav1.4 α1, β2, and α2δ4 contribute to Cav1.4 channel complexes in the retina and describe their properties in electrophysiological recordings. In addition, we identified a variant of β2, named here β2X13, which, along with β2a, is present in photoreceptor terminals. Cav1.4 α1, β2, and α2δ4 were coimmunoprecipitated from lysates of transfected HEK293 cells and mouse retina and were found to interact in the outer plexiform layer of the retina containing the photoreceptor synaptic terminals, by proximity ligation assays. In whole-cell patch clamp recordings of transfected HEK293T cells, channels (Cav1.4 α1 + β2X13) containing α2δ4 exhibited weaker voltage-dependent activation than those with α2δ1. Moreover, compared with channels (Cav1.4 α1 + α2δ4) with β2a, β2X13-containing channels exhibited greater voltage-dependent inactivation. The latter effect was specific to Cav1.4 because it was not seen for Cav1.2 channels. Our results provide the first detailed functional analysis of the Cav1.4 subunits that form native photoreceptor Cav1.4 channels and indicate potential heterogeneity in these channels conferred by β2a and β2X13 variants. PMID:25468907

  19. Use of the heteroduplex mobility assay and cell sorting to select genome sequences of the CCR5 gene in HEK 293T cells edited by transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Nerys-Junior, Arildo; Costa, Lendel C.; Braga-Dias, Luciene P.; Oliveira, Márcia; Rossi, Átila D.; da Cunha, Rodrigo Delvecchio; Gonçalves, Gabriel S.; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) are one of the most promising tools for modifying genomes. These site-specific enzymes cause double-strand breaks that allow gene disruption or gene insertion, thereby facilitating genetic manipulation. The major problem associated with this approach is the labor-intensive procedures required to screen and confirm the cellular modification by nucleases. In this work, we produced a TALEN that targets the human CCR5 gene and developed a heteroduplex mobility assay for HEK 293T cells to select positive colonies for sequencing. This approach provides a useful tool for the quick detection and easy assessment of nuclease activity. PMID:24688299

  20. Use of the heteroduplex mobility assay and cell sorting to select genome sequences of the CCR5 gene in HEK 293T cells edited by transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nerys-Junior, Arildo; Costa, Lendel C; Braga-Dias, Luciene P; Oliveira, Márcia; Rossi, Atila D; da Cunha, Rodrigo Delvecchio; Gonçalves, Gabriel S; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2014-03-01

    Engineered nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) are one of the most promising tools for modifying genomes. These site-specific enzymes cause double-strand breaks that allow gene disruption or gene insertion, thereby facilitating genetic manipulation. The major problem associated with this approach is the labor-intensive procedures required to screen and confirm the cellular modification by nucleases. In this work, we produced a TALEN that targets the human CCR5 gene and developed a heteroduplex mobility assay for HEK 293T cells to select positive colonies for sequencing. This approach provides a useful tool for the quick detection and easy assessment of nuclease activity. PMID:24688299

  1. Nephrotoxicity evaluation of a new cembrane diterpene from Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix with HEK 293T cells and the toxicokinetics study in rats using a sensitive and reliable UFLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Ziying; Zhang, Ruowen; Hou, Pengyi; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2016-02-01

    (-)-(1S)-15-Hydroxy-18-carboxycembrene, the first cembrane-type diterpenoid found in the family Euphorbiaceae, isolated from Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix, was identified to be nephrotoxic using HEK 293T cells. Tests on cell morphology, cell viability and biochemical markers about oxidation stress were carried out using inverted microscope, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and commercial kits respectively, which proved the diterpene time- and dose-dependently decreased cells proliferation. Besides, a sensitive and robust UFLC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated to investigate the in vivo behavior in rats of the diterpene after oral administration of Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix extracts at a dosage of 9g/kg. The method showed a good linearity in tested range (3-1500ng/mL) with acceptable accuracy and precision. The recovery of the diterpene was more than 85% and the matrix effect was within ±20%. The toxicokinetics parameters indicate the diterpene reached Cmax quickly and slowly eliminate. The study proved the newly found diterpene was one of the nephrotoxic substances of Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix and revealed its toxicokinetics behavior. PMID:26683989

  2. Characterization of embryonic stem-like cells derived from HEK293T cells through miR302/367 expression and their potentiality to differentiate into germ-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Zhu, Haijing; Wu, Jiang; Li, Na; Hua, Jinlian

    2014-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great value for regenerative medicine, but are facing problems of low efficiency. MicroRNAs are a recently discovered class of 19-25 nt small RNAs that negatively target mRNAs. miR302/367 cluster has been demonstrated to reprogram mouse and human somatic cells to iPS cells without exogenous transcription factors, however, the repetition and differentiation potentiality of miR302/367-induced pluripotent stem (mirPS) cells need to be improved. Here, we showed overexpression of miR302/367 cluster reprogrammed human embryonic kidney 293T cells into mirPS cells in serum-free N2B27-based medium. The mirPS cells had similar morphology with embryonic stem cells, and expressed pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Nanog. In addition, through formation of embryoid bodies, various cells and tissues from three germ layers could be determined. Moreover, we examined the potential of mirPS cells differentiating into germ cells both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these data might provide a new source of cells and technique for the investigation of the mechanisms underlying reprogramming and pluripotency. PMID:24091881

  3. A Human Embryonic Kidney 293T Cell Line Mutated at the Golgi α-Mannosidase II Locus*

    PubMed Central

    Crispin, Max; Chang, Veronica T.; Harvey, David J.; Dwek, Raymond A.; Evans, Edward J.; Stuart, David I.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Lord, J. Michael; Spooner, Robert A.; Davis, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    Disruption of Golgi α-mannosidase II activity can result in type II congenital dyserythropoietic anemia and induce lupus-like autoimmunity in mice. Here, we isolated a mutant human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cell line called Lec36, which displays sensitivity to ricin that lies between the parental HEK 293T cells, in which the secreted and membrane-expressed proteins are dominated by complex-type glycosylation, and 293S Lec1 cells, which produce only oligomannose-type N-linked glycans. Stem cell marker 19A was transiently expressed in the HEK 293T Lec36 cells and in parental HEK 293T cells with and without the potent Golgi α-mannosidase II inhibitor, swainsonine. Negative ion nano-electrospray ionization mass spectra of the 19A N-linked glycans from HEK 293T Lec36 and swainsonine-treated HEK 293T cells were qualitatively indistinguishable and, as shown by collision-induced dissociation spectra, were dominated by hybrid-type glycosylation. Nucleotide sequencing revealed mutations in each allele of MAN2A1, the gene encoding Golgi α-mannosidase II: a point mutation that mapped to the active site was found in one allele, and an in-frame deletion of 12 nucleotides was found in the other allele. Expression of the wild type but not the mutant MAN2A1 alleles in Lec36 cells restored processing of the 19A reporter glycoprotein to complex-type glycosylation. The Lec36 cell line will be useful for expressing therapeutic glycoproteins with hybrid-type glycans and as a sensitive host for detecting mutations in human MAN2A1 causing type II congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. PMID:19465480

  4. Human dipeptidyl peptidase III regulates G-protein coupled receptor-dependent Ca2+ concentration in human embryonic kidney 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Subhash C; Singh, Ratnakar; Chauhan, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    The precise biological function of human dipeptidyl peptidase III (hDPP III) is poorly understood. Using luciferase reporter constructs responsive to change in Ca2+ and/or cAMP and Fura 2-AM fluorometric assay, we show a significant decrease in intracellular Ca2+ following hDPP III overexpression and angiotensin II stimulation in angiotensin II type 1 receptor (G-protein coupled receptor, GPCR) expressing HEK293T cells. Silencing the expression of hDPP III by siRNA reversed the effect of hDPP III overexpression with a concomitant increase in Ca2+. These results, for the first time, show involvement of hDPP III in GPCR dependent Ca2+ regulation in HEK293T cells. PMID:26887037

  5. Nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) regulated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) under hypoxia in HEK293T.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Jie; Lu, Yapeng; Luo, Qianqian; Zhu, Li

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. Under hypoxia, the active HIF1-α subunits are mainly regulated through increased protein stabilization. Little is known concerning HIF-1α transcriptional regulation. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) is a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we showed that NRF-1was a repressor of HIF-1α. The cellular depletion of NRF-1 by siRNA targeting leads to increased HIF-1αtranscriptional activity. EMSA, ChIP and luciferase activity allowed the identification of two functional NRF-1 binding sites within HIF-1α promoter. This study therefore identifies NRF-1 as a novel regulator of HIF-1α. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):748-755, 2016. PMID:27491637

  6. Comparison of Lentiviral Packaging Mixes and Producer Cell Lines for RNAi Applications.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Christian; Hosiner, Stefanie; Tichy, Brigitte; Aldrian, Silke; Hajdu, Stefan; Nürnberger, Sylvia

    2015-06-01

    Lentiviral transduction is a highly efficient DNA delivery method for RNA interference applications. However, obtaining high lentiviral titers of shRNA and miRNA encoding vectors is challenging, since shRNA and miRNA cassettes have been shown to reduce lentiviral titers. In this study, we compare four commercially available packaging mixes and two producer cell lines in order to optimize lentiviral production for gene silencing experiments. Lentiviral vectors encoding a miRNA sequence and emerald green fluorescence protein were co-transfected with ViraPower™, Lenti-X™ HTX, MISSION(®) Lentiviral or Trans-Lentiviral™ packaging mix in HEK-293T or 293FT cells. After transducing HeLa cells with virus-containing supernatant, lentiviral titers were determined by flow cytomerty. In both cell lines, the highest lentiviral titer was obtained with MISSION(®) Lentiviral packaging mix, followed by ViraPower™, Lenti-X™ HTX, and Trans-Lentiviral™. On average, HEK-293T cells produced 6.2-fold higher lentiviral titers than 293FT cells (p < 0.001). With the combination of MISSION(®) Lentiviral packaging mix and HEK-293T cells, an up to 48.5-fold higher lentiviral titer was reached compared to other packaging mixes and producer cell lines. The optimized selection of packaging mix and cell line described in this work should facilitate the production of high-titer lentiviruses for gene silencing experiments. PMID:25616840

  7. Regulation of FSHβ induction in LβT2 cells by BMP2 and an Activin A/BMP2 chimera, AB215.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Woo; Ahn, Chihoon; Shim, Sun Young; Gray, Peter C; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Choe, Senyon

    2014-10-01

    Activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) share activin type 2 signaling receptors but utilize different type 1 receptors and Smads. We designed AB215, a potent BMP2-like Activin A/BMP2 chimera incorporating the high-affinity type 2 receptor-binding epitope of Activin A. In this study, we compare the signaling properties of AB215 and BMP2 in HEK293T cells and gonadotroph LβT2 cells in which Activin A and BMP2 synergistically induce FSHβ. In HEK293T cells, AB215 is more potent than BMP2 and competitively blocks Activin A signaling, while BMP2 has a partial blocking activity. Activin A signaling is insensitive to BMP pathway antagonism in HEK293T cells but is strongly inhibited by constitutively active (CA) BMP type 1 receptors. By contrast, the potencies of AB215 and BMP2 are indistinguishable in LβT2 cells and although AB215 blocks Activin A signaling, BMP2 has no inhibitory effect. Unlike HEK293T, Activin A signaling is strongly inhibited by BMP pathway antagonism in LβT2 cells but is largely unaffected by CA BMP type 1 receptors. BMP2 increases phospho-Smad3 levels in LβT2 cells, in both the absence and the presence of Activin A treatment, and augments Activin A-induced FSHβ. AB215 has the opposite effect and sharply decreases basal phospho-Smad3 levels and blocks Smad2 phosphorylation and FSHβ induction resulting from Activin A treatment. These findings together demonstrate that while AB215 activates the BMP pathway, it has opposing effects to those of BMP2 on FSHβ induction in LβT2 cells apparently due to its ability to block Activin A signaling. PMID:25100748

  8. Camelid reporter gene imaging: a generic method for in vivo cell tracking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To combine the sensitivity of bioluminescent imaging (BLI) with the 3D and quantitative properties of pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/micro-computed tomography (CT) (phSPECT/micro-CT), we generated stable cell lines that express a yellow-fluorescent protein (YFP) and Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) fusion protein (YFP/GLuc). For in vivo phSPECT detection of this YFP/GLuc protein, a nanobody, targeted against yellow and green fluorescent proteins (anti-YFP-Nb), was site specifically labelled with 99mTc. Methods Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) were cultured and passaged every 3 days. 10E5 cells were transduced with YFP/GLuc-containing vector: both membrane-targeted (MT-YFP/GLuc) and non-targeted (YFP/GLuc) fusion proteins were developed. These vectors were compared against a SKOV-3 cell line stably expressing green fluorescent-firefly luciferase (GFP/Fluc) and HEK293T cells expressing red fluorescent protein in combination with a Gaussia luciferase (Red/GLuc). Transduction efficiencies were scored by fluorescence microscopy, and transduced cells were enriched by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). GLuc and FLuc functionality was tested in vitro by list-mode BLI. Subsequently, cells were transplanted subcutaneously in athymic (nu/nu) mice (MT-YFP/GLuc: n = 4, YFP/GLuc: n = 6, GFP/FLuc: n = 6, Red/GLuc: n = 4). Labelling efficiency of anti-YFP-Nb was measured using instant thin layer chromatography. One week after transplantation, 99mTc-labelled anti-YFP-Nb was injected intravenously and pinhole (ph) SPECT/micro-CT was performed, followed by in vivo BLI. Results Cells showed high levels of fluorescence after transduction. The cells containing the MT-YFP/GLuc were positive on fluorescence microscopy, with the fluorescent signal confined to the cell membrane. After cell sorting, transduced cells were assayed by BLI and showed a significantly higher light output both in vitro and in vivo compared with non

  9. Toxicological impact of JWH-018 and its phase I metabolite N-(3-hydroxypentyl) on human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Joana; Bandarra, Susana; Sultan, Haider; Bell, Suzanne; Constantino, Susana; Quintas, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    The emergence and abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been increasing as an alternative to cannabis, mainly among youth. As their appearance on the drug market has been recent, the pharmacological and toxicological profiles of these psychoactive substances are poorly understood. Current studies suggest that they have stronger effects compared to their natural alternatives and their metabolites retain affinity towards CB1 receptors in CNS. Since studies on its toxicological properties are scarce, the effects of the drug in human derived cell lines were investigated. The present study was designed to explore the toxicological impact of parent drug versus phase I metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids on human cells with and without CB1 receptor. The human cell line of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and human kidney cell line HEK-293T were exposed to JWH-018 and to its N-(3-hydroxypentyl) metabolite. Cell toxicity was evaluated using the MTT and LDH assay. Additionally, a dual staining methodology with fluorescent Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide was performed to address the question of whether JWH-018 N-(3-hydroxypentyl) metabolite is inducing cell death through apoptosis or necrosis, in HEK293T and SH-SY5Y cell lines. The obtained results show that JWH-018 does not cause a statistically significant decrease in cell viability, in contrast to its N-(3-hydroxypentyl) metabolite, which at ≥25μM causes a significant decrease in cell viability. Both cell lines are affected by JWH-018 metabolite. Our results point to higher toxicity of JWH-018 metabolite when compared to its parent drug, suggesting a non-CB1 receptor mediated toxicological mechanism. Comparing the results from Annexin V/PI with MTT and LDH assays of SH-SY5Y and HEK293T in the presence of the synthetic cannabinoid metabolite, emerges the picture that cellular viability decreases and associated death is occurring through necrosis. PMID:27054591

  10. Gene transduction in mammalian cells using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus assisted by glycoprotein 64 of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tatsuya; Sugioka, Saki; Itagaki, Kohei; Park, Enoch Y.

    2016-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), an alphabaculovirus, has been widely utilized for protein expression in not only insect cells but also mammalian cells. AcMNPV is closely related to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), and nucleotide sequences of AcMNPV genes have high similarity with those of BmNPV. However, the transduction of BmNPV into mammalian cells has not been reported. In this study, we constructed a recombinant BmNPV (BmNPVΔbgp/AcGP64/EGFP) whose surface 64 kDa glycoprotein (BmGP64) was substituted with that from AcMNPV (AcGP64). BmNPVΔbgp/AcGP64/EGFP also carried an EGFP gene under the control of the CMV promoter. BmNPVΔbgp/AcGP64/EGFP successfully transduced HEK293T cells. In comparison, a control construct (BmNPVΔbgp/BmGP64/EGFP) which possessed BmGP64 instead of AcGP64 did not express EGFP in HEK293T cells. The transduction efficiency of BmNPVΔbgp/AcGP64/EGFP was lower than that of an AcMNPV based-BacMam GFP transduction control. This result indicates that AcGP64 facilitates BmNPV transduction into HEK293T cells. BmNPV can be prepared easily on a large scale because BmNPV can infect silkworm larvae without any special equipment, even though specific diet is needed for silkworm rearing. BmNPV gene transduction into mammalian cells can potentially be applied easily for gene delivery into mammalian cells. PMID:27562533

  11. Immunoaffinity purification of the functional 20S proteasome from human cells via transient overexpression of specific proteasome subunits.

    PubMed

    Livinskaya, Veronika A; Barlev, Nickolai A; Nikiforov, Andrey A

    2014-05-01

    The proteasome is a multi-subunit proteolytic complex that plays a central role in protein degradation in all eukaryotic cells. It regulates many vital cellular processes therefore its dysfunction can lead to various pathologies including cancer and neurodegeneration. Isolation of enzymatically active proteasomes is a key step to the successful study of the proteasome regulation and functions. Here we describe a simple and efficient protocol for immunoaffinity purification of the functional 20S proteasomes from human HEK 293T cells after transient overexpression of specific proteasome subunits tagged with 3xFLAG. To construct 3xFLAG-fusion proteins, DNA sequences encoding the 20S proteasome subunits PSMB5, PSMA5, and PSMA3 were cloned into mammalian expression vector pIRES-hrGFP-1a. The corresponding recombinant proteins PSMB5-3xFLAG, PSMA5-3xFLAG, or PSMA3-3xFLAG were transiently overexpressed in human HEK 293T cells and were shown to be partially incorporated into the intact proteasome complexes. 20S proteasomes were immunoprecipitated from HEK 293T cell extracts under mild conditions using antibodies against FLAG peptide. Isolation of highly purified 20S proteasomes were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting using antibodies against different proteasome subunits. Affinity purified 20S proteasomes were shown to possess chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like peptidase activities confirming their functionality. This simple single-step affinity method of the 20S proteasome purification can be instrumental to subsequent functional studies of proteasomes in human cells. PMID:24583181

  12. Increasing cellular uptake of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in human embryonic kidney cell line 293T cells by using Lipofectamine 2000.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiandong; Teng, Zhaogang; Tian, Ying; Fang, Tian; Ma, Jie; Sun, Jin; Zhu, Feipeng; Wu, Jinrong; Wang, Xin; Yang, Nannan; Zhou, Xiaojun; Yun, Shifeng; Lu, Guangming

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are ideal nanocarriers that have recently gained attention in important bioapplications such as drug, gene, and protein delivery. The efficacy of endocytosis greatly affects the biological functions of MSNs. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cationic liposomes of Lipofectamine 2000 on cellular uptake of MSNs and the cytotoxicity of cationic liposomes combining with MSNs both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, mesoporous silica nanoparticles with an average diameter of 130 nm and negative surface charge were synthesized and characterized. The possible role of Lipofectamine 2000 in cellular uptake of MSNs was evaluated in human embryonic kidney cell line 293T cells by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. The toxicities of liposomes combining with MSNs were tested in vitro via cell apoptosis assay and MTT cell viability assay, and in vivo by histological examination of six organs of mice after intravenous injection. The endocytosis efficiency of MSNs in human embryonic kidney 293T cells was greatly increased using Lipofectamine 2000 compared with controls (P < 0.001). No apparent in vitro or in vivo cytotoxicity was found for Lipofectamine 2000 combining with MSNs. Our data indicate that cationic liposomes of Lipofectamine 2000 has the potential to greatly increase cellular uptake of MSNs with negative surface charge in human renal 293T cells without apparent toxicity. PMID:24059087

  13. A Novel Isoquinoline Derivative Anticancer Agent and Its Targeted Delivery to Tumor Cells Using Transferrin-Conjugated Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuewei; Yang, Shuang; Chai, Hongyu; Yang, Zhaogang; Lee, Robert J.; Liao, Weiwei; Teng, Lesheng

    2015-01-01

    We have screened 11 isoquinoline derivatives and α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthi-azol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in HeLa and HEK-293T cells. Compound 2 was identified as potential anticancer agent. To further improve its therapeutic potential, this agent was incorporated into transferrin (Tf)-conjugated liposomes (LPs) for targeted delivery to tumor cells. We have demonstrated Tf-LP-Compound 2 have superior antitumor activity compared to non-targeted controls and the free drug. These data show Tf-LP-Compound 2 to be a promising agent that warrants further evaluation. PMID:26309138

  14. Transient expression of recombinant ACKR4 (CCRL1) gene, an atypical chemokine receptor in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells.

    PubMed

    Parsi, Bahareh; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Hashemi, Mohammad; Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2016-07-01

    ACKR4 also called CCX-CKR, CCRL1 as a member of atypical chemokine receptors, regulates the biological responses by clearance or transporting homeostatic chemokines such as CCL19, CCL21, CCL25, and CXCL13. Since these chemokines are involved in cancer development and metastasis, ACKR4 could have inhibition roles in cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Forming complexes with chemokine receptors by ACKR4 as in the case of hCXCR3 which lead to chemotaxis prevention is the other function of this protein is. However, as an atypical chemokine receptor, ACKR4 is less well-characterized compared to other members. Here, as the first step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of ACKR4 action, transfectants in HEK293T cell, was generated. In this study, ACKR4 coding sequence was cloned and human embryonic kidney 293T cells were used for recombinant production of ACKR4 protein. The liposome-mediated transfection with ACKR4 CDs, were detected in ACKR4 positive cells as early as 48 h post-transfection. The production of ACKR4 protein was confirmed using RT-PCR, dot blot, western blot, and flow cytometry. ACKR4 may represent a novel molecular target in cancer therapy, which might provide a chance for new therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the first step in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ACKR4 action is generation ACKR4-HEK293T recombinant cells. PMID:27168154

  15. Selective killing of G2 decatenation checkpoint defective colon cancer cells by catalytic topoisomerase II inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jain, Chetan Kumar; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Majumder, Hemanta Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Cancer cells with defective DNA decatenation checkpoint can be selectively targeted by the catalytic inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) enzyme. Upon treatment with catalytic topo IIα inhibitors, cells with defective decatenation checkpoint fail to arrest their cell cycle in G2 phase and enter into M phase with catenated and under-condensed chromosomes resulting into impaired mitosis and eventually cell death. In the present work we analyzed decatenation checkpoint in five different colon cancer cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, Caco2, COLO 205 and SW480) and in one non-cancerous cell line (HEK293T). Four out of the five colon cancer cell lines i.e. HCT116, HT-29, Caco2, and COLO 205 were found to be compromised for the decatenation checkpoint function at different extents, whereas SW480 and HEK293T cell lines were found to be proficient for the checkpoint function. Upon treatment with ICRF193, decatenation checkpoint defective cell lines failed to arrest the cell cycle in G2 phase and entered into M phase without proper chromosomal decatenation, resulting into the formation of tangled mass of catenated and under-condensed chromosomes. Such cells underwent mitotic catastrophe and rapid apoptosis like cell death and showed higher sensitivity for ICRF193. Our study suggests that catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase IIα are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of colon cancers with defective DNA decatenation checkpoint. PMID:25746763

  16. Phosphatidylethanolamine Is a Key Regulator of Membrane Fluidity in Eukaryotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Dawaliby, Rosie; Trubbia, Cataldo; Delporte, Cédric; Noyon, Caroline; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Govaerts, Cédric

    2016-02-12

    Adequate membrane fluidity is required for a variety of key cellular processes and in particular for proper function of membrane proteins. In most eukaryotic cells, membrane fluidity is known to be regulated by fatty acid desaturation and cholesterol, although some cells, such as insect cells, are almost devoid of sterol synthesis. We show here that insect and mammalian cells present similar microviscosity at their respective physiological temperature. To investigate how both sterols and phospholipids control fluidity homeostasis, we quantified the lipidic composition of insect SF9 and mammalian HEK 293T cells under normal or sterol-modified condition. As expected, insect cells show minimal sterols compared with mammalian cells. A major difference is also observed in phospholipid content as the ratio of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) is inverted (4 times higher in SF9 cells). In vitro studies in liposomes confirm that both cholesterol and PE can increase rigidity of the bilayer, suggesting that both can be used by cells to maintain membrane fluidity. We then show that exogenously increasing the cholesterol amount in SF9 membranes leads to a significant decrease in PE:PC ratio whereas decreasing cholesterol in HEK 293T cells using statin treatment leads to an increase in the PE:PC ratio. In all cases, the membrane fluidity is maintained, indicating that both cell types combine regulation by sterols and phospholipids to control proper membrane fluidity. PMID:26663081

  17. HMGB4 is expressed by neuronal cells and affects the expression of genes involved in neural differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rouhiainen, Ari; Zhao, Xiang; Vanttola, Päivi; Qian, Kui; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Gransalke, Kathleen; Grönholm, Mikaela; Unni, Emmanual; Meistrich, Marvin; Tian, Li; Auvinen, Petri; Rauvala, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    HMGB4 is a new member in the family of HMGB proteins that has been characterized in sperm cells, but little is known about its functions in somatic cells. Here we show that HMGB4 and the highly similar rat Transition Protein 4 (HMGB4L1) are expressed in neuronal cells. Both proteins had slow mobility in nucleus of living NIH-3T3 cells. They interacted with histones and their differential expression in transformed cells of the nervous system altered the post-translational modification statuses of histones in vitro. Overexpression of HMGB4 in HEK 293T cells made cells more susceptible to cell death induced by topoisomerase inhibitors in an oncology drug screening array and altered variant composition of histone H3. HMGB4 regulated over 800 genes in HEK 293T cells with a p-value ≤0.013 (n = 3) in a microarray analysis and displayed strongest association with adhesion and histone H2A -processes. In neuronal and transformed cells HMGB4 regulated the expression of an oligodendrocyte marker gene PPP1R14a and other neuronal differentiation marker genes. In conclusion, our data suggests that HMGB4 is a factor that regulates chromatin and expression of neuronal differentiation markers. PMID:27608812

  18. Using intron splicing trick for preferential gene expression in transduced cells: an approach for suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Pourzadegan, F; Shariati, L; Taghizadeh, R; Khanahmad, H; Mohammadi, Z; Tabatabaiefar, M A

    2016-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy is one of the most innovative approaches in which a potential toxic gene is delivered to the targeted cancer cell by different target delivery methods. We constructed a transfer vector to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transduced cells but not in packaging cells. We placed gfp under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, which is positioned between the two long-terminal repeats in reverse direction. The intron-2 sequence of the human beta globin gene with two poly-A signals and several stop codons on the antisense strand was placed on the leading strand between the CMV promoter and gfp. For lentiviral production, the HEK293T and line were co-transfected with the PMD2G, psPAX2 and pLentiGFP-Ins2 plasmids. The HEK293T and line were transduced with this virus. PCR was performed for evaluation of intron splicing in transduced cells. The GFP expression was seen in 65% of the cells transduced. The PCR amplification of the genomic DNA of transduced cells confirmed the splicing of intron 2. The strategy is significant to accomplish our goal for preserving the packaging cells from the toxic gene expression during viral assembly and the resultant reduction in viral titration. Also it serves to address several other issues in the gene therapy. PMID:26679755

  19. Analysis of the N-terminal region of human MLKL, as well as two distinct MLKL isoforms, reveals new insights into necroptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Arnež, Katja Hrovat; Kindlova, Michaela; Bokil, Nilesh J.; Murphy, James M.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Gunčar, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is an essential effector of necroptotic cell death. Two distinct human MLKL isoforms have previously been reported, but their capacities to trigger cell death have not been compared directly. Herein, we examine these two MLKL isoforms, and further probe the features of the human MLKL N-terminal domain that are required for cell death. Expression in HEK293T cells of the N-terminal 201 amino acids (aa) of human MLKL is sufficient to cause cell death, whereas expression of the first 154 aa is not. Given that aa 1–125 are able to initiate necroptosis, our findings indicate that the helix that follows this region restrains necroptotic activity, which is again restored in longer constructs. Furthermore, MLKL isoform 2 (MLKL2), which lacks much of the regulatory pseudokinase domain, is a much more potent inducer of cell death than MLKL isoform 1 (MLKL1) in ectopic expression studies in HEK293T cells. Modelling predicts that a C-terminal helix constrains the activity of MLKL1, but not MLKL2. Although both isoforms are expressed by human monocyte-derived macrophages at the mRNA level, MLKL2 is expressed at much lower levels. We propose that it may have a regulatory role in controlling macrophage survival, either in the steady state or in response to specific stimuli. PMID:26704887

  20. Components of chicken egg white extract smaller than 3 kDa in size promote 293T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Guang-Ping; Yao, Xiang; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Liu, Ju-Fen; Shu, Fan; Li, Zi-An; Pang, Rong-Qing; Pan, Xing-Hua

    2016-08-01

    We previously found that chicken egg white extract could promote cell survival and proliferation. In the present study, we further separated this extract into its components to identify those primarily responsible for promoting cell proliferation. Components of differing molecular weight were separated from chicken egg white extract by ultrafiltration and 293T cell cultures were supplemented with various concentrations. The effects on cell proliferation were subsequently determined by a CellTiter 96 Aqueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay kit (Promega). We demonstrate that components from chicken egg white smaller than 3 kDa in size are able to function as active ingredients promoting cellular proliferation. This discovery may identify a new and convenient additive for cell culture media to promote cell growth and proliferation. PMID:26541834

  1. Regulation of transforming growth factor beta 1 gene expression by dihydropteridine reductase in kidney 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanting; Gong, Yuewen; Zhang, Haojun; Dong, Xi; Zhao, Tingting; Burczynski, Frank J; Wang, Guqi; Sun, Sifan; Zhu, Bin; Han, Wenbing; Wang, Hongpan; Li, Ping

    2013-06-01

    Quinoid dihydropteridine reductase (QDPR) is an enzyme involved in the metabolic pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). BH4 is an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and can catalyze arginine to citrulline to release nitric oxide. Point mutations of QDPR have been found in the renal cortex of spontaneous Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) diabetic rats. However, the role of QDPR in DN is not clear. This study investigates the effects of QDPR overexpression and knockdown on gene expression in the kidney. Rat QDPR cDNA was cloned into pcDNA3.1 vector and transfected in human kidney cells (293T). The expression of NOS, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), Smad3, and NADPH oxidase were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. BH4 was assayed by using ELISA. Expression of QDPR was significantly decreased and TGF-β1 and Smad3 were increased in the renal cortex of diabetic rats. Transfection of QDPR into 293T cells increased the abundance of QDPR in cytoplasm and significantly reduced the expression of TGF-β1, Smad3, and the NADPH oxidases NOX1 and NOX4. Moreover, abundance of neuronal NOS (nNOS) mRNA and BH4 content were significantly increased. Furthermore, inhibition of QDPR resulted in a significant increase in TGF-β1 expression. In conclusion, QDPR might be an important factor mediating diabetic nephropathy through its regulation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling and NADPH oxidase. PMID:23668792

  2. HIV-1 Resistant CDK2-Knockdown Macrophage-Like Cells Generated from 293T Cell-Derived Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jerebtsova, Marina; Kumari, Namita; Xu, Min; de Melo, Gustavo Brito Alvim; Niu, Xiaomei; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Nekhai, Sergei

    2012-07-26

    A major challenge in studies of human diseases involving macrophages is low yield and heterogeneity of the primary cells and limited ability of these cells for transfections and genetic manipulations. To address this issue, we developed a simple and efficient three steps method for somatic 293T cells reprogramming into monocytes and macrophage-like cells. First, 293T cells were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through a transfection-mediated expression of two factors, Oct-4 and Sox2, resulting in a high yield of iPSC. Second, the obtained iPSC were differentiated into monocytes using IL-3 and M-CSF treatment. And third, monocytes were differentiated into macrophage-like cells in the presence of M-CSF. As an example, we developed HIV-1-resistant macrophage-like cells from 293T cells with knockdown of CDK2, a factor critical for HIV-1 transcription. Our study provides a proof-of-principle approach that can be used to study the role of host cell factors in HIV-1 infection of human macrophages. PMID:22934150

  3. HIV-1 Resistant CDK2-Knockdown Macrophage-Like Cells Generated from 293T Cell-Derived Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jerebtsova, Marina; Kumari, Namita; Xu, Min; de Melo, Gustavo Brito Alvim; Niu, Xiaomei; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Nekhai, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in studies of human diseases involving macrophages is low yield and heterogeneity of the primary cells and limited ability of these cells for transfections and genetic manipulations. To address this issue, we developed a simple and efficient three steps method for somatic 293T cells reprogramming into monocytes and macrophage-like cells. First, 293T cells were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through a transfection-mediated expression of two factors, Oct-4 and Sox2, resulting in a high yield of iPSC. Second, the obtained iPSC were differentiated into monocytes using IL-3 and M-CSF treatment. And third, monocytes were differentiated into macrophage-like cells in the presence of M-CSF. As an example, we developed HIV-1-resistant macrophage-like cells from 293T cells with knockdown of CDK2, a factor critical for HIV-1 transcription. Our study provides a proof-of-principle approach that can be used to study the role of host cell factors in HIV-1 infection of human macrophages. PMID:22934150

  4. Production of human factor VIII-FL in 293T cells using the bicistronic MGMT(P140K)-retroviral vector.

    PubMed

    Fontes, A M; Melo, F U F; Greene, L J; Faça, V M; Lin, Y; Gerson, S L; Covas, D T

    2012-01-01

    Hemophilia A is the most common X-linked bleeding disorder; it is caused by deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Replacement therapy with rFVIII produced from human cell line is a major goal for treating hemophilia patients. We prepared a full-length recombinant FVIII (FVIII-FL), using the pMFG-P140K retroviral vector. The IRES DNA fragment was cloned upstream to the P140K gene, providing a 9.34-kb bicistronic vector. FVIII-FL cDNA was then cloned upstream to IRES, resulting in a 16.6-kb construct. In parallel, an eGFP control vector was generated, resulting in a 10.1- kb construct. The 293T cells were transfected with these constructs, generating the 293T-FVIII-FL/P140K and 293T-eGFP/P140K cell lines. In 293T-FVIII-FL/P140K cells, FVIII and P140K mRNAs levels were 4,410 (±931.7)- and 295,400 (±75,769)-fold higher than in virgin cells. In 293T-eGFP/P140K cells, the eGFP and P140K mRNAs levels were 1,501,000 (±493,700)- and 308,000 (±139,300)-fold higher than in virgin cells. The amount of FVIII-FL was 0.2 IU/mL and 45 ng/mL FVIII cells or 4.4 IU/μg protein. These data demonstrate the efficacy of the bicistronic retroviral vector expressing FVIII-FL and MGMT(P140K), showing that it could be used for producing the FVIII-FL protein in a human cell line. PMID:22576836

  5. Flavonoids inhibit the platelet TxA2 signalling pathway and antagonize TxA2 receptors (TP) in platelets and smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, José A; Navarro-Nuñez, Leyre; Lozano, María L; Martínez, Constantino; Vicente, Vicente; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Rivera, José

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Flavonoids are largely recognized as potential inhibitors of platelet function, through nonspecific mechanisms such as antioxidant activity and/or inhibition of several enzymes and signalling proteins. In addition, we, and few others, have shown that certain antiaggregant flavonoids may behave as specific TXA2 receptor (TP) ligands in platelets. Whether flavonoids interact with TP isoforms in other cell types is not known, and direct evidence that flavonoid–TP interaction inhibits signalling downstream TP has not been shown. What this study adds This study first demonstrates that certain flavonoids behave as ligands for both TP isoforms, not only in platelets, but also in human myometrium and in TP-transfected HEK 293T cells. Differences in the effect of certain flavonoids in platelet signalling, induced by either U46619 or thrombin, suggest that abrogation of downstream TP signalling is related to their specific blockage of the TP, rather than to a nonspecific effect on tyrosine kinases or other signalling proteins. Aims Flavonoids may affect platelet function by several mechanisms, including antagonism of TxA2 receptors (TP). These TP are present in many tissues and modulate different signalling cascades. We explored whether flavonoids affect platelet TP signalling, and if they bind to TP expressed in other cell types. Methods Platelets were treated with flavonoids, or other selected inhibitors, and then stimulated with U46619. Similar assays were performed in aspirinized platelets activated with thrombin. Effects on calcium release were analysed by fluorometry and changes in whole protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of ERK 1/2 by Western blot analysis. The binding of flavonoids to TP in platelets, human myometrium and TPα- and TPβ-transfected HEK 293T cells was explored using binding assays and the TP antagonist 3H-SQ29548. Results Apigenin, genistein, luteolin and quercetin impaired U46619-induced calcium

  6. Ca2+ waves across gaps in non-excitable cells induced by femtosecond laser exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Wang, Shaoyang; Li, Xun; Li, Shiyang; Hu, Minglie; Cao, Youjia; Wang, Ching-Yue

    2012-04-01

    Calcium is a second messenger in all cells for various cellular processes. It was found in astrocytes and neurons that femtosecond laser stimulation could induce Ca2+ wave propagation. In this work, a femtosecond laser with a power above a certain threshold was focused on single HeLa/HEK293T cells for Ca2+ mobilization. Several types of Ca2+ oscillation patterns were found in neighboring cells. The Ca2+ wave propagated very fast across 40-μm gaps in the Ca2+-free medium mediated by the adenosine-triphosphate released from cells. This approach could provide a clean methodology to investigate the Ca2+ dynamics in non-excitable cells.

  7. Oxa, Thia, Heterocycle, and Carborane Analogues of SQ109: Bacterial and Protozoal Cell Growth Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Wang, Yang; Yang, Gyongseon; Byun, Sooyoung; Rao, Guodong; Shoen, Carolyn; Yang, Hongliang; Gulati, Anmol; Crick, Dean C.; Cynamon, Michael; Huang, Guozhong; Docampo, Roberto; No, Joo Hwan; Oldfield, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized a library of 48 analogs of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell growth inhibitor SQ109 in which the ethylene diamine linker was replaced by oxa-, thia- or heterocyclic species, and in some cases, the adamantyl group was replaced by a 1,2-carborane or the N-geranyl group by another hydrophobic species. Compounds were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv and/or Erdman), Mycobacterium smegmatis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trypanosoma brucei and two human cell lines (human embryonic kidney, HEK293T, and the hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2). Most potent activity was found against T. brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, and involved targeting of the mitochondrial membrane potential with 15 SQ109 analogs being more active than was SQ109 in cell growth inhibition, having IC50 values as low as 12 nM (5.5 ng/mL) and a selectivity index of ~300. PMID:26258172

  8. An efficient platform for screening expression and crystallization of glycoproteins produced in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeffrey E.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2010-01-01

    Glycoproteins mediate multiple, diverse and critical cellular functions, that are desirable to explore by structural analysis. However, structure determination of these molecules has been hindered by difficulties expressing milligram quantities of stable, homogeneous protein and in determining, which modifications will yield samples amenable to structural studies. We describe a platform proven effective for rapidly screening expression and crystallization of challenging glycoprotein targets produced in mammalian cells. Here, multiple glycoprotein constructs are produced in parallel by transient expression of adherent human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells and subsequently screened in small quantities for crystallization by microfluidic free interface diffusion. As a result, recombinant proteins are produced and processed in a native, mammalian environment and crystallization screening can be accomplished with as little as 65 μg of protein. Moreover, large numbers of constructs can be screened for expression and crystallization and scaled up for structural studies in a matter of five weeks. PMID:19373230

  9. Enhanced protein expression in mammalian cells using engineered SUMO fusions: secreted phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Peroutka, Raymond J; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Piech, Tara; Butt, Tauseef R

    2008-09-01

    SUMOylation, the covalent attachment of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier), is a eukaryotic post-translational event that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in several biological processes. When used as an N-terminal tag or fusion partner, SUMO has been shown to enhance functional protein production significantly by improving folding, solubility, and stability. We have engineered several SUMOs and, through their fusion, developed a system for enhancing the expression and secretion of complex proteins. To demonstrate the fidelity of this fusion technology, secreted phospholipase A(2) proteins (sPLA(2)) were produced using HEK-293T and CHO-K1 cells. Five mouse sPLA(2) homologs were expressed and secreted in mammalian cell cultures using SUMO or SUMO-derived, N-terminal fusion partners. Mean and median increases of 43- and 18-fold, respectively, were obtained using novel SUMO mutants that are resistant to digestion by endogenous deSUMOylases. PMID:18539905

  10. Actin and Arp2/3 localize at the centrosome of interphase cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Actin was detected at the centrosome with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. {yields} Centrosomal actin was found in interphase but not mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. {yields} Neither the anti-actin antibody C4 that binds to globular, monomer actin, nor the anti-actin antibody 2G2 that recognizes the nuclear conformation of actin detect actin at the centrosome. {yields} The Arp2/3 complex transiently localizes at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. -- Abstract: Although many actin binding proteins such as cortactin and the Arp2/3 activator WASH localize at the centrosome, the presence and conformation of actin at the centrosome has remained elusive. Here, we report the localization of actin at the centrosome in interphase but not in mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. Centrosomal actin was detected with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. In addition, we report the transient presence of the Arp2/3 complex at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. Overexpression of an Arp2/3 component resulted in expansion of the pericentriolar matrix and selective accumulation of the Arp2/3 component in the pericentriolar matrix. Altogether, we hypothesize that the centrosome transiently recruits Arp2/3 to perform processes such as centrosome separation prior to mitotic entry, whereas the observed constitutive centrosomal actin staining in interphase cells reinforces the current model of actin-based centrosome reorientation toward the leading edge in migrating cells.

  11. Isolation of Functional Tubulin Dimers and of Tubulin-Associated Proteins from Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nuo; Signorile, Luca; Basu, Sreya; Ottema, Sophie; Lebbink, Joyce H G; Leslie, Kris; Smal, Ihor; Dekkers, Dick; Demmers, Jeroen; Galjart, Niels

    2016-07-11

    The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton forms a dynamic filamentous network that is essential for many processes, including mitosis, cell polarity and shape, neurite outgrowth and migration, and ciliogenesis [1, 2]. MTs are built up of α/β-tubulin heterodimers, and their dynamic behavior is in part regulated by tubulin-associated proteins (TAPs). Here we describe a novel system to study mammalian tubulins and TAPs. We co-expressed equimolar amounts of triple-tagged α-tubulin and β-tubulin using a 2A "self-cleaving" peptide and isolated functional fluorescent tubulin dimers from transfected HEK293T cells with a rapid two-step approach. We also produced two mutant tubulins that cause brain malformations in tubulinopathy patients [3]. We then applied a paired mass-spectrometry-based method to identify tubulin-binding proteins in HEK293T cells and describe both novel and known TAPs. We find that CKAP5 and the CLASPs, which are MT plus-end-tracking proteins with TOG(L)-domains [4], bind tubulin efficiently, as does the Golgi-associated protein GCC185, which interacts with the CLASPs [5]. The N-terminal TOGL domain of CLASP1 contributes to tubulin binding and allows CLASP1 to function as an autonomous MT-growth-promoting factor. Interestingly, mutant tubulins bind less well to a number of TAPs, including CLASPs and GCC185, and incorporate less efficiently into cellular MTs. Moreover, expression of these mutants in cells impairs several MT-growth-related processes involving TAPs. Thus, stable tubulin-TAP interactions regulate MT nucleation and growth in cells. Combined, our results provide a resource for investigating tubulin interactions and functions and widen the spectrum of tubulin-related disease mechanisms. PMID:27291054

  12. Dopamine D1 and corticotrophin-releasing hormone type-2α receptors assemble into functionally interacting complexes in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuenzalida, J; Galaz, P; Araya, K A; Slater, P G; Blanco, E H; Campusano, J M; Ciruela, F; Gysling, K

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dopamine and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH; also known as corticotrophin-releasing factor) are key neurotransmitters in the interaction between stress and addiction. Repeated treatment with cocaine potentiates glutamatergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala/cortex pathway through a synergistic action of D1-like dopamine receptors and CRH type-2α receptors (CRF2α receptors). We hypothesized that this observed synergism could be instrumented by heteromers containing the dopamine D1 receptor and CRF2α receptor. Experimental Approach D1/CRF2α receptor heteromerization was demonstrated in HEK293T cells using co-immunoprecipitation, BRET and FRET assays, and by using the heteromer mobilization strategy. The ability of D1 receptors to signal through calcium, when singly expressed or co-expressed with CRF2α receptors, was evaluated by the calcium mobilization assay. Key Results D1/CRF2α receptor heteromers were observed in HEK293T cells. When singly expressed, D1 receptors were mostly located at the cell surface whereas CRF2α receptors accumulated intracellularly. Interestingly, co-expression of both receptors promoted D1 receptor intracellular and CRF2α receptor cell surface targeting. The heteromerization of D1/CRF2α receptors maintained the signalling through cAMP of both receptors but switched D1 receptor signalling properties, as the heteromeric D1 receptor was able to mobilize intracellular calcium upon stimulation with a D1 receptor agonist. Conclusions and Implications D1 and CRF2α receptors are capable of heterodimerization in living cells. D1/CRF2α receptor heteromerization might account, at least in part, for the complex physiological interactions established between dopamine and CRH in normal and pathological conditions such as addiction, representing a new potential pharmacological target. PMID:25073922

  13. Characterization of proteins by in-cell NMR spectroscopy in cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Letizia; Luchinat, Enrico; Banci, Lucia

    2016-06-01

    In-cell NMR spectroscopy is a unique tool for characterizing biological macromolecules in their physiological environment at atomic resolution. Recent progress in NMR instruments and sample preparation methods allows functional processes, such as metal uptake, disulfide-bond formation and protein folding, to be analyzed by NMR in living, cultured human cells. This protocol describes the necessary steps to overexpress one or more proteins of interest inside human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells, and it explains how to set up in-cell NMR experiments. The cDNA is transiently transfected as a complex with a cationic polymer (DNA:PEI (polyethylenimine)), and protein expression is carried on for 2-3 d, after which the NMR sample is prepared. (1)H and (1)H-(15)N correlation NMR experiments (for example, using band-selective optimized flip-angle short-transient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (SOFAST-HMQC)) can be carried out in <2 h, ensuring cell viability. Uniform (15)N labeling and amino-acid-specific (e.g., cysteine, methionine) labeling schemes are possible. The entire procedure takes 4 d from cell culture seeding to NMR data collection. PMID:27196722

  14. Reduced migration of MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells depends on SPTAN1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 are frequently observed in sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers (CRC). Affected tumors generate much less metastatic potential than the MLH1 proficient forms. Although MLH1 has been shown to be not only involved in postreplicative MMR but also in several MMR independent processes like cytoskeletal organization, the connection between MLH1 and metastasis remains unclear. We recently identified non-erythroid spectrin αII (SPTAN1), a scaffolding protein involved in cell adhesion and motility, to interact with MLH1. In the current study, the interaction of MLH1 and SPTAN1 and its potential consequences for CRC metastasis was evaluated. Methods Nine cancer cell lines as well as fresh and paraffin embedded colon cancer tissue from 12 patients were used in gene expression studies of SPTAN1 and MLH1. Co-expression of SPTAN1 and MLH1 was analyzed by siRNA knock down of MLH1 in HeLa, HEK293, MLH1 positive HCT116, SW480 and LoVo cells. Effects on cellular motility were determined in MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T compared to their MLH1 proficient sister cells, respectively. Results MLH1 deficiency is clearly associated with SPTAN1 reduction. Moreover, siRNA knock down of MLH1 decreased the mRNA level of SPTAN1 in HeLa, HEK293 as well as in MLH1 positive HCT116 cells, which indicates a co-expression of SPTAN1 by MLH1. In addition, cellular motility of MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T cells was impaired compared to the MLH1 proficient sister clones. Consequently, overexpression of SPTAN1 increased migration of MLH1 deficient cells while knock down of SPTAN1 decreased cellular mobility of MLH1 proficient cells, indicating SPTAN1-dependent migration ability. Conclusions These data suggest that SPTAN1 levels decreased in concordance with MLH1 reduction and impaired cellular mobility in MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells. Therefore, aggressiveness of MLH1-positive CRC might be

  15. Evaluating cell-surface expression and measuring activation of mammalian odorant receptors in heterologous cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hanyi; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in olfaction is which odorant receptors (ORs) are activated by a given odorant. A major roadblock to investigate odorant-OR relationship in mammals has been an inability to express ORs in heterologous cells suitable for screening active ligands for ORs. The discovery of the receptor-transporting protein (RTP) family has facilitated the effective cell-surface expression of ORs in heterologous cells. The establishment of a robust heterologous expression system for mammalian ORs facilitates the high-throughput “deorphanization” of these receptors by matching them to their cognate ligands. This protocol details the method used for evaluating the cell-surface expression and measuring the functional activation of ORs of transiently-expressed mammalian odorant receptors in HEK293T cells. The stages of odorant receptor cell-surface expression include cell culture preparation, transfer of cells, transfection, and immunocytochemistry/flow cytometry, odorant stimulation, and luciferase assay. This protocol can be completed in a period of 3 days from transfer of cells to cell-surface expression detection and/or measurement of functional activation. PMID:18772867

  16. TRPC3 is the erythropoietin-regulated calcium channel in human erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qin; Hirschler-Laszkiewicz, Iwona; Zhang, Wenyi; Conrad, Kathleen; Neagley, David W; Barber, Dwayne L; Cheung, Joseph Y; Miller, Barbara A

    2008-04-18

    Erythropoietin (Epo) stimulates a significant increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) through activation of the murine transient receptor potential channel TRPC2, but TRPC2 is a pseudogene in humans. TRPC3 expression increases on normal human erythroid progenitors during differentiation. Here, we determined that erythropoietin regulates calcium influx through TRPC3. Epo stimulation of HEK 293T cells transfected with Epo receptor and TRPC3 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in [Ca(2+)](i), which required extracellular calcium influx. Treatment with the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 or down-regulation of PLCgamma1 by RNA interference inhibited the Epo-stimulated increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in TRPC3-transfected HEK 293T cells and in primary human erythroid precursors, demonstrating a requirement for PLC. TRPC3 associated with PLCgamma, and substitution of predicted PLCgamma Src homology 2 binding sites (Y226F, Y555F, Y648F, and Y674F) on TRPC3 reduced the interaction of TRPC3 with PLCgamma and inhibited the rise in [Ca(2+)](i). Substitution of Tyr(226) alone with phenylalanine significantly reduced the Epo-stimulated increase in [Ca(2+)](i) but not the association of PLCgamma with TRPC3. PLC activation results in production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)). To determine whether IP(3) is involved in Epo activation of TRPC3, TRPC3 mutants were prepared with substitution or deletion of COOH-terminal IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R) binding domains. In cells expressing TRPC3 with mutant IP(3)R binding sites and Epo receptor, interaction of IP(3)R with TRPC3 was abolished, and Epo-modulated increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was reduced. Our data demonstrate that Epo modulates TRPC3 activation through a PLCgamma-mediated process that requires interaction of PLCgamma and IP(3)R with TRPC3. They also show that TRPC3 Tyr(226) is critical in Epo-dependent activation of TRPC3. These data demonstrate a redundancy of TRPC channel activation mechanisms by

  17. Microvesicle and tunneling nanotube mediated intercellular transfer of g-protein coupled receptors in cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Guescini, M.; Leo, G.; Genedani, S.; Carone, C.; Pederzoli, F.; Ciruela, F.; Guidolin, D.; Stocchi, V.; Mantuano, M.; Borroto-Escuela, D.O.; Fuxe, K.; Agnati, L.F.

    2012-03-10

    Recent evidence shows that cells exchange collections of signals via microvesicles (MVs) and tunneling nano-tubes (TNTs). In this paper we have investigated whether in cell cultures GPCRs can be transferred by means of MVs and TNTs from a source cell to target cells. Western blot, transmission electron microscopy and gene expression analyses demonstrate that A{sub 2A} and D{sub 2} receptors are present in released MVs. In order to further demonstrate the involvement of MVs in cell-to-cell communication we created two populations of cells (HEK293T and COS-7) transiently transfected with D{sub 2}R-CFP or A{sub 2A}R-YFP. These two types of cells were co-cultured, and FRET analysis demonstrated simultaneously positive cells to the D{sub 2}R-CFP and A{sub 2A}R-YFP. Fluorescence microscopy analysis also showed that GPCRs can move from one cell to another also by means of TNTs. Finally, recipient cells pre-incubated for 24 h with A{sub 2A}R positive MVs were treated with the adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor agonist CGS-21680. The significant increase in cAMP accumulation clearly demonstrated that A{sub 2A}Rs were functionally competent in target cells. These findings demonstrate that A{sub 2A} receptors capable of recognizing and decoding extracellular signals can be safely transferred via MVs from source to target cells.

  18. AC Electrothermal Circulatory Pumping Chip for Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Lang, Qi; Wu, Yanshuang; Ren, Yukun; Tao, Ye; Lei, Lei; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2015-12-01

    Herein we describe a novel AC electrothermal (ACET) fluidic circulatory pumping chip to overcome the challenge of fluid-to-tissue ratio for "human-on-a-chip" cell culture systems. To avoid the deleterious effects of Joule heating and electric current on sample cells, a rectangular microchannel was designed with distantly separated regions for pumping and cell culture. Temperature variations were examined using a commercial thermocouple sensor to detect temperature values in both pumping and culture regions. To generate a sufficient ACET circulatory pumping rate, 30 pairs of asymmetrical electrodes were employed in the pumping region; generated ACET velocity was measured by fluorescent microparticle image velocimetry. The benefits of our pumping chip were demonstrated by culturing human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) and human colon carcinoma cells (SW620) for 72 h with an energized voltage of 3 V and 10 MHz. Cells grew and proliferated well, implying our ACET circulatory pumping chip has great potential for cell culture and tissue engineering applications. PMID:26558750

  19. MS-HRM assay identifies high levels of epigenetic heterogeneity in human immortalized cell lines.

    PubMed

    Putnik, Milica; Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Pournara, Angeliki; Vahter, Marie; Wallberg, Annika E

    2015-04-15

    Immortalized cell lines are widely used in genetic and epigenetic studies, from exploration of basic molecular pathways to evaluation of disease-specific cellular properties. They are also used in biotechnology, e.g., in drug toxicity tests and vaccine production. Cellular and genetic uniformity is the main feature of immortalized cell lines and it has been particularly advantageous in functional genomic research, which has in recent years been expanded to include epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation. Using the MS-HRM technique, we demonstrated heterogeneity in locus-specific methylation patterns in different cell cultures of four human cell lines: HEK293, HEK293T, LCL and DU145. Our results show that some human immortalized cell lines consist of cells that differ in the methylation status of specific loci, i.e., that they are epigenetically heterogeneous. We show that even two cultures of the same cell line obtained from different laboratories can differ in the methylation status of the specific loci. The results indicated that epigenetic uniformity of the cell lines cannot be assumed in experiments which utilize cell cultures and that the methylation status of the specific loci in the immortalized cell lines should be re-characterized and carefully profiled before epigenetic studies are performed. PMID:25644772

  20. LINKIN, a new transmembrane protein necessary for cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Mihoko; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Yu, Collin Z; DeModena, John; Sternberg, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    In epithelial collective migration, leader and follower cells migrate while maintaining cell–cell adhesion and tissue polarity. We have identified a conserved protein and interactors required for maintaining cell adhesion during a simple collective migration in the developing C. elegans male gonad. LINKIN is a previously uncharacterized, transmembrane protein conserved throughout Metazoa. We identified seven atypical FG–GAP domains in the extracellular domain, which potentially folds into a β-propeller structure resembling the α-integrin ligand-binding domain. C. elegans LNKN-1 localizes to the plasma membrane of all gonadal cells, with apical and lateral bias. We identified the LINKIN interactors RUVBL1, RUVBL2, and α-tubulin by using SILAC mass spectrometry on human HEK 293T cells and testing candidates for lnkn-1-like function in C. elegans male gonad. We propose that LINKIN promotes adhesion between neighboring cells through its extracellular domain and regulates microtubule dynamics through RUVBL proteins at its intracellular domain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04449.001 PMID:25437307

  1. Automated analysis of dynamic behavior of single cells in picoliter droplets.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Mohammad Ali; Rajeswari, Prem Kumar Periyannan; Wählby, Carolina; Joensson, Haakan N; Andersson Svahn, Helene

    2014-03-01

    We present a droplet-based microfluidic platform to automatically track and characterize the behavior of single cells over time. This high-throughput assay allows encapsulation of single cells in micro-droplets and traps intact droplets in arrays of miniature wells on a PDMS-glass chip. Automated time-lapse fluorescence imaging and image analysis of the incubated droplets on the chip allows the determination of the viability of individual cells over time. In order to automatically track the droplets containing cells, we developed a simple method based on circular Hough transform to identify droplets in images and quantify the number of live and dead cells in each droplet. Here, we studied the viability of several hundred single isolated HEK293T cells over time and demonstrated a high survival rate of the encapsulated cells for up to 11 hours. The presented platform has a wide range of potential applications for single cell analysis, e.g. monitoring heterogeneity of drug action over time and rapidly assessing the transient behavior of single cells under various conditions and treatments in vitro. PMID:24385254

  2. Telomere uncapping by the G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 inhibits clonogenic tumour cell growth in vitro and in vivo consistent with a cancer stem cell targeting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phatak, P; Cookson, J C; Dai, F; Smith, V; Gartenhaus, R B; Stevens, M F G; Burger, A M

    2007-04-23

    The pentacyclic acridinium methosulfate salt RHPS4 induces the 3'single-stranded guanine-rich telomeric overhang to fold into a G-quadruplex structure. Stabilisation of the latter is incompatible with an attachment of telomerase to the telomere and thus G-quadruplex ligands can effectively inhibit both the catalytic and capping functions of telomerase. In this study, we examined mechanisms underlying telomere uncapping by RHPS4 in uterus carcinoma cells (UXF1138L) with short telomeres and compared the susceptibility of bulk and clonogenic cancer cells to the G-quadruplex ligand. We show that treatment of UXF1138L cells with RHPS4 leads to the displacement of the telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) from the nucleus, induction of telomere-initiated DNA-damage signalling and chromosome fusions. We further report that RHPS4 is more potent against cancer cells that grow as colonies in soft agar than cells growing as monolayers. Human cord blood and HEK293T embryonic kidney cell colony forming units, however, were more resistant to RHPS4. RHPS4-treated UXF1138L xenografts had a decreased clonogenicity, showed loss of nuclear hTERT expression and an induction of mitotic abnormalities compared with controls. Although single-agent RHPS4 had limited in vivo efficacy, a combination of RHPS4 with the mitotic spindle poison Taxol caused tumour remissions and further enhancement of telomere dysfunction. PMID:17406367

  3. Telomere uncapping by the G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 inhibits clonogenic tumour cell growth in vitro and in vivo consistent with a cancer stem cell targeting mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Phatak, P; Cookson, J C; Dai, F; Smith, V; Gartenhaus, R B; Stevens, M F G; Burger, A M

    2007-01-01

    The pentacyclic acridinium methosulfate salt RHPS4 induces the 3′single-stranded guanine-rich telomeric overhang to fold into a G-quadruplex structure. Stabilisation of the latter is incompatible with an attachment of telomerase to the telomere and thus G-quadruplex ligands can effectively inhibit both the catalytic and capping functions of telomerase. In this study, we examined mechanisms underlying telomere uncapping by RHPS4 in uterus carcinoma cells (UXF1138L) with short telomeres and compared the susceptibility of bulk and clonogenic cancer cells to the G-quadruplex ligand. We show that treatment of UXF1138L cells with RHPS4 leads to the displacement of the telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) from the nucleus, induction of telomere-initiated DNA-damage signalling and chromosome fusions. We further report that RHPS4 is more potent against cancer cells that grow as colonies in soft agar than cells growing as monolayers. Human cord blood and HEK293T embryonic kidney cell colony forming units, however, were more resistant to RHPS4. RHPS4-treated UXF1138L xenografts had a decreased clonogenicity, showed loss of nuclear hTERT expression and an induction of mitotic abnormalities compared with controls. Although single-agent RHPS4 had limited in vivo efficacy, a combination of RHPS4 with the mitotic spindle poison Taxol caused tumour remissions and further enhancement of telomere dysfunction. PMID:17406367

  4. Gene disruption by cell-penetrating peptide-mediated delivery of Cas9 protein and guide RNA.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Suresh; Kwaku Dad, Abu-Bonsrah; Beloor, Jagadish; Gopalappa, Ramu; Lee, Sang-Kyung; Kim, Hyongbum

    2014-06-01

    RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs) derived from the CRISPR/Cas system represent an efficient tool for genome editing. RGENs consist of two components: Cas9 protein and guide RNA. Plasmid-mediated delivery of these components into cells can result in uncontrolled integration of the plasmid sequence into the host genome, and unwanted immune responses and potential safety problems that can be caused by the bacterial sequences. Furthermore, this delivery method requires transfection tools. Here we show that simple treatment with cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-conjugated recombinant Cas9 protein and CPP-complexed guide RNAs leads to endogenous gene disruptions in human cell lines. The Cas9 protein was conjugated to CPP via a thioether bond, whereas the guide RNA was complexed with CPP, forming condensed, positively charged nanoparticles. Simultaneous and sequential treatment of human cells, including embryonic stem cells, dermal fibroblasts, HEK293T cells, HeLa cells, and embryonic carcinoma cells, with the modified Cas9 and guide RNA, leads to efficient gene disruptions with reduced off-target mutations relative to plasmid transfections, resulting in the generation of clones containing RGEN-induced mutations. Our CPP-mediated RGEN delivery process provides a plasmid-free and additional transfection reagent-free method to use this tool with reduced off-target effects. We envision that our method will facilitate RGEN-directed genome editing. PMID:24696462

  5. Detection of constitutive heterodimerization of the integrin Mac-1 subunits by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Guo; Yang Huayan; Wang Chen; Zhang Feng; You Zhendong; Wang Guiying; He Cheng; Chen Yizhang . E-mail: yzchen0928@yahoo.com; Xu Zhihan . E-mail: zzxu@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2006-08-04

    Macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) belongs to {beta}{sub 2} subfamily of integrins that mediate important cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Biochemical studies have indicated that Mac-1 is a constitutive heterodimer in vitro. Here, we detected the heterodimerization of Mac-1 subunits in living cells by means of two fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques (fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy) and our results demonstrated that there is constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits and this constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits is cell-type independent. Through FRET imaging, we found that heterodimers of Mac-1 mainly localized in plasma membrane, perinuclear, and Golgi area in living cells. Furthermore, through analysis of the estimated physical distances between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to Mac-1 subunits, we suggested that the conformation of Mac-1 subunits is not affected by the fusion of CFP or YFP and inferred that Mac-1 subunits take different conformation when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, respectively.

  6. Streamlined platform for short hairpin RNA interference and transgenesis in cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Khandelia, Piyush; Yap, Karen; Makeyev, Eugene V

    2011-08-01

    Sequence-specific gene silencing by short hairpin (sh) RNAs has recently emerged as an indispensable tool for understanding gene function and a promising avenue for drug discovery. However, a wider biomedical use of this approach is hindered by the lack of straightforward methods for achieving uniform expression of shRNAs in mammalian cell cultures. Here we report a high-efficiency and low-background (HILO) recombination-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) technology that yields virtually homogeneous cell pools containing doxycycline-inducible shRNA elements in a matter of days and with minimal efforts. To ensure immediate utility of this approach for a wider research community, we modified 11 commonly used human (A549, HT1080, HEK293T, HeLa, HeLa-S3, and U2OS) and mouse (CAD, L929, N2a, NIH 3T3, and P19) cell lines to be compatible with the HILO-RMCE process. Because of its technical simplicity and cost efficiency, the technology will be advantageous for both low- and high-throughput shRNA experiments. We also provide evidence that HILO-RMCE will facilitate a wider range of molecular and cell biology applications by allowing one to rapidly engineer cell populations expressing essentially any transgene of interest. PMID:21768390

  7. Interaction of tRNA with MEK2 in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Chow, Christina R.; Ebine, Kazumi; Lee, Jiyoung; Rosner, Marsha R.; Pan, Tao; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.

    2016-01-01

    Although the translational function of tRNA has long been established, extra translational functions of tRNA are still being discovered. We previously developed a computational method to systematically predict new tRNA-protein complexes and experimentally validated six candidate proteins, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MEK2), that interact with tRNA in HEK293T cells. However, consequences of the interaction between tRNA and these proteins remain to be elucidated. Here we tested the consequence of the interaction between tRNA and MEK2 in pancreatic cancer cell lines. We also generated disease and drug resistance-derived MEK2 mutants (Q60P, P128Q, S154F, E207K) to evaluate the function of the tRNA-MEK2 interaction. Our results demonstrate that tRNA interacts with the wild-type and mutant MEK2 in pancreatic cancer cells; furthermore, the MEK2 inhibitor U0126 significantly reduces the tRNA-MEK2 interaction. In addition, tRNA affects the catalytic activity of the wild type and mutant MEK2 proteins in different ways. Overall, our findings demonstrate the interaction of tRNA with MEK2 in pancreatic cancer cells and suggest that tRNA may impact MEK2 activity in cancer cells. PMID:27301426

  8. Reversal effect of Dioscin on multidrug resistance in human hepatoma HepG2/adriamycin cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bu Tong; Zheng, Li Hua; Bao, Yong Li; Yu, Chun Lei; Wu, Yin; Meng, Xiang Ying; Li, Yu Xin

    2011-03-01

    Multidrug resistance is a serious obstacle encountered in cancer treatment. Since drug resistance in human cancer is mainly associated with overexpression of the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), the promoter of the human MDR1 gene may be a target for multidrug resistance reversion drug screening. In the present study, HEK293T cells were transfected with pGL3 reporter plasmids containing the 2kb of MDR1 promoter, and the transfected cells were used as models to screen for candidate multidrug resistance inhibitors from over 300 purified naturally occurring compounds extracted from plants and animals. Dioscin was found to have an inhibiting effect on MDR1 promoter activity. The resistant HepG2 cell line (HepG2/adriamycin) was used to validate the activity of multidrug resistance reversal by Dioscin. Results showed that Dioscin could decrease the resistance degree of HepG2/adriamycin cells, and significantly inhibit P-glycoprotein expression, as well as increase the accumulation of adriamycin in HepG2/adriamycin cells as measured by Flow Cytometric analysis. These results suggest that Dioscin is a potent multidrug resistance reversal agent and may be a potential adjunctive agent for tumor chemotherapy. PMID:21195709

  9. Fyn Activation of mTORC1 Stimulates the IRE1α-JNK Pathway, Leading to Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yichen; Yamada, Eijiro; Zong, Haihong; Pessin, Jeffrey E

    2015-10-01

    We previously reported that the skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of Fyn in mice resulted in a severe muscle wasting phenotype despite the activation of mTORC1 signaling. To investigate the bases for the loss of muscle fiber mass, we examined the relationship between Fyn activation of mTORC1, JNK, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Overexpression of Fyn in skeletal muscle in vivo and in HEK293T cells in culture resulted in the activation of IRE1α and JNK, leading to increased cell death. Fyn synergized with the general endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer thapsigargin, resulting in the activation of IRE1α and further accelerated cell death. Moreover, inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin suppressed IRE1α activation and JNK phosphorylation, resulting in protecting cells against Fyn- and thapsigargin-induced cell death. Moreover, rapamycin treatment in vivo reduced the skeletal muscle IRE1α activation in the Fyn-overexpressing transgenic mice. Together, these data demonstrate the presence of a Fyn-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress that occurred, at least in part, through the activation of mTORC1, as well as subsequent activation of the IRE1α-JNK pathway driving cell death. PMID:26306048

  10. Compact Wireless Microscope for In-Situ Time Course Study of Large Scale Cell Dynamics within an Incubator.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di; Wong, Dennis; Li, Junxiang; Luo, Zhang; Guo, Yiran; Liu, Bifeng; Wu, Qiong; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of live cells in a region of interest is essential to life science research. Unlike the traditional way that mounts CO2 incubator onto a bulky microscope for observation, here we propose a wireless microscope (termed w-SCOPE) that is based on the "microscope-in-incubator" concept and can be easily housed into a standard CO2 incubator for prolonged on-site observation of the cells. The w-SCOPE is capable of tunable magnification, remote control and wireless image transmission. At the same time, it is compact, measuring only ~10 cm in each dimension, and cost-effective. With the enhancement of compressive sensing computation, the acquired images can achieve a wide field of view (FOV) of ~113 mm(2) as well as a cellular resolution of ~3 μm, which enables various forms of follow-up image-based cell analysis. We performed 12 hours time-lapse study on paclitaxel-treated MCF-7 and HEK293T cell lines using w-SCOPE. The analytic results, such as the calculated viability and therapeutic window, from our device were validated by standard cell detection assays and imaging-based cytometer. In addition to those end-point detection methods, w-SCOPE further uncovered the time course of the cell's response to the drug treatment over the whole period of drug exposure. PMID:26681552

  11. A cationic cholesterol based nanocarrier for the delivery of p53-EGFP-C3 plasmid to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Naz, Sarwat; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    The p53 protein mediated anti-tumor strategy is limited due to the lack of suitable delivery agent with insignificant immunogenic response, serum compatibility, and early and easy detection of the transfected cell population. To overcome these problems, we generated a p53-EGFP-C3 fusion construct which expressed easily detectable green fluorescence protein (GFP) and allowed an estimation of p53 mediated anti-tumor activity. A mixture of cationic cholesterol gemini (Chol-5L) with natural lipid, DOPE (molar ratio 1:4), acronymed as Chol-5LD, formed a nano-liposome as characterized by various physical methods. The prepared clone was evaluated for the expression of GFP and functional p53 in HeLa and two additional cell lines with varied p53 status namely, H1299 (p53(-/-)) and HEK293T (p53(+/+)). Transfected cells were screened using RT-PCR, Western blotting, FACS analysis, MTT, Trypan blue assay and visualized under a fluorescence microscope. The p53-EGFP-C3 fusion protein induced apoptosis in cancer cells as evident from DNA fragmentation, cell cycle analysis, Annexin-V staining and PARP cleavage assays. The transfection and apoptosis induction efficiency of Chol-5LD was significantly higher than commercial reagents Lipofectamine2000 and Effectene irrespective of the cell lines examined. Further it significantly decreases the xenograft tumor volume in nude mice tumors via apoptosis as observed in H&E staining. PMID:24211075

  12. Soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFLT1) induces non-apoptotic death in ovarian and colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Tatsuya; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Sato, Noriko; Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 (sVEGFR1/sFLT1) is an angiogenesis inhibitor that competes with angiogenic factors such as VEGF and Placental Growth Factor (PlGF). Imbalances of VEGF and sFLT1 levels can cause pathological conditions such as tumour growth or preeclampsia. We observed direct damage caused by sFLT1 in tumour cells. We exposed several kinds of cells derived from ovarian and colorectal cancers as well as HEK293T cells to sFLT1 in two ways, transfection and exogenous application. The cell morphology and an LDH assay revealed cytotoxicity. Additional experiments were performed to clarify how sFLT1 injured cells. In this study, non-apoptotic cell damage was found to be induced by sFLT1. Moreover, sFLT1 showed an anti-tumour effect in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. Our results suggest that sFLT1 has potential as a cancer therapeutic candidate. PMID:27103202

  13. High throughput synthetic lethality screen reveals a tumorigenic role of adenylate cyclase in fumarate hydratase-deficient cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Synthetic lethality is an appealing technique for selectively targeting cancer cells which have acquired molecular changes that distinguish them from normal cells. High-throughput RNAi-based screens have been successfully used to identify synthetic lethal pathways with well-characterized tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The recent identification of metabolic tumor suppressors suggests that the concept of synthetic lethality can be applied to selectively target cancer metabolism as well. Results Here, we perform a high-throughput RNAi screen to identify synthetic lethal genes with fumarate hydratase (FH), a metabolic tumor suppressor whose loss-of-function has been associated with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC). Our unbiased screen identified synthetic lethality between FH and several genes in heme metabolism, in accordance with recent findings. Furthermore, we identified an enrichment of synthetic lethality with adenylate cyclases. The effects were validated in an embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T) and in HLRCC-patient derived cells (UOK262) via both genetic and pharmacological inhibition. The reliance on adenylate cyclases in FH-deficient cells is consistent with increased cyclic-AMP levels, which may act to regulate cellular energy metabolism. Conclusions The identified synthetic lethality of FH with adenylate cyclases suggests a new potential target for treating HLRCC patients. PMID:24568598

  14. Bioinformatic and mass spectrometry identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum proteins translocated into host cell nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Sara H. G.; Garcia-Garcia, Jose C.; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Obligate intracellular bacteria have an arsenal of proteins that alter host cells to establish and maintain a hospitable environment for replication. Anaplasma phagocytophilum secrets Ankyrin A (AnkA), via a type IV secretion system, which translocates to the nucleus of its host cell, human neutrophils. A. phagocytophilum-infected neutrophils have dramatically altered phenotypes in part explained by AnkA-induced transcriptional alterations. However, it is unlikely that AnkA is the sole effector to account for infection-induced transcriptional changes. We developed a simple method combining bioinformatics and iTRAQ protein profiling to identify potential bacterial-derived nuclear-translocated proteins that could impact transcriptional programming in host cells. This approach identified 50 A. phagocytophilum candidate genes or proteins. The encoding genes were cloned to create GFP fusion protein-expressing clones that were transfected into HEK-293T cells. We confirmed nuclear translocation of six proteins: APH_0062, RplE, Hup, APH_0382, APH_0385, and APH_0455. Of the six, APH_0455 was identified as a type IV secretion substrate and is now under investigation as a potential nucleomodulin. Additionally, application of this approach to other intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and other intracellular bacteria identified multiple candidate genes to be investigated. PMID:25705208

  15. Deciphering the Receptor Repertoire Encoding Specific Odorants by Time-Lapse Single-Cell Array Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masato; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Shimono, Ken; Kuroda, Shun’ichi

    2016-01-01

    Mammals can recognize a vast number of odorants by using olfactory receptors (ORs) known as G protein-coupled receptors. The OR gene family is one of the most diverse gene families in mammalian genomes. Because of the vast combinations of ORs and odorants, few ORs have thus far been linked to specific odorants. Here, we established a functional screening method for OR genes by using a microchamber array containing >5,400 single olfactory epithelium-derived cells from mice applied to time-lapse single-cell array cytometry. This method facilitated the prompt isolation of single olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) responding to the odorant of interest. Subsequent single-cell RT-PCR allowed us to isolate the genes encoding respective ORs. By using volatile molecules recognized as biomarkers for lung cancers, this method could deorphanize ORs and thereby reconstitute the OR-mediated signaling cascade in HEK293T cells. Thus, our system could be applied to identify any receptor by using specific ligands in the fields of physiopathology and pharmacology. PMID:26832639

  16. Deciphering the Receptor Repertoire Encoding Specific Odorants by Time-Lapse Single-Cell Array Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masato; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Shimono, Ken; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Mammals can recognize a vast number of odorants by using olfactory receptors (ORs) known as G protein-coupled receptors. The OR gene family is one of the most diverse gene families in mammalian genomes. Because of the vast combinations of ORs and odorants, few ORs have thus far been linked to specific odorants. Here, we established a functional screening method for OR genes by using a microchamber array containing >5,400 single olfactory epithelium-derived cells from mice applied to time-lapse single-cell array cytometry. This method facilitated the prompt isolation of single olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) responding to the odorant of interest. Subsequent single-cell RT-PCR allowed us to isolate the genes encoding respective ORs. By using volatile molecules recognized as biomarkers for lung cancers, this method could deorphanize ORs and thereby reconstitute the OR-mediated signaling cascade in HEK293T cells. Thus, our system could be applied to identify any receptor by using specific ligands in the fields of physiopathology and pharmacology. PMID:26832639

  17. Development of human cells with RXFP1 knockdown using retroviral delivery of microRNA against human RXFP1.

    PubMed

    Yong, K L; Callander, G E; Bergin, R; Samuel, C S; Bathgate, R A D

    2013-01-01

    To study the specific actions of relaxin through RXFP1 in human cells, it would be advantageous to develop cell populations with permanent RXFP1 knockdown (KD). We have developed and assessed four microRNA against human RXFP1. One of the four designed microRNA displayed significant RXFP1 KD as assessed by reduced relaxin binding when co-transfected with human RXFP1 into HEK-293T cells. The selected microRNA sequence was subsequently retrovirally delivered into the human dermal fibroblast cell line BJ3 which natively expresses RXFP1. The RXFP1 KD BJ3 cells displayed diminished RXFP1 mRNA expression and complete loss of ability of relaxin treatment to reduce collagen deposition after TGF-beta1 stimulation. The retroviral expression of miRNA to successfully silence RXFP1 expression is an invaluable tool to investigate receptor specificity, signalling and possible off-target effects of newly developed relaxin analogs. PMID:24640558

  18. Surrogate reporter-based enrichment of cells containing RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease-induced mutations.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Suresh; Cho, Seung Woo; Kim, Sojung; Song, Myungjae; Gopalappa, Ramu; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Hyongbum

    2014-01-01

    RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs), which are based on the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) system, have recently emerged as a simple and efficient tool for genome editing. However, the activities of prepared RGENs are sometimes low, hampering the generation of cells containing RGEN-induced mutations. Here we report efficient methods to enrich cells containing RGEN-induced mutations by using surrogate reporters. HEK293T cells are cotransfected with the reporter plasmid, a plasmid encoding Cas9 and a plasmid encoding crRNA and tracrRNA, and subjected to flow cytometric sorting, magnetic separation or hygromycin selection. The selected cell populations are highly enriched with cells containing RGEN-induced mutations, by a factor of up to 11-fold as compared with the unselected population. The fold enrichment tends to be high when RGEN activity is low. We envision that these reporters will facilitate the use of RGEN in a wide range of biomedical research. PMID:24569644

  19. Compact Wireless Microscope for In-Situ Time Course Study of Large Scale Cell Dynamics within an Incubator

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Di; Wong, Dennis; Li, Junxiang; Luo, Zhang; Guo, Yiran; Liu, Bifeng; Wu, Qiong; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of live cells in a region of interest is essential to life science research. Unlike the traditional way that mounts CO2 incubator onto a bulky microscope for observation, here we propose a wireless microscope (termed w-SCOPE) that is based on the “microscope-in-incubator” concept and can be easily housed into a standard CO2 incubator for prolonged on-site observation of the cells. The w-SCOPE is capable of tunable magnification, remote control and wireless image transmission. At the same time, it is compact, measuring only ~10 cm in each dimension, and cost-effective. With the enhancement of compressive sensing computation, the acquired images can achieve a wide field of view (FOV) of ~113 mm2 as well as a cellular resolution of ~3 μm, which enables various forms of follow-up image-based cell analysis. We performed 12 hours time-lapse study on paclitaxel-treated MCF-7 and HEK293T cell lines using w-SCOPE. The analytic results, such as the calculated viability and therapeutic window, from our device were validated by standard cell detection assays and imaging-based cytometer. In addition to those end-point detection methods, w-SCOPE further uncovered the time course of the cell’s response to the drug treatment over the whole period of drug exposure. PMID:26681552

  20. Compact Wireless Microscope for In-Situ Time Course Study of Large Scale Cell Dynamics within an Incubator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Di; Wong, Dennis; Li, Junxiang; Luo, Zhang; Guo, Yiran; Liu, Bifeng; Wu, Qiong; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Imaging of live cells in a region of interest is essential to life science research. Unlike the traditional way that mounts CO2 incubator onto a bulky microscope for observation, here we propose a wireless microscope (termed w-SCOPE) that is based on the “microscope-in-incubator” concept and can be easily housed into a standard CO2 incubator for prolonged on-site observation of the cells. The w-SCOPE is capable of tunable magnification, remote control and wireless image transmission. At the same time, it is compact, measuring only ~10 cm in each dimension, and cost-effective. With the enhancement of compressive sensing computation, the acquired images can achieve a wide field of view (FOV) of ~113 mm2 as well as a cellular resolution of ~3 μm, which enables various forms of follow-up image-based cell analysis. We performed 12 hours time-lapse study on paclitaxel-treated MCF-7 and HEK293T cell lines using w-SCOPE. The analytic results, such as the calculated viability and therapeutic window, from our device were validated by standard cell detection assays and imaging-based cytometer. In addition to those end-point detection methods, w-SCOPE further uncovered the time course of the cell’s response to the drug treatment over the whole period of drug exposure.

  1. A novel, rapid and efficient method of cloning functional antigen-specific T-cell receptors from single human and mouse T-cells.

    PubMed

    Hamana, Hiroshi; Shitaoka, Kiyomi; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Muraguchi, Atsushi

    2016-06-10

    T-cell receptor (TCR) gene therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancers. However, the paired cloning and functional assays of antigen-specific TCRα and TCRβ is time-consuming and laborious. In this study, we developed a novel, rapid and efficient antigen-specific TCR-cloning system by combining three technologies: multiplex one-step RT-PCR, transcriptionally active PCR (TAP) and luciferase reporter assays. Multiplex one-step RT-PCR with leader primers designed from leader peptide sequences of TCRs enabled us to amplify cDNAs of TCRα and β pairs from single T-cells with remarkably high efficiency. The combination of TAP fragments and HEK293T-based NFAT-luciferase reporter cells allowed for a rapid functional assay without the need to construct expression vectors. Using this system, we cloned human TCRs specific for Epstein-Barr virus BRLF-1-derived peptide as well as mouse TCRs specific for melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2) within four days. These results suggest that our system provides rapid and efficient cloning of functional antigen-specific human and mouse TCRs and contributes to TCR-based immunotherapy for cancers and infectious diseases. PMID:27155153

  2. Effects of tet-induced oxidation products of 5-methylcytosine on DNA replication in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Debin; You, Changjun; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-07-21

    Recently 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmdC), 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5fdC), and 5-carboxyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5cadC) were discovered in mammalian DNA as oxidation products of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) induced by the ten-eleven translocation family of enzymes. These oxidized derivatives of 5mdC may not only act as intermediates of active cytosine demethylation in mammals but also serve as epigenetic marks on their own. It remains unclear how 5hmdC, 5fdC, and 5cadC affect DNA replication in mammalian cells. Here, we examined the effects of the three modified nucleosides on the efficiency and accuracy of DNA replication in HEK293T human kidney epithelial cells. Our results demonstrated that a single, site-specifically incorporated 5fdC or 5cadC conferred modest drops, by approximately 30%, in replication bypass efficiency without inducing detectable mutations in human cells, whereas replicative bypass of 5hmdC is both accurate and efficient. The lack of pronounced perturbation of these oxidized 5mdC derivatives on DNA replication is consistent with their roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. PMID:24979327

  3. A Tumor-specific MicroRNA Recognition System Facilitates the Accurate Targeting to Tumor Cells by Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingting; Yao, Yi; Yan, Hao; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Zhenming; Sun, Xiaodan; Zhao, Lingyun; Ao, Xiang; Xie, Zhen; Wu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapy for cancer is a research area of great interest, and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) show great potential as targeted carriers for therapeutics. One important class of cancer biomarkers is microRNAs (miRNAs), which play a significant role in tumor initiation and progression. In this study, a cascade recognition system containing multiple plasmids, including a Tet activator, a lacI repressor gene driven by the TetOn promoter, and a reporter gene repressed by the lacI repressor and influenced by multiple endogenous miRNAs, was used to recognize cells that display miRNA signals that are characteristic of cancer. For this purpose, three types of signal miRNAs with high proliferation and metastasis abilities were chosen (miR-21, miR-145, and miR-9). The response of this system to the human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line was 3.2-fold higher than that to the human breast epithelial HBL100 cell line and almost 7.5-fold higher than that to human embryonic kidney HEK293T cells. In combination with polyethyleneimine-modified MNPs, this recognition system targeted the tumor location in situ in an animal model, and an ~42% repression of tumor growth was achieved. Our study provides a new combination of magnetic nanocarrier and gene therapy based on miRNAs that are active in vivo, which has potential for use in future cancer therapies. PMID:27138178

  4. A Targetable Fluorescent Sensor Reveals that Copper-Deficient SCO1 and SCO2 Patient Cells Prioritize Mitochondrial Copper Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Dodani, Sheel C.; Leary, Scot C.; Cobine, Paul A.; Winge, Dennis R.; Chang, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the design, synthesis, spectroscopy, and biological applications of Mitochondrial Coppersensor-1 (Mito-CS1), a new type of targetable fluorescent sensor for imaging exchangeable mitochondrial copper pools in living cells. Mito-CS1 is a bifunctional reporter that combines a Cu+-responsive fluorescent platform with a mitochondrial-targeting triphenylphosphonium moiety for localizing the probe to this organelle. Molecular imaging with Mito-CS1 establishes that this new chemical tool can detect changes in labile mitochondrial Cu+ in a model HEK 293T cell line as well as in human fibroblasts. Moreover, we utilized Mito-CS1 in a combined imaging and biochemical study in fibroblasts derived from patients with mutations in the two synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 and 2 proteins (SCO1 and SCO2), each of which is required for assembly and metallation of functionally active cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Interestingly, we observe that although defects in these mitochondrial metallochaperones lead to a global copper deficiency at the whole cell level, total copper and exchangeable mitochondrial Cu+ pools in SCO1 and SCO2 patient fibroblasts are largely unaltered relative to wildtype controls. Our findings reveal that the cell maintains copper homeostasis in mitochondria even in situations of copper deficiency and mitochondrial metallochaperone malfunction, illustrating the importance of regulating copper stores in this energy-producing organelle. PMID:21563821

  5. Systematic quantification of HDR and NHEJ reveals effects of locus, nuclease, and cell type on genome-editing

    PubMed Central

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Berman, Jennifer R.; Cooper, Samantha B.; Mayerl, Steven J.; Chan, Amanda H.; Zhang, Bin; Karlin-Neumann, George A.; Conklin, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    Precise genome-editing relies on the repair of sequence-specific nuclease-induced DNA nicking or double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homology-directed repair (HDR). However, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), an error-prone repair, acts concurrently, reducing the rate of high-fidelity edits. The identification of genome-editing conditions that favor HDR over NHEJ has been hindered by the lack of a simple method to measure HDR and NHEJ directly and simultaneously at endogenous loci. To overcome this challenge, we developed a novel, rapid, digital PCR–based assay that can simultaneously detect one HDR or NHEJ event out of 1,000 copies of the genome. Using this assay, we systematically monitored genome-editing outcomes of CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), Cas9 nickases, catalytically dead Cas9 fused to FokI, and transcription activator–like effector nuclease at three disease-associated endogenous gene loci in HEK293T cells, HeLa cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cells. Although it is widely thought that NHEJ generally occurs more often than HDR, we found that more HDR than NHEJ was induced under multiple conditions. Surprisingly, the HDR/NHEJ ratios were highly dependent on gene locus, nuclease platform, and cell type. The new assay system, and our findings based on it, will enable mechanistic studies of genome-editing and help improve genome-editing technology. PMID:27030102

  6. Measuring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate level in living cells induced by low-level laser irradiation using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yimei; Zheng, Liqin; Yang, Hongqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-05-01

    Several studies demonstrated that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an important second messenger, is involved in the mechanism of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) treatment. However, most of these studies obtained the cAMP level in cell culture extracts or supernatant. In this study, the cAMP level in living cells was measured with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The effect of LLLI on cAMP level in living cells with adenosine receptors blocked was explored to identify the role of adenosine receptors in LLLI. The results showed that LLLI increased the cAMP level. Moreover, the rise of cAMP level was light dose dependent but wavelength independent for 658-, 785-, and 830-nm laser light. The results also exhibited that the adenosine receptors, a class of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), modulated the increase of cAMP level induced by LLLI. The cAMP level increased more significantly when the A3 adenosine receptors (A3R) were blocked by A3R antagonist compared with A1 adenosine receptor or A2a adenosine receptor blocked in HEK293T cells after LLLI, which was in good agreement with the adenosine receptors’ expressions. All these results suggested that measuring the cAMP level with BRET could be a useful technique to study the role of GPCRs in living cells under LLLI. PMID:25611980

  7. RD2-MolPack-Chim3, a Packaging Cell Line for Stable Production of Lentiviral Vectors for Anti-HIV Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stornaiuolo, Anna; Piovani, Bianca Maria; Bossi, Sergio; Zucchelli, Eleonora; Corna, Stefano; Salvatori, Francesca; Mavilio, Fulvio; Bordignon, Claudio; Rizzardi, Gian Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over the last two decades, several attempts to generate packaging cells for lentiviral vectors (LV) have been made. Despite different technologies, no packaging clone is currently employed in clinical trials. We developed a new strategy for LV stable production based on the HEK-293T progenitor cells; the sequential insertion of the viral genes by integrating vectors; the constitutive expression of the viral components; and the RD114-TR envelope pseudotyping. We generated the intermediate clone PK-7 expressing constitutively gag/pol and rev genes and, by adding tat and rd114-tr genes, the stable packaging cell line RD2-MolPack, which can produce LV carrying any transfer vector (TV). Finally, we obtained the RD2-MolPack-Chim3 producer clone by transducing RD2-MolPack cells with the TV expressing the anti-HIV transgene Chim3. Remarkably, RD114-TR pseudovirions have much higher potency when produced by stable compared with transient technology. Most importantly, comparable transduction efficiency in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is obtained with 2-logs less physical particles respect to VSV-G pseudovirions produced by transient transfection. Altogether, RD2-MolPack technology should be considered a valid option for large-scale production of LV to be used in gene therapy protocols employing HSC, resulting in the possibility of downsizing the manufacturing scale by about 10-fold in respect to transient technology. PMID:23767932

  8. Measuring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate level in living cells induced by low-level laser irradiation using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yimei; Zheng, Liqin; Yang, Hongqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-05-01

    Several studies demonstrated that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an important second messenger, is involved in the mechanism of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) treatment. However, most of these studies obtained the cAMP level in cell culture extracts or supernatant. In this study, the cAMP level in living cells was measured with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The effect of LLLI on cAMP level in living cells with adenosine receptors blocked was explored to identify the role of adenosine receptors in LLLI. The results showed that LLLI increased the cAMP level. Moreover, the rise of cAMP level was light dose dependent but wavelength independent for 658-, 785-, and 830-nm laser light. The results also exhibited that the adenosine receptors, a class of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), modulated the increase of cAMP level induced by LLLI. The cAMP level increased more significantly when the A3 adenosine receptors (A3R) were blocked by A3R antagonist compared with A1 adenosine receptor or A2a adenosine receptor blocked in HEK293T cells after LLLI, which was in good agreement with the adenosine receptors' expressions. All these results suggested that measuring the cAMP level with BRET could be a useful technique to study the role of GPCRs in living cells under LLLI.

  9. A Mammalian Cell Based FACS-Panning Platform for the Selection of HIV-1 Envelopes for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Bruun, Tim-Henrik; Mühlbauer, Katharina; Benen, Thomas; Kliche, Alexander; Wagner, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnMAb) against the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein has been discovered recently. Despite this progress, vaccination efforts with the aim to re-elicit bnMAbs that provide protective immunity have failed so far. Herein, we describe the development of a mammalian cell based FACS-panning method in which bnMAbs are used as tools to select surface-exposed envelope variants according to their binding affinity. For that purpose, an HIV-1 derived lentiviral vector was developed to infect HEK293T cells at low multiplicity of infection (MOI) in order to link Env phenotype and genotype. For proof of principle, a gp145 Env model-library was established in which the complete V3 domain was substituted by five strain specific V3 loop sequences with known binding affinities to nMAb 447-52D, respectively. Env genes were recovered from selected cells by PCR, subcloned into a lentiviral vector (i) to determine and quantify the enrichment nMAb binders and (ii) to generate a new batch of transduction competent particles. After 2 selection cycles the Env variant with highest affinity was enriched 20-fold and represented 80% of the remaining Env population. Exploiting the recently described bnMAbs, this procedure might prove useful in selecting Env proteins from large Env libraries with the potential to elicit bnMAbs when used as vaccine candidates. PMID:25279768

  10. Activation of myeloid dendritic cells by deoxynucleic acids from Cordyceps sinensis via a Toll-like receptor 9-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Miyazato, Akiko; Abe, Yuzuru; Zhang, Tiantuo; Nakamura, Kiwamu; Inden, Ken; Tanaka, Misuzu; Tanno, Daiki; Miyasaka, Tomomitsu; Ishii, Keiko; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito; Yamamoto, Natsuo; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism by which host cells recognize Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese herbal medicine that is known to exhibit immunomodulating activity, remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether the DNA of this fungus could activate mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs). Upon stimulation with C. sinensis DNA, BM-DCs released IL-12p40 and TNF-alpha and expressed CD40. Cytokine production and CD40 expression were attenuated by chloroquin and bafilomycin A. Activation of BM-DCs by C. sinensis DNA was almost completely abrogated in TLR9KO mice. According to a luciferase reporter assay, C. sinensis DNA activated NF-kappaB in HEK293T cells transfected with the TLR9 gene. Finally, a confocal microscopic analysis showed that C. sinensis DNA was co-localized with CpG-ODN and partly with TLR9 and LAMP-1, a late endosomal marker, in BM-DCs. Our results demonstrated that C. sinensis DNA caused activation of BM-DCs in a TLR9-dependent manner. PMID:20451901

  11. Retroviruses Pseudotyped with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein Efficiently Infect Cells Expressing Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael J.; Dorfman, Tatyana; Li, Wenhui; Wong, Swee Kee; Li, Yanhan; Kuhn, Jens H.; Coderre, James; Vasilieva, Natalya; Han, Zhongchao; Greenough, Thomas C.; Farzan, Michael; Choe, Hyeryun

    2004-01-01

    Infection of receptor-bearing cells by coronaviruses is mediated by their spike (S) proteins. The coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infects cells expressing the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here we show that codon optimization of the SARS-CoV S-protein gene substantially enhanced S-protein expression. We also found that two retroviruses, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and murine leukemia virus, both expressing green fluorescent protein and pseudotyped with SARS-CoV S protein or S-protein variants, efficiently infected HEK293T cells stably expressing ACE2. Infection mediated by an S-protein variant whose cytoplasmic domain had been truncated and altered to include a fragment of the cytoplasmic tail of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein was, in both cases, substantially more efficient than that mediated by wild-type S protein. Using S-protein-pseudotyped SIV, we found that the enzymatic activity of ACE2 made no contribution to S-protein-mediated infection. Finally, we show that a soluble and catalytically inactive form of ACE2 potently blocked infection by S-protein-pseudotyped retrovirus and by SARS-CoV. These results permit studies of SARS-CoV entry inhibitors without the use of live virus and suggest a candidate therapy for SARS. PMID:15367630

  12. Agonist-dependent modulation of cell surface expression of the cold receptor TRPM8.

    PubMed

    Toro, Carlos A; Eger, Stephanie; Veliz, Luis; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Pamela; Cabezas, Deny; Castro, Maite A; Zimmermann, Katharina; Brauchi, Sebastian

    2015-01-14

    The spatial and temporal distribution of receptors constitutes an important mechanism for controlling the magnitude of cellular responses. Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family can regulate their function by modulating their expression at the plasma membrane (PM) through rapid vesicular translocation and fusion. The mechanisms underlying this regulation are not completely understood, and the contribution of vesicular trafficking to physiological function is unknown. TRPM8 receptors are expressed in mammalian peripheral sensory neurons and are essential for the detection of cold temperatures. Previously, we showed that TRPM8-containing vesicles are segregated into three main pools, immobile at the PM, simple diffusive and corralled-hopping. Here, we show that channel expression at the PM is modulated by TRPM8 agonists in F11 and HEK293T cells. Our results support a model in which the activation of TRPM8 channels, located at the PM, induces a short-lived recruitment of a TRPM8-containing vesicular pool to the cell surface causing a transitory increase in the number of functional channels, affecting intrinsic properties of cold receptor responses. We further demonstrate the requirement of intact vesicular trafficking to support sustained cold responses in the skin of mice. PMID:25589752

  13. A Fluorogenic Aryl Fluorosulfate for Intraorganellar Transthyretin Imaging in Living Cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Baranczak, Aleksandra; Liu, Yu; Connelly, Stephen; Du, Wen-Ge Han; Greiner, Erin R.; Genereux, Joseph C.; Wiseman, R. Luke; Eisele, Yvonne S.; Bradbury, Nadine C.; Dong, Jiajia; Noodleman, Louis; Sharpless, K. Barry; Wilson, Ian A.; Encalada, Sandra E.; Kelly, Jeffery W.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorogenic probes, due to their often greater spatial and temporal sensitivity in comparison to permanently fluorescent small molecules, represent powerful tools to study protein localization and function in the context of living systems. Herein, we report fluorogenic probe 4, a 1,3,4-oxadiazole designed to bind selectively to transthyretin (TTR). Probe 4 comprises a fluorosulfate group not previously used in an environment-sensitive fluorophore. The fluorosulfate functional group does not react covalently with TTR on the timescale required for cellular imaging, but does red shift the emission maximum of probe 4 in comparison to its non-fluorosulfated analog. We demonstrate that probe 4 is dark in aqueous buffers, whereas the TTR•4 complex exhibits a fluorescence emission maximum at 481 nm. The addition of probe 4 to living HEK293T cells allows efficient binding to and imaging of exogenous TTR within intracellular organelles, including the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, live Caenorhabditis elegans expressing human TTR transgenically and treated with probe 4 display TTR•4 fluorescence in macrophage-like coelomocytes. An analog of fluorosulfate probe 4 does react selectively with TTR without labeling the remainder of the cellular proteome. Studies on this analog suggest that certain aryl fluorosulfates, due to their cell and organelle permeability and activatable reactivity, could be considered for the development of protein-selective covalent probes. PMID:26051248

  14. Identification of small-molecule agonists of human relaxin family receptor 1 (RXFP1) by using a homogenous cell-based cAMP assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Catherine Z; Southall, Noel; Xiao, Jingbo; Marugan, Juan J; Ferrer, Marc; Hu, Xin; Jones, Raisa E; Feng, Shu; Agoulnik, Irina U; Zheng, Wei; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2013-07-01

    The relaxin hormone is involved in a variety of biological functions, including female reproduction and parturition, as well as regulation of cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, and hepatic functions. It regulates extracellular matrix remodeling, cell invasiveness, proliferation, differentiation, and overall tissue homeostasis. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) relaxin family receptor 1 (RXFP1) is a cognate relaxin receptor that mainly signals through cyclic AMP second messenger. Although agonists of the receptor could have a wide range of pharmacologic utility, until now there have been no reported small-molecule agonists for relaxin receptors. Here, we report the development of a quantitative high-throughput platform for an RXFP1 agonist screen based on homogenous cell-based HTRF cyclic AMP (cAMP) assay technology. Two small molecules of similar structure were independently identified from a screen of more than 365 677 compounds. Neither compound showed activity in a counterscreen with HEK293T cells transfected with an unrelated GPCR vasopressin 1b receptor. These small-molecule agonists also demonstrated selectivity against the RXFP2 receptor, providing a basis for future medicinal chemistry optimization of selective relaxin receptor agonists. PMID:23212924

  15. Optogenetic manipulation of cGMP in cells and animals by the tightly light-regulated guanylyl-cyclase opsin CyclOp

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shiqiang; Nagpal, Jatin; Schneider, Martin W.; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Nagel, Georg; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP) signalling regulates multiple biological functions through activation of protein kinase G and cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. In sensory neurons, cGMP permits signal modulation, amplification and encoding, before depolarization. Here we implement a guanylyl cyclase rhodopsin from Blastocladiella emersonii as a new optogenetic tool (BeCyclOp), enabling rapid light-triggered cGMP increase in heterologous cells (Xenopus oocytes, HEK293T cells) and in Caenorhabditis elegans. Among five different fungal CyclOps, exhibiting unusual eight transmembrane topologies and cytosolic N-termini, BeCyclOp is the superior optogenetic tool (light/dark activity ratio: 5,000; no cAMP production; turnover (20 °C) ∼17 cGMP s−1). Via co-expressed CNG channels (OLF in oocytes, TAX-2/4 in C. elegans muscle), BeCyclOp photoactivation induces a rapid conductance increase and depolarization at very low light intensities. In O2/CO2 sensory neurons of C. elegans, BeCyclOp activation evokes behavioural responses consistent with their normal sensory function. BeCyclOp therefore enables precise and rapid optogenetic manipulation of cGMP levels in cells and animals. PMID:26345128

  16. Identification of small molecule agonists of human relaxin family receptor 1 (RXFP1) by utilizing a homogenous cell-based cAMP assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Catherine Z.; Southall, Noel; Xiao, Jingbo; Marugan, Juan J.; Ferrer, Marc; Hu, Xin; Jones, Raisa E.; Feng, Shu; Agoulnik, Irina U.

    2016-01-01

    The relaxin hormone is involved in a variety of biological functions including female reproduction and parturition, regulation of cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, and hepatic functions. It regulates extracellular matrix remodeling, cell invasiveness, proliferation, differentiation, and overall tissue homeostasis. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) RXFP1, relaxin family receptor 1, is a cognate relaxin receptor that mainly signals through cyclic AMP second messenger. While agonists of the receptor could have a wide range of pharmacological utility, up to date, there are no reported small molecule agonists for relaxin receptors. Here, we report the development of quantitative high-throughput platform for RXFP1 agonist screen based on homogenous cell-based HTRF cAMP assay technology. Two small molecules of similar structure were independently identified from a screen of more than 365,677 compounds. Neither compound showed activity in a counter screen with HEK293T cells transfected with an unrelated GPCR vasopressin 1b receptor. These small molecule agonists also demonstrated selectivity against the RXFP2 receptor, providing a basis for future medicinal chemistry optimization of selective relaxin receptor agonists. PMID:23212924

  17. Optogenetic manipulation of cGMP in cells and animals by the tightly light-regulated guanylyl-cyclase opsin CyclOp.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiqiang; Nagpal, Jatin; Schneider, Martin W; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Nagel, Georg; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP) signalling regulates multiple biological functions through activation of protein kinase G and cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. In sensory neurons, cGMP permits signal modulation, amplification and encoding, before depolarization. Here we implement a guanylyl cyclase rhodopsin from Blastocladiella emersonii as a new optogenetic tool (BeCyclOp), enabling rapid light-triggered cGMP increase in heterologous cells (Xenopus oocytes, HEK293T cells) and in Caenorhabditis elegans. Among five different fungal CyclOps, exhibiting unusual eight transmembrane topologies and cytosolic N-termini, BeCyclOp is the superior optogenetic tool (light/dark activity ratio: 5,000; no cAMP production; turnover (20 °C) ∼17 cGMP s(-1)). Via co-expressed CNG channels (OLF in oocytes, TAX-2/4 in C. elegans muscle), BeCyclOp photoactivation induces a rapid conductance increase and depolarization at very low light intensities. In O2/CO2 sensory neurons of C. elegans, BeCyclOp activation evokes behavioural responses consistent with their normal sensory function. BeCyclOp therefore enables precise and rapid optogenetic manipulation of cGMP levels in cells and animals. PMID:26345128

  18. Insight into the role of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) conjugation onto poly(ethylenimine): cell viability and gene transfection studies.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Alireza; Castro, Rita; Kairys, Visvaldas; Santos, José L; Rodrigues, João; Li, Yulin; Tomás, Helena

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) conjugation onto branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) with different grafting degree was examined for gene delivery applications. The DMAEMA-grafted-PEI conjugates were characterized and complexed with plasmid DNA (pDNA) at various concentrations, and the physicochemical properties, cell viability, and in vitro transfection efficiency of the complexes were evaluated in HEK 293T cells. Computational techniques were used to analyze the interaction energies and possible binding modes between DNA and conjugates at different grafting degrees. The cytotoxicity analysis and in vitro transfection efficiency of the conjugate/pDNA complexes exhibited a beneficial effect of DMAEMA conjugation when compared to PEI alone. The computational results revealed that the DNA/vector interaction energy decreases with increasing grafting degree, which can be associated to an enhanced release of the pDNA from the carrier once inside cells. The results indicate the significance of DMAEMA conjugation onto PEI as a promising approach for gene delivery applications. PMID:22945382

  19. Rational plasmid design and bioprocess optimization to enhance recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) productivity in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Emmerling, Verena V; Pegel, Antje; Milian, Ernest G; Venereo-Sanchez, Alina; Kunz, Marion; Wegele, Jessica; Kamen, Amine A; Kochanek, Stefan; Hoerer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Viral vectors used for gene and oncolytic therapy belong to the most promising biological products for future therapeutics. Clinical success of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) based therapies raises considerable demand for viral vectors, which cannot be met by current manufacturing strategies. Addressing existing bottlenecks, we improved a plasmid system termed rep/cap split packaging and designed a minimal plasmid encoding adenoviral helper function. Plasmid modifications led to a 12-fold increase in rAAV vector titers compared to the widely used pDG standard system. Evaluation of different production approaches revealed superiority of processes based on anchorage- and serum-dependent HEK293T cells, exhibiting about 15-fold higher specific and volumetric productivity compared to well-established suspension cells cultivated in serum-free medium. As for most other viral vectors, classical stirred-tank bioreactor production is thus still not capable of providing drug product of sufficient amount. We show that manufacturing strategies employing classical surface-providing culture systems can be successfully transferred to the new fully-controlled, single-use bioreactor system Integrity(TM) iCELLis(TM) . In summary, we demonstrate substantial bioprocess optimizations leading to more efficient and scalable production processes suggesting a promising way for flexible large-scale rAAV manufacturing. PMID:26284700

  20. Protein vaccination with HPV16 E7/Pep-1 nanoparticles elicits a protective T-helper cell-mediated immune response.

    PubMed

    Mardani, Golnaz; Bolhassani, Azam; Agi, Elnaz; Shahbazi, Sepideh; Mehdi Sadat, Seyed

    2016-06-01

    Two human papillomavirus (HPV) viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7 represent ideal targets for development of a therapeutic HPV vaccine. It is important to reduce the rate of HPV-associated malignancies through improvement of vaccine modalities. In this study, we used a short amphipathic peptide carrier, Pep-1, for delivery of the full-length HPV16 E7 protein into mammalian cells and evaluated immune responses and protective effects of different formulations in C57BL/6 tumor mice model. Our results showed that the complexes of E7/Pep-1 protein form stable nanoparticles through noncovalent binding with an average size of 120 to 250 nm. The efficient delivery of E7 protein by Pep-1 at molar ratio of 1:20 was detected in HEK-293T cell line for 1 h and 3 h post-transfection. Immunization with E7/Pep-1 nanoparticles at a ratio of 1:20 induced a higher Th1 cellular immune response with the predominant IgG2a and IFN-γ levels than those induced by E7 protein in a murine tumor model. These data suggest that Pep-1 peptide would indicate promising applications for improvement of HPV therapeutic vaccines. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):459-467, 2016. PMID:27094221

  1. Observation of "wired" cell communication over 10-μm and 20-μm poly(dimethylsiloxane) barriers in tetracycline inducible expression systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ching-Te; Chi, Cheng-Yu; Wu, Pei-Yi; Chuang, Fang-Tzu; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Liu, Hao-Kai; Huang, Guan-Syuan; Tsai, Tzu-Ching; Wo, Andrew M.; Lee, Hsinyu; Lee, Si-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Communication between cells and extracellular environments is of interest because of its critical roles in cell development and differentiation. Particularly, this signal transduction is commonly believed to rely on the contact and binding of the participating molecules/proteins, suggesting that the binding distance needed is less than a few nanometers. However, it is difficult to precisely match the rapidly binding interaction which depends on the probability of molecular collision in living systems, raising a hypothesis that another mechanism exists, could promote this signal communication, and remains unknown. Here we report that a long-range signal delivery over 10-μm and 20-μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) barriers can be observed in microfluidically tetracycline (Tet) inducible expression systems. Results show that a significant increment of the long-range induced green fluorescent protein in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK 293T) cells by the stimulation of Tet is demonstrated, and that such a signal induction is not dominated by Tet diffusion and displays a specific bindingless property. In addition, our experimental results, combined with theoretical modeling, suggest that this communication exhibits a bump-shaped characteristic depending on barrier thickness, materially structural property, surface roughness, and agonist concentration. It strongly relies on the PDMS barrier to delivery signal; therefore, we call such a mechanism as "wired" cell communication instead of wireless. These results could ignite interests in the novel and "wired" cell communication, which we call it X-signal, and in the use of such systems for the study of cellular biology and development of new drug.

  2. Modulation of water efflux through functional interaction between TRPV4 and TMEM16A/anoctamin 1.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yasunori; Shibasaki, Koji; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tominaga, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a calcium-permeable channel, is highly expressed in the apical membrane of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) in the brain. The function of TRPV4 is unknown. Here, we show physical and functional interaction between TRPV4 and anoctamin 1 (ANO1) in HEK293T cells and CPECs. Chloride currents induced by a TRPV4 activator (GSK1016790A) were markedly increased in an extracellular calcium-dependent manner in HEK293T cells expressing TRPV4 with ANO1, but not with ANO4, ANO6, or ANO10, the mRNAs of which were expressed in the choroid plexus. We also found physical interaction between TRPV4 and ANO1 in both HEK293T cells and choroid plexus. We observed that ANO1 was activated at a warm temperature (37°C) in HEK293T cells and that the heat-evoked chloride currents were markedly enhanced after GSK1016790A application in CPECs. Simultaneous stimulation by warmth and hyposmosis induced chloride current activation in wild-type, but not in TRPV4-deficient, CPECs. Cell volume changes were induced by ANO1-mediated chloride currents in parallel with membrane potential changes, and the cell volume was significantly decreased at negative membrane potentials by TRPV4-induced ANO1 activation. Thus, physical and functional interactions between TRPV4 and ANO1 can modulate water transport in the choroid plexus. PMID:24509911

  3. Wnt signalling pathway parameters for mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chin Wee; Gardiner, Bruce S; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Layton, Meredith J; Smith, David W; Burgess, Antony W

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling regulates cell fate, survival, proliferation and differentiation at many stages of mammalian development and pathology. Mutations of two key proteins in the pathway, APC and β-catenin, have been implicated in a range of cancers, including colorectal cancer. Activation of Wnt signalling has been associated with the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and consequential up-regulation of β-catenin/TCF gene transcription. In 2003, Lee et al. constructed a computational model of Wnt signalling supported by experimental data from analysis of time-dependent concentration of Wnt signalling proteins in Xenopus egg extracts. Subsequent studies have used the Xenopus quantitative data to infer Wnt pathway dynamics in other systems. As a basis for understanding Wnt signalling in mammalian cells, a confocal live cell imaging measurement technique is developed to measure the cell and nuclear volumes of MDCK, HEK293T cells and 3 human colorectal cancer cell lines and the concentrations of Wnt signalling proteins β-catenin, Axin, APC, GSK3β and E-cadherin. These parameters provide the basis for formulating Wnt signalling models for kidney/intestinal epithelial mammalian cells. There are significant differences in concentrations of key proteins between Xenopus extracts and mammalian whole cell lysates. Higher concentrations of Axin and lower concentrations of APC are present in mammalian cells. Axin concentrations are greater than APC in kidney epithelial cells, whereas in intestinal epithelial cells the APC concentration is higher than Axin. Computational simulations based on Lee's model, with this new data, suggest a need for a recalibration of the model.A quantitative understanding of Wnt signalling in mammalian cells, in particular human colorectal cancers requires a detailed understanding of the concentrations of key protein complexes over time. Simulations of Wnt signalling in mammalian cells can be initiated with the parameters

  4. Effect of surface potential on epithelial cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Yun; Kao, Wei-Lun; You, Yun-Wen; Chu, Yi-Hsuan; Chu, Kuo-Jui; Chen, Peng-Jen; Wu, Chen-Yi; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2016-05-01

    Cell adhesion is the basis of individual cell survival, division and motility. Hence, understanding the effects that the surface properties have on cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology are crucial. In particular, surface charge/potential has been identified as an important factor that affects cell behavior. However, how cells respond to incremental changes in surface potential remains unclear. By using binary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified Au surfaces that are similar in mechanical/chemical properties and provide a series of surface potentials, the effect of surface potential on the behavior of cells can be studied. In this work, the effect of surface potential on epithelial cells, including human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), were examined. The results showed that the adhesion density of epithelial cells increased with increasing surface potential, which is similar to but varied more significantly compared with fibroblasts. The proliferation rate is found to be independent of surface potential in both cell types. Furthermore, epithelial cells show no morphological change with respect to surface potential, whereas the morphology of the fibroblasts clearly changed with the surface potential. These differences between the cell types were rationalized by considering the difference in extracellular matrix composition. Laminin-dominant epithelial cells showed higher adhesion density and less morphological change than did fibronectin-dominant fibroblasts because the more significant adsorption of positively charged laminin on the surface enhanced the adhesion of epithelial cells. In contrast, due to the dominance of negatively charged fibronectin that adsorbed weakly on the surface, fibroblasts had to change their morphology to fit the inhomogeneous fibronectin-adsorbed area. PMID:26852101

  5. Anthraquinone emodin inhibits human cancer cell invasiveness by antagonizing P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Jelassi, Bilel; Anchelin, Monique; Chamouton, Julie; Cayuela, María Luisa; Clarysse, Lucie; Li, Junying; Goré, Jacques; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Roger, Sébastien

    2013-07-01

    The adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-gated Ca(2+)-permeable channel P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is strongly upregulated in many tumors and cancer cells, and has an important role in cancer cell invasion associated with metastases. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is an anthraquinone derivative originally isolated from Rheum officinale Baill known for decades to possess anticancer properties. In this study, we examined the effects of emodin on P2X7R-dependent Ca(2+) signaling, extracellular matrix degradation, and in vitro and in vivo cancer cell invasiveness using highly aggressive human cancer cells. Inclusion of emodin at doses ≤10 µM in cell culture had no or very mild effect on the cell viability. ATP elicited increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were reduced by 35 and 60% by 1 and 10 µM emodin, respectively. Emodin specifically inhibited P2X7R-mediated currents with an IC50 of 3 µM and did not inhibit the currents mediated by the other human P2X receptors heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. ATP-induced increase in gelatinolytic activity, in cancer cell invasiveness in vitro and in cell morphology changes were prevented by 1 µM emodin. Furthermore, such ATP-evoked effects and inhibition by emodin were almost completely ablated in cancer cells transfected with P2X7R-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) but not with scrambled siRNA. Finally, the in vivo invasiveness of the P2X7R-positive MDA-MB-435s breast cancer cells, assessed using a zebrafish model of micrometastases, was suppressed by 40 and 50% by 1 and 10 µM emodin. Taken together, these results provide consistent evidence to indicate that emodin inhibits human cancer cell invasiveness by specifically antagonizing the P2X7R. PMID:23524196

  6. In vitro study of cell death with 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy to improve the efficiency of cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.; Ikram, M.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a kind of photochemo therapeutic treatment that exerts its effect mainly through the induction of cell death. Distinct types of cell death may be elicited by different PDT regimes. In this study, efforts are underway to optimize PDT protocols for improved efficacy and combination of all three PDT mechanisms involved in the different human carcinomas cell narcosis. Our in vitro cell culture experiments with 5-aminolevulanic acid (ALA) a clinically approved photiosensitizer (PS) and 635 nm laser light have yielded promising results, as follow: (1) (human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line incubated, for 18 h, with 30 μg/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 50 J/cm2 can produce 85% of cell killing (2) human larynx carcinoma (Hep2c) cell line incubated, for 7 h, with 55 μg/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 85 J/cm2 can produce 75% of cell killing (3) human liver cancer (HepG2) cell line incubated, for 22-48 h, with 262 μg/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 120 J/cm2 can produce 95% of cell killing (4) human muscle cancer (RD) cell line incubated, for 47 h, with 250 μg/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 80 J/cm2 can produce 76% of cell killing (5) Human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cell line incu-bated, for 18 h, with 400 μg/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 40 J/cm2 can produce 82% of cell killing confirming the efficacy of photodynamic therapy.

  7. Early Growth Response 4 Is Involved in Cell Proliferation of Small Cell Lung Cancer through Transcriptional Activation of Its Downstream Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimaru, Tetsuro; Daizumoto, Kei; Sone, Saburo; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Katagiri, Toyomasa

    2014-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is aggressive, with rapid growth and frequent bone metastasis; however, its detailed molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the critical role of early growth factor 4 (EGR4), a DNA-binding, zinc-finger transcription factor, in cell proliferation of SCLC. EGR4 overexpression in HEK293T cells conferred significant upregulation of specific splice variants of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) gene, resulting in enhancement of the secretion of PTHrP protein, a known mediator of osteolytic bone metastasis. More importantly, depletion of EGR4 expression by siRNA significantly suppressed growth of the SCLC cell lines, SBC-5, SBC-3 and NCI-H1048. On the other hand, introduction of EGR4 into NIH3T3 cells significantly enhanced cell growth. We identified four EGR4 target genes, SAMD5, RAB15, SYNPO and DLX5, which were the most significantly downregulated genes upon depletion of EGR4 expression in all of the SCLC cells examined, and demonstrated the direct recruitment of EGR4 to their promoters by ChIP and luciferase reporter analysis. Notably, knockdown of the expression of these genes by siRNA remarkably suppressed the growth of all the SCLC cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that EGR4 likely regulates the bone metastasis and proliferation of SCLC cells via transcriptional regulation of several target genes, and may therefore be a promising target for the development of anticancer drugs for SCLC patients. PMID:25411851

  8. Characterization of the replication timing program of 6 human model cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hadjadj, Djihad; Denecker, Thomas; Maric, Chrystelle; Fauchereau, Fabien; Baldacci, Giuseppe; Cadoret, Jean-Charles

    2016-09-01

    During the S-phase, the DNA replication process is finely orchestrated and regulated by two programs: the spatial program that determines where replication will start in the genome (Cadoret et al. (2008 Oct 14), Cayrou et al. (2011 Sep), Picard et al. (2014 May 1) [1], [2], [3]), and the temporal program that determines when during the S phase different parts of the genome are replicated and when origins are activated. The temporal program is so well conserved for each cell type from independent individuals [4] that it is possible to identify a cell type from an unknown sample just by determining its replication timing program. Moreover, replicative domains are strongly correlated with the partition of the genome into topological domains (determined by the Hi-C method, Lieberman-Aiden et al. (2009 Oct 9), Pope et al. (2014 Nov 20) [5], [6]). On the one hand, replicative areas are well defined and participate in shaping the spatial organization of the genome for a given cell type. On the other hand, studies on the timing program during cell differentiation showed a certain plasticity of this program according to the stage of cell differentiation Hiratani et al. (2008 Oct 7, 2010 Feb) [7], [8]. Domains where a replication timing change was observed went through a nuclear re-localization. Thus the temporal program of replication can be considered as an epigenetic mark Hiratani and Gilbert (2009 Feb 16) [9]. We present the genomic data of replication timing in 6 human model cell lines: U2OS (GSM2111308), RKO (GSM2111309), HEK 293T (GSM2111310), HeLa (GSM2111311), MRC5-SV (GSM2111312) and K562 (GSM2111313). A short comparative analysis was performed that allowed us to define regions common to the 6 cell lines. These replication timing data can be taken into account when performing studies that use these model cell lines. PMID:27508120

  9. Functional inhibition of aquaporin-3 with a gold-based compound induces blockage of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Serna, Ana; Galán-Cobo, Ana; Rodrigues, Claudia; Sánchez-Gomar, Ismael; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; Moura, Teresa F; Casini, Angela; Soveral, Graça; Echevarría, Miriam

    2014-11-01

    AQP3 has been correlated with higher transport of glycerol, increment of ATP content, and larger proliferation capacity. Recently, we described the gold(III) complex Auphen as a very selective and potent inhibitor of AQP3's glycerol permeability (Pgly ). Here we evaluated Auphen effect on the proliferation of various mammalian cell lines differing in AQP3 expression level: no expression (PC12), moderate (NIH/3T3) or high (A431) endogenous expression, cells stably expressing AQP3 (PC12-AQP3), and human HEK293T cells transiently transfected (HEK-AQP3) for AQP3 expression. Proliferation was evaluated in the absence or presence of Auphen (5 μM) by counting number of viable cells and analyzing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Auphen reduced ≈50% the proliferation in A431 and PC12-AQP3, ≈15% in HEK-AQP3 and had no effect in PC12-wt and NIH/3T3. Strong arrest in the S-G2/M phases of the cell cycle, supported by analysis of cyclins (A, B1, D1, E) levels, was observed in AQP3-expressing cells treated with Auphen. Flow-cytometry of propidium iodide incorporation and measurements of mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity confirmed absence of cytotoxic effect of the drug. Functional studies evidenced ≈50% inhibition of A431 Pgly by Auphen, showing that the compound's antiproliferative effect correlates with its ability to inhibit AQP3 Pgly . Role of Cys-40 on AQP3 permeability blockage by Auphen was confirmed by analyzing the mutated protein (AQP3-Ser-40). Accordingly, cells transfected with mutated AQP3 gained resistance to the antiproliferative effect of Auphen. These results highlight an Auphen inhibitory effect on proliferation of cells expressing AQP3 and suggest a targeted therapeutic effect on carcinomas with large AQP3 expression. PMID:24676973

  10. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of the Cell Surface N-Glycoproteome by Combining Metabolic Labeling and Click Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeekens, Johanna M.; Chen, Weixuan; Wu, Ronghu

    2015-04-01

    Cell surface N-glycoproteins play extraordinarily important roles in cell-cell communication, cell-matrix interactions, and cellular response to environmental cues. Global analysis is exceptionally challenging because many N-glycoproteins are present at low abundances and effective separation is difficult to achieve. Here, we have developed a novel strategy integrating metabolic labeling, copper-free click chemistry, and mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics methods to analyze cell surface N-glycoproteins comprehensively and site-specifically. A sugar analog containing an azido group, N-azidoacetylgalactosamine, was fed to cells to label glycoproteins. Glycoproteins with the functional group on the cell surface were then bound to dibenzocyclooctyne-sulfo-biotin via copper-free click chemistry under physiological conditions. After protein extraction and digestion, glycopeptides with the biotin tag were enriched by NeutrAvidin conjugated beads. Enriched glycopeptides were deglycosylated with peptide- N-glycosidase F in heavy-oxygen water, and in the process of glycan removal, asparagine was converted to aspartic acid and tagged with 18O for MS analysis. With this strategy, 144 unique N-glycopeptides containing 152 N-glycosylation sites were identified in 110 proteins in HEK293T cells. As expected, 95% of identified glycoproteins were membrane proteins, which were highly enriched. Many sites were located on important receptors, transporters, and cluster of differentiation proteins. The experimental results demonstrated that the current method is very effective for the comprehensive and site-specific identification of the cell surface N-glycoproteome and can be extensively applied to other cell surface protein studies.

  11. The use of surface immobilization of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 on mesenchymal stem cells to facilitate selectin mediated cell tethering and rolling

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chi Y.; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M.; Lee, Techung; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are an important candidate for cell-based therapy since they can be easily isolated and expanded, secrete beneficial paracrine factors, and differentiate into multiple lineages. Since the endothelium at sites of injury and inflammation often express adhesion molecules belonging to the selectin family, methods to endow MSCs with selectin-ligands can enhance the efficacy of cell delivery and tissue engraftment. Here, we describe a construct 19Fc[FUT7+], where the first 19 amino acids of the pan-selectin ligand PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1) was fused to a human IgG1. When expressed in HEK293T cells over-expressing the α(1,3)fucosyltransferase FUT7, 19Fc[FUT7+] is decorated by a core-2 sialyl Lewis-X sialofucosylated O-glycan. The non-covalent coupling of this protein onto MSC surface using palmitated protein G (PPG) enhanced cell binding to E- and P-selectin under hydrodynamic shear, without altering MSC multipotency. MSCs functionalized with 19Fc[FUT7+] were captured/tethered onto stimulated endothelial cell monolayers at wall shear stresses up to 4 dyn/cm2. Once captured, the cells rolled robustly up to the highest shear stress tested, 10 dyn/cm2. Unlike previous work where MSCs could only be captured onto selectin-bearing substrates at low or no-flow conditions, the current work presents a ‘glycan engineering’ strategy to enable leukocyte-like capture and rolling. PMID:23891082

  12. Cell penetrating peptide-based polyplexes shelled with polysaccharide to improve stability and gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenyu; Liu, Yajie; Du, Jianwei; Ren, Kefeng; Wang, Youxiang

    2015-04-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) have been widely developed as a strategy to enhance cell penetrating ability and transfection. In this work, octa-arginine modified dextran gene vector with pH-sensitivity was developed via host-guest interactions. α-Cyclodextrin was modified with octa-arginine (CDR), which had excellent cell penetrating ability. Dextran was selected as a backbone and modified with azobenzene as guest units by acid-labile imine bonds (Az-I-Dex). The supramolecular polymer CDR/Az-I-Dex with high a C/A molar ratio (molar ratio of CD on CDR to Az on Az-I-Dex) was unfavorable for DNA condensation. The dextran shell of CDR/Az-I-Dex/DNA polyplexes improved the stability under physiological conditions. However, once treated with acetate buffer (pH 5.4) for 3 h, large aggregates formed rapidly due to the cleavage of the dextran shell. As expected, the vector had cell viability of 80% even when the CDR concentration increased to 100 μg mL-1. Moreover, due to the effective cellular uptake efficiency, CDR/Az-I-Dex/DNA polyplexes had 6-300 times higher transfection efficiency than CDR/DNA polyplexes. It was even higher than high molecular weight PLL-based polyplexes of HEK293 T cells. Importantly, chloroquine as an endosomal escape agent could not improve the transfection of CDR/Az-I-Dex/DNA polyplexes, which indicated that the CDR/Az-I-Dex supramolecular polymer had its own ability for endosomal escape. These results suggested that the CPP-based polyplexes shelled with polysaccharide can be promising non-viral gene delivery carriers.Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) have been widely developed as a strategy to enhance cell penetrating ability and transfection. In this work, octa-arginine modified dextran gene vector with pH-sensitivity was developed via host-guest interactions. α-Cyclodextrin was modified with octa-arginine (CDR), which had excellent cell penetrating ability. Dextran was selected as a backbone and modified with azobenzene as guest units by acid

  13. Cell-surface targeting of α2-adrenergic receptors — Inhibition by a transport deficient mutant through dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fuguo; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; Duvernay, Matthew T.; Wu, Guangyu

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the α2B-adrenergic receptor mutant, in which the F(x)6IL motif in the membrane-proximal carboxyl terminus were mutated to alanines (α2B-ARm), is deficient in export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this report, we determined if α2B-ARm could modulate transport from the ER to the cell surface and signaling of its wild-type counterpart. Transient expression of α2B-ARm in HEK293T cells markedly inhibited cell-surface expression of wild-type α2B-AR, as measured by radioligand binding. Subcellular localization demonstrated that α2B-ARm trapped α2B-AR in the ER. The α2B-AR was shown to form homodimers and heterodimers with α2B-ARm as measured by co-immunoprecipitation of the receptors tagged with green fluorescent protein and hemagglutinin epitopes. In addition to α2B-AR, the transport of α2A-AR and α2C-AR to the cell surface was also inhibited by α2B-ARm. Furthermore, transient expression of α2B-ARm significantly reduced cell-surface expression of endogenous α2-AR in NG108-15 and HT29 cells. Consistent with its effect on α2-AR cell-surface expression, α2B-ARm attenuated α2A-AR- and α2B-AR-mediated ERK1/2 activation. These data demonstrated that the ER-retained mutant α2B-ARm conferred a dominant negative effect on the cell-surface expression of wild-type α2-AR, which is likely mediated through heterodimerization. These data indicate a crucial role of ER export in the regulation of cell-surface targeting and signaling of G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:15961277

  14. Depletion of the Polyamines Spermidine and Spermine by Overexpression of Spermidine/spermine N1-Acetyltransferase1 (SAT1) Leads to Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Swati; Mandal, Ajeet; Park, Myung Hee

    2015-01-01

    The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are intimately involved in the regulation of cellular growth and viability. Transduction of HEK293T cells with an adenovirus (AdSAT1) encoding a key polyamine catabolic enzyme, spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase1 (SAT1), leads to a rapid depletion of spermidine and spermine, arrest in cell growth and a decline in cell viability. Annexin V/ propidium iodide Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) analyses, Terminal Uridine Nucleotide End- Labeling (TUNEL) and caspase 3 assays showed a clear indication of apoptosis in AdSAT1 transduced cells (at 24–72 h), but not in cells transduced with GFP-encoding adenovirus (AdGFP). Apoptosis in the polyamine-depleted cells occurs by the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway, as evidenced by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in proapoptotic Bax, decrease in anti-apoptotic Bcl-xl, Bcl2, and Mcl-1 and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, upon transduction with AdSAT1. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy images of AdSAT1-transduced cells revealed morphological changes commonly associated with apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, mitochondrial alteration, vacuolization and membrane blebbing. The apoptosis appears to result largely from depletion of the polyamines, spermidine and spermine, as polyamine analogs, α-methylspermidine and N1,N12-dimethylspermine that are not substrates for SAT1 could partially restore growth and prevent apoptosis of AdSAT1-transduced cells. Inhibition of polyamine oxidases did not restore the growth of AdSAT1-transduced cells or block apoptosis, suggesting that the growth arrest and apoptosis were not induced by oxidative stress resulting from accelerated polyamine catabolism. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that the depletion of polyamines spermidine and spermine leads to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. PMID:25849284

  15. Visualization of the pH-dependent dynamic distribution of G2A in living cells.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wanjun; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Teruyasu; Yamahira, Shinya; Tan, Modong; Murakami, Naoka; Zhang, Jingyan; Nakamura, Motonao; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2014-09-01

    G2A (from G2 accumulation) receptor is a member of the proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family and induces signal transduction events that regulate the cell cycle, proliferation, oncogenesis, and immunity. The mechanism by which G2A-mediated signal transduction is regulated by the extracellular pH remains unresolved. Here, we first visualize the pH-dependent G2A distribution change in living cells by a sortase A-mediated pulse labeling technology: the short-peptide tag-fused human G2A on human embryo kidney HEK293T cell surfaces was labeled with a small fluorescent dye in the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine, and the labeled G2A was chased at acidic and neutral pHs in real time by microscope time course observations. G2A internalization from cell surfaces into intracellular compartments was observed to be inhibited under acidic pH conditions, and this inhibition was relieved at neutral pH. Additionally, the internalized G2A was redistributed onto cell surfaces by jumping from a neutral to an acidic pH. From quantitative image analysis data, we conclude the amount of G2A on the cell surface was controlled by suppressing the G2A internalization rate by one-tenth in response to the extracellular acidic pH, and this acidic pH-induced G2A accumulation on cell surfaces may be explained by proton-induced dissociation of G2A from endocytic machinery. PMID:24891524

  16. Graphene as a nanocarrier for tamoxifen induces apoptosis in transformed cancer cell lines of different origins.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Rao, C N R

    2012-01-01

    A cationic amphiphile, cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl pyridinium bromide (PY(+) -Chol), is able to efficiently disperse exfoliated graphene (GR) in water by the physical adsorption of PY(+) -Chol on the surface of GR to form stable, dark aqueous suspensions at room temperature. The GR-PY(+) -Chol suspension can then be used to solubilize Tamoxifen Citrate (TmC), a breast cancer drug, in water. The resulting TmC-GR-PY(+) -Chol is stable for a long time without any precipitation. Fluorescence emission and UV absorption spectra indicate the existence of noncovalent interactions between TmC, GR, and PY(+) -Chol in these suspensions. Electron microscopy shows the existence of segregated GR sheets and TmC 'ribbons' in the composite suspensions. Atomic force microscopy indicates the presence of 'extended' structures of GR-PY(+) -Chol, which grows wider in the presence of TmC. The slow time-dependent release of TmC is noticed in a reconstituted cell culture medium, a property useful as a drug carrier. TmC-GR-PY(+) -Chol selectively enhanced the cell death (apoptosis) of the transformed cancer cells compared to normal cells. This potency is found to be true for a wide range of transformed cancer cells viz. HeLa, A549, ras oncogene-transformed NIH3T3, HepG2, MDA-MB231, MCF-7, and HEK293T compared to the normal cell HEK293 in vitro. Confocal microscopy confirmed the high efficiency of TmC-GR-PY(+) -Chol in delivering the drug to the cells, compared to the suspensions devoid of GR. PMID:22102595

  17. CMF608-a novel mechanical strain-induced bone-specific protein expressed in early osteochondroprogenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Segev, Orit; Samach, Aviva; Faerman, Alexander; Kalinski, Hagar; Beiman, Merav; Gelfand, Anna; Turam, Hagit; Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Moshayov, Anat; Gottlieb, Helen; Kazanov, Eugeniy; Nevo, Zvi; Robinson, Dror; Skaliter, Rami; Einat, Paz; Binderman, Itzhak; Feinstein, Elena

    2004-02-01

    Microarray gene expression analysis was utilized to identify genes upregulated in primary rat calvaria cultures in response to mechanical force. One of the identified genes designated CMF608 appeared to be novel. The corresponding full-length cDNA was cloned and characterized in more details. It encodes a putative 2597 amino acid protein containing N-terminal signal peptide, six leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), and 12 immunoglobulin-like repeats, 10 of which are clustered within the C-terminus. Expression of CMF608 is bone-specific and the main type of CMF608-positive cells is mesenchymal osteochondroprogenitors with fibroblast-like morphology. These cells reside in the perichondral fibrous ring of La Croix, periosteum, endosteum of normal bone as well as in the activated periosteum and early fibrous callus generated postfracture. Expression of CMF608 is notably absent from the regions of endochondral ossification. Mature bone cell types do not produce CMF608 with the exception of chondrocytes of the tangential layer of the articular cartilage, which are thought to be under constant mechanical loading. Ectopic expression of CMF608 in HEK293T cells shows that the protein is subjected to post-translational processing and its N-terminal approximately 90 kDa polypeptide can be found in the conditioned medium. Ectopic expression of either the full-length cDNA of CMF608 or of its N-terminal region in CMF608-negative ROS17/2.8 rat osteosarcoma cells results in transfected clones displaying increased proliferation rate and the characteristics of less-differentiated osteoblasts compared to the control cells. Our data indicate that CMF608 is a unique marker of early osteochondroprogenitor cells. We propose that it could be functionally involved in maintenance of the osteochondroprogenitor cells pool and its down-regulation precedes terminal differentiation. PMID:14962803

  18. The Small C-terminal Domain Phosphatase 1 Inhibits Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion by Dephosphorylating Ser(P)68-Twist1 to Accelerate Twist1 Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Fu, Junjiang; Shen, Tao; Lin, Xia; Liao, Lan; Feng, Xin-Hua; Xu, Jianming

    2016-05-27

    Twist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that strongly promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. The MAPK-phosphorylated Twist1 on its serine 68 (Ser(P)(68)-Twist1) has a significantly enhanced stability and function to drive cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, the phosphatase that dephosphorylates Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and destabilizes Twist1 has not been identified and characterized. In this study, we screened a serine/threonine phosphatase cDNA expression library in HEK293T cells with ectopically coexpressed Twist1. We found that the small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (SCP1) specifically dephosphorylates Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 in both cell-free reactions and living cells. SCP1 uses its amino acid residues 43-63 to interact with the N terminus of Twist1. Increased SCP1 expression in cells decreased Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins, whereas knockdown of SCP1 increased Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins. Furthermore, the levels of SCP1 are negatively correlated with Twist1 protein levels in several cancer cell lines. SCP1-dephosphorylated Twist1 undergoes fast degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Importantly, an increase in SCP1 expression in breast cancer cells with either endogenous or ectopically expressed Twist1 largely inhibits the Twist1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype and the migration and invasion capabilities of these cells. These results indicate that SCP1 is the phosphatase that counterregulates the MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of Ser(68)-Twist1. Thus, an increase in SCP1 expression and activity may be a useful strategy for eliminating the detrimental roles of Twist1 in cancer cells. PMID:26975371

  19. Single-step cloning-screening method: a new tool for developing and studying high-titer viral vector producer cells.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A F; Formas-Oliveira, A S; Guerreiro, M R; Tomás, H A; Alves, P M; Coroadinha, A S

    2015-09-01

    This article describes a novel method merging the cloning of viral vector producer cells with vector titer screening, allowing for screening 200-500 clones in 2 weeks. It makes use of a GFP separated into two fragments, S10 and S11 (Split GFP), fluorescing only upon transcomplementation. Producer cells carrying a S11 viral transgene are cloned in 96-well plates and co-cultured with target cells stably expressing S10. During the period of clone expansion, S11 viruses infect S10 target cells reconstituting the GFP signal. Transcomplemented fluorescence data provide direct estimation of the clone's productivity and can be analyzed in terms of density distribution, offering valuable information on the average productivity of the cell population and allowing the identification of high-producing clones. The method was validated by establishing a retrovirus producer from a nude cell line, in <3 months, inserting three vector constructs without clone selection or screening in between. Clones producing up to 10(8) infectious particles per ml were obtained, delivering optimal ratios of infectious-to-total particles (1 to 5). The method was additionally used to evaluate the production performance of HEK 293 and HEK 293T cell lines demonstrating that the latter sustains increased titers. Finally, it was used to study genetic manipulation of glutathione metabolism in retrovirus production showing that changing cell metabolism steers higher vector expression with titer increases of more than one order of magnitude.This method is a valuable tool not only for cell line development but also for genetic manipulation of viral vector and/or producer cells contributing to advancing the field of viral gene therapy. PMID:25938191

  20. Generation of GFP Native Protein for Detection of Its Intracellular Uptake by Cell-Penetrating Peptides.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodayan, S; Sadat, S M; Irani, S; Fotouhi, F; Bolhassani, A

    2016-01-01

    Different types of lipid- and polymer-based vectors have been developed to deliver proteins into cells, but these methods showed relatively poor efficiency. Recently, a group of short, highly basic peptides known as cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) were used to carry polypeptides and proteins into cells. In this study, expression and purification of GFP protein was performed using the prokaryotic pET expression system. We used two amphipathic CPPs (Pep-1 and CADY-2) as a novel delivery system to transfer the GFP protein into cells. The morphological features of the CPP/GFP complexes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Zetasizer, and SDS-PAGE. The efficiency of GFP transfection using Pep-1 and CADY-2 peptides and TurboFect reagent was compared with FITC-antibody protein control delivered by these transfection vehicles in the HEK-293T cell line. SEM data confirmed formation of discrete nanoparticles with a diameter of below 300 nm. Moreover, formation of the complexes was detected using SDS-PAGE as two individual bands, indicating non-covalent interaction. The size and homogeneity of Pep-1/GFP and CADY-2/GFP complexes were dependent on the ratio of peptide/cargo formulations, and responsible for their biological efficiency. The cells transfected by Pep-1/GFP and CADY-2/GFP complexes at a molar ratio of 20 : 1 demonstrated spreading green regions using fluorescent microscopy. Flow cytometry results showed that the transfection efficiency of Pep-based nanoparticles was similar to CADY-based nanoparticles and comparable with TurboFect-protein complexes. These data open an efficient way for future therapeutic purposes. PMID:27516189

  1. HER2 confers drug resistance of human breast cancer cells through activation of NRF2 by direct interaction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyo Jin; Yi, Yong Weon; Hong, Young Bin; Kim, Hee Jeong; Jang, Young-Joo; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Bae, Insoo

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression and/or activation of HER2 confers resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. NRF2 also gives drug resistance of cancer cells through induction of detoxification and/or drug efflux proteins. Although several upstream effectors of NRF2 overlapped with the downstream molecules of HER2 pathway, no direct link between HER2 and NRF2 has ever been established. Here, we identified that co-expression of a constitutively active HER2 (HER2CA) and NRF2 increased the levels of NRF2 target proteins, HO-1 and MRP5. We also identified HER2CA activated the DNA-binding of NRF2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated transcription in an NRF2-dependent manner. In addition, NRF2 and HER2CA cooperatively up-regulated the mRNA expression of various drug-resistant and detoxifying enzymes including GSTA2, GSTP1, CYP3A4, HO-1, MRP1, and MRP5. We also demonstrated that NRF2 binds to HER2 not only in transiently transfected HEK293T cells but also in HER2-amplified breast cancer cells. Functionally, overexpression of HER2CA gave resistance of MCF7 breast cancer cells to either paraquat or doxorubicin. Overexpression of dominant negative NRF2 (DN-NRF2) reduced the HER2CA-induced resistance of MCF7 cells to these agents. Taken together, these results suggest that active HER2 binds and regulates the NRF2-dependent transcriptional activation and induces drug resistance of cancer cells. PMID:25467193

  2. Cell penetrating peptide-based polyplexes shelled with polysaccharide to improve stability and gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyu; Liu, Yajie; Du, Jianwei; Ren, Kefeng; Wang, Youxiang

    2015-05-14

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) have been widely developed as a strategy to enhance cell penetrating ability and transfection. In this work, octa-arginine modified dextran gene vector with pH-sensitivity was developed via host-guest interactions. α-Cyclodextrin was modified with octa-arginine (CDR), which had excellent cell penetrating ability. Dextran was selected as a backbone and modified with azobenzene as guest units by acid-labile imine bonds (Az-I-Dex). The supramolecular polymer CDR/Az-I-Dex with high a C/A molar ratio (molar ratio of CD on CDR to Az on Az-I-Dex) was unfavorable for DNA condensation. The dextran shell of CDR/Az-I-Dex/DNA polyplexes improved the stability under physiological conditions. However, once treated with acetate buffer (pH 5.4) for 3 h, large aggregates formed rapidly due to the cleavage of the dextran shell. As expected, the vector had cell viability of 80% even when the CDR concentration increased to 100 μg mL(-1). Moreover, due to the effective cellular uptake efficiency, CDR/Az-I-Dex/DNA polyplexes had 6-300 times higher transfection efficiency than CDR/DNA polyplexes. It was even higher than high molecular weight PLL-based polyplexes of HEK293 T cells. Importantly, chloroquine as an endosomal escape agent could not improve the transfection of CDR/Az-I-Dex/DNA polyplexes, which indicated that the CDR/Az-I-Dex supramolecular polymer had its own ability for endosomal escape. These results suggested that the CPP-based polyplexes shelled with polysaccharide can be promising non-viral gene delivery carriers. PMID:25893559

  3. Enhanced genome editing in mammalian cells with a modified dual-fluorescent surrogate system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yong; Hussmann, Dianna; Brøgger, Peter; Al-Saaidi, Rasha Abdelkadhem; Tan, Shuang; Lin, Lin; Petersen, Trine Skov; Zhou, Guang Qian; Bross, Peter; Aagaard, Lars; Klein, Tino; Rønn, Sif Groth; Pedersen, Henrik Duelund; Bolund, Lars; Nielsen, Anders Lade; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-07-01

    Programmable DNA nucleases such as TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 are emerging as powerful tools for genome editing. Dual-fluorescent surrogate systems have been demonstrated by several studies to recapitulate DNA nuclease activity and enrich for genetically edited cells. In this study, we created a single-strand annealing-directed, dual-fluorescent surrogate reporter system, referred to as C-Check. We opted for the Golden Gate Cloning strategy to simplify C-Check construction. To demonstrate the utility of the C-Check system, we used the C-Check in combination with TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9 in different scenarios of gene editing experiments. First, we disrupted the endogenous pIAPP gene (3.0 % efficiency) by C-Check-validated TALENs in primary porcine fibroblasts (PPFs). Next, we achieved gene-editing efficiencies of 9.0-20.3 and 4.9 % when performing single- and double-gene targeting (MAPT and SORL1), respectively, in PPFs using C-Check-validated CRISPR/Cas9 vectors. Third, fluorescent tagging of endogenous genes (MYH6 and COL2A1, up to 10.0 % frequency) was achieved in human fibroblasts with C-Check-validated CRISPR/Cas9 vectors. We further demonstrated that the C-Check system could be applied to enrich for IGF1R null HEK293T cells and CBX5 null MCF-7 cells with frequencies of nearly 100.0 and 86.9 %, respectively. Most importantly, we further showed that the C-Check system is compatible with multiplexing and for studying CRISPR/Cas9 sgRNA specificity. The C-Check system may serve as an alternative dual-fluorescent surrogate tool for measuring DNA nuclease activity and enrichment of gene-edited cells, and may thereby aid in streamlining programmable DNA nuclease-mediated genome editing and biological research. PMID:26755436

  4. Cell Surface Expression Level Variation between Two Common Human Leukocyte Antigen Alleles, HLA-A2 and HLA-B8, Is Dependent on the Structure of the C Terminal Part of the Alpha 2 and the Alpha 3 Domains

    PubMed Central

    Dellgren, Christoffer; Nehlin, Jan O.; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive cell surface expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I antigens vary extremely from tissue to tissue and individual antigens may differ widely in expression levels. Down-regulation of class I expression is a known immune evasive mechanism used by cancer cells and viruses. Moreover, recent observations suggest that even minor differences in expression levels may influence the course of viral infections and the frequency of complications to stem cell transplantation. We have shown that some human multipotent stem cells have high expression of HLA-A while HLA-B is only weakly expressed, and demonstrate here that this is also the case for the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T. Using quantitative flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction we found expression levels of endogenous HLA-A3 (median 71,204 molecules per cell) 9.2-fold higher than the expression of-B7 (P = 0.002). Transfection experiments with full-length HLA-A2 and -B8 encoding plasmids confirmed this (54,031 molecules per cell vs. 2,466, respectively, P = 0.001) independently of transcript levels suggesting a post-transcriptional regulation. Using chimeric constructs we found that the cytoplasmic tail and the transmembrane region had no impact on the differential cell surface expression. In contrast, ~65% of the difference could be mapped to the six C-terminal amino acids of the alpha 2 domain and the alpha 3 domain (amino acids 176–284), i.e. amino acids not previously shown to be of importance for differential expression levels of HLA class I molecules. We suggest that the differential cell surface expression of two common HLA-A and–B alleles is regulated by a post-translational mechanism that may involve hitherto unrecognized molecules. PMID:26258424

  5. HCFC1 loss-of-function mutations disrupt neuronal and neural progenitor cells of the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Lachlan A; Nguyen, Lam Son; Domingo, Deepti; Sun, Ying; Barry, Simon; Hancarova, Miroslava; Plevova, Pavlina; Vlckova, Marketa; Havlovicova, Marketa; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Graziano, Claudio; Pippucci, Tommaso; Bonora, Elena; Sedlacek, Zdenek; Gecz, Jozef

    2015-06-15

    Both gain- and loss-of-function mutations have recently implicated HCFC1 in neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we extend our previous HCFC1 over-expression studies by employing short hairpin RNA to reduce the expression of Hcfc1 in embryonic neural cells. We show that in contrast to over-expression, loss of Hcfc1 favoured proliferation of neural progenitor cells at the expense of differentiation and promoted axonal growth of post-mitotic neurons. To further support the involvement of HCFC1 in neurological disorders, we report two novel HCFC1 missense variants found in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). One of these variants, together with three previously reported HCFC1 missense variants of unknown pathogenicity, were functionally assessed using multiple cell-based assays. We show that three out of the four variants tested result in a partial loss of HCFC1 function. While over-expression of the wild-type HCFC1 caused reduction in HEK293T cell proliferation and axonal growth of neurons, these effects were alleviated upon over-expression of three of the four HCFC1 variants tested. One of these partial loss-of-function variants disrupted a nuclear localization sequence and the resulting protein displayed reduced ability to localize to the cell nucleus. The other two variants displayed negative effects on the expression of the HCFC1 target gene MMACHC, which is responsible for the metabolism of cobalamin, suggesting that these individuals may also be susceptible to cobalamin deficiency. Together, our work identifies plausible cellular consequences of missense HCFC1 variants and identifies likely and relevant disease mechanisms that converge on embryonic stages of brain development. PMID:25740848

  6. SGLT2 inhibitors act from the extracellular surface of the cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Chiara; Hirayama, Bruce A; Gorraitz, Edurne; Loo, Donald D F; Liang, Yin; Wright, Ernest M

    2014-06-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are a new class of drugs that have been recently developed to treat type II diabetes. They lower glucose levels by inhibiting the renal Na(+)/glucose cotransporter SGLT2, thereby increasing the amount of glucose excreted in the urine. Pharmacodynamics studies have raised questions about how these inhibitors reach SGLT2 in the brush border membrane of the S1 and S2 segments of the renal proximal tubule: are these drugs filtered by the glomerulus and act extracellularly, or do they enter the cell and act intracellularly? To address this question we expressed hSGLT2 in HEK-293T cells and determined the affinity of a specific hSGLT2 inhibitor, TA-3404 (also known as JNJ-30980924), from the extra- and intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Inhibition of SGLT2 activity (Na(+)/glucose currents) by TA-3404 was determined using the whole-cell patch clamp that allows controlling the composition of both the extracellular and intracellular solutions. We compared the results to those obtained using the nonselective SGLT inhibitor phlorizin, and to the effect of TA-3404 on hSGLT1. Our results showed that TA-3404 is a potent extracellular inhibitor of glucose inward SGLT2 transport (IC50 2 nmol/L) but it was ineffective from the intracellular compartment at both low (5 mmol/L) and high (150 mmol/L) intracellular NaCl concentrations. We conclude that TA-3404 only inhibits SGLT2 from the extracellular side of the plasma membrane, suggesting that it is filtered from the blood through the glomerulus and acts from within the tubule lumen. PMID:24973332

  7. Functionalization with C-terminal cysteine enhances transfection efficiency of cell-penetrating peptides through dimer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Amand, Helene L.

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible CPP dimerisation is a simple yet efficient strategy to improve delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimer formation enhances peptiplex stability, resulting in increased transfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By dimerisation, the CPP EB1 even gain endosomal escape properties while lowering cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Cell-penetrating peptides have the ability to stimulate uptake of macromolecular cargo in mammalian cells in a non-toxic manner and therefore hold promise as efficient and well tolerated gene delivery vectors. Non-covalent peptide-DNA complexes ('peptiplexes') enter cells via endocytosis, but poor peptiplex stability and endosomal entrapment are considered as main barriers to peptide-mediated delivery. We explore a simple, yet highly efficient, strategy to improve the function of peptide-based vectors, by adding one terminal cysteine residue. This allows the peptide to dimerize by disulfide bond formation, increasing its affinity for nucleic acids by the 'chelate effect' and, when the bond is reduced intracellularly, letting the complex dissociate to deliver the nucleic acid. By introducing a single C-terminal cysteine in the classical CPP penetratin and the penetratin analogs PenArg and EB1, we show that this minor modification greatly enhances the transfection capacity for plasmid DNA in HEK293T cells. We conclude that this effect is mainly due to enhanced thermodynamic stability of the peptiplexes as endosome-disruptive chloroquine is still required for transfection and the effect is more pronounced for peptides with lower inherent DNA condensation capacity. Interestingly, for EB1, addition of one cysteine makes the peptide able to mediate transfection in absence of chloroquine, indicating that dimerisation can also improve endosomal escape properties. Further, the cytotoxicity of EB1 peptiplexes is considerably reduced, possibly due to lower concentration of free peptide dimer resulting from

  8. Identification of a functional nuclear export signal in the green fluorescent protein asFP499

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, Huseyin . E-mail: huseyinm@hotmail.com; Strasser, Bernd; Rauth, Sabine; Irving, Robert A.; Wark, Kim L.

    2006-04-21

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) asFP499 from Anemonia sulcata is a distant homologue of the GFP from Aequorea victoria. We cloned the asFP499 gene into a mammalian expression vector and showed that this protein was expressed in the human lymphoblast cell line Ramos RA1 and in the embryonic kidney 293T cell line (HEK 293T). In HEK 293T cells, asFP499 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the protein was excluded from the nucleus. We identified {sub 194}LRMEKLNI{sub 201} as a candidate nuclear export signal in asFP499 and mutated the isoleucine at position 201 to an alanine. Unlike the wildtype form, the mutant protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. This is First report of a GFP that contains a functional NES.

  9. Cell Permeating Nano-Complexes of Amphiphilic Polyelectrolytes Enhance Solubility, Stability, and Anti-Cancer Efficacy of Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Munazza T; Chanchal, Abhishek; Yavvari, Prabhu S; Bhagat, Somnath D; Gujrati, Mansi; Mishra, Ram K; Srivastava, Aasheesh

    2016-07-11

    Many hydrophobic drugs encounter severe bioavailability issues owing to their low aqueous solubility and limited cellular uptake. We have designed a series of amphiphilic polyaspartamide polyelectrolytes (PEs) that solubilize such hydrophobic drugs in aqueous medium and enhance their cellular uptake. These PEs were synthesized through controlled (∼20 mol %) derivatization of polysuccinimide (PSI) precursor polymer with hydrophobic amines (of varying alkyl chain lengths, viz. hexyl, octyl, dodecyl, and oleyl), while the remaining succinimide residues of PSI were opened using a protonable and hydrophilic amine, 2-(2-amino-ethyl amino) ethanol (AE). Curcumin (Cur) was employed as a representative hydrophobic drug to explore the drug-delivery potential of the resulting PEs. Unprecedented enhancement in the aqueous solubility of Cur was achieved by employing these PEs through a rather simple protocol. In the case of PEs containing oleyl/dodecyl residues, up to >65000× increment in the solubility of Cur in aqueous medium could be achieved without requiring any organic solvent at all. The resulting suspensions were physically and chemically stable for at least 2 weeks. Stable nanosized polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) with average hydrodynamic diameters (DH) of 150-170 nm (without Cur) and 220-270 nm (after Cur loading) were obtained by using submolar sodium polyaspartate (SPA) counter polyelectrolyte. The zeta potential of these PECs ranged from +36 to +43 mV. The PEC-formation significantly improved the cytocompatibility of the PEs while affording reconstitutable nanoformulations having up to 40 wt % drug-loading. The Cur-loaded PECs were readily internalized by mammalian cells (HEK-293T, MDA-MB-231, and U2OS), majorly through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Cellular uptake of Cur was directly correlated with the length of the alkyl chain present in the PECs. Further, the PECs significantly improved nuclear transport of Cur in cancer cells, resulting in their

  10. C1q-tumour necrosis factor-related protein 8 (CTRP8) is a novel interaction partner of relaxin receptor RXFP1 in human brain cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Glogowska, Aleksandra; Kunanuvat, Usakorn; Stetefeld, Jörg; Patel, Trushar R; Thanasupawat, Thatchawan; Krcek, Jerry; Weber, Ekkehard; Wong, G William; Del Bigio, Marc R; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Klonisch, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    We report a novel ligand-receptor system composed of the leucine-rich G-protein-coupled relaxin receptor, RXFP1, and the C1q-tumour necrosis factor-related protein 8 (CTRP8) in human primary brain cancer, a tumour entity devoid of the classical RXFP1 ligands, RLN1-3. In structural homology studies and computational docking experiments we delineated the N-terminal region of the globular C1q region of CTRP8 and the leucine-rich repeat units 7 and 8 of RXFP1 to mediate this new ligand-receptor interaction. CTRP8 secreted from HEK293T cells, recombinant human (rh) CTRP8, and short synthetic peptides derived from the C1q globular domain of human CTRP8 caused the activation of RXFP1 as determined by elevated intracellular cAMP levels and the induction of a marked pro-migratory phenotype in established glioblastoma (GB) cell lines and primary cells from GB patients. Employing a small competitor peptide, we were able to disrupt the CTRP8-RXFP1-induced increased GB motility. The CTRP8-RXFP1-mediated migration in GB cells involves the activation of PI3K and specific protein kinase C pathways and the increased production/secretion of the potent lysosomal protease cathepsin B (cathB), a known prognostic marker of GB. Specific inhibition of CTRP8-induced cathB activity effectively blocked the ability of primary GB to invade laminin matrices. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed the direct interaction of human CTRP8 with RXFP1. Our results support a therapeutic approach in GB aimed at targeting multiple steps of the CTRP8-RXFP1 signalling pathway by a combined inhibitor and peptide-based strategy to block GB dissemination within the brain. PMID:24014093

  11. Trans-spliced Cas9 allows cleavage of HBB and CCR5 genes in human cells using compact expression cassettes.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eli J; Appleton, Caleb M; White, Douglas E; Brown, Matthew T; Deshmukh, Harshavardhan; Kemp, Melissa L; Bao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been used in a wide variety of biological studies; however, the large size of CRISPR/Cas9 presents challenges in packaging it within adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) for clinical applications. We identified a two-cassette system expressing pieces of the S. pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) protein which splice together in cellula to form a functional protein capable of site-specific DNA cleavage. With specific CRISPR guide strands, we demonstrated the efficacy of this system in cleaving the HBB and CCR5 genes in human HEK-293T cells as a single Cas9 and as a pair of Cas9 nickases. The trans-spliced SpCas9 (tsSpCas9) displayed ~35% of the nuclease activity compared with the wild-type SpCas9 (wtSpCas9) at standard transfection doses, but had substantially decreased activity at lower dosing levels. The greatly reduced open reading frame length of the tsSpCas9 relative to wtSpCas9 potentially allows for more complex and longer genetic elements to be packaged into an AAV vector including tissue-specific promoters, multiplexed guide RNA expression, and effector domain fusions to SpCas9. For unknown reasons, the tsSpCas9 system did not work in all cell types tested. The use of protein trans-splicing may help facilitate exciting new avenues of research and therapeutic applications through AAV-based delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 systems. PMID:26126518

  12. Quantitative measurement of cell membrane receptor internalization by the nanoluciferase reporter: Using the G protein-coupled receptor RXFP3 as a model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Song, Ge; Shao, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Ya-Li; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Nanoluciferase (NanoLuc) is a newly developed small luciferase reporter with the brightest bioluminescence to date. In the present work, we developed NanoLuc as a sensitive bioluminescent reporter to measure quantitatively the internalization of cell membrane receptors, based on the pH dependence of the reporter activity. The G protein-coupled receptor RXFP3, the cognate receptor of relaxin-3/INSL7, was used as a model receptor. We first generated stable HEK293T cells that inducibly coexpressed a C-terminally NanoLuc-tagged human RXFP3 and a C-terminally enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged human RXFP3. The C-terminal EGFP-tag and NanoLuc-tag had no detrimental effects on the ligand-binding potency and intracellular trafficking of RXFP3. Based on the fluorescence of the tagged EGFP reporter, the ligand-induced RXFP3 internalization was visualized directly under a fluorescence microscope. Based on the bioluminescence of the tagged NanoLuc reporter, the ligand-induced RXFP3 internalization was measured quantitatively by a convenient bioluminescent assay. Coexpression of an EGFP-tagged inactive [E141R]RXFP3 had no detrimental effect on the ligand-binding potency and ligand-induced internalization of the NanoLuc-tagged wild-type RXFP3, suggesting that the mutant RXFP3 and wild-type RXFP3 worked independently. The present bioluminescent internalization assay could be extended to other G protein-coupled receptors and other cell membrane receptors to study ligand-receptor and receptor-receptor interactions. PMID:25434927

  13. Myc and Omomyc functionally associate with the Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mongiardi, Maria Patrizia; Savino, Mauro; Bartoli, Laura; Beji, Sara; Nanni, Simona; Scagnoli, Fiorella; Falchetti, Maria Laura; Favia, Annarita; Farsetti, Antonella; Levi, Andrea; Nasi, Sergio; Illi, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The c-Myc protein is dysregulated in many human cancers and its function has not been fully elucitated yet. The c-Myc inhibitor Omomyc displays potent anticancer properties in animal models. It perturbs the c-Myc protein network, impairs c-Myc binding to the E-boxes, retaining transrepressive properties and inducing histone deacetylation. Here we have employed Omomyc to further analyse c-Myc activity at the epigenetic level. We show that both Myc and Omomyc stimulate histone H4 symmetric dimethylation of arginine (R) 3 (H4R3me2s), in human glioblastoma and HEK293T cells. Consistently, both associated with protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5)—the catalyst of the reaction—and its co-factor Methylosome Protein 50 (MEP50). Confocal experiments showed that Omomyc co-localized with c-Myc, PRMT5 and H4R3me2s-enriched chromatin domains. Finally, interfering with PRMT5 activity impaired target gene activation by Myc whereas it restrained Omomyc-dependent repression. The identification of a histone-modifying complex associated with Omomyc represents the first demonstration of an active role of this miniprotein in modifying chromatin structure and adds new information regarding its action on c-Myc targets. More importantly, the observation that c-Myc may recruit PRMT5-MEP50, inducing H4R3 symmetric di-methylation, suggests previously unpredictable roles for c-Myc in gene expression regulation and new potential targets for therapy. PMID:26563484

  14. Testing anti-HIV activity of antiretroviral agents in vitro using flow cytometry analysis of CEM-GFP cells infected with transfection-derived HIV-1 NL4-3.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Caterina; Grelli, Sandro; Federico, Maurizio; Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Mastino, Antonio; Macchi, Beatrice

    2016-06-01

    An assay, specifically optimized to evaluate the anti-HIV activity of antiretrovirals by flow cytometry analysis, is described. As widely used anti-HIV agents, zidovudine (AZT), abacavir (ABC), 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (DDI), lamivudine (3TC), nevirapine (NVP), and efavirenz (EFV), and as drugs of recent approval raltegravir (RAL), etravirine (ETR), and rilpivirine (RPV), were utilized as reference drugs. HIV-1 NL4-3 virus was prepared by transfection of HEK293T cells with purified plasmid DNA and quantified by p24 antigen-capture assay. For infection, CEM-GFP cells were exposed to vehicle or to several concentrations of the drugs for 2 hr at 37 °C before HIV-1 NL4-3 was added to each sample. The adsorption was prolonged for 3 hr at 37 °C. After 72 hr of incubation, HIV-induced GFP expression in infected CEM-GFP cells was assessed by flow cytometry analysis and expressed as % positive cells. For comparison, p24 production in supernatants was assessed by a commercial ELISA kit. On the basis of IC50 values, the anti-HIV activity, as assayed by this method, was EFV > 3TC > AZT > NVP > DDI > ABC and ETR > RPV > RAL. The comparison between the IC50 values calculated through flow cytometry and p24 production revealed overlapping results, showing that the optimized protocol of CEM-GFP infection with HIV NL4-3 is a suitable method to perform quantitative, rapid and low-expensive screening tests to evaluate the in vitro effect of new candidate anti-HIV drugs. PMID:26519867

  15. Arsenic Trioxide Reduces Global Histone H4 Acetylation at Lysine 16 through Direct Binding to Histone Acetyltransferase hMOF in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da; Wu, Donglu; Zhao, Linhong; Yang, Yang; Ding, Jian; Dong, Liguo; Hu, Lianghai; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Xiaoming; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2015-01-01

    Histone post-translational modification heritably regulates gene expression involved in most cellular biological processes. Experimental studies suggest that alteration of histone modifications affects gene expression by changing chromatin structure, causing various cellular responses to environmental influences. Arsenic (As), a naturally occurring element and environmental pollutant, is an established human carcinogen. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that As-mediated epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in its toxicity and carcinogenicity, but how this occurs is still unclear. Here we present evidence that suggests As-induced global histone H4K16 acetylation (H4K16ac) partly due to the direct physical interaction between As and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) hMOF (human male absent on first) protein, leading to the loss of hMOF HAT activity. Our data show that decreased global H4K16ac and increased deacetyltransferase HDAC4 expression occurred in arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-exposed HeLa or HEK293T cells. However, depletion of HDAC4 did not affect global H4K16ac, and it could not raise H4K16ac in cells exposed to As2O3, suggesting that HDAC4 might not directly be involved in histone H4K16 de-acetylation. Using As-immobilized agarose, we confirmed that As binds directly to hMOF, and that this interaction was competitively inhibited by free As2O3. Also, the direct interaction of As and C2CH zinc finger peptide was verified by MAIDI-TOF mass and UV absorption. In an in vitro HAT assay, As2O3 directly inhibited hMOF activity. hMOF over-expression not only increased resistance to As and caused less toxicity, but also effectively reversed reduced H4K16ac caused by As exposure. These data suggest a theoretical basis for elucidating the mechanism of As toxicity. PMID:26473953

  16. Pannexin2 oligomers localize in the membranes of endosomal vesicles in mammalian cells while Pannexin1 channels traffic to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Boassa, Daniela; Nguyen, Phuong; Hu, Junru; Ellisman, Mark H.; Sosinsky, Gina E.

    2015-01-01

    Pannexin2 (Panx2) is the largest of three members of the pannexin proteins. Pannexins are topologically related to connexins and innexins, but serve different functional roles than forming gap junctions. We previously showed that pannexins form oligomeric channels but unlike connexins and innexins, they form only single membrane channels. High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS) have been documented. Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1) is fairly ubiquitous and Pannexin3 (Panx3) is found in skin and connective tissue, both are fully glycosylated, traffic to the plasma membrane and have functions correlated with extracellular ATP release. Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa, and HEK 293T cells as well as endogenous Panx1 and Panx2 patterns in the CNS. Panx2 was found in intracellular localizations, was partially N-glycosylated, and localizations were non-overlapping with Panx1. Confocal images of hippocampal sections immunolabeled for the astrocytic protein GFAP, Panx1 and Panx2 demonstrated that the two isoforms, Panx1 and Panx2, localized at different subcellular compartments in both astrocytes and neurons. Using recombinant fusions of Panx2 with appended genetic tags developed for correlated light and electron microscopy and then expressed in different cell lines, we determined that Panx2 is localized in the membrane of intracellular vesicles and not in the endoplasmic reticulum as initially indicated by calnexin colocalization experiments. Dual immunofluorescence imaging with protein markers for specific vesicle compartments showed that Panx2 vesicles are early endosomal in origin. In electron tomographic volumes, cross-sections of these vesicles displayed fine structural details and close proximity to actin filaments. Thus, pannexins expressed at different subcellular compartments likely exert distinct functional roles, particularly in the nervous system

  17. DNA polymerases κ and ζ cooperatively perform mutagenic translesion synthesis of the C8–2′-deoxyguanosine adduct of the dietary mutagen IQ in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Arindam; Pande, Paritosh; Jasti, Vijay P.; Millsap, Amy D.; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Basu, Ashis K.

    2015-01-01

    The roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in bypassing the C8–2′-deoxyguanosine adduct (dG-C8-IQ) formed by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a highly mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, were investigated. Three plasmid vectors containing the dG-C8-IQ adduct at the G1-, G2- or G3-positions of the NarI site (5′-G1G2CG3CC-3′) were replicated in HEK293T cells. Fifty percent of the progeny from the G3 construct were mutants, largely G→T, compared to 18% and 24% from the G1 and G2 constructs, respectively. Mutation frequency (MF) of dG-C8-IQ was reduced by 38–67% upon siRNA knockdown of pol κ, whereas it was increased by 10–24% in pol η knockdown cells. When pol κ and pol ζ were simultaneously knocked down, MF of the G1 and G3 constructs was reduced from 18% and 50%, respectively, to <3%, whereas it was reduced from 24% to <1% in the G2 construct. In vitro TLS using yeast pol ζ showed that it can extend G3*:A pair more efficiently than G3*:C pair, but it is inefficient at nucleotide incorporation opposite dG-C8-IQ. We conclude that pol κ and pol ζ cooperatively carry out the majority of the error-prone TLS of dG-C8-IQ, whereas pol η is involved primarily in its error-free bypass. PMID:26220181

  18. DNA polymerases κ and ζ cooperatively perform mutagenic translesion synthesis of the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct of the dietary mutagen IQ in human cells.

    PubMed

    Bose, Arindam; Pande, Paritosh; Jasti, Vijay P; Millsap, Amy D; Hawkins, Edward K; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Basu, Ashis K

    2015-09-30

    The roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in bypassing the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct (dG-C8-IQ) formed by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a highly mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, were investigated. Three plasmid vectors containing the dG-C8-IQ adduct at the G1-, G2- or G3-positions of the NarI site (5'-G1G2CG3CC-3') were replicated in HEK293T cells. Fifty percent of the progeny from the G3 construct were mutants, largely G→T, compared to 18% and 24% from the G1 and G2 constructs, respectively. Mutation frequency (MF) of dG-C8-IQ was reduced by 38-67% upon siRNA knockdown of pol κ, whereas it was increased by 10-24% in pol η knockdown cells. When pol κ and pol ζ were simultaneously knocked down, MF of the G1 and G3 constructs was reduced from 18% and 50%, respectively, to <3%, whereas it was reduced from 24% to <1% in the G2 construct. In vitro TLS using yeast pol ζ showed that it can extend G3*:A pair more efficiently than G3*:C pair, but it is inefficient at nucleotide incorporation opposite dG-C8-IQ. We conclude that pol κ and pol ζ cooperatively carry out the majority of the error-prone TLS of dG-C8-IQ, whereas pol η is involved primarily in its error-free bypass. PMID:26220181

  19. The ΔC splice-variant of TRPM2 is the hypertonicity-induced cation channel in HeLa cells, and the ecto-enzyme CD38 mediates its activation

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Tomohiro; Sato, Kaori; Christmann, Jens; Marx, Romy; Mori, Yasuo; Okada, Yasunobu; Wehner, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Hypertonicity-induced cation channels (HICCs) are key-players in proliferation and apoptosis but their molecular correlate remains obscure. Furthermore, the activation profile of HICCs is not well defined yet. We report here that, in HeLa cells, intracellular adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPr) and cyclic ADPr (cADPr), as supposed activators of TRPM2, elicited cation currents that were virtually identical to the osmotic activation of HICCs. Silencing of the expression of TRPM2 and of the ecto-enzyme CD38 (as a likely source of ADPr and cADPr) inhibited HICC as well as nucleotide-induced currents and, in parallel, the hypertonic volume response of cells (the regulatory volume increase, RVI) was attenuated. Quantification of intracellular cADPr levels and the systematic application of extra- vs. intracellular nucleotides indicate that the outwardly directed gradient rather than the cellular activity of ADPr and cADPr triggers TRPM2 activation, probably along with a simultaneous biotransformation of nucleotides. Cloning of TRPM2 identified the ΔC-splice variant as the molecular correlate of the HICC, which could be strongly supported by a direct comparison of the respective Ca2+ selectivity. Finally, immunoprecipitation and high-resolution FRET/FLIM imaging revealed the interaction of TRPM2 and CD38 in the native as well as in a heterologous (HEK293T) expression system. We propose transport-related nucleotide export via CD38 as a novel mechanism of TRPM2/HICC activation. With the biotransformation of nucleotides running in parallel, continuous zero trans-conditions are achieved which will render the system infinitely sensitive. PMID:22219339

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1 secretion and chondrocyte cell death via Nox4 NADPH oxidase activity in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Francis; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Grange, Laurent; Morel, Françoise; Lardy, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of MMPs as well as chondrocyte apoptosis. Those events lead to matrix breakdown and are key features of osteoarthritis (OA). We confirmed that in human C-20/A4 chondrocytes the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is the main source of ROS upon IL-1β stimulation. Since heme molecules are essential for the NADPH oxidase maturation and activity, we therefore investigated the consequences of the modulation of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, on the IL-1β signaling pathway and more specifically on Nox4 activity. Induction of HO-1 expression decreased dramatically Nox4 activity in C-20/A4 and HEK293 T-REx™ Nox4 cell lines. Unexpectedly, this decrease was not accompanied by any change in the expression, the subcellular localization or the maturation of Nox4. In fact, the inhibition of the heme synthesis by succinylacetone rather than heme catabolism by HO-1, led to a confinement of the Nox4/p22(phox) heterodimer in the endoplasmic reticulum with an absence of redox differential spectrum highlighting an incomplete maturation. Therefore, the downregulation of Nox4 activity by HO-1 induction appeared to be mediated by carbon monoxide (CO) generated from the heme degradation process. Interestingly, either HO-1 or CO caused a significant decrease in the expression of MMP-1 and DNA fragmentation of chondrocytes stimulated by IL-1β. These results all together suggest that a modulation of Nox4 activity via heme oxygenase-1 may represent a promising therapeutic tool in osteoarthritis. PMID:23840483

  1. Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulates Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP-1 Secretion and Chondrocyte Cell Death via Nox4 NADPH Oxidase Activity in Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rousset, Francis; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Grange, Laurent; Morel, Françoise; Lardy, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of MMPs as well as chondrocyte apoptosis. Those events lead to matrix breakdown and are key features of osteoarthritis (OA). We confirmed that in human C-20/A4 chondrocytes the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is the main source of ROS upon IL-1β stimulation. Since heme molecules are essential for the NADPH oxidase maturation and activity, we therefore investigated the consequences of the modulation of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, on the IL-1β signaling pathway and more specifically on Nox4 activity. Induction of HO-1 expression decreased dramatically Nox4 activity in C-20/A4 and HEK293 T-REx™ Nox4 cell lines. Unexpectedly, this decrease was not accompanied by any change in the expression, the subcellular localization or the maturation of Nox4. In fact, the inhibition of the heme synthesis by succinylacetone rather than heme catabolism by HO-1, led to a confinement of the Nox4/p22phox heterodimer in the endoplasmic reticulum with an absence of redox differential spectrum highlighting an incomplete maturation. Therefore, the downregulation of Nox4 activity by HO-1 induction appeared to be mediated by carbon monoxide (CO) generated from the heme degradation process. Interestingly, either HO-1 or CO caused a significant decrease in the expression of MMP-1 and DNA fragmentation of chondrocytes stimulated by IL-1β. These results all together suggest that a modulation of Nox4 activity via heme oxygenase-1 may represent a promising therapeutic tool in osteoarthritis. PMID:23840483

  2. A microfluidic device enabling high-efficiency single cell trapping.

    PubMed

    Jin, D; Deng, B; Li, J X; Cai, W; Tu, L; Chen, J; Wu, Q; Wang, W H

    2015-01-01

    Single cell trapping increasingly serves as a key manipulation technique in single cell analysis for many cutting-edge cell studies. Due to their inherent advantages, microfluidic devices have been widely used to enable single cell immobilization. To further improve the single cell trapping efficiency, this paper reports on a passive hydrodynamic microfluidic device based on the "least flow resistance path" principle with geometry optimized in line with corresponding cell types. Different from serpentine structure, the core trapping structure of the micro-device consists of a series of concatenated T and inverse T junction pairs which function as bypassing channels and trapping constrictions. This new device enhances the single cell trapping efficiency from three aspects: (1) there is no need to deploy very long or complicated channels to adjust flow resistance, thus saving space for each trapping unit; (2) the trapping works in a "deterministic" manner, thus saving a great deal of cell samples; and (3) the compact configuration allows shorter flowing path of cells in multiple channels, thus increasing the speed and throughput of cell trapping. The mathematical model of the design was proposed and optimization of associated key geometric parameters was conducted based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. As a proof demonstration, two types of PDMS microfluidic devices were fabricated to trap HeLa and HEK-293T cells with relatively significant differences in cell sizes. Experimental results showed 100% cell trapping and 90% single cell trapping over 4 × 100 trap sites for these two cell types, respectively. The space saving is estimated to be 2-fold and the cell trapping speed enhancement to be 3-fold compared to previously reported devices. This device can be used for trapping various types of cells and expanded to trap cells in the order of tens of thousands on 1-cm(2) scale area, as a promising tool to pattern large-scale single cells on specific

  3. [Eukaryotic expression and application of HCV Hebei strain E2 extracellular core region].

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuantao; Bian, Peiyu; Weng, Daihui; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Lei, Yingfeng; Jia, Zhansheng

    2016-06-01

    Objective To express core region of HCV1b (Hebei strain) E2 protein (E2c) by eukaryotic system, and establish the detection method of specific anti-HCV E2 antibody in the sera from hepatitis C patients. Methods Based on the literature, the E2c gene was modified from the HCV1b gene and synthesized via overlapping PCR. Thereafter, the E2c gene including tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) signal peptide was cloned into the pCI-neo eukaryotic expression vector, and the product was named pCI-tpa-1bE2c. After HEK293T cells were transfected with pCI-tpa-1bE2c, the supernatant was collected, condensed and purified. Its specificity was identified by Western blotting. Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-based ELISA was used to detect the antibody against HCVE2 in the sera from hepatitis C patients. Results Modified HCV E2c protein was successfully expressed in HEK293T cells and the GNA-based ELISA was developed for detecting the antibody against HCV E2 in the sera from hepatitis C patients. Conclusion HCV-1bE2c protein can be effectively expressed in HEK293T cells and applied clinically. PMID:27371839

  4. RNF38 encodes a nuclear ubiquitin protein ligase that modifies p53

    SciTech Connect

    Sheren, Jamie E.; Kassenbrock, C. Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •RNF38 is shown to be a nuclear protein with a bipartite nuclear localization signal. •RNF38 protein is purified and shown to have ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) activity. •We show that RNF38 binds p53 and can ubiquitinate p53 in vitro. •Overexpression of RNF38 increases p53 ubiquitination in HEK293T cells. •Overexpression of RNF38 in HEK293T cells alters p53 localization. -- Abstract: The RNF38 gene encodes a RING finger protein of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that RNF38 is a functional ubiquitin protein ligase (E3). We show that RNF38 isoform 1 is localized to the nucleus by a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS). We confirm that RNF38 is a binding partner of p53 and demonstrate that RNF38 can ubiquitinate p53 in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we show that overexpression of RNF38 in HEK293T cells results in relocalization of p53 to discrete foci associated with PML nuclear bodies. These results suggest RNF38 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that may play a role in regulating p53.

  5. Integrated nanoscale tools for interrogating living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgolli, Marsela

    and fabricated a new hybrid chip that combines a front-side nanowire-based interface for neuronal recording with backside complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits for on-chip multiplexing, voltage control for stimulation, signal amplification, and signal processing. Individual chips contain 1024 stimulation/recording sites enabling large-scale interfacing of neuronal networks with single cell resolution. Through electrical and electrochemical characterization of the devices, we demonstrated their enhanced functionality at a massively parallel scale. In our initial cell experiments, we achieved intracellular stimulations and recordings of changes in the membrane potential in a variety of cells including: HEK293T, cardiomyocytes, and rat cortical neurons. This demonstrated the device capability for single-cell-resolution recording/stimulation which when extended to a large number of neurons in a massively parallel fashion will enable the functional mapping of a complex neuronal network.

  6. Cross-presentation of viral antigens in dribbles leads to efficient activation of virus-specific human memory t cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autophagy regulates innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens and tumors. We have reported that autophagosomes derived from tumor cells after proteasome inhibition, DRibbles (Defective ribosomal products in blebs), were excellent sources of antigens for efficient cross priming of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells, which mediated regression of established tumors in mice. But the activity of DRibbles in human has not been reported. Methods DRibbles or cell lysates derived from HEK293T or UbiLT3 cell lines expressing cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 protein or transfected with a plasmid encoding dominant HLA-A2 restricted CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Influenza (Flu) epitopes (CEF) were loaded onto human monocytes or PBMCs and the response of human CMV pp65 or CEF antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells was detected by intracellular staining. The effect of cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-α and IFN-γ) TLR agonists (Lipopolysaccharide, Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C), M52-CpG, R848, TLR2 ligand) and CD40 ligand on the cross-presentation of antigens contained in DRibbles or cell lysates was explored. Results In this study we showed that purified monocytes, or human PBMCs, loaded with DRibbles isolated from cells expressing CMV or CEF epitopes, could activate CMV- or CEF-specific memory T cells. DRibbles were significantly more efficient at stimulating CD8+ memory T cells compared to cell lysates expressing the same antigenic epitopes. We optimized the conditions for T-cell activation and IFN-γ production following direct loading of DRibbles onto PBMCs. We found that the addition of Poly(I:C), CD40 ligand, and GM-CSF to the PBMCs together with DRibbles significantly increased the level of CD8+ T cell responses. Conclusions DRibbles containing specific viral antigens are an efficient ex vivo activator of human antigen-specific memory T cells specific for those antigens. This function could be enhanced by combining with Poly

  7. The role of HCV e2 protein glycosylation in functioning of virus envelope proteins in insect and Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Orlova, O V; Drutsa, V L; Spirin, P V; Prasolov, V S; Rubtsov, P M; Kochetkov, S N; Beljelarskaya, S N

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2, being virion components, are involved in the formation of infectious particles in infected cells. The detailed structure of the infectious particle of HCV remains poorly understood. Moreover, the virion assembly and release of virions by the cell are the least understood processes. It is believed that virion properties depend on glycosylation of the virus envelope proteins in a cell, while glycansat several glycosylation sites of these proteins play a pivotal role in protein functioning and the HCV life cycle. N-glycans of glycoproteins can influence viral particle formation, virus binding to cell surface, and HCV pathogenesis. We studied the effect of glycans on the folding ofthe E2 glycoprotein, formation of functional glycoprotein complexes and virus particles in insect and mammalian cells. In order to investigate these processes, point mutations of the N-glycosylation sites of HCV protein E2 (genotype 1b strain 274933RU) were generated and the mutant proteins were further analyzed in the baculovirus expression system. Elimination of the single glycosylation sites of the E2 glycoprotein, except for the N6 site, did not affect its synthesis efficiency in Sf9 insect cells, while the electrophoretic mobility of mutant proteins increased in proportion to the decrease in the number of glycosylation sites. The level of synthesis of HCV glycoprotein E2 in human HEK293T cells depended on the presence of glycans at the N1 and N8 glycosylation sites in contrast to Sf9 cells. At the same time, elimination of glycans at the N1, N2, and N10 sites led to the accumulation of unproductive E1E2 dimers as aggregates and productive assembly suppression of virus-like particles both in insect and mammalian cells. In addition, elimination of single glycosylation sites of HCV E2 had no impact on the RNA synthesis of structural proteins and formation of virus-like particles in insect and mammalian cells. PMID:25927005

  8. Peroxidase-like activity of Fe3O4@carbon nanoparticles enhances ascorbic acid-induced oxidative stress and selective damage to PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    An, Qiao; Sun, Chuanyu; Li, Dian; Xu, Ke; Guo, Jia; Wang, Changchun

    2013-12-26

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth by perturbing the normal redox state of cells and causing toxic effects through the generation of abundant reactive-oxygen species (ROS). However, the clinical utility of AA at a tolerable dosage is plagued by a relatively low in vivo efficacy. This study describes the development of a peroxidase-like composite nanoparticle for use in an AA-mediated therapeutic strategy. On the basis of a high-throughput, one-pot solvothermal approach, Fe3O4@C nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and then modified with folic acid (FA) on the surface. Particular focus is concentrated on the assessment of peroxidase-like catalytic activity by a chromogenic reaction in the presence of H2O2. The carbon shell of Fe3O4@C NPs contains partially graphitized carbon and thus facilitates electron transfer in the catalytic decomposition of H2O2, leading to the production of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Along with magnetic responsiveness and receptor-binding specificity, the intrinsic peroxidase-like catalytic activity of Fe3O4@C-FA NPs pronouncedly promotes AA-induced oxidative stress in cancer cells and optimizes the ROS-mediated antineoplastic efficacy of exogenous AA. In vitro experiments using human prostate cancer PC-3 cells demonstrate that Fe3O4@C-FA NPs serve as a peroxidase mimic to create hydroxyl radicals from endogenous H2O2 that is yielded in response to exogenous AA via an oxidative stress process. The usage of a dual agent leads to the enhanced cytotoxicity of PC-3 cells, and, because of the synergistic effect of NPs, the administrated dosage of AA is reduced markedly. However, because normal cells (HEK 293T cells) appear to have a higher capacity to cope with additionally generated ROS than cancer cells, the NP-AA combination shows little damage in this case, proving that selective killing of cancer cells could be achieved owing to preferential accumulation of ROS in cancer cells. A possible ROS

  9. Targeting KRAS Oncogene in Colon Cancer Cells with 7-Carboxylate Indolo[3,2-b]quinoline Tri-Alkylamine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Hugo; Martins, Ana Cláudia; Lavrado, João; Mendes, Eduarda; Francisco, Ana Paula; Santos, Sofia A.; Ohnmacht, Stephan A.; Kim, Nam-Soon; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.; Moreira, Rui; Neidle, Stephen; Borralho, Pedro M.; Paulo, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background A guanine-rich strand within the promoter of the KRAS gene can fold into an intra-molecular G-quadruplex structure (G4), which has an important role in the regulation of KRAS transcription. We have previously identified indolo[3,2-b]quinolines with a 7-carboxylate group and three alkylamine side chains (IQ3A) as effective G4 stabilizers and promising selective anticancer leads. Herein we investigated the anticancer mechanism of action of these compounds, which we hypothesized due to stabilization of the G4 sequence in the KRAS promoter and subsequent down-regulation of gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings IQ3A compounds showed greater stabilization of G4 compared to duplex DNA structures and reduced KRAS promoter activity in a dual luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, IQ3A compounds showed high anti-proliferative activity in HCT116 and SW620 colon cancer cells (IC50 < 2.69 μM), without eliciting cell death in non-malignant HEK293T human embryonic kidney, and human colon fibroblasts CCD18co. IQ3A compounds significantly reduced KRAS mRNA and protein steady-state levels at IC50 concentrations, and increased p53 protein steady-state levels and cell death by apoptosis in HCT116 cells (mut KRAS, wt p53). Furthermore, KRAS silencing in HCT116 p53 wild-type (p53(+/+)) and null (p53(-/-)) isogenic cell lines induced a higher level of cell death, and a higher IQ3A-induced cell death in HCT116 p53(+/+) compared to HCT116 p53(-/-). Conclusions Herein we provide evidence that G4 ligands such as IQ3A compounds can target G4 motifs present in KRAS promoter, down-regulate the expression of the mutant KRAS gene through inhibition of transcription and translation, and induce cell death by apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines. Thus, targeting KRAS at the genomic level with G4 ligands may be a new anticancer therapy strategy for colon cancer. PMID:26024321

  10. A synthetic cGMP-sensitive gene switch providing Viagra(®)-controlled gene expression in mammalian cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeuk; Folcher, Marc; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a universal second messenger that is synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and hydrolyzed into guanosine monophosphate (GMP) by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Small-molecule drugs that induce high cGMP levels in specialized tissues by boosting GC activity or inhibiting PDE activity have become the predominant treatment strategy for a wide range of medical conditions, including congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis-based claudication and erectile dysfunction. By fusing the cGMP receptor protein (CRP) of Rhodospirillum centenum to the Herpes simplex-derived transactivation domain VP16, we created a novel synthetic mammalian cGMP-sensing transcription factor (GTA) that activates synthetic promoters (PGTA) containing newly identified GTA-specific operator sites in a concentration-dependent manner. In cell lines expressing endogenous natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A) (HeLa), GTA/PGTA-driven transgene expression was induced by B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; Nesiritide(®)) in a concentration-dependent manner, which activated NPR-A׳s intracellular GC domain and triggered a corresponding cGMP surge. Ectopic expression of NPR-A in NPR-A-negative cell lines (HEK-293T) produced high cGMP levels and mediated maximum GTA/PGTA-driven transgene expression, which was suppressed by co-expression of PDEs (PDE-3A, PDE-5A and PDE-9A) and was re-triggered by the corresponding PDE inhibitor drugs (Pletal(®), Perfan(®), Primacor(®) (PDE-3A), Viagra(®), Levitra(®), Cialis(®) (PDE-5A) and BAY73-6691 (PDE-9A)). Mice implanted with microencapsulated designer cells co-expressing the GTA/PGTA device with NPR-A and PDE-5A showed control of blood SEAP levels through administration of sildenafil (Viagra(®)). Designer cells engineered for PDE inhibitor-modulated transgene expression may provide a cell-based PDE-targeting drug discovery platform and enable drug-adjusted gene- and cell

  11. NS1-binding protein abrogates the elevation of cell viability by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in association with CRKL

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Masaya; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Hideki; Tashiro, Masato; Wang, Lei; Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Tsuda, Masumi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •NS1 induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability. •NS1-BP expression and CRKL knockdown abolished survival effect of NS1. •NS1-BP and NS1 formed the complex through the interaction with CRKL-SH3(N). -- Abstract: The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor consisting of an RNA binding domain and several Src-homology (SH) 2 and SH3 binding motifs, which promotes virus replication in the host cell and helps to evade antiviral immunity. NS1 modulates general host cell physiology in association with various cellular molecules including NS1-binding protein (NS1-BP) and signaling adapter protein CRK-like (CRKL), while the physiological role of NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection especially in association with NS1 remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the intracellular association of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL to elucidate the physiological roles of these molecules in the host cell. In HEK293T cells, enforced expression of NS1 of A/Beijing (H1N1) and A/Indonesia (H5N1) significantly induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability, while the over-expression of NS1-BP and the abrogation of CRKL using siRNA abolished such survival effect of NS1. The pull-down assay using GST-fusion CRKL revealed the formation of intracellular complexes of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL. In addition, we identified that the N-terminus SH3 domain of CRKL was essential for binding to NS1-BP using GST-fusion CRKL-truncate mutants. This is the first report to elucidate the novel function of NS1-BP collaborating with viral protein NS1 in modulation of host cell physiology. In addition, an alternative role of adaptor protein CRKL in association with NS1 and NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection is demonstrated.

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Associated Protein (PI3KAP)/XB130 Crosslinks Actin Filaments through Its Actin Binding and Multimerization Properties In Vitro and Enhances Endocytosis in HEK293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Akama, Takeshi; Chida, Kazuhiro; Minami, Shiro; Ito, Koichi; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Actin-crosslinking proteins control actin filament networks and bundles and contribute to various cellular functions including regulation of cell migration, cell morphology, and endocytosis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated protein (PI3KAP)/XB130 has been reported to be localized to actin filaments (F-actin) and required for cell migration in thyroid carcinoma cells. Here, we show a role for PI3KAP/XB130 as an actin-crosslinking protein. First, we found that the carboxyl terminal region of PI3KAP/XB130 containing amino acid residues 830-840 was required and sufficient for localization to F-actin in NIH3T3 cells, and this region is directly bound to F-actin in vitro. Moreover, actin-crosslinking assay revealed that recombinant PI3KAP/XB130 crosslinked F-actin. In general, actin-crosslinking proteins often multimerize to assemble multiple actin-binding sites. We then investigated whether PI3KAP/XB130 could form a multimer. Blue native-PAGE analysis showed that recombinant PI3KAP/XB130 was detected at 250-1200 kDa although the molecular mass was approximately 125 kDa, suggesting that PI3KAP/XB130 formed multimers. Furthermore, we found that the amino terminal 40 amino acids were required for this multimerization by co-immunoprecipitation assay in HEK293T cells. Deletion mutants of PI3KAP/XB130 lacking the actin-binding region or the multimerizing region did not crosslink actin filaments, indicating that actin binding and multimerization of PI3KAP/XB130 were necessary to crosslink F-actin. Finally, we examined roles of PI3KAP/XB130 on endocytosis, an actin-related biological process. Overexpression of PI3KAP/XB130 enhanced dextran uptake in HEK 293 cells. However, most of the cells transfected with the deletion mutant lacking the actin-binding region incorporated dextran to a similar extent as control cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PI3KAP/XB130 crosslinks F-actin through both its actin-binding region and multimerizing region and plays

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Associated Protein (PI3KAP)/XB130 Crosslinks Actin Filaments through Its Actin Binding and Multimerization Properties In Vitro and Enhances Endocytosis in HEK293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Akama, Takeshi; Chida, Kazuhiro; Minami, Shiro; Ito, Koichi; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Actin-crosslinking proteins control actin filament networks and bundles and contribute to various cellular functions including regulation of cell migration, cell morphology, and endocytosis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated protein (PI3KAP)/XB130 has been reported to be localized to actin filaments (F-actin) and required for cell migration in thyroid carcinoma cells. Here, we show a role for PI3KAP/XB130 as an actin-crosslinking protein. First, we found that the carboxyl terminal region of PI3KAP/XB130 containing amino acid residues 830–840 was required and sufficient for localization to F-actin in NIH3T3 cells, and this region is directly bound to F-actin in vitro. Moreover, actin-crosslinking assay revealed that recombinant PI3KAP/XB130 crosslinked F-actin. In general, actin-crosslinking proteins often multimerize to assemble multiple actin-binding sites. We then investigated whether PI3KAP/XB130 could form a multimer. Blue native-PAGE analysis showed that recombinant PI3KAP/XB130 was detected at 250–1200 kDa although the molecular mass was approximately 125 kDa, suggesting that PI3KAP/XB130 formed multimers. Furthermore, we found that the amino terminal 40 amino acids were required for this multimerization by co-immunoprecipitation assay in HEK293T cells. Deletion mutants of PI3KAP/XB130 lacking the actin-binding region or the multimerizing region did not crosslink actin filaments, indicating that actin binding and multimerization of PI3KAP/XB130 were necessary to crosslink F-actin. Finally, we examined roles of PI3KAP/XB130 on endocytosis, an actin-related biological process. Overexpression of PI3KAP/XB130 enhanced dextran uptake in HEK 293 cells. However, most of the cells transfected with the deletion mutant lacking the actin-binding region incorporated dextran to a similar extent as control cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PI3KAP/XB130 crosslinks F-actin through both its actin-binding region and multimerizing region and

  14. Cell- and Protein-Directed Glycosylation of Native Cleaved HIV-1 Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Laura K.; Harvey, David J.; Bonomelli, Camille

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gp120/gp41 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is highly glycosylated, with up to 50% of its mass consisting of N-linked glycans. This dense carbohydrate coat has emerged as a promising vaccine target, with its glycans acting as epitopes for a number of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Characterizing the glycan structures present on native HIV-1 Env is thus a critical goal for the design of Env immunogens. In this study, we used a complementary, multistep approach involving ion mobility mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to comprehensively characterize the glycan structures present on HIV-1 gp120 produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The capacity of different expression systems, including pseudoviral particles and recombinant cell surface trimers, to reproduce native-like glycosylation was then assessed. A population of oligomannose glycans on gp120 was reproduced across all expression systems, supporting this as an intrinsic property of Env that can be targeted for vaccine design. In contrast, Env produced in HEK 293T cells failed to accurately reproduce the highly processed complex-type glycan structures observed on PBMC-derived gp120, and in particular the precise linkage of sialic acid residues that cap these glycans. Finally, we show that unlike for gp120, the glycans decorating gp41 are mostly complex-type sugars, consistent with the glycan specificity of bnAbs that target this region. These findings provide insights into the glycosylation of native and recombinant HIV-1 Env and can be used to inform strategies for immunogen design and preparation. IMPORTANCE Development of an HIV vaccine is desperately needed to control new infections, and elicitation of HIV bnAbs will likely be an important component of an effective vaccine. Increasingly, HIV bnAbs are being identified that bind to the N-linked glycans coating the HIV envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, highlighting them as

  15. Netrin-1-Regulated Distribution of UNC5B and DCC in Live Cells Revealed by TICCS.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Angelica A; Rappaz, Benjamin; Rouger, Vincent; Martyn, Iain B; Dahlberg, Peter D; Meland, Rachel J; Beamish, Ian V; Kennedy, Timothy E; Wiseman, Paul W

    2016-02-01

    Netrins are secreted proteins that direct cell migration and adhesion during development. Netrin-1 binds its receptors deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and the UNC5 homologs (UNC5A-D) to activate downstream signaling that ultimately directs cytoskeletal reorganization. To investigate how netrin-1 regulates the dynamic distribution of DCC and UNC5 homologs, we applied fluorescence confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, and sliding window temporal image cross correlation spectroscopy, to measure time profiles of the plasma membrane distribution, aggregation state, and interaction fractions of fluorescently tagged netrin receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. Our measurements reveal changes in receptor aggregation that are consistent with netrin-1-induced recruitment of DCC-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. Netrin-1 also induced colocalization of coexpressed full-length DCC-EGFP with DCC-T-mCherry, a putative DCC dominant negative that replaces the DCC intracellular domain with mCherry, consistent with netrin-1-induced receptor oligomerization, but with no change in aggregation state with time, providing evidence that signaling via the DCC intracellular domain triggers DCC recruitment to the plasma membrane. UNC5B expressed alone was also recruited by netrin-1 to the plasma membrane. Coexpressed DCC and UNC5 homologs are proposed to form a heteromeric netrin-receptor complex to mediate a chemorepellent response. Application of temporal image cross correlation spectroscopy to image series of cells coexpressing UNC5B-mCherry and DCC-EGFP revealed a netrin-1-induced increase in colocalization, with both receptors recruited to the plasma membrane from preexisting clusters, consistent with vesicular recruitment and receptor heterooligomerization. Plasma membrane recruitment of DCC or UNC5B was blocked by application of the netrin-1 VI-V peptide, which fails to activate chemoattraction, or

  16. Hes-1 SUMOylation by protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 enhances the suppressing effect of Hes-1 on GADD45α expression to increase cell survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hairy and Enhancer of split 1 (Hes-1) is a transcriptional repressor that plays an important role in neuronal differentiation and development, but post-translational modifications of Hes-1 are much less known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether Hes-1 could be SUMO-modified and identify the candidate SUMO acceptors on Hes-1. We also wished to examine the role of the SUMO E3 ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) in SUMOylation of Hes-1 and the molecular mechanism of Hes-1 SUMOylation. Further, we aimed to identify the molecular target of Hes-1 and examine how Hes-1 SUMOylation affects its molecular target to affect cell survival. Results In this study, by using HEK293T cells, we have found that Hes-1 could be SUMO-modified and Hes-1 SUMOylation was greatly enhanced by the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 at Lys8, Lys27 and Lys39. Furthermore, Hes-1 SUMOylation stabilized the Hes-1 protein and increased the transcriptional suppressing activity of Hes-1 on growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein alpha (GADD45α) expression. Overexpression of GADD45α increased, whereas knockdown of GADD45αα expression decreased cell apoptosis. In addition, H2O2 treatment increased the association between PIAS1 and Hes-1 and enhanced the SUMOylation of Hes-1 for endogenous protection. Overexpression of Hes-1 decreased H2O2-induced cell death, but this effect was blocked by transfection of the Hes-1 triple sumo-mutant (Hes-1 3KR). Overexpression of PIAS1 further facilitated the anti-apoptotic effect of Hes-1. Moreover, Hes-1 SUMOylation was independent of Hes-1 phosphorylation and vice versa. Conclusions The present results revealed, for the first time, that Hes-1 could be SUMO-modified by PIAS1 and GADD45α is a novel target of Hes-1. Further, Hes-1 SUMOylation mediates cell survival through enhanced suppression of GADD45α expression. These results revealed a novel role of Hes-1 in addition to its involvement in Notch signaling. They also

  17. Measurement of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate in Living Cells Using an Improved Set of Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Dániel J.; Kurucz, István; Hunyady, László; Balla, Tamas; Várnai, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Improved versions of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) sensors were created to follow intracellular InsP3 changes in single living cells and in cell populations. Similar to previous InsP3 sensors the new sensors are based on the ligand binding domain of the human type-I InsP3 receptor (InsP3R-LBD), but contain a mutation of either R265K or R269K to lower their InsP3 binding affinity. Tagging the InsP3R-LBD with N-terminal Cerulean and C-terminal Venus allowed measurement of InsP3 in single-cell FRET experiments. Replacing Cerulean with a Luciferase enzyme allowed experiments in multi-cell format by measuring the change in the BRET signal upon stimulation. These sensors faithfully followed the agonist-induced increase in InsP3 concentration in HEK 293T cells expressing the Gq-coupled AT1 angiotensin receptor detecting a response to agonist concentration as low as 10 pmol/L. Compared to the wild type InsP3 sensor, the mutant sensors showed an improved off-rate, enabling a more rapid and complete return of the signal to the resting value of InsP3 after termination of M3 muscarinic receptor stimulation by atropine. For parallel measurements of intracellular InsP3 and Ca2+ levels in BRET experiments, the Cameleon D3 Ca2+ sensor was modified by replacing its CFP with luciferase. In these experiments depletion of plasma membrane PtdIns(4,5)P2 resulted in the fall of InsP3 level, followed by the decrease of the Ca2+-signal evoked by the stimulation of the AT1 receptor. In contrast, when type-III PI 4-kinases were inhibited with a high concentration of wortmannin or a more specific inhibitor, A1, the decrease of the Ca2+-signal preceded the fall of InsP3 level indicating an InsP3-, independent, direct regulation of capacitative Ca2+ influx by plasma membrane inositol lipids. Taken together, our results indicate that the improved InsP3 sensor can be used to monitor both the increase and decrease of InsP3 levels in live cells suitable for high-throughput BRET applications

  18. Co-liposomes having anisamide tagged lipid and cholesteryl tryptophan trigger enhanced gene transfection in sigma receptor positive cells.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Moitra, Parikshit; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2016-06-01

    Selective gene transfection could be strategy of interest for reducing off-target gene expression and toxicity. In this respect, sigma receptors are found to be over-expressed in many human tumors and liposomal formulations with ability to target these sigma receptors may improve the transfection efficiency to a significant level. To this direction, six novel lipids have been synthesized with different hydrophobic segments such as a long hydrophobic chain or a cholesteryl group and L-tryptophan as the head group. Three of them, Lipid 1, 3 and 5 possessed cationic Me3N(+) moiety at the distal end. In contrast each of the other three Lipid 2, 4 and 6 possessed sigma receptor targeting anisamide group with no cationic charge. Mixing of cationic and anisamide counterparts of the same lipid in a molar ratio of 1:1 produced co-liposomes L-M-1 (Lipid 1+2), L-M-2 (Lipid 3+4) and L-M-3 (Lipid 5+6). These co-liposomes, while keeping the sigma targeting anisamide tag intact, showed good DNA binding and release which were optimized from EB intercalation and gel electrophoresis assays. Inclusion of a zwitterionic, fusogenic natural lipid, DOPE, into the co-liposomes further improved the binding efficiencies of the lipid mixtures with DNA. These co-liposomes having cationic and anisamide lipids and DOPE were highly selective toward sigma positive HEK293 and HEK293T cells compared to the sigma negative HeLa cells. As evidenced from both FACS and luciferase assay, a lipid mixture comprising Lipid 3, 4 and DOPE in a molar ratio of 1:1:1 (L-M-2D1) was the best for transfection of reporter pEGFP-C3 and functional pCEP4-p53 gene plasmids. Anisamide mediated sigma receptor selectivity was further probed by pre-incubating the transfecting cells with lipids possessing anisamide and by quantification of the un-transfected plasmid DNA. Also each formulation was highly non-toxic in the cell lines examined. PMID:26945165

  19. β2-Adrenergic Receptors Chaperone Trapped Bitter Taste Receptor 14 to the Cell Surface as a Heterodimer and Exert Unidirectional Desensitization of Taste Receptor Function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghwa; Pauer, Susan H; Yong, Hwan M; An, Steven S; Liggett, Stephen B

    2016-08-19

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are G-protein-coupled receptors now recognized to be expressed on extraoral cells, including airway smooth muscle (ASM) where they evoke relaxation. TAS2Rs are difficult to express in heterologous systems, with most receptors being trapped intracellularly. We find, however, that co-expression of β2-adrenergic receptors (β2AR) in HEK-293T routes TAS2R14 to the cell surface by forming receptor heterodimers. Cell surface TAS2R14 expression was increased by ∼5-fold when β2AR was co-expressed. Heterodimer formation was shown by co-immunoprecipitation with tagged receptors, biomolecular fluorescence complementation, and merged confocal images. The dynamic nature of this interaction was shown by: a gene-dose relationship between transfected β2AR and TAS2R14 expression, enhanced (up to 3-fold) TAS2R14 agonist stimulation of [Ca(2+)]i with β2AR co-transfection, ∼53% decrease in [Ca(2+)]i signaling with shRNA knockdown of β2AR in H292 cells, and ∼60% loss of [Ca(2+)]i responsiveness in βAR knock-out mouse ASM. Once expressed on the surface, we detected unidirectional, conformation-dependent, interaction within the heterodimer, with β2AR activation rapidly uncoupling TAS2R14 function (∼65% desensitization). Cross-talk was independent of β2AR internalization and cAMP/PKA, and not accompanied by TAS2R14 internalization. With prolonged β-agonist exposure, TAS2R14 internalized, consistent with slow recycling of naked TAS2R14 in the absence of the heterodimeric milieu. In studies of ASM mechanics, rapid cross-talk was confirmed at the physiologic level, where relaxation from TAS2R14 agonist was decreased by ∼50% with β-agonist co-treatment. Thus the β2AR acts as a double-edged sword: increasing TAS2R14 cell surface expression, but when activated by β-agonist, partially offsetting the expression phenotype by direct receptor:receptor desensitization of TAS2R14 function. PMID:27342779

  20. Silencing α1,3-Fucosyltransferases in Human Leukocytes Reveals a Role for FUT9 Enzyme during E-selectin-mediated Cell Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Buffone, Alexander; Mondal, Nandini; Gupta, Rohitesh; McHugh, Kyle P.; Lau, Joseph T. Y.; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion during inflammation is initiated by the binding of sialofucosylated carbohydrates expressed on leukocytes to endothelial E/P-selectin. Although the glycosyltransferases (glycoTs) constructing selectin-ligands have largely been identified using knock-out mice, important differences may exist between humans and mice. To address this, we developed a systematic lentivirus-based shRNA delivery workflow to create human leukocytic HL-60 cell lines that lack up to three glycoTs. Using this, the contributions of all three myeloid α1,3-fucosyltransferases (FUT4, FUT7, and FUT9) to selectin-ligand biosynthesis were evaluated. The cell adhesion properties of these modified cells to L-, E-, and P-selectin under hydrodynamic shear were compared with bone marrow-derived neutrophils from Fut4−/−Fut7−/− dual knock-out mice. Results demonstrate that predominantly FUT7, and to a lesser extent FUT4, forms the selectin-ligand at the N terminus of leukocyte P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) in humans and mice. Here, 85% reduction in leukocyte interaction was observed in human FUT4−7− dual knockdowns on P/L-selectin substrates. Unlike Fut4−/−Fut7−/− mouse neutrophils, however, human knockdowns lacking FUT4 and FUT7 only exhibited partial reduction in rolling interaction on E-selectin. In this case, the third α1,3-fucosyltransferase FUT9 played an important role because leukocyte adhesion was reduced by 50–60% in FUT9-HL-60, 70–80% in dual knockdown FUT7−9− cells, and ∼85% in FUT4−7−9− triple knockdowns. Gene silencing results are in agreement with gain-of-function experiments where all three fucosyltransferases conferred E-selectin-mediated rolling in HEK293T cells. This study advances new tools to study human glycoT function. It suggests a species-specific role for FUT9 during the biosynthesis of human E-selectin ligands. PMID:23192350

  1. Insulin stimulates movement of sorting nexin 9 between cellular compartments: a putative role mediating cell surface receptor expression and insulin action.

    PubMed Central

    MaCaulay, S Lance; Stoichevska, Violet; Grusovin, Julian; Gough, Keith H; Castelli, Laura A; Ward, Colin W

    2003-01-01

    SNX9 (sorting nexin 9) is one member of a family of proteins implicated in protein trafficking. This family is characterized by a unique PX (Phox homology) domain that includes a proline-rich sequence and an upstream phospholipid binding domain. Many sorting nexins, including SNX9, also have a C-terminal coiled region. SNX9 additionally has an N-terminal SH3 (Src homology 3) domain. Here we have investigated the cellular localization of SNX9 and the potential role it plays in insulin action. SNX9 had a cytosolic and punctate distribution, consistent with endosomal and cytosolic localization, in 3T3L1 adipocytes. It was excluded from the nucleus. The SH3 domain was responsible, at least in part, for the membrane localization of SNX9, since expression of an SH3-domain-deleted GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SNX9 fusion protein in HEK293T cells rendered the protein cytosolic. Membrane localization may also be attributed in part to the PX domain, since in vitro phospholipid binding studies demonstrated SNX9 binding to polyphosphoinositides. Insulin induced movement of SNX9 to membrane fractions from the cytosol. A GST (glutathione S-transferase)-SNX9 fusion protein was associated with IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) and insulin receptors in vitro. A GFP-SNX9 fusion protein, overexpressed in 3T3L1 adipocytes, co-immunoprecipitated with insulin receptors. Furthermore, overexpression of this GFP-SNX9 fusion protein in CHOT cells decreased insulin binding, consistent with a role for SNX9 in the trafficking of insulin receptors. Microinjection of 3T3L1 cells with an antibody against SNX9 inhibited stimulation by insulin of GLUT4 translocation. These results support the involvement of SNX9 in insulin action, via an influence on the processing/trafficking of insulin receptors. A secondary role in regulation of the cellular processing, transport and/or subcellular localization of GLUT4 is also suggested. PMID:12917015

  2. The prion protein is an agonistic ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor Adgrg6.

    PubMed

    Küffer, Alexander; Lakkaraju, Asvin K K; Mogha, Amit; Petersen, Sarah C; Airich, Kristina; Doucerain, Cédric; Marpakwar, Rajlakshmi; Bakirci, Pamela; Senatore, Assunta; Monnard, Arnaud; Schiavi, Carmen; Nuvolone, Mario; Grosshans, Bianka; Hornemann, Simone; Bassilana, Frederic; Monk, Kelly R; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2016-08-25

    Ablation of the cellular prion protein PrP(C) leads to a chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy affecting Schwann cells. Neuron-restricted expression of PrP(C) prevents the disease, suggesting that PrP(C) acts in trans through an unidentified Schwann cell receptor. Here we show that the cAMP concentration in sciatic nerves from PrP(C)-deficient mice is reduced, suggesting that PrP(C) acts via a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The amino-terminal flexible tail (residues 23-120) of PrP(C) triggered a concentration-dependent increase in cAMP in primary Schwann cells, in the Schwann cell line SW10, and in HEK293T cells overexpressing the GPCR Adgrg6 (also known as Gpr126). By contrast, naive HEK293T cells and HEK293T cells expressing several other GPCRs did not react to the flexible tail, and ablation of Gpr126 from SW10 cells abolished the flexible tail-induced cAMP response. The flexible tail contains a polycationic cluster (KKRPKPG) similar to the GPRGKPG motif of the Gpr126 agonist type-IV collagen. A KKRPKPG-containing PrPC-derived peptide (FT(23-50)) sufficed to induce a Gpr126-dependent cAMP response in cells and mice, and improved myelination in hypomorphic gpr126 mutant zebrafish (Danio rerio). Substitution of the cationic residues with alanines abolished the biological activity of both FT(23-50) and the equivalent type-IV collagen peptide. We conclude that PrP(C) promotes myelin homeostasis through flexible tail-mediated Gpr126 agonism. As well as clarifying the physiological role of PrP(C), these observations are relevant to the pathogenesis of demyelinating polyneuropathies--common debilitating diseases for which there are limited therapeutic options. PMID:27501152

  3. Monoclonal antibody Rip specifically recognizes 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masatomo; Sakurai, Yoko; Ichinose, Tatsuya; Aikawa, Yoshikatsu; Kotani, Masaharu; Itoh, Kouichi

    2006-08-15

    The antigen recognized with monoclonal antibody (mAb) Rip (Rip-antigen) has been long used as a marker of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths. However, the identity of Rip-antigen has yet to be elucidated. We herein identified the Rip-antigen. No signal recognized by mAb-Rip was detected by immunoblot analyses in the rat brain, cultured rat oligodendrocytes, or the oligodendrocyte cell line CG-4. As this antibody worked very well on immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, Rip-antigen was immunopurified with mAb-Rip from the differentiated CG-4 cells. Eight strong-intensity bands thus appeared on 5-20% SDS-PAGE with SYPRO ruby fluorescence staining. To identify these molecules, each band extracted from the gel was analyzed by MALDI-QIT/TOF mass spectrometry. We found an interesting molecule in the oligodendrocytes from an approximately 44-kDa band as 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP). To test whether CNP was recognized by mAb-Rip, double-immunofluorescence staining was performed by using Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated mAb-Rip and Alexa Fluor 568-conjugated mAb-CNP in the rat cerebellum, mouse cerebellum, cultured rat oligodendrocytes, and CG-4 cells. The Rip-antigen was colocalized with CNP in these cells and tissues. To provide direct evidence that CNP was recognized by mAb-Rip, rat Cnp1-transfected HEK293T cells were used for double-immunofluorescence staining with mAb-Rip and mAb-CNP. The Rip-antigen was colocalized with CNP in rat Cnp1-transfected HEK293T cells, but the antigen was not detected by mAb-Rip and mAb-CNP in mock-transfected HEK293T cells. Overall, we have demonstrated that the antigen labeled with mAb-Rip is CNP in the oligodendrocytes. PMID:16786579

  4. Generation of a Genome Scale Lentiviral Vector Library for EF1α Promoter-Driven Expression of Human ORFs and Identification of Human Genes Affecting Viral Titer

    PubMed Central

    Škalamera, Dubravka; Dahmer, Mareike; Purdon, Amy S.; Wilson, Benjamin M.; Ranall, Max V.; Blumenthal, Antje; Gabrielli, Brian; Gonda, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The bottleneck in elucidating gene function through high-throughput gain-of-function genome screening is the limited availability of comprehensive libraries for gene overexpression. Lentiviral vectors are the most versatile and widely used vehicles for gene expression in mammalian cells. Lentiviral supernatant libraries for genome screening are commonly generated in the HEK293T cell line, yet very little is known about the effect of introduced sequences on the produced viral titer, which we have shown to be gene dependent. We have generated an arrayed lentiviral vector library for the expression of 17,030 human proteins by using the GATEWAY® cloning system to transfer ORFs from the Mammalian Gene Collection into an EF1alpha promoter-dependent lentiviral expression vector. This promoter was chosen instead of the more potent and widely used CMV promoter, because it is less prone to silencing and provides more stable long term expression. The arrayed lentiviral clones were used to generate viral supernatant by packaging in the HEK293T cell line. The efficiency of transfection and virus production was estimated by measuring the fluorescence of IRES driven GFP, co-expressed with the ORFs. More than 90% of cloned ORFs produced sufficient virus for downstream screening applications. We identified genes which consistently produced very high or very low viral titer. Supernatants from select clones that were either high or low virus producers were tested on a range of cell lines. Some of the low virus producers, including two previously uncharacterized proteins were cytotoxic to HEK293T cells. The library we have constructed presents a powerful resource for high-throughput gain-of-function screening of the human genome and drug-target discovery. Identification of human genes that affect lentivirus production may lead to improved technology for gene expression using lentiviral vectors. PMID:23251614

  5. A cationic fluorescent polymeric thermometer for the ratiometric sensing of intracellular temperature.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Seiichi; Tsuji, Toshikazu; Ikado, Kumiko; Yoshida, Aruto; Kawamoto, Kyoko; Hayashi, Teruyuki; Inada, Noriko

    2015-07-01

    We developed new cationic fluorescent polymeric thermometers containing both benzothiadiazole and BODIPY units as an environment-sensitive fluorophore and as a reference fluorophore, respectively. The temperature-dependent fluorescence spectra of the thermometers enabled us to perform highly sensitive and practical ratiometric temperature sensing inside living mammalian cells. Intracellular temperatures of non-adherent MOLT-4 (human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) and adherent HEK293T (human embryonic kidney) cells could be monitored with high temperature resolutions (0.01-1.0 °C) using the new cationic fluorescent polymeric thermometer. PMID:25988198

  6. POSH stimulates the ubiquitination and the clathrin-independent endocytosis of ROMK1 channels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dao-Hong; Yue, Peng; Pan, Chu-Yang; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xin; Han, Zeguang; Roos, Marcel; Caplan, Michael; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2009-10-23

    POSH (plenty of SH3) is a scaffold protein that has been shown to act as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here we report that POSH stimulates the ubiquitination of Kir1.1 (ROMK) and enhances the internalization of this potassium channel. Immunostaining reveals the expression of POSH in the renal cortical collecting duct. Immunoprecipitation of renal tissue lysate with ROMK antibody and glutathione S-transferase pulldown experiments demonstrated the association between ROMK and POSH. Moreover, immunoprecipitation of lysates of HEK293T cells transfected with ROMK1 or with constructs encoding the ROMK-N terminus or ROMK1-C-Terminus demonstrated that POSH binds to ROMK1 on its N terminus. To study the effect of POSH on ROMK1 channels, we measured potassium currents with electrophysiological methods in HEK293T cells and in oocytes transfected or injected with ROMK1 and POSH. POSH decreased potassium currents, and the inhibitory effect of POSH on ROMK channels was dose-dependent. Biotinylation assay further showed that POSH decreased surface expression of ROMK channels in HEK293T cells transfected with ROMK1 and POSH. The effect of POSH on ROMK1 channels was specific because POSH did not inhibit sodium current in oocytes injected with ENaC-alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. Moreover, POSH still decreased the potassium current in oocytes injected with a ROMK1 mutant (R1Delta373-378), in which a clathrin-dependent tyrosine-based internalization signal residing between amino acid residues 373 and 378 is deleted. However, the inhibitory effect of POSH on ROMK channels was absent in cells expressing with dominant negative dynamin and POSHDeltaRING, in which the RING domain was deleted. Expression of POSH also increased the ubiquitination of ROMK1, whereas expression of POSHDeltaRING diminished its ubiquitination in HEK293T cells. The notion that POSH may serve as an E3 ubiquitin ligase is also supported by in vitro ubiquitination assays in which adding POSH increased the ROMK

  7. The protective effect of magnesium lithospermate B against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jian; Ren, Xian; Hou, Rui-ying; Dai, Xing-ping; Zhao, Ying-chun; Xu, Xiao-jing; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Gan; Zhou, Hong-hao; Liu, Zhao-qian

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} LAB reduced the ROS production in HEK293T cells cultured under oxidative stress. High dose of glucose enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a time-dependent manner. {yields} LAB enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a dose-dependent manner treated with high dose of glucose. {yields} LAB plays an important role against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage. {yields} The enhanced expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein caused by LAB is regulated via Nrf2 signal pathway. -- Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the effects of magnesium lithospermate B (LAB) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by high dose of glucose or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, we explored the influences of LAB on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HEK293T cells after treatment with high dose of glucose. Materials and methods: The total nuclear proteins in HEK293T cells were extracted with Cytoplasmic Protein Extraction Kit. The ROS level was determined by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 and Nrf2 were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Results: LAB reduced the ROS production in HEK293T cells cultured under oxidative stress. High dose of glucose enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a time-dependent manner. LAB enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a dose-dependent manner treated with high dose of glucose. The amount of Nrf2 translocation was enhanced after cells were pretreated with 50 {mu}mol/L or 100 {mu}mol/L LAB. Silencing of Nrf2 gene eliminated the enhanced expression of HO-1 protein induced by high dose of glucose plus LAB. Conclusions: LAB plays an important role against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage. The enhanced expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein caused by LAB is regulated via Nrf2 signal pathway.

  8. Taming Amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Janout, Vaclav; Schell, Wiley A; Thévenin, Damien; Yu, Yuming; Perfect, John R; Regen, Steven L

    2015-10-21

    A strategy is introduced for enhancing the cellular selectivity of Amphotericin B (AmB) and other classes of membrane-disrupting agents. This strategy involves attaching the agent to a molecular umbrella to minimize the disruptive power of aggregated forms. Based on this approach, AmB has been coupled to a molecular umbrella derived from one spermidine and two cholic acid molecules and found to have antifungal activities approaching that of the native drug. However, in sharp contrast to AmB, the hemolytic activity and the cytotoxcity of this conjugate toward HEK293 T cells have been dramatically reduced. PMID:26340430

  9. Cytosolic Carboxypeptidase 1 Is Involved in Processing α- and β-Tubulin*

    PubMed Central

    Berezniuk, Iryna; Vu, Hang T.; Lyons, Peter J.; Sironi, Juan J.; Xiao, Hui; Burd, Berta; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Ikegami, Koji; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    The Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mouse has a disruption in the gene encoding cytosolic carboxypeptidase 1 (CCP1). This study tested two proposed functions of CCP1: degradation of intracellular peptides and processing of tubulin. Overexpression (2–3-fold) or knockdown (80–90%) of CCP1 in human embryonic kidney 293T cells (HEK293T) did not affect the levels of most intracellular peptides but altered the levels of α-tubulin lacking two C-terminal amino acids (delta2-tubulin) ≥5-fold, suggesting that tubulin processing is the primary function of CCP1, not peptide degradation. Purified CCP1 produced delta2-tubulin from purified porcine brain α-tubulin or polymerized HEK293T microtubules. In addition, CCP1 removed Glu residues from the polyglutamyl side chains of porcine brain α- and β-tubulin and also generated a form of α-tubulin with two C-terminal Glu residues removed (delta3-tubulin). Consistent with this, pcd mouse brain showed hyperglutamylation of both α- and β-tubulin. The hyperglutamylation of α- and β-tubulin and subsequent death of Purkinje cells in pcd mice was counteracted by the knock-out of the gene encoding tubulin tyrosine ligase-like-1, indicating that this enzyme hyperglutamylates α- and β-tubulin. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for CCP1 in the processing of Glu residues from β- as well as α-tubulin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22170066

  10. In vitro immunotoxicity assessment of culture-derived extracellular vesicles in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Lucia E; Elgamal, Ola A; Mo, Xiaokui; Phelps, Mitch A; Schmittgen, Thomas D; Papenfuss, Tracey L

    2016-09-01

    The potential to engineer extracellular vesicles (EV) that target specific cells and deliver a therapeutic payload has propelled a growing interest in their development as promising therapeutics. These EV are often produced from cultured cells. Very little is known about the interaction of cell culture-derived EV with cells of the immune system and their potential immunomodulatory effects. The present study evaluated potential immunotoxic effects of HEK293T-derived EV on the human monocytic cell lines THP-1 and U937. Incubation of cells with different doses of EV for 16-24 h was followed by assessment of cytotoxicity and cell function by flow cytometry. Changes in cell functionality were evaluated by the capacity of cells to phagocytize fluorescent microspheres. In addition, the internalization of labeled EV in THP-1 and U937 cells was evaluated. Exposure to EV did not affect the viability of THP-1 or U937 cells. Although lower doses of the EV increased phagocytic capacity in both cell lines, phagocytic efficiency of individual cells was not affected by EV exposure at any of the doses evaluated. This study also demonstrated that THP-1 and U937 monocytic cells are highly permissive to EV entry in a dose-response manner. These results suggest that, although HEK293T-derived EV are efficiently internalized by human monocytic cells, they do not exert a cytotoxic effect or alter phagocytic efficiency on the cell lines evaluated. PMID:27075513

  11. Cytotoxic activity of a synthetic deoxypodophyllotoxin derivative with an opened D-ring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Wang, Cui-Cui; Wang, Zhong; Geng, Wen-Yue; Xu, Hui; Song, Xiao-Mei; Luo, Du-Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Podophyllotoxin and its synthetic derivatives are valuable medicinal agents that have antitumor, insecticidal, and antifungal properties. We previously synthesized a deoxypodophyllotoxin derivative with an opened D-ring (DPD) exhibiting potent insecticidal activity. This article was firstly performed to identify the cytotoxicity of DPD toward human cancer cell lines (SGC7901, HeLa, and A549) and normal cell line (HEK293T) using MTT assay. DPD showed potent cytotoxicity against human cancer lines (HeLa and A549) and less cytotoxicity against normal cell lines HEK293T. DPD could also induce the cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in HeLa cells and significantly increase the phosphorylation (Tyr 15) of CDC2 leading to inactivation of CDC2. The effects of DPD on cellular microtubule networks were detected using immunofluorescence technique in HeLa cells. The immunofluorescence results showed DPD influenced the arrangement and organization of cellular microtubule networks in HeLa cells. Microtubules are long, hollow cylinders made up of polymerized tubulin dimers. Total microtubules were separated after DPD treatment. Western blot results showed that the free polymerized tubulin dimers were obviously increased after DPD treatment. DPD may be a good drug candidate with the therapeutic potential to human cancer by affecting microtubule polymerization. PMID:27123550

  12. Carbohydrate-appended photocytotoxic (imidazophenanthroline)-oxovanadium(IV) complexes for cellular targeting and imaging.

    PubMed

    Banik, Bhabatosh; Somyajit, Kumar; Hussain, Akhtar; Nagaraju, Ganesh; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2014-01-21

    Oxovanadium(IV) complexes [VO(aip)(L)](ClO4)2 (L = phtpy, 1; stpy, 2) and [VO(pyip)(L)](ClO4)2 (L = phtpy, 3; stpy, 4), where aip is 2-(9-anthryl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, pyip is [2-(1-pyrenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, phtpy is (4'-phenyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and stpy is (2,2':6',2''-terpyridin-4'-oxy)ethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, were prepared, characterized and their DNA binding and photocleavage activity, cellular uptake and photocytotoxicity in visible light were studied. The complexes are avid binders to calf thymus DNA (K(b) ~10(5) mol(-1)). They efficiently cleave pUC19 DNA in red light of 705 nm via the formation of HO˙ species. The glucose appended complexes 2 and 4 showed higher photocytotoxicity in HeLa and Hep G2 cells over the normal HEK 293T cells. No such preference was observed for the phtpy complexes 1 and 3. No significant difference in IC50 values was observed for the HEK 293T cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that the glucose appended complexes 2 and 4 are more photocytotoxic in cancer cells than in normal cells. Fluorescence microscopy was done to study the cellular localization of complex 4 having a pendant pyrenyl group. PMID:24193217

  13. Bioinformatics analysis and expression of a novel protein ROP48 in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Aihua; Lu, Gang; Li, Qihang; Wang, Zhilin; Zhu, Meiyan; Zhou, Huaiyu; Cong, Hua; He, Shenyi

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite, and can infect warmblooded animals and humans all over the world. In the past years, ROP family genes encoding particular proteins of T. gondii had made a great contribution to toxoplasmosis. In this study, we used multiple bioinformatics approaches to predict the physical and chemical characteristics, transmembrane domain, epitope, and topological structure of the rhoptry protein 48 (ROP48). The results indicated that ROP48 protein was mainly located in the membrane and had several positive linear-B cell epitopes and Th-cell epitopes, which suggested that ROP48 is a potential DNA vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. Then the PCR product amplified from the ROP48 cDNA was inserted into a pEASY-T1 vector to build a recombinant cloning plasmid. After sequencing, ROP48 was subcloned into a eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP-C1 to obtain pEGFP-C1-ROP48 (pROP48). After identification by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, the recombinant plasmid pROP48 was transfected into HEK 293-T cell and identified by RT-PCR. The results showed that the eukaryotic expression plasmid pROP48 was constructed and transfected to the cells of HEK 293-T successfully. Western blotting showed that the expressed proteins can be recognized by anti-STAg mouse sera. PMID:27078655

  14. Interferon but not MxB inhibits foamy retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Bähr, Ariane; Singer, Anna; Hain, Anika; Vasudevan, Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva; Schilling, Mirjam; Reh, Juliane; Riess, Maximilian; Panitz, Sylvia; Serrano, Vanessa; Schweizer, Matthias; König, Renate; Chanda, Sumit; Häussinger, Dieter; Kochs, Georg; Lindemann, Dirk; Münk, Carsten

    2016-01-15

    Foamy viruses (FV) are retroviruses that are widely distributed in primate and non-primate animal species. We tested here FV with capsids of simian and non-simian origin for sensitivity to interferon-β (IFN-β). Our data show significant inhibition of FV by IFN-β early in infection of human HOS and THP-1 but not of HEK293T cells. The post-entry restriction of FV was not mediated by the interferon-induced MxB protein that was recently identified as a capsid-interacting restriction factor targeting Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) before integration. Neither the ectopic expression of MxA or MxB in HEK293T cells nor the lack of MxB expression in CRISPR/CAS MxB THP-1 knockout cells impacted the infection of the tested FV. IFN-β treated THP-1 and THP-1 KO MxB cells showed the same extend of restriction to FV. Together, the data demonstrate that IFN-β inhibits FV early in infection and that MxB is not a restriction factor of FV. PMID:26609934

  15. miR-2861 acts as a tumor suppressor via targeting EGFR/AKT2/CCND1 pathway in cervical cancer induced by human papillomavirus virus 16 E6

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junfen; Wan, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xiaojing; Fang, Yifeng; Cheng, Xiaodong; Xie, Xing; Lu, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus viruses (HPVs) is a casual factor for cervical cancer and its precursors, and the abnormal constitutive expression of viral oncoprotein E6 is a key event during the malignant transformation. Here, we performed miRNA microarray to identify changes of miRNAs following ectopic HPV16 E6 overexpression in HEK293T cells and found miR-2861 was greatly decreased in both HEK293T and HaCaT cells expressing HPV16 E6 compared to vector control. Further, we demonstrated a biological link among HPV16 E6, miR-2861, EGFR, AKT2, and CCND1 in cervical cancer cells. We showed that miR-2861 was downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and negatively correlated with advanced tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of miR-2861 suppressed cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion and enhanced apoptosis. Subsequent investigation revealed that EGFR, AKT2, and CCND1 were all the direct targets of miR-2861. Importantly, silencing EGFR, AKT2, and/or CCND1 recapitulated the cellular effects seen upon miR-2861 overexpression. Restoration of EGFR, AKT2, and/or CCND1 counteracted the effects of miR-2861 expression. Thus, we identified a new pathway employing miR-2861, EGFR, AKT2, and CCND1 that may mediate HPV16 E6 induced initiation and progression of cervical cancer. PMID:27364926

  16. A Ubiquitin Shuttle DC-UbP/UBTD2 Reconciles Protein Ubiquitination and Deubiquitination via Linking UbE1 and USP5 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yong-Guang; Zhou, Chen-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitination levels of protein substrates in eukaryotic cells are delicately orchestrated by various protein cofactors and enzymes. Dendritic cell-derived ubiquitin (Ub)-like protein (DC-UbP), also named as Ub domain-containing protein 2 (UBTD2), is a potential Ub shuttle protein comprised of a Ub-like (UbL) domain and a Ub-binding domain (UBD), but its biological function remains largely unknown. We identified two Ub-related enzymes, the deubiquitinating enzyme USP5 and the Ub-activating enzyme UbE1, as interacting partners of DC-UbP from HEK 293T cells. Biochemical studies revealed that the tandem UBA domains of USP5 and the C-terminal Ub-fold domain (UFD) of UbE1 directly interacted with the C-terminal UbL domain of DC-UbP but on the distinct surfaces. Overexpression of DC-UbP in HEK 293T cells enhanced the association of these two enzymes and thus prompted cellular ubiquitination, whereas knockdown of the protein reduced the cellular ubiquitination level. Together, DC-UbP may integrate the functions of USP5 and UbE1 through interacting with them, and thus reconcile the cellular ubiquitination and deubiquitination processes. PMID:25207809

  17. Low-bias phosphopeptide enrichment from scarce samples using plastic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; Koch, Markus-Hermann; Eisenacher, Martin; Galozzi, Sara; Lerari, Thilo; Barkovits, Katalin; Subedi, Prabal; Krüger, Rejko; Kuhlmann, Katja; Sellergren, Börje; Helling, Stefan; Marcus, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Phosphospecific enrichment techniques and mass spectrometry (MS) are essential tools for comprehending the cellular phosphoproteome. Here, we report a fast and simple approach for low sequence-bias phosphoserine (pS) peptide capture and enrichment that is compatible with low biological or clinical sample input. The approach exploits molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs, "plastic antibodies") featuring tight neutral binding sites for pS or pY that are capable of cross-reacting with phosphopeptides of protein proteolytic digests. The versatility of the resulting method was demonstrated with small samples of whole-cell lysate from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, mouse brain or human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Following pre-fractionation of trypsinized proteins by strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography, pS-MIP enrichment led to the identification of 924 phosphopeptides in the HEK 293T whole-cell lysate, exceeding the number identified by TiO2-based enrichment (230). Moreover, the phosphopeptides were extracted with low sequence bias and showed no evidence for the characteristic preference of TiO2 for acidic amino acids (aspartic and glutamic acid). Applying the method to human CSF led to the discovery of 47 phosphopeptides belonging to 24 proteins and revealed three previously unknown phosphorylation sites. PMID:26126808

  18. Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Wei, Chao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Sim, Stanley Siong Wei; Liu, Linbo; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-10-01

    Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT.Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05459a

  19. Quick preparation of nanoluciferase-based tracers for novel bioluminescent receptor-binding assays of protein hormones: Using erythropoietin as a model.

    PubMed

    Song, Ge; Wu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Ting; Liu, Ya-Li; Xu, Zeng-Guang; Zhang, Shi-Fu; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2015-12-01

    Nanoluciferase (NanoLuc) is a newly developed small luciferase reporter with the so far brightest bioluminescence. In recent studies, we developed NanoLuc as an ultrasensitive probe for novel bioluminescent receptor-binding assays of some protein/peptide hormones. In the present study, we proposed a simple method for quick preparation of the NanoLuc-based protein tracers using erythropoietin (Epo) as a model. Epo is a glycosylated cytokine that promotes erythropoiesis by binding and activating the cell membrane receptor EpoR. For quick preparation of a bioluminescent Epo tracer, an Epo-Luc fusion protein carrying a NanoLuc-6 × His-tag at the C-terminus was secretorily overexpressed in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 T cells. The Epo-Luc fusion protein retained high-binding affinities with EpoR either overexpressed in HEK293T cells or endogenously expressed in mouse erythroleukemia cells, representing a novel ultrasensitive bioluminescent tracer for non-radioactive receptor-binding assays. Sufficient Epo-Luc tracer for thousands of assays could be quickly obtained within 2 days through simple transient transfection. Thus, our present work provided a simple method for quick preparation of novel NanoLuc-based bioluminescent tracers for Epo and some other protein hormones to facilitate their ligand-receptor interaction studies. PMID:26506452

  20. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as cellular delivery vectors of supercoiled plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi Ping; Walker, Tara L; Liu, Kerh-lin; Cooper, Helen M; Lu, G Q Max; Bartlett, Perry F

    2007-01-01

    We prepared stable homogeneous suspensions with layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles for in vitro gene delivery tests. The viability of HEK 293T cells in the presence of LDH nanoparticles at different concentrations was investigated. This revealed 50% cell viability at 500 microg/mL of LDH nanoparticles that is much higher than 50-100 microg/mL used for the delivery tests. The supercoiled pEF-eGFP plasmid (ca. 6100 base pairs) was mixed with LDH nanoparticle suspensions for anion exchange at a weight ratio of DNA/LDH between 1:25 and 1:100. In vitro experiments show that GFP expression in HEK 293T cells starts in the first day, reaches the maximum levels by the second day and continues in the third day. The GFP expression generally increases with the increase in DNA loading in DNA-LDH nanohybrids. However, the delivery efficiency with LDH nanoparticles as the agent is low. For example, the relative efficiency is 7%-15% of that of the commercial agent FuGENE 6. Three to 6% of total cells expressed GFP in an amount detectable by the FACS cytometry 2 days after transfection at 1 microg/mL of plasmid DNA with 25 microg/mL of LDH nanomaterial. The lower delivery efficiency could be attributed to the aggregation of LDH nanoparticles caused by the long-chain plasmid DNA. PMID:17722544

  1. Experimental evidences for hsa-miR-497-5p as a negative regulator of SMAD3 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Meisam; Soltani, Bahram M; Dokanehiifard, Sadat; Kay, Maryam; Aghdami, Nasser; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2016-07-25

    The SMAD family comprises of transcription factors that function as signal transducers of transforming growth factor (TGFβ) superfamily members. MiRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that may play a major role in post transcriptional regulation of SMAD genes. Here, we intended to investigate if hsa-miR-497-5p is capable of regulating SMAD3 gene expression. Hsa-miR-497-5p was bioinformatically predicted as a candidate regulator of SMAD3 gene expression and then, hsa-miR-497-5p expression status was analyzed in different cell lines using RT-qPCR. Overexpression of hsa-miR-497-5p in HEK293t cells resulted in downregulation of SMAD3 which was detected by RT-qPCR and western analysis. Further, dual luciferase assay results supported direct interaction of hsa-miR-497-5p with 3'-UTR sequences of SMAD3 transcript. Overexpression of hsa-miR-497-5p in HEK293t cells resulted in cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, detected by flow cytometry. Overall, accumulative results indicated that hsa-miR-497-5p by targeting SMAD3 is potentially one of the regulators of the TGFβ signaling pathway. PMID:27063509

  2. Low-bias phosphopeptide enrichment from scarce samples using plastic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; Koch, Markus-Hermann; Eisenacher, Martin; Galozzi, Sara; Lerari, Thilo; Barkovits, Katalin; Subedi, Prabal; Krüger, Rejko; Kuhlmann, Katja; Sellergren, Börje; Helling, Stefan; Marcus, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Phosphospecific enrichment techniques and mass spectrometry (MS) are essential tools for comprehending the cellular phosphoproteome. Here, we report a fast and simple approach for low sequence-bias phosphoserine (pS) peptide capture and enrichment that is compatible with low biological or clinical sample input. The approach exploits molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs, “plastic antibodies”) featuring tight neutral binding sites for pS or pY that are capable of cross-reacting with phosphopeptides of protein proteolytic digests. The versatility of the resulting method was demonstrated with small samples of whole-cell lysate from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, mouse brain or human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Following pre-fractionation of trypsinized proteins by strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography, pS-MIP enrichment led to the identification of 924 phosphopeptides in the HEK 293T whole-cell lysate, exceeding the number identified by TiO2-based enrichment (230). Moreover, the phosphopeptides were extracted with low sequence bias and showed no evidence for the characteristic preference of TiO2 for acidic amino acids (aspartic and glutamic acid). Applying the method to human CSF led to the discovery of 47 phosphopeptides belonging to 24 proteins and revealed three previously unknown phosphorylation sites. PMID:26126808

  3. A mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)-dependent transcriptional program controls activation of the early growth response 1 (EGR1) gene during amino acid limitation.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jixiu; Balasubramanian, Mukundh N; Donelan, William; Fu, Lingchen; Hayner, Jaclyn; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Baker, Henry V; Kilberg, Michael S

    2014-08-29

    Amino acid (AA) limitation in mammalian cells triggers a collection of signaling cascades jointly referred to as the AA response (AAR). In human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma, the early growth response 1 (EGR1) gene was induced by either AA deprivation or endoplasmic reticulum stress. AAR-dependent EGR1 activation was discovered to be independent of the well characterized GCN2-ATF4 pathway and instead dependent on MEK-ERK signaling, one of the MAPK pathways. ChIP showed that constitutively bound ELK1 at the EGR1 proximal promoter region was phosphorylated after AAR activation. Increased p-ELK1 binding was associated with increased de novo recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the EGR1 promoter. EGR1 transcription was not induced in HEK293T cells lacking endogenous MEK activity, but overexpression of exogenous constitutively active MEK in HEK293T cells resulted in increased basal and AAR-induced EGR1 expression. ChIP analysis of the human vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene, a known EGR1-responsive gene, revealed moderate increases in AAR-induced EGR1 binding within the proximal promoter and highly inducible binding to a site within the first intron. Collectively, these data document a novel AA-activated MEK-ERK-ELK1 signaling mechanism. PMID:25028509

  4. A Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase (MEK)-dependent Transcriptional Program Controls Activation of the Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) Gene during Amino Acid Limitation*

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jixiu; Balasubramanian, Mukundh N.; Donelan, William; Fu, Lingchen; Hayner, Jaclyn; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Baker, Henry V.; Kilberg, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) limitation in mammalian cells triggers a collection of signaling cascades jointly referred to as the AA response (AAR). In human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma, the early growth response 1 (EGR1) gene was induced by either AA deprivation or endoplasmic reticulum stress. AAR-dependent EGR1 activation was discovered to be independent of the well characterized GCN2-ATF4 pathway and instead dependent on MEK-ERK signaling, one of the MAPK pathways. ChIP showed that constitutively bound ELK1 at the EGR1 proximal promoter region was phosphorylated after AAR activation. Increased p-ELK1 binding was associated with increased de novo recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the EGR1 promoter. EGR1 transcription was not induced in HEK293T cells lacking endogenous MEK activity, but overexpression of exogenous constitutively active MEK in HEK293T cells resulted in increased basal and AAR-induced EGR1 expression. ChIP analysis of the human vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene, a known EGR1-responsive gene, revealed moderate increases in AAR-induced EGR1 binding within the proximal promoter and highly inducible binding to a site within the first intron. Collectively, these data document a novel AA-activated MEK-ERK-ELK1 signaling mechanism. PMID:25028509

  5. Nanodiamond-Mediated Intercellular Transport of Proteins through Membrane Tunneling Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Epperla, Chandra Prakash; Mohan, Nitin; Chang, Che-Wei; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Recently discovered tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are capable of creating intercellular communication pathways through which transport of proteins and other cytoplasmic components occurs. Intercellular transport is related to many diseases and nanotubes are potentially useful as drug-delivery channels for cancer therapy. Here, we apply fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) as a photostable tracker, as well as a protein carrier, to illustrate the transport events in TNTs of human cells. Proteins, including bovine serum albumin and green fluorescent protein, are first coated on 100-nm FNDs by physical adsorption and then single-particle tracking of the bioconjugates in the transient membrane connections is carried out by fluorescence microscopy. Stop-and-go and to-and-fro motions mediated by molecular motors are found for the active transport of protein-loaded FNDs trapped in the endosomal vehicles of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T). Quantitative analysis of the heterotypical transport between HEK293T and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by flow cytometry confirm the formation of open-ended nanotubes between them, despite that their TNTs differ in structural components. Our results demonstrate the promising applications of this novel carbon-based nanomaterial for intercellular delivery of biomolecular cargo down to the single-particle level. PMID:26479149

  6. Molecular characterization of N-acetylaspartylglutamate synthetase.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ivonne; Lodder, Julia; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Eckhardt, Matthias

    2010-09-17

    The dipeptide N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) is an abundant neuropeptide in the mammalian brain. Despite this fact, its physiological role is poorly understood. NAAG is synthesized by a NAAG synthetase catalyzing the ATP-dependent condensation of N-acetylaspartate and glutamate. In vitro NAAG synthetase activity has not been described, and the enzyme has not been purified. Using a bioinformatics approach we identified a putative dipeptide synthetase specifically expressed in the nervous system. Expression of the gene, which we named NAAGS (for NAAG synthetase) was sufficient to induce NAAG synthesis in primary astrocytes or CHO-K1 and HEK-293T cells when they coexpressed the NAA transporter NaDC3. Furthermore, coexpression of NAAGS and the recently identified N-acetylaspartate (NAA) synthase, Nat8l, in CHO-K1 or HEK-293T cells was sufficient to enable these cells to synthesize NAAG. Identity of the reaction product of NAAGS was confirmed by HPLC and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). High expression levels of NAAGS were restricted to the brain, spinal cord, and testis. Taken together our results strongly suggest that the identified gene encodes a NAAG synthetase. Its identification will enable further studies to examine the role of this abundant neuropeptide in the vertebrate nervous system. PMID:20643647

  7. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit

    PubMed Central

    Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2010-01-01

    Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.—Takanaga, H., Frommer, W. B. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit. PMID:20354141

  8. Selective Activation of Nociceptor TRPV1 Channel and Reversal of Inflammatory Pain in Mice by a Novel Coumarin Derivative Muralatin L from Murraya alata.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning-Ning; Lv, Hai-Ning; Wu, Yang; Yang, Shi-Long; Sun, Xiao-Ying; Lai, Ren; Jiang, Yong; Wang, KeWei

    2016-01-01

    Coumarin and its derivatives are fragrant natural compounds isolated from the genus Murraya that are flowering plants widely distributed in East Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. Murraya plants have been widely used as medicinal herbs for relief of pain, such as headache, rheumatic pain, toothache, and snake bites. However, little is known about their analgesic components and the molecular mechanism underlying pain relief. Here, we report the bioassay-guided fractionation and identification of a novel coumarin derivative, named muralatin L, that can specifically activate the nociceptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and reverse the inflammatory pain in mice through channel desensitization. Muralatin L was identified from the active extract of Murraya alata against TRPV1 transiently expressed in HEK-293T cells in fluorescent calcium FlexStation assay. Activation of TRPV1 current by muralatin L and its selectivity were further confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings of TRPV1-expressing HEK-293T cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons isolated from mice. Furthermore, muralatin L could reverse inflammatory pain induced by formalin and acetic acid in mice but not in TRPV1 knock-out mice. Taken together, our findings show that muralatin L specifically activates TRPV1 and reverses inflammatory pain, thus highlighting the potential of coumarin derivatives from Murraya plants for pharmaceutical and medicinal applications such as pain therapy. PMID:26515068

  9. [Tripartite motif-containing protein 34 (TRIM34) colocalized with micronuclei chromosome and hampers its movement to equatorial plate during the metaphase stage of mitosis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Dakang; An, Xinye; Ji, Bing; Cheng, Yanli; Gao, Honglian; Tian, Mingming

    2016-06-01

    Objective To examine whether tripartite motif-containing protein 34 (TRIM34) is colocalized with micronuclei and investigate the influence on the movement of micronuclei chromosome in mitosis. Methods The eukaryotic expression vector TRIM34-pEGFP-N3 was constructed, identified and then transfected into HEK293T cells. With 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole 2HCI (DAPI) staining, the colocalization between TRIM34 and micronuclei was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Moreover, MitoTracker(R)Deep Red was used to identify the colocalization between the complex of TRIM34-micronulei and mitochondria under a confocal microscope. Finally, the effect of TRIM34 on the movement of micronuclei chromosome in mitosis was examined. Results DNA sequencing confirmed that the vector TRIM34-pEGFP-N3 was constructed successfully. A fluorescence microscope revealed that TRIM34 could be colocalized with micronuclei in HEK293T cells transfected with TRIM34-pEGFP-N3. In the same manner, a confocal microscope distinctly showed that TRIM34 was colocalized with micronuclei similarly in appearance. However, there was no distinguished colocalization relationship between the complex of TRIM34-micronulei and mitochondria. Interestingly, the micronuclei chromosome conjugated with TRIM34 was hardly transferred to equatorial plate during the metaphase stage of mitosis. Conclusion TRIM34 is colocalized with micronuclei chromosome and hampers its movement to equatorial plate in mitosis. PMID:27371841

  10. α/β-Hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6) negatively regulates the surface delivery and synaptic function of AMPA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Mengping; Zhang, Jian; Jia, Moye; Yang, Chaojuan; Pan, Yunlong; Li, Shuaiqi; Luo, Yiwen; Zheng, Junyuan; Ji, Jianguo; Chen, Jianguo; Hu, Xinli; Xiong, Jingwei; Shi, Yun; Zhang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, AMPA-type glutamate receptors are major postsynaptic receptors at excitatory synapses that mediate fast neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. α/β-Hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6), a monoacylglycerol lipase, was previously found to be a component of AMPA receptor macromolecular complexes, but its physiological significance in the function of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) has remained unclear. The present study shows that overexpression of ABHD6 in neurons drastically reduced excitatory neurotransmission mediated by AMPA but not by NMDA receptors at excitatory synapses. Inactivation of ABHD6 expression in neurons by either CRISPR/Cas9 or shRNA knockdown methods significantly increased excitatory neurotransmission at excitatory synapses. Interestingly, overexpression of ABHD6 reduced glutamate-induced currents and the surface expression of GluA1 in HEK293T cells expressing GluA1 and stargazin, suggesting a direct functional interaction between these two proteins. The C-terminal tail of GluA1 was required for the binding between of ABHD6 and GluA1. Mutagenesis analysis revealed a GFCLIPQ sequence in the GluA1 C terminus that was essential for the inhibitory effect of ABHD6. The hydrolase activity of ABHD6 was not required for the effects of ABHD6 on AMPAR function in either neurons or transfected HEK293T cells. Thus, these findings reveal a novel and unexpected mechanism governing AMPAR trafficking at synapses through ABHD6. PMID:27114538

  11. Scorpion Toxin, BmP01, Induces Pain by Targeting TRPV1 Channel

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Jiang, Wenbin; Luo, Lei; Li, Bowen; Yang, Shilong; Song, Yuzhu; Lai, Ren

    2015-01-01

    The intense pain induced by scorpion sting is a frequent clinical manifestation. To date, there is no established protocol with significant efficacy to alleviate the pain induced by scorpion envenomation. One of the important reasons is that, little information on pain-inducing compound from scorpion venoms is available. Here, a pain-inducing peptide (BmP01) has been identified and characterized from the venoms of scorpion (Mesobuthus martensii). In an animal model, intraplantar injection of BmP01 in mouse hind paw showed significant acute pain in wild type (WT) mice but not in TRPV1 knock-out (TRPV1 KO) mice during 30 min recording. BmP01 evoked currents in WT dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons but had no effect on DRG neurons of TRPV1 KO mice. Furthermore, BmP01 evoked currents on TRPV1-expressed HEK293T cells, but not on HEK293T cells without TRPV1. These results suggest that (1) BmP01 is one of the pain-inducing agents in scorpion venoms; and (2) BmP01 induces pain by acting on TRPV1. To our knowledge, this is the first report about a scorpion toxin that produces pain by targeting TRPV1. Identification of a pain-inducing compound may facilitate treating pain induced by scorpion envenomation. PMID:26389953

  12. Detergent-Assisted Glycoprotein Capture: A Versatile Tool for In-Depth N-Glycoproteome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Zou, Hanfa; Figeys, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale N-glycoproteome studies have been hindered by poor solubility of hydrophobic membrane proteins and the complexity of proteome samples. Herein, we developed a detergent-assisted glycoprotein capture method to reduce these issues by conducting hydrazide chemistry-based glycoprotein capture in the presence of strong detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100. The strong detergents helped to solubilize hydrophobic membrane proteins and then increased the access of hydrazide groups to oxidized glycoproteins, thus increasing the coverage of the N-glycoproteome. Compared with the conventional glycopeptide capture method, the detergent-assisted glycoprotein capture approach nearly doubled the number of N-glycosylation sites identified from HEK 293T cells with improved specificity. Application of this approach in the larger scale N-glycoproteomics analysis of the HEK 293T cell membrane led to the identification of 2253 unique N-glycosites from 953 proteins. Furthermore, the application of this approach to human serum resulted in the identification of 850 N-glycosylation sites without any immunodepletion or fractionation. Overall, the detergent-assisted glycoprotein capture method simplified the capture process, and it increased the number of sites observed on both hydrophobic membrane proteins and hydrophilic secreted proteins. PMID:27147131

  13. Scorpion Toxin, BmP01, Induces Pain by Targeting TRPV1 Channel.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Jiang, Wenbin; Luo, Lei; Li, Bowen; Yang, Shilong; Song, Yuzhu; Lai, Ren

    2015-09-01

    The intense pain induced by scorpion sting is a frequent clinical manifestation. To date, there is no established protocol with significant efficacy to alleviate the pain induced by scorpion envenomation. One of the important reasons is that, little information on pain-inducing compound from scorpion venoms is available. Here, a pain-inducing peptide (BmP01) has been identified and characterized from the venoms of scorpion (Mesobuthus martensii). In an animal model, intraplantar injection of BmP01 in mouse hind paw showed significant acute pain in wild type (WT) mice but not in TRPV1 knock-out (TRPV1 KO) mice during 30 min recording. BmP01 evoked currents in WT dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons but had no effect on DRG neurons of TRPV1 KO mice. Furthermore, OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 3672 BmP01 evoked currents on TRPV1-expressed HEK293T cells, but not on HEK293T cells without TRPV1. These results suggest that (1) BmP01 is one of the pain-inducing agents in scorpion venoms; and (2) BmP01 induces pain by acting on TRPV1. To our knowledge, this is the first report about a scorpion toxin that produces pain by targeting TRPV1. Identification of a pain-inducing compound may facilitate treating pain induced by scorpion envenomation. PMID:26389953

  14. α/β-Hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6) negatively regulates the surface delivery and synaptic function of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mengping; Zhang, Jian; Jia, Moye; Yang, Chaojuan; Pan, Yunlong; Li, Shuaiqi; Luo, Yiwen; Zheng, Junyuan; Ji, Jianguo; Chen, Jianguo; Hu, Xinli; Xiong, Jingwei; Shi, Yun; Zhang, Chen

    2016-05-10

    In the brain, AMPA-type glutamate receptors are major postsynaptic receptors at excitatory synapses that mediate fast neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. α/β-Hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6), a monoacylglycerol lipase, was previously found to be a component of AMPA receptor macromolecular complexes, but its physiological significance in the function of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) has remained unclear. The present study shows that overexpression of ABHD6 in neurons drastically reduced excitatory neurotransmission mediated by AMPA but not by NMDA receptors at excitatory synapses. Inactivation of ABHD6 expression in neurons by either CRISPR/Cas9 or shRNA knockdown methods significantly increased excitatory neurotransmission at excitatory synapses. Interestingly, overexpression of ABHD6 reduced glutamate-induced currents and the surface expression of GluA1 in HEK293T cells expressing GluA1 and stargazin, suggesting a direct functional interaction between these two proteins. The C-terminal tail of GluA1 was required for the binding between of ABHD6 and GluA1. Mutagenesis analysis revealed a GFCLIPQ sequence in the GluA1 C terminus that was essential for the inhibitory effect of ABHD6. The hydrolase activity of ABHD6 was not required for the effects of ABHD6 on AMPAR function in either neurons or transfected HEK293T cells. Thus, these findings reveal a novel and unexpected mechanism governing AMPAR trafficking at synapses through ABHD6. PMID:27114538

  15. Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 by quercetin and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Ishii, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Miyu; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2016-05-01

    The agonistic activity of quercetin and its analogs towards the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) has been experimentally investigated. The human TRPA1 was expressed in HEK293T cells using a tetracycline-inducible system. The activation of TRPA1 was evaluated by a fluo-4 fluorescence assay based on calcium sensing. The results of a structure-activity relationship study led to the selection of six flavonoids, all of which activated the TRPA1 channel in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the activation of TRPA1 by these flavonoid aglycones was completely inhibited by the co-treatment of the HEK293T cells with the TRPA1-specific antagonist, HC-030031. Several flavonoid glycosides and metabolites were also evaluated, but did not activate the TRPA1 except for methylated quercetin. On the other hand, TRPV1 (vanilloid receptor) did not respond to any of the flavonoids evaluated in this study. Therefore, these data suggest that the flavonoids would be promising ligands for the TRPA1. PMID:26806540

  16. Novel in situ liquefying antimicrobial wrap for preventing tissue expander infections following breast reconstructive surgeries.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Joel; Viola, George M; Reitzel, Ruth A; Jamal, Mohamed A; Crosby, Melissa A; Raad, Issam

    2016-02-01

    Breast reconstruction surgeries using tissue expanders (TEs) have highly reported infection rates. To decrease this, we developed a method for disinfecting TEs and surgical pockets, where an antimicrobial solution was applied as a solid film at implantation that subsequently liquefied in situ to provide extended prophylaxis. Silicone discs cut from TEs were covered with gelatin-based films containing minocycline (M) and rifampin (R). Discs and films soaked in saline were subsequently challenged with pathogen at days 1, 3, 7, and 10 and quantified for potential biofilm formation. Discs that were not harvested at each specific time points were refreshed with sterile saline. The discs were challenged with clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA). Recoveries of adherent organisms from uncovered silicone discs and gelatin-wrapped discs without added antimicrobial agents were >5 × 10(4) CFU/disc for each organism at each time point. Experimental 0.1%M/0.05%R gelatin films completely inhibited all challenge organisms from attaching to the silicone (p < 0.05) at each time point through day 10. Cytotoxicity was assessed by incubating films with HEK-293T human fibroblasts. There were no significant differences in HEK-293T cell survival between controls and any of the antimicrobial films. The in situ liquefying, bioabsorable, antimicrobial wrap prevented biofilm formation by microorganisms on silicone surfaces in vitro with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:25809618

  17. Cancer-specific binary expression system activated in mice by bacteriophage HK022 Integrase.

    PubMed

    Elias, Amer; Spector, Itay; Sogolovsky-Bard, Ilana; Gritsenko, Natalia; Rask, Lene; Mainbakh, Yuli; Zilberstein, Yael; Yagil, Ezra; Kolot, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Binary systems based on site-specific recombination have been used for tumor specific transcription targeting of suicide genes in animal models. In these binary systems a site specific recombinase or integrase that is expressed from a tumor specific promoter drives tumor specific expression of a cytotoxic gene. In the present study we developed a new cancer specific binary expression system activated by the Integrase (Int) of the lambdoid phage HK022. We demonstrate the validity of this system by the specific expression of a luciferase (luc) reporter in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells and in a lung cancer mouse model. Due to the absence viral vectors and of cytotoxicity the Int based binary system offers advantages over previously described counterparts and may therefore be developed into a safer cancer cell killing system. PMID:27117628

  18. Cancer-specific binary expression system activated in mice by bacteriophage HK022 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Amer; Spector, Itay; Sogolovsky-Bard, Ilana; Gritsenko, Natalia; Rask, Lene; Mainbakh, Yuli; Zilberstein, Yael; Yagil, Ezra; Kolot, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Binary systems based on site-specific recombination have been used for tumor specific transcription targeting of suicide genes in animal models. In these binary systems a site specific recombinase or integrase that is expressed from a tumor specific promoter drives tumor specific expression of a cytotoxic gene. In the present study we developed a new cancer specific binary expression system activated by the Integrase (Int) of the lambdoid phage HK022. We demonstrate the validity of this system by the specific expression of a luciferase (luc) reporter in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells and in a lung cancer mouse model. Due to the absence viral vectors and of cytotoxicity the Int based binary system offers advantages over previously described counterparts and may therefore be developed into a safer cancer cell killing system. PMID:27117628

  19. Inhibition of TREK-2 K(+) channels by PI(4,5)P2: an intrinsic mode of regulation by intracellular ATP via phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joohan; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jong; Yoo, Hae Young; Zhang, Yin-Hua; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-08-01

    TWIK-related two-pore domain K(+) channels 1 and 2 (TREKs) are activated under various physicochemical conditions. However, the directions in which they are regulated by PI(4,5)P2 and intracellular ATP are not clearly presented yet. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATP and PI(4,5)P2 on overexpressed TREKs (HEK293T and COS-7) and endogenously expressed TREK-2 (mouse astrocytes and WEHI-231 B cells). In all of these cells, both TREK-1 and TREK-2 currents were spontaneously increased by dialysis with ATP-free pipette solution for whole-cell recording (ITREK-1,w-c and ITREK-2w-c) or by membrane excision for inside-out patch clamping without ATP (ITREK-1,i-o and ITREK-2,i-o). Steady state ITREK-2,i-o was reversibly decreased by 3 mM ATP applied to the cytoplasmic side, and this reduction was prevented by wortmannin, a PI-kinase inhibitor. An exogenous application of PI(4,5)P2 inhibited the spontaneously increased ITREKs,i-o, suggesting that intrinsic PI(4,5)P2 maintained by intracellular ATP and PI kinase may set the basal activity of TREKs in the intact cells. The inhibition of intrinsic TREK-2 by ATP was more prominent in WEHI-231 cells than astrocytes. Interestingly, unspecific screening of negative charges by poly-L-lysine also inhibited ITREK-2,i-o. Application of PI(4,5)P2 after the poly-L-lysine treatment showed dose-dependent dual effects, initial activation and subsequent inhibition of ITREK-2,i-o at low and high concentrations, respectively. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-2 and a voltage-sensitive PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase, sustained depolarization increased ITREK-2,w-c initially (<5 s) but then decreased the current below the control level. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-2 and type 3 muscarinic receptor, application of carbachol induced transient activation and sustained suppression of ITREK-2,w-c and cell-attached ITREK-2. The inhibition of TREK-2 by unspecific electrostatic quenching, extensive dephosphorylation, or sustained hydrolysis

  20. Improved genetically-encoded, FlincG-type fluorescent biosensors for neural cGMP imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Yogesh; Hampden-Smith, Kathryn; Chachlaki, Konstantina; Wood, Katherine C.; Vernon, Jeffrey; Allerston, Charles K.; Batchelor, Andrew M.; Garthwaite, John

    2013-01-01

    Genetically-encoded biosensors are powerful tools for understanding cellular signal transduction mechanisms. In aiming to investigate cGMP signaling in neurones using the EGFP-based fluorescent biosensor, FlincG (fluorescent indicator for cGMP), we encountered weak or non-existent fluorescence after attempted transfection with plasmid DNA, even in HEK293T cells. Adenoviral infection of HEK293T cells with FlincG, however, had previously proved successful. Both constructs were found to harbor a mutation in the EGFP domain and had a tail of 17 amino acids at the C-terminus that differed from the published sequence. These discrepancies were systematically examined, together with mutations found beneficial for the related GCaMP family of Ca2+ biosensors, in a HEK293T cell line stably expressing both nitric oxide (NO)-activated guanylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase-5. Restoring the mutated amino acid improved basal fluorescence whereas additional restoration of the correct C-terminal tail resulted in poor cGMP sensing as assessed by superfusion of either 8-bromo-cGMP or NO. Ultimately, two improved FlincGs were identified: one (FlincG2) had the divergent tail and gave moderate basal fluorescence and cGMP response amplitude and the other (FlincG3) had the correct tail, a GCaMP-like mutation in the EGFP region and an N-terminal tag, and was superior in both respects. All variants tested were strongly influenced by pH over the physiological range, in common with other EGFP-based biosensors. Purified FlincG3 protein exhibited a lower cGMP affinity (0.89 μM) than reported for the original FlincG (0.17 μM) but retained rapid kinetics and a 230-fold selectivity over cAMP. Successful expression of FlincG2 or FlincG3 in differentiated N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells and in primary cultures of hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion cells commends them for real-time imaging of cGMP dynamics in neural (and other) cells, and in their subcellular specializations. PMID:24068983

  1. A Novel Nonsense Mutation in the MIP Gene Linked to Congenital Posterior Polar Cataracts in a Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zixun; Wang, Lianqing; Liu, Yaping; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To detect the causative mutation for congenital posterior polar cataracts in a five-generation Chinese family and further explore the potential pathogenesis of this disease. Methods Coding exons, with flanking sequences of five candidate genes, were screened using direct DNA sequencing. The identified mutations were confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. A full-length wild-type or an Y219* mutant aquaporin0 (AQP0) fused with an N-terminal FLAG tag, was transfected into HEK293T cells. For co-localization studies, FLAG-WT-AQP0 and Myc-Y219*-AQP0 constructs were co-transfected. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence studies were performed to determine protein expression levels and sub-cellular localization, respectively. Results We identified a novel nonsense mutation in MIP (c.657 C>G; p.Y219*) (major intrinsic protein gene) that segregates with congenital posterior polar cataract in a Chinese family. This mutation altered a highly conserved tyrosine to a stop codon (Y219*) within AQP0.When FLAG-WT-AQP0 and FLAG-Y219*-AQP0 expression constructs were singly transfected into HEK 293T cells, mRNA expression showed no significant difference between the wild-type and the mutant, while Y219*-AQP0 protein expression was significantly lower than that of wild-type AQP0. Wild-type AQP0 predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, while the mutated protein was abundant within the cytoplasm of HEK293T cells. However, when FLAG-WT-AQP0 andMyc-MU-AQP0were co-expressed, both proteins showed high fluorescence in the cytoplasm. Conclusions The novel nonsense mutation in the MIP gene (c.657 C>G) identified in a Chinese family may cause posterior polar cataracts. The dominant negative effect of the mutated protein on the wild-type protein interfered with the trafficking of wild-type protein to the cell membrane and both the mutant and wild-type protein were trapped in the cytoplasm. Consequently, both wild

  2. α1-Syntrophin Variant Identified in Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome Increases Late Sodium Current

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Il; Wang, Chaojian; Thomas, Matthew J.; Pitt, Geoffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced long-QT syndrome (diLQTS) is often due to drug block of IKr, especially in genetically susceptible patients with subclinical mutations in the IKr-encoding KCHN2. Few variants in the cardiac NaV1.5 Na+ channel complex have been associated with diLQTS. We tested whether a novel SNTA1 (α1-syntrophin) variant (p.E409Q) found in a patient with diLQTS increases late sodium current (INa-L), thereby providing a disease mechanism. Electrophysiological studies were performed in HEK293T cells co-expressing human NaV1.5/nNOS/PMCA4b with either wild type (WT) or SNTA1 variants (A390V-previously reported in congenital LQTS; and E409Q); and in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes infected with SNTA1 expressing adenoviruses (WT or one of the two SNTA1 variants). In HEK293T cells and in cardiomyocytes, there was no significant difference in the peak INa densities among the SNTA1 WT and variants. However, both variants increased INa-L (% of peak current) in HEK293T cells (0.58±0.10 in WT vs. 0.90±0.11 in A390V, p = 0.048; vs. 0.88±0.07 in E409Q, p = 0.023). In cardiomyocytes, INa-L was significantly increased by E409Q, but not by A390V compared to WT (0.49±0.14 in WT vs.0.94±0.23 in A390V, p = 0.099; vs. 1.12±0.24 in E409Q, p = 0.019). We demonstrated that a novel SNTA1 variant is likely causative for diLQTS by augmenting INa-L. These data suggest that variants within the NaV1.5-interacting α1-syntrophin are a potential mechanism for diLQTS, thereby expanding the concept that variants within congenital LQTS loci can cause diLQTS. PMID:27028743

  3. [OATP1B1 in drug-drug interactions between traditional Chinese medicine Danshensu and rosuvastatin].

    PubMed

    Wen, Jin-hua; Wei, Xiao-hua; Cheng, Xiao-hua; Zuo, Rong; Peng, Hong-wei; Lü, Yan-ni; Zhou, Jian; Zheng, Xue-lian; Cai, Jun; Xiong, Yu-qing; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to explore the drug-drug interactions mechanisms mediated by OATP1B1 between traditional Chinese medicine Danshensu and rosuvastatin. First, the changes of rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics were investigated in presence of Danshensu in rats. Then, the primary rat hepatocytes model was established to explore the effects of Danshensu on the uptake of rosuvastatin by hepatocytes. Finally, HEK293T cells with overexpression of OATP1B1*a and OATP1B1*5 were established using a lentiviral delivery system to explore the effects of Danshensu on the uptake of rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetic parameters of C(max0, AUCO(0-t), AUC(0-∞) were increased about 123%, 194% and 195%, by Danshensu in rats, while the CL z/F value was decreased by 60%. Uptake of rosuvastatin in the primary rat hepatocytes was decreased by 3.13%, 41.15% and 74.62%, respectively in the presence of 20, 40 and 80 μmol x L(-1) Danshensu. The IC50 parameters was (53.04 ± 2.43) μmol x L(-1). The inhibitory effect of Danshensu on OATP1B1 mediated transport of rosuvastatin was related to the OATP1B1 gene type. In OATP1B1*5-HEK293T mutant cells, transport of rosuvastatin were reduced by (39.11 ± 4.94)% and (63.61 ± 3.94)%, respectively, by Danshensu at 1 and 10 μmol x L(-1). While transport of rosuvastatin was reduced by (8.22 ± 2.40)% and (11.56 ± 3.04)% and in OATP1B1*1a cells, respectively. Danshensu significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in rats, which was related to competitive inhibition of transport by OATPJBI. Danshensu exhibited a significant activity in the inhibition of rosuvastatin transport by OATP1B1*5-HEK293T, but not by OATP1B1*1a, suggesting a dependence on OATP1B1 sequence. PMID:27405165

  4. A Significant Role of the Truncated Ghrelin Receptor GHS-R1b in Ghrelin-induced Signaling in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Gemma; Aguinaga, David; Angelats, Edgar; Medrano, Mireia; Moreno, Estefanía; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antonio; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent; McCormick, Peter J; Lluís, Carme; Ferré, Sergi

    2016-06-17

    The truncated non-signaling ghrelin receptor growth hormone secretagogue R1b (GHS-R1b) has been suggested to simply exert a dominant negative role in the trafficking and signaling of the full and functional ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a. Here we reveal a more complex modulatory role of GHS-R1b. Differential co-expression of GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b, both in HEK-293T cells and in striatal and hippocampal neurons in culture, demonstrates that GHS-R1b acts as a dual modulator of GHS-R1a function: low relative GHS-R1b expression potentiates and high relative GHS-R1b expression inhibits GHS-R1a function by facilitating GHS-R1a trafficking to the plasma membrane and by exerting a negative allosteric effect on GHS-R1a signaling, respectively. We found a preferential Gi/o coupling of the GHS-R1a-GHS-R1b complex in HEK-293T cells and, unexpectedly, a preferential Gs/olf coupling in both striatal and hippocampal neurons in culture. A dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist blocked ghrelin-induced cAMP accumulation in striatal but not hippocampal neurons, indicating the involvement of D1R in the striatal GHS-R1a-Gs/olf coupling. Experiments in HEK-293T cells demonstrated that D1R co-expression promotes a switch in GHS-R1a-G protein coupling from Gi/o to Gs/olf, but only upon co-expression of GHS-R1b. Furthermore, resonance energy transfer experiments showed that D1R interacts with GHS-R1a, but only in the presence of GHS-R1b. Therefore, GHS-R1b not only determines the efficacy of ghrelin-induced GHS-R1a-mediated signaling but also determines the ability of GHS-R1a to form oligomeric complexes with other receptors, promoting profound qualitative changes in ghrelin-induced signaling. PMID:27129257

  5. Effect of Thermodiffusion Nitriding on Cytocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohrelyuk, I. M.; Tkachuk, O. V.; Proskurnyak, R. V.; Boiko, N. M.; Kluchivska, O. Yu.; Stoika, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The nitrided layer was formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy by the thermodiffusion saturation in nitrogen at the atmospheric pressure. The study of the vitality of pseudonormal human embryo kidney cells of the HEK293T line showed that their cultivation in the presence of the untreated alloy sample is accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in the number of living cells compared with the control sample (untreated cells), whereas their cultivation in the presence of the nitrided alloy sample does not change the cell number considerably. In addition, it was shown that cell behavior in the presence of the nitrided sample differs only slightly from the control sample, whereas the growth of cells in the presence of the untreated alloy differed significantly from that in the control sample, demonstrating small groups of cells instead of their big clusters.

  6. Surface expression of the Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) channel is suppressed by protein-protein interactions with β-COP.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sun; Bae, Yeonju; Park, Nammi; Yoo, Jae Cheal; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Ryoo, Kanghyun; Hwang, Eun Mi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-06-24

    Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) is a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that plays important physiological roles in normal and cancerous tissues. However, the plasma membrane trafficking mechanisms of ANO1 remain poorly characterized. In yeast two-hybrid screening experiments, we observed direct interactions of ANO1 with β-COP, which is a subunit of Coat Protein Complex I (COPI). This interaction was then confirmed using several in vitro and in vivo binding assays. Moreover, the cotransfection of β-COP with ANO1 into HEK293T cells led to decreased the surface expression and the channel activity of ANO1. Accordingly, endogenous ANO1 was associated with β-COP in U251 glioblastoma cells, and silencing of β-COP enhanced surface expression and whole-cell currents of ANO1 in these cells. Taken together, these data suggest that β-COP negatively regulates ANO1 surface expression. PMID:27207835

  7. A Powerful CRISPR/Cas9-Based Method for Targeted Transcriptional Activation.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Shota; Moriguchi, Tetsuo; Ohtsu, Naoki; Kondo, Toru

    2016-05-23

    Targeted transcriptional activation of endogenous genes is important for understanding physiological transcriptional networks, synthesizing genetic circuits, and inducing cellular phenotype changes. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has great potential to achieve this purpose, however, it has not yet been successfully used to efficiently activate endogenous genes and induce changes in cellular phenotype. A powerful method for transcriptional activation by using CRISPR/Cas9 was developed. Replacement of a methylated promoter with an unmethylated one by CRISPR/Cas9 was sufficient to activate the expression of the neural cell gene OLIG2 and the embryonic stem cell gene NANOG in HEK293T cells. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-based OLIG2 activation induced the embryonic carcinoma cell line NTERA-2 to express the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin. PMID:27079176

  8. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Halabian, Raheleh; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Masroori, Nasser; Ebrahimi, Majid; Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa; Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2009-11-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  9. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Steroidal Thiosemicarbazone Platinum (Pt(II)) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanmin; Kong, Erbin; Gan, Chunfang; Liu, Zhiping; Lin, Qifu; Cui, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Steroidal compounds exhibit particular physiological activities. In this paper, some steroidal thiosemicarbazones platinum (Pt(II)) complexes were synthesized by the condensation of steroidal ketones with thiosemicarbazide using estrone, chenodeoxycholic acid, and 7-deoxycholic acid as starting materials and complexation of steroidal thiosesemicarbazones with Pt(II). The complexes were characterized by IR, NMR, and MS, and their antiproliferative activities were evaluated. The results showed that some steroidal thiosemicarbazones platinum (Pt(II)) complexes displayed moderate cytotoxicity to HeLa and Bel-7404 cells. Thereinto, complex 6 showed an excellent inhibited selectivity to HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 9.2 μM and SI value of 21.7. At the same time, all compounds were almost inactive to HEK293T (normal kidney epithelial cells). The information obtained from the studies may be useful for the design of novel chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26635511

  10. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Steroidal Thiosemicarbazone Platinum (Pt(II)) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanmin; Kong, Erbin; Gan, Chunfang; Liu, Zhiping; Lin, Qifu; Cui, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Steroidal compounds exhibit particular physiological activities. In this paper, some steroidal thiosemicarbazones platinum (Pt(II)) complexes were synthesized by the condensation of steroidal ketones with thiosemicarbazide using estrone, chenodeoxycholic acid, and 7-deoxycholic acid as starting materials and complexation of steroidal thiosesemicarbazones with Pt(II). The complexes were characterized by IR, NMR, and MS, and their antiproliferative activities were evaluated. The results showed that some steroidal thiosemicarbazones platinum (Pt(II)) complexes displayed moderate cytotoxicity to HeLa and Bel-7404 cells. Thereinto, complex 6 showed an excellent inhibited selectivity to HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 9.2 μM and SI value of 21.7. At the same time, all compounds were almost inactive to HEK293T (normal kidney epithelial cells). The information obtained from the studies may be useful for the design of novel chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26635511

  11. Analysis of cellular phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate levels and distribution using confocal fluorescent microscopy.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Michelle; Nowell, Cameron J; Condron, Melanie; Gardiner, James; Holmes, Andrew B; Desai, Jayesh; Burgess, Antony W; Catimel, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    We have developed an immunocytochemistry method for the semiquantitative detection of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) at the cell plasma membrane. This protocol combines the use of a glutathione S-transferase-tagged pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the general phosphoinositides-1 receptor (GST-GRP1PH) with fluorescence confocal microscopy and image segmentation using cell mask software analysis. This methodology allows the analysis of PI(3,4,5)P3 subcellular distribution in resting and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated HEK293T cells and in LIM1215 (wild-type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)) and LIM2550 (H1047R mutation in PI3K catalytic domain) colonic carcinoma cells. Formation of PI(3,4,5)P3 was observed 5min following EGF stimulation and resulted in an increase of the membrane/cytoplasm fluorescence ratio from 1.03 to 1.53 for HEK293T cells and from 2.2 to 3.3 for LIM1215 cells. Resting LIM2550 cells stained with GST-GRP1PH had an elevated membrane/cytoplasm fluorescence ratio of 9.8, suggesting constitutive PI3K activation. The increase in the membrane/cytoplasm fluorescent ratio was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. This cellular confocal imaging assay can be used to directly assess the effects of PI3K mutations in cancer cell lines and to determine the potential specificity and effectiveness of PI3K inhibitors in cancer cells. PMID:20599646

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Enpp6

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Junko; Kato, Kazuki; Mihara, Emiko; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Takagi, Junichi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Aoki, Junken; Nureki, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Enpp (ectonucleotide phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase) 6 is a membrane-bound glycoprotein that hydrolyzes choline-containing compounds such as lysophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphorylcholine, and presumably participates in choline metabolism. The catalytic domain of mouse Enpp6 was expressed in HEK293T cells, purified using the TARGET tag/P20.1-Sepharose system and crystallized. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 1.8 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.7, b = 68.8, c = 69.7 Å, α = 60.6, β = 87.0, γ = 68.1°. Assuming the presence of two protein molecules per asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be 49.5%. PMID:24915096

  13. Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Study of the Potent cAMP Signaling Agonist (-)-Alotaketal A

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinhua; Yang, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed account of the first total synthesis of alotaketal A, a tricyclic spiroketal sesterterpenoid that potently activates the cAMP signaling pathway, is provided. The synthesis employs both intra- and intermolecular reductive allylation of esters for assembling one of the fragments and their coupling. A Hg(OAc)2-mediated allylic mercuration is used to introduce the C22-hydroxyl group. The subtle influence of substituents over the course of the spiroketalization process is revealed. The synthesis confirms the relative and absolute stereochemistry of (-)-alotaketal A and allows verification of alotaketal A’s effect over cAMP signaling using reporter-based FRET imaging assays with HEK 293T cells. Our studies also revealed alotaketal A’s unique activity in selectively targeting nuclear PKA signaling in living cells. PMID:23584129

  14. Targeted Editing of Myostatin Gene in Sheep by Transcription Activator-like Effector Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinxia; Ni, Wei; Chen, Chuangfu; Sai, Wujiafu; Qiao, Jun; Sheng, Jingliang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Guozhong; Wang, Dawei; Hu, Shengwei

    2016-03-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Gene knockout of MSTN can result in increasing muscle mass in sheep. The objectives were to investigate whether myostatin gene can be edited in sheep by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in tandem with single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssODNs). We designed a pair of TALENs to target a highly conserved sequence in the coding region of the sheep MSTN gene. The activity of the TALENs was verified by using luciferase single-strand annealing reporter assay in HEK 293T cell line. Co-transfection of TALENs and ssODNs oligonucleotides induced precise gene editing of myostatin gene in sheep primary fibroblasts. MSTN gene-edited cells were successfully used as nuclear donors for generating cloned embryos. TALENs combined with ssDNA oligonucleotides provide a useful approach for precise gene modification in livestock animals. PMID:26950874

  15. Targeted Editing of Myostatin Gene in Sheep by Transcription Activator-like Effector Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinxia; Ni, Wei; Chen, Chuangfu; Sai, Wujiafu; Qiao, Jun; Sheng, Jingliang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Guozhong; Wang, Dawei; Hu, Shengwei

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Gene knockout of MSTN can result in increasing muscle mass in sheep. The objectives were to investigate whether myostatin gene can be edited in sheep by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in tandem with single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssODNs). We designed a pair of TALENs to target a highly conserved sequence in the coding region of the sheep MSTN gene. The activity of the TALENs was verified by using luciferase single-strand annealing reporter assay in HEK 293T cell line. Co-transfection of TALENs and ssODNs oligonucleotides induced precise gene editing of myostatin gene in sheep primary fibroblasts. MSTN gene-edited cells were successfully used as nuclear donors for generating cloned embryos. TALENs combined with ssDNA oligonucleotides provide a useful approach for precise gene modification in livestock animals. PMID:26950874

  16. Quinoxaline-based inhibitors of Ebola and Marburg VP40 egress.

    PubMed

    Loughran, H Marie; Han, Ziying; Wrobel, Jay E; Decker, Sarah E; Ruthel, Gordon; Freedman, Bruce D; Harty, Ronald N; Reitz, Allen B

    2016-08-01

    We prepared a series of quinoxalin-2-mercapto-acetyl-urea analogs and evaluated them for their ability to inhibit viral egress in our Marburg and Ebola VP40 VLP budding assays in HEK293T cells. We also evaluated selected compounds in our bimolecular complementation assay (BiMC) to detect and visualize a Marburg mVP40-Nedd4 interaction in live mammalian cells. Antiviral activity was assessed for selected compounds using a live recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) (M40 virus) that expresses the EBOV VP40 PPxY L-domain. Finally selected compounds were evaluated in several ADME assays to have an early assessment of their drug properties. Our compounds had low nM potency in these assays (e.g., compounds 21, 24, 26, 39), and had good human liver microsome stability, as well as little or no inhibition of P450 3A4. PMID:27377328

  17. Construction and Immunogenicity Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Truncated Non-Structural Protein 3 (NS3) Plasmid Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Pouriayevali, Mohammad-Hassan; Bamdad, Taravat; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Sabahi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background To develop hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine, induction of potent humoral and T cell response against immunogenic targets with conserved region should be achieved. T cell response against NS3 is often associated with complete clearance of the virus. Objectives Herein, we expressed the truncated form of NS3 in a mammalian cell line and evaluated immune responses of NS3 DNA vaccine in BALB/c. Materials and Methods The partial length of NS3 gene, which encodes immunogenic epitopes (1095 - 1379 aa), was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on RNA obtained from a patient with HCV, inserted into pcDNA3.1 plasmid using XhoI/HindIII sites, and finally evaluated by restriction analysis and sequencing. After transfection of the recombinant plasmid into HEK293T cells, the NS3 protein expression was confirmed by western blotting. Mice were immunized intra-dermally close to the base of the mice tail with four doses in two-weeks intervals and the immune responses were assessed using total and subtypes of IgG antibody assay, cell proliferation and cytokine assay. Results The pcDNA3.1 plasmid harboring the coding sequence of NS3 (pc-NS3) was constructed and confirmed with the expected size. Proper expression of the recombinant protein in transfected HEK 293T cells was confirmed using western blotting. The immunization results indicated that pc-NS3 induced significant levels of total antibody, IgG2a subclass antibody, Interferon (IFN)-γ, Interleukin (IL)-4 and proliferation assay compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions The pc-NS3 possesses the capacity to express NS3 in the mammalian cell line and demonstrated strong immunogenicity in a murine model. Our primary results demonstrated that the immunogenic truncated region of NS3 could be used as a potential vaccine candidate against hepatitis C. PMID:27226878

  18. Modulation of α2C adrenergic receptor temperature-sensitive trafficking by HSP90

    PubMed Central

    Filipeanu, Catalin M.; de Vries, René; Danser, A.H. Jan; Kapusta, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Decreasing the temperature to 30°C is accompanied by significant enhancement of α2C-AR plasma membrane levels in several cell lines with fibroblast phenotype, as demonstrated by radioligand binding in intact cells or isolated membranes. No changes were observed on the effects of low-temperature after blocking receptor internalization in α2C-AR transfected HEK293T cells. In contrast, two pharmacological chaperones, dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol, increased the cell surface receptor levels at 37°C, but not at 30°C. Further, at 37°C α2C-AR is co-localized with endoplasmic reticulum markers, but not with the lysosomal markers. Treatment with three distinct HSP90 inhibitors, radicicol, macbecin and 17-DMAG significantly enhanced α2C-AR cell surface levels at 37°C, but these inhibitors had no effect at 30°C. Similar results were obtained after decreasing the HSP90 cellular levels using specific siRNA. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that α2C-AR interacts with HSP90 and this interaction is decreased at 30°C. The contractile response to endogenous α2C-AR stimulation in rat tail artery was also enhanced at reduced temperature. Similar to HEK293T cells, HSP90 inhibition increased the α2C-AR contractile effects only at 37°C. Moreover, exposure to low-temperature of vascular smooth muscle cells from rat tail artery decreased the cellular levels of HSP90, but did not change HSP70 levels. These data demonstrate that exposure to low-temperature augments the α2C-AR transport to the plasma membrane by releasing the inhibitory activity of HSP90 on the receptor traffic, findings which may have clinical relevance for the diagnostic and treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon. PMID:21145921

  19. MicroRNA-194 (miR-194) regulates ROMK channel activity by targeting intersectin 1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dao-Hong; Yue, Peng; Zhang, Chengbiao; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the role of miR-194 in mediating the effect of high-K (HK) intake on ROMK channel. Northern blot analysis showed that miR-194 was expressed in kidney and that HK intake increased while low-K intake decreased the expression of miR-194. Real-time PCR analysis further demonstrated that HK intake increased the miR-194 expression in the cortical collecting duct. HK intake decreased the expression of intersectin 1 (ITSN1) which enhanced With-No-Lysine Kinase (WNK)-induced endocytosis of ROMK. Expression of miR-194 mimic decreased luciferase reporter gene activity in HEK293 T cells transfected with ITSN-1-3'UTR containing the complementary seed sequence for miR-194. In contrast, transfection of miR-194 inhibitor increased the luciferase activity. This effect was absent in the cells transfected with mutated 3'UTR of ITSN1 in which the complimentary seed sequence was deleted. Moreover, the inhibition of miR-194 expression increased the protein level of endogenous ITSN1 in HEK293T cells. Expression of miR-194 mimic also decreased the translation of exogenous ITSN1 in the cells transfected with the ITSN1 containing 3'UTR but not with 3'UTR-free ITSN1. Expression of pre-miR-194 increased K currents and ROMK expression in the plasma membrane in ROMK-transfected cells. Coexpression of ITSN1 reversed the stimulatory effect of miR-194 on ROMK channels. This effect was reversed by coexpression of ITSN1. We conclude that miR-194 regulates ROMK channel activity by modulating ITSN1 expression thereby enhancing ITSN1/WNK-dependent endocytosis. It is possible that miR-194 is involved in mediating the effect of a HK intake on ROMK channel activity. PMID:24197061

  20. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling of Substituted Indeno[1,2-b]indoles as Inhibitors of Human Protein Kinase CK2

    PubMed Central

    Alchab, Faten; Ettouati, Laurent; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Bollacke, Andre; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Gertzen, Christoph G.W.; Gohlke, Holger; Pinaud, Noël; Marchivie, Mathieu; Guillon, Jean; Fenet, Bernard; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Due to their system of annulated 6-5-5-6-membered rings, indenoindoles have sparked great interest for the design of ATP-competitive inhibitors of human CK2. In the present study, we prepared twenty-one indeno[1,2-b]indole derivatives, all of which were tested in vitro on human CK2. The indenoindolones 5a and 5b inhibited human CK2 with an IC50 of 0.17 and 0.61 µM, respectively. The indeno[1,2-b]indoloquinone 7a also showed inhibitory activity on CK2 at a submicromolar range (IC50 = 0.43 µM). Additionally, a large number of indenoindole derivatives was evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the cell lines 3T3, WI-38, HEK293T and MEF. PMID:26061121

  1. Covalent Modification of a Cysteine Residue in the XPB Subunit of the General Transcription Factor TFIIH Through Single Epoxide Cleavage of the Transcription Inhibitor Triptolide**

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing-Li; Titov, Denis V.; Li, Jing; Tan, Minjia; Ye, Zhaohui; Zhao, Yingming; Romo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Triptolide is a key component of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Thunder God Vine and has potent anticancer and immunosuppressive activities. It is an irreversible inhibitor of eukaryotic transcription through covalent modification of XPB, a subunit of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Cys342 of XPB was identified as the residue that undergoes covalent modification by the 12,13-epoxide group of triptolide. Mutation of Cys342 of XPB to threonine conferred resistance to triptolide on the mutant protein. Replacement of the endogenous wild-type XPB with the Cys342Thr mutant in a HEK293T cell line rendered it completely resistant to triptolide, thus validating XPB as the physiologically relevant target of triptolide. Together, these results deepen our understanding of the interaction between triptolide and XPB and have implications for the future development of new analogues of triptolide as leads for anticancer and immunosuppressive drugs. PMID:25504624

  2. Small-Molecule Screening Identifies the Selanazal Drug Ebselen as a Potent Inhibitor of DMT1-Mediated Iron Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Wetli, Herbert A.; Buckett, Peter D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Summary HEK293T cells overexpressing divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) were established to screen for small-molecule inhibitors of iron uptake. Using a fluorescence-based assay, we tested 2000 known bioactive compounds to find 3 small molecules that potently block ferrous iron uptake. One of the inhibitors, ebselen, is a seleno compound used in clinical trials as a protective agent against ischemic stroke. Ebselen inhibited Fe(II) uptake (IC50 of ~0.22 μM), but did not influence Fe(III) transport or DMT1-mediated manganese uptake. An unrelated antioxidant, pyrrolidine dithiobarbamate (PDTC), also inhibited DMT1 activity (IC50 of ~1.54 μM). Both ebselen and PDTC increased cellular levels of reduced glutathione. These observations indicate that Fe(II) transport by DMT1 can be modulated by cellular redox status and suggest that ebselen may act therapeutically to limit iron-catalyzed damage due to transport inhibition. PMID:16984886

  3. Proteomics Analysis of Cellular Proteins Co-Immunoprecipitated with Nucleoprotein of Influenza A Virus (H7N9)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ningning; Sun, Wanchun; Li, Shuiming; Yang, Jingbo; Yang, Longfei; Quan, Guihua; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Zijian; Cheng, Xin; Li, Zehui; Peng, Qisheng; Liu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses are serious veterinary pathogens that normally circulate among avian populations, causing substantial economic impacts. Some strains of avian influenza A viruses, such as H5N1, H9N2, and recently reported H7N9, have been occasionally found to adapt to humans from other species. In order to replicate efficiently in the new host, influenza viruses have to interact with a variety of host factors. In the present study, H7N9 nucleoprotein was transfected into human HEK293T cells, followed by immunoprecipitated and analyzed by proteomics approaches. A series of host proteins co-immunoprecipitated were identified with high confidence, some of which were found to be acetylated at their lysine residues. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that spliceosome might be the most relevant pathway involved in host response to nucleoprotein expression, increasing our emerging knowledge of host proteins that might be involved in influenza virus replication activities. PMID:26528969

  4. Synthesis, molecular docking and anti-mycobacterial evaluation of new imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-2-carboxamide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jose, Gilish; Suresha Kumara, T H; Nagendrappa, Gopalpur; Sowmya, H B V; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sridevi, Jonnalagadda Padma; Guru Row, Tayur N; Hosamani, Amar A; Sujan Ganapathy, P S; Chandrika, N; Narendra, L V

    2015-01-01

    New anti-tubercular agents, imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-2-carboxamide derivatives (5a-q) have been designed and synthesized. The structural considerations of the designed molecules were further supported by the docking study with a long-chain enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA). The chemical structures of the new compounds were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HRMS and elemental analysis. In addition, single crystal X-ray diffraction has also been recorded for compound 5f. Compounds were evaluated in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and cytotoxicity against HEK-293T cell line. Amongst the tested compounds 5j, 5l and 5q were emerged as good anti-tubercular agents with low cytotoxicity. The structure-anti TB activity relationship of these derivatives was explained by molecular docking. PMID:25462270

  5. Directed evolution of a G protein-coupled receptor for expression, stability, and binding selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Casim A.; Dodevski, Igor; Kenig, Manca; Dudli, Stefan; Mohr, Anja; Hermans, Emmanuel; Plückthun, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We outline a powerful method for the directed evolution of integral membrane proteins in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. For a mammalian G protein-coupled receptor, we arrived at a sequence with an order-of-magnitude increase in functional expression that still retains the biochemical properties of wild type. This mutant also shows enhanced heterologous expression in eukaryotes (12-fold in Pichia pastoris and 3-fold in HEK293T cells) and greater stability when solubilized and purified, indicating that the biophysical properties of the protein had been under the pressure of selection. These improvements arise from multiple small contributions, which would be difficult to assemble by rational design. In a second screen, we rapidly pinpointed a single amino acid substitution in wild type that abolishes antagonist binding while retaining agonist-binding affinity. These approaches may alleviate existing bottlenecks in structural studies of these targets by providing sufficient quantities of stable variants in defined conformational states. PMID:18812512

  6. NME2 associates with PTPσ to transduce signals from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hajime; Fujitani, Masashi; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2016-03-18

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a major component of glial scars, inhibiting axonal growth in the central nervous system. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type S (PTPσ) has been identified as a receptor for CSPGs, whereas its downstream signaling pathway remains to be fully understood. Here, we report that nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NME2) interacts with PTPσ. We screened proteins associated with PTPσ by mass spectrometry, and obtained NME2. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that NME2 associated with the PTPσ intracellular domain in HEK-293T cells. NME2 was expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cortical neurons, and knockdown of NME2 in the cortical neurons completely rescued neurite outgrowth inhibition induced by CSPGs. These results demonstrate that NME2 associates with PTPσ to elicit neurite outgrowth inhibition in response to CSPGs. PMID:26896769

  7. Polyamide Nanogels from GRAS Components and Their Toxicity in Mouse Pre-implantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Priyaa; Molla, Mijanur Rahaman; Cui, Wei; Canakci, Mine; Osborne, Barbara; Mager, Jesse; Thayumanavan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Safe delivery systems that can not only encapsulate hydrophobic drug molecules, but also release them in response to specific triggers, are important in several therapeutic and biomedical applications. In this paper, we have designed a nanogel based on molecules that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). We have shown that the resultant polymeric nanogels exhibit responsive molecular release, and also show high in vitro cellular viability on HEK 293T, HeLa, MCF 7 and A549 cell lines. The toxicity of these nanogels was further evaluated with a highly sensitive assay using mouse preimplantation embryo development, where blastocysts were formed after four days of in vitro culture and live pups were born when morulae/early blastocysts were transferred to the uteri of surrogate recipients. Our results indicate that these nanogels are non-toxic during mammalian development and do not alter normal growth or early embryo success rate. PMID:26367020

  8. Proteomics Analysis of Cellular Proteins Co-Immunoprecipitated with Nucleoprotein of Influenza A Virus (H7N9).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ningning; Sun, Wanchun; Li, Shuiming; Yang, Jingbo; Yang, Longfei; Quan, Guihua; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Zijian; Cheng, Xin; Li, Zehui; Peng, Qisheng; Liu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses are serious veterinary pathogens that normally circulate among avian populations, causing substantial economic impacts. Some strains of avian influenza A viruses, such as H5N1, H9N2, and recently reported H7N9, have been occasionally found to adapt to humans from other species. In order to replicate efficiently in the new host, influenza viruses have to interact with a variety of host factors. In the present study, H7N9 nucleoprotein was transfected into human HEK293T cells, followed by immunoprecipitated and analyzed by proteomics approaches. A series of host proteins co-immunoprecipitated were identified with high confidence, some of which were found to be acetylated at their lysine residues. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that spliceosome might be the most relevant pathway involved in host response to nucleoprotein expression, increasing our emerging knowledge of host proteins that might be involved in influenza virus replication activities. PMID:26528969

  9. Covalent modification of a cysteine residue in the XPB subunit of the general transcription factor TFIIH through single epoxide cleavage of the transcription inhibitor triptolide.

    PubMed

    He, Qing-Li; Titov, Denis V; Li, Jing; Tan, Minjia; Ye, Zhaohui; Zhao, Yingming; Romo, Daniel; Liu, Jun O

    2015-02-01

    Triptolide is a key component of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Thunder God Vine and has potent anticancer and immunosuppressive activities. It is an irreversible inhibitor of eukaryotic transcription through covalent modification of XPB, a subunit of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Cys342 of XPB was identified as the residue that undergoes covalent modification by the 12,13-epoxide group of triptolide. Mutation of Cys342 of XPB to threonine conferred resistance to triptolide on the mutant protein. Replacement of the endogenous wild-type XPB with the Cys342Thr mutant in a HEK293T cell line rendered it completely resistant to triptolide, thus validating XPB as the physiologically relevant target of triptolide. Together, these results deepen our understanding of the interaction between triptolide and XPB and have implications for the future development of new analogues of triptolide as leads for anticancer and immunosuppressive drugs. PMID:25504624

  10. A novel mechanism for cytoprotection against hypoxic injury: δ–opioid receptor-mediated increase in Nrf2 translocation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shan; Chao, Dongman; Zhou, Honghao; Balboni, Gianfranco; Xia, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hypoxia/reoxygenation induces synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can attack macromolecules and cause brain injury. The transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, (Nrf2), ia potent activator of genes with an antioxidant responsive element and Nrf2 can counteract oxidative injury by increasing expression of several antioxidative genes in response to ROS stress. Here, we show that activation of the δ-opioid receptor (DOR) increasedNrf2 protein expression and translocation, thereby leading to cytoprotection. Experimental Approach We used HEK293t cells exposed to 0.5% O2 for 16 h and then reoxygenated for 4 h as a model of hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R) injury. Real time PCR, Western blotting, siRNA and immunohistochemical techniques were used to follow Nrf2 expression and activity. Cell viability and damage (as LDH leakage) were also measured. Key Results H/R injury triggered Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus and up-regulated expression of several downstream genes, relevant to antioxidation, such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). Incubation with the DOR agonist UFP-512 enhanced Nrf2 protein expression and translocation and up-regulated its downstream genes in normoxia and further increased Nrf2 expression and translocation after H/R, protecting the cells against loss of viability and damage. The effect of UFP-512 on Nrf2 nuclear translocation was blocked by the DOR antagonist, naltrindole. Also, DOR–mediated cytoprotection was strongly inhibited after transfection of HEK293t cells with Nrf2 siRNA. Conclusions and Implications The DOR agonist UFP-512 was cytoprotective against H/R injury and this effect was partly dependent on DOR-mediated increase in Nrf2 function. PMID:25439010

  11. A novel start codon mutation of the MERTK gene in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Jinda, Worapoj; Poungvarin, Naravat; Taylor, Todd D.; Suzuki, Yutaka; Thongnoppakhun, Wanna; Limwongse, Chanin; Lertrit, Patcharee; Suriyaphol, Prapat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited retinal degenerations characterized by progressive loss of photoreceptor cells and RPE functions. More than 70 causative genes are known to be responsible for RP. This study aimed to identify the causative gene in a patient from a consanguineous family with childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy. Methods To identify the defective gene, whole exome sequencing was performed. Candidate causative variants were selected and validated using Sanger sequencing. Segregation analysis of the causative gene was performed in additional family members. To verify that the mutation has an effect on protein synthesis, an expression vector containing the first ten amino acids of the mutant protein fused with the DsRed2 fluorescent protein was constructed and transfected into HEK293T cells. Expression of the fusion protein in the transfected cells was measured using fluorescence microscopy. Results By filtering against public variant databases, a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.3G>A) localized in the start codon of the MERTK gene was detected as a potentially pathogenic mutation for autosomal recessive RP. The c.3G>A mutation cosegregated with the disease phenotype in the family. No expression of the first ten amino acids of the MerTK mutant fused with the DsRed2 fluorescent protein was detected in HEK293T cells, indicating that the mutation affects the translation initiation site of the gene that may lead to loss of function of the MerTK signaling pathway. Conclusions We report a novel missense mutation (c.3G>A, p.0?) in the MERTK gene that causes severe vision impairment in a patient. Taken together with previous reports, our results expand the spectrum of MERTK mutations and extend our understanding of the role of the MerTK protein in the pathogenesis of retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:27122965

  12. Reaction between lawsone and aminophenol derivatives: Synthesis, characterization, molecular structures and antiproliferative activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathawate, Laxmi; Joshi, Pranya V.; Dash, Tapan Kumar; Pal, Sanjima; Nikalje, Milind; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Puranik, Vedavati G.; Konkimalla, V. Badireenath; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2014-10-01

    Reaction between two bioreductive reactants lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone) and derivatives 2-aminophenol without catalyst is reported. The reaction between lawsone and 4-chloro-2-aminophenol leads to formation of red colored major product 1A:[2-[(5-chloro-hydroxyphenyl)amino]naphthalene-1,4-dione] and fluorescent orange colored minor compound 1B:[10-chloro-benzo[α]phenoxazine-5-one]. Molecular structure of 1A and 1B were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Two mechanisms were proposed to the formation of red 1A and 1B. ‘Ortho-para’ tautomeric equilibrium was observed in DMSO-d6 solution in 1A, which was revealed by 1H, 13C NMR and LC-MS studies. Molecules of 1A formed dimers via Nsbnd H⋯O interaction and polymeric chain of dimers was formed by Osbnd H⋯O interactions. Cl⋯Cl interactions were observed between the polymeric chains of dimers in 1A. Molecules of 1B show Cl⋯N interaction. Antiproliferative properties is studied for 1A-5A compounds (obtained by the reaction of lawsone with 2-amino-4-methylphenol;2A, 2-aminophenol;3A, 3-aminophenol;4A and 4-aminophenol;5A) and evaluated against two cancer cell lines, THP1 (human monocytic leukemia cells) and COLO205 (colorectal adenocarcinoma) and one normal cell line, HEK293T (human embryonic kidney). The values of 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of compounds 1A-5A was determined using XTT assay. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 2A and 3A were observed against COLO205 and compounds 4A and 5A on THP1 were observed to be higher in comparison to their effect on HEK293T cell lines.

  13. Identification and profiling of CXCR3–CXCR4 chemokine receptor heteromer complexes

    PubMed Central

    Watts, AO; van Lipzig, MMH; Jaeger, WC; Seeber, RM; van Zwam, M; Vinet, J; van der Lee, MMC; Siderius, M; Zaman, GJR; Boddeke, HWGM; Smit, MJ; Pfleger, KDG; Leurs, R; Vischer, HF

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The C-X-C chemokine receptors 3 (CXCR3) and C-X-C chemokine receptors 4 (CXCR4) are involved in various autoimmune diseases and cancers. Small antagonists have previously been shown to cross-inhibit chemokine binding to CXCR4, CC chemokine receptors 2 (CCR2) and 5 (CCR5) heteromers. We investigated whether CXCR3 and CXCR4 can form heteromeric complexes and the binding characteristics of chemokines and small ligand compounds to these chemokine receptor heteromers. Experimental Approach CXCR3–CXCR4 heteromers were identified in HEK293T cells using co-immunoprecipitation, time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer, saturation BRET and the GPCR-heteromer identification technology (HIT) approach. Equilibrium competition binding and dissociation experiments were performed to detect negative binding cooperativity. Key Results We provide evidence that chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4 form heteromeric complexes in HEK293T cells. Chemokine binding was mutually exclusive on membranes co-expressing CXCR3 and CXCR4 as revealed by equilibrium competition binding and dissociation experiments. The small CXCR3 agonist VUF10661 impaired binding of CXCL12 to CXCR4, whereas small antagonists were unable to cross-inhibit chemokine binding to the other chemokine receptor. In contrast, negative binding cooperativity between CXCR3 and CXCR4 chemokines was not observed in intact cells. However, using the GPCR-HIT approach, we have evidence for specific β-arrestin2 recruitment to CXCR3-CXCR4 heteromers in response to agonist stimulation. Conclusions and Implications This study indicates that heteromeric CXCR3–CXCR4 complexes may act as functional units in living cells, which potentially open up novel therapeutic opportunities. PMID:23170857

  14. [Production and evaluation of immunologic characteristics of mzNLA-3, a non-infectious HIV-1 clone with a large deletion in the pol sequence].

    PubMed

    Aghasadeghi, M R; Zabihollahi, R; Sadat, S M; Salehi, M; Ashtiani, S H; Namazi, R; Kashanizadeh, N; Azadmanesh, K

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation ofintegrase and reverse transcriptase can revoke the replication of HIV virions, and non-infectious HIV particles are desirable virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates. Here, we produced inactive in replication HIV-1 particles fit for vaccine and virological purposes by introducing a mutation into the pol sequence. Proviral DNA (pNLA-3) was cut at two points in the pol region using the Bal I restriction enzyme and then religated. HEK 293T cells were transfected with the resultant plasmid (pmzNL4-3) to produce mutated virions. To confirm a production of VLPs and evaluate their biological activity the p24 load and syncytium formation (MT2 cells) were analyzed. The assay indicated that mzNL4-3 virions were assembled and contained functional envelope glycoproteins (ENV). In addition, mzNL4-3 virions were not able to infect MT2 and HEK 293T cells. Furthermore, the immunogenicity of VLPs was investigated in a mouse model. According to the data on vaccinated mice, the titer of ENV-specific antibodies rose rapidly after a boosting injection. Moreover, lymphoid cells extracted from these mice proliferated after exposure to the antigen. The mzNL4-3 virus particles possessed immunogenic antigens of HIV and can effectively trigger humoral and CD4 immune responses. Non-infectious mzNL4-3 virions may also be used in biomedical experiments to improve the biological safety conditions. Moreover, the mzNL4-3 seems to be a promising candidate for further HIV-1 vaccine investigations. PMID:23808159

  15. Synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 is a modulator of multiple G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Yadav, Manisha; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Harish; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar; Mishra, Jay Sharan; Gurjar, Anagha; Manhas, Amit; Chandra, Sharat; Yadav, Prem Narayan; Jagavelu, Kumaravelu; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sanyal, Sabyasachi

    2014-05-01

    The synthetic nuclear bile acid receptor (farnesoid X receptor [FXR]) agonist GW4064 is extensively used as a specific pharmacological tool to illustrate FXR functions. We noticed that GW4064 activated empty luciferase reporters in FXR-deficient HEK-293T cells. We postulated that this activity of GW4064 might be routed through as yet unknown cellular targets and undertook an unbiased exploratory approach to identify these targets. Investigations revealed that GW4064 activated cAMP and nuclear factor for activated T-cell response elements (CRE and NFAT-RE, respectively) present on these empty reporters. Whereas GW4064-induced NFAT-RE activation involved rapid intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation and NFAT nuclear translocation, CRE activation involved soluble adenylyl cyclase-dependent cAMP accumulation and Ca(2+)-calcineurin-dependent nuclear translocation of transducers of regulated CRE-binding protein 2. Use of dominant negative heterotrimeric G-protein minigenes revealed that GW4064 caused activation of Gαi/o and Gq/11 G proteins. Sequential pharmacological inhibitor-based screening and radioligand-binding studies revealed that GW4064 interacted with multiple G protein-coupled receptors. Functional studies demonstrated that GW4064 robustly activated H1 and H4 and inhibited H2 histamine receptor signaling events. We also found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells, reported to undergo GW4064-induced apoptosis in an FXR-dependent manner, did not express FXR, and the GW4064-mediated apoptosis, also apparent in HEK-293T cells, could be blocked by selective histamine receptor regulators. Taken together, our results demonstrate identification of histamine receptors as alternate targets for GW4064, which not only necessitates cautious interpretation of the biological functions attributed to FXR using GW4064 as a pharmacological tool but also provides a basis for the rational designing of new pharmacophores for histamine receptor modulation. PMID:24597548

  16. The interaction between AMPKβ2 and the PP1-targeting subunit R6 is dynamically regulated by intracellular glycogen content.

    PubMed

    Oligschlaeger, Yvonne; Miglianico, Marie; Dahlmans, Vivian; Rubio-Villena, Carla; Chanda, Dipanjan; Garcia-Gimeno, Maria Adelaida; Coumans, Will A; Liu, Yilin; Voncken, J Willem; Luiken, Joost J F P; Glatz, Jan F C; Sanz, Pascual; Neumann, Dietbert

    2016-04-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic stress-sensing kinase. We previously showed that glucose deprivation induces autophosphorylation of AMPKβ at Thr-148, which prevents the binding of AMPK to glycogen. Furthermore, in MIN6 cells, AMPKβ1 binds to R6 (PPP1R3D), a glycogen-targeting subunit of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1), thereby regulating the glucose-induced inactivation of AMPK. In the present study, we further investigated the interaction of R6 with AMPKβ and the possible dependency on Thr-148 phosphorylation status. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analyses and co-immunoprecipitation (IP) of the overexpressed proteins in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T) cells revealed that both AMPKβ1 and AMPK-β2 wild-type (WT) isoforms bind to R6. The AMPKβ-R6 interaction was stronger with the muscle-specific AMPKβ2-WT and required association with the substrate-binding motif of R6. When HEK293T cells or C2C12 myotubes were cultured in high-glucose medium, AMPKβ2-WT and R6 weakly interacted. In contrast, glycogen depletion significantly enhanced this protein interaction. Mutation of AMPKβ2 Thr-148 prevented the interaction with R6 irrespective of the intracellular glycogen content. Treatment with the AMPK activator oligomycin enhanced the AMPKβ2-R6 interaction in conjunction with increased Thr-148 phosphorylation in cells grown in low-glucose medium. These data are in accordance with R6 binding directly to AMPKβ2 when both proteins detach from the diminishing glycogen particle, which is simultaneous with increased AMPKβ2 Thr-148 autophosphorylation. Such a model points to a possible control of AMPK by PP1-R6 upon glycogen depletion in muscle. PMID:26831516

  17. Human Argonaute 2 Is Tethered to Ribosomal RNA through MicroRNA Interactions.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Blake L; Woolnough, Jessica L; Lefevre, Gaelle M; Saint Just Ribeiro, Mariana; Felsenfeld, Gary; Giles, Keith E

    2016-08-19

    The primary role of the RNAi machinery is to promote mRNA degradation within the cytoplasm in a microRNA-dependent manner. However, both Dicer and the Argonaute protein family have expanded roles in gene regulation within the nucleus. To further our understanding of this role, we have identified chromatin binding sites for AGO2 throughout the 45S region of the human rRNA gene. The location of these sites was mirrored by the positions of AGO2 cross-linking sites identified via PAR-CLIP-seq. AGO2 binding to the rRNA within the nucleus was confirmed by RNA immunoprecipitation and quantitative-PCR. To explore a possible mechanism by which AGO2 could be recruited to the rRNA, we identified 1174 regions within the 45S rRNA transcript that have the ability to form a perfect duplex with position 2-6 (seed sequence) of each microRNA expressed in HEK293T cells. Of these potential AGO2 binding sites, 479 occurred within experimentally verified AGO2-rRNA cross-linking sites. The ability of AGO2 to cross-link to rRNA was almost completely lost in a DICER knock-out cell line. The transfection of miR-92a-2-3p into the noDICE cell line facilitated AGO2 cross-linking at a region of the rRNA that has a perfect seed match at positions 3-8, including a single G-U base pair. Knockdown of AGO2 within HEK293T cells causes a slight, but statistically significant increase in the overall rRNA synthesis rate but did not impact the ratio of processing intermediates or the recruitment of the Pol I transcription factor UBTF. PMID:27288410

  18. Protein kinase C shifts the voltage dependence of KCNQ/M channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, Koichi; Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2005-11-15

    It is well established that stimulation of G(q)-coupled receptors such as the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor inhibits KCNQ/M currents. While it is generally accepted that this muscarinic inhibition is mainly caused by the breakdown of PIP(2), the role of the subsequent activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is not well understood. By reconstituting M currents in Xenopus oocytes, we observed that stimulation of coexpressed M1 receptors with 10 microm oxotremorine M (oxo-M) induces a positive shift (4-30 mV, depending on which KCNQ channels are expressed) in the conductance-voltage relationship (G-V) of KCNQ channels. When we applied phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a potent PKC activator, we observed a large positive shift (17.8 +/- 1.6 mV) in the G-V curve for KCNQ2, while chelerythrine, a PKC inhibitor, attenuated the shift caused by the stimulation of M1 receptors. By contrast, reducing PIP(2) had little effect on the G-V curve for KCNQ2 channels; although pretreating cells with 10 mum wortmannin for 30 min reduced KCNQ2 current amplitude by 80%, the G-V curve was shifted only slightly (5 mV). Apparently, the shift induced by muscarinic stimulation in Xenopus oocytes was mainly caused by PKC activation. When KCNQ2/3 channels were expressed in HEK 293T cells, the G-V curve seemed already to be shifted in a positive direction, even before activation of PKC, and PMA failed to shift the curve any further. That alkaline phosphatase in the patch pipette shifted the G-V curve in a negative direction suggests KCNQ2/3 channels are constitutively phosphorylated in HEK 293T cells. PMID:16179364

  19. CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase interacts with fragile X related protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yun; Tian, Shuai; Wang, Zongbao; Wang, Changbo; Chen, Xiaowei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yang; He, Shuya

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), fragile X related 1 protein (FXR1P) and FXR2P are the members of the FMR protein family. These proteins contain two KH domains and a RGG box, which are characteristic of RNA binding proteins. The absence of FMRP, causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of hereditary mental retardation. FXR1P is expressed throughout the body and important for normal muscle development, and its absence causes cardiac abnormality. To investigate the functions of FXR1P, a screen was performed to identify FXR1P-interacting proteins and determine the biological effect of the interaction. The current study identified CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase (CMAS) as an interacting protein using the yeast two-hybrid system, and the interaction between FXR1P and CMAS was validated in yeast using a β-galactosidase assay and growth studies with selective media. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation was used to analyze the FXR1P/CMAS association and immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to detect expression and intracellular localization of the proteins. The results of the current study indicated that FXR1P and CMAS interact, and colocalize in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of HEK293T and HeLa cells. Accordingly, a fragile X related 1 (FXR1) gene overexpression vector was constructed to investigate the effect of FXR1 overexpression on the level of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside 1 (GM1). The results of the current study suggested that FXR1P is a tissue-specific regulator of GM1 levels in SH-SY5Y cells, but not in HEK293T cells. Taken together, the results initially indicate that FXR1P interacts with CMAS, and that FXR1P may enhance the activation of sialic acid via interaction with CMAS, and increase GM1 levels to affect the development of the nervous system, thus providing evidence for further research into the pathogenesis of FXS. PMID:27357083

  20. Oncogenic TPM3-ALK activation requires dimerization through the coiled-coil structure of TPM3

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Rie; Sakatani, Toshio; Ichinose, Junji; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Kousuke; Kage, Hidenori; Nakajima, Jun; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya

    2015-02-13

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a mesenchymal tumor that can arise from anywhere in the body. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements, most often resulting in the tropomyosin 3 (TPM3)-ALK fusion gene, are the main causes of IMT. However, the mechanism of malignant transformation in IMT has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of the TPM3 region in the transformation of IMT via TPM3-ALK. Lentivirus vectors containing a TPM3-ALK fusion gene lacking various lengths of TPM3 were constructed and expressed in HEK293T and NIH3T3 cell lines. Focus formation assay revealed loss of contact inhibition in NIH3T3 cells transfected with full-length TPM3-ALK, but not with ALK alone. Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) revealed that TPM3-ALK dimerization increased in proportion to the length of TPM3. Western blot showed phosphorylation of ALK, ERK1/2, and STAT3 in HEK293T cells transfected with TPM3-ALK. Thus, the coiled-coil structure of TPM3 contributes to the transforming ability of the TPM3-ALK fusion protein, and longer TPM3 region leads to higher dimer formation. - Highlights: • TPM3-ALK fusion protein dimerizes through the coiled-coil structure of TPM3. • Longer coiled-coil structure of TPM3 leads to higher TPM3-ALK dimer formation. • Presence of TPM3-ALK dimer leads to ALK, STAT3, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. • Presence of TPM3-ALK leads to loss of contact inhibition. • BN-PAGE is a simple technique for visualizing oncogenic dimerization.

  1. The Dual NOD1/NOD2 Agonism of Muropeptides Containing a Meso-Diaminopimelic Acid Residue

    PubMed Central

    Dagil, Yulia A.; Arbatsky, Nikolai P.; Alkhazova, Biana I.; L’vov, Vyacheslav L.; Mazurov, Dmitriy V.; Pashenkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Muropeptides are fragments of peptidoglycan that trigger innate immune responses by activating nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD2. Muropeptides from Gram-negative bacteria contain a meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) residue in either a terminal or a non-terminal position. While the former ones are known to be recognized by NOD1, much less is known about recognition of muropeptides with non-terminal meso-DAP, which are most abundant moieties of Gram-negative peptidoglycans. Here, we developed a novel system to assess biological activity of muropeptides, based on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout (KO) of NOD1 and NOD2 genes in modified HEK293T cells. Using NOD1/NOD2 knockout and overexpression systems, as well as human monocytes and macrophages, we refine the current view of muropeptide recognition. We show that NOD2 can recognize different natural muropeptides containing a meso-DAP residue (preferably in a non-terminal position), provided they are present at micromolar concentrations. NOD2 accepts muropeptides with long and branched peptide chains and requires an intact N-acetylmuramyl residue. Muropeptides with non-terminal meso-DAP can activate NOD1 as well, but, in this case, probably require peptidase pre-processing to expose the meso-DAP residue. Depending on NOD1/NOD2 ratio in specific cell types, meso-DAP-containing muropeptides can be recognized either primarily via NOD2 (in monocytes) or via NOD1 (in monocyte-derived macrophages and HEK293T-derived cells). The dual NOD1/NOD2 agonism of meso-DAP-containing muropeptides should be taken into account when assessing cellular responses to muropeptides and designing muropeptide immunostimulants and vaccine adjuvants. PMID:27513337

  2. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) melanocortin-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Wei; Shi, Lin; Chai, Ji-Tian; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-04-01

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is critical in regulating mammalian food intake and energy expenditure. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), famous as the living fossil, is an endangered species endemic to China. We are interested in exploring the functions of the giant panda MC4R (amMC4R) in regulating energy homeostasis and report herein the molecular cloning and pharmacology of the amMC4R. Sequence analysis revealed that amMC4R was highly homologous (>88%) at nucleotide and amino acid sequences to several mammalian MC4Rs. Western blot revealed that the expression construct myc-amMC4R in pcDNA3.1 was successfully constructed and expressed in HEK293T cells. With human MC4R (hMC4R) as a control, pharmacological characteristics of amMC4R were analyzed with binding and signaling assays. Four agonists, including [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), α- and β-MSH, and a small molecule agonist, THIQ, were used in binding and signaling assays. We showed that amMC4R bound NDP-MSH with the highest affinity followed by THIQ, α-MSH, and β-MSH, with the same ranking order as hMC4R. Treatment of HEK293T cells expressing amMC4R with different concentrations of agonists resulted in dose-dependent increase of intracellular cAMP levels, with similar EC50s for the four agonists. The results suggested that the cloned amMC4R encoded a functional MC4R. The availability of amMC4R and its binding and signaling properties will facilitate the investigation of amMC4R in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:26896843

  3. LE135, a retinoid acid receptor antagonist, produces pain through direct activation of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Yu, Weihua; Hu, Hongzhen

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeRetinoids, through their activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors, regulate diverse cellular processes, and pharmacological intervention in their actions has been successful in the treatment of skin disorders and cancers. Despite the many beneficial effects, administration of retinoids causes irritating side effects with unknown mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that LE135 [4-(7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-5,7,7,10,10-pentamethyl-5H-benzo[e]naphtho[2,3-b][1,4]diazepin-13-yl)benzoic acid], a selective antagonist of RARβ, is a potent activator of the capsaicin (TRPV1) and wasabi (TRPA1) receptors, two critical pain-initiating cation channels. Experimental ApproachWe performed to investigate the excitatory effects of LE135 on TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels expressed in HEK293T cells and in dorsal root ganglia neurons with calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings. We also used site-directed mutagenesis of the channels to determine the structural basis of LE135-induced activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels and behavioural testing to examine if pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of the channels affected LE135-evoked pain-related behaviours. Key ResultsLE135 activated both the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) and the allyl isothiocyanate receptor (TRPA1) heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells and endogenously expressed by sensory nociceptors. Mutations disrupting the capsaicin-binding site attenuated LE135 activation of TRPV1 channels and a single mutation (K170R) eliminated TRPA1 activity evoked by LE135. Intraplantar injection of LE135 evoked pain-related behaviours. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels were involved in LE135-elicited pain-related responses, as shown by pharmacological and genetic ablation studies. Conclusions and ImplicationsThis blocker of retinoid acid signalling also exerted non-genomic effects through activating the pain-initiating TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. PMID:24308840

  4. Novel mutations in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) are distributed throughout the protein and result in altered enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, L; de Koning, T J; Geboers, A J J M; van den Berg, I E T; Berger, R; Klomp, L W J

    2009-05-01

    Three-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency is a rare recessive inborn error in the biosynthesis of the amino acid L-serine characterized clinically by congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, and intractable seizures. The biochemical abnormalities associated with this disorder are low concentrations of L-serine, D-serine, and glycine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Only two missense mutations (p.V425M and p.V490M) have been identified in PHGDH, the gene encoding 3-PGDH, but it is currently unclear how these mutations in the carboxy-terminal regulatory domain of the protein affect enzyme function. We now describe five novel mutations in five patients with 3-PGDH deficiency; one frameshift mutation (p.G238fsX), and four missense mutations (p.R135W, p.V261M, p.A373T, and p.G377S). The missense mutations were located in the nucleotide binding and regulatory domains of 3-PGDH and did not affect steady-state expression, protein stability, and protein degradation rates. Patients' fibroblasts displayed a significant, but incomplete, reduction in maximal enzyme activities associated with all missense mutations. In transient overexpression studies in HEK293T cells, the p.A373T, p.V425M, and p.V490M mutations resulted in almost undetectable enzyme activities. Molecular modeling of the p.R135W and p.V261M mutations onto the partial crystal structure of 3-PGDH predicted that these mutations affect substrate and cofactor binding. This prediction was confirmed by the results of kinetic measurements in fibroblasts and transiently transfected HEK293T cells, which revealed a markedly decreased V(max) and an increase in K(m) values, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that missense mutations associated with 3-PGDH deficiency either primarily affect substrate binding or result in very low residual enzymatic activity. PMID:19235232

  5. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A).

    PubMed

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai

    2010-10-01

    Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl⁻) and bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney α-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H+) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease--distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXØ motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1 trafficking of kidney α-intercalated cells. PMID:20833140

  6. A novel H395R mutation in MKKS/BBS6 causes retinitis pigmentosa and polydactyly without other findings of Bardet-Biedl or McKusick-Kaufman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hulleman, John D.; Nguyen, Annie; Ramprasad, V.L.; Murugan, Sakthivel; Gupta, Ravi; Mahindrakar, Avinash; Angara, Ravi; Sankurathri, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the causative mutation in two siblings from a consanguineous family in India with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and polydactyly without other findings of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). We also performed functional characterization of the mutant protein to explore its role in this limited form of BBS. Methods The siblings underwent a thorough ophthalmological examination, including retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, and an extensive physical examination with abdominal ultrasonography to characterize the disease phenotype. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) using a panel targeting retinal degeneration genes was performed on genomic DNA samples from the siblings and parents. Upon identification of the causative mutation, functional characterization was accomplished by performing protein–protein interaction studies in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) and human adult retinal pigmented epithelium (ARPE-19) cells. Results The two siblings showed signs of RP and polydactyly. The patients did not have truncal obesity, renal anomalies, hydrometrocolpos, congenital heart disease, or overt cognitive defects. NGS identified a homozygous c.1184A>G mutation in the MKKS/BBS6 gene in both patients resulting in a p.H395R substitution in the MKKS/BBS6 protein. This mutant protein decreased the interaction of MKKS/BBS6 with BBS12 but did so to a different extent in the HEK-293T versus ARPE-19 cells. Nonetheless, the effect of the H395R variant on disrupting interactions with BBS12 was not as profound as other reported MKKS/BBS6 mutations associated with syndromic RP. Conclusions We identified a novel H395R substitution in MKKS/BBS6 that results in a unique phenotype of only RP and polydactyly. Our observations reaffirm the notion that mutations in MKKS/BBS6 cause phenotypic heterogeneity and do not always result in classic MKKS or BBS findings. PMID:26900326

  7. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  8. Activated STING in a Vascular and Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, D.; Ramsey, S.E.; Sanchez, G.A. Montealegre; Tenbrock, K.; Wittkowski, H.; Jones, O.Y.; Kuehn, H.S.; Lee, C.-C.R.; DiMattia, M.A.; Cowen, E.W.; Gonzalez, B.; Palmer, I.; DiGiovanna, J.J.; Biancotto, A.; Kim, H.; Tsai, W.L.; Trier, A.M.; Huang, Y.; Stone, D.L.; Hill, S.; Kim, H.J.; Hilaire, C. St.; Gurprasad, S.; Plass, N.; Chapelle, D.; Horkayne-Szakaly, I.; Foell, D.; Barysenka, A.; Candotti, F.; Holland, S.M.; Hughes, J.D.; Mehmet, H.; Issekutz, A.C.; Raffeld, M.; McElwee, J.; Fontana, J.R.; Minniti, C.P.; Moir, S.; Kastner, D.L.; Gadina, M.; Steven, A.C.; Wingfield, P.T.; Brooks, S.R.; Rosenzweig, S.D.; Fleisher, T.A.; Goldbach-Mansky, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The study of autoinflammatory diseases has uncovered mechanisms underlying cytokine dysregulation and inflammation. METHODS We analyzed the DNA of an index patient with early-onset systemic inflammation, cutaneous vasculopathy, and pulmonary inflammation. We sequenced a candidate gene, TMEM173, encoding the stimulator of interferon genes (STING), in this patient and in five unrelated children with similar clinical phenotypes. Four children were evaluated clinically and immunologically. With the STING ligand cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), we stimulated peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and fibroblasts from patients and controls, as well as commercially obtained endothelial cells, and then assayed transcription of IFNB1, the gene encoding interferon-β, in the stimulated cells. We analyzed IFNB1 reporter levels in HEK293T cells cotransfected with mutant or nonmutant STING constructs. Mutant STING leads to increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), so we tested the effect of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors on STAT1 phosphorylation in lymphocytes from the affected children and controls. RESULTS We identified three mutations in exon 5 of TMEM173 in the six patients. Elevated transcription of IFNB1 and other gene targets of STING in peripheral-blood mono-nuclear cells from the patients indicated constitutive activation of the pathway that cannot be further up-regulated with stimulation. On stimulation with cGAMP, fibro-blasts from the patients showed increased transcription of IFNB1 but not of the genes encoding interleukin-1 (IL1), interleukin-6 (IL6), or tumor necrosis factor (TNF). HEK293T cells transfected with mutant constructs show elevated IFNB1 reporter levels. STING is expressed in endothelial cells, and exposure of these cells to cGAMP resulted in endothelial activation and apoptosis. Constitutive up-regulation of phosphorylated STAT1 in patients’ lymphocytes was

  9. Development and Optimization of AAV hFIX Particles by Transient Transfection in an iCELLis(®) Fixed-Bed Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Powers, Alicia D; Piras, Bryan A; Clark, Robert K; Lockey, Timothy D; Meagher, Michael M

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are increasingly popular in gene therapy because they are unassociated with human disease, replication dependent, and less immunogenic than other viral vectors and can infect a variety of cell types. These vectors have been used in over 130 clinical trials, and one AAV product has been approved for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Europe. To meet the demand for the increasing quantities of AAV required for clinical trials and treatment, a scalable high-capacity technology is required. Bioreactors meet these requirements but limited options are available for adherent HEK 293T/17 cells. Here we optimize the transient transfection of HEK293T/17 cells for the production of AAV human factor IX in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor, the iCELLis(®) Nano (PALL Corporation). A fixed bed in the center of the iCELLis bioreactor is surrounded by culture medium that is pumped through the bed from the bottom of the bioreactor so that a thin film of the medium overflows the bed and is replenished with oxygen and depleted of CO2 as it returns to the surrounding medium reservoir. We show that this fixed-bed bioreactor can support as many as 2.5 × 10(8) cells/ml of fixed bed (1.9 × 10(6) cells/cm(2)). By optimizing culture and transfection parameters such as the concentration of DNA for transfection, day of harvest, size of PEI/DNA particles, and transfection medium, and adding an additional medium change to the process, we increased our yield to as high as 9.0 × 10(14) viral particles per square meter of fixed bed. We also show an average GFP transfection of 97% of cells throughout the fixed bed. These yields make the iCELLis a promising scalable technology for the clinical production of AAV gene therapy products. PMID:27229773

  10. Development of a recombinant antibody to target peptides and proteins to sialoadhesin-expressing macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sialoadhesin (Sn)-expressing monocytes/macrophages have been associated with several diseases like inflammatory and autoimmune disorders as well as viral infections, and they also appear to play a role in the initiation of an adaptive immune response. This makes Sn-expressing cells not only attractive targets for cell-directed therapies, but also an appealing target for vaccination. Furthermore, since Sn was shown to be an endocytic receptor, the conjugation of effector molecules to an Sn-specific ligand should allow intracellular delivery of these conjugates. Previously, we developed functional Sn-specific immunoconjugates that were generated via chemical coupling. Although successful, the system requires significant optimization for each immunoconjugate to be made. To generate a more flexible and controlled system, we developed a recombinant antibody vector allowing the creation of genetic antibody fusion constructs. This paper reports on the characterization of the recombinant antibody and the evaluation of its use for Sn-directed targeting. Results The variable domains of the porcine Sn-specific monoclonal antibody 41D3 were sequenced and cloned in frame with a mouse IgG1 backbone. Transfection of HEK293T cells with the resulting plasmid led to the secretion of fully assembled IgG into the culture medium. This recombinant antibody rec41D3 was shown to specifically bind to porcine Sn with a comparable affinity as the native monoclonal antibody. In addition, rec41D3 also induced Sn endocytosis in primary macrophages and resided for prolonged times in early/late endosomes. To allow the generation of antibody fusion constructs, a multiple cloning site was introduced at the C-terminus of the heavy chain. Two fusion constructs were generated, one containing a V5 peptide tag and one containing an eGFP molecule. Both constructs were shown to be efficiently produced in HEK293T cells and easily purified using standard protein G chromatography. In addition

  11. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    SciTech Connect

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  12. Monitoring the diffusion behavior of Na,K-ATPase by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) upon fluorescence labelling with eGFP or Dreiklang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Cornelia; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Vukojević, Vladana; Friedrich, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of lateral mobility of membraneembedded proteins in living cells with high spatial and temporal precision is a challenging task of optofluidics. Biological membranes are complex structures, whose physico-chemical properties depend on the local lipid composition, cholesterol content and the presence of integral or peripheral membrane proteins, which may be involved in supramolecular complexes or are linked to cellular matrix proteins or the cytoskeleton. The high proteinto- lipid ratios in biomembranes indicate that membrane proteins are particularly subject to molecular crowding, making it difficult to follow the track of individual molecules carrying a fluorescence label. Novel switchable fluorescence proteins such as Dreiklang [1], are, in principle, promising tools to study the diffusion behavior of individual molecules in situations of molecular crowding due to excellent spectral control of the ON- and OFF-switching process. In this work, we expressed an integral membrane transport protein, the Na,K-ATPase comprising the human α2-subunit carrying an N-terminal eGFP or Dreiklang tag and human β1-subunit, in HEK293T cells and measured autocorrelation curves by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Furthermore,we measured diffusion times and diffusion constants of eGFP and Dreiklang by FCS, first, in aqueous solution after purification of the proteins upon expression in E. coli, and, second, upon expression as soluble proteins in the cytoplasm of HEK293T cells. Our data show that the diffusion behavior of the purified eGFP and Dreiklang in solution as well as the properties of the proteins expressed in the cytoplasm are very similar. However, the autocorrelation curves of eGFP- and Dreiklanglabeled Na,K-ATPase measured in the plasma membrane exhibit marked differences, with the Dreiklang-labeled construct showing shorter diffusion times. This may be related to an additional, as yet unrecognized quenching process that occurs on the same time

  13. Monitoring the diffusion behavior of Na,K-ATPase by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) upon fluorescence labelling with eGFP or Dreiklang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Cornelia; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Vukojević, Vladana; Friedrich, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of lateral mobility of membraneembedded proteins in living cells with high spatial and temporal precision is a challenging task of optofluidics. Biological membranes are complex structures, whose physico-chemical properties depend on the local lipid composition, cholesterol content and the presence of integral or peripheral membrane proteins, which may be involved in supramolecular complexes or are linked to cellular matrix proteins or the cytoskeleton. The high proteinto- lipid ratios in biomembranes indicate that membrane proteins are particularly subject to molecular crowding, making it difficult to follow the track of individual molecules carrying a fluorescence label. Novel switchable fluorescence proteins such as Dreiklang [1], are, in principle, promising tools to study the diffusion behavior of individual molecules in situations of molecular crowding due to excellent spectral control of the ON- and OFF-switching process. In this work, we expressed an integral membrane transport protein, the Na,K-ATPase comprising the human α2-subunit carrying an N-terminal eGFP or Dreiklang tag and human β1-subunit, in HEK293T cells and measured autocorrelation curves by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Furthermore,we measured diffusion times and diffusion constants of eGFP and Dreiklang by FCS, first, in aqueous solution after purification of the proteins upon expression in E. coli, and, second, upon expression as soluble proteins in the cytoplasm of HEK293T cells. Our data show that the diffusion behavior of the purified eGFP and Dreiklang in solution as well as the properties of the proteins expressed in the cytoplasm are very similar. However, the autocorrelation curves of eGFP- and Dreiklanglabeled Na,K-ATPase measured in the plasma membrane exhibit marked differences, with the Dreiklang-labeled construct showing shorter diffusion times. This may be related to an additional, as yet unrecognized quenching process that occurs on the same time

  14. A uniquely adaptable pore is consistent with NALCN being an ion sensor

    PubMed Central

    Senatore, Adriano; Spafford, J. David

    2013-01-01

    NALCN is an intriguing, orphan ion channel among the 4x6TM family of related voltage-gated cation channels, sharing a common architecture of four homologous domains consisting of six transmembrane helices, separated by three cytoplasmic linkers and delimited by N and C-terminal ends. NALCN is one of the shortest 4x6TM family members, lacking much of the variation that provides the diverse palate of gating features, and tissue specific adaptations of sodium and calcium channels. NALCN’s most distinctive feature is that that it possesses a highly adaptable pore with a calcium-like EEEE selectivity filter in radially symmetrical animals and a more sodium-like EEKE or EKEE selectivity filter in bilaterally symmetrical animals including vertebrates. Two lineages of animals evolved alternative calcium-like EEEE and sodium-like EEKE / EKEE pores, spliced to regulate NALCN functions in differing cellular environments, such as muscle (heart and skeletal) and secretory tissue (brain and glands), respectively. A highly adaptable pore in an otherwise conserved ion channel in the 4x6TM channel family is not consistent with a role for NALCN in directly gating a significant ion conductance that can be either sodium ions or calcium ions. NALCN was proposed to be an expressible Gd3+-sensitive, NMDG+-impermeant, non-selective and ohmic leak conductance in HEK-293T cells, but we were unable to distinguish these reported currents from leaky patch currents (ILP) in control HEK-293T cells. We suggest that NALCN functions as a sensor for the much larger UNC80/UNC79 complex, in a manner consistent with the coupling mechanism known for other weakly or non-conducting 4x6TM channel sensor proteins such as Nax or Cav1.1. We propose that NALCN serves as a variable sensor that responds to calcium or sodium ion flux, depending on whether the total cellular current density is generated more from calcium-selective or sodium-selective channels. PMID:23442378

  15. The human organic cation transporter OCT1 mediates high affinity uptake of the anticancer drug daunorubicin.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Emil; Brosseau, Nicolas; Carmona, Euridice; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Ramotar, Dindial

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines such as daunorubicin are anticancer agents that are transported into cells, and exert cytotoxicity by blocking DNA metabolism. Although there is evidence for active uptake of anthracyclines into cells, the specific transporter involved in this process has not been identified. Using the high-grade serous ovarian cancer cell line TOV2223G, we show that OCT1 mediated the high affinity (Km ~ 5 μM) uptake of daunorubicin into the cells, and that micromolar amounts of choline completely abolished the drug entry. OCT1 downregulation by shRNA impaired daunorubicin uptake into the TOV2223G cells, and these cells were significantly more resistant to the drug in comparison to the control shRNA. Transfection of HEK293T cells, which accommodated the ectopic expression of OCT1, with a plasmid expressing OCT1-EYFP showed that the transporter was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane. These transfected cells exhibited an increase in the uptake of daunorubicin in comparison to control cells transfected with an empty EYFP vector. Furthermore, a variant of OCT1, OCT1-D474C-EYFP, failed to enhance daunorubicin uptake. This is the first report demonstrating that human OCT1 is involved in the high affinity transport of anthracyclines. We postulate that OCT1 defects may contribute to the resistance of cancer cells treated with anthracyclines. PMID:26861753

  16. The human organic cation transporter OCT1 mediates high affinity uptake of the anticancer drug daunorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Emil; Brosseau, Nicolas; Carmona, Euridice; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Ramotar, Dindial

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines such as daunorubicin are anticancer agents that are transported into cells, and exert cytotoxicity by blocking DNA metabolism. Although there is evidence for active uptake of anthracyclines into cells, the specific transporter involved in this process has not been identified. Using the high-grade serous ovarian cancer cell line TOV2223G, we show that OCT1 mediated the high affinity (Km ~ 5 μM) uptake of daunorubicin into the cells, and that micromolar amounts of choline completely abolished the drug entry. OCT1 downregulation by shRNA impaired daunorubicin uptake into the TOV2223G cells, and these cells were significantly more resistant to the drug in comparison to the control shRNA. Transfection of HEK293T cells, which accommodated the ectopic expression of OCT1, with a plasmid expressing OCT1-EYFP showed that the transporter was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane. These transfected cells exhibited an increase in the uptake of daunorubicin in comparison to control cells transfected with an empty EYFP vector. Furthermore, a variant of OCT1, OCT1-D474C-EYFP, failed to enhance daunorubicin uptake. This is the first report demonstrating that human OCT1 is involved in the high affinity transport of anthracyclines. We postulate that OCT1 defects may contribute to the resistance of cancer cells treated with anthracyclines. PMID:26861753

  17. Factors that influence VSV-G pseudotyping and transduction efficiency of lentiviral vectors-in vitro and in vivo implications.

    PubMed

    Farley, Daniel C; Iqball, Sharifah; Smith, Joanne C; Miskin, James E; Kingsman, Susan M; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A

    2007-05-01

    Pseudotyping viral vectors with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) enables the transduction of an extensive range of cell types from different species. We have discovered two important parameters of the VSV-G-pseudotyping phenomenon that relate directly to the transduction potential of lentiviral vectors: (1) the glycosylation status of VSV-G, and (2) the quantity of glycoprotein associated with virions. We measured production-cell and virion-associated quantities of two isoform variants of VSV-G, which differ in their glycosylation status, VSV-G1 and VSV-G2, and assessed the impact of this difference on the efficiency of mammalian cell transduction by lentiviral vectors. The glycosylation of VSV-G at N336 allowed greater maximal expression of VSV-G in HEK293T cells, thus facilitating vector pseudotyping. The transduction of primate cell lines was substantially affected (up to 50-fold) by the degree of VSV-G1 or VSV-G2 incorporation, whereas other cell lines, such as D17 (canine), were less sensitive to virion-associated VSV-G1/2 quantities. These data indicate that the minimum required concentration of virion-associated VSV-G differs substantially between cell species/types. The implications of these data with regard to VSV-G-pseudotyped vector production, titration, and use in host-cell restriction studies, are discussed. PMID:17366519

  18. Dual-color dual-focus line-scanning FCS for quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand interactions in living specimens

    PubMed Central

    Dörlich, René M.; Chen, Qing; Niklas Hedde, Per; Schuster, Vittoria; Hippler, Marc; Wesslowski, Janine; Davidson, Gary; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Cellular communication in multi-cellular organisms is mediated to a large extent by a multitude of cell-surface receptors that bind specific ligands. An in-depth understanding of cell signaling networks requires quantitative information on ligand-receptor interactions within living systems. In principle, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) based methods can provide such data, but live-cell applications have proven extremely challenging. Here, we have developed an integrated dual-color dual-focus line-scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (2c2f lsFCS) technique that greatly facilitates live-cell and tissue experiments. Absolute ligand and receptor concentrations and their diffusion coefficients within the cell membrane can be quantified without the need to perform additional calibration experiments. We also determine the concentration of ligands diffusing in the medium outside the cell within the same experiment by using a raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) based analysis. We have applied this robust technique to study the interactions of two Wnt antagonists, Dickkopf1 and Dickkopf2 (Dkk1/2), to their cognate receptor, low-density-lipoprotein-receptor related protein 6 (LRP6), in the plasma membrane of living HEK293T cells. We obtained significantly lower affinities than previously reported using in vitro studies, underscoring the need to measure such data on living cells or tissues. PMID:25951521

  19. A protocol for heterologous expression and functional assay for mouse pheromone receptors.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sandeepa; Zhan, Senmiao; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Innate social behaviors like intermale aggression, fear, and mating rituals are important for survival and propagation of a species. In mice, these behaviors have been implicated to be mediated by peptide pheromones that are sensed by a class of G protein-coupled receptors, vomeronasal receptor type 2 (V2Rs), expressed in the pheromone-detecting vomeronasal organ (VNO) (Chamero et al., Nature 450:899-902, 2007; Haga et al., Nature 466:118-122, 2010; Kimoto et al., Curr Biol 17:1879-1884, 2007; Leinders-Zufall et al., Nat Neurosci 12:1551-1558, 2009; Papes et al., Cell 141:692-703, 2010). Matching V2Rs with their cognate ligands is required to understand what receptors the biologically relevant pheromones are acting on. However, this goal has been greatly limited by the unavailability of appropriate heterologous tools commonly used to carry out receptor deorphanization, due to the fact that this family of receptors fails to traffic to the surface of heterologous cells. We have demonstrated that calreticulin, a housekeeping chaperone commonly expressed in most eukaryotic cells, is sparsely expressed in the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Stable knock down of calreticulin in a HEK293T derived cell line (R24 cells) allows us to functionally express V2Rs on the surface of heterologous cells. In this chapter we describe protocols for maintenance and expansion of the R24 cell line and functional assays for V2Rs using these cells. PMID:24014358

  20. Structural and Functional Investigations of the Effector Protein LpiR1 from Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Beyrakhova, Ksenia A; van Straaten, Karin; Li, Lei; Boniecki, Michal T; Anderson, Deborah H; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2016-07-22

    Legionella pneumophila is a causative agent of a severe pneumonia, known as Legionnaires' disease. Legionella pathogenicity is mediated by specific virulence factors, called bacterial effectors, which are injected into the invaded host cell by the bacterial type IV secretion system. Bacterial effectors are involved in complex interactions with the components of the host cell immune and signaling pathways, which eventually lead to bacterial survival and replication inside the mammalian cell. Structural and functional studies of bacterial effectors are, therefore, crucial for elucidating the mechanisms of Legionella virulence. Here we describe the crystal structure of the LpiR1 (Lpg0634) effector protein and investigate the effects of its overexpression in mammalian cells. LpiR1 is an α-helical protein that consists of two similar domains aligned in an antiparallel fashion. The hydrophilic cleft between the domains might serve as a binding site for a potential host cell interaction partner. LpiR1 binds the phosphate group at a conserved site and is stabilized by Mn(2+), Ca(2+), or Mg(2+) ions. When overexpressed in mammalian cells, a GFP-LpiR1 fusion protein is localized in the cytoplasm. Intracellular signaling antibody array analysis revealed small changes in the phosphorylation state of several components of the Akt signaling pathway in HEK293T cells overexpressing LpiR1. PMID:27226543

  1. Identification of BST-2/tetherin-induced hepatitis B virus restriction and hepatocyte-specific BST-2 inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Mingyu; Zhang, Biao; Shi, Ying; Han, Zhu; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Yulai; Zhang, Wenyan; Niu, Junqi; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    BST-2/tetherin is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein that blocks the release of various enveloped viruses, including HIV-1. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major cause of liver disease, belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family of enveloped DNA viruses. Whether BST-2 regulates HBV production is largely unknown. In this report, we have demonstrated that HBV particle release is modulated by BST-2 in a cell type-dependent fashion. In HEK293T cells, ectopically expressed or interferon-induced BST-2 strongly inhibited HBV release. BST-2 co-localized with HBV surface protein at multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and physically interacted with HBV particles. However, exogenous BST-2-induced HBV restriction was weak in Huh-7 hepatoma cells, and the interferon-induced anti-HBV effect was independent of BST-2 induction in hepatic L02 cells. Notably, HBV could promote HIV-1 ΔVpu virus release from BST-2-positive HepG2 hepatoma cells but not HeLa cells, whereas Vpu failed to efficiently inhibit BST-2-induced HBV restriction. HBx exhibited an enhanced interaction and co-localization with BST-2 in hepatocytes. These observations indicate that BST-2 restricts HBV production at intracellular MVBs but is inactivated by HBV through a novel mechanism requiring hepatocyte-specific cellular co-factors or a hepatocyte-specific environment. Further understanding of BST-2-induced HBV restriction may provide new therapeutic targets for future HBV treatments. PMID:26119070

  2. FADD regulates NF-κB activation and promotes ubiquitination of cFLIPL to induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Kishu; Pathak, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor-α canonically induces the activation of NF-κB and associated gene product cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIPL) to promote cell survival. Previously, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Fas associated death domain (FADD) diminishes the expression of cFLIPL and transduces caspases-8 mediated apoptosis, independent of FasL stimulation in HEK 293T cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of FADD mediated ablation of cFLIP and NF-κB signaling to determining the fate of cell death or survival remains elusive. Here, we explored a novel molecular mechanism of FADD mediated apoptotic cell death that was directed by ubiquitination of cFLIPL and inhibition of NF-κB activation, independent of TNF-α stimulation. We found that induced expression of FADD firmly interacts with procaspase-8 and precludes cFLIPL to from the death inducing signaling complex (DISC). In addition, FADD negatively regulates cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) and Bcl-2. Furthermore, FADD restrains cIAP2 expression and interacts with RIP1 and procaspase-8 to accomplish apoptotic cell death signaling. Interestingly, FADD was also found to promote JNK1 mediated activation of E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH to degrade cFLIPL that may lead to commencement of apoptosis. Thus, FADD is an important regulator for determining the fate of cell death or survival. PMID:26972597

  3. FADD regulates NF-κB activation and promotes ubiquitination of cFLIPL to induce apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Kishu; Pathak, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor-α canonically induces the activation of NF-κB and associated gene product cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIPL) to promote cell survival. Previously, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Fas associated death domain (FADD) diminishes the expression of cFLIPL and transduces caspases-8 mediated apoptosis, independent of FasL stimulation in HEK 293T cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of FADD mediated ablation of cFLIP and NF-κB signaling to determining the fate of cell death or survival remains elusive. Here, we explored a novel molecular mechanism of FADD mediated apoptotic cell death that was directed by ubiquitination of cFLIPL and inhibition of NF-κB activation, independent of TNF-α stimulation. We found that induced expression of FADD firmly interacts with procaspase-8 and precludes cFLIPL to from the death inducing signaling complex (DISC). In addition, FADD negatively regulates cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) and Bcl-2. Furthermore, FADD restrains cIAP2 expression and interacts with RIP1 and procaspase-8 to accomplish apoptotic cell death signaling. Interestingly, FADD was also found to promote JNK1 mediated activation of E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH to degrade cFLIPL that may lead to commencement of apoptosis. Thus, FADD is an important regulator for determining the fate of cell death or survival. PMID:26972597

  4. Expression of cFLIPL Determines the Basal Interaction of Bcl-2 With Beclin-1 and Regulates p53 Dependent Ubiquitination of Beclin-1 During Autophagic Stress.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Kishu; Pathak, Chandramani

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis are two different physiological processes, which is required for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The apoptosis associated proteins such as Bcl-2 and p53 have a close association with autophagic proteins HMGB1 and Beclin-1 to modulate autophagic signaling. We demonstrate here the involvement of anti-apoptotic protein cFLIPL in the regulation of autophagy during cellular stress. We found that ectopic expression of cFLIPL decreases the sensitivity of HEK 293T cells against rapamycin and H2 O2 induced autophagic stress. Notably, the selective knockdown of cFLIPL augments autophagic stress in the cells accompanied with JNK1 activation and p53 dependent ubiquitination of Beclin-1. However, re-expression of cFLIPL in cFLIP knockdown cells restores autophagic equilibrium collectively with reversible effects on JNK1 and Beclin-1 integrity. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis suggests that cFLIPL is essential to maintain the canonical interaction of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1 to regulate autophagic stress and cell death. Altogether, our findings suggest that expression of cFLIPL regulates the basal interaction of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1 and substantiates p53 dependent ubiquitination of Beclin-1 during autophagic stress to determine the fate of cell death or survival. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1757-1768, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26682748

  5. RNA interference directed to CDK2 inhibits HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Ammosova, Tatyana; Berro, Reem; Kashanchi, Fatah; Nekhai, Sergei

    2005-10-25

    We previously reported that cell cycle-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is required for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Tat-dependent transcription in vitro. In the present study, CDK2-specific RNA interference in cultured HEK293T cells inhibited CDK2 expression and Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription from non-integrated HIV-1 promoter but not basal HIV-1 transcription or transcription from CMV or beta-actin promoters. Also, CDK2-specific RNA interference inhibited Tat-induced transcription from the integrated HIV-1 promoter in HeLa-CD4-LTR-beta-gal cells and potently blocked TNFalpha-induced HIV-1 viral replication in OM10.1 cells. CDK2-specific RNA interference did not have an effect on cell cycle progression, but it augmented TNFalpha-induced apoptosis of OM10.1 cells. Our results indicate that CDK2 participates in Tat-mediated HIV-1 transcription and may serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:16085226

  6. Study of Cytotoxic Effects of Benzonitrile Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Lovecka, Petra; Thimova, Marketa; Grznarova, Petra; Lipov, Jan; Knejzlik, Zdenek; Stiborova, Hana; Nindhia, Tjokorda Gde Tirta; Demnerova, Katerina; Ruml, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The benzonitrile herbicides bromoxynil, chloroxynil, dichlobenil, and ioxynil have been used actively worldwide to control weeds in agriculture since 1970s. Even though dichlobenil is prohibited in EU since 2008, studies addressing the fate of benzonitrile herbicides in the environment show that some metabolites of these herbicides are very persistent. We tested the cytotoxic effects of benzonitrile herbicides and their microbial metabolites using two human cell lines, Hep G2 and HEK293T, representing liver and kidneys as potential target organs in humans. The cell viability and proliferation were determined by MTT test and RTCA DP Analyzer system, respectively. The latter allows real-time monitoring of the effect of added substances. As the cytotoxic compounds could compromise cell membrane integrity, the lactate dehydrogenase test was performed as well. We observed high toxic effects of bromoxynil, chloroxynil, and ioxynil on both tested cell lines. In contrast, we determined only low inhibition of cell growth in presence of dichlobenil and microbial metabolites originating from the tested herbicides. PMID:26339609

  7. Uracil-DNA Glycosylase UNG Promotes Tet-mediated DNA Demethylation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jian-Huang; Xu, Gui-Fang; Gu, Tian-Peng; Chen, Guo-Dong; Han, Bin-Bin; Xu, Zhi-Mei; Bjørås, Magnar; Krokan, Hans E; Xu, Guo-Liang; Du, Ya-Rui

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, active DNA demethylation involves oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) by Tet dioxygenases and excision of these two oxidized bases by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG). Although TDG is essential for active demethylation in embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, it is hardly expressed in mouse zygotes and dispensable in pronuclear DNA demethylation. To search for other factors that might contribute to demethylation in mammalian cells, we performed a functional genomics screen based on a methylated luciferase reporter assay. UNG2, one of the glycosylases known to excise uracil residues from DNA, was found to reduce DNA methylation, thus activating transcription of a methylation-silenced reporter gene when co-transfected with Tet2 into HEK293T cells. Interestingly, UNG2 could decrease 5caC from the genomic DNA and a reporter plasmid in transfected cells, like TDG. Furthermore, deficiency in Ung partially impaired DNA demethylation in mouse zygotes. Our results suggest that UNG might be involved in Tet-mediated DNA demethylation. PMID:26620559

  8. Preparation of hierarchical mesoporous CaCO3 by a facile binary solvent approach as anticancer drug carrier for etoposide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    To develop a nontoxic system for targeting therapy, a new highly ordered hierarchical mesoporous calcium carbonate nanospheres (CCNSs) as small drug carriers has been synthesized by a mild and facile binary solvent approach under the normal temperature and pressure. The hierarchical structure by multistage self-assembled strategy was confirmed by TEM and SEM, and a possible formation process was proposed. Due to the large fraction of voids inside the nanospheres which provides space for physical absorption, the CCNSs can stably encapsulate the anticancer drug etoposide with the drug loading efficiency as high as 39.7 wt.%, and etoposide-loaded CCNS (ECCNS) nanoparticles can dispersed well in the cell culture. Besides, the drug release behavior investigated at three different pH values showed that the release of etoposide from CCNSs was pH-sensitive. MTT assay showed that compared with free etoposide, ECCNSs exhibited a higher cell inhibition ratio against SGC-7901 cells and also decreased the toxicity of etoposide to HEK 293 T cells. The CLSM image showed that ECCNSs exhibited a high efficiency of intracellular delivery, especially in nuclear invasion. The apoptosis test revealed that etoposide entrapped in CCNSs could enhance the delivery efficiencies of drug to achieve an improved inhibition effect on cell growth. These results clearly implied that the CCNSs are a promising drug delivery system for etoposide in cancer therapy. PMID:23849350

  9. Potential anticancer heterometallic Fe-Au and Fe-Pd agents: initial mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Lease, Nicholas; Vasilevski, Vadim; Carreira, Monica; de Almeida, Andreia; Sanaú, Mercedes; Hirva, Pipsa; Casini, Angela; Contel, María

    2013-07-25

    A series of gold(III) and palladium(II) heterometallic complexes with new iminophosphorane ligands derived from ferrocenylphosphanes [{Cp-P(Ph2)═N-Ph}2Fe] (1), [{Cp-P(Ph2)═N-CH2-2-NC5H4}2Fe] (2), and [{Cp-P(Ph2)═N-CH2-2-NC5H4}Fe(Cp)] (3) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Ligands 2 and 3 afford stable coordination complexes [AuCl2(3)]ClO4, [{AuCl2}2(2)](ClO4)2, [PdCl2(3)], and [{PdCl2}2(2)]. The complexes have been evaluated for their antiproliferative properties in human ovarian cancer cells sensitive and resistant to cisplatin (A2780S/R), in human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and in a nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293T). The highly cytotoxic trimetallic derivatives M2Fe (M = Au, Pd) are more cytotoxic to cancer cells than their corresponding monometallic fragments. Moreover, these complexes were significantly more cytotoxic than cisplatin in the resistant A2780R and the MCF7 cell lines. Studies of the interactions of the trimetallic compounds with DNA and the zinc-finger protein PARP-1 indicate that they exert anticancer effects in vitro based on different mechanisms of actions with respect to cisplatin. PMID:23786413

  10. Caveolin-1-mediated suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 via a beta-catenin-Tcf/Lef-dependent transcriptional mechanism reduced prostaglandin E2 production and survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Diego A; Tapia, Julio C; Fernandez, Jaime G; Torres, Vicente A; Muñoz, Nicolas; Galleguillos, Daniela; Leyton, Lisette; Quest, Andrew F G

    2009-04-01

    Augmented expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and enhanced production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) are associated with increased tumor cell survival and malignancy. Caveolin-1 is a scaffold protein that has been proposed to function as a tumor suppressor in human cancer cells, although mechanisms underlying this ability remain controversial. Intriguingly, the possibility that caveolin-1 regulates the expression of COX-2 has not been explored. Here we show that augmented caveolin-1 expression in cells with low basal levels of this protein, such as human colon cancer (HT29, DLD-1), breast cancer (ZR75), and embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells reduced COX-2 mRNA and protein levels and beta-catenin-Tcf/Lef and COX-2 gene reporter activity, as well as the production of PGE(2) and cell proliferation. Moreover, COX-2 overexpression or PGE(2) supplementation increased levels of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin by a transcriptional mechanism, as determined by PCR analysis, survivin gene reporter assays and Western blotting. Furthermore, addition of PGE(2) to the medium prevented effects attributed to caveolin-1-mediated inhibition of beta-catenin-Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription. Finally, PGE(2) reduced the coimmunoprecipitation of caveolin-1 with beta-catenin and their colocalization at the plasma membrane. Thus, by reducing COX-2 expression, caveolin-1 interrupts a feedback amplification loop involving PGE(2)-induced signaling events linked to beta-catenin/Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription of tumor survival genes including cox-2 itself and survivin. PMID:19244345

  11. Study of Cytotoxic Effects of Benzonitrile Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lovecka, Petra; Thimova, Marketa; Grznarova, Petra; Lipov, Jan; Knejzlik, Zdenek; Stiborova, Hana; Nindhia, Tjokorda Gde Tirta; Demnerova, Katerina; Ruml, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The benzonitrile herbicides bromoxynil, chloroxynil, dichlobenil, and ioxynil have been used actively worldwide to control weeds in agriculture since 1970s. Even though dichlobenil is prohibited in EU since 2008, studies addressing the fate of benzonitrile herbicides in the environment show that some metabolites of these herbicides are very persistent. We tested the cytotoxic effects of benzonitrile herbicides and their microbial metabolites using two human cell lines, Hep G2 and HEK293T, representing liver and kidneys as potential target organs in humans. The cell viability and proliferation were determined by MTT test and RTCA DP Analyzer system, respectively. The latter allows real-time monitoring of the effect of added substances. As the cytotoxic compounds could compromise cell membrane integrity, the lactate dehydrogenase test was performed as well. We observed high toxic effects of bromoxynil, chloroxynil, and ioxynil on both tested cell lines. In contrast, we determined only low inhibition of cell growth in presence of dichlobenil and microbial metabolites originating from the tested herbicides. PMID:26339609

  12. Harnessing functional plasticity of enzymes: a fluorogenic probe for imaging 17beta-HSD10 dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    PubMed

    Froemming, Mary K; Sames, Dalibor

    2007-11-21

    In this paper, we describe the development of a fluorogenic substrate for 17beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 10 (17beta-HSD10), which is a multifunctional metabolic enzyme fulfilling several metabolic roles (beta-oxidation of fatty acids, catabolism of isoleucine, and metabolism of steroids). In recent years, it has emerged as an important stress and pathological marker in neurons and glial cells (expression down-regulation in Parkinson's disease, up-regulation and association with beta-amyloid peptide in Alzheimer's disease). Through the iterative molecular design and chemical synthesis described herein, compound 1 was developed, which possesses all required properties for a selective optical reporter substrate: alcohol-ketone optical switching, the ability to function as a good enzyme substrate (expressed in kinetic parameters), cell permeability, and cell retention. Probe 1 provides a blue-to-green/yellow bright switch and enables non-invasive, real-time imaging of 17beta-HSD10 in live human cells. The selectivity of reporter 1 was established by the quantitative correlation of metabolic activity to protein expression in human kidney cell line HEK-293T. PMID:17958419

  13. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B).

    PubMed

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange and the failure of proton (H(+)) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney α-intercalated cells. PMID:21871436

  14. Human Vitamin K 2,3-Epoxide Reductase Complex Subunit 1-like 1 (VKORC1L1) Mediates Vitamin K-dependent Intracellular Antioxidant Function*

    PubMed Central

    Westhofen, Philipp; Watzka, Matthias; Marinova, Milka; Hass, Moritz; Kirfel, Gregor; Müller, Jens; Bevans, Carville G.; Müller, Clemens R.; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Human vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1-like 1 (VKORC1L1), expressed in HEK 293T cells and localized exclusively to membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, was found to support both vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) and vitamin K reductase enzymatic activities. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for dithiothreitol-driven VKOR activity were: Km (μm) = 4.15 (vitamin K1 epoxide) and 11.24 (vitamin K2 epoxide); Vmax (nmol·mg−1·hr−1) = 2.57 (vitamin K1 epoxide) and 13.46 (vitamin K2 epoxide). Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 applied to cultured cells up-regulated VKORC1L1 expression and VKOR activity. Cell viability under conditions of no induced oxidative stress was increased by the presence of vitamins K1 and K2 but not ubinquinone-10 and was specifically dependent on VKORC1L1 expression. Intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in cells treated with 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone were mitigated in a VKORC1L1 expression-dependent manner. Intracellular oxidative damage to membrane intrinsic proteins was inversely dependent on VKORC1L1 expression and the presence of vitamin K1. Taken together, our results suggest that VKORC1L1 is responsible for driving vitamin K-mediated intracellular antioxidation pathways critical to cell survival. PMID:21367861

  15. Potential Anticancer Heterometallic Fe-Au and Fe-Pd Agents: Initial Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Lease, Nicholas; Vasilevski, Vadim; Carreira, Monica; de Almeida, Andreia; Sanaú, Mercedes; Hirva, Pipsa; Casini, Angela; Contel, Maria

    2013-01-01

    A series of gold(III) and palladium(II) heterometallic complexes with new iminophosphorane ligands derived from ferrocenyl-phosphanes [{Cp-P(Ph2)=N-Ph}2Fe] (1), [{Cp-P(Ph2)=N-CH2-2-NC5H4}2Fe] (2) and [{Cp-P(Ph2)=N-CH2-2-NC5H4}Fe(Cp)] (3) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Ligands 2 and 3 afford stable coordination complexes [AuCl2(3)]ClO4, [{AuCl2}2(2)](ClO4)2, [PdCl2(3)] and [{PdCl2}2(2)]. The complexes have been evaluated for their antripoliferative properties in human ovarian cancer cells sensitive and resistant to cisplatin (A2780S/R), in human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and in a non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293T). The highly cytotoxic trimetallic derivatives M2Fe (M = Au, Pd) are more cytotoxic to cancer cells than their corresponding monometallic fragments. Moreover, these complexes were significantly more cytotoxic than cisplatin in the resistant A2780R and the MCF7 cell lines. Studies of the interactions of the trimetallic compounds with DNA and the zinc-finger protein PARP-1 indicate that they exert anticancer effects in vitro based on different mechanisms of actions with respect to cisplatin. PMID:23786413

  16. Identification of human hnRNP C1/C2 as a dengue virus NS1-interacting protein

    SciTech Connect

    Noisakran, Sansanee; Sengsai, Suchada; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Sinchaikul, Supachok; Chen, Shui-Tein; Puttikhunt, Chunya

    2008-07-18

    Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a key glycoprotein involved in the production of infectious virus and the pathogenesis of dengue diseases. Very little is known how NS1 interacts with host cellular proteins and functions in dengue virus-infected cells. This study aimed at identifying NS1-interacting host cellular proteins in dengue virus-infected cells by employing co-immunoprecipitation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Using lysates of dengue virus-infected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T), immunoprecipitation with an anti-NS1 monoclonal antibody revealed eight isoforms of dengue virus NS1 and a 40-kDa protein, which was subsequently identified by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) as human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C1/C2. Further investigation by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization confirmed the association of hnRNP C1/C2 and dengue virus NS1 proteins in dengue virus-infected cells. Their interaction may have implications in virus replication and/or cellular responses favorable to survival of the virus in host cells.

  17. IFNa of triploid hybrid of gold fish and allotetraploid is an antiviral cytokine against SVCV and GCRV.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Peng, Lingzhi; Li, Yang; Fan, Hui; Tian, Yu; Liu, Shaojun; Feng, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Triploid hybrid of gold fish (Carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n = 100) and allotetroploid (♂, 2n = 100) displays much improved disease resistance than its parents. In this paper, one of the type I IFNs of triploid hybrid (3nIFNa) has been cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of 3nIFNa consists of 740 nucleotides and the predicted 3nIFNa protein contains 183 amino acids. The mRNA transcription of 3nIFNa was detected in all the selected tissues of triploid hybrid and was obviously enhanced after SVCV or GCRV infection. bcIFNa was detected in both whole cell lysate and supernatant media of HEK293T cells transfected with plasmids expressing bcIFNa. It is interesting that the pre-matured 3nIFNa is modified with N-linked glycosylation, which is located within the N-terminal signal peptide. EPC cells showed much-decreased cytopathic effect when treated with 3nIFNa-containing media or transfected with plasmid expressing 3nIFNa at 24 h before SVCV or GCRV infection; and the virus titers in these cells were much lower than those of the control EPC cells. All the above data support the conclusion that 3nIFNa is a secreted cytokine functioning in host innate immune response against virus invasion. PMID:27157597

  18. Imatinib has the potential to exert its antileukemia effects by down-regulating hERG1 K+ channels in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Li, Huiyu; Liang, Kaiwei; Du, Yimei; Guo, Dongmei; Huang, Shiang

    2012-09-01

    Imatinib is a powerful protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor that specifically targets BCR-ABL, KIT, and PDGFR kinases, has become the current first-line therapy for all newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Beside PTKs, PTK inhibitors alter the activity of a large number of voltage-dependent ion channels. hERG1 K(+) channels are highly expressed in leukemia cells and appear of exceptional importance in favoring leukemogenesis. The present study explored a possible regulatory effect of imatinib upon hERG1 K(+) channels as a means to uncover new molecular events involved in the antileukemic activity of this PTK inhibitor in CML. The results demonstrated that hERG1 was highly detected in K562 cells and primary CML cells, and down-regulated by imatinib at mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, imatinib markedly reduced hERG currents in HEK293T-hERG cells, this effect was accompanied by inhibition of CML cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. Moreover, these antileukemia effects of imatinib were potentiated by E-4031, a specific hERG1 inhibitor. Together, these results provide evidence of a novel potential molecular mechanism of antileukemic activities by imatinib which, independent of targeting tyrosine kinase, highlight hERG1 K(+) channels as a therapeutic target for CML treatment. PMID:22161019

  19. Proteomic discovery of MNT as a novel interacting partner of E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP and a key mediator of myeloid differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Isha; Kanaujiya, Jitendra; Kumar, Yogesh; Thota, Jagadeshwar Reddy; Bhatt, Madan L.B.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Trivedi, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Perturbed stability of regulatory proteins is a major cause of transformations leading to cancer, including several leukemia subtypes. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that E6-associated protein (E6AP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase negatively targets MAX binding protein MNT for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and impedes ATRA mediated myeloid cell differentiation. MNT is a member of the Myc/Max/Mad network of transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Wild-type E6AP promoted proteasome dependent degradation of MNT, while catalytically inactive E6AP having cysteine replaced with alanine at amino-acid 843 position (E6APC843A) rather stabilized it. Further, these proteins physically associated with each other both in non-myeloid (HEK293T) and myeloid cells. MNT overexpression induced G0-G1 growth arrest and promoted myeloid differentiation while its knockdown mitigated even ATRA induced differentiation suggesting MNT to be crucial for myeloid differentiation. We further showed that ATRA inhibited E6AP and stabilized MNT expression by protecting it from E6AP mediated ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Notably, E6AP knockdown in HL60 cells restored MNT expression and promoted myeloid differentiation. Taken together, our data demonstrated that E6AP negatively regulates granulocytic differentiation by targeting MNT for degradation which is required for growth arrest and subsequent myeloid differentiation by various differentiation inducing agents. PMID:26506232

  20. Selective cellular delivery of self-assembled quantum dot-peptide bioconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delehanty, James B.; Medintz, Igor L.; Pons, Thomas; Dawson, Philip E.; Brunel, Florence M.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate the selective delivery of self-assembled luminescent semiconductor quantum dot (QD)-peptide bioconjugates into several eukaryotic cell lines. A 23-mer hetero-bifunctional peptide bearing a positively-charged oligoarginine domain and a terminal polyhistidine tract was synthesized and used to mediate the cellular internalization of the QD-bioconjugates. The polyhistidine tract allows the peptide to self-assemble onto the QD surface via metal-ion coordination while the oligoarginine domain mediates the specific uptake of the QD-bioconjugates via electrostatic interactions with cell surface receptors. In both HEK 293T/17 and COS-1 cells, this peptide-mediated delivery is concentration-dependent in terms of both the QD concentration and the peptide:QD ratio. Intracellularly, the QD signal is punctate in appearance and some, but not all, of the QDs are located within recycling endosomes as evidenced by their colocalization with transferrin. In both cell lines, the QD-bioconjugates elicit minimal cytotoxicity within the timeframe required for adequate cellular uptake. The specificity of this delivery strategy is demonstrated by performing a multicolor QD labeling, wherein the presence or absence of the peptide on the QD surface controls cellular uptake.

  1. Developing an irreversible inhibitor of human DDAH-1, an enzyme upregulated in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Hu, Shougang; Gabisi, Abdul M; Er, Joyce A V; Pope, Arthur; Burstein, Gayle; Schardon, Christopher L; Cardounel, Arturo J; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Fast, Walter

    2014-04-01

    Inhibitors of the human enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1) can raise endogenous levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and lead to a subsequent inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. In this study, N(5) -(1-imino-2-chloroethyl)-L-ornithine (Cl-NIO) is shown to be a potent time- and concentration-dependent inhibitor of purified human DDAH-1 (KI =1.3±0.6 μM; kinact =0.34±0.07 min(-1) ), with >500-fold selectivity against two arginine-handling enzymes in the same pathway. An activity probe is used to measure the "in cell" IC50 value (6.6±0.2 μM) for Cl-NIO inhibition of DDAH-1 artificially expressed within cultured HEK293T cells. A screen of diverse melanoma cell lines reveals that a striking 50/64 (78 %) of melanoma lines tested showed increased levels of DDAH-1 relative to normal melanocyte control lines. Treatment of the melanoma A375 cell line with Cl-NIO shows a subsequent decrease in cellular nitric oxide production. Cl-NIO is a promising tool for the study of methylarginine-mediated nitric oxide control and a potential therapeutic lead compound for other indications with elevated nitric oxide production, such as septic shock and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24574257

  2. A new idea for simple and rapid monitoring of gene expression: requirement of nucleotide sequences encoding an N-terminal HA tag in the T7 promoter-driven expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong-Mi; Kim, Goo-Young; Rhim, Hyangshuk

    2012-10-01

    Mammalian expression vectors are used to overexpress genes of interest in mammalian cells. High temperature requirement protein A1 (HtrA1), used as a specific target, was expressed from the pHA-M-HtrA1 plasmid in HEK293T cells, inducing cell death. Expression of HtrA1 was driven by the pHA-M-HtrA1 mammalian expression vector in E. coli resulting in growth suppression of E. coli in an HtrA1 serine protease-dependent manner. By using various combinations of promoters, target genes and N-terminal tags, the T7 promoter and N-terminal HA tag in the mammalian expression vector were shown to be responsible for expression of target genes in E. coli. Thus the pHA-M-HtrA1 plasmid can be used as a novel, rapid pre-test system for expression and cytotoxicity of the specific target gene in E. coli before assessing its functions in mammalian cells. PMID:22714269

  3. Cathepsin D inhibitors as potential therapeutics for breast cancer treatment: Molecular docking and bioevaluation against triple-negative and triple-positive breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Anantaraju, Hasitha Shilpa; Battu, Madhu Babu; Viswanadha, Srikant; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to discover small molecule inhibitors against Cathepsin D (CatD) (EC.3.4.23.5), a clinically proven prognostic marker for breast cancer, and to explore the mechanisms by which CatD could be a useful therapeutic target for triple-positive and triple-negative breast cancers (TPBC & TNBC). The crystal structure of CatD at 2.5 Å resolution (PDB: 1LYB), which was complexed with Pepstatin A, was selected for computer-aided molecular modeling. The methods used in our study were pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking. Virtual screening was performed to identify small molecules from an in-house database and a large commercial chemical library. Cytotoxicity studies were performed on human normal cell line HEK293T and growth inhibition studies on breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-468. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis, in vitro enzyme assay, and cell cycle analysis ascertained the validity of the selected molecules. A set of 28 molecules was subjected to an in vitro fluorescence-based inhibitory activity assay, and among them six molecules exhibited [Formula: see text]50 % inhibition at [Formula: see text]. These molecules also exhibited good growth inhibition against TPBC and TNBC cancer types. Among them, molecules 1 and 17 showed single-digit micromolar [Formula: see text] values against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. PMID:26563150

  4. Auranofin and N-heterocyclic carbene gold-analogs are potent inhibitors of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Owings, Joshua P; McNair, Nina N; Mui, Yiu Fung; Gustafsson, Tomas N; Holmgren, Arne; Contel, Maria; Goldberg, Joanna B; Mead, Jan R

    2016-07-01

    Auranofin is an FDA-approved gold-containing compound used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Recent reports of antimicrobial activity against protozoa and bacteria indicate that auranofin targets the reductive enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). We evaluated auranofin as well as five auranofin analogs containing N-heterocyclic carbenes (instead of the triethylphosphane present in auranofin) and five gold-carbene controls for their ability to inhibit or kill Helicobacter pylori in vitro Auranofin completely inhibited bacterial growth at 1.2 μM. Purified H. pylori TrxR was inhibited by auranofin in a cell-free assay (IC50 ∼88 nM). The most active gold(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene compounds exhibited MICs comparable to auranofin against H. pylori (2 μM), while also exhibiting lower toxicities for human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T cells). Median toxic concentrations (TC50) were 13-20-fold higher compared to auranofin indicating that they were less cytotoxic. The N-heterocyclic carbene analogs maybe well tolerated, but further evaluation is needed in vivo Finally, auranofin was synergistic with the antibiotic amoxicillin, suggesting that targeting both the reductive enzyme TrxR and cell wall synthesis may be effective against H. pylori infections. PMID:27279627

  5. Cancer associated missense mutations in BAP1 catalytic domain induce amyloidogenic aggregation: A new insight in enzymatic inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sushmita; Hanpude, Pranita; Maiti, Tushar Kanti

    2015-01-01

    BRCA1 associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a nuclear deubiquitinase that regulates tumor suppressor activity and widely involves many cellular processes ranging from cell cycle regulation to gluconeogenesis. Impairment of enzymatic activity and nuclear localization induce abnormal cell proliferation. It is considered to be an important driver gene, which undergoes frequent mutations in several cancers. However the role of mutation and oncogenic gain of function of BAP1 are poorly understood. Here, we investigated cellular localization, enzymatic activity and structural changes for four missense mutants of the catalytic domain of BAP1, which are prevalent in different types of cancer. These mutations triggered cytoplasmic/perinuclear accumulation in BAP1 deficient cells, which has been observed in proteins that undergo aggregation in cellular condition. Amyloidogenic activity of mutant BAP1 was revealed from its reactivity towards anti oligomeric antibody in HEK293T cells. We have also noted structural destabilization in the catalytic domain mutants, which eventually produced beta amyloid structure as indicated in atomic force microscopy study. The cancer associated mutants up-regulate heat shock response and activates transcription of genes normally co-repressed by BAP1. Overall, our results unambiguously demonstrate that structural destabilization and subsequent aggregation abrogate its cellular mechanism leading to adverse outcome. PMID:26680512

  6. Photoexcited quantum dots for killing multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Colleen M.; Goodman, Samuel M.; McDaniel, Jessica A.; Madinger, Nancy E.; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are an ever-growing threat because of the shrinking arsenal of efficacious antibiotics. Metal nanoparticles can induce cell death, yet the toxicity effect is typically nonspecific. Here, we show that photoexcited quantum dots (QDs) can kill a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacterial clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium. The killing effect is independent of material and controlled by the redox potentials of the photogenerated charge carriers, which selectively alter the cellular redox state. We also show that the QDs can be tailored to kill 92% of bacterial cells in a monoculture, and in a co-culture of E. coli and HEK 293T cells, while leaving the mammalian cells intact, or to increase bacterial proliferation. Photoexcited QDs could be used in the study of the effect of redox states on living systems, and lead to clinical phototherapy for the treatment of infections.

  7. An organelle K+ channel is required for osmoregulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feifei; Wu, Xiaoan; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Hucheng; Pan, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    Fresh water protozoa and algae face hypotonic challenges in their living environment. Many of them employ a contractile vacuole system to uptake excessive water from the cytoplasm and expel it to the environment to achieve cellular homeostasis. K(+), a major osmolyte in contractile vacuole, is predicted to create higher osmolarity for water influx. Molecular mechanisms for K(+) permeation through the plasma membrane have been well studied. However, how K(+) permeates organelles such as the contractile vacuole is not clear. Here, we show that the six-transmembrane K(+) channel KCN11 in Chlamydomonas is exclusively localized to contractile vacuole. Ectopic expression of KCN11 in HEK293T cells results in voltage-gated K(+) channel activity. Disruption of the gene or mutation of key residues for K(+) permeability of the channel leads to dysfunction of cell osmoregulation in very hypotonic conditions. The contractile cycle is inhibited in the mutant cells with a slower rate of contractile vacuole swelling, leading to cell death. These data demonstrate a new role for six-transmembrane K(+) channels in contractile vacuole functioning and provide further insights into osmoregulation mediated by the contractile vacuole. PMID:27311484

  8. Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus) Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (CD150) Is an Entry Receptor for Measles Virus

    PubMed Central

    Carsillo, Thomas; Huey, Devra; Levinsky, Amy; Obojes, Karola; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) replicate measles virus (MV) after intranasal infection in the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissue. We have cloned the cotton rat signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (CD150, SLAM) in order to investigate its role as a potential receptor for MV. Cotton rat CD150 displays 58% and 78% amino acid homology with human and mouse CD150, respectively. By staining with a newly generated cotton rat CD150 specific monoclonal antibody expression of CD150 was confirmed in cotton rat lymphoid cells and in tissues with a pattern of expression similar to mouse and humans. Previously, binding of MV hemagglutinin has been shown to be dependent on amino acids 60, 61 and 63 in the V region of CD150. The human molecule contains isoleucine, histidine and valine at these positions and binds to MV-H whereas the mouse molecule contains valine, arginine and leucine and does not function as a receptor for MV. In the cotton rat molecule, amino acids 61 and 63 are identical with the mouse molecule and amino acid 60 with the human molecule. After transfection with cotton rat CD150 HEK 293 T cells became susceptible to infection with single cycle VSV pseudotype virus expressing wild type MV glycoproteins and with a MV wildtype virus. After infection, cells expressing cotton rat CD150 replicated virus to lower levels than cells expressing the human molecule and formed smaller plaques. These data might explain why the cotton rat is a semipermissive model for measles virus infection. PMID:25295727

  9. Impaired surface membrane insertion of homo- and heterodimeric human muscle chloride channels carrying amino-terminal myotonia-causing mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ronstedt, Katharina; Sternberg, Damien; Detro-Dassen, Silvia; Gramkow, Thomas; Begemann, Birgit; Becher, Toni; Kilian, Petra; Grieschat, Matthias; Machtens, Jan-Philipp; Schmalzing, Günther; Fischer, Martin; Fahlke, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the muscle chloride channel gene (CLCN1) cause myotonia congenita, an inherited condition characterized by muscle stiffness upon sudden forceful movement. We here studied the functional consequences of four disease-causing mutations that predict amino acid substitutions Q43R, S70L, Y137D and Q160H. Wild-type (WT) and mutant hClC-1 channels were heterologously expressed as YFP or CFP fusion protein in HEK293T cells and analyzed by whole-cell patch clamp and fluorescence recordings on individual cells. Q43R, Y137D and Q160H, but not S70L reduced macroscopic current amplitudes, but left channel gating and unitary current amplitudes unaffected. We developed a novel assay combining electrophysiological and fluorescence measurements at the single-cell level in order to measure the probability of ion channel surface membrane insertion. With the exception of S70L, all tested mutations significantly reduced the relative number of homodimeric hClC-1 channels in the surface membrane. The strongest effect was seen for Q43R that reduced the surface insertion probability by more than 99% in Q43R homodimeric channels and by 92 ± 3% in heterodimeric WT/Q43R channels compared to homodimeric WT channels. The new method offers a sensitive approach to investigate mutations that were reported to cause channelopathies, but display only minor changes in ion channel function. PMID:26502825

  10. Early growth response 1 (EGR-1) is a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial carrier homolog 1 (MTCH 1)/presenilin 1-associated protein (PSAP).

    PubMed

    Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Latorre, Pedro; Bolado-Carrancio, Alfonso; Pérez-Campo, Flor M; Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Rodríguez-Rey, José Carlos; Carrodeguas, José Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Attempts to elucidate the cellular function of MTCH1 (mitochondrial carrier homolog 1) have not yet rendered a clear insight into the function of this outer mitochondrial membrane protein. Classical biochemical and cell biology approaches have not produced the expected outcome. In vitro experiments have indicated a likely role in the regulation of cell death by apoptosis, and its reported interaction with presenilin 1 suggests a role in the cellular pathways in which this membrane protease participates, nevertheless in vivo data are missing. In an attempt to identify cellular pathways in which this protein might participate, we have studied its promoter looking for transcriptional regulators. We have identified several putative binding sites for EGR-1 (Early growth response 1; a protein involved in growth, proliferation and differentiation), in the proximal region of the MTCH1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed an enrichment of these sequences in genomic DNA bound to EGR-1 and transient overexpression of EGR-1 in cultured HEK293T cells induces an increase of endogenous MTCH1 levels. We also show that MTCH1 levels increase in response to treatment of cells with doxorubicin, an apoptosis inducer through DNA damage. The endogenous levels of MTCH1 decrease when EGR-1 levels are lowered by RNA interference. Our results indicate that EGR-1 is a transcriptional regulator of MTCH1 and give some clues about the cellular processes in which MTCH1 might participate. PMID:26692143

  11. Investigation of the functional role of human Interleukin-8 gene haplotypes by CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing.

    PubMed

    Benakanakere, Manjunatha R; Finoti, Livia S; Tanaka, Urara; Grant, Gregory R; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel M; Kinane, Denis F

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene polymorphisms have been considered as susceptibility factors in periodontal disease. However, the functional roles of IL-8 gene haplotypes have not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to engineer the IL-8 gene, and tested the functionality of different haplotypes. Two sgRNAs vectors targeting the IL-8 gene and the naked homologous repair DNA carrying different haplotypes were used to successfully generate HEK293T cells carrying the AT genotype at the first SNP - rs4073 (alias -251), TT genotype at the second SNP - rs2227307 (alias +396), TC or CC genotypes at the third SNP - rs2227306 (alias +781) at the IL-8 locus. When stimulated with Poly I:C, ATC/TTC haplotype, cells significantly up-regulated the IL-8 at both transcriptional and translational levels. To test whether ATC/TTC haplotype is functional, we used a trans-well assay to measure the transmigration of primary neutrophils incubated with supernatants from the Poly I:C stimulation experiment. ATC/TTC haplotype cells significantly increased transmigration of neutrophils confirming the functional role for this IL-8 haplotype. Taken together, our data provides evidence that carriage of the ATC/TTC haplotype in itself may increase the influx of neutrophils in inflammatory lesions and influence disease susceptibility. PMID:27499075

  12. Transfecting RNA quadruplexes results in few transcriptome perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Phil G.T.; Cotterell, James; Sharpe, James; Isalan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences can form four-stranded structures called G-quadruplexes. Previous studies showed that transfecting G-quadruplex DNA oligonucleotides inhibits proliferation in many cancer cell lines and can induce apoptosis. However, little is known about the effects of transfecting RNA quadruplexes. In this study, we transfected a G-quadruplex RNA oligonucleotide (GqRNA) into HEK293T cells and observed that it did not alter cell viability. Subsequent transcriptome expression profiling revealed that only two genes, EGR1 and FOS, were significantly altered in the presence of GqRNA (upregulated 2- to 4-fold). Sequence analysis showed that both genes contained putative quadruplex sequences (PQS) in their 3′-UTRs, immediately adjacent to the stop codons. Transfection of the EGR1 PQS as an RNA oligonucleotide also caused an increase in EGR1 expression. Similar motifs are found in a variety of genomes, but are relatively rare and have been missed by previous annotations. A bioinformatic analysis revealed stop codon-proximal enrichment of such motifs compared with the rest of the 3′-UTR, although these genes were not affected by RNA quadruplex transfection, and their function remains unknown. Overall, transfecting RNA quadruplexes results in relatively few alterations in gene expression. PMID:23235467

  13. Sorting Nexin 11 Regulates Lysosomal Degradation of Plasma Membrane TRPV3.

    PubMed

    Li, Caiyue; Ma, Wenbo; Yin, Shikui; Liang, Xin; Shu, Xiaodong; Pei, Duanqing; Egan, Terrance M; Huang, Jufang; Pan, Aihua; Li, Zhiyuan

    2016-05-01

    The trafficking of ion channels to/from the plasma membrane is considered an important mechanism for cellular activity and an interesting approach for disease therapies. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) ion channel is widely expressed in skin keratinocytes, and its trafficking mechanism to/from the plasma membrane is unknown. Here, we report that the vesicular trafficking protein sorting nexin 11 (SNX11) downregulates the level of the TRPV3 plasma membrane protein. Overexpression of SNX11 causes a decrease in the level of TRPV3 current and TRPV3 plasma membrane protein in TRPV3-transfected HEK293T cells. Subcellular localizations and western blots indicate that SNX11 interacts with TRPV3 and targets it to lysosomes for degradation, which is blocked by the lysosomal inhibitors chloroquine and leupeptin. Both TRPV3 and SNX11 are highly expressed in HaCaT cells. We show that TRPV3 agonists-activated Ca(2+) influxes and the level of native TRPV3 total protein in HaCaT cells are decreased by overexpression of SNX11 and increased by knockdown of SNX11. Our findings reveal that SNX11 promotes the trafficking of TRPV3 from the plasma membrane to lysosomes for degradation via protein-protein interactions, which demonstrates a previously unknown function of SNX11 as a regulator of TRPV3 trafficking from the plasma membrane to lysosomes. PMID:26818531

  14. One-step bulk preparation of calcium carbonate nanotubes and its application in anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Sun, Dong-Mei; Qian, Wen-Yu; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen-Rui; Li, Kun; Wang, Shi-Long

    2012-06-01

    Bulk fabrication of ordered hollow structural particles (HSPs) with large surface area and high biocompatibility simultaneously is critical for the practical application of HSPs in biosensing and drug delivery. In this article, we describe a smart approach for batch synthesis of calcium carbonate nanotubes (CCNTs) based on supported liquid membrane (SLM) with large surface area, excellent structural stability, prominent biocompatibility, and acid degradability. The products were characterized by transmission electron micrograph, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, UV-vis spectroscopy, zeta potential, and particle size distribution. The results showed that the tube-like structure facilitated podophyllotoxin (PPT) diffusion into the cavity of hollow structure, and the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of CCNTs for PPT are as high as 38.5 and 64.4 wt.%, respectively. In vitro drug release study showed that PPT was released from the CCNTs in a pH-controlled and time-dependent manner. The treatment of HEK 293T and SGC 7901 cells demonstrated that PPT-loaded CCNTs were less toxic to normal cells and more effective in antitumor potency compared with free drugs. In addition, PPT-loaded CCNTs also enhanced the apoptotic process on tumor cells compared with the free drugs. This study not only provides a new kind of biocompatible and pH-sensitive nanomaterial as the feasible drug container and carrier but more importantly establishes a facile approach to synthesize novel hollow structural particles on a large scale based on SLM technology. PMID:22351100

  15. Investigation of the functional role of human Interleukin-8 gene haplotypes by CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Benakanakere, Manjunatha R.; Finoti, Livia S.; Tanaka, Urara; Grant, Gregory R.; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel M.; Kinane, Denis F.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene polymorphisms have been considered as susceptibility factors in periodontal disease. However, the functional roles of IL-8 gene haplotypes have not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to engineer the IL-8 gene, and tested the functionality of different haplotypes. Two sgRNAs vectors targeting the IL-8 gene and the naked homologous repair DNA carrying different haplotypes were used to successfully generate HEK293T cells carrying the AT genotype at the first SNP - rs4073 (alias -251), TT genotype at the second SNP - rs2227307 (alias +396), TC or CC genotypes at the third SNP - rs2227306 (alias +781) at the IL-8 locus. When stimulated with Poly I:C, ATC/TTC haplotype, cells significantly up-regulated the IL-8 at both transcriptional and translational levels. To test whether ATC/TTC haplotype is functional, we used a trans-well assay to measure the transmigration of primary neutrophils incubated with supernatants from the Poly I:C stimulation experiment. ATC/TTC haplotype cells significantly increased transmigration of neutrophils confirming the functional role for this IL-8 haplotype. Taken together, our data provides evidence that carriage of the ATC/TTC haplotype in itself may increase the influx of neutrophils in inflammatory lesions and influence disease susceptibility. PMID:27499075

  16. Activation of acid-sensing ion channels by localized proton transient reveals their role in proton signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Di-Shi; Liu, Lu; She, Liang; Wu, Long-Jun; Xu, Tian-Le

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular transients of pH alterations likely mediate signal transduction in the nervous system. Neuronal acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) act as sensors for extracellular protons, but the mechanism underlying ASIC activation remains largely unknown. Here, we show that, following activation of a light-activated proton pump, Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch), proton transients induced ASIC currents in both neurons and HEK293T cells co-expressing ASIC1a channels. Using chimera proteins that bridge Arch and ASIC1a by a glycine/serine linker, we found that successful coupling occurred within 15 nm distance. Furthermore, two-cell sniffer patch recording revealed that regulated release of protons through either Arch or voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 activated neighbouring cells expressing ASIC1a channels. Finally, computational modelling predicted the peak proton concentration at the intercellular interface to be at pH 6.7, which is acidic enough to activate ASICs in vivo. Our results highlight the pathophysiological role of proton signalling in the nervous system. PMID:26370138

  17. Evaluation of Multi-tRNA Synthetase Complex by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Size Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Seok; Lee, Cheolju

    2015-01-01

    Eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (M, K, Q, D, R, I, EP and LARS) and three auxiliary proteins (AIMP1, 2 and 3) are known to form a multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in mammalian cells. We combined size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with reversed-phase liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (RPLC-MRM-MS) to characterize MSC components and free ARS proteins in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T) cells. Crude cell extract and affinity-purified proteins were fractionated by SEC in non-denaturing state and ARSs were monitored in each fraction by MRM-MS. The eleven MSC components appeared mostly in earlier SEC fractions demonstrating their participation in complex formation. TARSL2 and AIMP2-DX2, despite their low abundance, were co-purified with KARS and detected in the SEC fractions, where MSC appeared. Moreover, other large complex-forming ARS proteins, such as VARS and FARS, were detected in earlier fractions. The MRM-MS results were further confirmed by western blot analysis. Our study demonstrates usefulness of combined SEC-MRM analysis for the characterization of protein complexes and in understanding the behavior of minor isoforms or variant proteins. PMID:26544075

  18. Gadd45a promotes DNA demethylation through TDG.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Gu, Tian-Peng; Weber, Alain R; Shen, Jia-Zhen; Li, Bin-Zhong; Xie, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Ruichuan; Guo, Fan; Liu, Xiaomeng; Tang, Fuchou; Wang, Hailin; Schär, Primo; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2015-04-30

    Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 (Gadd45) family members have been implicated in DNA demethylation in vertebrates. However, it remained unclear how they contribute to the demethylation process. Here, we demonstrate that Gadd45a promotes active DNA demethylation through thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) which has recently been shown to excise 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) generated in Ten-eleven-translocation (Tet)-initiated oxidative demethylation. The connection of Gadd45a with oxidative demethylation is evidenced by the enhanced activation of a methylated reporter gene in HEK293T cells expressing Gadd45a in combination with catalytically active TDG and Tet. Gadd45a interacts with TDG physically and increases the removal of 5fC and 5caC from genomic and transfected plasmid DNA by TDG. Knockout of both Gadd45a and Gadd45b from mouse ES cells leads to hypermethylation of specific genomic loci most of which are also targets of TDG and show 5fC enrichment in TDG-deficient cells. These observations indicate that the demethylation effect of Gadd45a is mediated by TDG activity. This finding thus unites Gadd45a with the recently defined Tet-initiated demethylation pathway. PMID:25845601

  19. The effects of cytosine methylation on general transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jianshi; Lian, Tengfei; Gu, Chan; Yu, Kai; Gao, Yi Qin; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation on CpG sites is the most common epigenetic modification. Recently, methylation in a non-CpG context was found to occur widely on genomic DNA. Moreover, methylation of non-CpG sites is a highly controlled process, and its level may vary during cellular development. To study non-CpG methylation effects on DNA/protein interactions, we have chosen three human transcription factors (TFs): glucocorticoid receptor (GR), brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) - circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and estrogen receptor (ER) with methylated or unmethylated DNA binding sequences, using single-molecule and isothermal titration calorimetry assays. The results demonstrated that these TFs interact with methylated DNA with different effects compared with their cognate DNA sequences. The effects of non-CpG methylation on transcriptional regulation were validated by cell-based luciferase assay at protein level. The mechanisms of non-CpG methylation influencing DNA-protein interactions were investigated by crystallographic analyses and molecular dynamics simulation. With BisChIP-seq assays in HEK-293T cells, we found that GR can recognize highly methylated sites within chromatin in cells. Therefore, we conclude that non-CpG methylation of DNA can provide a mechanism for regulating gene expression through directly affecting the binding of TFs. PMID:27385050

  20. A study of substrate specificity for a CTD phosphatase, SCP1, by proteomic screening of binding partners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jun; Bahk, Young Yil

    2014-05-30

    RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain (RNAPII CTD) phosphatases are a newly emerging family of phosphatases. Recently a CTD-specific phosphatase, small CTD phosphatase 1 (SCP1), has shown to act as an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional corepressor for inhibiting neuronal gene transcription in non-neuronal cells. In this study, using the established NIH/3T3 and HEK293T cells, which are expressing human SCP1 proteins under the tight control of expression by doxycycline, a proteomic screening was conducted to identify the binding partners for SCP1. Although the present findings provide the possibility for new avenues to provide to a better understanding of cellular physiology of SCP1, now these proteomic and some immunological approaches for SCP1 interactome might not represent the accurate physiological relevance in vivo. In this presentation, we focus the substrate specificity to delineate an appearance of the dephosphorylation reaction catalyzed by SCP1 phosphatase. We compared the phosphorylated sequences of the immunologically confirmed binding partners with SCP1 searched in HPRD. We found the similar sequences from CdcA3 and validated the efficiency of enzymatic catalysis for synthetic phosphopeptides the recombinant SCP1. This approach led to the identification of several interacting partners with SCP1. We suggest that CdcA3 could be an enzymatic substrate for SCP1 and that SCP1 might have the relationship with cell cycle regulation through enzymatic activity against CdcA3. PMID:24769477

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases Also Exhibit Chaperone like Activity In-Vitro and In-Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Saurabh; Sharma, Ashish; Tripathi, Deeksha; Kumar, Ashutosh; Khubaib, Mohd; Bhuwan, Manish; Chaudhuri, Tapan Kumar; Hasnain, Seyed Ehtesham; Ehtesham, Nasreen Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (Ppiases), also known as cyclophilins, are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that assist in protein folding by isomerization of peptide bonds preceding prolyl residues. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is known to possess two Ppiases, PpiA and PpiB. However, our understanding about the biological significance of mycobacterial Ppiases with respect to their pleiotropic roles in responding to stress conditions inside the macrophages is restricted. This study describes chaperone-like activity of mycobacterial Ppiases. We show that recombinant rPpiA and rPpiB can bind to non-native proteins in vitro and can prevent their aggregation. Purified rPpiA and rPpiB exist in oligomeric form as evident from gel filtration chromatography.E. coli cells overexpressing PpiA and PpiB of M.tb could survive thermal stress as compared to plasmid vector control. HEK293T cells transiently expressing M.tb PpiA and PpiB proteins show increased survival as compared to control cells in response to oxidative stress and hypoxic conditions generated after treatment with H2O2 and CoCl2 thereby pointing to their likely role in adaption under host generated oxidative stress and conditions of hypoxia. The chaperone-like function of these M.tuberculosis cyclophilins may possibly function as a stress responder and consequently contribute to virulence. PMID:26981873

  2. Characterization of aberrant splicing of von Willebrand factor in von Willebrand disease: an underrecognized mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hawke, Lindsey; Bowman, Mackenzie L; Poon, Man-Chiu; Scully, Mary-Frances; Rivard, Georges-Etienne; James, Paula D

    2016-07-28

    Approximately 10% of von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene mutations are thought to alter messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing through disruption of consensus splice sites. This mechanism is likely underrecognized and affected by mutations outside consensus splice sites. During VWF synthesis, splicing abnormalities lead to qualitative defects or quantitative deficiencies in VWF. This study investigated the pathologic mechanism acting in 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) families with putative splicing mutations using patient-derived blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) and a heterologous human embryonic kidney (HEK 293(T)) cell model. The exonic mutation c.3538G>A causes 3 in-frame splicing variants (23del, 26del, and 23/26del) which cannot bind platelets, blood coagulation factor VIII, or collagen, causing VWD through dominant-negative intracellular retention of coexpressed wild-type (WT) VWF, and increased trafficking to lysosomes. Individuals heterozygous for the c.5842+1G>C mutation produce exon 33 skipping, exons 33-34 skipping, and WT VWF transcripts. Pathogenic intracellular retention of VWF lacking exons 33-34 causes their VWD. The branch site mutation c.6599-20A>T causes type 1 VWD through mRNA degradation of exon 38 skipping transcripts. Splicing ratios of aberrant transcripts and coexpressed WT were altered in the BOECs with exposure to shear stress. This study provides evidence of mutations outside consensus splice sites disrupting splicing and introduces the concept that VWF splicing is affected by shear stress on endothelial cells. PMID:27317792

  3. A role for the human nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing family member NLRC5 in antiviral responses.

    PubMed

    Neerincx, Andreas; Lautz, Katja; Menning, Maureen; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Zigrino, Paola; Hösel, Marianna; Büning, Hildegard; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Kufer, Thomas A

    2010-08-20

    Proteins of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-containing family recently gained attention as important components of the innate immune system. Although over 20 of these proteins are present in humans, only a few members including the cytosolic pattern recognition receptors NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3 have been analyzed extensively. These NLRs were shown to be pivotal for mounting innate immune response toward microbial invasion. Here we report on the characterization of human NLRC5 and provide evidence that this NLR has a function in innate immune responses. We found that NLRC5 is a cytosolic protein expressed predominantly in hematopoetic cells. NLRC5 mRNA and protein expression was inducible by the double-stranded RNA analog poly(I.C) and Sendai virus. Overexpression of NLRC5 failed to trigger inflammatory responses such as the NF-kappaB or interferon pathways in HEK293T cells. However, knockdown of endogenous NLRC5 reduced Sendai virus- and poly(I.C)-mediated type I interferon pathway-dependent responses in THP-1 cells and human primary dermal fibroblasts. Taken together, this defines a function for NLRC5 in anti-viral innate immune responses. PMID:20538593

  4. Further progress in cytosolic cellular delivery of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeneman Gemmill, Kelly; Delehanty, James B.; Stewart, Michael H.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B.; Dawson, Philip E.; Huston, Alan; Medintz, Igor

    2012-03-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in using bioconjugated nanoparticles for in vivo imaging, biosensing and theranostics. Luminescent CdSe/ZnS core shell semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have unique optical properties and bioconjugation capabilities that make them ideal prototypes for these purposes. We have previously described the metal-affinity association between the imidazole groups of terminal hexahistidine residues of peptides and proteins and the ZnS shell of quantum dots as a useful bioconjugation technique. We have also demonstrated that QDs labeled with an oligohistidine-tagged cell penetrating peptide (CPP) derived from the HIV TAT-protein could undergo specific endocytosis-mediated cellular uptake in both HEK293T/17 and COS-1 cells. However, the QDs were predominantly sequestered in the endosomes. This remains a significant hindrance to future potential cellular imaging applications which require the QDs to access other subcellular organelles. Here we describe the testing of several cytosolic QD delivery modalities including microinjection, the commercial cytosolic delivery agent PULSin, and the cytosolic delivery peptide Palm-1. Palm-1, a palmitylated peptide that is capable of both cellular uptake and rapid endosomal escape in multiple cell lines without concomitant toxicity, is shown to be the superior method for cytosolic delivery of QDs. Potential intracellular applications for this peptide are discussed.

  5. Fidgetin-like 1 is a ciliogenesis-inhibitory centrosome protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Jin, Miaomiao; Wang, Mengzhu; Sun, Lili; Hong, Xuejiao; Cao, Ying; Wang, Chunguang

    2016-09-01

    Fidgetin-like 1 (FIGL-1) is a homolog of fidgetin, an AAA protein that was identified as the protein encoded by the gene mutated in fidget mice. Because the phenotypes of fidget mice are reminiscent of the phenotypes of ciliopathy diseases, and because fidgetin has microtubule-severing activity, we hypothesize that these proteins participate in cilia-related processes. Indeed, overexpression of FIGL-1 interfered with ciliogenesis in cultured cells. In particular, overexpressed FIGL-1 strongly accumulated at the centrosome, and, when highly expressed, perturbed the localization of centrosomal proteins such as pericentrin, CP110, and centrin. Using a polyclonal antibody against human FIGL-1, we found that endogenous FIGL-1 localized preferentially around the mother centriole. Consistently, depletion of FIGL-1 by shRNA treatment enhanced ciliogenesis in HEK293T cells. By checking the integrity of the cytoplasmic microtubule network in FIGL-1-overexpressing cells, we found that FIGL-1 probably has microtubule-severing activity, as suggested by its sequence homology with other microtubule-severing proteins. Furthermore, we showed that overexpression of FIGL-1 in zebrafish embryo decreased the length of cilia and perturbed the heart laterality. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FIGL-1 is a new centrosomal protein and inhibits ciliogenesis. These results extend the already long list of centrosomal proteins and provide new insights into the regulation of ciliogenesis. PMID:27384458

  6. Developing an irreversible inhibitor of human DDAH-1, an enzyme upregulated in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Hu, Shougang; Gabisi, Abdul M.; Er, Joyce A. V.; Pope, Arthur; Burstein, Gayle; Schardon, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of the human enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1) can raise endogenous levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and lead to a subsequent inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. Herein, N5-(1-imino-2-chloroethyl)-L-ornithine (Cl-NIO) is shown to be a potent time- and concentration-dependent inhibitor of purified human DDAH-1 (KI = 1.3 ± 0.6 μM; kinact = 0.34 ± 0.07 min−1), with > 500-fold selectivity against two arginine-handling enzymes in the same pathway. An activity probe is used to measure the “in cell” IC50 value (6.6 ± 0.2 μM) for Cl-NIO inhibition of DDAH-1 artificially expressed within cultured HEK293T cells. A screen of diverse melanoma cell lines reveals that a striking 50 / 64 (78 %) of melanoma lines tested showed increased levels of DDAH-1 in comparison to normal melanocyte control lines. Treatment of the melanoma A375 cell line with Cl-NIO shows a subsequent decrease in cellular nitric oxide production. Cl-NIO represents a promising tool for the study of methylarginine-mediated nitric oxide control and a potential therapeutic lead compound for other indications with elevated nitric oxide production such as septic shock and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24574257

  7. Production of Retrovirus-Based Vectors in Mildly Acidic pH Conditions.

    PubMed

    Holic, Nathalie; Fenard, David

    2016-01-01

    Gene transfer vectors based on retroviridae are increasingly becoming a tool of choice for biomedical research and for the development of biotherapies in rare diseases or cancers. To meet the challenges of preclinical and clinical production, different steps of the production process of self-inactivating γ-retroviral (RVs) and lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been improved (e.g., transfection, media optimization, cell culture conditions). However, the increasing need for mass production of such vectors is still a challenge and could hamper their availability for therapeutic use. Recently, we observed that the use of a neutral pH during vector production is not optimal. The use of mildly acidic pH conditions (pH 6) can increase by two- to threefold the production of RVs and LVs pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G) or gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) glycoproteins. Here, we describe the production protocol in mildly acidic pH conditions of GALVTR- and VSV-G-pseudotyped LVs using the transient transfection of HEK293T cells and the production protocol of GALV-pseudotyped RVs produced from a murine producer cell line. These protocols should help to achieve higher titers of vectors, thereby facilitating experimental research and therapeutic applications. PMID:27317171

  8. The effects of cytosine methylation on general transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jianshi; Lian, Tengfei; Gu, Chan; Yu, Kai; Gao, Yi Qin; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation on CpG sites is the most common epigenetic modification. Recently, methylation in a non-CpG context was found to occur widely on genomic DNA. Moreover, methylation of non-CpG sites is a highly controlled process, and its level may vary during cellular development. To study non-CpG methylation effects on DNA/protein interactions, we have chosen three human transcription factors (TFs): glucocorticoid receptor (GR), brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) - circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and estrogen receptor (ER) with methylated or unmethylated DNA binding sequences, using single-molecule and isothermal titration calorimetry assays. The results demonstrated that these TFs interact with methylated DNA with different effects compared with their cognate DNA sequences. The effects of non-CpG methylation on transcriptional regulation were validated by cell-based luciferase assay at protein level. The mechanisms of non-CpG methylation influencing DNA-protein interactions were investigated by crystallographic analyses and molecular dynamics simulation. With BisChIP-seq assays in HEK-293T cells, we found that GR can recognize highly methylated sites within chromatin in cells. Therefore, we conclude that non-CpG methylation of DNA can provide a mechanism for regulating gene expression through directly affecting the binding of TFs. PMID:27385050

  9. Transmembrane protein 139 (TMEM139) interacts with human kidney isoform of anion exchanger 1 (kAE1).

    PubMed

    Nuiplot, Nalin-On; Junking, Mutita; Duangtum, Natapol; Khunchai, Sasiprapa; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn

    2015-08-01

    Human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanges at the basolateral membrane of the acid-secreting α-intercalated cells. Mutations in SLC4A1 gene encoding kAE1 are associated with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Several studies have shown that impaired trafficking of the mutant kAE1 is an important molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of dRTA. Proteins involved in kAE1 trafficking were identified but the mechanism resulting in dRTA remained unclear. Thus, this study attempted to search for additional proteins interacting with C-terminal of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1) and involved in kAE1 trafficking to cell membrane. Transmembrane protein 139 (TMEM139) was identified as a protein interacting with Ct-kAE1 by yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction between kAE1 and TMEM139 was confirmed by affinity co-purification, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA). In addition, flow cytometry results showed that suppression of endogenous TMEM139 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and over-expression of TMEM139 in HEK293T cells could reduce and increase membrane localization of kAE1, respectively. The presented data demonstrate that TMEM139 interacts with kAE1 and promotes its intracellular trafficking. PMID:26049106

  10. Gadd45a promotes DNA demethylation through TDG

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Gu, Tian-Peng; Weber, Alain R.; Shen, Jia-Zhen; Li, Bin-Zhong; Xie, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Ruichuan; Guo, Fan; Liu, Xiaomeng; Tang, Fuchou; Wang, Hailin; Schär, Primo; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 (Gadd45) family members have been implicated in DNA demethylation in vertebrates. However, it remained unclear how they contribute to the demethylation process. Here, we demonstrate that Gadd45a promotes active DNA demethylation through thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) which has recently been shown to excise 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) generated in Ten-eleven-translocation (Tet)—initiated oxidative demethylation. The connection of Gadd45a with oxidative demethylation is evidenced by the enhanced activation of a methylated reporter gene in HEK293T cells expressing Gadd45a in combination with catalytically active TDG and Tet. Gadd45a interacts with TDG physically and increases the removal of 5fC and 5caC from genomic and transfected plasmid DNA by TDG. Knockout of both Gadd45a and Gadd45b from mouse ES cells leads to hypermethylation of specific genomic loci most of which are also targets of TDG and show 5fC enrichment in TDG-deficient cells. These observations indicate that the demethylation effect of Gadd45a is mediated by TDG activity. This finding thus unites Gadd45a with the recently defined Tet-initiated demethylation pathway. PMID:25845601

  11. The effects of cytosine methylation on general transcription factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jianshi; Lian, Tengfei; Gu, Chan; Yu, Kai; Gao, Yi Qin; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation on CpG sites is the most common epigenetic modification. Recently, methylation in a non-CpG context was found to occur widely on genomic DNA. Moreover, methylation of non-CpG sites is a highly controlled process, and its level may vary during cellular development. To study non-CpG methylation effects on DNA/protein interactions, we have chosen three human transcription factors (TFs): glucocorticoid receptor (GR), brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) - circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and estrogen receptor (ER) with methylated or unmethylated DNA binding sequences, using single-molecule and isothermal titration calorimetry assays. The results demonstrated that these TFs interact with methylated DNA with different effects compared with their cognate DNA sequences. The effects of non-CpG methylation on transcriptional regulation were validated by cell-based luciferase assay at protein level. The mechanisms of non-CpG methylation influencing DNA-protein interactions were investigated by crystallographic analyses and molecular dynamics simulation. With BisChIP-seq assays in HEK-293T cells, we found that GR can recognize highly methylated sites within chromatin in cells. Therefore, we conclude that non-CpG methylation of DNA can provide a mechanism for regulating gene expression through directly affecting the binding of TFs.

  12. Human UBL5 protein interacts with coilin and meets the Cajal bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Švéda, Martin; Častorálová, Markéta; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš; Knejzlík, Zdeněk

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Localization of the UBL5 protein in Hela cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy and biochemical fractionation. •Colocalization of UBL5 with Cajal bodies was observed. •Interaction of UBL5 with coilin was proven by pull-down. -- Abstract: UBL5 protein, a structural homologue of ubiquitin, was shown to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and transcription regulation in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. However, role of the UBL5 human orthologue is still elusive. In our study, we observed that endogenous human UBL5 that was localized in the nucleus, partially associates with Cajal bodies (CBs), nuclear domains where spliceosomal components are assembled. Simultaneous expression of exogenous UBL5 and coilin resulted in their nuclear colocalization in HeLa cells. The ability of UBL5 to interact with coilin was proved by GST pull-down assay using coilin that was either in vitro translated or extracted from HEK293T cells. Further, our results showed that the UBL5–coilin interaction was not influenced by coilin phosphorylation. These results suggest that UBL5 could be targeted to CBs via its interaction with coilin. Relation between human UBL5 protein and CBs is in the agreement with current observations about yeast orthologue Hub1 playing important role in alternative splicing.

  13. C-terminal propeptide is required for fibrillin-1 secretion and blocks premature assembly through linkage to domains cbEGF41-43.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sacha A; Aspinall, Georgia; Handford, Penny A

    2014-07-15

    Fibrillin microfibrils are 10-12 nm diameter, extracellular matrix assemblies that provide dynamic tissues of metazoan species with many of their biomechanical properties as well as sequestering growth factors and cytokines. Assembly of fibrillin monomers into microfibrils is thought to occur at the cell surface, with initial steps including proprotein processing, multimerization driven by the C terminus, and the head-to-tail alignment of adjacent molecules. At present the mechanisms that regulate microfibril assembly are still to be elucidated. We have used structure-informed protein engineering to create a recombinant, GFP-tagged version of fibrillin-1 (GFP-Fbn) to study this process. Using HEK293T cells transiently transfected with GFP-Fbn constructs, we show that (i) the C-terminal propeptide is an essential requirement for the secretion of full-length fibrillin-1 from cells; (ii) failure to cleave off the C-terminal propeptide blocks the assembly of fibrillin-1 into microfibrils produced by dermal fibroblasts; and (iii) the requirement of the propeptide for secretion is linked to the presence of domains cbEGF41-43, because either deletion or exchange of domains in this region leads to cellular retention. Collectively, these data suggest a mechanism in which the propeptide blocks a key site at the C terminus to prevent premature microfibril assembly. PMID:24982166

  14. Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel CEACAM16 Mutation Associated with Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss DFNA4B in a Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    He, Chufeng; Li, Haibo; Qing, Jie; Grati, Mhamed; Hu, Zhengmao; Li, Jiada; Hu, Yiqiao; Xia, Kun; Mei, Lingyun; Wang, Xingwei; Yu, Jianjun; Chen, Hongsheng; Jiang, Lu; Liu, Yalan; Men, Meichao; Zhang, Hailin; Guan, Liping; Xiao, Jingjing; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Xuezhong; Feng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL/DFNA) is a highly genetically heterogeneous disorder. Hitherto only about 30 ADNSHL-causing genes have been identified and many unknown genes remain to be discovered. In this research, genome-wide linkage analysis mapped the disease locus to a 4.3 Mb region on chromosome 19q13 in SY-026, a five-generation nonconsanguineous Chinese family affected by late-onset and progressive ADNSHL. This linkage region showed partial overlap with the previously reported DFNA4. Simultaneously, probands were analyzed using exome capture followed by next generation sequencing. Encouragingly, a heterozygous missense mutation, c.505G>A (p.G169R) in exon 3 of the CEACAM16 gene (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16), was identified via this combined strategy. Sanger sequencing verified that the mutation co-segregated with hearing loss in the family and that it was not present in 200 unrelated control subjects with matched ancestry. This is the second report in the literature of a family with ADNSHL caused by CEACAM16 mutation. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blots also prove CEACAM16 to be a secreted protein. Furthermore, our studies in transfected HEK293T cells show that the secretion efficacy of the mutant CEACAM16 is much lower than that of the wild-type, suggesting a deleterious effect of the sequence variant. PMID:25589040

  15. The integration profile of EIAV-based vectors.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Caroline V; Vink, Conrad A; Wardell, Theresa W; Lee, Sheena; Treasure, Peter; Kingsman, Susan M; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Miskin, James E

    2006-10-01

    Lentiviral vectors based on equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) stably integrate into dividing and nondividing cells such as neurons, conferring long-term expression of their transgene. The integration profile of an EIAV vector was analyzed in dividing HEK293T cells, alongside an HIV-1 vector as a control, and compared to a random dataset generated in silico. A multivariate regression model was generated and the influence of the following parameters on integration site selection determined: (a) within/not within a gene, (b) GC content within 20 kb, (c) within 10 kb of a CpG island, (d) gene density within a 2-Mb window, and (e) chromosome number. The majority of the EIAV integration sites (68%; n = 458) and HIV-1 integration sites (72%; n = 162) were within a gene, and both vectors favored AT-rich regions. Sites within genes were examined using a second model to determine the influence of the gene-specific parameters, gene region, and transcriptional activity. Both EIAV and HIV-1 vectors preferentially integrated within active genes. Unlike the gammaretrovirus MLV, EIAV and HIV-1 vectors do not integrate preferentially into the promoter region or the 5' end of the transcription unit. PMID:16950499

  16. Interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence Factor RipA with Chaperone MoxR1 Is Required for Transport through the TAT Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Bhuwan, Manish; Arora, Naresh; Sharma, Ashish; Khubaib, Mohd; Pandey, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Tapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. The M. tuberculosis TAT (twin-arginine translocation) protein secretion system is present at the cytoplasmic membrane of mycobacteria and is known to transport folded proteins. The TAT secretion system is reported to be essential for many important bacterial processes that include cell wall biosynthesis. The M. tuberculosis secretion and invasion protein RipA has endopeptidase activity and interacts with one of the resuscitation antigens (RpfB) that are expressed during pathogen reactivation. MoxR1, a member of the ATPase family that is associated with various cellular activities, was predicted to interact with RipA based on in silico analyses. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay confirmed the interaction of these two proteins in HEK293T cells. The overexpression of RipA in Mycobacterium smegmatis and copurification with MoxR1 further validated their interaction in vivo. Recombinant MoxR1 protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, displays ATP-enhanced chaperone activity. Secretion of recombinant RipA (rRipA) protein into the E. coli culture filtrate was not observed in the absence of RipA-MoxR interaction. Inhibition of this export system in M. tuberculosis, including the key players, will prevent localization of peptidoglycan hydrolase and result in sensitivity to existing β-lactam antibiotics, opening up new candidates for drug repurposing. PMID:26933057

  17. Characterization of a ligand-gated cation channel based on an inositol receptor in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Shingo; Endo, Haruka; Tomita, Natsuo; Takada, Tomoyuki; Morita, Chiharu; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-07-01

    Insect herbivores recognize non-volatile compounds in plants to direct their feeding behavior. Gustatory receptors (Gr) appear to be required for nutrient recognition by gustatory organs in the mouthparts of insects. Gr10 is expressed in Bombyx mori (BmGr10) mouthparts such as maxillary galea, maxillary palp, and labrum. BmGr10 is predicted to function in sugar recognition; however, the precise biochemical function remains obscure. Larvae of B. mori are monophagous feeders able to find and feed on mulberry leaves. Soluble mulberry leaf extract contains sucrose, glucose, fructose, and myo-inositol. In this study, we identified BmGr10 as an inositol receptor using electrophysiological analysis with the Xenopus oocyte expression system and Ca(2+) imaging techniques using mammalian cells. These results demonstrated that Xenopus oocytes or HEK293T cells expressing BmGr10 specifically respond to myo-inositol and epi-inositol but do not respond to any mono-, di-, or tri-saccharides or to some sugar alcohols. These inositols caused Ca(2+) and Na(+) influxes into the cytoplasm independently of a G protein-mediated signaling cascade, indicating that BmGr10 is a ligand-gated cation channel. Overall, BmGr10 plays an important role in the myo-inositol recognition required for B. mori larval feeding behavior. PMID:27132146

  18. Conservation of inner nuclear membrane targeting sequences in mammalian Pom121 and yeast Heh2 membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kralt, Annemarie; Jagalur, Noorjahan B; van den Boom, Vincent; Lokareddy, Ravi K; Steen, Anton; Cingolani, Gino; Fornerod, Maarten; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M

    2015-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum-synthesized membrane proteins traffic through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) en route to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). Although many membrane proteins pass the NPC by simple diffusion, two yeast proteins, ScSrc1/ScHeh1 and ScHeh2, are actively imported. In these proteins, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and an intrinsically disordered linker encode the sorting signal for recruiting the transport factors for FG-Nup and RanGTP-dependent transport through the NPC. Here we address whether a similar import mechanism applies in metazoans. We show that the (putative) NLSs of metazoan HsSun2, MmLem2, HsLBR, and HsLap2β are not sufficient to drive nuclear accumulation of a membrane protein in yeast, but the NLS from RnPom121 is. This NLS of Pom121 adapts a similar fold as the NLS of Heh2 when transport factor bound and rescues the subcellular localization and synthetic sickness of Heh2ΔNLS mutants. Consistent with the conservation of these NLSs, the NLS and linker of Heh2 support INM localization in HEK293T cells. The conserved features of the NLSs of ScHeh1, ScHeh2, and RnPom121 and the effective sorting of Heh2-derived reporters in human cells suggest that active import is conserved but confined to a small subset of INM proteins. PMID:26179916

  19. Visualization of Neuregulin 1 ectodomain shedding reveals its local processing in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kamezaki, Aosa; Sato, Fuminori; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Kawakami, Koichi; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin1 (NRG1) plays diverse developmental roles and is likely involved in several neurological disorders including schizophrenia. The transmembrane NRG1 protein is proteolytically cleaved and released as a soluble ligand for ErbB receptors. Such post-translational processing, referred to as 'ectodomain shedding', is thought to be crucial for NRG1 function. However, little is known regarding the regulatory mechanism of NRG1 cleavage in vivo. Here, we developed a fluorescent probe, NRG1 Cleavage Indicating SenSOR (N-CISSOR), by fusing mCherry and GFP to the extracellular and intracellular domains of NRG1, respectively. N-CISSOR mimicked the subcellular localization and biochemical properties of NRG1 including cleavage dynamics and ErbB phosphorylation in cultured cells. mCherry/GFP ratio imaging of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated N-CISSOR-expressing HEK293T cells enabled to monitor rapid ectodomain shedding of NRG1 at the subcellular level. Utilizing N-CISSOR in zebrafish embryos revealed preferential axonal NRG1 ectodomain shedding in developing motor neurons, demonstrating that NRG1 ectodomain shedding is spatially regulated at the subcellular level. Thus, N-CISSOR will be a valuable tool for elucidating the spatiotemporal regulation of NRG1 ectodomain shedding, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27364328

  20. Visualization of Neuregulin 1 ectodomain shedding reveals its local processing in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kamezaki, Aosa; Sato, Fuminori; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Kawakami, Koichi; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin1 (NRG1) plays diverse developmental roles and is likely involved in several neurological disorders including schizophrenia. The transmembrane NRG1 protein is proteolytically cleaved and released as a soluble ligand for ErbB receptors. Such post-translational processing, referred to as ‘ectodomain shedding’, is thought to be crucial for NRG1 function. However, little is known regarding the regulatory mechanism of NRG1 cleavage in vivo. Here, we developed a fluorescent probe, NRG1 Cleavage Indicating SenSOR (N-CISSOR), by fusing mCherry and GFP to the extracellular and intracellular domains of NRG1, respectively. N-CISSOR mimicked the subcellular localization and biochemical properties of NRG1 including cleavage dynamics and ErbB phosphorylation in cultured cells. mCherry/GFP ratio imaging of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated N-CISSOR-expressing HEK293T cells enabled to monitor rapid ectodomain shedding of NRG1 at the subcellular level. Utilizing N-CISSOR in zebrafish embryos revealed preferential axonal NRG1 ectodomain shedding in developing motor neurons, demonstrating that NRG1 ectodomain shedding is spatially regulated at the subcellular level. Thus, N-CISSOR will be a valuable tool for elucidating the spatiotemporal regulation of NRG1 ectodomain shedding, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27364328

  1. Sparse deconvolution of high-density super-resolution images

    PubMed Central

    Hugelier, Siewert; de Rooi, Johan J.; Bernex, Romain; Duwé, Sam; Devos, Olivier; Sliwa, Michel; Dedecker, Peter; Eilers, Paul H. C.; Ruckebusch, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    In wide-field super-resolution microscopy, investigating the nanoscale structure of cellular processes, and resolving fast dynamics and morphological changes in cells requires algorithms capable of working with a high-density of emissive fluorophores. Current deconvolution algorithms estimate fluorophore density by using representations of the signal that promote sparsity of the super-resolution images via an L1-norm penalty. This penalty imposes a restriction on the sum of absolute values of the estimates of emitter brightness. By implementing an L0-norm penalty – on the number of fluorophores rather than on their overall brightness – we present a penalized regression approach that can work at high-density and allows fast super-resolution imaging. We validated our approach on simulated images with densities up to 15 emitters per μm-2 and investigated total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) data of mitochondria in a HEK293-T cell labeled with DAKAP-Dronpa. We demonstrated super-resolution imaging of the dynamics with a resolution down to 55 nm and a 0.5 s time sampling. PMID:26912448

  2. Injectable alginate hydrogel for enhanced spatiotemporal control of lentivector delivery in murine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Stilhano, Roberta S; Madrigal, Justin L; Wong, Kevin; Williams, Priscilla A; Martin, Priscila K M; Yamaguchi, Fabio S M; Samoto, Vivian Y; Han, Sang W; Silva, Eduardo A

    2016-09-10

    Hydrogels are an especially appealing class of biomaterials for gene delivery vehicles as they can be introduced into the body with minimally invasive procedures and are often applied in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. In this study, we show for the first time the use of an injectable alginate hydrogel for controlled delivery of lentivectors in the skeletal muscle of murine hindlimb. We propose to alter the release rates of lentivectors through manipulation of the molecular weight distribution of alginate hydrogels. The release of lentivector was tested using two different ratios of low and high molecular weight (MW) alginate polymers (75/25 and 25/75 low/high MW). The interdependency of lentivector release rate and alginate degradation rate was assessed in vitro. Lentivector-loaded hydrogels maintained transduction potential for up to one week in vitro as demonstrated by the continual transduction of HEK-293T cells. Injection of lentivector-loaded hydrogel in vivo led to a sustained level of transgene expression for more than two months while minimizing the copies of lentivirus genome inserted into the genome of murine skeletal muscle cells. This strategy of spatiotemporal control of lentivector delivery from alginate hydrogels may provide a versatile tool to combine gene therapy and biomaterials for applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:27374631

  3. Characterization of a Novel Gene in the Extended MHC Region of Mouse, NG29/Cd320, a Homolog of the Human CD320

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Kyung In

    2009-01-01

    Background The MHC region of the chromosome contains a lot of genes involved in immune responses. Here we have investigated the mouse NG29/Cd320 gene in the centrometrically extended MHC region of chromosome 17. Methods We cloned the NG29 gene by RT-PCR and confirmed the tissue distribution of its gene expression by northern blot hybridization. We generated the NG29 gene expression constructs and polyclonal antibody against the NG29 protein to perform the immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation and flow cytometric analysis. Results The murine NG29 gene and its human homologue, the CD320/8D6 gene, were similar in the gene structure and tissue expression patterns. We cloned the NG29 gene and confirmed its expression in plasma membrane and intracellular compartments by transfecting its expresssion constructs into HEK 293T cells. The immunoprecipitation studies with rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against the NG29-NusA fusion protein indicated that NG29 protein was a glycoprotein of about 45 kDa size. A flow cytometric analysis also showed the NG29 expression on the surface of Raw 264.7 macrophage cell line. Conclusion These findings suggested that NG29 gene in mouse extended MHC class II region was the orthologue of human CD320 gene even though human CD320/8D6 gene was located in non-MHC region, chromosome 19p13. PMID:20157601

  4. TDP-43 is directed to stress granules by sorbitol, a novel physiological osmotic and oxidative stressor.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Colleen M; Cenik, Basar; Sephton, Chantelle F; Dries, Daniel R; Mayer, Paul; Good, Shannon K; Johnson, Brett A; Herz, Joachim; Yu, Gang

    2011-03-01

    TDP-43, or TAR DNA-binding protein 43, is a pathological marker of a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions. TDP-43 is an RNA/DNA-binding protein implicated in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Recent work also suggests that TDP-43 associates with cytoplasmic stress granules, which are transient structures that form in response to stress. In this study, we establish sorbitol as a novel physiological stressor that directs TDP-43 to stress granules in Hek293T cells and primary cultured glia. We quantify the association of TDP-43 with stress granules over time and show that stress granule association and size are dependent on the glycine-rich region of TDP-43, which harbors the majority of pathogenic mutations. Moreover, we establish that cells harboring wild-type and mutant TDP-43 have distinct stress responses: mutant TDP-43 forms significantly larger stress granules, and is incorporated into stress granules earlier, than wild-type TDP-43; in striking contrast, wild-type TDP-43 forms more stress granules over time, but the granule size remains relatively unchanged. We propose that mutant TDP-43 alters stress granule dynamics, which may contribute to the progression of TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:21173160

  5. The three Type 2A protein phosphatases, PP2Ac, PP4c and PP6c, are differentially regulated by Alpha4.

    PubMed

    LeNoue-Newton, Michele L; Wadzinski, Brian E; Spiller, Benjamin W

    2016-06-17

    Alpha4 is a non-canonical regulatory subunit of Type 2A protein phosphatases that interacts directly with the phosphatase catalytic subunits (PP2Ac, PP4c, and PP6c) and is upregulated in a variety of cancers. Alpha4 modulates phosphatase expression levels and activity, but the molecular mechanism of this regulation is unclear, and the extent to which the various Type 2A catalytic subunits associate with Alpha4 is also unknown. To determine the relative fractions of the Type 2A catalytic subunits associated with Alpha4, we conducted Alpha4 immunodepletion experiments in HEK293T cells and found that a significant fraction of total PP6c is associated with Alpha4, whereas a minimal fraction of total PP2Ac is associated with Alpha4. To facilitate studies of phosphatases in the presence of mutant or null Alpha4 alleles, we developed a facile and rapid method to simultaneously knockdown and rescue Alpha4 in tissue culture cells. This approach has the advantage that levels of endogenous Alpha4 are dramatically reduced by shRNA expression thereby simplifying interpretation of mutant phenotypes. We used this system to show that knockdown of Alpha4 preferentially impacts the expression of PP4c and PP6c compared to expression levels of PP2Ac. PMID:27169767

  6. A Germline Variant in the PANX1 Gene Has Reduced Channel Function and Is Associated with Multisystem Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing; Lindstrom, Kristin; Shi, Ruoyang; Kelly, John; Schroeder, Audrey; Juusola, Jane; Levine, Kara L; Esseltine, Jessica L; Penuela, Silvia; Jackson, Michael F; Laird, Dale W

    2016-06-10

    Pannexin1 (PANX1) is probably best understood as an ATP release channel involved in paracrine signaling. Given its ubiquitous expression, PANX1 pathogenic variants would be expected to lead to disorders involving multiple organ systems. Using whole exome sequencing, we discovered the first patient with a homozygous PANX1 variant (c.650G→A) resulting in an arginine to histidine substitution at position 217 (p.Arg217His). The 17-year-old female has intellectual disability, sensorineural hearing loss requiring bilateral cochlear implants, skeletal defects, including kyphoscoliosis, and primary ovarian failure. Her consanguineous parents are each heterozygous for this variant but are not affected by the multiorgan syndromes noted in the proband. Expression of the p.Arg217His mutant in HeLa, N2A, HEK293T, and Ad293 cells revealed normal PANX1 glycosylation and cell surface trafficking. Dye uptake, ATP release, and electrophysiological measurements revealed p.Arg217His to be a loss-of-function variant. Co-expression of the mutant with wild-type PANX1 suggested the mutant was not dominant-negative to PANX1 channel function. Collectively, we demonstrate a PANX1 missense change associated with human disease in the first report of a "PANX1-related disorder." PMID:27129271

  7. Simultaneous Quantification of Methylated Cytidine and Adenosine in Cellular and Tissue RNA by Nano-Flow Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with the Stable Isotope-dilution Method

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lijuan; Amato, Nicolas J.; Wang, Pengcheng; McGowan, Sara J.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Wang, Yinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The rising interest in understanding the functions, regulation and maintenance of the epitranscriptome calls for robust and accurate analytical methods for the identification and quantification of post-transcriptionally modified nucleosides in RNA. Mono-methylations of cytidine and adenosine are common post-transcriptional modifications in RNA. Herein, we developed an LC-MS/MS/MS coupled with the stable isotope-dilution method for the sensitive and accurate quantifications of 5-methylcytidine (m5C), 2′-O-methylcytidine (Cm), N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and 2′-O-methyladenosine (Am) in RNA isolated from mammalian cells and tissues. Our results showed that the distributions of the four methylated nucleosides are tissue-specific. In addition, the 2′-O-methylated ribonucleosides (Cm and Am) are present at higher levels than the corresponding methylated nucleobase products (m5C and m6A) in total RNA isolated from mouse brain, pancreas and spleen, but not mouse heart. We also found that the levels of m5C, Cm and Am are significantly lower (by 6.5-43 fold) in mRNA than in total RNA isolated from HEK293T cells, whereas the level of m6A was slightly higher (by 1.6 fold) in mRNA than in total RNA. The availability of this analytical method, in combination with genetic manipulation, may facilitate the future discovery of proteins involved in the maintenance and regulation of these RNA modifications. PMID:26158405

  8. HEPeak: an HMM-based exome peak-finding package for RNA epigenome sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Methylated RNA Immunoprecipatation combined with RNA sequencing (MeRIP-seq) is revolutionizing the de novo study of RNA epigenomics at a higher resolution. However, this new technology poses unique bioinformatics problems that call for novel and sophisticated statistical computational solutions, aiming at identifying and characterizing transcriptome-wide methyltranscriptome. Results We developed HEP, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based Exome Peak-finding algorithm for predicting transcriptome methylation sites using MeRIP-seq data. In contrast to exomePeak, our previously developed MeRIP-seq peak calling algorithm, HEPeak models the correlation between continuous bins in an m6A peak region and it is a model-based approach, which admits rigorous statistical inference. HEPeak was evaluated on a simulated MeRIP-seq dataset and achieved higher sensitivity and specificity than exomePeak. HEPeak was also applied to real MeRIP-seq datasets from human HEK293T cell line and mouse midbrain cells and was shown to be able to recapitulate known m6A distribution in transcripts and identify novel m6A sites in long non-coding RNAs. Conclusions In this paper, a novel HMM-based peak calling algorithm, HEPeak, was developed for peak calling for MeRIP-seq data. HEPeak is written in R and is publicly available. PMID:25917296

  9. Mammalian ACSF3 Protein Is a Malonyl-CoA Synthetase That Supplies the Chain Extender Units for Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Thweatt, Jennifer; Smith, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a source of intramitochondrial malonyl-CoA that could be used for de novo fatty acid synthesis in mammalian mitochondria. Because mammalian mitochondria lack an acetyl-CoA carboxylase capable of generating malonyl-CoA inside mitochondria, the possibility that malonate could act as a precursor was investigated. Although malonyl-CoA synthetases have not been identified previously in animals, interrogation of animal protein sequence databases identified candidates that exhibited sequence similarity to known prokaryotic forms. The human candidate protein ACSF3, which has a predicted N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence, was cloned, expressed, and characterized as a 65-kDa acyl-CoA synthetase with extremely high specificity for malonate and methylmalonate. An arginine residue implicated in malonate binding by prokaryotic malonyl-CoA synthetases was found to be positionally conserved in animal ACSF3 enzymes and essential for activity. Subcellular fractionation experiments with HEK293T cells confirmed that human ACSF3 is located exclusively in mitochondria, and RNA interference experiments verified that this enzyme is responsible for most, if not all, of the malonyl-CoA synthetase activity in the mitochondria of these cells. In conclusion, unlike fungi, which have an intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA carboxylase, animals require an alternative source of mitochondrial malonyl-CoA; the mitochondrial ACSF3 enzyme is capable of filling this role by utilizing free malonic acid as substrate. PMID:21846720

  10. Amyloid-β Precursor Protein Modulates the Sorting of Testican-1 and Contributes to Its Accumulation in Brain Tissue and Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Ocampo, Alvaro; Arlt, Sönke; Matschke, Jakob; Hartmann, Ursula; Puig, Berta; Ferrer, Isidre; Zürbig, Petra; Glatzel, Markus; Jahn, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) are unknown but both increased production or impaired clearance likely contribute to aggregation. To understand the potential roles of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan Testican-1 in the pathophysiology of AD, we used samples from AD patients and controls and an in vitro approach. Protein expression analysis showed increased levels of Testican-1 in frontal and temporal cortex of AD patients; histological analysis showed that Testican-1 accumulates and co-aggregates with Aβ plaques in the frontal, temporal and entorhinal cortices of AD patients. Proteomic analysis identified 10 fragments of Testican-1 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients. HEK293T cells expressing human wild type or mutant Aβ precursor protein (APP) were transfected with Testican-1. The co-expression of both proteins modified the sorting of Testican-1 into the endocytic pathway leading to its transient accumulation in Golgi, which seemed to affect APP processing, as indicated by reduced Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in APP mutant cells. In conclusion, patient data reflect a clearance impairment that may favor Aβ accumulation in AD brains and our in vitro model supports the notion that the interaction between APP and Testican-1 may be a key step in the production and aggregation of Aβ species. PMID:27486134

  11. Conservation of inner nuclear membrane targeting sequences in mammalian Pom121 and yeast Heh2 membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kralt, Annemarie; Jagalur, Noorjahan B.; van den Boom, Vincent; Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Steen, Anton; Cingolani, Gino; Fornerod, Maarten; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum–synthesized membrane proteins traffic through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) en route to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). Although many membrane proteins pass the NPC by simple diffusion, two yeast proteins, ScSrc1/ScHeh1 and ScHeh2, are actively imported. In these proteins, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and an intrinsically disordered linker encode the sorting signal for recruiting the transport factors for FG-Nup and RanGTP-dependent transport through the NPC. Here we address whether a similar import mechanism applies in metazoans. We show that the (putative) NLSs of metazoan HsSun2, MmLem2, HsLBR, and HsLap2β are not sufficient to drive nuclear accumulation of a membrane protein in yeast, but the NLS from RnPom121 is. This NLS of Pom121 adapts a similar fold as the NLS of Heh2 when transport factor bound and rescues the subcellular localization and synthetic sickness of Heh2ΔNLS mutants. Consistent with the conservation of these NLSs, the NLS and linker of Heh2 support INM localization in HEK293T cells. The conserved features of the NLSs of ScHeh1, ScHeh2, and RnPom121 and the effective sorting of Heh2-derived reporters in human cells suggest that active import is conserved but confined to a small subset of INM proteins. PMID:26179916

  12. Clustered epitopes within a new poly-epitopic HIV-1 DNA vaccine shows immunogenicity in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, Nazli; Memarnejadian, Arash; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Kohram, Fatemeh; Aghababa, Haniyeh; Khoramabadi, Nima; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    Despite a huge number of studies towards vaccine development against human immunodeficiency virus-1, no effective vaccine has been approved yet. Thus, new vaccines should be provided with new formulations. Herein, a new DNA vaccine candidate encoding conserved and immunogenic epitopes from HIV-1 antigens of tat, pol, gag and env is designed and constructed. After bioinformatics analyses to find the best epitopes and their tandem, nucleotide sequence corresponding to the designed multiepitope was synthesized and cloned into pcDNA3.1+ vector. Expression of pcDNA3.1-tat/pol/gag/env plasmid was evaluated in HEK293T cells by RT-PCR and western-blotting. Seven groups of BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized three times either with 50, 100, 200 µg of plasmid in 2-week intervals or with similar doses of insert-free plasmid. Two weeks after the last injection, proliferation of T cells and secretion of IL4 and IFN-γ cytokines were evaluated using Brdu and ELISA methods, respectively. Results showed the proper expression of the plasmid in protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, the designed multiepitope plasmid was capable of induction of both proliferation responses as well as IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokine production in a considerable level compared to the control groups. Overall, our primary data warranted further detailed studies on the potency of this vaccine. PMID:24842263

  13. Epimedium koreanum Nakai displays broad spectrum of antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo by inducing cellular antiviral state.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant's known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakai markedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  14. A role for the CaM Kinase II related anchoring protein (αkap) in maintaining the stability of nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mouslim, Chakib; Aittaleb, Mohamed; Hume, Richard I.; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    αkap, a muscle specific anchoring protein encoded within the Camk2a gene is thought to play a role in targeting multiple calcium/calmodulin kinase II isoforms to specific subcellular locations. Here we demonstrate a novel function of αkap in stabilizing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR). Knockdown of αkap expression with shRNA significantly enhanced the degradation of AChR α-subunits (AChRα), leading to fewer and smaller AChR clusters on the surface of differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Mutagenesis and biochemical studies in HEK293T cells revealed that αkap promoted AChRα stability by a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism. In the absence of αkap, AChRα was heavily ubiquitinated and the number of AChRα was increased by proteasome inhibitors. However, in the presence of αkap, AChRα was less ubiquitinated and proteasome inhibitors had almost no effect on AChRα accumulation. The major sites of AChRα ubiquitination reside within the large intracellular loop and mutations of critical lysine residues in this loop to arginine increased AChRα stability in the absence of αkap. These results provide an unexpected mechanism by which αkap controls receptor trafficking onto the surface of muscle cells, and thus the maintenance of postsynaptic receptor density and synaptic function. PMID:22496563

  15. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakaimarkedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  16. Insights into DNA hydroxymethylation in the honeybee from in-depth analyses of TET dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowski, Marek; Rafalski, Dominik; Kucharski, Robert; Misztal, Katarzyna; Maleszka, Joanna; Bochtler, Matthias; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, a family of TET enzymes producing oxidized forms of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) plays an important role in modulating DNA demethylation dynamics. In contrast, nothing is known about the function of a single TET orthologue present in invertebrates. Here, we show that the honeybee TET (AmTET) catalytic domain has dioxygenase activity and converts 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in a HEK293T cell assay. In vivo, the levels of 5hmC are condition-dependent and relatively low, but in testes and ovaries 5hmC is present at approximately 7–10% of the total level of 5mC, which is comparable to that reported for certain mammalian cells types. AmTET is alternatively spliced and highly expressed throughout development and in adult tissues with the highest expression found in adult brains. Our findings reveal an additional level of flexible genomic modifications in the honeybee that may be important for the selection of multiple pathways controlling contrasting phenotypic outcomes in this species. In a broader context, our study extends the current, mammalian-centred attention to TET-driven DNA hydroxymethylation to an easily manageable organism with attractive and unique biology. PMID:25100549

  17. Ubiquitously expressed transcript is a novel interacting protein of protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 2

    PubMed Central

    KONG, XIANG; MA, SHIKUN; GUO, JIAQIAN; MA, YAN; HU, YANQIU; WANG, JIANJUN; ZHENG, YING

    2015-01-01

    Protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (PIAS2) is a member of the PIAS protein family. This protein family modulates the activity of several transcription factors and acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the sumoylation pathway. To improve understanding of the physiological roles of PIAS2, the current study used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen mouse stem cell cDNA libraries for proteins that interact with PIAS2. The screening identified an interaction between PIAS2 and ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT). UXT, also termed androgen receptor trapped clone-27, is an α-class prefoldin-type chaperone that acts as a coregulator for various transcription factors, including nuclear factor-κB and androgen receptor (AR). A direct interaction between PIAS2 and UXT was confirmed by direct yeast two-hybrid analysis. In vitro evidence of the association of UXT with PIAS2 was obtained by co-immunoprecipitation. Colocalization between PIAS2 and UXT was identified in the nucleus and cytoplasm of HEK 293T and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. The results of the current study suggested that UXT is a binding protein of PIAS2, and interaction between PIAS2 and UXT may be important for the transcriptional activation of AR. PMID:25434787

  18. Elucidation of Underlying Mechanisms by Which Millettia macrophylla Benth Induces Its Estrogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zingue, Stéphane; Magne Nde, Chantal Beatrice; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2014-01-01

    Millettia macrophylla is used traditionally to treat menopause related symptoms. This plant was shown to exhibit estrogenic effects in vitro on human embryonic kidney cells and in vivo on ovariectomized rats. The present study aimed at elucidating underlying mechanisms by which M. macrophylla induced its estrogenic effects. To accomplish our goal, kidney Hek293T cells transiently transfected with estrogen alpha or beta receptor expression plasmids were cotreated with a pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 and the dichloromethane or methanol soluble fractions of M. macrophylla. To follow up, we cotreated ovariectomized rats with both extracts and ICI 182,780 for 3 days in the classical uterotrophic assay. Animals were then sacrificed and the uterine wet weight, total protein levels in uteri, uterine, and vaginal epithelial heights, and mammary gland were assessed. In vitro, the results suggested that the induction of the estrogenic activity by M. macrophylla is due to the binding of its secondary metabolites to ERα and ERβ. In vivo, the cotreatment of extracts and ICI 182,780 significantly abrogated the biological responses induced by the extracts alone. Taken together, these results indicate that the active principles of M. macrophylla induce their beneficial effects on menopausal symptoms by activating the ERs.

  19. Regulatory role of neuron-restrictive silencing factor in expression of TRPC1

    SciTech Connect

    Ohba, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Nakayama, Shinnsuke; Satoh, Eisaku; Iino, Kenji; Sasano, Hironobu; Mori, Yasuo; Kuromitsu, Sadao; Imagawa, Keiichi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Iijima, Toshihiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Murakami, Manabu . E-mail: mmura0123@hotmail.co.jp

    2006-12-22

    Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) binds its consensus element to repress the transcription of various genes. The dominant-negative form (dnNRSF) has a hypertrophic effect on cardiogenesis through an unidentified mechanism. We examined the involvement of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel proteins, using transgenic mice overexpressing dnNRSF (dnNRSF mice). Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays revealed an interaction between NRSF and a neuron-restrictive silencer element-like sequence in intron 4 of TRPC1 genomic DNA. According to RT-PCR and Western analyses, TRPC1 was up-regulated in dnNRSF mouse heart. Transient overexpression of TRPC1 in HEK 293T cells increased the activity of the nuclear factor in activated T cells (NFAT) promoter and stimulated store-operated Ca{sup 2+} channel (SOCC)-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry. Transfection of TRPC1 into primary cardiomyocytes increased NFAT activity, indicating a major role for TRPC1 in NFAT activation. Our findings strongly suggest that NRSF regulates TRP1 gene expression and causes changes in the levels of calcium entry through SOCCs.

  20. Exome sequencing identifies a novel CEACAM16 mutation associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNA4B in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghan; Wang, Xinwei; He, Chufeng; Li, Haibo; Qing, Jie; Grati, M'hamed; Hu, Zhengmao; Li, Jiada; Hu, Yiqiao; Xia, Kun; Mei, Lingyun; Wang, Xingwei; Yu, Jianjun; Chen, Hongsheng; Jiang, Lu; Liu, Yalan; Men, Meichao; Zhang, Hailin; Guan, Liping; Xiao, Jingjing; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Xuezhong; Feng, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL/DFNA) is a highly genetically heterogeneous disorder. Hitherto only about 30 ADNSHL-causing genes have been identified and many unknown genes remain to be discovered. In this research, genome-wide linkage analysis mapped the disease locus to a 4.3 Mb region on chromosome 19q13 in SY-026, a five-generation nonconsanguineous Chinese family affected by late-onset and progressive ADNSHL. This linkage region showed partial overlap with the previously reported DFNA4. Simultaneously, probands were analyzed using exome capture followed by next-generation sequencing. Encouragingly, a heterozygous missense mutation, c.505G>A (p.G169R) in exon 3 of the CEACAM16 gene (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16), was identified via this combined strategy. Sanger sequencing verified that the mutation co-segregated with hearing loss in the family and that it was not present in 200 unrelated control subjects with matched ancestry. This is the second report in the literature of a family with ADNSHL caused by CEACAM16 mutation. Immunofluorescence staining and western blots also prove CEACAM16 to be a secreted protein. Furthermore, our studies in transfected HEK293T cells show that the secretion efficacy of the mutant CEACAM16 is much lower than that of the wild type, suggesting a deleterious effect of the sequence variant. PMID:25589040

  1. TLR4 enhances histamine-mediated pruritus by potentiating TRPV1 activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have indicated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pathogen-recognition receptor that triggers inflammatory signals in innate immune cells, is also expressed on sensory neurons, implicating its putative role in sensory signal transmission. However, the possible function of sensory neuron TLR4 has not yet been formally addressed. In this regard, we investigated the role of TLR4 in itch signal transmission. Results TLR4 was expressed on a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons that express TRPV1. In TLR4-knockout mice, histamine-induced itch responses were compromised while TLR4 activation by LPS did not directly elicit an itch response. Histamine-induced intracellular calcium signals and inward currents were comparably reduced in TLR4-deficient sensory neurons. Reduced histamine sensitivity in the TLR4-deficient neurons was accompanied by a decrease in TRPV1 activity. Heterologous expression experiments in HEK293T cells indicated that TLR4 expression enhanced capsaicin-induced intracellular calcium signals and inward currents. Conclusions Our data show that TLR4 on sensory neurons enhances histamine-induced itch signal transduction by potentiating TRPV1 activity. The results suggest that TLR4 could be a novel target for the treatment of enhanced itch sensation. PMID:25139109

  2. Repair of rhodopsin mRNA by spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing: a new approach for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Berger, Adeline; Lorain, Stéphanie; Joséphine, Charlène; Desrosiers, Melissa; Peccate, Cécile; Voit, Thomas; Garcia, Luis; Sahel, José-Alain; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    The promising clinical results obtained for ocular gene therapy in recent years have paved the way for gene supplementation to treat recessively inherited forms of retinal degeneration. The situation is more complex for dominant mutations, as the toxic mutant gene product must be removed. We used spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing as a strategy for repairing the transcript of the rhodopsin gene, the gene most frequently mutated in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. We tested 17 different molecules targeting the pre-mRNA intron 1, by transient transfection of HEK-293T cells, with subsequent trans-splicing quantification at the transcript level. We found that the targeting of some parts of the intron promoted trans-splicing more efficiently than the targeting of other areas, and that trans-splicing rate could be increased by modifying the replacement sequence. We then developed cell lines stably expressing the rhodopsin gene, for the assessment of phenotypic criteria relevant to the pathogenesis of retinitis pigmentosa. Using this model, we showed that trans-splicing restored the correct localization of the protein to the plasma membrane. Finally, we tested our best candidate by AAV gene transfer in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa that expresses a mutant allele of the human rhodopsin gene, and demonstrated the feasibility of trans-splicing in vivo. This work paves the way for trans-splicing gene therapy to treat retinitis pigmentosa due to rhodopsin gene mutation and, more generally, for the treatment of genetic diseases with dominant transmission. PMID:25619725

  3. High Speed Size Sorting of Subcellular Organelles by Flow Field-Flow Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joon Seon; Lee, Ju Yong; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2015-06-16

    Separation/isolation of subcellular species, such as mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, Golgi apparatus, and others, from cells is important for gaining an understanding of the cellular functions performed by specific organelles. This study introduces a high speed, semipreparative scale, biocompatible size sorting method for the isolation of subcellular organelle species from homogenate mixtures of HEK 293T cells using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF). Separation of organelles was achieved using asymmetrical FlFFF (AF4) channel system at the steric/hyperlayer mode in which nuclei, lysosomes, mitochondria, and peroxisomes were separated in a decreasing order of hydrodynamic diameter without complicated preprocessing steps. Fractions in which organelles were not clearly separated were reinjected to AF4 for a finer separation using the normal mode, in which smaller sized species can be well fractionated by an increasing order of diameter. The subcellular species contained in collected AF4 fractions were examined with scanning electron microscopy to evaluate their size and morphology, Western blot analysis using organelle specific markers was used for organelle confirmation, and proteomic analysis was performed with nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). Since FlFFF operates with biocompatible buffer solutions, it offers great flexibility in handling subcellular components without relying on a high concentration sucrose solution for centrifugation or affinity- or fluorescence tag-based sorting methods. Consequently, the current study provides an alternative, competitive method for the isolation/purification of subcellular organelle species in their intact states. PMID:26005782

  4. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected HEK-293T cells showed a dose and time dependent degradation of Tat protein. Contrary to this HIV-1 Gag which is a properly folded protein, remained unaffected with curcumin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin treatment did not affect Tat gene transcription. Curcumin increased the rate of Tat protein degradation as shown by cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay. Degradation of the Tat protein is accomplished through proteasomal pathway as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 blocked Tat degradation. Curcumin also decreased Tat mediated LTR promoter transactivation and inhibited virus production from HIV-1 infected cells. Taken together our study reveals a novel observation that curcumin causes potent degradation of Tat which may be one of the major mechanisms behind its anti HIV activity. PMID:27283735

  5. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Banerjea, Akhil C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected HEK-293T cells showed a dose and time dependent degradation of Tat protein. Contrary to this HIV-1 Gag which is a properly folded protein, remained unaffected with curcumin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin treatment did not affect Tat gene transcription. Curcumin increased the rate of Tat protein degradation as shown by cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay. Degradation of the Tat protein is accomplished through proteasomal pathway as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 blocked Tat degradation. Curcumin also decreased Tat mediated LTR promoter transactivation and inhibited virus production from HIV-1 infected cells. Taken together our study reveals a novel observation that curcumin causes potent degradation of Tat which may be one of the major mechanisms behind its anti HIV activity. PMID:27283735

  6. Construction and Characterization of an Infectious Molecular Clone of Koala Retrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Shojima, Takayuki; Hoshino, Shigeki; Abe, Masumi; Yasuda, Jiro; Shogen, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus that is currently endogenizing into koalas. Studies on KoRV infection have been hampered by the lack of a replication-competent molecular clone. In this study, we constructed an infectious molecular clone, termed plasmid pKoRV522, of a KoRV isolate (strain Aki) from a koala reared in a Japanese zoo. The virus KoRV522, derived from pKoRV522, grew efficiently in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells, attaining 106 focus-forming units/ml. Several mutations in the Gag (L domain) and Env regions reported to be involved in reduction in viral infection/production in vitro are found in pKoRV522, yet KoRV522 replicated well, suggesting that any effects of these mutations are limited. Indeed, a reporter virus pseudotyped with pKoRV522 Env was found to infect human, feline, and mink cell lines efficiently. Analyses of KoRV L-domain mutants showed that an additional PPXY sequence, PPPY, in Gag plays a critical role in KoRV budding. Altogether, our results demonstrate the construction and characterization of the first infectious molecular clone of KoRV. The infectious clone reported here will be useful for elucidating the mechanism of endogenization of the virus in koalas and screening for antiretroviral drugs for KoRV-infected koalas. PMID:23427161

  7. Repair of Rhodopsin mRNA by Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-Splicing: A New Approach for Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Adeline; Lorain, Stéphanie; Joséphine, Charlène; Desrosiers, Melissa; Peccate, Cécile; Voit, Thomas; Garcia, Luis; Sahel, José-Alain; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The promising clinical results obtained for ocular gene therapy in recent years have paved the way for gene supplementation to treat recessively inherited forms of retinal degeneration. The situation is more complex for dominant mutations, as the toxic mutant gene product must be removed. We used spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing as a strategy for repairing the transcript of the rhodopsin gene, the gene most frequently mutated in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. We tested 17 different molecules targeting the pre-mRNA intron 1, by transient transfection of HEK-293T cells, with subsequent trans-splicing quantification at the transcript level. We found that the targeting of some parts of the intron promoted trans-splicing more efficiently than the targeting of other areas, and that trans-splicing rate could be increased by modifying the replacement sequence. We then developed cell lines stably expressing the rhodopsin gene, for the assessment of phenotypic criteria relevant to the pathogenesis of retinitis pigmentosa. Using this model, we showed that trans-splicing restored the correct localization of the protein to the plasma membrane. Finally, we tested our best candidate by AAV gene transfer in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa that expresses a mutant allele of the human rhodopsin gene, and demonstrated the feasibility of trans-splicing in vivo. This work paves the way for trans-splicing gene therapy to treat retinitis pigmentosa due to rhodopsin gene mutation and, more generally, for the treatment of genetic diseases with dominant transmission. PMID:25619725

  8. A Physical Interaction between the Dopamine Transporter and DJ-1 Facilitates Increased Dopamine Reuptake

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Beryl; Mohammed, Mohinuddin; Liu, Fang; Lee, Frank J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) impacts extracellular dopamine levels after release from dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, a variety of protein partners have been identified that can interact with and modulate DAT function. In this study we show that DJ-1 can potentially modulate DAT function. Co-expression of DAT and DJ-1 in HEK-293T cells leads to an increase in [3H] dopamine uptake that does not appear to be mediated by increased total DAT expression but rather through an increase in DAT cell surface localization. In addition, through a series of GST affinity purifications and co-immunoprecipitations, we provide evidence that the DAT can be found in a complex with DJ-1, which involve distinct regions within both DAT and DJ-1. Using in vitro binding experiments we also show that this complex can be formed in part by a direct interaction between DAT and DJ-1. Co-expression of a mini-gene that can disrupt the DAT/DJ-1 complex appears to block the increase in [3H] dopamine uptake by DJ-1. Mutations in DJ-1 have been linked to familial forms of Parkinson’s disease, yet the normal physiological function of DJ-1 remains unclear. Our study suggests that DJ-1 may also play a role in regulating dopamine levels by modifying DAT activity. PMID:26305376

  9. Biallelic Mutations in UNC80 Cause Persistent Hypotonia, Encephalopathy, Growth Retardation, and Severe Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Prescott, Trine E; Lee, Sora; Cang, Chunlei; Aranda, Kimberly; Ahmed, Sohnee; Alders, Marielle; Gerstner, Thorsten; Aslaksen, Kathinka; Tétreault, Martine; Qin, Wen; Hartley, Taila; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Lupski, James R; Ren, Dejian; Yoon, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Ion channel proteins are required for both the establishment of resting membrane potentials and the generation of action potentials. Hundreds of mutations in genes encoding voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential generation have been found to cause severe neurological diseases. In contrast, the roles of voltage-independent "leak" channels, important for the establishment and maintenance of resting membrane potentials upon which action potentials are generated, are not well established in human disease. UNC80 is a large component of the NALCN sodium-leak channel complex that regulates the basal excitability of the nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations of NALCN cause infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF). We report four individuals from three unrelated families who have homozygous missense or compound heterozygous truncating mutations in UNC80 and persistent hypotonia, encephalopathy, growth failure, and severe intellectual disability. Compared to control cells, HEK293T cells transfected with an expression plasmid containing the c.5098C>T (p.Pro1700Ser) UNC80 mutation found in one individual showed markedly decreased NALCN channel currents. Our findings demonstrate the fundamental significance of UNC80 and basal ionic conductance to human health. PMID:26708751

  10. Biallelic Mutations in UNC80 Cause Persistent Hypotonia, Encephalopathy, Growth Retardation, and Severe Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Prescott, Trine E.; Lee, Sora; Cang, Chunlei; Aranda, Kimberly; Ahmed, Sohnee; Alders, Marielle; Gerstner, Thorsten; Aslaksen, Kathinka; Tétreault, Martine; Qin, Wen; Hartley, Taila; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; van Karnebeek, Clara D.M.; Lupski, James R.; Ren, Dejian; Yoon, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Ion channel proteins are required for both the establishment of resting membrane potentials and the generation of action potentials. Hundreds of mutations in genes encoding voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential generation have been found to cause severe neurological diseases. In contrast, the roles of voltage-independent “leak” channels, important for the establishment and maintenance of resting membrane potentials upon which action potentials are generated, are not well established in human disease. UNC80 is a large component of the NALCN sodium-leak channel complex that regulates the basal excitability of the nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations of NALCN cause infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF). We report four individuals from three unrelated families who have homozygous missense or compound heterozygous truncating mutations in UNC80 and persistent hypotonia, encephalopathy, growth failure, and severe intellectual disability. Compared to control cells, HEK293T cells transfected with an expression plasmid containing the c.5098C>T (p.Pro1700Ser) UNC80 mutation found in one individual showed markedly decreased NALCN channel currents. Our findings demonstrate the fundamental significance of UNC80 and basal ionic conductance to human health. PMID:26708751

  11. PMA Induces Vaccine Adjuvant Activity by the Modulation of TLR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dool-Ri; Kang, Hu Won; Kim, Jong-Ro; Kim, Sunoh; Park, In-Kyu; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Oh, Won Keun; Kim, Young Ran

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are being developed for use as vaccine adjuvants and as immunomodulators because of their ability to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Flagellin, a TLR5 ligand, was reported to show potent mucosal vaccine adjuvant activity. To identify ligands that potentiate the adjuvant activity of flagellin, we screened a plant library using HEK293T cells transiently cotransfected with phTLR5 and pNF-κB-SEAP plasmids. The 90% EtOH extract from Croton tiglium showed significant NF-κB transactivation in a TLR5-independent manner along with the increase of a flagellin activity. We have studied to characterize an active component from Croton tiglium and to elucidate the action mechanisms. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was isolated as an active component of Croton tiglium by activity-guided fractionation, column chromatography, HPLC, NMR, and MS. PMA at a range of nM induced PKC-dependent NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in both TLR5− and TLR5+ assay systems. In in vivo mouse vaccination model, PMA induced antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses and increased IL-12 production corresponding to T cell responses in spleen lymphocytes. These results suggest that PMA would serve as an efficacious mucosal vaccine adjuvant. PMID:24948847

  12. Impact of ABCC2 haplotypes on transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation and function.

    PubMed

    Laechelt, S; Turrini, E; Ruehmkorf, A; Siegmund, W; Cascorbi, I; Haenisch, S

    2011-02-01

    ABCC2 (MRP2) is an important export pump, expressed at tissue barriers. The genetic variants -24C>T, 1249G>A and 3972C>T are leading to inter-individual differences of bioavailability of various endogenous and exogenous compounds. Considering ABCC2 haplotypes, we investigated DNA-protein binding properties, mRNA secondary structure, mRNA stability, protein expression and transport activity in various cell lines and analyzed the bioavailability of talinolol in 24 healthy Caucasian volunteers; -24C>T had no clear influence on DNA-protein binding and the mRNA stability did not differ significantly. In transfected HEK293T/17 cells, haplotypes H9 (CGT), H10 (TGC) and H12 (TGT) had significantly lower protein expression, whereas H2 (CAC) exhibited significantly increased protein expression compared to the wild type (H1, CGC): 32.7 ± 8.8, 73.1 ± 6.3; 44.0 ± 15.5 and 115.2 ± 8.2%, respectively. This corresponded with efflux rates of the fluorescent dye glutathione-methylfluorescein in vitro and by trend with talinolol bioavailability in vivo. In conclusion our results show a haplotype-dependent influence on transport capacity of ABCC2, which seems to be mainly based on posttranscriptional modification of protein expression rather than transport rates. PMID:20351751

  13. X-ray fluorescence microscopy artefacts in elemental maps of topologically complex samples: Analytical observations, simulation and a map correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billè, Fulvio; Kourousias, George; Luchinat, Enrico; Kiskinova, Maya; Gianoncelli, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    XRF spectroscopy is among the most widely used non-destructive techniques for elemental analysis. Despite the known angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), topological artefacts remain an unresolved issue when using X-ray micro- or nano-probes. In this work we investigate the origin of the artefacts in XRF imaging of topologically complex samples, which are unresolved problems in studies of organic matter due to the limited travel distances of low energy XRF emission from the light elements. In particular we mapped Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293T) cells. The exemplary results with biological samples, obtained with a soft X-ray scanning microscope installed at a synchrotron facility were used for testing a mathematical model based on detector response simulations, and for proposing an artefact correction method based on directional derivatives. Despite the peculiar and specific application, the methodology can be easily extended to hard X-rays and to set-ups with multi-array detector systems when the dimensions of surface reliefs are in the order of the probing beam size.

  14. Identification and function of an evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (ECSIT) from Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fufa; Xiang, Zhiming; Wang, Fuxuan; Zhang, Yang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yuehuan; Xiao, Shu; Yu, Ziniu

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (ECSIT) is a multifunctional adaptor protein that plays a key role in the regulation of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway in mammals. However, the function of ECSIT homologs in mollusks, the second most diverse group of animals, is not well understood. In this study, we identified an ECSIT homolog in the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis (ChECSIT) and investigated its biological functions. The full-length cDNA of ChECSIT is 1734 bp and includes an open reading frame (ORF) of 1074 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 451 amino acids. The predicted ChECSIT protein shares similar structural characteristics with other known ECSIT family proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ChECSIT mRNA is broadly expressed in all of the examined tissues and at different stages of embryonic development; its transcript level could be significantly up-regulated by challenge with microorganisms (Vibrio alginolyticus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In addition, ChECSIT was found to be located primarily in the cytoplasm, and its overexpression stimulated the transcriptional activity of an NF-κB reporter gene in HEK293T cells. These findings suggest that ChECSIT might be involved in embryogenesis processes and immune responses in C. hongkongensis. PMID:26204814

  15. Influence of cationic lipid concentration on properties of lipid–polymer hybrid nanospheres for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Rajendran JC; Arai, Yoshie; Ahn, Jong Chan; Park, Hansoo; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been widely used for nonviral gene delivery. Recently, cationic hybrid nanoparticles consisting of two different materials were suggested as a promising delivery vehicle. In this study, nanospheres with a poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core and cationic lipid shell were prepared, and the effect of cationic lipid concentrations on the properties of lipid polymer hybrid nanocarriers investigated. Lipid–polymer hybrid nanospheres (LPHNSs) were fabricated by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method using different concentrations of cationic lipids and characterized for size, surface charge, stability, plasmid DNA-binding capacity, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. All LPHNSs had narrow size distribution with positive surface charges (ζ-potential 52–60 mV), and showed excellent plasmid DNA-binding capacity. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements with HEK293T, HeLa, HaCaT, and HepG2 cells also showed that LPHNSs exhibited less cytotoxicity than conventional transfection agents, such as Lipofectamine and polyethyleneimine–PLGA. As cationic lipid concentrations increased, the particle size of LPHNSs decreased while their ζ-potential increased. In addition, the in vitro transfection efficiency of LPHNSs increased as lipid concentration increased. PMID:26379434

  16. Synthesis of water-based cationic polyurethane for antibacterial and gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geng-Hsi; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Cationic polymers are often used as antimicrobial materials and transfection reagents. Water-based process could reduce environmental pollution and prevent the risk of solvent residue in the final product. In this study, waterborne biodegradable cationic polyurethane (WCPU) was synthesized by reacting polycaprolactone (PCL diol), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), and N-methyldiethanolamine (N-MDEA) under 75°C. An aqueous dispersion of WCPU nanoparticles (NPs) could be acquired by vigorous stirring under acidic condition. The particles in the dispersion had an average size of ∼80nm and a zeta potential of ∼60mV. When cast into films, the contact angle of the film was ∼67° and the zeta potential was ∼16mV. WCPU NPs demonstrated excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (100% inhibition with a contact time of 3h). Meanwhile, the antibacterial ratio of WCPU films to E. coli and S. aureus reached 100% after 24h of contact. Moreover, WCPU NPs could be used as a transfection reagent without significant toxicity for concentrations less than 1000μg/mL and showed the ability to condensate plasmid DNA. The transfection efficiency for HEK293T cells and hBMSCs was ∼60% and ∼30% at 48h, respectively, after the transfection. Therefore, the WCPU synthesized in this study has potential antibacterial and gene delivery applications. PMID:27451371

  17. Optogenetic Inhibitor of the Transcription Factor CREB.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed M; Reis, Jakeb M; Xia, Yan; Rashid, Asim J; Mercaldo, Valentina; Walters, Brandon J; Brechun, Katherine E; Borisenko, Vitali; Josselyn, Sheena A; Karanicolas, John; Woolley, G Andrew

    2015-11-19

    Current approaches for optogenetic control of transcription do not mimic the activity of endogenous transcription factors, which act at numerous sites in the genome in a complex interplay with other factors. Optogenetic control of dominant negative versions of endogenous transcription factors provides a mechanism for mimicking the natural regulation of gene expression. Here we describe opto-DN-CREB, a blue-light-controlled inhibitor of the transcription factor CREB created by fusing the dominant negative inhibitor A-CREB to photoactive yellow protein (PYP). A light-driven conformational change in PYP prevents coiled-coil formation between A-CREB and CREB, thereby activating CREB. Optogenetic control of CREB function was characterized in vitro, in HEK293T cells, and in neurons where blue light enabled control of expression of the CREB targets NR4A2 and c-Fos. Dominant negative inhibitors exist for numerous transcription factors; linking these to optogenetic domains offers a general approach for spatiotemporal control of native transcriptional events. PMID:26590638

  18. Expression-Enhanced Fluorescent Proteins Based on Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein for Super-resolution Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duwé, Sam; De Zitter, Elke; Gielen, Vincent; Moeyaert, Benjamien; Vandenberg, Wim; Grotjohann, Tim; Clays, Koen; Jakobs, Stefan; Van Meervelt, Luc; Dedecker, Peter

    2015-10-27

    "Smart fluorophores", such as reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins, are crucial for advanced fluorescence imaging. However, only a limited number of such labels is available, and many display reduced biological performance compared to more classical variants. We present the development of robustly photoswitchable variants of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), named rsGreens, that display up to 30-fold higher fluorescence in E. coli colonies grown at 37 °C and more than 4-fold higher fluorescence when expressed in HEK293T cells compared to their ancestor protein rsEGFP. This enhancement is not due to an intrinsic increase in the fluorescence brightness of the probes, but rather due to enhanced expression levels that allow many more probe molecules to be functional at any given time. We developed rsGreens displaying a range of photoswitching kinetics and show how these can be used for multimodal diffraction-unlimited fluorescence imaging such as pcSOFI and RESOLFT, achieving a spatial resolution of ∼70 nm. By determining the first ever crystal structures of a negative reversibly switchable FP derived from Aequorea victoria in both the "on"- and "off"-conformation we were able to confirm the presence of a cis-trans isomerization and provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the photochromism. Our work demonstrates that genetically encoded "smart fluorophores" can be readily optimized for biological performance and provides a practical strategy for developing maturation- and stability-enhanced photochromic fluorescent proteins. PMID:26308583

  19. Double homozygous missense mutations in DACH1 and BMP4 in a patient with bilateral cystic renal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Schild, Raphael; Knüppel, Tanja; Konrad, Martin; Bergmann, Carsten; Trautmann, Agnes; Kemper, Markus J; Wu, Kongming; Yaklichkin, Sergey; Wang, Jing; Pestell, Richard; Müller-Wiefel, Dirk E; Schaefer, Franz; Weber, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Renal hypodysplasia (RHD) is characterized by small and/or disorganized kidneys following abnormal organogenesis. Mutations in several genes have been identified recently to be associated with RHD in humans, including BMP4, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of growth factors. DACH1 has been proposed as a candidate gene for RHD because of its involvement in the EYA-SIX-DACH network of renal developmental genes. Here, we present a patient with renal dysplasia carrying homozygous missense mutations in both BMP4 (p.N150K) and DACH1 (p.R684C). The genotype-phenotype correlation in the family hints at an oligogenic mode of inheritance of the disease in this kindred. Functional analyses of the identified DACH1 mutation in HEK293T cells demonstrated enhanced suppression of the TGF-β pathway suggesting that both mutations could act synergistically in the development of the phenotype in this patient. This finding provides a model for RHD as an oligo-/polygenic disorder and supports a role for DACH1 in the development of RHD in humans. PMID:23262432

  20. THE E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE RO52 NEGATIVELY REGULATES IFN-β PRODUCTION POST-PATHOGEN RECOGNITION BY POLYUBIQUITIN-MEDIATED DEGRADATION OF IRF31

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Rowan; Gabhann, Joan Ní; Larbi, Nadia Ben; Breen, Eamon P.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Jefferies, Caroline A.

    2010-01-01

    Induction of type I interferons is a fundamental cellular response to both viral and bacterial infection. The role of the transcription factor IRF3 is well established in driving this process. However, equally as important are cellular mechanisms for turning off type I interferon production in order to limit this response. In this respect, IRF3 has previously been shown to be targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation post-viral detection in order to turn off the IFN-β response. Here we provide evidence that the E3 ligase Ro52 (TRIM21) targets IRF3 for degradation post-pathogen recognition receptor activation. We demonstrate that Ro52 interacts with IRF3 via its C-terminal SPRY domain, resulting in the polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the transcription factor. Ro52-mediated IRF3 degradation significantly inhibits IFN-β promoter activity, an effect that is reversed in the presence of the proteasomal inhibitor MG132. Specific targeting of Ro52 using shRNA rescues IRF3 degradation following polyI:C-stimulation of HEK293T cells, with a subsequent increase in IFN-β production. Additionally, shRNA targeting of murine Ro52 enhances the production of the IRF3-dependent chemokine RANTES following Sendai virus infection of murine fibroblasts. Collectively, this demonstrates a novel role for Ro52 in turning off and thus limiting IRF3-dependent type I interferon production by targeting the transcription factor for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. PMID:18641315

  1. First knockdown gene expression in bat (Hipposideros armiger) brain mediated by lentivirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Zhu, Tengteng; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Junpeng; Sun, Yi

    2013-06-01

    Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent experimental tool for investigating gene functions in vitro and in vivo. It has advantages that transgenic technology lacks. However, in vivo applications are difficult to apply in the central nervous system of non-model organisms due to the lack of a standard brain atlas and genetic information. Here, we report the development of an in vivo gene delivery system used in bat brain tissue for the first time, based on lentivirus (LV) vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Hipposideros armiger forkhead box P2 (FoxP2). In vitro transfection into HEK 293T cell with the vector bearing the cassettes encoding FoxP2 shRNA verified the knockdown efficiency. Pseudovirus particles were administered via stereotactic intracerebral microinjection into the anterior cingulate cortex of H. armiger. FoxP2 is of major interest because of its role in sensorimotor coordination and probably in echolocation. Subsequent in situ hybridization validated the in vivo silencing of the target gene. This report demonstrates that LV-mediated expression of RNAi could achieve effective gene silencing in bats, a non-model organism, and will assist in elucidating the functions of bat genes. PMID:22965420

  2. Everolimus improves neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with tuberous sclerosis carrying a novel TSC2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Su-Kyeong; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Yang, Jung-Eun; Lim, Chae-Seok; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Kyungmin; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by multiple symptoms including neuropsychological deficits such as seizures, intellectual disability, and autism. TSC is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which enhance activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Recent studies have suggested that mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin can reverse TSC-associated deficits in rodent models of TSC. In addition, clinical trials are ongoing to test the efficacy of mTOR inhibitors toward the psychiatric symptoms associated with TSC. Here, we report a case study of a Korean patient with TSC, who exhibited multiple symptoms including frequent seizures, intellectual disability, language delays, and social problems. We performed whole exome sequencing and identified a novel small deletion mutation in TSC2. Expressing the novel deletion mutant in HEK293T cells significantly increased mTOR pathway activation. Furthermore, everolimus treatment showed not only reduction in SEGA size, but dramatically improved behavioral deficits including autism related behaviors in the patient. In summary, we identified a novel small deletion mutation in TSC2 associated with severe TSC in a Korean family that enhances the activation of mTOR signaling in vitro. Everolimus treatment improved behavioral deficits in the patient. PMID:27216612

  3. Paclitaxel inhibits selenoprotein S expression and attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong-Shuang; Yu, Pei-Pei; Sun, Ying; Wang, Dan-Feng; Deng, Xiao-Fen; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Jun; Sun, Lu-Guo; Song, Zhen-Bo; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-06-01

    The primary effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR) is to reduce the load of unfolded protein and promote survival. However, prolonged and severe ER stress leads to tissue injury and serious diseases. Thus, it is important to identify drugs that can attenuate ER stress for the treatment of diseases. Natural products continue to provide lead compounds for drug discovery and front‑line pharmacotherapy for people worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that selenoprotein S (SelS) is a sensitive and ideal maker of ER stress. In the present study, a firefly luciferase reporter driven by the SelS gene promoter was used to screen for natural compounds capable of attenuating ER stress. From this, paclitaxel (PTX) was identified to efficiently inhibit the promoter activity of the SelS gene, and further results revealed that PTX significantly inhibited the tunicamycin‑induced upregulation of SelS at the mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and HEK293T cells. In addition, PTX was able to efficiently inhibit the expression of the ER stress marker, glucose‑regulated protein 78, in ER stress, indicating that PTX may reverse ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that PTX is able to inhibit SelS expression during ER stress and attenuate ER stress. PMID:27109260

  4. Involvement of selective autophagy mediated by p62/SQSTM1 in KLHL3-dependent WNK4 degradation.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yutaro; Mori, Takayasu; Wakabayashi, Mai; Yoshizaki, Yuki; Zeniya, Moko; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2015-11-15

    We reported that kelch-like protein 3 (KLHL3)-Cullin3 E3 ligase ubiquitinates with-no-lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) and that impaired WNK4 ubiquitination causes pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, a hereditary hypertensive disease. However, we also found that KLHL3-induced WNK4 degradation could not be inhibited completely by a proteasome inhibitor. Rather, on exposure, for 24 h, of HEK293T cells expressing WNK4 and KLHL3 to a proteasome inhibitor, epoxomicin, the WNK4 protein level was further decreased. As proteasome inhibition is known to activate p62-mediated selective autophagy, we investigated whether WNK4 degradation induced by KLHL3 is also mediated by such an autophagic mechanism. 3-Methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor, blocked the epoxomicin-induced decrease in WNK4. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that KLHL3 formed a complex not only with WNK4 but also with p62 via its kelch repeat domain. Under proteasome inhibition, p62 overexpression decreased KLHL3 and WNK4 protein levels, and p62 knockdown dramatically increased KLHL3 and WNK4 protein levels. Based on immunofluorescent staining, transiently overexpressed WNK4 showed punctate localization in the cytoplasm where it co-localized with KLHL3, p62 and light chain 3, a marker of autophagosomes. Thus, WNK4 was degraded not only by proteasomes but also by p62-KLHL3-mediated selective autophagy, which may be involved in WNK regulation under certain pathophysiological conditions. PMID:26349538

  5. Regulating the effects of GPR21, a novel target for type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Siobhán; Kinsella, Gemma K.; Benetti, Elisa; Findlay, John B. C.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder primarily caused by insulin resistance to which obesity is a major contributor. Expression levels of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR21, demonstrated a trend towards a significant increase in the epididymal fat pads of wild type high fat high sugar (HFHS)-fed mice. To gain further insight into the potential role this novel target may play in the development of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes, the signalling capabilities of the receptor were investigated. Overexpression studies in HEK293T cells revealed GPR21 to be a constitutively active receptor, which couples to Gαq type G proteins leading to the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Overexpression of GPR21 in vitro also markedly attenuated insulin signalling. Interestingly, the effect of GPR21 on the MAPKs and insulin signalling was reduced in the presence of serum, inferring the possibility of a native inhibitory ligand. Homology modelling and ligand docking studies led to the identification of a novel compound that inhibited GPR21 activity. Its effects offer potential as an anti-diabetic pharmacological strategy as it was found to counteract the influence of GPR21 on the insulin signalling pathway. PMID:27243589

  6. SNORD116 and SNORD115 change expression of multiple genes and modify each other's activity.

    PubMed

    Falaleeva, Marina; Surface, Justin; Shen, Manli; de la Grange, Pierre; Stamm, Stefan

    2015-11-10

    The loss of two gene clusters encoding small nucleolar RNAs, SNORD115 and SNORD116 contribute to Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), the most common syndromic form of obesity in humans. SNORD115 and SNORD116 are considered to be orphan C/D box snoRNAs (SNORDs) as they do not target rRNAs or snRNAs. SNORD115 exhibits sequence complementarity towards the serotonin receptor 2C, but SNORD116 shows no extended complementarities to known RNAs. To identify molecular targets, we performed genome-wide array analysis after overexpressing SNORD115 and SNORD116 in HEK 293T cells, either alone or together. We found that SNORD116 changes the expression of over 200 genes. SNORD116 mainly changed mRNA expression levels. Surprisingly, we found that SNORD115 changes SNORD116's influence on gene expression. In similar experiments, we compared gene expression in post-mortem hypothalamus between individuals with PWS and aged-matched controls. The synopsis of these experiments resulted in 23 genes whose expression levels were influenced by SNORD116. Together our results indicate that SNORD115 and SNORD116 influence expression levels of multiple genes and modify each other activity. PMID:26220404

  7. siRNA-mediated Allele-specific Silencing of a COL6A3 Mutation in a Cellular Model of Dominant Ullrich Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Véronique; Zou, Yaqun; Ko, Dayoung; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2014-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy type Ullrich (UCMD) is a severe disorder of early childhood onset for which currently there is no effective treatment. UCMD commonly is caused by dominant-negative mutations in the genes coding for collagen type VI, a major microfibrillar component of the extracellular matrix surrounding the muscle fibers. To explore RNA interference (RNAi) as a potential therapy for UCMD, we designed a series of small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligos that specifically target the most common mutations resulting in skipping of exon 16 in the COL6A3 gene and tested them in UCMD-derived dermal fibroblasts. Transcript analysis by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that two of these siRNAs were the most allele-specific, i.e., they efficiently knocked down the expression from the mutant allele, without affecting the normal allele. In HEK293T cells, these siRNAs selectively suppressed protein expression from a reporter construct carrying the mutation, with no or minimal suppression of the wild-type (WT) construct, suggesting that collagen VI protein levels are as also reduced in an allele-specific manner. Furthermore, we found that treating UCMD fibroblasts with these siRNAs considerably improved the quantity and quality of the collagen VI matrix, as assessed by confocal microscopy. Our current study establishes RNAi as a promising molecular approach for treating dominant COL6-related dystrophies. PMID:24518369

  8. The Activation Effect of Hainantoxin-I, a Peptide Toxin from the Chinese Spider, Ornithoctonus hainana, on Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pengfei; Zhang, Yiya; Chen, Xinyi; Zhu, Li; Yin, Dazhong; Zeng, Xiongzhi; Liang, Songping

    2014-01-01

    Intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (IK) channels are calcium/calmodulin-regulated voltage-independent K+ channels. Activation of IK currents is important in vessel and respiratory tissues, rendering the channels potential drug targets. A variety of small organic molecules have been synthesized and found to be potent activators of IK channels. However, the poor selectivity of these molecules limits their therapeutic value. Venom-derived peptides usually block their targets with high specificity. Therefore, we searched for novel peptide activators of IK channels by testing a series of toxins from spiders. Using electrophysiological experiments, we identified hainantoxin-I (HNTX-I) as an IK-channel activator. HNTX-I has little effect on voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels from rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and on the heterologous expression of voltage-gated rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ channels (human ether-à-go-go-related gene; human ERG) in HEK293T cells. Only 35.2% ± 0.4% of the currents were activated in SK channels, and there was no effect on BK channels. We demonstrated that HNTX-I was not a phrenic nerve conduction blocker or acutely toxic. This is believed to be the first report of a peptide activator effect on IK channels. Our study suggests that the activity and selectivity of HNTX-I on IK channels make HNTX-I a promising template for designing new drugs for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25153257

  9. High mobility group protein DSP1 negatively regulates HSP70 transcription in Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zongyu; Xu, Delin; Cui, Miao; Zhang, Qizhong

    2016-06-10

    HSP70 acts mostly as a molecular chaperone and plays important roles in facilitating the folding of nascent peptides as well as the refolding or degradation of the denatured proteins. Under stressed conditions, the expression level of HSP70 is upregulated significantly and rapidly, as is known to be achieved by various regulatory factors controlling the transcriptional level. In this study, a high mobility group protein DSP1 was identified by DNA-affinity purification from the nuclear extracts of Crassostrea hongkongensis using the ChHSP70 promoter as a bait. The specific interaction between the prokaryotically expressed ChDSP1 and the FITC-labeled ChHSP70 promoter was confirmed by EMSA analysis. ChDSP1 was shown to negatively regulate ChHSP70 promoter expression by Luciferase Reporter Assay in the heterologous HEK293T cells. Both ChHSP70 and ChDSP1 transcriptions were induced by either thermal or CdCl2 stress, while the accumulated expression peaks of ChDSP1 were always slightly delayed when compared with that of ChHSP70. This indicates that ChDSP1 is involved, very likely to exert its suppressive role, in the recovery of the ChHSP70 expression from the induced level to its original state. This study is the first to report negative regulator of HSP70 gene transcription, and provides novel insights into the mechanisms controlling heat shock protein expression. PMID:27154224

  10. The first characterization of multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE/SLC47) proteins in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lončar, Jovica; Popović, Marta; Krznar, Petra; Zaja, Roko; Smital, Tvrtko

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) proteins are involved in the extrusion of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics across the plasma membrane. They are conserved from bacteria to mammals, with different numbers of genes within groups. Here, we present the first data on identification and functional characterization of Mate proteins in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Phylogenetic analysis revealed six Mates in teleost fish, annotated as Mate3-8, which form a distinct cluster separated from the tetrapod MATEs/Mates. Synteny analysis showed that zebrafish mate genes are orthologous to human MATEs. Gene expression analysis revealed that all the mate transcripts were constitutively and differentially expressed during embryonic development, followed by pronounced and tissue-specific expression in adults. Functional analyses were performed using transport activity assays with model substrates after heterologous overexpression of five zebrafish Mates in HEK293T cells. The results showed that zebrafish Mates interact with both physiological and xenobiotic substances but also substantially differ with respect to the interacting compounds and interaction strength in comparison to mammalian MATEs/Mates. Taken together, our data clearly indicate a potentially important role for zebrafish Mate transporters in zebrafish embryos and adults and provide a basis for detailed functional characterizations of single zebrafish Mate transporters. PMID:27357367

  11. In vivo gene silencing of CD81 by lentiviral expression of small interference RNAs suppresses cocaine-induced behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Boyer, Frederic; Kolira, Manoj; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2005-03-01

    The tetraspanin CD81 is induced in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway after cocaine administration. To further investigate its role, a regulatable lentivirus (Lenti-CD81) bearing the CD81 gene under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter and lentiviruses expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted against CD81 (Lenti-CD81-shRNAs) have been prepared. Infection of HEK293T cells in vitro with Lenti-CD81-shRNAs resulted in 96.5% gene silencing (from quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry). In vivo delivery of Lenti-CD81-shRNA into the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area resulted in 91.3 and 94% silencing of endogenous CD81, respectively. Stereotaxic injection of Lenti-CD81 into these regions, resulting in CD81 overexpression, induced a four- to fivefold increase in locomotor activity after chronic cocaine administration, which returned to basal levels when Lenti-CD81-shRNA had been coinjected or when CD81 expression was blocked by doxycycline. Furthermore, silencing endogenous CD81 in vivo resulted in a significant decrease in locomotor activity over controls, again suppressing cocaine-induced behaviour. PMID:15715673

  12. Construction and gene expression analysis of a single-stranded DNA minivector based on an inverted terminal repeat of adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Ping, Han; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Dongqin; Li, Taiming; Zhang, Chun

    2015-04-01

    The plasmid vectors currently used for nonviral gene transfer have the disadvantage of carrying a bacterial backbone and an antibiotic resistance gene, which may cause side effects. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) genome is a linear single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecule with palindromic inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences forming double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) hairpin (HP) structures at each end. Based on the AAV genome, we constructed an AAV-ITR ssDNA minivector that consists of a GFP expression cassette flanked by both ITR sequences of 125 nucleotides. The minivectors were produced by digestion of the parental plasmids followed by denaturation. The self-complementary inverted T-shaped HP structure of the minivector was automatically formed. The HEK 293T cells were transfected with the AAV-ITR ssDNA minivector, plasmid, and dsDNA expression cassette. The results showed that AAV-ITR ssDNA minivector had relatively low gene expression efficiency in vitro. However, we found that the GFP expression efficiency of the D sequence-deleted AAV-ITR ssDNA minivector was significantly increased and was similar to those obtained with the plasmid and dsDNA expression cassette. Our data suggest that the AAV-ITR ssDNA minivector may be a new type of gene expression vector for gene therapy besides the virus and plasmid. PMID:25555376

  13. Porcine pancreatic lipase related protein 2 has high triglyceride lipase activity in the absence of colipase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E; Sevilla, Wednesday A; Wang, Yan; Lowe, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Efficient dietary fat digestion is essential for newborns who consume more dietary fat per body weight than at any other time of life. In many mammalian newborns, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) is the predominant duodenal lipase. Pigs may be an exception since PLRP2 expression has been documented in the intestine but not in the pancreas. Because of the differences in tissue-specific expression, we hypothesized that the kinetic properties of porcine PLRP2 would differ from those of other mammals. To characterize its properties, recombinant porcine PLRP2 was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified to homogeneity. Porcine PLRP2 had activity against tributyrin, trioctanoin and triolein. The activity was not inhibited by bile salts and colipase, which is required for the activity of pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), minimally stimulated PLRP2 activity. Similar to PLRP2 from other species, PLRP2 from pigs had activity against galactolipids and phospholipids. Importantly, porcine PLRP2 hydrolyzed a variety of dietary substrates including pasteurized human mother's milk and infant formula and its activity was comparable to that of PTL. In conclusion, porcine PLRP2 has broad substrate specificity and has high triglyceride lipase activity even in the absence of colipase. The data suggest that porcine PLRP2 would be a suitable lipase for inclusion in recombinant preparations for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:23770034

  14. Role of Go/i subgroup of G proteins in olfactory signaling of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ignatious Raja, Jennifer S; Katanayeva, Natalya; Katanaev, Vladimir L; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular signaling in insect olfactory receptor neurons remains unclear, with both metabotropic and ionotropic components being discussed. Here, we investigated the role of heterotrimeric Go and Gi proteins using a combined behavioral, in vivo and in vitro approach. Specifically, we show that inhibiting Go in sensory neurons by pertussis toxin leads to behavioral deficits. We heterologously expressed the olfactory receptor dOr22a in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T). Stimulation with an odor led to calcium influx, which was amplified via calcium release from intracellular stores. Subsequent experiments indicated that the signaling was mediated by the Gβγ subunits of the heterotrimeric Go/i proteins. Finally, using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that Go and Gi contribute to odor responses both for the fast (phasic) as for the slow (tonic) response component. We propose a transduction cascade model involving several parallel processes, in which the metabotropic component is activated by Go and Gi, and uses Gβγ. PMID:24443946

  15. Regulating the effects of GPR21, a novel target for type 2 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Siobhán; Kinsella, Gemma K.; Benetti, Elisa; Findlay, John B. C.

    2016-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder primarily caused by insulin resistance to which obesity is a major contributor. Expression levels of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR21, demonstrated a trend towards a significant increase in the epididymal fat pads of wild type high fat high sugar (HFHS)-fed mice. To gain further insight into the potential role this novel target may play in the development of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes, the signalling capabilities of the receptor were investigated. Overexpression studies in HEK293T cells revealed GPR21 to be a constitutively active receptor, which couples to Gαq type G proteins leading to the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Overexpression of GPR21 in vitro also markedly attenuated insulin signalling. Interestingly, the effect of GPR21 on the MAPKs and insulin signalling was reduced in the presence of serum, inferring the possibility of a native inhibitory ligand. Homology modelling and ligand docking studies led to the identification of a novel compound that inhibited GPR21 activity. Its effects offer potential as an anti-diabetic pharmacological strategy as it was found to counteract the influence of GPR21 on the insulin signalling pathway.

  16. The Human Mitochondrial DEAD-Box Protein DDX28 Resides in RNA Granules and Functions in Mitoribosome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Ya-Ting; Barrientos, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Human mitochondrial ribosomes are specialized in the synthesis of 13 proteins, which are fundamental components of the oxidative phosphorylation system. The pathway of mitoribosome biogenesis, the compartmentalization of the process and factors involved remain largely unknown. Here, we have identified the DEAD box protein DDX28 as an RNA granule component essential for the biogenesis of the mitoribosome large subunit (mt-LSU). DDX28 interacts with the 16S rRNA and the mt-LSU. RNAi-mediated DDX28 silencing in HEK293T cells does not affect mitochondrial mRNA stability, 16S rRNA processing or modification. However, it leads to reduced levels of 16S rRNA and mt-LSU proteins, impaired mt-LSU assembly, deeply attenuated mitochondrial protein synthesis and consequent failure to assemble oxidative phosphorylation complexes. Our findings identify DDX28 as essential during the early stages of mitoribosome mt-LSU biogenesis, a process that mainly takes place near the mitochondrial nucleoids, in the compartment defined by the RNA granules. PMID:25683708

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis suggests that mitochondria are involved in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Wei; Lu, Xiao-Yan; You, Yong; Sun, Huan; Liu, Xin-Yu; Ai, Jian-Zhong; Tan, Rui-Zhi; Chen, Tie-Lin; Chen, Mian-Zhi; Wang, Hong-Lian; Wei, Yu-Quan; Zhou, Qin

    2012-08-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), characterized by ectatic collecting duct, is an infantile form of PKD occurring in 1 in 20 000 births. Despite having been studied for many years, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In the current study, we employed, for the first time, a MS-based comparative proteomics approach to investigate the differently expressed proteins between kidney tissue samples of four ARPKD and five control individuals. Thirty two differently expressed proteins were identified and six of the identified protein encoding genes performed on an independent group (three ARPKD subjects, four control subjects) were verified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and part of them were further validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, similar alteration tendency was detected after downregulation of PKHD1 by small interfering RNA in HEK293T cell. Interestingly, most of the identified proteins are associated with mitochondria. This implies that mitochondria may be implicated in ARPKD. Furthermore, the String software was utilized to investigate the biological association network, which is based on known and predicted protein interactions. In conclusion, our findings depicted a global understanding of ARPKD progression and provided a promising resource of targeting protein, and shed some light further investigation of ARPKD. PMID:22718539

  18. Systemic desensitization through TRPA1 channels by capsazepine and mustard oil - a novel strategy against inflammation and pain

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Katrin; Siklosi, Norbert; Babes, Alexandru; Khalil, Mohammad; Selescu, Tudor; Zimmermann, Katharina; Wirtz, Stefan; Becker, Christoph; Neurath, Markus F.; Reeh, Peter W.; Engel, Matthias A.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel dual strategy against inflammation and pain through body-wide desensitization of nociceptors via TRPA1. Attenuation of experimental colitis by capsazepine (CPZ) has long been attributed to its antagonistic action on TRPV1 and associated inhibition of neurogenic inflammation. In contrast, we found that CPZ exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via profound desensitization of TRPA1. Micromolar CPZ induced calcium influx in isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wild-type (WT) but not TRPA1-deficient mice. CPZ-induced calcium transients in human TRPA1-expressing HEK293t cells were blocked by the selective TRPA1 antagonists HC 030031 and A967079 and involved three cysteine residues in the N-terminal domain. Intriguingly, both colonic enemas and drinking water with CPZ led to profound systemic hypoalgesia in WT and TRPV1−/− but not TRPA1−/− mice. These findings may guide the development of a novel class of disease-modifying drugs with anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. PMID:27356469

  19. Functional and Structural Characterization of FAU Gene/Protein from Marine Sponge Suberites domuncula

    PubMed Central

    Perina, Dragutin; Korolija, Marina; Popović Hadžija, Marijana; Grbeša, Ivana; Belužić, Robert; Imešek, Mirna; Morrow, Christine; Marjanović, Melanija Posavec; Bakran-Petricioli, Tatjana; Mikoč, Andreja; Ćetković, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV) ubiquitously expressed (FAU) gene is down-regulated in human prostate, breast and ovarian cancers. Moreover, its dysregulation is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Sponges (Porifera) are animals without tissues which branched off first from the common ancestor of all metazoans. A large majority of genes implicated in human cancers have their homologues in the sponge genome. Our study suggests that FAU gene from the sponge Suberites domuncula reflects characteristics of the FAU gene from the metazoan ancestor, which have changed only slightly during the course of animal evolution. We found pro-apoptotic activity of sponge FAU protein. The same as its human homologue, sponge FAU increases apoptosis in human HEK293T cells. This indicates that the biological functions of FAU, usually associated with “higher” metazoans, particularly in cancer etiology, possess a biochemical background established early in metazoan evolution. The ancestor of all animals possibly possessed FAU protein with the structure and function similar to evolutionarily more recent versions of the protein, even before the appearance of true tissues and the origin of tumors and metastasis. It provides an opportunity to use pre-bilaterian animals as a simpler model for studying complex interactions in human cancerogenesis. PMID:26198235

  20. Type three secretion system-mediated escape of Burkholderia pseudomallei into the host cytosol is critical for the activation of NFκB

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially fatal disease endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. This Gram-negative pathogen possesses numerous virulence factors including three “injection type” type three secretion systems (T3SSs). B. pseudomallei has been shown to activate NFκB in HEK293T cells in a Toll-like receptor and MyD88 independent manner that requires T3SS gene cluster 3 (T3SS3 or T3SSBsa). However, the mechanism of how T3SS3 contributes to NFκB activation is unknown. Results Known T3SS3 effectors are not responsible for NFκB activation. Furthermore, T3SS3-null mutants are able to activate NFκB almost to the same extent as wildtype bacteria at late time points of infection, corresponding to delayed escape into the cytosol. NFκB activation also occurs when bacteria are delivered directly into the cytosol by photothermal nanoblade injection. Conclusions T3SS3 does not directly activate NFκB but facilitates bacterial escape into the cytosol where the host is able to sense the presence of the pathogen through cytosolic sensors leading to NFκB activation. PMID:24884837

  1. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Uses its C-Terminus to Regulate the A2B Adenosine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Michael J; Lee, Shernita L; Marklew, Abigail J; Gilmore, Rodney C; Gentzsch, Martina; Sassano, Maria F; Gray, Michael A; Tarran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR's function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR. In this study, we have found that the C-terminal PDZ-domain of both A2BR and CFTR were crucial for this interaction, and that replacing the C-terminus of A2BR with that of β2AR removed this CFTR-dependency. This observation extended to intact epithelia and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton prevented A2BR-induced but not β2AR-induced airway surface liquid (ASL) secretion. We also found that CFTR expression altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and PDZ-binding proteins in both HEK293T cells and in well-differentiated human bronchial epithelia. Furthermore, removal of CFTR's PDZ binding motif (ΔTRL) prevented actin rearrangement, suggesting that CFTR insertion in the plasma membrane results in local reorganization of actin, PDZ binding proteins and certain GPCRs. PMID:27278076

  2. The BioPlex Network: A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Huttlin, Edward L.; Ting, Lily; Bruckner, Raphael J.; Gebreab, Fana; Gygi, Melanie P.; Szpyt, John; Tam, Stanley; Zarraga, Gabriela; Colby, Greg; Baltier, Kurt; Dong, Rui; Guarani, Virginia; Vaites, Laura Pontano; Ordureau, Alban; Rad, Ramin; Erickson, Brian K.; Wühr, Martin; Chick, Joel; Zhai, Bo; Kolippakkam, Deepak; Mintseris, Julian; Obar, Robert A.; Harris, Tim; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros; Sowa, Mathew E.; DeCamilli, Pietro; Paulo, Joao A.; Harper, J. Wade; Gygi, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein interactions form a network whose structure drives cellular function and whose organization informs biological inquiry. Using high-throughput affinity-purification mass spectrometry, we identify interacting partners for 2,594 human proteins in HEK293T cells. The resulting network (BioPlex) contains 23,744 interactions among 7,668 proteins with 86% previously undocumented. BioPlex accurately depicts known complexes, attaining 80-100% coverage for most CORUM complexes. The network readily subdivides into communities that correspond to complexes or clusters of functionally related proteins. More generally, network architecture reflects cellular localization, biological process, and molecular function, enabling functional characterization of thousands of proteins. Network structure also reveals associations among thousands of protein domains, suggesting a basis for examining structurally-related proteins. Finally, BioPlex, in combination with other approaches can be used to reveal interactions of biological or clinical significance. For example, mutations in the membrane protein VAPB implicated in familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis perturb a defined community of interactors. PMID:26186194

  3. Human CalDAG-GEFI gene (RASGRP2) mutation affects platelet function and causes severe bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Canault, Matthias; Ghalloussi, Dorsaf; Grosdidier, Charlotte; Guinier, Marie; Perret, Claire; Chelghoum, Nadjim; Germain, Marine; Raslova, Hana; Peiretti, Franck; Morange, Pierre E.; Saut, Noemie; Pillois, Xavier; Nurden, Alan T.; Cambien, François; Pierres, Anne; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The nature of an inherited platelet disorder was investigated in three siblings affected by severe bleeding. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified the culprit mutation (cG742T) in the RAS guanyl-releasing protein-2 (RASGRP2) gene coding for calcium- and DAG-regulated guanine exchange factor-1 (CalDAG-GEFI). Platelets from individuals carrying the mutation present a reduced ability to activate Rap1 and to perform proper αIIbβ3 integrin inside-out signaling. Expression of CalDAG-GEFI mutant in HEK293T cells abolished Rap1 activation upon stimulation. Nevertheless, the PKC- and ADP-dependent pathways allow residual platelet activation in the absence of functional CalDAG-GEFI. The mutation impairs the platelet’s ability to form thrombi under flow and spread normally as a consequence of reduced Rac1 GTP-binding. Functional deficiencies were confined to platelets and megakaryocytes with no leukocyte alteration. This contrasts with the phenotype seen in type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency caused by the absence of kindlin-3. Heterozygous did not suffer from bleeding and have normal platelet aggregation; however, their platelets mimicked homozygous ones by failing to undergo normal adhesion under flow and spreading. Rescue experiments on cultured patient megakaryocytes corrected the functional deficiency after transfection with wild-type RASGRP2. Remarkably, the presence of a single normal allele is sufficient to prevent bleeding, making CalDAG-GEFI a novel and potentially safe therapeutic target to prevent thrombosis. PMID:24958846

  4. Nuclear Localization Signal and p53 Binding Site in MAP/ERK Kinase Kinase 1 (MEKK1).

    PubMed

    Chipps, Elizabeth; Protzman, April; Muhi, M Zubayed; Ando, Shoko; Calvet, James P; Islam, M Rafiq

    2015-12-01

    Previously, we showed that Mekk1 translocates to the nucleus, interacts with tumor suppressor protein p53, and co-represses PKD1 transcription via an atypical p53 binding site on the minimal PKD1 promoter (JBC 285:38,818-38,831, 2010). In this study, we report the mechanisms of Mekk1 nuclear transport and p53 binding. Using GFP-linked constitutively active-Mekk1 (CA-Mekk1) and a deletion strategy, we identified a nuclear localization signal (HRDVK) located at amino acid (aa) residues 1,349-1,353 in the C-terminal Mekk1 catalytic domain. Deletion of this sequence in CA-Mekk1 and full-length Mekk1 significantly reduced their nuclear translocation in both HEK293T and COS-1 cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we identified an adjacent sequence (GANLID, aa 1,354-1,360) in Mekk1 responsible for p53 binding. Deletion of this sequence markedly reduced the interaction of Mekk1 with p53. Mekk1 does not appear to affect phosphorylation of Ser15, located in the Mdm2 interaction site, or other Ser residues in p53. However, Mekk1 mediates p53 protein stability in the presence of Mdm2 and reduces p53 ubiquitination, suggesting an interference with Mdm2-mediated degradation of p53 by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:26018553

  5. Rational design and synthesis of novel dibenzo[b,d]furan-1,2,3-triazole conjugates as potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yempala, Thirumal; Sridevi, Jonnalagadda Padma; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Kantevari, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel dibenzo[b,d]furan-1,2,3-triazole conjugates, rationally designed by reorientation of dibenzo[b,d]furan pharmacophore and alkyl/aryl groups appended on 1,2,3-triazole core, were synthesized using click chemistry. The required key intermediate, 2-ethynyl dibenzo[b,d]furan 3 was prepared from dibenzofuran-2-carboxaldehyde using Corey-Fuchs reaction. Further reaction of 3 with various alkyl/aryl azides in the presence of copper catalyst produced 1,2,3-triazole conjugates in excellent yields. Evaluation of all the new compounds for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC27294), resulted 5a (MIC: 1.56 μg/mL), 5d (MIC: 0.78 μg/mL) and 5f (MIC: 0.78 μg/mL) as promising lead analogues. Among these three compounds, 1-(4-bromobenzyl)-4-(dibenzo[b,d]furan-2-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole (5f) emerged as the most promising antitubercular agent with lowest cytotoxicity (selectivity index: ≫25) against the HEK-293T cell line. PMID:24292337

  6. In vitro secretion deficits are common among human coagulation factor XIII subunit B missense mutants: correlations with patient phenotypes and molecular models.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Arijit; Thomas, Anne; Bevans, Carville G; Ivaskevicius, Vytautas; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2013-11-01

    Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) proenzyme circulates in plasma as a heterotetramer composed of two each of A and B subunits. Upon activation, the B subunits dissociate from the A subunit dimer, which gains transglutaminase activity to cross-link preformed fibrin clots increasing mechanical strength and resistance to degradation. The B subunits are thought to possess a carrier/protective function before FXIII activation. Mutations in either A or B subunits are associated with pathological patient phenotypes characterized by mild to severe bleeding. In vitro expression of FXIII B subunit (FXIIIB) missense variants in HEK293T cells revealed impaired secretion for all seven variants studied. To investigate the likely molecular environments of the missense residues, we created molecular models of individual FXIIIB Sushi domains using phylogenetically similar complement factor H Sushi domain structural templates. Assessment of the local molecular environments for the models suggested surface or buried positions for each mutant residue and possible pathological mechanisms. The in vitro expression system and in silico analytical methods and models we developed can be used to further investigate the molecular basis of FXIIIB mutation pathologies. PMID:23913518

  7. Evidence that the angiotensin IV (AT(4)) receptor is the enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Albiston, A L; McDowall, S G; Matsacos, D; Sim, P; Clune, E; Mustafa, T; Lee, J; Mendelsohn, F A; Simpson, R J; Connolly, L M; Chai, S Y

    2001-12-28

    Central infusion of angiotensin IV or its more stable analogues facilitates memory retention and retrieval in normal animals and reverses amnesia induced by scopolamine or by bilateral perforant pathway lesions. These peptides bind with high affinity and specificity to a novel binding site designated the angiotensin AT(4) receptor. Until now, the AT(4) receptor has eluded molecular characterization. Here we identify the AT(4) receptor, by protein purification and peptide sequencing, to be insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). HEK 293T cells transfected with IRAP exhibit typical AT(4) receptor binding characteristics; the AT(4) receptor ligands, angiotensin IV and LVV-hemorphin 7, compete for the binding of [(125)I]Nle(1)-angiotensin IV with IC(50) values of 32 and 140 nm, respectively. The distribution of IRAP and its mRNA in the brain, determined by immunohistochemistry and hybridization histochemistry, parallels that of the AT(4) receptor determined by radioligand binding. We also show that AT(4) receptor ligands dose-dependently inhibit the catalytic activity of IRAP. We have therefore demonstrated that the AT(4) receptor is IRAP and propose that AT(4) receptor ligands may exert their effects by inhibiting the catalytic activity of IRAP thereby extending the half-life of its neuropeptide substrates. PMID:11707427

  8. Paclitaxel inhibits selenoprotein S expression and attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    QIN, HONG-SHUANG; YU, PEI-PEI; SUN, YING; WANG, DAN-FENG; DENG, XIAO-FEN; BAO, YONG-LI; SONG, JUN; SUN, LU-GUO; SONG, ZHEN-BO; LI, YU-XIN

    2016-01-01

    The primary effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR) is to reduce the load of unfolded protein and promote survival. However, prolonged and severe ER stress leads to tissue injury and serious diseases. Thus, it is important to identify drugs that can attenuate ER stress for the treatment of diseases. Natural products continue to provide lead compounds for drug discovery and front-line pharmacotherapy for people worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that selenoprotein S (SelS) is a sensitive and ideal maker of ER stress. In the present study, a firefly luciferase reporter driven by the SelS gene promoter was used to screen for natural compounds capable of attenuating ER stress. From this, paclitaxel (PTX) was identified to efficiently inhibit the promoter activity of the SelS gene, and further results revealed that PTX significantly inhibited the tunicamycin-induced upregulation of SelS at the mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and HEK293T cells. In addition, PTX was able to efficiently inhibit the expression of the ER stress marker, glucose-regulated protein 78, in ER stress, indicating that PTX may reverse ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that PTX is able to inhibit SelS expression during ER stress and attenuate ER stress. PMID:27109260

  9. Ligand-selective activation of heterologously-expressed mammalian olfactory receptor.

    PubMed

    Ukhanov, K; Bobkov, Y; Corey, E A; Ache, B W

    2014-10-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptors (ORs) appear to have the capacity to couple to multiple G protein-coupled signaling pathways in a ligand-dependent selective manner. To better understand the mechanisms and molecular range of such ligand selectivity, we expressed the mouse eugenol OR (mOR-EG) in HEK293T cells together with Gα15 to monitor activation of the phospholipase-C (PLC) signaling pathway and/or Gαolf to monitor activation of the adenylate cyclase (AC) signaling pathway, resulting in intracellular Ca(2+) release and/or Ca(2+) influx through a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, respectively. PLC-dependent responses differed dynamically from AC-dependent responses, allowing them to be distinguished when Gα15 and Gαolf were co-expressed. The dynamic difference in readout was independent of the receptor, the heterologous expression system, and the ligand concentration. Of 17 reported mOR-EG ligands tested, including eugenol, its analogs, and structurally dissimilar compounds (mousse cristal, nootkatone, orivone), some equally activated both signaling pathways, some differentially activated both signaling pathways, and some had no noticeable effect even at 1-5mM. Our findings argue that mOR-EG, when heterologously expressed, can couple to two different signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner. The challenge now is to determine the potential of mOR-EG, and perhaps other ORs, to activate multiple signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner in native ORNs. PMID:25149566

  10. Ligand-selective activation of heterologously-expressed mammalian olfactory receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ukhanov, K.; Bobkov, Y.; Corey, E.A.; Ache, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptors (ORs) appear to have the capacity to couple to multiple G protein-coupled signaling pathways in a ligand-dependent selective manner. To better understand the mechanisms and molecular range of such ligand selectivity, we expressed the mouse eugenol OR (mOR-EG) in HEK293T cells together with Gα15 to monitor activation of the phospholipase-C (PLC) signaling pathway and/or Gαolf to monitor activation of the adenylate cyclase (AC) signaling pathway, resulting in intracellular Ca2+ release and/or Ca2+ influx through a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, respectively. PLC-dependent responses differed dynamically from AC-dependent responses, allowing them to be distinguished when Gα15 and Gαolf were co-expressed. The dynamic difference in readout was independent of the receptor, the heterologous expression system, and the ligand concentration. Of 17 reported mOR-EG ligands tested, including eugenol, its analogs, and structurally dissimilar compounds (mousse cristal, nootkatone, orivone), some equally activated both signaling pathways, some differentially activated both signaling pathways, and some had no noticeable effect even at 1-5 mM. Our findings argue that mOR-EG, when heterologously expressed, can couple to two different signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner. The challenge now is to determine the potential of mOR-EG, and perhaps other ORs, to activate multiple signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner in native ORNs. PMID:25149566

  11. A structural model of human ferroportin and of its iron binding site.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi di Patti, Maria C; Polticelli, Fabio; Cece, Giovanna; Cutone, Antimo; Felici, Franco; Persichini, Tiziana; Musci, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    A structural model of human ferroportin has been built using two Escherichia coli proteins belonging to the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. A potential iron binding site was identified in the inward-open conformation of the model, and its relevance was tested through measurement of iron export of HEK293T cells expressing wild-type or mutated ferroportin. Aspartates 39 and 181 were found to be essential for the transport ability of the protein. Noteworthy, the D181V mutation is naturally found in type 4 hemochromatosis with reticuloendothelial system iron retention phenotype. The outward-open conformation of ferroportin was also predicted, and showed that significant conformational changes must occur in the inward- to outward-open transition of ferroportin. In particular, putative iron ligands move several ångströms away from each other, leading to the logical conclusion that the iron binding site is not occupied by the metal in the outward-open conformation of ferroportin. PMID:24767627

  12. V63 and N65 of overexpressed α-synuclein are involved in mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huilin; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xue; Duan, Chunli; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. α-Synuclein (α-Syn)-encoded by SNCA, the first-identified PD-related gene-is the main component of Lewy bodies, which are a pathological hallmark of PD. We previously reported that α-Syn accumulates in mitochondria in PD, causing mitochondrial abnormalities and disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and mitochondrial potential transition pore (mPTP) opening by interacting with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and adenine nucleotide translocator. However, the mechanistic basis of mitochondrial impairment caused by α-Syn has yet to be elucidated. It has been suggested that the amino acid residues Q62, V63, and N65 of α-Syn are important for the interaction of the protein with membranes. To investigate whether this underlies the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by α-Syn overexpression, we mutated these residues to alanine and transfected HEK293T and MN9D cells with the mutated forms of α-Syn protein. The V63A and N65A mutations prevented mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and Δψm dysregulation as well as complex I inactivation and reactive oxygen species production while blocking mPTP opening and caspase 9 activation, possibly by reducing α-Syn accumulation in mitochondria. These results indicate that V63 and N65 are critical residues mediating mitochondrial inactivation. These findings provide novel insight into the molecular events contributing to PD pathogenesis. PMID:27048753

  13. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Uses its C-Terminus to Regulate the A2B Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael J.; Lee, Shernita L.; Marklew, Abigail J.; Gilmore, Rodney C.; Gentzsch, Martina; Sassano, Maria F.; Gray, Michael A.; Tarran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR’s function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR. In this study, we have found that the C-terminal PDZ-domain of both A2BR and CFTR were crucial for this interaction, and that replacing the C-terminus of A2BR with that of β2AR removed this CFTR-dependency. This observation extended to intact epithelia and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton prevented A2BR-induced but not β2AR-induced airway surface liquid (ASL) secretion. We also found that CFTR expression altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and PDZ-binding proteins in both HEK293T cells and in well-differentiated human bronchial epithelia. Furthermore, removal of CFTR’s PDZ binding motif (ΔTRL) prevented actin rearrangement, suggesting that CFTR insertion in the plasma membrane results in local reorganization of actin, PDZ binding proteins and certain GPCRs. PMID:27278076

  14. The first characterization of multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE/SLC47) proteins in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Lončar, Jovica; Popović, Marta; Krznar, Petra; Zaja, Roko; Smital, Tvrtko

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) proteins are involved in the extrusion of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics across the plasma membrane. They are conserved from bacteria to mammals, with different numbers of genes within groups. Here, we present the first data on identification and functional characterization of Mate proteins in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Phylogenetic analysis revealed six Mates in teleost fish, annotated as Mate3–8, which form a distinct cluster separated from the tetrapod MATEs/Mates. Synteny analysis showed that zebrafish mate genes are orthologous to human MATEs. Gene expression analysis revealed that all the mate transcripts were constitutively and differentially expressed during embryonic development, followed by pronounced and tissue-specific expression in adults. Functional analyses were performed using transport activity assays with model substrates after heterologous overexpression of five zebrafish Mates in HEK293T cells. The results showed that zebrafish Mates interact with both physiological and xenobiotic substances but also substantially differ with respect to the interacting compounds and interaction strength in comparison to mammalian MATEs/Mates. Taken together, our data clearly indicate a potentially important role for zebrafish Mate transporters in zebrafish embryos and adults and provide a basis for detailed functional characterizations of single zebrafish Mate transporters. PMID:27357367

  15. Bioinspired synthesis of polydopamine/Ag nanocomposite particles with antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengjiao; Zhang, Guoxing; Xia, Tian; Li, Zhenni; Zhao, Kai; Deng, Ziwei; Guo, Dingzong; Peng, Bo

    2015-10-01

    Mussel-inspired chemistry (polydopamine) offers great opportunities to develop inexpensive and efficient process for many types of materials with complex shapes and functions in a mild and friendly environment. This paper describes a facile, yet green approach to synthesize polydopamine/silver (PDA/Ag) nanocomposite particles with a combination use of polydopamine chemistry and electroless metallization of Ag. In this approach, monodisperse spherical polydopamine particles are first synthesized by the oxidation and self-polymerization of dopamine (monomer) in an alkaline water-ethanol solution at room temperature, which are served as the active templates for secondary reactions due to the abundant catechol and amine groups on the surface. Subsequently, the silver precursor-[Ag(NH3)2](+) ions introduced are easily absorbed onto the surface of the PDA particles, and are immediately in situ reduced to metallic Ag nanoparticles with the help of these active catechol and amine groups. During the preparation, no additional reductants, toxic reagents and intricate instruments are needed. These as-synthesized PDA/Ag nanocomposite particles are ideal candidates for antibacterial application because they do not show significant cytotoxicity against HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells in the in vitro cytotoxicity assay, whereas demonstrate enhanced antibacterial abilities against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) in the antibacterial assays. Owing to their excellent cytocompatibilities and antibacterial activities, these PDA/Ag nanocomposite particles can be considered as the promising antibacterial materials for future biomedical applications. PMID:26117750

  16. Synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationship of 2-styrylquinazolones as anti-tubercular agents.

    PubMed

    Jadhavar, Pradeep S; Dhameliya, Tejas M; Vaja, Maulikkumar D; Kumar, Dinesh; Sridevi, Jonnalagadda Padma; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Chakraborti, Asit K

    2016-06-01

    2-Styrylquinazolones are reported as a novel class of potent anti-mycobacterial agents. Forty-six target compounds have been synthesized using one pot reaction involving isatoic anhydride, amine, and triethyl orthoacetate followed by aldehyde to construct the 2-styrylquinazolone scaffold. The anti-mycobacterial potency of the compounds was determined against H37Rv strain. Twenty-six compounds exhibited anti-Mtb activity in the range of 0.40-6.25μg/mL. Three compounds 8c, 8d and 8ab showed MIC of 0.78μg/mL and were found to be non-toxic (<50% inhibition at 50μg/mL) to HEK 293T cell lines with the therapeutic index >64. The most potent compound 8ar showed MIC of 0.40μg/mL with the therapeutic index >125. An early structure activity relationship for this class of compounds has been established. The computational studies indicate the possibility of these compounds binding to the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). PMID:27095514

  17. Cysteine-independent Catalase-like Activity of Vertebrate Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1).

    PubMed

    Sun, Cen-Cen; Dong, Wei-Ren; Zhao, Jing; Nie, Li; Xiang, Li-Xin; Zhu, Guan; Shao, Jian-Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a ubiquitous family of antioxidant proteins that are known as thioredoxin peroxidases. Here we report that Prx1 proteins from Tetraodon nigroviridis and humans also possess a previously unknown catalase-like activity that is independent of Cys residues and reductants but dependent on iron. We identified that the GVL motif was essential to the catalase (CAT)-like activity of Prx1 but not to the Cys-dependent thioredoxin peroxidase (POX) activity, and we generated mutants lacking POX and/or CAT activities for individually delineating their functional features. We discovered that the TnPrx1 POX and CAT activities possessed different kinetic features in reducing H2O2. The overexpression of wild-type TnPrx1 and mutants differentially regulated the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation in HEK-293T cells treated with H2O2. These observations suggest that the dual antioxidant activities of Prx1 may be crucial for organisms to mediate intracellular redox homeostasis. PMID:26088136

  18. Identification and primary immune characteristics of an amphioxus akirin homolog.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jie; Dong, Xuan; Kong, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Jing, Renwei; Feng, Lijun

    2013-08-01

    Akirin is a recently described nuclear protein that is thought to be required for the NF-κB signaling pathway in insects and vertebrates. Here, functional investigations of akirin are described in the basal chordate amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense in an attempt to link this gene between insect and vertebrate lineages. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that amphioxus akirin represented a true ortholog of the two characterized vertebrate akirin paralogs. Amphioxus akirin, coding 219 amino acids with two nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences and one 14-3-3 binding motif, was widely expressed in various tissues and up-regulated in response to Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) challenges. Furthermore, amphioxus akirin was strictly localized to the nucleus of HEK293T cells in a confocal analysis. Our work identified and characterized for the first time an amphioxus akirin homolog and will promote a better understanding of the evolution and transcriptional network of the akirin gene family. PMID:23732845

  19. Comparative Genomics Identifies the Mouse Bmp3 Promoter and an Upstream Evolutionary Conserved Region (ECR) in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Jonathan W.; LaVigne, Anna W.; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Rosen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway is a multi-member signaling cascade whose basic components are found in all animals. One member, BMP3, which arose more recently in evolution and is found only in deuterostomes, serves a unique role as an antagonist to both the canonical BMP and Activin pathways. However, the mechanisms that control BMP3 expression, and the cis-regulatory regions mediating this regulation, remain poorly defined. With this in mind, we sought to identify the Bmp3 promoter in mouse (M. musculus) through functional and comparative genomic analyses. We found that the minimal promoter required for expression in resides within 0.8 kb upstream of Bmp3 in a region that is highly conserved with rat (R. norvegicus). We also found that an upstream region abutting the minimal promoter acts as a repressor of the minimal promoter in HEK293T cells and osteoblasts. Strikingly, a portion of this region is conserved among all available eutherian mammal genomes (47/47), but not in any non-eutherian animal (0/136). We also identified multiple conserved transcription factor binding sites in the Bmp3 upstream ECR, suggesting that this region may preserve common cis-regulatory elements that govern Bmp3 expression across eutherian mammals. Since dysregulation of BMP signaling appears to play a role in human health and disease, our findings may have application in the development of novel therapeutics aimed at modulating BMP signaling in humans. PMID:23451274

  20. Overexpression of feline tripartite motif-containing 25 interferes with the late stage of feline leukemia virus replication.

    PubMed

    Koba, Ryota; Oguma, Keisuke; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) regulates various cellular processes through E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of TRIM25 is induced by type I interferon and that TRIM25 is involved in the host cellular innate immune response against retroviral infection. Although retroviral infection is prevalent in domestic cats, the roles of feline TRIM25 in the immune response against these viral infections are poorly understood. Because feline TRIM25 is expected to modulate the infection of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), we investigated its effects on early- and late-stage FeLV replication. This study revealed that ectopic expression of feline TRIM25 in HEK293T cells reduced viral protein levels leading to the inhibition of FeLV release. Our findings show that feline TRIM25 has a potent antiviral activity and implicate an antiviral mechanism whereby feline TRIM25 interferes with late-stage FeLV replication. PMID:25913257

  1. Molecular identification of N-acetylaspartylglutamate synthase and beta-citrylglutamate synthase.

    PubMed

    Collard, François; Stroobant, Vincent; Lamosa, Pedro; Kapanda, Coco N; Lambert, Didier M; Muccioli, Giulio G; Poupaert, Jacques H; Opperdoes, Fred; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2010-09-24

    The purpose of the present work was to determine the identity of the enzymes that synthesize N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), the most abundant dipeptide present in vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), and β-citrylglutamate, a structural analogue of NAAG present in testis and immature brain. Previous evidence suggests that NAAG is not synthesized on ribosomes but presumably is synthesized by a ligase. As attempts to detect this ligase in brain extracts failed, we searched the mammalian genomes for putative enzymes that could catalyze this type of reaction. Mammalian genomes were found to encode two putative ligases homologous to Escherichia coli RIMK, which ligates glutamates to the C terminus of ribosomal protein S6. One of them, named RIMKLA, is almost exclusively expressed in the CNS, whereas RIMKLB, which shares 65% sequence identity with RIMKLA, is expressed in CNS and testis. Both proteins were expressed in bacteria or HEK293T cells and purified. RIMKLA catalyzed the ATP-dependent synthesis of N-acetylaspartylglutamate from N-acetylaspartate and l-glutamate. RIMKLB catalyzed this reaction as well as the synthesis of β-citrylglutamate. The nature of the reaction products was confirmed by mass spectrometry and NMR. RIMKLA was shown to produce stoichiometric amounts of NAAG and ADP, in agreement with its belonging to the ATP-grasp family of ligases. The molecular identification of these two enzymes will facilitate progress in the understanding of the function of NAAG and β-citrylglutamate. PMID:20657015

  2. Distinct Mutations in IRAK-4 Confer Hyporesponsiveness to Lipopolysaccharide and Interleukin-1 in a Patient with Recurrent Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Medvedev, Andrei E.; Lentschat, Arnd; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Blanco, Jorge C.G.; Salkowski, Cindy; Zhang, Shuling; Arditi, Moshe; Gallin, John I.; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2003-01-01

    We identified previously a patient with recurrent bacterial infections who failed to respond to gram-negative LPS in vivo, and whose leukocytes were profoundly hyporesponsive to LPS and IL-1 in vitro. We now demonstrate that this patient also exhibits deficient responses in a skin blister model of aseptic inflammation. A lack of IL-18 responsiveness, coupled with diminished LPS and/or IL-1–induced nuclear factor–κB and activator protein-1 translocation, p38 phosphorylation, gene expression, and dysregulated IL-1R–associated kinase (IRAK)–1 activity in vitro support the hypothesis that the defect lies within the signaling pathway common to toll-like receptor 4, IL-1R, and IL-18R. This patient expresses a “compound heterozygous” genotype, with a point mutation (C877T in cDNA) and a two-nucleotide, AC deletion (620–621del in cDNA) encoded by distinct alleles of the IRAK-4 gene (GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession nos. AF445802 and AY186092). Both mutations encode proteins with an intact death domain, but a truncated kinase domain, thereby precluding expression of full-length IRAK-4 (i.e., a recessive phenotype). When overexpressed in HEK293T cells, neither truncated form augmented endogenous IRAK-1 kinase activity, and both inhibited endogenous IRAK-1 activity modestly. Thus, IRAK-4 is pivotal in the development of a normal inflammatory response initiated by bacterial or nonbacterial insults. PMID:12925671

  3. 1,8-cineole, a TRPM8 agonist, is a novel natural antagonist of human TRPA1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Essential oils are often used in alternative medicine as analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedies. However, the specific compounds that confer the effects of essential oils and the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. TRPM8 is a thermosensitive receptor that detects cool temperatures and menthol whereas TRPA1 is a sensor of noxious cold. Ideally, an effective analgesic compound would activate TRPM8 and inhibit TRPA1. Results We screened essential oils and fragrance chemicals showing a high ratio of human TRPM8-activating ability versus human TRPA1-activating ability using a Ca2+-imaging method, and identified 1,8-cineole in eucalyptus oil as particularly effective. Patch-clamp experiments confirmed that 1,8-cineole evoked inward currents in HEK293T cells expressing human TRPM8, but not human TRPA1. In addition, 1,8-cineole inhibited human TRPA1 currents activated by allyl isothiocyanate, menthol, fulfenamic acid or octanol in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in vivo sensory irritation tests showed that 1,8-cineole conferred an analgesic effect on sensory irritation produced by TRPA1 agonists octanol and menthol. Surprisingly, 1,4-cineole, which is structurally similar and also present in eucalyptus oil, activated both human TRPM8 and human TRPA1. Conclusions 1,8-cineole is a rare natural antagonist of human TRPA1 that has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects possibly due to its inhibition of TRPA1. PMID:23192000

  4. The first molluscan TRIM9 is involved in the negative regulation of NF-κB activity in the Hong Kong oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Li, Jun; Wang, Fuxuan; Mao, Fan; Zhang, Yuehuan; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Ziniu

    2016-09-01

    TRIM proteins are a group of highly conserved proteins participating in a variety of biological processes such as regulation of development, apoptosis, and innate immunity. However, the functions of these proteins in the mollusk are still poorly understood. In the present study, a TRIM9 homolog (named ChTRIM9) was first identified from a transcript-ome library in the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. The full-length cDNA of ChTRIM9 is 2928 bp and has a predicted Open Reading Frame ORF) encoding 721 amino acids, encoding a putative 80.2 kDa protein. SMART analysis indicated that ChTRIM9 contains the three typical TRIM domains, a RING finger, two B-boxes, and a coiled-coil domain in the N-terminal region, whereas the C-terminal region contains a SPRY domain. qRT-PCR analysis revealed a ubiquitous presence of ChTRIM9, with the highest expression in the gills. Upon bacterial challenge in vivo, the ChTRIM9 transcripts in hemocytes were significantly down-regulated, indicating its involvement in signal transduction in immune response of oysters. Furthermore, ChTRIM9 was found to be localized mainly in the cytoplasm, and its over-expression inhibited the transcriptional activity of the NF-κB gene in HEK293T cells, demonstrating its negative role in regulating NF-κB signaling. PMID:27393236

  5. Systemic desensitization through TRPA1 channels by capsazepine and mustard oil - a novel strategy against inflammation and pain.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Katrin; Siklosi, Norbert; Babes, Alexandru; Khalil, Mohammad; Selescu, Tudor; Zimmermann, Katharina; Wirtz, Stefan; Becker, Christoph; Neurath, Markus F; Reeh, Peter W; Engel, Matthias A

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel dual strategy against inflammation and pain through body-wide desensitization of nociceptors via TRPA1. Attenuation of experimental colitis by capsazepine (CPZ) has long been attributed to its antagonistic action on TRPV1 and associated inhibition of neurogenic inflammation. In contrast, we found that CPZ exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via profound desensitization of TRPA1. Micromolar CPZ induced calcium influx in isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wild-type (WT) but not TRPA1-deficient mice. CPZ-induced calcium transients in human TRPA1-expressing HEK293t cells were blocked by the selective TRPA1 antagonists HC 030031 and A967079 and involved three cysteine residues in the N-terminal domain. Intriguingly, both colonic enemas and drinking water with CPZ led to profound systemic hypoalgesia in WT and TRPV1(-/-) but not TRPA1(-/-) mice. These findings may guide the development of a novel class of disease-modifying drugs with anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. PMID:27356469

  6. Mutations in the voltage-gated potassium channel gene KCNH1 cause Temple-Baraitser syndrome and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Simons, Cas; Rash, Lachlan D; Crawford, Joanna; Ma, Linlin; Cristofori-Armstrong, Ben; Miller, David; Ru, Kelin; Baillie, Gregory J; Alanay, Yasemin; Jacquinet, Adeline; Debray, François-Guillaume; Verloes, Alain; Shen, Joseph; Yesil, Gözde; Guler, Serhat; Yuksel, Adnan; Cleary, John G; Grimmond, Sean M; McGaughran, Julie; King, Glenn F; Gabbett, Michael T; Taft, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TBS) is a multisystem developmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, epilepsy, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the nails of the thumb and great toe. Here we report damaging de novo mutations in KCNH1 (encoding a protein called ether à go-go, EAG1 or KV10.1), a voltage-gated potassium channel that is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), in six individuals with TBS. Characterization of the mutant channels in both Xenopus laevis oocytes and human HEK293T cells showed a decreased threshold of activation and delayed deactivation, demonstrating that TBS-associated KCNH1 mutations lead to deleterious gain of function. Consistent with this result, we find that two mothers of children with TBS, who have epilepsy but are otherwise healthy, are low-level (10% and 27%) mosaic carriers of pathogenic KCNH1 mutations. Consistent with recent reports, this finding demonstrates that the etiology of many unresolved CNS disorders, including epilepsies, might be explained by pathogenic mosaic mutations. PMID:25420144

  7. Biased signaling initiated by agouti-related peptide through human melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-09-01

    The neural melanocortin receptors (MCRs), melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R), have been increasingly recognized as important regulators of energy homeostasis. The orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP), initially identified as an endogenous antagonist for both neural MCRs, has been suggested to be a biased agonist of MC4R independent of its antagonizing effects. In the present study, we sought to determine the potential of AgRP to regulate the activation of intracellular kinases, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), AKT and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), through neural MCRs. We showed that AgRP acted as a biased agonist in human MC3R (hMC3R), decreasing cAMP activity of constitutively active mutant (F347A) hMC3R but stimulating ERK1/2 activation in both wide type and F347A hMC3Rs. AgRP-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation through MC3R was abolished by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 but not Rp-cAMPS, whereas AgRP-initiated ERK1/2 activation through MC4R was inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Both NDP-MSH and AgRP treatment induced significant AKT phosphorylation in GT1-7 cells but not in MC3R- or MC4R-transfected HEK293T cells. The phosphorylated AMPK levels in both GT1-7 cells and HERK293T cells transfected with neural MCRs were significantly decreased upon stimulation with NDP-MSH but not with AgRP. In summary, we provided novel data for AgRP-initiated multiple intracellular signaling pathways, demonstrating biased agonism of AgRP in both neural MCRs, leading to a better understanding of neural MCR pharmacology. PMID:27208795

  8. Vps33b regulates Vwf-positive vesicular trafficking in megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jing; Lu, Yeling; Wang, Conghui; Chen, Xue; Fan, Xuemei; Gu, Hao; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Kemin; Gartner, T Kent; Zheng, Junke; Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Junling

    2016-09-01

    Mutations of vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 33b (VPS33B) cause arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis syndrome, and a lack of platelet α-granules in the affected patients. Conditional Vps33b knockout mice were developed to investigate the function(s) of Vps33b in platelet α-granule formation. We found that early embryonic deletion of Vps33b was lethal. PF4-Cre-driven megakaryocyte-targeted Vps33b gene deletion greatly diminished Vps33b expression in platelets, but had no effect on platelet α-granule formation and protein content. Tamoxifen-induced, haematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-specific Vps33b deletion completely depleted Vps33b in platelets, caused the absence of α-granules, and increased the number of vacuoles in platelets and megakaryocytes. VPS33B association with VIPAS39, α-tubulin, and SEC22B was identified by co-immunoprecipitation, mass spectra, and immunoblotting in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells. Also, pull-down experiments revealed that VIPAS39 bound to intact VPS33B; in contrast, α-tubulin and SEC22B separately interacted with the sec1-like domains of VPS33B. Vps33b deficiency in megakaryocytes disturbs the redistribution of Vipas39 and Sec22b to proplatelets, and interrupted the co-localization of Sec22b with Vwf-positive vesicles. The data presented in this study suggest that Vps33b is involved in α-granule formation possibly by facilitating the Vwf-positive vesicular trafficking to α-granule-related vacuoles in megakaryocytes. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27319744

  9. Design, synthesis and evaluation of (18)F-labeled bradykinin B1 receptor-targeting small molecules for PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengxing; Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Lau, Joseph; Jenni, Silvia; Zhang, Chengcheng; Zeisler, Jutta; Bénard, François; Lin, Kuo-Shyan

    2016-08-15

    Two fluorine-18 ((18)F) labeled bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R)-targeting small molecules, (18)F-Z02035 and (18)F-Z02165, were synthesized and evaluated for imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Z02035 and Z02165 were derived from potent antagonists, and showed high binding affinity (0.93±0.44 and 2.80±0.50nM, respectively) to B1R. (18)F-Z02035 and (18)F-Z02165 were prepared by coupling 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl tosylate with their respective precursors, and were obtained in 10±5 (n=4) and 22±14% (n=3), respectively, decay-corrected radiochemical yield with >99% radiochemical purity. (18)F-Z02035 and (18)F-Z02165 exhibited moderate lipophilicity (LogD7.4=1.10 and 0.59, respectively), and were stable in mouse plasma. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in mice showed that both tracers enabled visualization of the B1R-positive HEK293T::hB1R tumor xenografts with better contrast than control B1R-negative HEK293T tumors. Our data indicate that small molecule antagonists can be used as pharmacophores for the design of B1R-targeting PET tracers. PMID:27390067

  10. rbCLCA1 is a putative metalloprotease family member: localization and catalytic domain identification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ra Mi; Han, Kyu Ho; Han, Jin Soo

    2016-03-01

    Here, we identify the rat brain (rb) CLCA1 metalloprotease motif and its role in rbCLCA1 processing. GFP tagging or c-myc tagging adjacent to the rbCLCA1 signal sequence was used to detect rbCLCA1 expression and localization patterns if they matched those of other CLCA family members. Immunoblot analysis revealed that massive deletion of the metalloprotease motif affects the protein cleavage process by restricting two cleavage products to only one product. rbCLCA1 as well as the mutant proteins H155A, E156Q, H159A, D166A, E167A, E170A, and D171A overexpressed in HEK293T cells showed plasma membrane localization; and intracellular localizations of H159A and E167A were observed in permeabilized and non-permeabilized conditions. C-terminally GFP-tagged rbCLCA1 showed either ER localization or overall signal within the cells rather than on the cell surface. Cell surface biotinylation analysis was used to show that rbCLCA1, H155A, E156Q, D166A, E170A, and D171A reach the cell surface while little H159A and E167A reach the cell surface. Taken together, our findings indicate that the amino acids H159 and E167 in the rbCLCA1 metalloprotease motif are important in rbCLCA1 processing for localization to the cell surface. Our data demonstrate that rbCLCA1 localization is dependent on the H159 and E167, suggesting either the metalloprotease motif including H159 and E167 may be the key site for rbCLCA1 cellular processing or that a novel rbCLCA1 regulation mechanism exists with a metalloprotease activity. PMID:26510883

  11. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  12. Enterovirus 71 inhibits cellular type I interferon signaling by downregulating JAK1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Xinghui; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Shipo; Liu, Ju; Chi, Xiangyang; Song, Xiaohong; Fu, Ling; Yu, Yingqun; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe disease and lead to death in children. Recurring outbreaks of EV71 have been reported in several countries. Interferons (IFNs) have been used for decades to treat several types of viral infection, but have a limited ability to inhibit EV71 replication. Herein, we intend to investigate the mechanisms by which EV71 inhibits the cellular type I IFN response. In this study, MRC-5 (human embryonic lung fibroblast) or RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma) cells were infected with EV71, and then treated with or without IFN-α2b. Cells were harvested and analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the level of IFNAR1. Cell lysis were prepared to detect the levels of STAT1, STAT2, phosphorylated STAT1, phosphorylated STAT2, IFNAR1, JAK1, and TYK2 by Western blotting. The phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 induced by IFN were inhibited without significant downregulation of IFNAR1 in EV71-infected cells. The EV71-induced suppression of STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation was not rescued by the protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitor, and was independent of suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 1/3 levels. The phosphorylation of JAK1 and TYK2 were inhibited accompanied by EV71-induced downregulation of JAK1, which occurred at a post-transcriptional level and was proteasome independent. JAK1 expression did not decrease, and IFN-α-stimulated STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation were not blocked in HEK293T cells overexpressing the EV71 viral protein 2A or 3C. This study demonstrates that EV71 inhibits the cellular type I IFN antiviral pathway by downregulating JAK1, while the expression of IFNAR1 does not significantly alter in EV71-infected cells. Additionally, the EV71 viral proteins 2A and 3C do not act as antagonists of cellular type I IFN signaling. PMID:24905060

  13. Metabolic labeling of leucine rich repeat kinases 1 and 2 with radioactive phosphate.

    PubMed

    Taymans, Jean-Marc; Gao, Fangye; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2013-01-01

    Leucine rich repeat kinases 1 and 2 (LRRK1 and LRRK2) are paralogs which share a similar domain organization, including a serine-threonine kinase domain, a Ras of complex proteins domain (ROC), a C-terminal of ROC domain (COR), and leucine-rich and ankyrin-like repeats at the N-terminus. The precise cellular roles of LRRK1 and LRRK2 have yet to be elucidated, however LRRK1 has been implicated in tyrosine kinase receptor signaling, while LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In this report, we present a protocol to label the LRRK1 and LRRK2 proteins in cells with (32)P orthophosphate, thereby providing a means to measure the overall phosphorylation levels of these 2 proteins in cells. In brief, affinity tagged LRRK proteins are expressed in HEK293T cells which are exposed to medium containing (32)P-orthophosphate. The (32)P-orthophosphate is assimilated by the cells after only a few hours of incubation and all molecules in the cell containing phosphates are thereby radioactively labeled. Via the affinity tag (3xflag) the LRRK proteins are isolated from other cellular components by immunoprecipitation. Immunoprecipitates are then separated via SDS-PAGE, blotted to PVDF membranes and analysis of the incorporated phosphates is performed by autoradiography ((32)P signal) and western detection (protein signal) of the proteins on the blots. The protocol can readily be adapted to monitor phosphorylation of any other protein that can be expressed in cells and isolated by immunoprecipitation. PMID:24084685

  14. Ubiquitination of inducible nitric oxide synthase is required for its degradation

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejski, Pawel J.; Musial, Aleksandra; Koo, Ja-Seok; Eissa, N. Tony

    2002-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is responsible for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from l-arginine in response to inflammatory mediators. We have previously shown that iNOS is degraded through the 26S proteasome. Targeting of proteins for proteasomal degradation may or may not require their covalent linkage to multiubiquitin chains (ubiquitination). In addition, ubiquitination of a protein can serve functions other than signaling proteolysis. In this context, it is not known whether iNOS is subject to ubiquitination or whether ubiquitination is required for its degradation. In this study, we show that iNOS, expressed in HEK293 cells or induced in primary bronchial epithelial cells, A549 cells, or murine macrophages, is subject to ubiquitination. To investigate whether iNOS ubiquitination is required for its degradation, HEK293T cells were cotransfected with plasmids containing cDNAs of human iNOS and of the dominant negative ubiquitin mutant K48R. Disruption of ubiquitination by K48R ubiquitin resulted in inhibition of iNOS degradation. ts20 is a mutant cell line that contains a thermolabile ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) that is inactivated at elevated temperature, preventing ubiquitination. Incubation of ts20 cells, stably expressing human iNOS, at the nonpermissive temperature (40°C) resulted in inhibition of iNOS degradation and marked accumulation of iNOS. These studies indicate that iNOS is subject to ubiquitination and that ubiquitination is required for its degradation. PMID:12221289

  15. High-Throughput Functional MicroRNAs Profiling by Recombinant AAV-Based MicroRNA Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuerong; Wang, Gang; Dong, Zheyue; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Gang; Lu, Jianxin; Chen, Jinzhong; Wang, Yue; Wu, Zhijian; Wu, Xiaobing

    2012-01-01

    Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are small and non-coding RNAs which play critical roles in physiological and pathological processes. A number of methods have been established to detect and quantify miRNA expression. However, method for high-throughput miRNA function detection is still lacking. Principal Findings We describe an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-based microRNA (miRNA) sensor (Asensor) array for high-throughput functional miRNA profiling. Each Asensor contains a Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) and a firefly luciferase (Fluc) expression cassette to sense functional miRNA and to serve as an internal control respectively. Using this array, we acquired functional profiles of 115 miRNAs for 12 cell lines and found “functional miRNA signatures” for several specific cell lines. The activities of specific miRNAs including the let-7 family, miR-17-92 cluster, miR-221, and miR-222 in HEK 293 cells were compared with their expression levels determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). We also demonstrate two other practical applications of the array, including a comparison of the miRNA activity between HEK293 and HEK293T cells and the ability to monitor miRNA activity changes in K562 cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Conclusions/Significance Our approach has potential applications in the identification of cell types, the characterization of biological and pathological processes, and the evaluation of responses to interventions. PMID:22242174

  16. TTLL7 Is a Mammalian β-Tubulin Polyglutamylase Required for Growth of MAP2-positive Neurites*S

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Koji; Mukai, Masahiro; Tsuchida, Jun-ichi; Heier, Robb L.; MacGregor, Grant R.; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2011-01-01

    Microtubules form a cytoskeletal framework that influences cell shape and provides structural support for the cell. Microtubules in the nervous system undergo a unique post-translational modification, polyglutamylation of the C termini of their tubulin subunits. The mammalian enzymes that perform β-tubulin polyglutamylation as well as their physiological functions in the neuronal tissue remain elusive. We report identification of a mammalian polyglutamylase with specificity for β-tubulin as well as its distribution and function in neurite growth. To identify putative tubulin polyglutamylases, we searched tubulin tyrosine ligase-like (TTLL) proteins for those predominantly expressed in the nervous system. Of 13 TTLL proteins, TTLL7 was transcribed at the highest level in the nervous system. Recombinant TTLL7 catalyzed tubulin polyglutamylation with high preference to β-tubulin in vitro. When expressed in HEK293T cells, TTLL7 demonstrated specificity for β-tubulin and not for α-tubulin or nucleosome assembly protein 1. Consistent with these findings, knockdown of TTLL7 in a primary culture of superior cervical ganglion neurons caused a loss of polyglutamylated β-tubulin. Following stimulation of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor to differentiate, the level of TTLL7 increased concomitantly with polyglutamylation of β-tubulin. Short interference RNA-mediated knockdown of TTLL7 repressed nerve growth factor-stimulated MAP (microtubule-associated protein) 2-positive neurite growth in PC12 cells. Consistent with having a role in the growth of MAP2-positive neurites, TTLL7 accumulated within a MAP2-enriched somatodendritic portion of superior cervical ganglion, as did polyglutamylated β-tubulin. Anti-TTLL7 antibody revealed that TTLL7 was distributed in a somatodendritic compartment in the mouse brain. These findings indicate that TTLL7 is a β-tubulin polyglutamylase and is required for the growth of MAP2-positive neurites in PC12 cells. PMID:16901895

  17. Interaction of sirolimus and everolimus with hepatic and intestinal organic anion-transporting polypeptide transporters.

    PubMed

    Picard, Nicolas; Levoir, Laure; Lamoureux, Fabien; Yee, Sook Wah; Giacomini, Kathleen M; Marquet, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the interaction of the mTOR inhibitors (ImTORs) sirolimus and everolimus with the human organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) expressed in hepatocytes and enterocytes by conducting uptake experiments using (i) transfected HEK293T cells, (ii) the hepatocyte-like HepaRG cell line and (iii) the enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell line. Sirolimus and everolimus inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the uptake of [³H]-estrone sulphate by OATP1A2 and OATP1B1 and that of mycophenolic acid 7-O-glucuronide (MPAG) by OATP1B3. ImTOR apparent 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) for OATPs were 11.9 µM (OATP1A2), 9.8 µM (OATP1B1) and 1.3 µM (OATP1B3) for sirolimus and 4.2 µM (OATP1A2), 4.1 µM (OATP1B1) and 4.3 µM (OATP1B3) for everolimus. No transport of sirolimus or everolimus by OATP1A2, OATP1B1 or OATP1B3 was observed in HEK-transfected cells and the OAT/OATP/MRP chemical inhibitor probenecid did not significantly decrease the uptake of sirolimus and everolimus in HepaRG and Caco-2 cells, but tended to increase their intracellular accumulation presumably through efflux inhibition. In conclusion, our data suggest that the major OATP transporters expressed in the liver and the intestine do not contribute to the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus and everolimus. However, ImTORs are inhibitors of these transporters. PMID:21524191

  18. Dengue NS3, an RNAi suppressor, modulates the human miRNA pathways through its interacting partner.

    PubMed

    Kakumani, Pavan Kumar; Rajgokul, K S; Ponia, Sanket Singh; Kaur, Inderjeet; Mahanty, Srikrishna; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R; Banerjea, Akhil C; Chopra, Arun Prasad; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2015-10-01

    RNAi acts as a host immune response against non-self molecules, including viruses. Viruses evolved to neutralize this response by expressing suppressor proteins. In the present study, we investigated dengue virus non structural protein 3 (dvNS3), for its RNAi-suppressor activity in human cell lines. Dengue virus (DV) NS3 reverts the GFP expression in GFP-silenced cell lines. Pull-down assays of dvNS3 revealed that it interacts with the host factor human heat shock cognate 70 (hHSC70). Down-regulation of hHSC70 resulted in accumulation of dengue viral genomic RNA. Also, the interaction of dvNS3 with hHSC70 perturbs the formation of RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex)-loading complex (RLC), by displacing TRBP (TAR RNA-binding protein) and possibly impairing the downstream activity of miRNAs. Interestingly, some of these miRNAs have earlier been reported to be down-regulated upon DV infection in Huh7 cells. Further studies on the miRNA-mRNA relationship along with mRNA profiling of samples overexpressing dvNS3 revealed up-regulation of TAZ (tafazzin) and SYNGR1 (synaptogyrin 1), known dengue viral host factors (DVHFs). Importantly, overexpression of dvNS3 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells resulted in modulation of both mature and precursor miRNAs in human cell lines. Subsequent analysis suggested that dvNS3 induced stage-specific down-regulation of miRNAs. Taken together, these results suggest that dvNS3 affects biogenesis and function of host miRNAs to regulate DVHFs for favouring DV replication. PMID:26221025

  19. Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 is a hypoxia-induced endothelial peptide that stabilizes pulmonary microvascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Paddenberg, Renate; Quanz, Karin; Chang, Chia L.; Park, Jae-Il; Gries, Barbara; Rafiq, Amir; Faulhammer, Petra; Goldenberg, Anna; Papadakis, Tamara; Noll, Thomas; Hsu, Sheau Y. T.; Weissmann, Norbert; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) signaling pathway in preventing damage of the lung by stabilizing pulmonary barrier function. Intermedin (IMD), also termed adrenomedullin-2, is the most recently identified peptide targeting this receptor. Here we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the expression of IMD in the murine lung and cultured murine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMEC) as well as the role of IMD in regulating vascular permeability. Monoclonal IMD antibodies were generated, and transcript levels were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR. The promoter region of IMD gene was analyzed, and the effect of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α on IMD expression was investigated in HEK293T cells. Isolated murine lungs and a human lung microvascular endothelial cell monolayer model were used to study the effect of IMD on vascular permeability. IMD was identified as a pulmonary endothelial peptide by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Hypoxia caused an upregulation of IMD mRNA in the murine lung and PMEC. As shown by these results, HIF-1α enhances IMD promoter activity. Our functional studies showed that IMD abolished the increase in pressure-induced endothelial permeability. Moreover, IMD decreased basal and thrombin-induced hyperpermeability of an endothelial cell monolayer in a receptor-dependent manner and activated PKA in these cells. In conclusion, IMD is a novel hypoxia-induced gene and a potential interventional agent for the improvement of endothelial barrier function in systemic inflammatory responses and hypoxia-induced vascular leakage. PMID:19684198

  20. An NF-κB-Based High-Throughput Screen Identifies Piericidins as Inhibitors of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Miles C.; Wong, Weng Ruh; Dupzyk, Allison J.; Bray, Walter M.; Linington, Roger G.

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial appendage used by dozens of Gram-negative pathogens to subvert host defenses and cause disease, making it an ideal target for pathogen-specific antimicrobials. Here, we report the discovery and initial characterization of two related natural products with T3SS-inhibitory activity that were derived from a marine actinobacterium. Bacterial extracts containing piericidin A1 and the piericidin derivative Mer-A 2026B inhibited Yersinia pseudotuberculosis from triggering T3SS-dependent activation of the host transcription factor NF-κB in HEK293T cells but were not toxic to mammalian cells. As the Yersinia T3SS must be functional in order to trigger NF-κB activation, these data indicate that piericidin A1 and Mer-A 2026B block T3SS function. Consistent with this, purified piericidin A1 and Mer-A 2026B dose-dependently inhibited translocation of the Y. pseudotuberculosis T3SS effector protein YopM inside CHO cells. In contrast, neither compound perturbed bacterial growth in vitro, indicating that piericidin A1 and Mer-A 2026B do not function as general antibiotics in Yersinia. In addition, when Yersinia was incubated under T3SS-inducing culture conditions in the absence of host cells, Mer-A 2026B and piericidin A1 inhibited secretion of T3SS cargo as effectively as or better than several previously described T3SS inhibitors, such as MBX-1641 and aurodox. This suggests that Mer-A 2026B and piericidin A1 do not block type III secretion by blocking the bacterium-host cell interaction, but rather inhibit an earlier stage, such as T3SS needle assembly. In summary, the marine-derived natural products Mer-A 2026B and piericidin A1 possess previously uncharacterized activity against the bacterial T3SS. PMID:24295981

  1. BACE1 and presenilin/γ-secretase regulate proteolytic processing of KCNE1 and 2, auxiliary subunits of voltage-gated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Carolyn C; Kim, Young Hye; Agsten, Marianne; Huth, Tobias; Alzheimer, Christian; Kovacs, Dora M; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2013-06-01

    BACE1 and presenilin (PS)/γ-secretase play a major role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis by regulating amyloid-β peptide generation. We recently showed that these secretases also regulate the processing of voltage-gated sodium channel auxiliary β-subunits and thereby modulate membrane excitability. Here, we report that KCNE1 and KCNE2, auxiliary subunits of voltage-gated potassium channels, undergo sequential cleavage mediated by either α-secretase and PS/γ-secretase or BACE1 and PS/γ-secretase in cells. Elevated α-secretase or BACE1 activities increased C-terminal fragment (CTF) levels of KCNE1 and 2 in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) and rat neuroblastoma (B104) cells. KCNE-CTFs were then further processed by PS/γ-secretase to KCNE intracellular domains. These KCNE cleavages were specifically blocked by chemical inhibitors of the secretases in the same cell models. We also verified our results in mouse cardiomyocytes and cultured primary neurons. Endogenous KCNE1- and KCNE2-CTF levels increased by 2- to 4-fold on PS/γ-secretase inhibition or BACE1 overexpression in these cells. Furthermore, the elevated BACE1 activity increased KCNE1 processing and shifted KCNE1/KCNQ1 channel activation curve to more positive potentials in HEK cells. KCNE1/KCNQ1 channel is a cardiac potassium channel complex, and the positive shift would lead to a decrease in membrane repolarization during cardiac action potential. Together, these results clearly showed that KCNE1 and KCNE2 cleavages are regulated by BACE1 and PS/γ-secretase activities under physiological conditions. Our results also suggest a functional role of KCNE cleavage in regulating voltage-gated potassium channels. PMID:23504710

  2. Biocompatible Fluorescent Core-Shell Nanoconjugates Based on Chitosan/Bi2S3 Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Ramanery, Fábio P; Mansur, Alexandra A P; Mansur, Herman S; Carvalho, Sandhra M; Fonseca, Matheus C

    2016-12-01

    Bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) is a narrow-bandgap semiconductor that is an interesting candidate for fluorescent biomarkers, thermoelectrics, photocatalysts, and photovoltaics. This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel Bi2S3 quantum dots (QDs) functionalized using chitosan (CHI) as the capping ligands via aqueous "green" route at room temperature and ambient pressure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential (ZP) analysis were used to characterize the hybrids made of biopolymer-functionalized Bi2S3 semiconductor nanocrystals. The results demonstrated that the CHI ligand was effective at nucleating and controlling the growth of water-soluble colloidal Bi2S3 nanoparticles. The average sizes of the Bi2S3 nanoparticles were significantly affected by the molar ratio of the precursors but less dependent on the pH of the aqueous media, leading to the formation of nanocrystals with average diameters varying from 4.2 to 6.7 nm. These surface-modified Bi2S3 nanocrystals with CHI exhibited photoluminescence in the visible spectral region. Moreover, the results of in vitro MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay with human osteosarcoma cells (SAOS) cell line demonstrated no cytotoxic response of the nanoconjugates.Furthermore, the results indicated that the Bi2S3 QD-CHI nanoconjugates showed HEK293T cell uptake; therefore, they can be potentially used as novel fluorescent nanoprobes for the in vitro bioimaging of cells in biomedical applications. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of the biocompatible core-shell nanostructure of the chitosan/Bi2S3 quantum dot conjugates with photoluminescent properties. PMID:27067735

  3. Characterization of Sparstolonin B, a Chinese Herb-derived Compound, as a Selective Toll-like Receptor Antagonist with Potent Anti-inflammatory Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qiaoli; Wu, Qinan; Jiang, Jihong; Duan, Jin'ao; Wang, Chao; Smith, Mark D.; Lu, Hong; Wang, Qian; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Fan, Daping

    2011-01-01

    Blockade of excessive Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is a therapeutic approach being actively pursued for many inflammatory diseases. Here we report a Chinese herb-derived compound, sparstolonin B (SsnB), which selectively blocks TLR2- and TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling. SsnB was isolated from a Chinese herb, Spaganium stoloniferum; its structure was determined by NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. SsnB effectively inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a TLR4 ligand), Pam3CSK4 (a TLR1/TLR2 ligand), and Fsl-1 (a TLR2/TLR6 ligand) but not that by poly(I:C) (a TLR3 ligand) or ODN1668 (a TLR9 ligand). It suppressed LPS-induced cytokine secretion from macrophages and diminished phosphorylation of Erk1/2, p38a, IκBα, and JNK in these cells. In THP-1 cells expressing a chimeric receptor CD4-TLR4, which triggers constitutive NF-κB activation, SsnB effectively blunted the NF-κB activity. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that SsnB reduced the association of MyD88 with TLR4 and TLR2, but not that with TLR9, in HEK293T cells and THP-1 cells overexpressing MyD88 and TLRs. Furthermore, administration of SsnB suppressed splenocyte inflammatory cytokine expression in mice challenged with LPS. These results demonstrate that SsnB acts as a selective TLR2 and TLR4 antagonist by blocking the early intracellular events in the TLR2 and TLR4 signaling. Thus, SssB may serve as a promising lead for the development of selective TLR antagonistic agents for inflammatory diseases. PMID:21665946

  4. Human METTL20 Methylates Lysine Residues Adjacent to the Recognition Loop of the Electron Transfer Flavoprotein in Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Virginie F.; Carroll, Joe; He, Jiuya; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian mitochondria, protein methylation is a relatively uncommon post-transcriptional modification, and the extent of the mitochondrial protein methylome, the modifying methyltransferases, and their substrates have been little studied. As shown here, the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is one such methylated protein. The ETF is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits. Lysine residues 199 and 202 of mature ETFβ are almost completely trimethylated in bovine heart mitochondria, whereas ETFα is not methylated. The enzyme responsible for the modifications was identified as methyltransferase-like protein 20 (METTL20). In human 143B cells, the methylation of ETFβ is less extensive and is diminished further by suppression of METTL20. Tagged METTL20 expressed in HEK293T cells specifically associates with the ETF and promotes the trimethylation of ETFβ lysine residues 199 and 202. ETF serves as a mobile electron carrier linking dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid oxidation and one-carbon metabolism to the membrane-associated ubiquinone pool. The methylated residues in ETFβ are immediately adjacent to a protein loop that recognizes and binds to the dehydrogenases. Suppression of trimethylation of ETFβ in mouse C2C12 cells oxidizing palmitate as an energy source reduced the consumption of oxygen by the cells. These experiments suggest that the oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the passage of electrons via the ETF may be controlled by modulating the protein-protein interactions between the reduced dehydrogenases and the β-subunit of the ETF by trimethylation of lysine residues. METTL20 is the first lysine methyltransferase to be found to be associated with mitochondria. PMID:25023281

  5. Lenalidomide Stabilizes the Erythropoietin Receptor by Inhibiting the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase RNF41.

    PubMed

    Basiorka, Ashley A; McGraw, Kathy L; De Ceuninck, Leentje; Griner, Lori N; Zhang, Ling; Clark, Justine A; Caceres, Gisela; Sokol, Lubomir; Komrokji, Rami S; Reuther, Gary W; Wei, Sheng; Tavernier, Jan; List, Alan F

    2016-06-15

    In a subset of patients with non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), lenalidomide promotes erythroid lineage competence and effective erythropoiesis. To determine the mechanism by which lenalidomide promotes erythropoiesis, we investigated its action on erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) cellular dynamics. Lenalidomide upregulated expression and stability of JAK2-associated EpoR in UT7 erythroid cells and primary CD71+ erythroid progenitors. The effects of lenalidomide on receptor turnover were Type I cytokine receptor specific, as evidenced by coregulation of the IL3-Rα receptor but not c-Kit. To elucidate this mechanism, we investigated the effects of lenalidomide on the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF41. Lenalidomide promoted EpoR/RNF41 association and inhibited RNF41 auto-ubiquitination, accompanied by a reduction in EpoR ubiquitination. To confirm that RNF41 is the principal target responsible for EpoR stabilization, HEK293T cells were transfected with EpoR and/or RNF41 gene expression vectors. Steady-state EpoR expression was reduced in EpoR/RNF41 cells, whereas EpoR upregulation by lenalidomide was abrogated, indicating that cellular RNF41 is a critical determinant of drug-induced receptor modulation. Notably, shRNA suppression of CRBN gene expression failed to alter EpoR upregulation, indicating that drug-induced receptor modulation is independent of cereblon. Immunohistochemical staining showed that RNF41 expression decreased in primary erythroid cells of lenalidomide-responding patients, suggesting that cellular RNF41 expression merits investigation as a biomarker for lenalidomide response. Our findings indicate that lenalidomide has E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitory effects that extend to RNF41 and that inhibition of RNF41 auto-ubiquitination promotes membrane accumulation of signaling competent JAK2/EpoR complexes that augment Epo responsiveness. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3531-40. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197154

  6. Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein B: recombinant expression and antibody recognition.

    PubMed

    Dry, Inga; Todd, Helen; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Mclean, Kevin; Inglis, Neil F; Manson, Erin D T; Haig, David M; Nayuni, Shilpa; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M; Grant, Dawn M; Bartley, Kathryn; Stewart, James P; Russell, George C

    2016-03-01

    The gammaherpesvirus alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) causes fatal malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible species including cattle, but infects its reservoir host, wildebeest, without causing disease. Pathology in cattle may be influenced by virus-host cell interactions mediated by the virus glycoproteins. Cloning and expression of a haemagglutinin-tagged version of the AlHV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was used to demonstrate that the AlHV-1-specific monoclonal antibody 12B5 recognised gB and that gB was the main component of the gp115 complex of AlHV-1, a glycoprotein complex of five components identified on the surface of AlHV-1 by immunoprecipitation and radiolabelling. Analysis of AlHV-1 virus particles showed that the native form of gB was detected by mAb 12B5 as a band of about 70 kDa, whilst recombinant gB expressed by transfected HEK293T cells appeared to be subject to additional cleavage and incomplete post-translational processing. Antibody 12B5 recognised an epitope on the N-terminal furin-cleaved fragment of gB on AlHV-1 virus particles. It could be used to detect recombinant and virus-expressed gB on western blots and on the surface of infected cells by flow cytometry, whilst recombinant gB was detected on the surface of transfected cells by immunofluorescence. Recombinant gB has potential as an antigen for ELISA detection of MCF virus infection and as a candidate vaccine antigen. PMID:26650040

  7. Thiazide-like diuretic drug metolazone activates human pregnane X receptor to induce cytochrome 3A4 and multidrug-resistance protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Monimoy; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) regulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and drug transporters such as multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1). PXR can be modulated by small molecules, including Federal Drug Administration (FDA)–approved drugs, thus altering drug metabolism and causing drug-drug interactions. To determine the role of FDA-approved drugs in PXR-mediated regulation of drug metabolism and clearance, we screened 1481 FDA-approved small-molecule drugs by using a luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells and identified the diuretic drug metolazone as an activator of PXR. Our data showed that metolazone activated hPXR-mediated expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestine cells and increased CYP3A4 promoter activity in various cell lines. Mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that hPXR recruits its co-activator SRC-1 upon metolazone binding in HepG2 cells, explaining the mechanism of hPXR activation. To understand the role of other commonly-used diuretics in PXR activation and the structure-activity relationship of metolazone, thiazide and non-thiazide diuretics drugs were also tested but only metolazone activates PXR. To understand the molecular mechanism, docking studies and mutational analysis were carried out and showed that metolazone binds in the ligand-binding pocket and interacts with mostly hydrophobic amino acid residues. This is the first report showing that metolazone activates PXR. Because activation of hPXR might cause drug-drug interactions, metolazone should be used with caution for drug treatment in patients undergoing combination therapy. PMID:25181459

  8. Direct activation of human and mouse Oct4 genes using engineered TALE and Cas9 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiabiao; Lei, Yong; Wong, Wing-Ki; Liu, Senquan; Lee, Kai-Chuen; He, Xiangjun; You, Wenxing; Zhou, Rui; Guo, Jun-Tao; Chen, Xiongfong; Peng, Xianlu; Sun, Hao; Huang, He; Zhao, Hui; Feng, Bo

    2014-04-01

    The newly developed transcription activator-like effector protein (TALE) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 transcription factors (TF) offered a powerful and precise approach for modulating gene expression. In this article, we systematically investigated the potential of these new tools in activating the stringently silenced pluripotency gene Oct4 (Pou5f1) in mouse and human somatic cells. First, with a number of TALEs and sgRNAs targeting various regions in the mouse and human Oct4 promoters, we found that the most efficient TALE-VP64s bound around -120 to -80 bp, while highly effective sgRNAs targeted from -147 to -89-bp upstream of the transcription start sites to induce high activity of luciferase reporters. In addition, we observed significant transcriptional synergy when multiple TFs were applied simultaneously. Although individual TFs exhibited marginal activity to up-regulate endogenous gene expression, optimized combinations of TALE-VP64s could enhance endogenous Oct4 transcription up to 30-fold in mouse NIH3T3 cells and 20-fold in human HEK293T cells. More importantly, the enhancement of OCT4 transcription ultimately generated OCT4 proteins. Furthermore, examination of different epigenetic modifiers showed that histone acetyltransferase p300 could enhance both TALE-VP64 and sgRNA/dCas9-VP64 induced transcription of endogenous OCT4. Taken together, our study suggested that engineered TALE-TF and dCas9-TF are useful tools for modulating gene expression in mammalian cells. PMID:24500196

  9. [Construction and expression of a eukaryotic vector co-expressing immunodominant antigens of CFP10, ESAT6, Ag85A and Ag85B of Mycobacterium tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Deng, Guangcun; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2014-02-01

    CFP10, ESAT6, Antigen 85A (Ag85A) and antigen 85B (Ag85B) are the key immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to construct a eukaryotic vector able to co-express the four genes in one vector, we amplified the target gene fragments encoding the CFP10, ESAT6, Ag85A and Ag85B antigens and inserted them into the multicloning site of the shuttle plasmid vector pcDNA3.1 (+), of which the CFP10 and ESAT6 encoding genes were in frame fused with a linker encoding (Gly4Ser)3 residue, before the fused gene was inserted downstream of CMV promoter with a bovine growth hormone poly A(BGH pA) sequence at the 3'-end; Ag85A and Ag85B encoding genes were fused with a separation of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence before the fused gene cassette was inserted downstream of RSV promoter with a BGH pA sequence at the 3'-end. The final plasmid containing all four genes was confirmed by sequence analysis and designated as pcDNA-CFP10-ESAT6-Ag85A-Ag85B (pcDNA-CEAB). In order to verify the ability of this construct to express target proteins, we then transfected the recombinant plasmid into Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells and harvested the cell lysates, and the cell lysates were then separated by SDS-PAGE and subjected to Western blot analysis 48 h after transfection. All four of the target proteins were detected in the cell lysates against the respective specific antibodies, suggesting that we have successfully constructed a eukaryotic vector co-expressing the four immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which lay a foundation for the further study of the immunogenicity and protective activity of the four antigens. PMID:24941747

  10. Sensitivities of Two Zebrafish TRPA1 Paralogs to Chemical and Thermal Stimuli Analyzed in Heterologous Expression Systems.

    PubMed

    Oda, Mai; Kurogi, Mako; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is the only member of the mouse, chick, and frog TRPA family, whereas 2 paralogs (zTRPA1a and zTRPA1b) are present in zebrafish. We herein investigated functional differences in the 2 zebrafish TRPA1s. HEK293T cells were used as heterologous expression systems, and the sensitivities of these cells to 4 chemical irritants (allyl isothiocyanate [AITC], caffeine, auto-oxidized epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG], and hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]) were compared with Ca(2+) imaging techniques. Sensitivities to the activators for AITC, oxidized EGCG, and H2O2 were higher in cells expressing zTRPA1a than in those expressing zTRPA1b, whereas caffeine appeared to activate both cells equally. We also characterized the thermal sensitivity of Xenopus oocytes expressing each TRPA1 electrophysiologically using a 2-electrode voltage clamp. Although endogenous currents induced by a cold stimulation were observed in control oocytes in some batches, oocytes expressing zTRPA1b showed significantly stronger cold- and heat-induced responses. However, significant thermal activation was not observed in oocytes expressing zTRPA1a. The results obtained using in vitro expression systems suggest that zTRPA1a is specialized for chemical sensing, whereas zTRPA1b responds to thermal stimuli. Furthermore, characterization of the chimeric molecule of TRPA1a and 1b revealed the importance of the N-terminal region in chemical and thermal sensing by zTRPA1s. PMID:26826723

  11. Human METTL20 methylates lysine residues adjacent to the recognition loop of the electron transfer flavoprotein in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rhein, Virginie F; Carroll, Joe; He, Jiuya; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2014-08-29

    In mammalian mitochondria, protein methylation is a relatively uncommon post-transcriptional modification, and the extent of the mitochondrial protein methylome, the modifying methyltransferases, and their substrates have been little studied. As shown here, the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is one such methylated protein. The ETF is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits. Lysine residues 199 and 202 of mature ETFβ are almost completely trimethylated in bovine heart mitochondria, whereas ETFα is not methylated. The enzyme responsible for the modifications was identified as methyltransferase-like protein 20 (METTL20). In human 143B cells, the methylation of ETFβ is less extensive and is diminished further by suppression of METTL20. Tagged METTL20 expressed in HEK293T cells specifically associates with the ETF and promotes the trimethylation of ETFβ lysine residues 199 and 202. ETF serves as a mobile electron carrier linking dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid oxidation and one-carbon metabolism to the membrane-associated ubiquinone pool. The methylated residues in ETFβ are immediately adjacent to a protein loop that recognizes and binds to the dehydrogenases. Suppression of trimethylation of ETFβ in mouse C2C12 cells oxidizing palmitate as an energy source reduced the consumption of oxygen by the cells. These experiments suggest that the oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the passage of electrons via the ETF may be controlled by modulating the protein-protein interactions between the reduced dehydrogenases and the β-subunit of the ETF by trimethylation of lysine residues. METTL20 is the first lysine methyltransferase to be found to be associated with mitochondria. PMID:25023281

  12. Activating STAT6 mutations in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Mehmet; Li, Hongxiu; Bernard, Denzil; Amin, Nisar A.; Ouillette, Peter; Jones, Siân; Saiya-Cork, Kamlai; Parkin, Brian; Jacobi, Kathryn; Shedden, Kerby; Wang, Shaomeng; Chang, Alfred E.; Kaminski, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Western world. FL cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors influence FL biology and clinical outcome. To further our understanding of the genetic basis of FL, we performed whole-exome sequencing of 23 highly purified FL cases and 1 transformed FL case and expanded findings to a combined total of 114 FLs. We report recurrent mutations in the transcription factor STAT6 in 11% of FLs and identified the STAT6 amino acid residue 419 as a novel STAT6 mutation hotspot (p.419D/G, p.419D/A, and p.419D/H). FL-associated STAT6 mutations were activating, as evidenced by increased transactivation in HEK293T cell–based transfection/luciferase reporter assays, heightened interleukin-4 (IL-4) –induced activation of target genes in stable STAT6 transfected lymphoma cell lines, and elevated baseline expression levels of STAT6 target genes in primary FL B cells harboring mutant STAT6. Mechanistically, FL-associated STAT6 mutations facilitated nuclear residency of STAT6, independent of IL-4–induced STAT6-Y641 phosphorylation. Structural modeling of STAT6 based on the structure of the STAT1-DNA complex revealed that most FL-associated STAT6 mutants locate to the STAT6-DNA interface, potentially facilitating heightened interactions. The genetic and functional data combined strengthen the recognition of the IL-4/JAK/STAT6 axis as a driver of FL pathogenesis. PMID:25428220

  13. Arsenite Targets the Zinc Finger Domains of Tet Proteins and Inhibits Tet-Mediated Oxidation of 5-Methylcytosine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Jiang, Ji; Li, Lin; Amato, Nicholas J; Wang, Zi; Wang, Yinsheng

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a serious public health problem worldwide that brings more than 100 million people into the risk of arsenic exposure from groundwater and food contamination. Although there is accumulating evidence linking arsenic exposure with aberrant cytosine methylation in the global genome or at specific genomic loci, very few have investigated the impact of arsenic on the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) mediated by the Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of proteins. Owing to the high binding affinity of As(III) toward cysteine residues, we reasoned that the highly conserved C3H-type zinc fingers situated in Tet proteins may constitute potential targets for arsenic binding. Herein, we found that arsenite could bind directly to the zinc fingers of Tet proteins in vitro and in cells, and this interaction substantially impaired the catalytic efficiency of Tet proteins in oxidizing 5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-foC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC). Treatments with arsenite also led to a dose-dependent decrease in the level of 5-hmC, but not 5-mC, in DNA isolated from HEK293T cells overexpressing the catalytic domain of any of the three Tet proteins and from mouse embryonic stem cells. Together, our study unveiled, for the first time, that arsenite could alter epigenetic signaling by targeting the zinc fingers of Tet proteins and perturbing the Tet-mediated oxidation of 5-mC in vitro and in cells. Our results offer important mechanistic understanding of arsenic epigenotoxicity and carcinogenesis in mammalian systems and may lead to novel approaches for the chemoprevention of arsenic toxicity. PMID:26355596

  14. Role for erbin in bacterial activation of Nod2.

    PubMed

    Kufer, T A; Kremmer, E; Banks, D J; Philpott, D J

    2006-06-01

    Intracellular peptidoglycan (PG) recognition in human cells is mediated by the NACHT-LRR proteins Nod1 and Nod2. Elicitation of these proteins by PG motifs released from invasive bacteria triggers signaling events, resulting in the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. In order to decipher the molecular components involved in Nod2 signal transduction, we set out to identify new interaction partners of Nod2 by using a yeast two-hybrid screen. Besides the known interaction partner RIP2, the screen identified the leucine-rich repeat (LRR)- and PDZ domain-containing family member Erbin as a binding partner of Nod2. Erbin showed a specific interaction with Nod2 in coimmunoprecipitation experiments with human HEK 293T cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with a newly generated anti-Nod2 monoclonal antibody showed that Erbin and Nod2 partially colocalize in human cells. Subsequent analysis of the Erbin/Nod2 interaction revealed that the LRR of Erbin and the caspase activating and recruiting domains of Nod2 were necessary for this interaction. No significant interaction was observed with a Walker B box mutant of Nod2 or a Crohn's disease-associated frameshift mutant of Nod2, indicating that complex formation is dependent on the activity of the molecule. In addition, a change in the dynamics of the Erbin/Nod2 complex was observed during Shigella flexneri infection. Furthermore, ectopic expression of increasing amounts of Erbin or short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of Erbin showed a negative influence of Erbin on Nod2/muramyl-dipeptide-mediated NF-kappaB activation. These results implicate Erbin as a potential negative regulator of Nod2 and show that bacterial infection has an impact on Nod2/Erbin complex formation within cells. PMID:16714539

  15. How does the spacer length of cationic gemini lipids influence the lipoplex formation with plasmid DNA? Physicochemical and biochemical characterizations and their relevance in gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Úbeda, Mónica; Misra, Santosh K; Barrán-Berdón, Ana L; Datta, Sougata; Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; Kondaiah, Paturu; Junquera, Elena; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Aicart, Emilio

    2012-12-10

    with HEK293T, HeLa, CHO, U343, and H460 cells. The α and ρeff values for each lipid mixture were optimized on HEK293T cells for transfection, and using these values, the remaining cells were also transfected in absence (-FBS-FBS) and presence (-FBS+FBS) of serum. The transfection efficiency was higher with the CLs of shorter gemini spacers (n=2 or 3). Each formulation expressed GFP on pDNA transfection and confocal fluorescence microscopy corroborated the results. C16C2C16/DOPE mixtures were the most efficient toward transfection among all the lipid mixtures and, in presence of serum, even better than the Lipofectamine2000, a commercial transfecting agent. Each lipid combination was safe and did not show any significant levels of toxicity. Probably, the presence of two coexisting lamellar structures in lipoplexes synergizes the transfection efficiency of the lipid mixtures which are plentiful in the lipoplexes formed by CLs with short spacer (n=2, 3) than those with the long spacer (n=5, 12). PMID:23130552

  16. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Pamela Y.; Johnson, Christian W.; Fang, Cong; Cao, Xiaoqing; Graeber, Thomas G.; Mattos, Carla; Colicelli, John

    2015-01-01

    RAS proteins are signal transduction gatekeepers that mediate cell growth, survival, and differentiation through interactions with multiple effector proteins. The RAS effector RAS- and RAB-interacting protein 1 (RIN1) activates its own downstream effectors, the small GTPase RAB5 and the tyrosine kinase Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase (ABL), to modulate endocytosis and cytoskeleton remodeling. To identify ABL substrates downstream of RAS-to-RIN1 signaling, we examined human HEK293T cells overexpressing components of this pathway. Proteomic analysis revealed several novel phosphotyrosine peptides, including Harvey rat sarcoma oncogene (HRAS)-pTyr137. Here we report that ABL phosphorylates tyrosine 137 of H-, K-, and NRAS. Increased RIN1 levels enhanced HRAS-Tyr137 phosphorylation by nearly 5-fold, suggesting that RAS-stimulated RIN1 can drive ABL-mediated RAS modification in a feedback circuit. Tyr137 is well conserved among RAS orthologs and is part of a transprotein H-bond network. Crystal structures of HRASY137F and HRASY137E revealed conformation changes radiating from the mutated residue. Although consistent with Tyr137 participation in allosteric control of HRAS function, the mutations did not alter intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates in vitro. HRAS-Tyr137 phosphorylation enhanced HRAS signaling capacity in cells, however, as reflected by a 4-fold increase in the association of phosphorylated HRASG12V with its effector protein RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RAF1). These data suggest that RAS phosphorylation at Tyr137 allosterically alters protein conformation and effector binding, providing a mechanism for effector-initiated modulation of RAS signaling.—Ting, P. Y., Johnson, C. W., Fang, C., Cao, X., Graeber, T. G., Mattos, C., Colicelli, J. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding. PMID:25999467

  17. Real-time functional characterization of cationic amino acid transporters using a new FRET sensor.

    PubMed

    Vanoaica, Liviu; Behera, Alok; Camargo, Simone M R; Forster, Ian C; Verrey, François

    2016-04-01

    L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that serves as precursor for the production of urea, nitric oxide (NO), polyamines, and other biologically important metabolites. Hence, a fast and reliable assessment of its intracellular concentration changes is highly desirable. Here, we report on a genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based arginine nanosensor that employs the arginine repressor/activator ahrC gene from Bacillus subtilis. This new nanosensor was expressed in HEK293T cells, and experiments with cell lysate showed that it binds L-arginine with high specificity and with a K d of ∼177 μM. Live imaging experiments showed that the nanosensor was expressed throughout the cytoplasm and displayed a half maximal FRET increase at an extracellular L-arginine concentration of ∼22 μM. By expressing the nanosensor together with SLC7A1, SLC7A2B, or SLC7A3 cationic amino acid transporters (CAT1-3), it was shown that L-arginine was imported at a similar rate via SLC7A1 and SLC7A2B and slower via SLC7A3. In contrast, upon withdrawal of extracellular L-arginine, intracellular levels decreased as fast in SLC7A3-expressing cells compared with SLC7A1, but the efflux was slower via SLC7A2B. SLC7A4 (CAT4) could not be convincingly shown to transport L-arginine. We also demonstrated the impact of membrane potential on L-arginine transport and showed that physiological concentrations of symmetrical and asymmetrical dimethylarginine do not significantly interfere with L-arginine transport t